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Sample records for mink neovison vison

  1. Development of vocalization and hearing in American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Brandt, Christian; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Rasmus L; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-09-15

    American mink (Neovison vison) kits are born altricial and fully dependent on maternal care, for which the kits' vocalizations appear essential. We used auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to determine: (1) hearing sensitivity of adult females from two breeding lines known to differ in maternal behaviour and (2) development of hearing in kits 8-52 days of age. We also studied sound production in 20 kits throughout postnatal days 1 to 44. Adult female mink had a broad hearing range from 1 kHz to above 70 kHz, with peak sensitivity (threshold of 20 dB SPL) at 8-10 kHz, and no difference in sensitivity between the two breeding lines (P>0.22) to explain the difference in maternal care. Mink kits showed no signs of hearing up to postnatal day 24. From day 30, all kits had ABRs indicative of hearing. Hearing sensitivity increased with age, but was still below the adult level at postnatal day 52. When separated from their mothers, kits vocalized loudly. Until the age of 22 days, 90% of all kits vocalized with no significant decline with age (P=0.27). From day 25, concurrent with the start of hearing, the number of vocalizing kits decreased with age (P<0.001), in particular in kits that were re-tested (P=0.004). Large numbers of mink are kept in fur industry farms, and our results are important to the understanding of sound communication, which is part of their natural behaviour. Our results also suggest mink as an interesting model for studying the development of mammalian hearing and its correlation to sound production.

  2. Population viability analysis of American mink (Neovison vison) escaped from Danish mink farms.

    PubMed

    Pertoldi, C; Rødjajn, S; Zalewski, A; Demontis, D; Loeschcke, V; Kjærsgaard, A

    2013-06-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) was introduced to Danish fur farms in the 1930s. An unknown number of mink have managed to escape these farms over the years. Today feral mink are found in the wild in most parts of Denmark. A population viability analysis (PVA) was performed using VORTEX, a stochastic population simulation software, to 1) predict the viability and potential population expansion from different sizes of founding populations of farm escapees, 2) investigate which parameters mostly affect the viability, 3) assess the effects of continuous escapes on the feral populations and how the feral populations are affected by management programs, and 4) discuss eradication strategies and their efficiency in management of the feral American mink population in Denmark. The simulations showed that juvenile mortality had the greatest effect on population viability followed by fecundity, adult mortality, and initial population size. Populations supplemented yearly by escapees all reached the carrying capacity and gained genetic variability over the years. Harvesting was modeled as the yearly number of mink caught in Denmark. Most of the simulated harvested populations crashed within few years after the first harvesting event. This indicates that the feral number of mink in Denmark is sustained due to supplements from mink farms and no true feral population exists. To manage the number of feral mink in Denmark it is essential to prevent escapees. The eradication effort would be most effective if focused on late summer and autumn when juvenile mink leave the maternal territory. PMID:23478820

  3. Testing for Aleutian mink disease virus in the river otter (Lontra canadensis) in sympatry with infected American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Nituch, Larissa A; Sadowski, Carrie; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2014-07-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) occurs in the American mink (Neovison vison) in wild populations and on mink farms and can cause illness and death. The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) may be exposed to AMDV because of shared space and habitat with mink. Using serology and real-time PCR, we tested river otters across Ontario for AMDV infection. We found no evidence of infection in otters, a surprising finding given the sympatric distribution, niche overlap, and close phylogenetic relationship of the river otter and the American mink. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the major point of spillover of AMDV between mink farms and wildlife is manure and composting carcasses on mink farms. Mink farms in Ontario are generally in agricultural landscapes; it is unlikely that river otter use these habitats and thus are likely not exposed to AMDV. We found no evidence that AMD is an important disease for the river otters in Ontario.

  4. Testing for Aleutian mink disease virus in the river otter (Lontra canadensis) in sympatry with infected American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Nituch, Larissa A; Sadowski, Carrie; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2014-07-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) occurs in the American mink (Neovison vison) in wild populations and on mink farms and can cause illness and death. The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) may be exposed to AMDV because of shared space and habitat with mink. Using serology and real-time PCR, we tested river otters across Ontario for AMDV infection. We found no evidence of infection in otters, a surprising finding given the sympatric distribution, niche overlap, and close phylogenetic relationship of the river otter and the American mink. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the major point of spillover of AMDV between mink farms and wildlife is manure and composting carcasses on mink farms. Mink farms in Ontario are generally in agricultural landscapes; it is unlikely that river otter use these habitats and thus are likely not exposed to AMDV. We found no evidence that AMD is an important disease for the river otters in Ontario. PMID:24807350

  5. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODY TO ALEUTIAN MINK DISEASE VIRUS IN EUROPEAN MINK (MUSTELA LUTREOLA) AND AMERICAN MINK (NEOVISON VISON) IN SPAIN.

    PubMed

    Mañas, Sisco; Gómez, Asunción; Asensio, Victoria; Palazón, Santiago; Podra, Madis; Alarcia, Olga Esther; Ruiz-Olmo, Jordi; Casal, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola) has undergone a dramatic decline and is one of the most endangered mammals in the world. The invasive American mink (Neovison vison) is considered the main factor for this decline. However, the American mink's introduction and the subsequent ecological concurrence of the two species cannot solely explain the decline or disappearance of the European mink. Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the main health problem in fur farming worldwide, causing varied clinical syndromes that depend on the viral strain and host factors. Infection with AMDV has been speculated to contribute to the decline of the European mink, but a detailed study has not been performed. To assess the potential effects of AMDV infection on the conservation of the European mink, we surveyed AMDV antibody in samples from 492 native European mink and 1,735 feral American mink collected over 16 yr. The antibody prevalence in European mink was 32%. There were no statistically significant differences in antibody prevalence between sexes, among years, or among weight classes. For recaptured European mink, incidence of seroconversion (negative to positive) was 0.46 cases per animal-year at risk. For positive animals, the incidence of conversion from positive to negative was 0.18 cases per animal-year at risk. In 1,735 feral American minks, the overall prevalence was 32.4% and varied among the six wild populations studied. Infection with AMDV appears to be endemic, distributed across the entire ranges of both species, and no effects on the population dynamics of either species were observed. PMID:26528576

  6. [Odontologic anomaly in the American mink Neovison vison (Carnivora, Mustelidae) and possible reasons for its appearance].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the phenomenon of substitution of the reduced M2 with a tooth of a complex structure in the American mink Neovison vison Schreber. The anomaly is observed on three skulls out of the 574 examined (0.52%) and is characterized by a clear localization, identical structure, and symmetrical manifestation. Atypical molars have two roots, equally well-developed paraconid, eokonid, hypoconid, and a less pronounced metaconid. Some possible hypotheses for the anomaly that are considered include disruption in the development of the dental germ, mutation, and phenotypic expression of genes that are characteristic of plesiomorphic species of mustelids. The substantiated viewpoint is that the cause of this phenomenon may be the "awakening of dormant genes" as a result of destabilizing selection and hybrid dysgenesis in the area of contact of farm and feral American minks.

  7. Evaluation of reproductive safety of beta-sitosterol on the American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Pölönen, Ilpo; Ikonen, Katja; Määttänen, Maija; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2008-03-01

    beta-Sitosterol is a weakly estrogenic phytosterol used extensively in functional foods to lower elevated serum cholesterol concentrations due to its inhibitory action on intestinal cholesterol absorption. It caused previously decreased sex steroid concentrations in fish and lowered sperm counts in rats. In the American mink (Neovison vison), litter size increased slightly due to dietary beta-sitosterol supplement. The aim of the present experiment was to conduct a dose-response study on the effects of beta-sitosterol on the reproduction of the American mink. Juvenile male and female mink (n=480) were exposed to 0, 5, 10 or 50 mg of peroral beta-sitosterol kg(-1)d(-1) for 10 months. After 3 months of exposure in November, 15 males per group were sacrificed and general biochemical variables reflecting overall health were determined. The beta-sitosterol-treated male mink had increased absolute and relative masses of intraabdominal fat and higher blood hemoglobin and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. In spring, the top-rated male mink were mated with multiple females within each study group and reproductive success was assessed. No differences in the reproductive performance of the males (10-11 per group) or females (47-50 per group) could be detected in the exposed groups and the kits of all groups developed in a similar manner. The results suggest that dietary beta-sitosterol presents no significant risk to mammalian fertility. PMID:18035394

  8. Detection of Aleutian mink disease virus DNA and antiviral antibodies in American mink (Neovison vison) 10 days postinoculation.

    PubMed

    Farid, A Hossain; Hussain, Irshad; Arju, Irin

    2015-05-01

    Early detection of infection by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV; Carnivore amdoparvovirus 1) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) has important ramifications in virus eradication programs. A spleen homogenate containing a local isolate of AMDV was injected intraperitoneally into black (n = 44) and sapphire (n = 12) American mink (Neovison vison). Animals were euthanized 10 days postinoculation and anti-AMDV antibodies and AMDV DNA were tested in plasma and 7 organs by CIEP and PCR, respectively. Viral DNA was detected in the plasma, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and lung samples of all inoculated mink, but was not detected in some small intestine, kidney, and liver samples. In contrast, antibodies were detected in the plasma of 3 sapphire (25.0%) and 19 black (43.2%) mink but not in any of the organs. The sensitivity of the CIEP test on plasma samples was 39.3%, implying that low levels of antibodies during the early stages of virus exposure resulted in failure to detect infection by the CIEP test. We concluded that CIEP is not a reliable test for early detection of AMDV infection in mink and that there were considerable differences among mink of each color type for production of detectable levels of antibodies. PCR tests on samples of saliva, rectal swabs, and feces did not produce consistent and reliable results. PMID:25862712

  9. Nutrient-specific compensatory feeding in a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Neovison vison.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kim; Simpson, Stephen J; Nielsen, Vivi H; Hunt, John; Raubenheimer, David; Mayntz, David

    2014-10-14

    Balancing of macronutrient intake has only recently been demonstrated in predators. In particular, the ability to regulate carbohydrate intake is little studied in obligate carnivores, as carbohydrate is present at very low concentrations in prey animal tissue. In the present study, we determined whether American mink (Neovison vison) would compensate for dietary nutritional imbalances by foraging for complementary macronutrients (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) when subsequently given a dietary choice. We used three food pairings, within which two macronutrients differed relative to each other (high v. low concentration), while the third was kept at a constant level. The mink were first restricted to a single nutritionally imbalanced food for 7 d and then given a free choice to feed from the same food or a nutritionally complementary food for three consecutive days. When restricted to nutritionally imbalanced foods, the mink were willing to overingest protein only to a certain level ('ceiling'). When subsequently given a choice, the mink compensated for the period of nutritional imbalance by selecting the nutritionally complementary food in the food choice pairing. Notably, this rebalancing occurred for all the three macronutrients, including carbohydrate, which is particularly interesting as carbohydrate is not a major macronutrient for obligate carnivores in nature. However, there was also a ceiling to carbohydrate intake, as has been demonstrated previously in domestic cats. The results of the present study show that mink regulate their intake of all the three macronutrients within limits imposed by ceilings on protein and carbohydrate intake and that they will compensate for a period of nutritional imbalance by subsequently selecting nutritionally complementary foods. PMID:25141190

  10. Factors associated with usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison) production in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jensen, V F; Sommer, H M; Struve, T; Clausen, J; Chriél, M

    2016-04-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is used for commercial fur production in Denmark. In recent years, antimicrobial prescription for Danish mink has been increasing. In this study, the patterns and trends in antimicrobial use in mink were described and a multi-variable variance analysis was carried out with the objective of identifying risk factors for antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was based on register data for 2007-2012. Information on antimicrobial use was obtained from the national database VetStat, monitoring all medicinal products used for animals on prescription level. Data on microbiological feed quality was obtained from the Voluntary Feed Control under the Mink producers Organization, and data on herd size and the relation between farm and feed producer was obtained from the registers at Kopenhagen Fur, based on yearly reporting from the mink producers. Descriptive analysis showed a clear significant effect of season on antimicrobial use, with a peak in "treatment proportions", TP (defined daily doses per kg biomass-days) in May, around the time of whelping, and a high level in the following months. In autumn, a minor peak in antimicrobial use occurred throughout the study period. From 2007 to 2011, a 102% increase in annual antimicrobial TP was noted; on herd level, the increase was associated with an increasing frequency of prescription, and a decrease in the amounts prescribed in months with prescription. A binomial model showed that on herd level, the annual number of months with antimicrobial prescription was significantly (p<0.01) affected by feed producer, veterinarian, disease (specific laboratory diagnosis) infection, herd size and year, with an interaction between feed producer and year. A log-normal model showed that in months with antimicrobial use, the TP on herd level was significantly (p<0.001) affected by year, month (season), feed producer, feed quality score, veterinarian, herd size and laboratory confirmed diagnosis of

  11. Cloning and expression of mink (Neovison vison) interferon-γ gene and development of an antiviral assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hailing; Zhao, Jianjun; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Sining; Hu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Dongliang; Xu, Shujuan; Yan, Xijun

    2015-08-01

    Minks (Neovison vison) farming is under a threat of a variety of viral infections with increasingly growing number of breeding in Northeastern and Western China. While interferon is effective in controlling viral infection, IFN among different species rarely share high homology enough to provide cross protective effect on inhibition of virus replication. We cloned, sequenced, phlogenetically analyzed and expressed the miIFN-γ gene in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The anti-vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) activity of miIFN-γ protein was tested in MDCK cells using in vitro cytopathic inhibition assay. The recombinant miIFN-γ could inhibit VSV replication in MDCK cells, which was confirmed by that pre-incubation of rabbit anti-miIFN-γ antibodies with miIFN-γ abrogated the miIFN-γ protective effect. Our findings implicated that the miIFN-γ gene may be a potential counter measure against viral infection in the mink farming.

  12. Rate of exposure of a sentinel species, invasive American mink (Neovison vison) in Scotland, to anticoagulant rodenticides.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Melero, Yolanda; Giela, Anna; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Sharp, Elizabeth; Boada, Luis D; Taylor, Michael J; Camacho, María; Lambin, Xavier; Luzardo, Octavio P; Hartley, Gill

    2016-11-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are highly toxic compounds that are exclusively used for the control of rodent pests. Despite their defined use, they are nonetheless found in a large number of non-target species indicating widespread penetration of wildlife. Attempts to quantify the scale of problem are complicated by non-random sampling of individuals tested for AR contamination. The American mink (Neovison vison) is a wide ranging, non-native, generalist predator that is subject to wide scale control efforts in the UK. Exposure to eight ARs was determined in 99 mink trapped in NE Scotland, most of which were of known age. A high percentage (79%) of the animals had detectable residues of at least one AR, and more than 50% of the positive animals had two or more ARs. The most frequently detected compound was bromadiolone (75% of all animals tested), followed by difenacoum (53% of all mink), coumatetralyl (22%) and brodifacoum (9%). The probability of mink exposure to ARs increased by 4.5% per month of life, and was 1.7 times higher for mink caught in areas with a high, as opposed to a low, density of farms. The number of AR compounds acquired also increased with age and with farm density. No evidence was found for sexual differences in the concentration and number of ARs. The wide niche and dietary overlap of mink with several native carnivore species, and the fact that American mink are culled for conservation throughout Europe, suggest that this species may act as a sentinel species, and the application of these data to other native carnivores is discussed.

  13. Rate of exposure of a sentinel species, invasive American mink (Neovison vison) in Scotland, to anticoagulant rodenticides.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Melero, Yolanda; Giela, Anna; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Sharp, Elizabeth; Boada, Luis D; Taylor, Michael J; Camacho, María; Lambin, Xavier; Luzardo, Octavio P; Hartley, Gill

    2016-11-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are highly toxic compounds that are exclusively used for the control of rodent pests. Despite their defined use, they are nonetheless found in a large number of non-target species indicating widespread penetration of wildlife. Attempts to quantify the scale of problem are complicated by non-random sampling of individuals tested for AR contamination. The American mink (Neovison vison) is a wide ranging, non-native, generalist predator that is subject to wide scale control efforts in the UK. Exposure to eight ARs was determined in 99 mink trapped in NE Scotland, most of which were of known age. A high percentage (79%) of the animals had detectable residues of at least one AR, and more than 50% of the positive animals had two or more ARs. The most frequently detected compound was bromadiolone (75% of all animals tested), followed by difenacoum (53% of all mink), coumatetralyl (22%) and brodifacoum (9%). The probability of mink exposure to ARs increased by 4.5% per month of life, and was 1.7 times higher for mink caught in areas with a high, as opposed to a low, density of farms. The number of AR compounds acquired also increased with age and with farm density. No evidence was found for sexual differences in the concentration and number of ARs. The wide niche and dietary overlap of mink with several native carnivore species, and the fact that American mink are culled for conservation throughout Europe, suggest that this species may act as a sentinel species, and the application of these data to other native carnivores is discussed. PMID:27387798

  14. Context Matters: Multiple Novelty Tests Reveal Different Aspects of Shyness-Boldness in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Needham, Esther Kjær; Wiese, Ann-Sophie; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Animal personality research is receiving increasing interest from related fields, such as evolutionary personality psychology. By merging the conceptual understanding of personality, the contributions to both fields of research may be enhanced. In this study, we investigate animal personality based on the definition of personality traits as underlying dispositional factors, which are not directly measurable, but which predispose individuals to react through different behavioural patterns. We investigated the shyness-boldness continuum reflected in the consistency of inter-individual variation in behavioural responses towards novelty in 47 farmed American mink (Neovison vison), which were raised in identical housing conditions. Different stages of approach behaviour towards novelty, and how these related within and across contexts, were explored. Our experimental design contained four tests: two novel object tests (non-social contexts) and two novel animated stimuli tests (social contexts). Our results showed consistency in shyness measures across multiple tests, indicating the existence of personality in farmed American mink. It was found that consistency in shyness measures differs across non-social and social contexts, as well as across the various stages in the approach towards novel objects, revealing that different aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. To our knowledge this is the first study to reveal aspects of the shyness-boldness continuum in the American mink. Since the mink were raised in identical housing conditions, inherited factors may have been important in shaping the consistent inter-individual variation. Body weight and sex had no effect on the personality of the mink. Altogether, our results suggest that the shyness-boldness continuum cannot be explained by a simple underlying dispositional factor, but instead encompasses a broader term of hesitating behaviour that might comprise several different personality traits. PMID

  15. Context Matters: Multiple Novelty Tests Reveal Different Aspects of Shyness-Boldness in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison)

    PubMed Central

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Needham, Esther Kjær; Wiese, Ann-Sophie; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Animal personality research is receiving increasing interest from related fields, such as evolutionary personality psychology. By merging the conceptual understanding of personality, the contributions to both fields of research may be enhanced. In this study, we investigate animal personality based on the definition of personality traits as underlying dispositional factors, which are not directly measurable, but which predispose individuals to react through different behavioural patterns. We investigated the shyness-boldness continuum reflected in the consistency of inter-individual variation in behavioural responses towards novelty in 47 farmed American mink (Neovison vison), which were raised in identical housing conditions. Different stages of approach behaviour towards novelty, and how these related within and across contexts, were explored. Our experimental design contained four tests: two novel object tests (non-social contexts) and two novel animated stimuli tests (social contexts). Our results showed consistency in shyness measures across multiple tests, indicating the existence of personality in farmed American mink. It was found that consistency in shyness measures differs across non-social and social contexts, as well as across the various stages in the approach towards novel objects, revealing that different aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. To our knowledge this is the first study to reveal aspects of the shyness-boldness continuum in the American mink. Since the mink were raised in identical housing conditions, inherited factors may have been important in shaping the consistent inter-individual variation. Body weight and sex had no effect on the personality of the mink. Altogether, our results suggest that the shyness-boldness continuum cannot be explained by a simple underlying dispositional factor, but instead encompasses a broader term of hesitating behaviour that might comprise several different personality traits. PMID

  16. Growth and reproductive effects from dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 in mink (Neovison vison), a surrogate model for marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Remington, Richard E; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the commercial mixture Aroclor 1268 were historically released into the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (southeastern Georgia, USA) from industrial operations. Sum PCBs (ΣPCBs) in blubber samples from Turtle-Brunswick River estuary bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been reported at concentrations more than 10-fold higher than those observed in dolphins from adjacent regional estuaries. Given that toxicity data specific to Aroclor 1268 and applicable to marine mammals are limited, predicting the toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 in dolphins is uncertain, particularly because of its unique congener profile and associated physiochemical characteristics compared with other PCB mixtures. American mink (Neovison vison) were chosen as a surrogate model for cetaceans to develop marine mammalian PCB toxicity benchmarks. Mink are a suitable surrogate species for cetaceans in toxicity studies because of similarities in diet and taxonomic class, and a characteristic sensitivity to PCBs provides a potential safety factor when using mink toxicology data for cross-species extrapolations. Effects of dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 on reproduction, growth, and mortality in mink were compared with both a negative control and a positive control (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, PCB 126). Aroclor 1268 dietary ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g feed wet weight to 29 µg/g feed wet weight. Whelp success was unaffected by Aroclor 1268 exposure at any level. Treatment mean litter size, kit growth, and kit survival were adversely affected relative to the negative control at dietary ΣPCB concentrations of 10.6 µg/g feed wet weight and greater. PMID:26313468

  17. Environmental pollutants and alterations in the reproductive system in wild male mink (Neovison vison) from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Persson, Sara; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-02-01

    The wild American mink, a semi-aquatic top predator, is exposed to high levels of environmental pollutants that may affect its reproductive system. In this study, the reproductive organs from 101 wild male mink collected in Sweden were examined during necropsy. Potential associations between various variables of the reproductive system and fat concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and other organochlorine pesticides and liver concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were investigated using multiple regression models. The anogenital distance was negatively associated (p<0.05) with concentration of p,p'-DDE and some PFAAs (perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and ∑PFAA). Penis length was positively associated with PCB 28, PCB 47/48, PCB 52 and PCB 110 (p<0.05), and some of these congeners were also associated with baculum length and penis weight. In contrast, penile length tended (p<0.1) to be shorter in mink with high concentrations of p,p'-DDE. These data may help to improve the understanding of how environmental pollution affects male reproduction in both wildlife and humans. Overall, the study suggests endocrine disrupting effects in wild mink and identifies potentially important pollutants in the complex mixture of contaminants in the environment. In addition, the results suggest that the variables of the reproductive system of male mink used in this study are good candidates for use as indicators of environmental pollution affecting the mammalian reproductive system.

  18. Foot Lesions in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison): Pathologic and Epidemiologic Characteristics on 4 Danish Farms.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, A; Hammer, A S; Jensen, H E; Bonde-Jensen, N; Lassus, M M; Agger, J F; Larsen, P F

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate gross and histologic lesions and epidemiologic factors of foot lesions in farmed mink. The feet of 1159 mink from 4 Danish farms were examined and lesions described. Swabs from the lesions were taken from 27 mink for microbiology, and tissue samples from a representative spectrum of feet with and without lesions (n= 22) were examined histologically. Feet were grouped according to gross inspection: no lesions (55.1%), hair loss (7.1%), hyperkeratosis (35.8%), and crusting (5.3%). Lesions were predominantly located in plantar metatarsal skin (98.1%). Staphylococci were the most prevalent microorganisms cultured from the lesions. There was a significant association between presence of lesions and sex (P< .0001), age (P< .0001), and color type (P= .023). Lesion size was significantly different between hair loss and crusts and between hyperkeratosis and crusts (P< .0001). Histologically, lesions included varying degrees of orthokeratotic to parakeratotic hyperkeratosis and granulomatous to pyogranulomatous dermatitis with trichogranulomas as a dominant feature in all mink. The gross and microscopic lesions were comparable to physically induced changes in other species that develop as a response to repetitive friction or pressure. The condition may have an impact on animal welfare in mink production. PMID:26333293

  19. Exclusion of candidate genes for coat colour phenotypes of the American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Anistoroaei, R; Markakis, M N; Vissenberg, K; Christensen, K

    2012-12-01

    In a previous project, we screened the American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library, CHORI-231, for genes potentially involved in various coat colour phenotypes in the American mink. Subsequently, we 454 sequenced the inserts containing these genes and developed microsatellite markers for each of these genes. Here, we describe a lack of association between three different 'roan-type' phenotypes represented by Cross, Stardust and Cinnamon in American mink and six different genes that we considered to be potentially linked to these phenotypes. Thus, c-KIT (HUGO-approved symbol KIT), ATOH-1 (HUGO-approved symbol ATOH1) and POMC were excluded as potential candidates for these three phenotypes. In addition, MITF and SLC24A5 were excluded for Cross and Cinnamon, and KITL (HUGO-approved symbol KITLG) for Cross and Stardust. Although most of these genes have been implicated as the cause of similar phenotypes in other mammals, including horses, pigs, cows, dogs, cats, mice and humans, they do not appear to be responsible for comparable phenotypes found in American mink.

  20. Genetic variation and population structure of American mink Neovison vison from PCB-contaminated and non-contaminated locales in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Wirgin, Isaac; Maceda, Lorraine; Waldman, John; Mayack, David T

    2015-11-01

    American mink Neovison vison may be particularly vulnerable to toxicities of persistent contaminants such as PCBs because of their aquatic-based diet, position near the top of the food web, and small deme sizes. Furthermore, ranched mink are sensitive to reproductive toxicities of fish diets from PCB-polluted sites. The upper Hudson River is highly contaminated with PCBs and previous studies have shown elevated hepatic burdens of total and coplanar PCBs in mink collected near the river compared with those from more distant locales in New York and elsewhere. We hypothesized that bioaccumulation of PCBs in Hudson River mink has reduced their levels of genetic diversity or altered their genetic population structure. To address this, we conducted microsatellite DNA analysis on collections made in proximity to and from more distant locales in the Hudson River watershed, elsewhere in New York State, and at other sites in eastern North America including New Brunswick, four locales in Ontario, multiple drainages in Maine, and two ecoregions in Rhode Island. We did not find reduced genetic diversity at the individual or population levels in mink collected near (<6 km) to PCB hotspots in the Hudson River nor evidence of altered population structure. Consistent with their distribution in small localized and isolated demes, we did find significant genetic population structure among many mink collections in New York State and elsewhere. Depending on the analytical approach used, genetically distinct populations numbered between 16 when using STRUCTURE to 19-20 when using Exact G tests, F ST, or AMOVA analyses. Genetically distinct population units were found among major ecoregions and minor ecoregions in New York State, among different hydrologic subunits within the Hudson River watershed, among spatially separate locales in Ontario, and among most watersheds in Maine. However, despite this localization and potential heightened impact of stressors, genetic diversity and genetic

  1. The effects of estradiol and catecholestrogens on uterine glycogen metabolism in mink (Neovison vison)

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jack; Hunt, Jason; Shelton, Jadd; Wyler, Steven; Mecham, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Glycogen is a uterine histotroph nutrient synthesized by endometrial glands in response to estradiol. The effects of estradiol may be mediated, in part, through the catecholestrogens, 2-hydroxycatecholestradiol (2-OHE2) and 4-hydroxycatecholestradiol (4-OHE2), produced by hydroxylation of estradiol within the endometrium. Using ovariectomized mink, our objectives were to determine the effects of estradiol, 4-OHE2, and 2-OHE2 on uterine: 1) glycogen concentrations and tissue localization; 2) gene expression levels for glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase, and glycogen synthase kinase-3B; and 3) protein expression levels for glycogen synthase kinase-3B (active) and phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3B (inactive). Whole uterine glycogen concentrations (mean ± SEM, mg/g dry wt) were increased by estradiol (43.79 ± 5.35), 4-OHE2 (48.64 ± 4.02), and 2-OHE2 (41.36 ± 3.23) compared to controls (4.58 ± 1.16; P ≤ 0.05). Percent glycogen content of the glandular epithelia was three-fold greater than the luminal epithelia in response to estradiol and 4-OHE2 (P ≤ 0.05). Expression of glycogen synthase mRNA, the rate limiting enzyme in glycogen synthesis, was increased by 4-OHE2 and 2-OHE2 (P ≤ 0.05), but interestingly, was unaffected by estradiol. Expression of glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen synthase kinase-3B mRNAs were reduced by estradiol, 2-OHE2, and 4-OHE2 (P ≤ 0.05). Uterine phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3B protein was barely detectable in control mink, whereas all three steroids increased phosphorylation and inactivation of the enzyme (P ≤ 0.05). We concluded that the effects of estradiol on uterine glycogen metabolism were mediated in part through catecholestrogens; perhaps the combined actions of these hormones are required for optimal uterine glycogen synthesis in mink. PMID:21196035

  2. Methylmercury accumulation and elimination in mink (Neovison vison) hair and blood: results of a controlled feeding experiment using stable isotope tracers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Evans, R Douglas; Hickie, Brendan E; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Evans, Hayla E

    2014-12-01

    Concentrations of metals in hair are used often to develop pharmacokinetic models for both animals and humans. Although data on uptake are available, elimination kinetics are less well understood; stable isotope tracers provide an excellent tool for measuring uptake and elimination kinetics. In the present study, methylmercury concentrations through time were measured in the hair and blood of mink (Neovison vison) during a controlled 60-d feeding experiment. Thirty-four mink were fed a standard fish-based diet for 14 d, at the end of which (day 0), 4 mink were sacrificed to determine baseline methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations. From day 0 to day 10, the remaining mink were fed a diet consisting of the base diet supplemented with 0.513 ± 0.013 µg Me(199) Hg/g and 0.163 ± 0.003 µg Me(201) Hg/g. From day 10 to day 60, mink were fed the base diet supplemented with 0.175 ± 0.024 µg Me(201) Hg/g. Animals were sacrificed periodically to determine accumulation of Me(201) Hg in blood and hair over the entire 60-d period and the elimination of Me(199) Hg over the last 50 d. Hair samples, collected from each mink and cut into 2.0-mm lengths, indicate that both isotopes of MeHg appeared in the hair closest to the skin at approximately day 10, with concentrations in the hair reaching steady state from day 39 onward. The elimination rate of Me(199) Hg from the blood was 0.05/d, and the ratio of MeHg in the hair to blood was 119. A large fraction of MeHg (22% to >100%) was stored in the hair, suggesting that in fur-bearing mammals the hair is a major route of elimination of MeHg from the body.

  3. Enzyme induction and histopathology elucidate aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated versus non-aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated effects of Aroclor 1268 in American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations reported in preferred prey and blubber of bottlenose dolphins from the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (Georgia, USA) suggest the potential for adverse effects. However, PCBs in Turtle-Brunswick River estuary dolphins are primarily derived from Aroclor 1268, and predicting toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 is uncertain because of the mixture's unique composition and associated physiochemical characteristics. These differences suggest that toxicity benchmarks for other PCB mixtures may not be relevant to dolphins exposed to Aroclor 1268. American mink (Neovison vison) were used as a surrogate model for cetaceans to characterize mechanisms of action associated with Aroclor 1268 exposure. Mink share similarities in phylogeny and life history with cetaceans and are characteristically sensitive to PCBs, making them an attractive surrogate species for marine mammals in ecotoxicity studies. Adult female mink and a subsequent F1 generation were exposed to Aroclor 1268 through diet, and effects on enzyme induction, histopathology, thyroid hormone regulation, hematology, organ weights, and body condition index were compared to a negative control and a 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)-positive control. Aroclor 1268 dietary exposure concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g wet weight to 29 µg/g wet weight. Anemia, hypothyroidism, and hepatomegaly were observed in mink exposed to Aroclor 1268 beyond various dietary thresholds. Cytochrome P450 induction and squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions were low in Aroclor 1268 treatments relative to the positive control. Differences in enzyme induction and the development of squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions between Aroclor 1268 treatments and the positive control, coupled with effects observed in Aroclor 1268 treatments not observed in the positive control, indicate that mechanisms additional to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathway are associated with

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Neovison vison (Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Li; Wang, Shao-Jing; Wang, Zhuo; Liu, Han-Lu; Zhong, Wei; Yang, Ya-Han; Li, Guang-Yu

    2016-05-01

    The phylogenetic and taxonomic position of the American mink Neovison vison have long been unclear. In this paper, the complete mitogenome of N. vison was sequenced and characterized. The total length was 16,594 bp and typically consists of 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNA, a large control region (CR) and a light-strand replication origin (OL). Gene contents, locations, and arrangements were identical to those of typical vertebrate. The overall base composition is 33.6%, 25.4%, 27.8% and 13.3% for A, C, T and G, respectively, with a moderate bias on AT content (61.4%). This result is expected to provide useful molecular data and contribute to further taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Mustelidae and Carnivora.

  5. Population genetic structure in farm and feral American mink (Neovison vison) inferred from RAD sequencing-generated single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Thirstrup, J P; Ruiz-Gonzalez, A; Pujolar, J M; Larsen, P F; Jensen, J; Randi, E; Zalewski, A; Pertoldi, C

    2015-08-01

    Feral American mink populations (), derived from mink farms, are widespread in Europe. In this study we investigated genetic diversity and genetic differentiation between feral and farm mink using a panel of genetic markers (194 SNP) generated from RAD sequencing data. Sampling included a total of 211 individuals from 14 populations, 4 feral and 10 from farms, the latter including a total of 7 color types (Brown, Black, Mahogany, Sapphire, White, Pearl, and Silver). Our study revealed similar low levels of genetic diversity in both farm and feral mink. Results are consistent with small effective population size as a consequence of line selection in the farms and founder effects of a few escapees from the farms in feral populations. Moderately high genetic differentiation was found between farm and feral animals, suggesting a scenario in which wild populations were founded from farm escapes a few decades ago. Currently, escapes and gene flow are probably limited. Genetic differentiation was higher among farm color types than among farms, consistent with line selection using few individuals to create the lines. Finally, no indications of inbreeding were found in either farm or feral samples, with significant negative values found in most farm samples, showing farms are successful in avoiding inbreeding. PMID:26440156

  6. Benefits of a ball and chain: simple environmental enrichments improve welfare and reproductive success in farmed American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Meagher, Rebecca K; Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Campbell, Dana L M; Ross, Misha; Møller, Steen H; Hansen, Steffen W; Díez-León, María; Palme, Rupert; Mason, Georgia J

    2014-01-01

    Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains) identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E) with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE) control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: 'late E'). Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male), and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites). E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness ('late E' females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm), effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type ('Demis'), similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a.) and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets) often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical enrichments

  7. Benefits of a ball and chain: simple environmental enrichments improve welfare and reproductive success in farmed American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Meagher, Rebecca K; Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Campbell, Dana L M; Ross, Misha; Møller, Steen H; Hansen, Steffen W; Díez-León, María; Palme, Rupert; Mason, Georgia J

    2014-01-01

    Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains) identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E) with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE) control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: 'late E'). Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male), and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites). E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness ('late E' females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm), effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type ('Demis'), similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a.) and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets) often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical enrichments.

  8. Rapid development of fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis in the American mink (Neovison vison): effects of food deprivation and re-alimentation on body fat depots, tissue fatty acid profiles, hematology and endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Conway, Rebecca; Pal, Catherine; Harris, Lora; Saarela, Seppo; Strandberg, Ursula; Nieminen, Petteri

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is a common pathological finding in the American mink (Neovison vison) and can be caused by nutritional imbalance due to obesity or rapid body weight loss. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the timeline and characterize the development of hepatic lipidosis in mink in response to 0-7 days of food deprivation and liver recovery after 28 days of re-feeding. We report here the effects on hematological and endocrine variables, body fat mobilization, the development of hepatic lipidosis and the alterations in the liver lipid classes and tissue fatty acid (FA) sums. Food deprivation resulted in the rapid mobilization of body fat, most notably visceral, causing elevated hepatosomatic index and increased liver triacylglycerol content. The increased absolute amounts of liver total phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine suggested endoplasmic reticulum stress. The hepatic lipid infiltration and the altered liver lipid profiles were associated with a significantly reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the livers and the decrease was more evident in the females. Likewise, re-feeding of the female mink resulted in a more pronounced recovery of the liver n-3 PUFA. The rapid decrease in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in response to food deprivation could trigger an inflammatory response in the liver. This could be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in mink influencing disease progression.

  9. Benefits of a Ball and Chain: Simple Environmental Enrichments Improve Welfare and Reproductive Success in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison)

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Campbell, Dana L. M.; Ross, Misha; Møller, Steen H.; Hansen, Steffen W.; Díez-León, María; Palme, Rupert; Mason, Georgia J.

    2014-01-01

    Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains) identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E) with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE) control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: ‘late E’). Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male), and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites). E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness (‘late E’ females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm), effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type (‘Demis’), similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a.) and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets) often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical

  10. Conception rates in farm mink (Neovison vison) in relation to first mating date, age and color variety.

    PubMed

    Felska-Błaszczyk, Lidia; Lasota, Bogdan; Seremak, Beata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of the first mating date, age and color variety on the conception rates in farm mink. We analyzed female mink reproductive performance in 492 Sapphire and 463 Standard Black females over 3 or 4 years. The analysis included the number of inefficient matings, the interval between the first inefficient mating and the efficient mating (copulation) and the conception rates. The results show a significant effect of female's age and color variety on the conception rates. The youngest, yearling females of either color needed a higher number of matings per conception, as compared to older, 2- and 3-year-old females. Black females demonstrated a higher number of inefficient matings (1.066), as compared with Sapphires (0.730). Yearling females were most often mated from 1 to 10 March, and older females from 11 to 20 March. Older females achieved better conception rates than the yearlings. Dates between 11 and 25 March proved to be the optimum for the first mating, since the highest conception rates were observed if the females had mated during this period. PMID:26434936

  11. Conception rates in farm mink (Neovison vison) in relation to first mating date, age and color variety.

    PubMed

    Felska-Błaszczyk, Lidia; Lasota, Bogdan; Seremak, Beata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of the first mating date, age and color variety on the conception rates in farm mink. We analyzed female mink reproductive performance in 492 Sapphire and 463 Standard Black females over 3 or 4 years. The analysis included the number of inefficient matings, the interval between the first inefficient mating and the efficient mating (copulation) and the conception rates. The results show a significant effect of female's age and color variety on the conception rates. The youngest, yearling females of either color needed a higher number of matings per conception, as compared to older, 2- and 3-year-old females. Black females demonstrated a higher number of inefficient matings (1.066), as compared with Sapphires (0.730). Yearling females were most often mated from 1 to 10 March, and older females from 11 to 20 March. Older females achieved better conception rates than the yearlings. Dates between 11 and 25 March proved to be the optimum for the first mating, since the highest conception rates were observed if the females had mated during this period.

  12. Estimation of indirect genetic effects in group-housed mink (Neovison vison) should account for systematic interactions either due to kin or sex.

    PubMed

    Alemu, S W; Berg, P; Janss, L; Bijma, P

    2016-02-01

    Social interactions among individuals are abundant, both in wild and in domestic populations. With social interactions, the genes of an individual may affect the trait values of other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models. Most IGE models assume that individuals interact equally to all group mates irrespective of relatedness. Kin selection theory, however, predicts that an individual will interact differently with family members versus non-family members. Here, we investigate kin- and sex-specific non-genetic social interactions in group-housed mink. Furthermore, we investigated whether systematic non-genetic interactions between kin or individuals of the same sex influence the estimates of genetic parameters. As a second objective, we clarify the relationship between estimates of the traditional IGE model and a family-based IGE model proposed in a previous study. Our results indicate that male siblings in mink show different non-genetic interactions than female siblings in mink and that this may impact the estimation of genetic parameters. Moreover, we have shown how estimates from a family-based IGE model can be translated to the ordinary direct-indirect model and vice versa. We find no evidence for genetic differences in interactions among related versus unrelated mink. PMID:25900536

  13. Effects of environmental enrichment and stereotypic behavior on maternal behavior and infant viability in a model carnivore, the American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Díez-León, María; Mason, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    In several species, stress compromises maternal behaviors that are important for infant viability (e.g. licking and grooming). Understanding how stress in captivity affects maternal behavior could therefore be beneficial, especially for carnivores in zoos and breeding centers where infant mortality is often high. We used a model carnivore--American mink--to test two hypotheses, namely that maternal investment and/or behavior is i. improved by environmental enrichment; and ii. compromised by stereotypic behavior. We observed 22 females raised in an indoor facility, 9 enriched, 13 non-enriched. At birth, and at post-natal day 20 when altricial infants were still fully dependent on their mothers, the following offspring variables were recorded: litter size, infant mortality, litter sex ratio (post-natal day 1), and weight. Maternal behavior was assessed by recording nest shape (post-natal day 1), and the frequency of licking and grooming (post-natal days 1-7). Non-enriched females stereotyped more, had female-skewed litters at birth, and tended to make poorer, flatter nests. Maternal licking and grooming showed large, stable individual differences, but appeared unaffected by enrichment. High levels of maternal stereotypic behavior predicted slower offspring growth, replicating previous findings for farmed mink. Nevertheless, enrichment did not significantly increase infant growth rates nor decrease infant mortality. Due to small sample sizes, our study now needs replicating, particularly to explore the potential benefits of enrichment on nest building, sex ratio effects, and the implications of maternal licking and grooming for offspring stress reactivity. Findings could then apply to endangered mustelids like the European mink.

  14. Effects of environmental enrichment and stereotypic behavior on maternal behavior and infant viability in a model carnivore, the American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Díez-León, María; Mason, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    In several species, stress compromises maternal behaviors that are important for infant viability (e.g. licking and grooming). Understanding how stress in captivity affects maternal behavior could therefore be beneficial, especially for carnivores in zoos and breeding centers where infant mortality is often high. We used a model carnivore--American mink--to test two hypotheses, namely that maternal investment and/or behavior is i. improved by environmental enrichment; and ii. compromised by stereotypic behavior. We observed 22 females raised in an indoor facility, 9 enriched, 13 non-enriched. At birth, and at post-natal day 20 when altricial infants were still fully dependent on their mothers, the following offspring variables were recorded: litter size, infant mortality, litter sex ratio (post-natal day 1), and weight. Maternal behavior was assessed by recording nest shape (post-natal day 1), and the frequency of licking and grooming (post-natal days 1-7). Non-enriched females stereotyped more, had female-skewed litters at birth, and tended to make poorer, flatter nests. Maternal licking and grooming showed large, stable individual differences, but appeared unaffected by enrichment. High levels of maternal stereotypic behavior predicted slower offspring growth, replicating previous findings for farmed mink. Nevertheless, enrichment did not significantly increase infant growth rates nor decrease infant mortality. Due to small sample sizes, our study now needs replicating, particularly to explore the potential benefits of enrichment on nest building, sex ratio effects, and the implications of maternal licking and grooming for offspring stress reactivity. Findings could then apply to endangered mustelids like the European mink. PMID:26536278

  15. [Population aspects of sexual dimorphism in guild of the Mustelidae: Mustela lutreola, Neovison vison, Mustela putorius, Martes martes as an example].

    PubMed

    Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2013-01-01

    Size sexual dimorphism was investigated on 695 skulls of four Mustelidae species. By extent of increasing of differences between sexes the species are placed in following order: European pine marten (Martes martes), European mink (Mustela lutreola), American mink (Neovison vison), and European polecat (Mustela putorius). Extent of the dimorphism characterizes ecological plasticity of the species and is population characteristic. It is shown that M. martes takes specific and relatively narrow ecological niche of forest ecosystems, entering into weak competitive relationships with smaller Mustelidae species. The level of sexual dimorphism of M. lutreola, N. vison and M. putorius reflects intensity of its interspecific relationships within study area. High level of sexual dimorphism of M. putorius is determined by further divergence of ecological niches of males and females, and also appears to be compensatory mechanism reducing consequences of hardened environmental requirements. PMID:23662464

  16. [Population aspects of sexual dimorphism in guild of the Mustelidae: Mustela lutreola, Neovison vison, Mustela putorius, Martes martes as an example].

    PubMed

    Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2013-01-01

    Size sexual dimorphism was investigated on 695 skulls of four Mustelidae species. By extent of increasing of differences between sexes the species are placed in following order: European pine marten (Martes martes), European mink (Mustela lutreola), American mink (Neovison vison), and European polecat (Mustela putorius). Extent of the dimorphism characterizes ecological plasticity of the species and is population characteristic. It is shown that M. martes takes specific and relatively narrow ecological niche of forest ecosystems, entering into weak competitive relationships with smaller Mustelidae species. The level of sexual dimorphism of M. lutreola, N. vison and M. putorius reflects intensity of its interspecific relationships within study area. High level of sexual dimorphism of M. putorius is determined by further divergence of ecological niches of males and females, and also appears to be compensatory mechanism reducing consequences of hardened environmental requirements.

  17. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Tracy, Shawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  18. Selective predation by mink, Mustela vison, on waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Swanson, G.A.; Doty, H.A.

    1973-01-01

    Predation by mink (Mustela vison) on three types of ducks (captive, pen-reared-released and wild) was documented in two studies at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota. In the first study, 36 of 60 flightless adult and juvenile ducks held on eight 0.1-acre experimental ponds disappeared between 10 July and 4 August 1969. Available evidence indicated that all were killed by a large adult mink. The mink selected recently released incubator-hatched ducklings, females in the process of incubating, and adults and juveniles on a marginal food supply.In the second study, 152 wood duck ducklings (Aix sponsa) were released on a 76-acre marsh during 1971. Half of the ducklings, when 24 to 27 days old, were placed at weekly intervals in four floating pens and allowed to escape after 4 days. Each time birds were placed in the floating pens, a comparable group was placed in a predator-proof shoreline pen. Birds in the shoreline pen escaped as they learned to fly when approximately 60 days old. The shoreline of the marsh was periodically searched, and the remains of 21 (28%) of the floating-pen birds were identified in food remains found at 16 mink dens. No remains of birds from the shoreline pen were found at the dens. Coots (Fulica americana) were also taken commonly. Wild ducklings appeared to have been almost totally consumed, but the legs and feet of the wood ducks were often left uneaten because of bands and tags.

  19. Canine distemper epizootic in Everglades mink.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, M W; Shindle, D B; Allison, A B; Terrell, S P; Mead, D G; Owen, M

    2009-10-01

    Four free-ranging mink, Neovison vison, collected between June and September 2004 in the Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park (FSPSP, Florida, USA), were examined for canine distemper virus (CDV) infection. Microscopic lesions and viral inclusions consistent with CDV infection were observed in three mink. Virus isolation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on all mink were positive for CDV. Anecdotal records of mink observations in FSPSP suggest a postepizootic decline in the mink population followed by an apparent recovery. We recommend further research to assess the status of the Everglades mink and the impact of CDV on this and other American mink populations in Florida. PMID:19901388

  20. The development of homeothermy in mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Harjunpää, Sanna; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2004-02-01

    In mink (Mustela vison) kits newborn mortality is very high. One of the major causes of death is hypothermia. The objectives of this study were to observe the development of thermoregulation in mink kits, and their ability to maintain their body temperature during the postnatal period (1-50 days of age). Based on the kit's body weight (BW), and rectal and ambient temperature measurements during cold (+4 degrees C) and warm (+40 degrees C) exposures, a homeothermy index (HI) and cooling and warming rates were calculated. No significant differences in the body temperatures were found between the kits and the dam after 36 days of age. The kits were able to maintain homeothermy by 22 days of age (HI 90%). The body cooling rate was 0.88+/-0.04 degrees C min(-1) on day 1 but only 0.35+/-0.03 degrees C min(-1) at 22 days of age. The body WR was lower: day 1, 0.85+/-0.04 degrees C min(-1) and 0.22+/-0.03 degrees C min(-1) at 22 days of age. All measured and calculated thermophysiological variables were significantly influenced by BW and age of the kit. PMID:15123206

  1. Spatial and temporal differences in giant kidney worm, dictophyma renale, prevalence in Minnesota Mink, Mustela vison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii in feral american minks at the Maullin river, Chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American mink (Neovison vison) is a widely distributed invasive species in southern Chile. Thirty four feral minks were trapped at two distinct sites (rural and peri-urban), diet analyzed, and Toxoplasma gondii exposure compared using PCR and specific antibodies. Serum samples were evaluated using a...

  3. Incidence of mink, Mustela vison, and river otter, Lutra canadensis, in a highly urbanized area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2003-01-01

    Mink (Musela vison ) frequently inhabited or traversed a residential, business, and industrial part of the Twin Cities, Minnesota, with little water or natural vegetation. At least one River Otter (Lutra canadensis ) also resided on a small pond on a golf course in the area for several winter months.

  4. Incidence of Mink, Mustela vison, and River Otter, Lutra canadensis, in a Highly Urbanized Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Mink (Mustela vison) frequently inhabited or traversed a residential, business, and industrial part of the Twin Cities, Minnesota, with little water or natural vegetation. At least one River Otter (Lutra canadensis) also resided on a small pond on a golf course in the area for several winter months.

  5. Mortality and some biochemical changes in mink (Mustela vison) given sublethal doses of aflatoxin each day.

    PubMed

    Chou, C C; Marth, E H; Shackelford, R M

    1976-10-01

    Two feeding trials were done to study the susceptibility of mink (Mustela vison) to multiple sublethal doses of aflatoxins. In the 1st trial, twenty 3-month-old male mink were divided equally among groups. Each mink in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was given a meatball daily that contained 15, 30, 45, or 0 mug of aflatoxins (B1:G1, 40:60), respectively. All mink in group 3 died between the 25th and the 30th days of the feeding trial. Each mink had ingested 1,035 to 1,480 mug of aflatoxins. Four of the mink in group 2 died almost as soon as did mink in group 3. Four mink in group 1 died between 40 and 59 days after the start of the feeding trial. Generally, a marked increase in plasma cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase activity appeared before mink died. The liver from animals that died of aflatoxicosis showed prominent pathologic changes which included hemorrhages and appearance of pink yellow spots. Histopathologic examination of liver from dead mink revealed fatty infiltration, bile duct proliferation, bile stasis, pseudotubular formation, congestion, and fibrosis. The feeding trial was repeated with 20 mink (8 males and 12 females) that were 1.5 to 2 years old. In this instance, 0, 20, 40, and 60 mug of aflatoxins were administered each day. All treated animals, except 1, were dead within 37 days after the experiment started. The survivor was given the lowest dosage of toxins and died after 52 days by which time 960 mug of aflatoxins were consumed. Plasma cholesterol content and alkaline phosphatase activity generally were similar to those observed in younger mink of the 1st feeding trial.

  6. Mink Farms Predict Aleutian Disease Exposure in Wild American Mink

    PubMed Central

    Nituch, Larissa A.; Bowman, Jeff; Beauclerc, Kaela B.; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases can often be of conservation importance for wildlife. Spillover, when infectious disease is transmitted from a reservoir population to sympatric wildlife, is a particular threat. American mink (Neovison vison) populations across Canada appear to be declining, but factors thus far explored have not fully explained this population trend. Recent research has shown, however, that domestic mink are escaping from mink farms and hybridizing with wild mink. Domestic mink may also be spreading Aleutian disease (AD), a highly pathogenic parvovirus prevalent in mink farms, to wild mink populations. AD could reduce fitness in wild mink by reducing both the productivity of adult females and survivorship of juveniles and adults. Methods To assess the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of AD infection in free-ranging mink in relation to the presence of mink farms, we conducted both a large-scale serological survey, across the province of Ontario, and a smaller-scale survey, at the interface between a mink farm and wild mink. Conclusions/Significance Antibodies to AD were detected in 29% of mink (60 of 208 mink sampled); however, seroprevalence was significantly higher in areas closer to mink farms than in areas farther from farms, at both large and small spatial scales. Our results indicate that mink farms act as sources of AD transmission to the wild. As such, it is likely that wild mink across North America may be experiencing increased exposure to AD, via disease transmission from mink farms, which may be affecting wild mink demographics across their range. In light of declining mink populations, high AD seroprevalence within some mink farms, and the large number of mink farms situated across North America, improved biosecurity measures on farms are warranted to prevent continued disease transmission at the interface between mink farms and wild mink populations. PMID:21789177

  7. Nondestructive scat sampling in assessment of mink (Mustela vison) exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs).

    PubMed

    Zwiernik, Matthew J; Moore, Jeremy N; Khim, Jong Seong; Williams, Lisa L; Kay, Denise P; Bursian, Steve; Aylward, Lesa L; Giesy, John P

    2008-10-01

    The mink (Mustela vison) is often utilized as a sentinel species for ecological assessments at sites where contaminants of concern include dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Utilizing mink scat as a nondestructive tool to determine internal exposure to dioxin-like compounds may allow for rapid, accurate estimates of exposure without the need to capture mink or their prey. To determine the relationships between concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in tissues (liver and adipose) and those in scat, mink were fed PCDFs in scat during a controlled laboratory study for 180 days. Mink were fed a control diet, diets with three doses of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF), and a diet with an environmentally relevant mixture of the two congeners. Concentrations of PCDFs in liver and adipose were measured after 0, 90, and 180 days of exposure. Concentrations of the two PCDF congeners in mink scat were determined after 2, 23, 45, 90, and 180 days of exposure. Concentrations of both PCDF congeners in scat were significantly correlated with those in liver and adipose tissue (r(2) = 0.94-0.97, p < 0.01). This indicates that measurements of concentrations of both PCDFs in scat can be used to predict concentrations of PCDFs in liver and adipose. Assimilation and elimination characteristics of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF or 2,3,7,8,-TCDF and a mixture of the two congeners by mink could be predicted from concentrations of these congeners in scat. Overall, concentrations of PCDFs in mink scat can be used as a rapid and inexpensive nondestructive method to predict concentrations of PCDFs in mink when certain assumptions are met. PMID:18227958

  8. Adaptations to fasting in the American mink (Mustela vison): carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Pyykönen, Teija; Paakkonen, Tommi; Ryökkynen, Ari; Asikainen, Juha; Aho, Jari; Mononen, Jaakko; Nieminen, Petteri

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the actively wintering American mink Mustela vison is strictly dependent on continuous food availability or if it has evolved physiological adaptations to tolerate nutritional scarcity. Fifty farm-bred male minks were divided into a fed control group and four experimental groups fasted for 2, 3, 5 or 7 days. The rate of weight loss was several-fold higher (1.5-3.2% day(-1)) in the mink than recorded previously in larger carnivores utilizing passive wintering strategies. The minks remained normoglycaemic, although their liver glycogen stores and glucose-6-phosphatase activities decreased during fasting. Adipose tissue constituted approximately 36% of their body mass after 7 days of food deprivation. Intra-abdominal fat, especially retroperitoneal but also mesenteric adipose tissue, were the most important fat depots to be hydrolyzed, but the ability of the mink to utilize its body lipids during fasting may be limited. The increased liver size, hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation and increases in the activities of plasma aminotransferases indicated liver dysfunction. Food deprivation also affected the red blood cell indices, and the blood monocyte and lymphocyte counts decreased suggesting immunosuppression during fasting. The results of the present study suggest that the mink has not evolved sophisticated adaptations to wintertime fasting. PMID:15748859

  9. Assessing effects of PCB exposure on American mink (Mustela vison) abundance in Portland Harbor.

    PubMed

    Luxon, Matt; Toll, John; Hanson, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an integrated analysis using a Monte Carlo exposure model, dose–response effects model and habitat,and population dynamics models, all of which allow us to quantitatively estimate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)exposure on American mink (Mustela vison) abundance at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site (Site), and the associated uncertainties. The Site extends from river mile 1.9 of the Lower Willamette River, near its confluence with the Columbia River, to river mile 11.8, just downstream of downtown Portland, Oregon. The potential effects of PCBs on the American mink population were evaluated in the Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment (BERA) due to the historical presence of mink in the are a and because mink are known to be highly sensitive to the effects of PCBs. Hazard quotients (HQs) calculated in the BERA indicated that PCB concentrations measured in Portland Harbor fish were above levels known to cause reproductive effects in mink. Further analysis was needed to evaluate the potential magnitude of effects on the Site mink population. The integrated analysis presented herein demonstrates that if an effect of PCB exposure is a less than 30% reduction in kit production, then PCB remediation is not expected to have any effect on mink abundance. This is a Site‐specific conclusion that depends on the quality, abundance, and distribution of mink habitat in Portland Harbor. The PCB dose associated with a 30% reduction in kit production was calculated as 101 mg/kg bw/d (90% CI ¼ 69–146 mg/kg bw/d). The mink PCB dose estimates from the Portland Harbor BERA indicate that if mink are present, their baseline exposure levels probably exceed 101 mg/kg bw/d. Therefore, some level of reduction in PCB exposure could be beneficial to the species if the study area provides sufficient habitat to support a mink population. This analysis demonstrates that risk analysis for population‐level assessment endpoints benefits from analyses

  10. High prevalence of Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink on a remote Danish island.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Trine H; Christensen, Laurids S; Chriél, Mariann; Harslund, Jakob; Salomonsen, Charlotte M; Hammer, Anne Sofie

    2012-04-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes severe disease in farmed mink (Neovison vison) worldwide. In Denmark, AMDV in farmed mink has been confined to the northern part of the mainland since 2002. From 1998 to 2009, samples from 396 free-ranging mink were collected from mainland Denmark, and a low AMDV antibody prevalence (3% of 296) was found using countercurrent immune electrophoresis. However, on the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, a high prevalence (45% of 142 mink) was detected in the free-ranging mink. Aleutian mink disease virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 32 of 49 antibody-positive free-ranging mink on Bornholm, but not in mink collected from other parts of Denmark. Sequence analysis of 370 base pairs of the nonstructural gene of the AMDV of 17 samples revealed two clusters with closest similarity to Swedish AMDV strains. PMID:22493130

  11. Phytoestrogens alter the reproductive organ development in the mink (Mustela vison)

    SciTech Connect

    Ryoekkynen, Ari . E-mail: ryokkyne@cc.joensuu.fi; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Pyykoenen, Teija; Asikainen, Juha; Haenninen, Sari; Mononen, Jaakko; Kukkonen, Jussi V.K.

    2005-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reproductive effects of two perorally applied phytoestrogens, genistein (8 mg/kg/day) and {beta}-sitosterol (50 mg/kg/day), on the mink (Mustela vison) at human dietary exposure levels. Parental generations were exposed over 9 months to these phytoestrogens and their offspring were exposed via gestation and lactation. Parents and their offspring were sampled 21 days after the birth of the kits. Sex hormone levels, sperm quality, organ weights, and development of the kits were examined. The exposed females were heavier than the control females at the 1st postnatal day (PND). The control kits were heavier than the exposed kits from the 1st to the 21st PND. Phytoestrogens did not affect the organ weights of the adult minks, but the relative testicular weight of the exposed kits was higher than in the control kits. The relative prostate weight was higher and the relative uterine weight lower in the {beta}-sitosterol-exposed kits than in the control kits. Moreover, the plasma dihydrotestosterone levels were lower in the genistein-exposed male kits compared to the control male kits. This study could not explain the mechanisms behind these alterations. The results indicate that perinatal phytoestrogen exposures cause alterations in the weight of the reproductive organs of the mink kits.

  12. Nursing sickness in lactating mink (Mustela vison). I. Epidemiological and pathological observations.

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, T N; Olesen, C R; Hansen, O; Wamberg, S

    1992-01-01

    In a retrospective survey, the epidemiological characteristics of nursing sickness in Standard Black and Pastel mink (Mustela vison) were examined in a Danish fur research farm. Based on the clinical diagnosis of the disease, the overall morbidity in a total of 1774 lactating females amounted to 14.4% and the case fatality rate to 7.8%. Apparently healthy females weaned an average of 5.0 kits per litter, while dams suffering from nursing sickness raised and weaned an average of 5.4 kits per litter (p less than 0.01). Based on logistic regression analysis, the increasing age of the lactating dam, followed by littersize and female weight loss, appeared to be major determinants for the development of nursing sickness. The impact of additional covariates such as litter weight gain and female color type were remarkably low. At weaning (day 43) the mean individual live weight of the kits of either sex did not differ between healthy and sick dams. In Standard Black, the total biomass of the offspring raised by sick dams was significantly larger than that of the healthy controls (p less than 0.01). During the final two weeks of lactation, apparently healthy dams lost on average 14% of their body mass, whereas those affected by nursing sickness had a mean weight loss of about 31% (p less than 0.001). Postmortem examination of 25 dams with severe nursing sickness verified the clinical findings of progressive dehydration and emaciation. The gastrointestinal tract was empty and gastric ulcers and melaena were frequently present. Other common findings included small livers,enlarged adrenals and pitted kidneys.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1591661

  13. Disease-associated prion protein in neural and lymphoid tissues of mink (Mustela vison) inoculated with transmissible mink encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is a prion disorder of farmed raised mink. As with the other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the disorder is associated with accumulation of the misfolded prion protein in the brain and an invariably fatal outcome. TME outbreaks have been rare but...

  14. Determination of the aversion of farmed mink (Mustela vison) to carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J; Mason, G; Raj, M

    1998-09-26

    High concentrations of carbon dioxide are commonly used to kill mink before their pelts are removed. The aversiveness of this procedure was investigated by using a passive avoidance technique. Eight mink were trained to obtain a reward (a novel object) by entering a chamber which could be filled with carbon dioxide, as under commercial conditions (over 80 per cent by volume). In the absence of carbon dioxide, mink entered the chamber within a mean (sd) of 16 (2.1) seconds and spent 45 (12) per cent of the next 10 minutes interacting with the novel object. When there was carbon dioxide in the test chamber, the mink would not enter it and coughed and recoiled from the chamber's entrance instead. It was concluded that the mink detected and avoided high concentrations of carbon dioxide, and that if mink are to be killed humanely, less aversive techniques should be used. PMID:9800303

  15. Two components of the pineal organ in the mink (Mustela vison): their structural similarity to submammalian pineal complexes and calcification.

    PubMed

    Vigh, B; Vigh-Teichmann, I

    1992-12-01

    The pineal complex in the mink (Mustela vison) consists of a larger ventral and a smaller dorsal pineal. Both organs contain pinealocytes, neurons, glial cells, nerve fibers and synapses in an organization characteristic of nervous tissue. The cellular elements are arranged circularly around strait lumina. These lumina correspond to the photoreceptor spaces of submammalian pineals. A 9 + 0-type cilium marks the receptory pole of the pinealocytes which may form an inner-segment-like dendrite terminal in the pineal lumina. The cilia correspond to outer segments which form photoreceptor membrane multiplications in the pineal of submammalians and in certain insectivorous and mustelid mammals (bat, hedgehog, ferret). Axonal processes of the pinealocytes contain synaptic ribbons and terminate on intrapineal neurons of both organs. This pattern represents a neural efferentation of the pineal nervous tissue. The axonal processes of pinealocytes also form neurohormonal endings which pierce the perivascular limiting glial membrane in the ventral as well as in the dorsal pineal. The upper pineal ("epipineal") of the mink may correspond to the parapineal, frontal, or parietal organs of submammalian pineal complexes. Both pineals are encapsulated by the meningeal tissue of the brain stem. Afferent vasomotor axons of the meninges innervate smooth muscle cells of pineal arterioles. There are corpora arenacea in the pineal arachnoid and in the pineal nervous tissue, primarily in the ventral pineal. The localization of calcium ions detected around the membrane of pineal cells by pyroantimonate cytochemistry suggests membrane activity as the source of the calcium ions. The accumulation of calcium by the pinealocytes may be due to their neurosensory character. The mink is the first animal described to have both intrapineal and meningeal concrements like the human pineal. PMID:1295547

  16. The central localization of the vagus nerve in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and the mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Ranson, R N; Butler, P J; Taylor, E W

    1993-05-01

    The location of vagal preganglionic neurones (VPN) has been determined in nine ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) and seven mink (M. vison) using neuronal tract-tracing techniques employing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and wheat-germ agglutinin conjugated HRP (WGA-HRP) mixtures injected into the nodose ganglion of the vagus nerve. Labelled VPN were located ipsilaterally in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DmnX), nucleus ambiguus (nA), and reticular formation (rf) of the medulla oblongata. In four of the ferrets, labelled VPN were also identified in the nucleus dorsomedialis (ndm) and the nucleus of the spinal accessory nerve (nspa). In a single mink a few labelled cells were observed in the ndm but no labelled VPN were found in the nspa. Labelling of afferent components of the vagus nerve was seen in two ferrets and two mink with the best labelling obtained following an injection of an HRP/WGA-HRP mixture into the nodose ganglion. Labelled afferents were observed to cross the ipsilateral spinal trigeminal tract (SpV) before entering the tractus solitarius (TS) in regions separate from the motor axons which exit the medulla in separate fasicles. Sensory terminal fields were identified bilaterally in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (nTS) in both species and bilaterally in the area postrema (ap) of the ferret; however, the contralateral labelling was sparse in comparison to the densely labelled ipsilateral nTS/ap. Maximal terminal labelling was seen in regions just rostral and caudal to obex in both species.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian disease virus in free-ranging domestic, hybrid, and wild mink.

    PubMed

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2012-06-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a prominent infectious disease in mink farms. The AMD virus (AMDV) has been well characterized in Europe where American mink (Neovison vison) are an introduced species; however, in North America, where American mink are native and the disease is thought to have originated, the virus' molecular epidemiology is unknown. As such, we characterized viral isolates from Ontario free-ranging mink of domestic, hybrid, and wild origin at two proteins: NS1, a nonstructural protein, and VP2, a capsid protein. AMDV DNA was detected in 25% of free-ranging mink (45 of 183), indicating prevalent active infection. Median-joining networks showed that Ontario AMDV isolates formed two subgroups in the NS1 region and three in the VP2 region, which were somewhat separate from, but closely related to, AMDVs circulating in domestic mink worldwide. Molecular analyses showed evidence of AMDV crossing from domestic to wild mink. Our results suggest that AMDV isolate grouping is linked to both wild endogenous reservoirs and the long-term global trade in domestic mink, and that AMD spills back and forth between domestic and wild mink. As such, biosecurity on mink farms is warranted to prevent transmission of the disease between mink farms and the wild. PMID:25568054

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian disease virus in free-ranging domestic, hybrid, and wild mink

    PubMed Central

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2012-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a prominent infectious disease in mink farms. The AMD virus (AMDV) has been well characterized in Europe where American mink (Neovison vison) are an introduced species; however, in North America, where American mink are native and the disease is thought to have originated, the virus’ molecular epidemiology is unknown. As such, we characterized viral isolates from Ontario free-ranging mink of domestic, hybrid, and wild origin at two proteins: NS1, a nonstructural protein, and VP2, a capsid protein. AMDV DNA was detected in 25% of free-ranging mink (45 of 183), indicating prevalent active infection. Median-joining networks showed that Ontario AMDV isolates formed two subgroups in the NS1 region and three in the VP2 region, which were somewhat separate from, but closely related to, AMDVs circulating in domestic mink worldwide. Molecular analyses showed evidence of AMDV crossing from domestic to wild mink. Our results suggest that AMDV isolate grouping is linked to both wild endogenous reservoirs and the long-term global trade in domestic mink, and that AMD spills back and forth between domestic and wild mink. As such, biosecurity on mink farms is warranted to prevent transmission of the disease between mink farms and the wild. PMID:25568054

  19. [Effect of selection for behavior on the cranial traits of the American mink (Mustela vison)].

    PubMed

    Kharlamova, A V; Faleev, V I; Trapezov, O V

    2000-06-01

    Cranial sizes of American mink selected for tame and aggressive behavior (towards humans) and control mink, which were not selected for behavior, were compared. Absolute sizes of the skull were demonstrated to change depending on the direction of selection. Sexual dimorphism was reduced in mink selected for aggressive behavior, because the cranial sizes of females increased and those of males decreased. Cranial traits were analyzed by the method of principal components. The groups studied differed from one another with respect to the first four components. Although the vector of selection determined the differences between the groups, some morphological changes were similar in the groups selected for tame and aggressive behavior. PMID:10923265

  20. Orienting behaviour during aerial and underwater visual discrimination by the mink (Mustela vison schreber).

    PubMed

    Dunstone, N; Sinclair, W

    1978-02-01

    Orienting responses by mink during aerial and underwater visual discrimination tests were most frequent when the grating lines subtended angles at the eye near the visual threshold angle. Factorial analysis showed that in air and in water at ranges from 10 to 90 cm most responses occurred at 30 cm discrimination distance and more occurred to marginally supra-threshold than to marginally sub-threshold stimuli. Between media, more responses occurred in air than in water. At longer ranges the mink oriented less readily than at 30 cm but if orienting occurred better discrimination followed than if the mink did not orient.

  1. The ventricles of the brain in the N. American mink (Mustela vison (Brisson, 1756)).

    PubMed

    Gościcka, D; Stankiewicz, W; Szpinda, M

    1993-01-01

    Using anatomical as well as radiographic and tomographic methods, sixty brains of the N. American mink were examined. It was found that the brain consists of four ventricles. Also, it was noted that the posterior horn was missing and that there was the olfactory recess present in the lateral ventricle, a large-size interthalamic connection present in the third ventricle, and a flat, necklace-like bottom in the fourth ventricle. Only recently, the ins and outs of the mink's anatomical structure have begun to absorb anatomists. Apparently, it is related to the fact that furry animals, among them the mink, are being domesticated as if "before our eyes". For this reason and because of the easy access to material, examining of the brain ventricles in the mink was taken up. PMID:10187989

  2. A species barrier limits transmission of chronic wasting disease to mink (Mustela vison)

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Robert D.; Baszler, Timothy V.; O'Rourke, Katherine I.; Schneider, David A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Liggitt, H. Denny; Knowles, Donald P.

    2008-01-01

    Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) occurs as sporadic outbreaks associated with ingestion of feed presumably contaminated with some type of prion disease. Mink lack a species barrier to primary oral challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, whereas they have a barrier to such challenge with scrapie. We investigated whether mink have a species barrier to chronic wasting disease (CWD) by performing primary intracerebral (IC) and primary oral challenge with CWD-positive elk brain. Primary IC challenge resulted in clinical disease in two of eight mink at 31–33 months incubation. Affected mink had spongiform vacuolation and astrocytosis within the central nervous system and immunoreactivity to disease-associated prion protein (PrPd) in brain, retina and lymph node. CWD IC recipients had significantly lower brain vacuolation and PrPd deposition scores, significantly lower cerebrocortical astrocyte counts and significantly higher hippocampal astrocyte counts than TME IC recipients. Primary oral challenge with CWD-positive elk brain (n=22) or with CWD-negative elk brain given IC (n=7) or orally (n=23) did not result in clinical or microscopic abnormalities during 42 months observation. Novel prion gene polymorphisms were identified at codon 27 (arginine/tryptophan) and codon 232 (arginine/lysine). This study shows that, whilst CWD can cause disease when given IC to mink, the lesions are not characteristic of TME, transmission is inefficient compared with TME and oral challenge does not result in disease. The demonstration of a species barrier in cervid-to-mustelid prion transmission indicates that mink are unlikely to be involved in natural CWD transmission. PMID:18343853

  3. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on reproduction, kit growth, and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursian, S.J.; Sharma, C.; Aulerich, R.J.; Yamini, B.; Mitchell, R.R.; Orazio, C.E.; Moore, D.R.J.; Svirsky, S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of feeding farm-raised mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) on adult reproductive performance and kit growth and survival. Diets contained 0.22-3.54% HR fish, providing 0.34-3.7 ??g total PCBs (TPCB)/g feed wet wt (3.5-68.5 pg toxic equivalence [TEQ]/g). Female mink were fed diets before breeding through weaning of kits. Twelve kits from each treatment were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. Dietary PCBs had no effect on the number of offspring produced, gestation period, or other measures of adult reproductive performance. Mink kits exposed to 3.7 ??g TPCB/g feed (68.5 pg TEQ/g) in utero and during lactation had reduced survivability between three and six weeks of age. The lethal concentrations to 10 and 20% of the population (LC10 and LC20, respectively) were estimated to be 0.231 and 0.984 ??g TPCB/g feed, respectively. Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish that composed approximately 1% of the diet would reduce mink kit survival by 20% or more, it is likely that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would have an adverse effect on wild mink populations. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  4. Causes of mortality in farmed mink in the Intermountain West, North America.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David J; Baldwin, Thomas J; Whitehouse, Chelsea H; Hullinger, Gordon

    2015-07-01

    The primary causes of mortality were identified in postmortem examination of 339 (90.9%) of 373 farmed mink (Neovison vison; syn. Mustela vison) from January 2009 through June 2014 at the Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Logan, Utah). Mink were raised under farm conditions in the Intermountain West in North America, except for 1 submission of mink from Wisconsin. In the 339 mink where cause(s) of death were established, 311 (91.7%) died from a single disease or condition, whereas 28 (8.3%) had 2 diseases or conditions contributing to death. Where cause(s) of death were evident, 11 diseases accounted for 321 (94.7%) of the diagnoses: bacterial pneumonia (67, 18.8%), Aleutian mink disease (61, 17.7%), mink viral enteritis (56, 16.2%), hepatic lipidosis (28, 8.1%), nutritional myopathy (24, 7%), bacterial enterocolitis (17, 4.9%), bacterial septicemia (16, 4.6%), starvation (15, 4.3%), epizootic catarrhal gastroenteritis of mink (14, 4.1%), pancreatitis (13, 3.8%), and bacterial metritis (10, 2.9%). In 34 (9.1%) animals, a cause of death was not evident. In an additional 16 (4.3%) of the mink, botulism was suspected from clinical history but could not be confirmed by laboratory testing. Control measures for the most common causes of death in farmed mink include testing and removal of positive animals (Aleutian mink disease), vaccination (Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, mink viral enteritis), avoidance of obesity in mink (hepatic lipidosis), and environmental management, including maintaining clean water cups, floors, feed troughs, cages, feed silos, feed truck tires, workers' shoes, dining areas for farm personnel, leather mink handling gloves, street clothes, and coveralls. PMID:26077544

  5. Causes of mortality in farmed mink in the Intermountain West, North America.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David J; Baldwin, Thomas J; Whitehouse, Chelsea H; Hullinger, Gordon

    2015-07-01

    The primary causes of mortality were identified in postmortem examination of 339 (90.9%) of 373 farmed mink (Neovison vison; syn. Mustela vison) from January 2009 through June 2014 at the Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Logan, Utah). Mink were raised under farm conditions in the Intermountain West in North America, except for 1 submission of mink from Wisconsin. In the 339 mink where cause(s) of death were established, 311 (91.7%) died from a single disease or condition, whereas 28 (8.3%) had 2 diseases or conditions contributing to death. Where cause(s) of death were evident, 11 diseases accounted for 321 (94.7%) of the diagnoses: bacterial pneumonia (67, 18.8%), Aleutian mink disease (61, 17.7%), mink viral enteritis (56, 16.2%), hepatic lipidosis (28, 8.1%), nutritional myopathy (24, 7%), bacterial enterocolitis (17, 4.9%), bacterial septicemia (16, 4.6%), starvation (15, 4.3%), epizootic catarrhal gastroenteritis of mink (14, 4.1%), pancreatitis (13, 3.8%), and bacterial metritis (10, 2.9%). In 34 (9.1%) animals, a cause of death was not evident. In an additional 16 (4.3%) of the mink, botulism was suspected from clinical history but could not be confirmed by laboratory testing. Control measures for the most common causes of death in farmed mink include testing and removal of positive animals (Aleutian mink disease), vaccination (Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, mink viral enteritis), avoidance of obesity in mink (hepatic lipidosis), and environmental management, including maintaining clean water cups, floors, feed troughs, cages, feed silos, feed truck tires, workers' shoes, dining areas for farm personnel, leather mink handling gloves, street clothes, and coveralls.

  6. Effects of feeding and short-term fasting on water and electrolyte turnover in female mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Wamberg, S; Tauson, A H; Elnif, J

    1996-11-01

    Daily (24 h) rates of water and electrolyte turnover were measured in a conventional balance study in ten adult female pastel mink (Mustela vison) given free access to a standard mink feed for a 1-week conditioning period, followed by a 4 d experimental period and a 2 d fasting period. Drinking water was available throughout. In addition, the completeness of urine collection and the fraction of urine collected with the faeces were determined using a new experimental technique based on 24 h recoveries of specific urinary markers such as tritiated p-aminohippuric acid ([3H]PAH) or 14C-labelled inulin ([14C]IN) continuously delivered by small Alzet osmotic pumps implanted intraperitoneally. During feeding the mean individual percentage recovery in urine of [3H]PAH released from the osmotic pumps ranged from 68 to 88% (median 78%). The mean percentage of urinary [3H]PAH recovered from faecal collections was 6% (range 3-12%). In response to fasting the mean individual percentage recovery of [3H]PAH in urine ranged from 62 to 78% (median 68%). For urinary [14C]IN the mean percentage recoveries in fed and fasted animals were 79 and 63% respectively. Furthermore, during fasting, withdrawal of the supplies of dietary water caused a slight but insignificant (P = 0.17) increase in the daily intake of drinking water and, hence, the animals maintained their normal water balance by a dramatic reduction in urine excretion (P < 0.001). At the same time urinary solute excretion declined significantly (P < 0.001), due in part to the cessation of dietary electrolyte intake and in part to reduced formation of urea, whereas urinary osmolality decreased only moderately. The mean 24 h balances of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl and P were close to zero and only minor differences between the feeding and fasting periods were observed. When corrected for the measured inaccuracies in urine collection the balance data obtained in the present study represent useful reference standards for normally fed and

  7. Distribution and molecular phylogeny of biliary trematodes (Opisthorchiidae) infecting native Lutra lutra and alien Neovison vison across Europe.

    PubMed

    Sherrard-Smith, Ellie; Stanton, David W G; Cable, Jo; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Simpson, Vic R; Elmeros, Morten; van Dijk, Jiska; Simonnet, Franck; Roos, Anna; Lemarchand, Charles; Poledník, Lukáš; Heneberg, Petr; Chadwick, Elizabeth A

    2016-04-01

    The recent identification of Pseudamphistomum truncatum, (Rudolphi, 1819) (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae) and Metorchis bilis (Braun, 1790) Odening, 1962 (synonymous with Metorchis albidus (Braun, 1893) Loos, 1899 and Metorchis crassiusculus (Rudolphi, 1809) Looss, 1899 (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae)) in otters from Britain caused concern because of associated biliary damage, coupled with speculation over their alien status. Here, we investigate the presence, intensity and phylogeny of these trematodes in mustelids (principally otters) across Europe (Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, Poland and Sweden and Britain). The trematodes were identified to species using the internal transcribed spacer II (ITS2) locus. Both parasites were found across Europe but at unequal frequency. In the German state of Saxony, eight out of eleven (73%) otters examined were infected with P. truncatum whilst this parasite was not found in either mink from Scotland (n=40) or otters from Norway (n=21). Differences in the phylogenies between the two species suggest divergent demographic histories possibly reflecting contrasting host diet or competitive exclusion, with M. bilis exhibiting greater mitochondrial diversity than P. truncatum. Shared haplotypes within the ranges of both parasite species probably reflect relatively unrestricted movements (both natural and anthropogenic) of intermediate and definitive hosts across Europe. PMID:26620805

  8. Aleutian mink disease virus in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis): evidence for cross-species spillover.

    PubMed

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2015-04-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a parvovirus infection, initially characterized in American mink (Neovison vison), that may have harmful effects on wild populations of susceptible animals. In North America, where American mink are native, the origin, host range, and prevalence of AMDV in wild species is not clear. We studied striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) to determine whether species sympatric with mink are potential reservoirs in the transmission of AMDV to wild mink and mink farms. Antibodies to AMDV were detected in 41% of skunk serum samples (143/347) and AMDV nucleic acids were detected in 32% (14/40) of skunk spleen samples by PCR, indicating that AMDV exposure and infection were frequent in skunks. We detected no AMDV antibodies in 144 raccoon blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a newly identified AMDV haplogroup consisting of isolates from Ontario skunks and a free-ranging domestic mink from Ontario. Our findings of frequent AMDV infection in skunks, close genetic similarity between skunk and mink AMDV isolates, and evidence of AMDV transmission from skunks to mink support the hypothesis that skunks may be acting as alternative hosts and reservoirs of AMDV to wild mink through cross-species virus spillover. PMID:25647590

  9. Aleutian mink disease virus in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis): evidence for cross-species spillover.

    PubMed

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2015-04-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a parvovirus infection, initially characterized in American mink (Neovison vison), that may have harmful effects on wild populations of susceptible animals. In North America, where American mink are native, the origin, host range, and prevalence of AMDV in wild species is not clear. We studied striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) to determine whether species sympatric with mink are potential reservoirs in the transmission of AMDV to wild mink and mink farms. Antibodies to AMDV were detected in 41% of skunk serum samples (143/347) and AMDV nucleic acids were detected in 32% (14/40) of skunk spleen samples by PCR, indicating that AMDV exposure and infection were frequent in skunks. We detected no AMDV antibodies in 144 raccoon blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a newly identified AMDV haplogroup consisting of isolates from Ontario skunks and a free-ranging domestic mink from Ontario. Our findings of frequent AMDV infection in skunks, close genetic similarity between skunk and mink AMDV isolates, and evidence of AMDV transmission from skunks to mink support the hypothesis that skunks may be acting as alternative hosts and reservoirs of AMDV to wild mink through cross-species virus spillover.

  10. Exposure and effects assessment of resident mink (Mustela vison) exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans and other dioxin-like compounds in the Tittabawassee River basin, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Zwiernik, Matthew J; Kay, Denise P; Moore, Jeremy; Beckett, Kerrie J; Khim, Jong Seong; Newsted, John L; Roark, Shaun A; Giesy, John P

    2008-10-01

    Historically, sediments and floodplain soils of the Tittabawassee River (TR; MI, USA) have been contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Median concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) based on 2006 World Health Organization tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) in the diet of mink (Mustela vison) ranged from 6.8 x 10(-1) ng TEQ/kg wet weight upstream of the primary source of PCDF to 3.1 x 10(1) ng TEQ/kg wet weight downstream. Estimates of toxicity reference values (TRVs) derived from laboratory studies with individual PCDDs/PCDFs and PCB congeners or mixtures of those congeners, as well as application of TEFs, were compared to site-specific measures of mink exposure. Hazard quotients based on exposures expressed as concentrations of TEQs in the 95th percentile of the mink diet or liver and the no-observable-adverse-effect TRVs were determined to be 1.7 and 8.6, respectively. The resident mink survey, however, including number of mink present, morphological measures, sex ratios, population age structure, and gross and histological tissue examination, indicated no observable adverse effects. This resulted for multiple reasons: First, the exposure estimate was conservative, and second, the predominantly PCDF congener mixture present in the TR appeared to be less potent than predicted from TEQs based on dose-response comparisons. Given this, there appears to be great uncertainty in comparing the measured concentrations of TEQs at this site to TRVs derived from different congeners or congener mixtures. Based on the lack of negative outcomes for any measurement endpoints examined, including jaw lesions, a sentinel indicator of possible adverse effects, and direct measures of effects on individual mink and their population, it was concluded that current concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs were not causing adverse effects on

  11. Exposure and effects assessment of resident mink (Mustela vison) exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans and other dioxin-like compounds in the Tittabawassee River basin, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Zwiernik, Matthew J; Kay, Denise P; Moore, Jeremy; Beckett, Kerrie J; Khim, Jong Seong; Newsted, John L; Roark, Shaun A; Giesy, John P

    2008-10-01

    Historically, sediments and floodplain soils of the Tittabawassee River (TR; MI, USA) have been contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Median concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) based on 2006 World Health Organization tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) in the diet of mink (Mustela vison) ranged from 6.8 x 10(-1) ng TEQ/kg wet weight upstream of the primary source of PCDF to 3.1 x 10(1) ng TEQ/kg wet weight downstream. Estimates of toxicity reference values (TRVs) derived from laboratory studies with individual PCDDs/PCDFs and PCB congeners or mixtures of those congeners, as well as application of TEFs, were compared to site-specific measures of mink exposure. Hazard quotients based on exposures expressed as concentrations of TEQs in the 95th percentile of the mink diet or liver and the no-observable-adverse-effect TRVs were determined to be 1.7 and 8.6, respectively. The resident mink survey, however, including number of mink present, morphological measures, sex ratios, population age structure, and gross and histological tissue examination, indicated no observable adverse effects. This resulted for multiple reasons: First, the exposure estimate was conservative, and second, the predominantly PCDF congener mixture present in the TR appeared to be less potent than predicted from TEQs based on dose-response comparisons. Given this, there appears to be great uncertainty in comparing the measured concentrations of TEQs at this site to TRVs derived from different congeners or congener mixtures. Based on the lack of negative outcomes for any measurement endpoints examined, including jaw lesions, a sentinel indicator of possible adverse effects, and direct measures of effects on individual mink and their population, it was concluded that current concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs were not causing adverse effects on

  12. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in livers of American mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lutra canadensis) from the Columbia and Fraser River Basins, 1990-1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Henny, Charles J.; Harris, M.L.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in aquatic mustelid species on the Fraser and Columbia Rivers of northwestern North America. Carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis) (N=24) and mink (Mustela vison) (N=34) were obtained from commercial trappers during the winters of 1990-91 and 1991a??92. Pooled liver samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Most samples contained detectable concentrations of DDE, PCBs, although there was substantial variability in patterns and trends among neighboring samples. Concentrations of DDE were in some mink and several otter samples from the lower Columbia River elevated (to 4700 g/kg wet weight); excluding one mink sample from the Wenatchee area, mean DDE levels generally decreased between 1978a??79 and 1990a??92. PCBs were present in all samples. PCB concentrations in otter livers collected from the lower Columbia were ten-fold lower than measured a decade previously; nevertheless, a sample taken near Portland had a mean concentration of 1500 g/kg, within a range of concentrations associated with reproductive effects in captive mink. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and TCDF were generally below detection limits, except for one otter collected near a pulp mill at Castlegar, on the upper Columbia, with 11 ng TCDD/kg in liver. Elevated concentrations of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, probably resulting from use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives, were found in both species; one otter sample from the lower Columbia had 2200 ng OCDD/kg. International TCDD toxic equivalent levels in mink (31 ng/kg) and otter (93 ng/kg) from the lower Columbia River approached toxicity thresholds for effects on reproduction in ranch mink.

  13. First report of Cryptosporidium canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and identification of several novel subtype families for Cryptosporidium mink genotype in minks (Mustela vison) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siwen; Tao, Wei; Liu, Chengwu; Jiang, Yanxue; Wan, Qiang; Li, Qiao; Yang, Hang; Lin, Yongchao; Li, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Despite the rapid and extensive advances in molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in humans and a variety of animals, the prevalence and genetic traits of the parasite in wildlife bred in captivity and the role of the neglected hosts in zoonotic transmission of human cryptosporidiosis are rarely understood. This study investigated the prevalence, species/genotype, and subtype of Cryptosporidium in farmed fur animals in China and assessed the possibility of zoonotic transmission. Three of 191 (1.6%) foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 17 of 162 (10.5%) raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 48 of 162 (29.6%) minks (Mustela vison) were positive for Cryptosporidium by nested PCRs targeting the small subunit rRNA gene. Sequence analysis indicated the presence of only Cryptosporidium canis in foxes and raccoon dogs. There is no significant difference in prevalence between young and adult foxes (or raccoon dogs). Three Cryptosporidium species or genotype including C. canis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and mink genotype were determined in minks aged five to six months. Subtyping based on nucleotide and amino acid sequence polymorphisms of the 60kDa glycoprotein facilitated identification of three novel subtype families named as Xb to Xd for Cryptosporidium mink genotype. The presence of zoonotic C. canis, C. meleagridis, and Cryptosporidium mink genotype in captive-bred fur animals is of public health concerns. The findings expanded the host ranges of C. canis and C. meleagridis and confirmed genetic diversity at the subtype level in Cryptosporidium mink genotype. This is the first study reporting Cryptosporidium infections in foxes and raccoon dogs in China. PMID:27001467

  14. First report of Cryptosporidium canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and identification of several novel subtype families for Cryptosporidium mink genotype in minks (Mustela vison) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siwen; Tao, Wei; Liu, Chengwu; Jiang, Yanxue; Wan, Qiang; Li, Qiao; Yang, Hang; Lin, Yongchao; Li, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Despite the rapid and extensive advances in molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in humans and a variety of animals, the prevalence and genetic traits of the parasite in wildlife bred in captivity and the role of the neglected hosts in zoonotic transmission of human cryptosporidiosis are rarely understood. This study investigated the prevalence, species/genotype, and subtype of Cryptosporidium in farmed fur animals in China and assessed the possibility of zoonotic transmission. Three of 191 (1.6%) foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 17 of 162 (10.5%) raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 48 of 162 (29.6%) minks (Mustela vison) were positive for Cryptosporidium by nested PCRs targeting the small subunit rRNA gene. Sequence analysis indicated the presence of only Cryptosporidium canis in foxes and raccoon dogs. There is no significant difference in prevalence between young and adult foxes (or raccoon dogs). Three Cryptosporidium species or genotype including C. canis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and mink genotype were determined in minks aged five to six months. Subtyping based on nucleotide and amino acid sequence polymorphisms of the 60kDa glycoprotein facilitated identification of three novel subtype families named as Xb to Xd for Cryptosporidium mink genotype. The presence of zoonotic C. canis, C. meleagridis, and Cryptosporidium mink genotype in captive-bred fur animals is of public health concerns. The findings expanded the host ranges of C. canis and C. meleagridis and confirmed genetic diversity at the subtype level in Cryptosporidium mink genotype. This is the first study reporting Cryptosporidium infections in foxes and raccoon dogs in China.

  15. Testing for bias in a sentinel species: contaminants in free-ranging domestic, wild, and hybrid mink.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Martin, Pamela A; McDaniel, Tana V; Nituch, Larissa A; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2012-01-01

    Sentinel species are important tools for studies of biodiversity and environmental health. The American mink (Neovison vison) has long been considered a sentinel of environmental contamination, since the species is known to be sensitive to a number of common contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and mercury. Mink may not always satisfy an important criterion of sentinels however--that they are continuous residents of the environment being sampled. This is because domestic mink commonly escape from farms, and can be confused with wild mink in areas where mink ranching is prevalent, biasing estimates of environmental contamination taken from free-ranging mink samples. We tested for bias in a sample of free-ranging mink from Ontario, Canada, where both genetic ancestry (domestic, wild, and domestic-wild hybrid) and contaminant burdens (PCBs and mercury) were known. Of 133 mink sampled for both contaminants and genetic ancestry, 9% were determined to be domestic and 10.5% hybrid animals. We found that including domestic and hybrid mink in our analysis resulted in overestimating mean PCB burdens in wild mink by 27%, and underestimating mercury by 13%. We also investigated morphological methods to aid in excluding domestic mink from free-ranging mink samples and found that we had the highest classification success using skull size (condylobasal length), which was 15% and 12% greater in male and female domestic than wild mink, respectively. Given the potential use of mink as sentinels, and also the potential for bias, we recommend that researchers take steps to exclude domestic mink from free-ranging mink samples in studies of environmental health. PMID:22130127

  16. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-Ranging Mink from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine H.; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Appelberg, Mia Tjernström; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies) and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133) had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006), heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen. PMID:25822750

  17. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine H; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Appelberg, Mia Tjernström; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies) and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133) had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006), heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen. PMID:25822750

  18. Invasive crayfish reduce food limitation of alien American mink and increase their resilience to control.

    PubMed

    Melero, Yolanda; Palazón, Santiago; Lambin, Xavier

    2014-02-01

    Trophic relationships between invasive species in multiply invaded ecosystems may reduce food limitation relative to more pristine ecosystems and increase resilience to control. Here, we consider whether invasive predatory American mink Neovison vison are trophically subsidized by invasive crayfish. We collated data from the literature on density and home range size of mink populations in relation to the prevalence of crayfish in the diet of mink. We then tested the hypothesis that populations of an invasive predator reach higher densities and are more resilient to lethal control when they have access to super-abundant non-native prey, even in the absence of changes in density dependence, hence compensatory capacity. We found a strong positive relationship between the proportion of crayfish in mink diet and mink population density, and a negative relationship between the proportion of crayfish in mink diet and mink home range size, with crayfish contribution to mink diet reflecting their abundance in the ecosystem. We then explored the consequence of elevated mink density by simulating a hypothetical eradication program with a constant harvest in a Ricker model. We found that mink populations were more resilient to harvest in the presence of crayfish. As a result, the simulated number of mink harvested to achieve eradication increased by 500% in the presence of abundant crayfish if carrying capacity increased by 630%. This led to a threefold increase in time to eradication under a constant harvest and an approximately 20-fold increase in the cumulative management cost. Our results add to evidence of inter-specific positive interactions involving invasive species, and our simple model illustrates how this increases management cost. PMID:24065555

  19. Invasive crayfish reduce food limitation of alien American mink and increase their resilience to control.

    PubMed

    Melero, Yolanda; Palazón, Santiago; Lambin, Xavier

    2014-02-01

    Trophic relationships between invasive species in multiply invaded ecosystems may reduce food limitation relative to more pristine ecosystems and increase resilience to control. Here, we consider whether invasive predatory American mink Neovison vison are trophically subsidized by invasive crayfish. We collated data from the literature on density and home range size of mink populations in relation to the prevalence of crayfish in the diet of mink. We then tested the hypothesis that populations of an invasive predator reach higher densities and are more resilient to lethal control when they have access to super-abundant non-native prey, even in the absence of changes in density dependence, hence compensatory capacity. We found a strong positive relationship between the proportion of crayfish in mink diet and mink population density, and a negative relationship between the proportion of crayfish in mink diet and mink home range size, with crayfish contribution to mink diet reflecting their abundance in the ecosystem. We then explored the consequence of elevated mink density by simulating a hypothetical eradication program with a constant harvest in a Ricker model. We found that mink populations were more resilient to harvest in the presence of crayfish. As a result, the simulated number of mink harvested to achieve eradication increased by 500% in the presence of abundant crayfish if carrying capacity increased by 630%. This led to a threefold increase in time to eradication under a constant harvest and an approximately 20-fold increase in the cumulative management cost. Our results add to evidence of inter-specific positive interactions involving invasive species, and our simple model illustrates how this increases management cost.

  20. Uptake of selenium and mercury by captive mink: Results of a controlled feeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Evans, R D; Grochowina, N M; Basu, N; O'Connor, E M; Hickie, B E; Rouvinen-Watt, K; Evans, H E; Chan, H M

    2016-02-01

    Captive, juvenile, ranch-bred, male mink (Neovison vison) were fed diets containing various concentrations of methyl-mercury (MeHg) and selenium (Se) for a period of 13 weeks and then sacrificed to determine total Hg levels in fur, blood, brain, liver and kidneys and total Se concentrations in brain tissue. As MeHg concentrations in the diet increased, concentrations of total Hg in the tissues also increased with the highest level occurring in the fur > liver = kidney > brain > blood. Concentrations of Hg in the fur were correlated (r(2) > 0.97) with liver, kidney, blood and brain concentrations. The addition of Se to the mink diet did not appear to affect most tissue concentrations of total Hg nor did it affect the partitioning of Hg between the liver:blood, kidney:blood and brain:blood; however, partitioning of Hg between fur and blood was apparently affected. PMID:26517385

  1. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N; Jensen, Søren K

    2016-03-14

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose-response and chemical form. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of increasing the amount of retinol in combination with RRR-α-tocopherol or all-rac-α-tocopherol in the feed given to growing mink on their retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol concentrations in plasma and selected organs. The results showed that the mink met their retinol requirements from the basal diet, but there were no negative effects of supplying various amounts of retinol on their plasma α-tocopherol concentrations. On the other hand, the study showed that the cholecalciferol status in plasma, assessed as the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration, was low when retinol was supplemented in the feed at high levels. In addition, supplementation with RRR-α-tocopherol in the feed negatively affected the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol compared with supplementation with all-rac-α-tocopherol. In general, female mink had higher concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in plasma than male mink. PMID:26787295

  2. Role of prolactin in regulating the onset of winter fur growth in mink (Mustela vison): A reconsideration.

    PubMed

    Johnston, B; Rose, J

    1999-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) if the onset of winter hair growth (anagen) in mink could be delayed or inhibited by elevating endogenous PRL concentrations; (2) if bilaterally adrenalectomy (ADX)-induced winter anagen occurs concomitantly with a reduction in serum PRL concentrations, and (3) if exogenous dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an adrenal steroid or Delta(5)-DIOL (a peripherally produced metabolite of DHEA), would delay or inhibit the onset of winter anagen. During early July, while in the resting (telogen) stage of the hair growth cycle, mink were treated with slow release implants containing haloperidol (HAL, a dopaminergic antagonist), melatonin (MEL), deoxycorticosterone (DOC), DHEA and Delta(5)-DIOL. In addition, mink were ADX'd and supplemented with DOC and DHEA. MEL reduced PRL levels to basal levels and induced winter anagen 7 weeks earlier than controls. Surprisingly, HAL initiated winter anagen 7 weeks earlier than controls (P < 0.05), although serum PRL levels were not different between the two groups. Mink that were ADX'd or ADX + DHEA-treated exhibited winter anagen 6 weeks earlier than controls (P < 0.05), but serum PRL concentrations were not different between the three groups. The administration of DHEA or Delta(5)-DIOL to mink with intact adrenals had no effect on the time of onset of winter anagen or serum PRL levels. Our findings suggest that a reduction in circulating PRL levels is not essential for onset of winter anagen in the mink and that the apparent inhibitory effects of the adrenal glands on initiation of winter anagen is not mediated through DHEA or its metabolite Delta(5)-DIOL. J. Exp. Zool. 284:437-444, 1999. PMID:10451421

  3. [Effect of mutations affecting coat color on the blood lymphocyte structure in the American mink (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777)].

    PubMed

    Uzenbaeva, L B; Trapezov, O V; Kizhina, A G; Iliukha, V A; Trapezova, L I; Tiutiunnik, N N

    2011-01-01

    American minks with different genotypes containing the Aleutian coat color allele in the homozygous state, including the single recessive Aleutian (a/a); double recessive sapphire (a/a p/p) and lavender (m/m a/a); triple recessive violet (m/m a/a p/p); and dominant-recessive cross sapphire (S/+ a/a p/p), sapphire leopard (S(K)/+ a/a p/p), and shadow sapphire (S(H)/+ a/a p/p) minks, as well as American minks without the Aleutian allele, including the standard (+/+); single recessive silver-blue (p/p) and hedlund-white (h/h); double recessive pearl (k/k p/p), Finnish topaz (t(S)/t(S) b/b); incompletely dominant royal silver (S(R)/+), standard leopard (S(K)/+), and black crystal (C(R)/+); and dominant-recessive snowy topaz (C(R)/+ t(S)/t(S) b/b) and Kujtezhy-spotted (S(K)/+ b/b) minks have been studied. Homozygosity for the a allele has been found to disturb the subcellular structure of leukocyte, namely the formation of abnormally large granules.

  4. [Effect of coat color genes on the hair pigmentation morphology in the American mink (Mustela vison Schr. L.)].

    PubMed

    Prasolova, L A; Trapezov, O V

    2007-07-01

    The morphological patterns of hair pigmentation (the size and shape of pigment granules and their distribution among layers) have been studied in four compound coat color forms of the American mink: moil-sapphire also known as violet (genotype m/m a/a p/p); moil-silver or sage (genotype m/m p/p); the color form determined by genotype m/+ a/a; and platinum leopard (S(k)/+ a/+ p/p). The hair pigmentation pattern specific for each coat color form and its difference from the standard coat color of the American mink (genotype +/+) has been determined. The possible mechanisms of the phenotypic expression of the nonallelic genes contributing to the described compound color forms are discussed. PMID:17899817

  5. Reproductive and morphological condition of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) in relation to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.

    PubMed

    Harding, L E; Harris, M L; Stephen, C R; Elliott, J E

    1999-02-01

    We assessed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of mink and river otters on the Columbia and Fraser River systems of northwestern North America, in relation to morphological measures of condition. We obtained carcasses of mink and river otters from commercial trappers during the winters 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analyzed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. Contaminant levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-1992) of these regional populations. Body condition varied slightly among collection regions, but showed no relationship with contaminant burden. Mink from the upper Fraser River had less fat stores and also had some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had low contaminant levels. Although a few individual animals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between total PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1260) and baculum length in juvenile mink (r = 0.707; p = 0.033; n = 8). The association of juvenile baculum length with eventual reproductive success is unknown, but further characterization of reproductive organ morphology and relationship to contaminants should be undertaken in a larger subset of these populations. PMID:9924010

  6. Hepatic P450 enzyme activity, tissue morphology and histology of mink (Mustela vison) exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeremy N; Newsted, John L; Hecker, Markus; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kay, Denise P; Zhang, Xiaowei; Higley, Eric B; Aylward, Lesa L; Beckett, Kerrie J; Budinsky, Robert A; Bursian, Steven J; Giesy, John P

    2009-08-01

    Dose- and time-dependent effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ) of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), or a mixture of these two congeners on hepatic P450 enzyme activity and tissue morphology, including jaw histology, of adult ranch mink were determined under controlled conditions. Adult female ranch mink were fed either TCDF (0.98, 3.8, or 20 ng TEQ(TCDF)/kg bw/day) or PeCDF (0.62, 2.2, or 9.5 ng TEQ(PeCDF)/kg bw/day), or a mixture of TCDF and PeCDF (4.1 ng TEQ(TCDF)/kg bw/day and 2.8 ng TEQ(PeCDF)/kg bw/day, respectively) for 180 days. Doses used in this study were approximately eight times greater than those reported in a parallel field study. Activities of the cytochrome P450 1A enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) were significantly greater in livers of mink exposed to TCDF, PeCDF, and a mixture of the two congeners; however, there were no significant histological or morphological effects observed. It was determined that EROD and MROD activity can be used as sensitive biomarkers of exposure to PeCDF and TCDF in adult female mink; however, under the conditions of this study, the response of EROD/MROD induction occurred at doses that were less than those required to cause histological or morphological changes. PMID:19458992

  7. [Morphology and biochemistry of blood of various mustelids. 3. Enzymographic studies of arterial plasma of mink (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777)].

    PubMed

    Zeissler, R; Wenzel, U D; Strauch, W

    1980-01-01

    Twelve different enzyme activities, which are listed and explained in greater detail in Table 2, were determined statistically secured, and discussed, following a three-year study into arterial plasma of 118 female and 124 male minks, aged between six and seven months and kept under anaesthesia. Simply normally distributed or logarithmically distributed plasma enzyme activities were found to differ primarily by sex, with other experimental conditions being identical and regular. The enzyme activities of ICDH, active CPK, and total LDH (the latter only with females) were normally distributed, whereas all the other enzymes activities tested, except for gamma-GT and SDH, were of Gaussian distribution only after logarithmic transformation of the individual values. The plasma enzyme activities of GPT, LAP, ChE, LDH1, MDH, and AP differed from those of GOT, gamma-GT, SDH, total LDH and active CPK, in that they usually exhibited highly significant sex-related differences. All minks were tranquilised and kept under general anaesthesia, using neuroleptanalgesia, but all their enzyme activities were found to vary just as widely as those reported elsewhere in literature, in the context of minks without anaesthesia. The latter result was experimentally confirmed by means of a model experiment in which enzyme activities were recorded from nine male ferrets, prior to, during, and after neuroleptanalgesia.

  8. Metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance and body composition of growing farm-raised male pastel mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Harper, R B; Travis, H F; Glinsky, M S

    1978-12-01

    The requirement of metabolizable energy (ME) for maintenance was studied in 31 male pastel farm-raised mink. The procedure used was a body balance regression technique that included an initial baseline group, a group allowed feed ad libitum, and a group allowed feed at the level of 65% of average intake of the ad libitum animals. The requirement for ME was 147.8 +/- 6.06 kcal/wtkg 0.734/day. This value falls within the range of estimates of maintenance requirements noted for younger animals of other species, such as the rat, chicken, and calf. The relationships of the chemical composition of the body to functions of body weight were also examined. The composition of the mink body was closely related to the weight of the animal rather than to age or conformation, as has been noted in other species. However, the fat-free dry body of the mink contained more protein and less ash than any other species studied up to this point. On a percentage basis, protein was 87.29 and ash was 12.72. Protein in the fat-free body of other species range from 80 to 82%.

  9. Serum prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations during the summer and winter hair growth cycles of mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Rose, J; Kennedy, M; Johnston, B; Foster, W

    1998-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) during initiation and development of summer and winter hair growth (anagen) cycles in mink. In the spring, haloperidol (HAL) increased PRL concentrations and induced summer anagen earlier than controls, whereas melatonin (MEL) inhibited PRL secretion and completely blocked summer anagen. In the fall, HAL increased PRL concentrations, inducing anagen at an earlier time than controls, although the resulting fur was abnormal being almost devoid of underhair fibers. Exogenous MEL during the fall reduced PRL concentrations, initiating winter anagen 4 weeks earlier than controls. Adrenalectomy (ADX) induced earlier onset of summer and winter anagen and neutralized the inhibitory effects of HAL in the fall and MEL in the spring. No change in serum DHEA concentrations was observed during the onset of summer or winter anagen in any group although MEL increased DHEA levels from 27 March through 5 June relative to HAL-treated mink. We conclude that changes in serum levels of DHEA and PRL are not requisite to onset of summer or winter anagen in mink. It is possible that metabolites of DHEA and/or PRL may still affect other aspects of the hair growth cycle. PMID:9972323

  10. Accuracy of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for quantification of antibodies against Aleutian mink disease virus.

    PubMed

    Farid, A H; Rupasinghe, P P

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing interest among mink ranchers to select their stock for tolerance to the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are used to identify mink which have low anti-AMDV antibody titres and are expected to tolerate the AMDV infection. The objective of this study was to calculate the accuracy of three ELISA systems which were performed on blood or serum of AMDV-inoculated American mink (Neovison vison) at five laboratories in Canada, USA, Finland, the Netherlands and Denmark. The accuracy was determined by comparing the ELISA results with antibody titres measured by the counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) using 10 two-fold serial dilutions of the plasma. Antibody titres of 880 black mink which were inoculated with a spleen homogenate from a naturally infected mink were measured between 16 and 176 weeks post-inoculation. Each ELISA result from every laboratory covered a wide range of antibody titres and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between CIEP and ELISA results from different laboratories varied between 0.41 and 0.83, indicating a low to moderate accuracy of ELISA systems for ranking mink by antibody titre. The recombinant VP2-based ELISA used in the Netherlands and Finland ranked the mink by antibody titres more accurately than did the AMDV-G-based ELISA platforms developed in Denmark and the USA, suggesting that the source of antigen was one of the factors affecting the accuracy of ELISA results. It was concluded that the ELISA systems, particularly those based on AMDV-G antigen, require further refinement to improve their accuracy for ranking mink by antibody titre. PMID:27283885

  11. Invasive American mink: linking pathogen risk between domestic and endangered carnivores.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Singer, Randall S; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A; Eguren, Antonieta; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katherine

    2014-09-01

    Infectious diseases, in particular canine distemper virus (CDV), are an important threat to the viability of wild carnivore populations. CDV is thought to be transmitted by direct contact between individuals; therefore, the study of species interactions plays a pivotal role in understanding CDV transmission dynamics. However, CDV often appears to move between populations that are ecologically isolated, possibly through bridge hosts that interact with both species. This study investigated how an introduced species could alter multihost interactions and act as a bridge host in a novel carnivore assemblage of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), invasive American mink (Neovison vison), and threatened river otters (Lontra provocax) in southern Chile. We found that rural dogs interact with mink near farms whereas in riparian habitats, minks and river otters shared the same latrines with both species visiting sites frequently within time intervals well within CDV environmental persistence. No interactions were observed between dogs and otters at either location. Both dog and mink populations were serologically positive for CDV, making the pathogen transfer risk to otters a conservation concern. Altogether, introduced mink in this ecosystem have the potential to act as bridge hosts between domestic dogs and endangered carnivores.

  12. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the upper Hudson River, New York, USA: effects on reproduction and offspring growth and mortality.

    PubMed

    Bursian, Steven J; Kern, John; Remington, Richard E; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2013-04-01

    The effects of feeding farm-raised mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the upper Hudson River (New York, USA) on adult reproductive performance and kit growth and mortality were evaluated. Diets contained 2.5 to 20% Hudson River fish, providing 0.72 to 6.1 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (4.8-38 pg toxic equivalents [TEQWHO 2005 ]/g feed). The percentage of stillborn kits per litter was significantly increased by dietary concentrations of 4.5 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (28 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) and greater. All offspring exposed to dietary concentrations of 4.5 and 6.1 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (28 and 38 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) died by 10 weeks of age, and all offspring exposed to 1.5 and 2.8 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (10 and 18 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) died by 31 weeks of age, leaving juveniles in the control and 0.72 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (0.41- and 4.8 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) groups only. The dietary concentration predicted to result in 20% kit mortality (LC20) at six weeks of age was 0.34 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (2.6 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed). The corresponding maternal hepatic concentration was 0.80 µg ∑PCBs/g liver, wet weight (13 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g liver, wet wt). Mink residing in the upper Hudson River would be expected to consume species of fish that contain an average of 4.0 µg ∑PCBs/g tissue. Thus, a daily diet composed of less than 10% Hudson River fish could provide a dietary concentration of ∑PCBs that resulted in 20% kit mortality in the present study.

  13. Diversity and stability of Aleutian mink disease virus during bottleneck transitions resulting from eradication in domestic mink in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Christensen, L S; Gram-Hansen, L; Chriél, M; Jensen, T H

    2011-04-21

    Aleutian mink disease (plasmacytosis) virus (AMDV) in domestic mink (Neovison vison) has been subject to eradication in Denmark since 1976. In 2001, approximately 5% of Danish mink farms were still infected and all were located in the northern part of the peninsula of Jutland. In the present study a total of 274 Danish isolates of AMDV collected during the two seasons of 2004 and 2005 were characterized by partial sequencing of the coding region of the non-structural (NS) proteins. Older AMDV isolates from Denmark, available, were also included. The Danish isolates represent a very homogenous cluster compared with Swedish, Finnish and Dutch isolates and seem to represent a minor fraction of the genetic diversity previously found in Denmark. Stability of nucleotide deviations reveals that the purifying selection of bottlenecks imposed on the AMDV population in Denmark by the stamping out policy for more than 6 years exceeds the rate of mutation driven diversity. Among the isolates from farms in northern Jutland two distinct types could be identified and within each of them a number of sub-types which were all useful in tracking spread of infections. Infection at a farm the preceding season was a predisposing risk parameter for disease outbreak at a farm, and strain identity substantiates the suggestion that inadequate disinfection is involved in the recurrence of outbreaks. In cases of new introductions to farms it is indicated that contact including transport between farms played a most significant role. PMID:21112164

  14. Immunophenotypic and functional effects of bunker C fuel oil on the immune system of American mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Julie A; Aldridge, Brian M; Stott, Jeff L; Mohr, F Charles

    2004-10-01

    The relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and immunotoxicity in vulnerable marine species is unknown. In this study, we used American mink (Mustela vision) as a surrogate species for the sea otter to examine the immunotoxic effects of chronic exposure to a low concentration of bunker C fuel oil (500 ppm admixed in the feed for 113-118 days). The mink immune system was monitored over time by flow cytometric analysis for alterations in the immunophenotype of blood lymphocytes and monocytes and by mitogen-stimulated proliferation assays for changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell function. Fuel oil exposure caused a mild, yet significant (P < 0.05) increase in the absolute numbers of specific peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (CD3+T cells) and monocytes, an increase in the level of expression of functionally significant cell surface proteins (MHC II, CD18), and an increase in mitogen-induced mononuclear cell proliferative responses. This heightened state of cellular activation along with the increase in specific cell surface protein expression on both the innate and adaptive immune cells is similar to the pro-inflammatory or "adjuvant-like" effect described in laboratory models of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in other species. These results show the benefits of using a controlled laboratory model for detecting and characterizing subtle petroleum oil-induced perturbations in immune responses. In addition this study establishes a framework for studying the effects of environmental petroleum oil exposure on the immune system of free-ranging marine mammals. Expansion of these studies to address biolgical significance is warranted.

  15. Mechanisms involved in the spontaneous occurrence of diploid-triploid chimerism in the mink (Mustela vison) and chicken (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Fechheimer, N S; Isakova, G K; Belyaev, D K

    1983-01-01

    Diploid-triploid chimeras have been observed both in man and in a number of laboratory and livestock animals. The mechanism(s) of their origin remains enigmatic. One approach is to calculate for each proposed mechanism the expected frequencies of zygotes bearing different gonosomic complements in the two cell lines. Observed samples are then compared with the expectations. The mechanisms that have been considered include: (1) fertilization of a blastomere, (2) absorption of the second polar body into a blastomere, (3) fertilization of the first polar body, (4) independent fertilization of both nuclei in binucleated oocytes, (5) fertilization of the second polar body as well as the egg, and (6) fusion of two eggs. The sample of minks comprised three preimplantation embryos, nine postimplantation embryos, and three neonatal pups, with gonosomic complements of 7 XX/XXX, 3 XX/XXY, 4XY/XXY, and 1 XY/XYY; the chicks comprised 13 embryos at 1 day of incubation, 1 embryo at 4 days, and one adult bird, with gonosomic complements of 5 ZZ/ZZZ, 1 ZZ/ZZW, 1 ZW/ZZZ, 3 ZW/ZZW, and 5 ZW/ZWW. If it is assumed that within each species all, or most, of the 2n/3n chimeras arise from the same mechanism, then the occurrence of a type that has an expected frequency of zero for a given proposed mechanism effectively eliminates that mechanism as a source. All of the chicks could have resulted from only one mechanism, viz., independent fertilization of both nuclei in binucleated oocytes. The sample of minks could have resulted from the same mechanism or from fertilization of a blastomere of a two-cell, 2n embryo. PMID:6578004

  16. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Angela K.; Sutherland, Christopher S.; Royle, Andy; Hare, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture–recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture–recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km2 area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture–recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species.

  17. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Angela K; Sutherland, Chris S; Royle, J Andrew; Hare, Matthew P

    2016-06-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture-recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture-recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km² area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture-recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species.

  18. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Angela K; Sutherland, Chris S; Royle, J Andrew; Hare, Matthew P

    2016-06-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture-recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture-recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km² area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture-recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species. PMID:27509753

  19. [Heterozygosity for Mutations Affecting Coat Pigmentation in the American Mink (Neovison vison) Enhances Structural Stability of Adrenal Cortex under Stress Conditions].

    PubMed

    Trapezov, O V; Luzenko, N D; Trapezova, L I

    2016-04-01

    The results of the study of the effects of heterozygosity for mutations affecting coat pigmentation on the response to the environmental stress caused by extreme feeding conditions are provided. The animals with the following genotypes were taken into the study: homozygotes standard (+/+), hedlund white (h/h), and aleutian (a/a) and heterozygotes hedlund white (h/+) and aleutian (a/+). The animals homozygous for the aleutian mutation (a/a) showed a statistically lower growth rate than the animals of other genotypes both in the ontrol and in the experiment (p < 0.05). Under the control conditions, the animals homozygous forboth the wild type standard allele (+/+) and the mutant hedlund white (h/h) and aleutian (a/a) alleles showed the evident tendency for the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex broadening compared to the experimental conditions. At the same time, in the animals heterozygous for the hedlund white (h/+) and the aleutian (a/+) mutations, a clear tendency for increasing size of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis under the experimental conditions was observed. In the heterozygous animals, although we observed single destructive changes in the adrenal cortex under stress conditions, they were much less profound than in the homozygous ones. This may be related to the broader range of morphological adaptation in the heterozygotes, which gives them the possibility of more significant enlargement of the secreting zone to provide for its adequate functioning. PMID:27529984

  20. [Heterozygosity for Mutations Affecting Coat Pigmentation in the American Mink (Neovison vison) Enhances Structural Stability of Adrenal Cortex under Stress Conditions].

    PubMed

    Trapezov, O V; Luzenko, N D; Trapezova, L I

    2016-04-01

    The results of the study of the effects of heterozygosity for mutations affecting coat pigmentation on the response to the environmental stress caused by extreme feeding conditions are provided. The animals with the following genotypes were taken into the study: homozygotes standard (+/+), hedlund white (h/h), and aleutian (a/a) and heterozygotes hedlund white (h/+) and aleutian (a/+). The animals homozygous for the aleutian mutation (a/a) showed a statistically lower growth rate than the animals of other genotypes both in the ontrol and in the experiment (p < 0.05). Under the control conditions, the animals homozygous forboth the wild type standard allele (+/+) and the mutant hedlund white (h/h) and aleutian (a/a) alleles showed the evident tendency for the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex broadening compared to the experimental conditions. At the same time, in the animals heterozygous for the hedlund white (h/+) and the aleutian (a/+) mutations, a clear tendency for increasing size of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis under the experimental conditions was observed. In the heterozygous animals, although we observed single destructive changes in the adrenal cortex under stress conditions, they were much less profound than in the homozygous ones. This may be related to the broader range of morphological adaptation in the heterozygotes, which gives them the possibility of more significant enlargement of the secreting zone to provide for its adequate functioning.

  1. Effective Control of Non-Native American Mink by Strategic Trapping in a River Catchment in Mainland Britain

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Jonathan C; Richardson, Suzanne M; Rodgers, Ben J E; Rodgers, Owain R K

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of American mink (Neovison vison; hereafter mink) into Europe has had severe impacts on many native wildlife species, including the water vole (Arvicola amphibius) in mainland Britain. Although trapping has been widely used to attempt to control mink, managers have little direct evidence of its effect on mink density or distribution, particularly where immigration of mink from nearby areas is inevitable. Such evidence is needed to justify the use of lethal methods in conservation policy. During 2006–2010 we removed mink from the River Monnow Catchment in western Britain, using track-recording rafts to monitor continuously for mink presence, guiding a strategic trapping effort. The area monitored and trapped was increased in stages, from a core sub-catchment with 109 km of water-course in 2006, to a 421-km2 catchment with 203 km of water-course in 2009. In each successive sub-catchment, mink detection and capture rates declined rapidly to near-zero levels after trapping began. Detections and captures showed seasonal peaks in every year corresponding to known dispersal periods, but also declined steadily from year to year, with increasing periods in which we did not detect mink. These results suggested that each sub-catchment was cleared of mink within a few months, with subsequent captures attributable to immigration. On average, we detected each mink 5.1 times before capture (daily probability of detection = 0.059 per mink and raft), and trapped them 3.4 days after deploying traps in response. On average, mink entering the area were likely to have been present for less than 13 days before capture. Water voles had been extinct in the Monnow Catchment since the 1980s. During 2006–2008 (starting 6 months after mink trapping commenced), we released 700 captive-bred water voles into the treatment area to re-establish a wild population. Persistence of this population through the 4 years of the project was considered indicative of effective mink

  2. Effective Control of Non-Native American Mink by Strategic Trapping in a River Catchment in Mainland Britain.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jonathan C; Richardson, Suzanne M; Rodgers, Ben J E; Rodgers, Owain R K

    2013-04-01

    The introduction of American mink (Neovison vison; hereafter mink) into Europe has had severe impacts on many native wildlife species, including the water vole (Arvicola amphibius) in mainland Britain. Although trapping has been widely used to attempt to control mink, managers have little direct evidence of its effect on mink density or distribution, particularly where immigration of mink from nearby areas is inevitable. Such evidence is needed to justify the use of lethal methods in conservation policy. During 2006-2010 we removed mink from the River Monnow Catchment in western Britain, using track-recording rafts to monitor continuously for mink presence, guiding a strategic trapping effort. The area monitored and trapped was increased in stages, from a core sub-catchment with 109 km of water-course in 2006, to a 421-km(2) catchment with 203 km of water-course in 2009. In each successive sub-catchment, mink detection and capture rates declined rapidly to near-zero levels after trapping began. Detections and captures showed seasonal peaks in every year corresponding to known dispersal periods, but also declined steadily from year to year, with increasing periods in which we did not detect mink. These results suggested that each sub-catchment was cleared of mink within a few months, with subsequent captures attributable to immigration. On average, we detected each mink 5.1 times before capture (daily probability of detection = 0.059 per mink and raft), and trapped them 3.4 days after deploying traps in response. On average, mink entering the area were likely to have been present for less than 13 days before capture. Water voles had been extinct in the Monnow Catchment since the 1980s. During 2006-2008 (starting 6 months after mink trapping commenced), we released 700 captive-bred water voles into the treatment area to re-establish a wild population. Persistence of this population through the 4 years of the project was considered indicative of effective mink control

  3. [Effects of monorecessive and double recessive mutations affecting coat color on the monoamine content of the brain of the American mink (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777)].

    PubMed

    Trapezov, O V; Trapezova, L I; alekhina, T A; Klochkov, D V; Ivanov, Iu N

    2009-12-01

    The effects of mutations affecting the coat color on the dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin contents of the hypothalamus and brainstem of the American mink have been studied. The sample comprised standard (+/+) and mutant minks, including the monorecessive pastel (b/b), silver-blue (p/p), and white hedlund (h/h) and the combination double recessive sapphire (a/a p/p) and pearl (k/k p/p) ones. The dopamine content of the brainstem of the monorecessive pastel (b/b) and silver-blue (p/p) minks has been found to be higher than in standard (+/+) minks. Conversely, the homozigosity for two coat color loci in double recessive pearl minks (k/k p/p) significantly decreases the noradrenaline and serotonin contents of the hypothalamus. In addition, monorecessive and double recessive minks differ from each other in the serotonin contents of the midbrain and medulla.

  4. Full genome comparison and characterization of avian H10 viruses with different pathogenicity in Mink (Mustela vison) reveals genetic and functional differences in the non-structural gene

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The unique property of some avian H10 viruses, particularly the ability to cause severe disease in mink without prior adaptation, enabled our study. Coupled with previous experimental data and genetic characterization here we tried to investigate the possible influence of different genes on the virulence of these H10 avian influenza viruses in mink. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between the viruses studied. Our study also showed that there are no genetic differences in receptor specificity or the cleavability of the haemagglutinin proteins of these viruses regardless of whether they are of low or high pathogenicity in mink. In poly I:C stimulated mink lung cells the NS1 protein of influenza A virus showing high pathogenicity in mink down regulated the type I interferon promoter activity to a greater extent than the NS1 protein of the virus showing low pathogenicity in mink. Conclusions Differences in pathogenicity and virulence in mink between these strains could be related to clear amino acid differences in the non structural 1 (NS1) protein. The NS gene of mink/84 appears to have contributed to the virulence of the virus in mink by helping the virus evade the innate immune responses. PMID:20591155

  5. First report of Filaria martis Gmelin, 1790 in the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus, 1761).

    PubMed

    Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André, Adrien; Urra Maya, Fermín; Giralda Carrera, Gloria; Fournier, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    The riparian European mink (Mustela lutreola), currently surviving in only three unconnected sites in Europe, is now listed as a critically endangered species according to the IUCN. Habitat loss and degradation, anthropic mortality, interaction with the feral American mink (Neovison vison), and infectious diseases are among the principal causes of its decline. Surveys of helminth parasites of this host that also include focus on subcutaneous potentially pathogenic helminths such as those belonging to the genus Filaria are very scarce. We report here the presence of specimens of Filaria martis in the subcutaneous connective tissues of three M. lutreola individuals from Spain. This is the first finding of a subcutaneous nematode in a representative of the genus Mustela. The report also enlarges the known range of the definitive hosts of this nematode. These worms were mainly located in the dorsal region of mink and more rarely in the knees, elbows, and hips. Skin sloughing was only observed in one M. lutreola with both septicaemia and an associated high burden of F. martis. Therefore, more attention should be paid to potentially pathogenic helminths when designing conservation programs dedicated to M. lutreola.

  6. First report of Filaria martis Gmelin, 1790 in the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus, 1761).

    PubMed

    Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André, Adrien; Urra Maya, Fermín; Giralda Carrera, Gloria; Fournier, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    The riparian European mink (Mustela lutreola), currently surviving in only three unconnected sites in Europe, is now listed as a critically endangered species according to the IUCN. Habitat loss and degradation, anthropic mortality, interaction with the feral American mink (Neovison vison), and infectious diseases are among the principal causes of its decline. Surveys of helminth parasites of this host that also include focus on subcutaneous potentially pathogenic helminths such as those belonging to the genus Filaria are very scarce. We report here the presence of specimens of Filaria martis in the subcutaneous connective tissues of three M. lutreola individuals from Spain. This is the first finding of a subcutaneous nematode in a representative of the genus Mustela. The report also enlarges the known range of the definitive hosts of this nematode. These worms were mainly located in the dorsal region of mink and more rarely in the knees, elbows, and hips. Skin sloughing was only observed in one M. lutreola with both septicaemia and an associated high burden of F. martis. Therefore, more attention should be paid to potentially pathogenic helminths when designing conservation programs dedicated to M. lutreola. PMID:27008189

  7. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursian, S.J.; Sharma, C.; Aulerich, R.J.; Yamini, B.; Mitchell, R.R.; Beckett, K.J.; Orazio, C.E.; Moore, D.; Svirsky, S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of feeding ranch mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish (88 gold fish [Carassius auratus] weighing a total of 70.3 kg and 16 carp [Cyprinus carpio] weighing a total of 77.3 kg) collected from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) in October 1999 on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of total PCBs (??PCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence (TEQ) were evaluated. Diets contained 0.22 to 3.54% HR fish, which provided 0.34 to 3.7 ??g ??PCBs/g feed (3.5-69 pg TEQ/g feed). Female mink were fed the diets eight weeks before breeding through weaning of kits at six weeks of age. Offspring were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. The dietary concentration of PCBs that caused a decrease in kit survival (3.7 ??g ??PCBs/g feed [69 pg TEQ/g]) resulted in a maternal hepatic concentration of 3.1 ??g ??PCBs/g wet weight (218 pg TEQ/g). Organ weights were not consistently affected. Mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation was apparent in 31-week-old juveniles exposed to as low as 0.96 ??g ??PCBs/g feed (9.2 pg TEQ/g). Juveniles in this treatment group had a liver concentration of 1.7 ??g ??PCBs/g wet weight (40 pg TEQ/g). Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish, which comprised approximately 1% of the diet, resulted in mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation, it is possible that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would result in more severe lesions characterized by loss of teeth, thus impacting survivability. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  8. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursian, Steven J.; Sharma, Chanda; Aulerich, Richard J.; Yamini, Behzad; Mitchell, Rachel R.; Beckett, Kerrie J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Moore, Dwayne; Svirsky, Susan; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of feeding ranch mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish (88 gold fish [Carassius auratus] weighing a total of 70.3 kg and 16 carp [Cyprinus carpio] weighing a total of 77.3 kg) collected from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) in October 1999 on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of total PCBs (ΣPCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence (TEQ) were evaluated. Diets contained 0.22 to 3.54% HR fish, which provided 0.34 to 3.7 μg ΣPCBs/g feed (3.5-69 pg TEQ/g feed). Female mink were fed the diets eight weeks before breeding through weaning of kits at six weeks of age. Offspring were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. The dietary concentration of PCBs that caused a decrease in kit survival (3.7 μg ΣPCBs/g feed [69 pg TEQ/g]) resulted in a maternal hepatic concentration of 3.1 μg ΣPCBs/g wet weight (218 pg TEQ/g). Organ weights were not consistently affected. Mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation was apparent in 31-week-old juveniles exposed to as low as 0.96 (xg ΣPCBs/g feed (9.2 pg TEQ/g). Juveniles in this treatment group had a liver concentration of 1.7 μg ΣPCBs/g wet weight (40 pg TEQ/g). Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish, which comprised approximately 1% of the diet, resulted in mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation, it is possible that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would result in more severe lesions characterized by loss of teeth, thus impacting survivability.

  9. Chromosomal and regional localization of the loci for IGKC, IGGC, ALDB, HOXB, GPT, and PRNP in the American mink (Mustela vison): comparisons with human and mouse.

    PubMed

    Khlebodarova, T M; Malchenko, S N; Matveeva, N M; Pack, S D; Sokolova, O V; Alabiev, B Y; Belousov, E S; Peremislov, V V; Nayakshin, A M; Brusgaard, K

    1995-10-01

    Chromosomal localization of the genes for gamma- and kappa-immunoglobulins (IGGC and IGKC, respectively), aldolase B (ALDB), prion protein (PRNP), homeo box B (HOXB), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were determined with the use of mink-rodent hybrid cells. Analysis of segregation of the mink markers and chromosomes in these hybrid cells allowed us to assign the gene for HOXB to Chromosome (Chr) 8, IGGC to Chr 10, PRNP and IGKC to Chr 11, ALDB to Chr 12, and GPT to Chr 14 in mink. Furthermore, using a set of mink-mouse hybrid cells carrying fragments of mink Chr 8 of different sizes, we assigned the gene for HOXB to the pter-p26 region of the short arm of Chr 8. Comparative mapping of the genes of mink, human, and mouse, as well as other mammalian species, demonstrated that the mink genes HOXB, PRNP, ALDB, and IGGC are members of a conserved region shared by many mammalian species in common; the IGKC gene is a member of a conserved region common to carnivores and primates, not rodents; the GPT gene is a member of a syntenic gene group probably unique to the Mustelidae family or carnivores.

  10. [Effect of coat color mutations on behavioral polymorphism in farm populations of american minks (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777) and sables (Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758)].

    PubMed

    Trapezov, O V; Trapezova, L I; Sergeev, E G

    2008-04-01

    Behavioral polymorphism estimated by the expression of the defensive reaction towards humans has been studied in farm-bred American minks and sables with different color types. Most animals (both minks and sables) from farm populations displayed passive defensive behavior towards humans in the standard hand catch test. Coat color genes have been found to have pleiotropic effects; they influence both the penetrance and expressivity of domestication behavior: in animals with aberrant color types (both sapphire minks and white-and-black sables), the proportion of animals with domestication behavior and the expressivity of this behavior are significantly higher (p <0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively).

  11. Cause-effect linkages between chemicals and populations of mink (Mustela vison) and otter (Lutra canadensis) in the Great Lakes basin

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, C.D. )

    1991-08-01

    Following outbreaks of reproductive failure in commercial ranching operations, laboratory experiments showed that mink are extremely sensitive to organochlorine chemicals, particularly PCBs and dioxins. The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that, since wild mink are exposed to these compounds through consumption of Great Lakes fish, they might exhibit reproductive dysfunction and population declines. The otter, another piscivorous animal, should show the same effects. The available information is reviewed according to five epidemiological criteria. Harvest data are presented as a surrogate for the population status of mink and otters in certain locations around the Great Lakes. Data from Ohio show that the mink harvest between 1982 and 1987 from contaminated counties bordering Lake Erie was consistently lower than those from counties removed from Lake Erie, suggesting an effect of chemicals on the status of mink populations. Preliminary studies from Ontario also suggest that mink harvest is lower in potentially high PCB exposure areas compared with lower exposure areas. Evidence is also presented on the harvest data for otters taken from four New York State counties adjacent to Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. The harvest data from these four counties show that between 1960 and early 1970 otter harvest remained stable but has since increased. Increased harvest is consistent with improved water quality in Lake Ontario during the past 15 yr. Data relating to strength of association between chemicals and populations of mink and otter are weak and need to be further analyzed. The specificity of the effects of the chemicals on mink reproduction and mortality is well established from toxicological experiments, but there is poor resolution of the information on effects using field data. 104 references.

  12. Comparison of American mink embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cell transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently fibroblasts of many mammalian species have been reprogrammed to pluripotent state using overexpression of several transcription factors. This technology allows production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with properties similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells. The completeness of reprogramming process is well studied in such species as mouse and human but there is not enough data on other species. We produced American mink (Neovison vison) ES and iPS cells and compared these cells using transcriptome analysis. Results We report the generation of 10 mink ES and 22 iPS cell lines. The majority of the analyzed cell lines had normal diploid chromosome number. The only ES cell line with XX chromosome set had both X-chromosomes in active state that is characteristic of pluripotent cells. The pluripotency of ES and iPS cell lines was confirmed by formation of teratomas with cell types representing all three germ layers. Transcriptome analysis of mink embryonic fibroblasts (EF), two ES and two iPS cell lines allowed us to identify 11831 assembled contigs which were annotated. These led to a number of 6891 unique genes. Of these 3201 were differentially expressed between mink EF and ES cells. We analyzed expression levels of these genes in iPS cell lines. This allowed us to show that 80% of genes were correctly reprogrammed in iPS cells, whereas approximately 6% had an intermediate expression pattern, about 7% were not reprogrammed and about 5% had a "novel" expression pattern. We observed expression of pluripotency marker genes such as Oct4, Sox2 and Rex1 in ES and iPS cell lines with notable exception of Nanog. Conclusions We had produced and characterized American mink ES and iPS cells. These cells were pluripotent by a number of criteria and iPS cells exhibited effective reprogramming. Interestingly, we had showed lack of Nanog expression and consider it as a species-specific feature. PMID:26694224

  13. MERCURY AND STABLE ISOTPOES OF CARBON AND NITROGEN IN MINK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The total mercury concentrations, δ15N and δ13C in tissues of mink (Mustela vison) captured in Rhode Island during winters of the years 1999-2004 showed samples to be statistically distinct based on location. Mink captured in salt marsh environments (salt marsh group mink, SMGM)...

  14. [Phenogenetic analysis of pigmentation of a new coat color mutation of American mink (Mustela vison. Schr. L.) and its combination with some of the known mutations].

    PubMed

    Prasolova, L A; Tikhomirov, I B; Vsevolodov, E B; Latypov, I F; Trapezov, O V

    1994-02-01

    A new dominant coat color mutation "talitsa" was revealed in the mink population of "Znamenskii" state fur farm (Tverskaya region', Russia). Qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment of the hair pigment of minks with the standard coat color, Talitsa, Royal-Pastel and American pearl mutations, as well as Talitsa x Royal-Pastel and Talitsa x American Pearl hybrids were conducted. It was shown that hair of all genotypes studied contained only one pigment type, namely, eumelanin. Hair of the standard-colored minks showed the greatest eumelanin content, whereas hair of Talitsa x Royal-Pastel and Talitsa x American Pearl hybrids showed the least content. The morphologic patterns of pigmentation of the mutant minks studied was described, including the shapes, dimensions and color of the pigment granules, as well as their distributions throughout the length and layers of the hair. Talitsa mutation was demonstrated to behave as a strong coloration attenuator in combinations with the Royal-Pastel and American Pearl mutations. It was proposed that the main mechanism determining the phenotypic expression of the Talitsa mutation is the reduction of number of melanocytes in the hair bulbs.

  15. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  16. Chronic fuel oil toxicity in American mink (Mustela vison): systemic and hematological effects of ingestion of a low-concentration of bunker C fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Julie A; Aldridge, Brian M; Lasley, Bill L; Snyder, Paul W; Stott, Jeff L; Mohr, F Charles

    2004-10-15

    Petroleum oil enters the coastal marine environment through various sources; marine mammals such as sea otters that inhabit this environment may be exposed to low concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons through ingestion of contaminated prey. The inability to perform controlled studies in free-ranging animals hinders investigations of the effects of chronic petroleum oil exposure on sea otter morbidity and mortality, necessitating the development of a reliable laboratory model. We examined the effects of oral exposure to 500 ppm bunker C fuel oil over 113-118 days on American mink, a species phylogenetically related to the sea otter. Hematological parameters and organs were examined for fuel oil-associated changes. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 mRNA expression and fecal cortisol concentrations were also measured. Ingestion of fuel oil was associated with a decrease in erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration (Hgb), hematocrit (HCT), and an increase in mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Total leukocytes were elevated in the fuel oil group from increases in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Significant interactions between fuel oil and antigen challenge were found for erythrocyte parameters, monocyte and lymphocyte counts. Liver and adrenal weights were increased although mesenteric lymph node weights were decreased in the fuel oil group. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 mRNA was elevated in the fuel oil group. Fecal cortisol concentration did not vary between the two groups. Our findings show that fuel oil exposure alters circulating leukocyte numbers, erythrocyte homeostasis, hepatic metabolism and adrenal physiology and establish a framework to use mink as a model for sea otters in studying the systemic effects of marine contaminants. PMID:15476867

  17. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Andrzej; Zalewska, Hanna; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; André, Carl; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison) to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55), genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates. PMID:27333328

  18. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Andrzej; Zalewska, Hanna; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; André, Carl; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison) to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55), genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates.

  19. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control

    PubMed Central

    Zalewska, Hanna; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; André, Carl; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison) to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55), genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates. PMID:27333328

  20. Effects of methylmercury on epigenetic markers in three model species: mink, chicken and yellow perch

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Head, Jessica; Nam, Dong-Ha; Pilsner, J. Richard; Carvan, Michael J; Chan, Hing Man; Goetz, Frederick W; Murphy, Cheryl A; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Scheuhammer, Anton M

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that methylmercury (MeHg) exposure is associated with DNA hypomethylation in the brain stem of male polar bears. Here, we conveniently use archived tissues obtained from controlled laboratory exposure studies to look for evidence that MeHg can disrupt DNA methylation across taxa. Brain (cerebrum) tissues from MeHg-exposed mink (Neovison vison), chicken (Gallus gallus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were analyzed for total Hg levels and global DNA methylation. Tissues from chicken and mink, but not perch, were also analyzed for DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity. In mink we observed significant reductions in global DNA methylation in an environmentally-relevant dietary exposure group (1ppm MeHg), but not in a higher group (2ppm MeHg). DNMT activity was significantly reduced in all treatment groups. In chicken or yellow perch, no statistically significant effects of MeHg were observed. Dose-dependent trends were observed in the chicken data but the direction of the change was not consistent between the two endpoints. Our results suggest that MeHg can be epigenetically active in that it has the capacity to affect DNA methylation in mammals. The variability in results across species may suggest inter-taxa differences in epigenetic responses to MeHg, or may be related to differences among the exposure scenarios used as animals were exposed to MeHg through different routes (dietary, egg injection), for different periods of time (19 – 89 days) and at different life stages (embryonic, juvenile, adult). PMID:23481557

  1. Using Fur to Estimate Mercury Concentrations in Mink

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in fur and muscle tissue from mink (Mustela vison) were compared to determine the utility of fur analysis as a non-lethal and convenient method for predicting mercury concentrations in tissues. Sixty nine wild-trapped mink were collected in Rhode...

  2. Common loon nest defense against an American mink

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kyle P.; Destefano, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We describe a successful nest defense strategy of an adult Gavia immer (Common Loon) during an attempted predation event by a Nevison vison (American Mink) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge, NH. It is suspected that mink occasionally depredate loon nests, but defense strategies have not been described previously.

  3. Skeleton of Extinct North American Sea Mink ( Mustela macrodon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Spiess, Arthur E.; Sobolik, Kristin D.

    2000-03-01

    Mustela macrodon (extinct sea mink) is known only from prehistoric and historic Native American shell middens dating less than 5100 years old along coastal islands of the Gulf of Maine, northeastern North America. The species is distinct from all known extant subspecies of M. vison (American mink) but still belongs to the North American subgenus Vison. Metric comparisons between M. macrodon and five subspecies of M. vison, using skull, mandible, humerus, radius, femur, and tibia skeletal elements, show that M. macrodon is larger in overall size and robustness and is proportionately larger in the dental region. Many habitat-related parallels exist between coastal island mink of the Gulf of Maine and those of the Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska, where the overall largest living subspecies of mink is found (M. v. nesolestes).

  4. MERCURY IN MINK IN RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tissues of mink (Mustela vison) collected from Rhode Island sites during winters of 1999-2002 were analyzed for mercury and stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon to determine the extent of Hg contamination in these aquatic dependent wildlife, and to evaluate whether stable isoto...

  5. Recurrent perseveration correlates with abnormal repetitive locomotion in adult mink but is not reduced by environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Jamie A; Meagher, Rebecca K; Díez-León, María; Garner, Joseph P; Mason, Georgia J

    2011-10-31

    We analysed the relationship between abnormal repetitive behaviour (ARB), the presence/absence of environmental enrichment, and two types of behavioural disinhibition in farmed American mink, Neovison vison. The first type, recurrent perseveration, the inappropriate repetition of already completed responses, was assessed using three indices of excessive response repetition and patterning in a bias-corrected serial two-choice guessing task. The second type, disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, a form of impulsivity, was tested in a locomotive detour task adapted from primate reaching tasks: subjects were required to walk around, rather than directly into, a transparent barrier behind which food was visible. In older adult females, recurrent perseveration positively predicted pre-feeding abnormal repetitive locomotion (ARL) in Non-enriched housing. High-ARL subjects also performed repeated (same-choice) responses more rapidly than low-ARL animals, even when statistically controlling for alternated (different-choice) response latency. Mink performed much less ARL following transfer to Enriched housing, but there was no corresponding change in recurrent perseveration. Thus, elevated recurrent perseveration is not sufficient for frequent ARL; and while captive environments do determine ARL frequency, in mink, they do not necessarily do so by modifying levels of perseveration. Disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, meanwhile, did not predict ARL. In a separate sample of differentially housed young adults, neither type of behavioural disinhibition predicted ARL, and again, whether or not housing was enriched did not affect behavioural disinhibition despite affecting ARL. Thus, the relationship between recurrent perseveration and ARB may only develop with age; longitudinal studies are now required for confirmation.

  6. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    PubMed

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration') as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise that

  7. Environmentally Enriched Male Mink Gain More Copulations than Stereotypic, Barren-Reared Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition (‘perseveration’) as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise

  8. Genetic determination of coat color affects testicular steroidogenesis in the Mustela vison.

    PubMed

    Amador, A G; Sundqvist, C; Bartke, A

    1996-06-01

    Coat color genes in mammals are known to be developmental genes with wide pleiotropic effects. The present study was undertaken to study testicular steroidogenesis in American Mink (Mustela vison) of various coat color phenotypes. No differences in testicular steroid levels were observed between fertile and infertile mink with the standard phenotype and genotype (BB jj MM PP). Mink with the opaline phenotype and genotype (bb mm pp), were found to have in their testes, 20-40% higher levels of progesterone, five times higher levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and eight times higher levels of testosterone, than the corresponding values in other mink. No other differences were observed among the different types of mink. Since the genotype of the opaline mink differs from the other mink studied, only in their combination at the pastel (b) and moyle (m) loci, their bb mm genotype could be assumed to be responsible for the increase in testicular steroids.

  9. Detection of Aleutian disease antibodies in feral American mink in southern England.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, N; Macdonald, D W

    2001-10-20

    Fourteen of 27 American mink (Mustela vison) trapped in the upper Thames region were positive for anti-Aleutian disease antibodies. This demonstration of the occurrence of this viral disease in a feral American mink population suggests that it could threaten populations of at least two protected mustelids, the otter (Lutra lutra) and the polecat (Mustela putorius), and may also play a role in the apparent decline of local mink populations in Britain. PMID:11700927

  10. Sequencing and characterization of mixed function monooxygenase genes CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 of Mink (Mustela vison) to facilitate study of dioxin-like compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaowei; Moore, Jeremy N.; Newsted, John L.; Hecker, Markus Zwiernik, Matthew J.; Jones, Paul D.; Bursian, Steven J.

    2009-02-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to understand aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity in mink, cDNAs encoding for CYP1A1 and the CYP1A2 mixed function monooxygenases were cloned and characterized. In addition, the effects of selected dibenzofurans on the expression of these genes and the presence of their respective proteins (P4501A) were investigated, and then correlated with the catalytic activities of these proteins as measured by ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) activities. The predicted protein sequences for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 comprise 517 and 512 amino acid residues, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of the mink CYP1As with protein sequences of other mammals revealed high sequence homology with sea otter, seals and the dog, with amino acid identities ranging from 89 to 95% for CYP1A1 and 81 to 93% for CYP1A2. Since exposure to both 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) resulted in dose-dependent increases of CYP1A1 mRNA, CYP1A2 mRNA and CYP1A protein levels an underlying AhR-mediated mechanism is suggested. The up-regulation of CYP1A mRNA in liver was more consistent to the sum adipose TEQ concentration than to the liver TEQ concentration in minks treated with TCDF or PeCDF. The result suggested that the hepatic-sequestered fraction of PeCDF was biologically inactive to the induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2.

  11. Helminth communities of the autochthonous mustelids Mustela lutreola and M. putorius and the introduced Mustela vison in south-western France.

    PubMed

    Torres, J; Miquel, J; Fournier, P; Fournier-Chambrillon, C; Liberge, M; Fons, R; Feliu, C

    2008-12-01

    This study presents the first comprehensive helminthological data on three sympatric riparian mustelids (the European mink Mustela lutreola, the polecat M. putorius and the American mink M. vison) in south-western France. One hundred and twenty-four specimens (45 M. lutreola, 37 M. putorius and 42 M. vison) from eight French departments were analysed. Globally, 15 helminth species were detected: Troglotrema acutum, Pseudamphistomum truncatum, Euryhelmis squamula, Euparyphium melis and Ascocotyle sp. (Trematoda), Taenia tenuicollis (Cestoda), Eucoleus aerophilus, Pearsonema plica, Aonchotheca putorii, Strongyloides mustelorum, Molineus patens, Crenosoma melesi, Filaroides martis and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda) and larval stages of Centrorhynchus species (Acanthocephala). The autochthonous European mink harboured the highest species richness (13 species) followed by the polecat with 11 species. The introduced American mink presented the most depauperate helminth community (nine species). The prevalence and worm burden of most of the helminths found in M. putorius and M. lutreola were also higher than those of M. vison. Some characteristics of their helminth communities were compared to relatively nearby populations (Spain) and other very distant populations (Belarus). This comparison emphasized M. patens as the most frequent parasite in all of the analysed mustelid populations. It was possible to conclude that the invasive M. vison contributes to the maintenance of the life cycle of the pathogenic T. acutum and S. nasicola helminths, with possible implications for the conservation of the endangered European mink. PMID:18752724

  12. A COMAPRISON OF MERCURY IN MINK AND FISHER IN RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparison of total mercury concentrations and nitrogen and carbon stable isotope values in muscle tissue and stomach contents of mink (Mustela vison) and fisher (Martes pennanti) from Rhode Island in 2000- 2003 showed results which appeared to reflect dietary differences betwee...

  13. Progressive retinal degeneration in ranch mink.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, W J

    1984-01-01

    Retinal degeneration was prevalent in a large group of sapphire and pastel mink (Mustela vison) kept for studies on slow viral diseases. Nearly 78% of those two to eight years old were affected. The retinopathy was equally common in both sexes but more frequent in sapphires (85%) than in pastels (63%), and it was severe more often in sapphires than in pastels. By light microscopy, the primary change appeared to be progressive degeneration of fully developed photoreceptors, beginning in their outer segments. In many mink, including some younger ones, the rods and cones and outer nuclear layer had disappeared from all but the far periphery of the fundus. The inner retinal layers were spared until late in the disease, and the pigment epithelium remained essentially unchanged. The cause of the retinopathy was not established. It may represent an abiotrophy in which the structural integrity of the photoreceptors began to wane in many mink after they reached two years of age. Apart from reducing visual acuity, the retinopathy has implications for the photoperiodic control of fur growth and reproduction in this highly light-sensitive carnivore. PMID:6710807

  14. Progressive retinal degeneration in ranch mink.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, W J

    1984-01-01

    Retinal degeneration was prevalent in a large group of sapphire and pastel mink (Mustela vison) kept for studies on slow viral diseases. Nearly 78% of those two to eight years old were affected. The retinopathy was equally common in both sexes but more frequent in sapphires (85%) than in pastels (63%), and it was severe more often in sapphires than in pastels. By light microscopy, the primary change appeared to be progressive degeneration of fully developed photoreceptors, beginning in their outer segments. In many mink, including some younger ones, the rods and cones and outer nuclear layer had disappeared from all but the far periphery of the fundus. The inner retinal layers were spared until late in the disease, and the pigment epithelium remained essentially unchanged. The cause of the retinopathy was not established. It may represent an abiotrophy in which the structural integrity of the photoreceptors began to wane in many mink after they reached two years of age. Apart from reducing visual acuity, the retinopathy has implications for the photoperiodic control of fur growth and reproduction in this highly light-sensitive carnivore.

  15. The occurrence of ixodid ticks on wild mink Mustela vision in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Page, R J; Langton, S D

    1996-10-01

    Four species of ticks found to infest 1391 American mink (Mustela vison) in Britain in five years were, in declining order of frequency, Ixodes hexagonus, Ixodes canisuga, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes acuminatus. Ixodes hexagonus and I. canisuga occurred on 40% and 2.5% of mink respectively. Infestation rates (the proportion of infested mink) of adult females, nymphs and larvae were similar and tended to be lower in summer. The distribution of infestation size (the number of ticks per host) for adult females describes a negative binomial. The mean infestation size of nymphs varied with the sex of the host was 5.2 for males and 4.2 for females. Mink are competent hosts for I.hexagonus. PMID:8994138

  16. Carcinoma of the anal sac glands in ranch mink.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, W J

    1985-05-01

    During a 14-year period, carcinoma of the anal sac apocrine glands was found in 52 pastel and 8 sapphire mink (Mustela vison) kept for studies on slow viral diseases. The pastel mink varied in age from 72 to 135 months (mean age 108 months), the sapphire mink from 63 to 100 months (mean age 81 months). All but one pastel mink were females. The primary tumor varied in size from masses that caused bulges in the perineum to those that were found only after microscopic examination of the anal sac glands. Although the primary tumor grew mainly by expansion with little local infiltration, 41 of the 60 tumors had metastasized to the regional lymph nodes and sometimes also to more distant sites. The striking propensity of the carcinoma to metastasize while still small, even microscopic, often resulted in massive secondary growths, notably in the iliac lymph nodes. Hypercalcemia did not accompany the carcinoma. Its varied microscopic appearance included solid, glandular, squamous cell, and spindle or round cell components. Combinations of them formed mixed or complex histologic patterns, no doubt largely attributable to neoplastic proliferation of myoepithelial cells and squamous metaplasia of the apocrine gland epithelium. Although its cause remains obscure, the carcinoma appeared to arise from small foci of hyperplastic apocrine glands, sometimes in relation to both anal sacs. The tumor is a common and distinctive expression of neoplasia in older ranch mink.

  17. Risk induced by a native top predator reduces alien mink movements.

    PubMed

    Salo, Pälvi; Nordström, Mikael; Thomson, Robert L; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2008-11-01

    1. Nonlethal predation effects may have stronger impacts on prey populations than direct predation impacts, and this should also apply to intraguild predation. The consequences of such interactions become especially important if invasive, and potentially destructive alien predators act as intraguild prey. 2. We studied the predation-risk impacts of a re-colonizing native top predator, Haliaeetus albicilla (white-tailed sea eagle), on the movements of Mustela vison (American mink), an alien predator in Europe. We radiocollared 20 mink in two study areas in the outer archipelago of the Baltic Sea, South-west Finland, during 2004 and 2005. In the archipelago, mink home ranges incorporate many islands, and mink are most predisposed to eagle predation while swimming between islands. Observed swimming distances of mink were compared to distances expected at random, and deviations from random swimming were explained by mink distance from nearest eagle nest, number of eagle observations near mink location, and mink home-range size. 3. Mink reduced their swimming distances with increasing sea eagle predation risk: for females, the reduction was 10% for an increase of 10 eagle observations, and 5% for each kilometre towards an eagle nest. Conclusions for males were restricted by their small sample size. 4. Our results suggest that female mink modify their behaviour according to eagle predation risk, which may reduce their population growth and have long-term cascading effects on lower trophic levels including bird, mammal and amphibian populations in the archipelago. Ecosystem restoration by bringing back the top predators may be one way of mitigating alien predator effects on native biota. PMID:18624744

  18. Mink-mouse interspecific hybridomas.

    PubMed

    Ufimtseva, E G; Galakhar, N L; Matjakhina, L D; Khlebodarova, T M; Djatchenko, S N

    1991-08-01

    Mink-mouse interspecific hybridomas were produced by fusion of the american mink spleen cells with the NSO cells. Seven cloned lines of the mink-mouse hybridoma were isolated, and their functional mink Ig secretion and karyological characteristics are given. During cytogenetic analysis of mink-mouse hybridoma cell lines, we observed the elimination of mink chromosomes, and inter- and intralineral variability of the numbers of the cells with particular quantities of mink DNA. We did not find that the characteristic peculiarities of mink DNA distribution in the hybridoma cell lines had any bearing upon the secretion or non-secretion of mink Ig. There was no synthesis of lambda-L-chains of mink Ig in line 7 cells because the line lost the lambda-gene. With the aid of in situ hybridization with 3H-labeled total mink DNA, a considerable transformation of hybridoma cell karyotype was observed. Multiple integration of the mink DNA into mouse chromosomes and the appearance of chromosomes not characteristic for either the mink or mouse parent cells were noted. Increasing numbers of cells with translocations of mink chromosomes fragments into mouse chromosomes were found in the hybridoma lines cultivated for lengthy periods. PMID:1937502

  19. Definitive hosts of a fatal Versteria species (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported fatal metacestode infection in a captive orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) with a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. Data from ermine (Mustela erminea) and mink (Neovison vison) implicate mustelids as definitive North America hosts and expand known Versteria diversity. The orangu...

  20. Concentrations of metals in mink and other mammals from Washington and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    From 1981 to 1983, concentrations dfof metals were determined in mink Mustela vison, muskrats Ondatra zibethica, and small mammals at one contaminated site in Idaho and at two less contaminated sites in Idaho and Washington. The highest concentrations of Pb and Cd occurred in samples from the Coeur d'Alene River system near or downstream from an extensive mining?smelting complex in northern Idaho. Maximum concentrations of Pb in the liver of a mink (22 :g g-1) and in pooled liver samples of both voles (Microtus spp., 5?8 :g g-1) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, 10?5 :g g-1) were higher than those inducing serious problems, including mortality, in experimental mammals on Pb-contaminated diets. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn were generally low. Declines in certain mammal populations have probably occurred in northern Idah as a result of direct toxicity of metals and associated secondary effects on cover and food supply.

  1. Epizootiology of Mink Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Bouillant, Alain; Hanson, R. P.

    1965-01-01

    MEV infective feces, half-buried in the ground for 9 months, (from November to July), contained infectious virus when inoculated into susceptible hosts. It is believed that MEV in feces, if protected by favorable environmental conditions, is capable of infecting mink for an indefinite period beyond nine months. PMID:14294805

  2. Leptospirosis in free-ranging endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other small carnivores (Mustelidae, Viverridae) from southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Moinet, Marie; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Aulagnier, Stéphane; Mesplède, Alain; Blanchard, Béatrice; Descarsin, Véronique; Dumas, Philippe; Dumas, Yann; Coïc, Christophe; Couzi, Laurent; Fournier, Pascal

    2010-10-01

    To study the possible role of disease in the decline of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola), we conducted a survey of antibody prevalence and renal carriage of pathogenic leptospira (Leptospira interrogans sensu lato) using serum and kidney samples collected from 1990 to 2007 from several free-ranging small carnivores and farmed American mink (Mustela vison) in southwestern France. An indirect microscopic agglutination test using a panel of 16 serovars belonging to 6 serogroups (Australis, Autumnalis, Icterohæmorrhagiæ, Grippotyphosa, Panama, Sejroe) revealed antibodies in all species, with significant differences in antibody prevalences: 74% in European mink (n=99), 65.4% in European polecats (Mustela putorius, n=133), 86% in American mink (n=74), 89% in stone martens (Martes foina, n=19), 74% in pine martens (Martes martes, n=19), 35% in common genets (Genetta genetta, n=79), and 31% in farmed American mink (n=51). Serogroups Australis and Icterohæmorragiæ were dominant in most free-ranging species; serogroup Grippotyphosa had high prevalences in European mink. Such high antibody prevalences have never been reported. They are probably related to the large number of known reservoirs, rats (Rattus spp.), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), and coypu (Myocastor coypu), in the study area. The polymerase chain reaction test specific for pathogenic leptospiral DNA detected renal carriage in 23% of 34 European mink, 22% of 18 polecats, and 15% of 33 free-ranging American mink, with no significant differences. Renal carriage shows that mustelids may shed leptospira for short periods, but their epidemiologic role is probably limited. High antibody prevalences suggest that the disease is unlikely to be highly pathogenic for these species; however, chronic forms of the disease (abortions, renal lesions) could reduce the reproductive success or life span of infected animals. Further studies on the pathogenicity of leptospirosis in these populations are needed to

  3. Mink-mouse hybridomas that secrete mink immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Galakhar, N L; Djatchenko, S N; Fomicheva, I I; Mechetina, L V; Taranin, A V; Belousov, E S; Nayakshin, A M; Baranov, O K

    1988-11-25

    Optimum conditions were established to obtain mink-mouse interspecific hybridomas secreting mink IgG in fusions of mouse myelomas with mink immune spleen cells. Minks were immunized with allogeneic IgG, and the spleen cells were fused with three mouse myeloma lines P3-X63-Ag8.653, NSO and Sp2/0-Ag14. Of these, P3-X63-Ag8.653 and NSO were found to be the best fusion partners giving the highest yield of hybrid clones and number of IgG secreting clones. Cloning of mink-mouse hybridomas was efficient when BALB/c nu/nu peritoneal and spleen cells were used as feeders. The ten clonal lines produced secreted intact mink IgG molecules as shown by SDS-PAGE and subsequent immunoblotting. The secretion level of IgG ranged from 5 to 200 ng/ml in the clonal lines.

  4. Decline in endangered species as an indication of anthropic pressures: the case of European mink Mustela lutreola Western population.

    PubMed

    Lodé, T; Cormier, J P; Le Jacques, D

    2001-12-01

    Populations of threatened species, especially predators at the top of the food chain, may be affected by anthropic pressures. The endangered western population of European mink Mustela lutreola has shown a large decline over 50% of its natural range. M. lutreola disappeared from northwestern France between 1984 and 1997, and the decline was associated with an increase in mustelid trapping, changes in watercourse quality, and habitat modifications due to agricultural practices. The pattern of decline showed a fragmentation restricting the minks into very small areas. Trapping was the first known cause of mortality. Although feral American mink Mustela vison may compete with autochthonous carnivores, M. lutreola had disappeared from streams before the introduction of the American species, suggesting that competitive interactions were not responsible. Furthermore, American mink has never been found or has remained rare in 62.4% of the area from which M. lutreola has disappeared. During the past 25 years, permanent grassland surfaces were reduced by 40%, whereas fodder culture increased by 470%, causing considerable habitat changes. Furthermore, 55.7% of water courses were classified as being of bad quality or polluted. Therefore, our data suggests that a conjunction of intensive trapping, alterations in water quality and habitat modification was critical for the European mink's decline. Although there are difficulties in ascribing specific cause to distribution changes in a top predator, this decline can be regarded as an indication for anthropic pressures on natural habitats.

  5. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus and Humans

    PubMed Central

    d’Amore, Francesco; Baandrup, Ulrik; Clausen, Michael Roost; Gottschalck, Elisabeth; Aasted, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Reports of a possible relationship between Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV) and human infection are rare. However, 2 mink farmers with vascular disease and microangiopathy similar to that in mink with Aleutian disease were found to have AMDV-specific antibodies and AMDV DNA. These findings raise the suspicion that AMDV may play a role in human disease. PMID:19961696

  6. Aleutian mink disease virus and humans.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Jørgen R; d'Amore, Francesco; Baandrup, Ulrik; Clausen, Michael Roost; Gottschalck, Elisabeth; Aasted, Bent

    2009-12-01

    Reports of a possible relationship between Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV) and human infection are rare. However, 2 mink farmers with vascular disease and microangiopathy similar to that in mink with Aleutian disease were found to have AMDV-specific antibodies and AMDV DNA. These findings raise the suspicion that AMDV may play a role in human disease. PMID:19961696

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Mink

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1983-01-01

    The mink (Mustela vison) is a predatory, semiaquatic mammal that is generally associated with stream and river banks, lake shores, fresh and saltwater marshes, and marine shore habitats (Gerell 1970).  Mink are chiefly nocturnal and remain active throughout the year (Marshall 1936); Gerell 1969; Burgess 1978).  The species is adaptable in its use of habitat, modifying daily habits according to environmental conditions, particularly prey availability (Wise et al. 1981; Linn and Birds 1981; Birks and Linn 1982).  The species is tolerant of human activity and will inhabit suboptimum habitats as long as an adequate food source is available; however, mink will be more mobile and change home ranges more frequently under such conditions (Linn pers. comm.).

  8. Blood Parameters of Healthy Mink

    PubMed Central

    Fletch, S. M.; Karstad, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    Packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) were not dependent on color type. Both were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the adult male mink as compared to the adult female. The total erythrocyte count was more variable but the parameter appeared unaffected by either sex or color types. Polychromasia, reticulocytes and the occasional normoblast, were present in peripheral mink blood smears. Rouleau, to some degree. was also seen. The most variable parameter was the total leukocyte count. The average lymphoidneutrophil ratio was 1:1. PMID:4261842

  9. Intestinal transport of monosaccharides and amino acids during postnatal development of mink.

    PubMed

    Buddington, R K; Malo, C; Sangild, P T; Elnif, J

    2000-12-01

    Intestinal development is typically studied using omnivores. For comparative purposes, we examined an altricial carnivore, the mink (Mustela vison). In mink, intestinal dimensions increase up to 8 wk after birth and then remain constant (length) or decrease (mass) into maturity despite continuing gains in body mass. Rates of glucose and fructose transport decline after birth for intact tissues but increase for brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Rates of absorption for five amino acids that are substrates for the acidic (aspartate), basic (lysine), neutral (leucine and methionine), and imino acid (proline) carriers increase between birth and 24 h for intact tissues before declining, but increase after 2 wk for BBMV. The proportion of BBMV amino acid uptake that is Na(+)-dependent increases during development but for aspartate is nearly 100% at all ages. Tracer uptake by BBMV can be inhibited by 100 mmol/l of unlabeled amino acid, except for lysine. BBMV uptake of the dipeptide glycyl-sarcosine does not differ between ages, is not Na(+) dependent, and is only partially inhibited by 100 mmol/l unlabeled dipeptide. Despite the ability to rapidly and efficiently digest high dietary loads of protein, rates of amino acid and peptide absorption are not markedly higher than those of other mammals.

  10. A survey of Aleutian mink disease virus infection of feral American mink in Nova Scotia

    PubMed Central

    Farid, A. Hossain; Rupasinghe, Priyanka; Mitchell, Jessicca L.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2010-01-01

    Spleen samples from 14 mink that were trapped in 4 counties of Nova Scotia were tested for the presence of the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) by polymerase chain reaction. Viral DNA was not detected in samples from Kings County (n = 2), but was detected in all the mink sampled from Colchester (n = 2) and Halifax (n = 6) counties, and 3 of 4 mink from Yarmouth County. The high level of AMDV-infected mink in Colchester and Halifax counties may pose a serious threat to the captive mink and wild animal populations. Because treatment of infected free-ranging mink is not an option, AMDV control strategies for the captive mink should be primarily focused on bio-security to protect clean ranches. PMID:20357945

  11. A survey of Aleutian mink disease virus infection of feral American mink in Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Farid, A Hossain; Rupasinghe, Priyanka; Mitchell, Jessicca L; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2010-01-01

    Spleen samples from 14 mink that were trapped in 4 counties of Nova Scotia were tested for the presence of the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) by polymerase chain reaction. Viral DNA was not detected in samples from Kings County (n = 2), but was detected in all the mink sampled from Colchester (n = 2) and Halifax (n = 6) counties, and 3 of 4 mink from Yarmouth County. The high level of AMDV-infected mink in Colchester and Halifax counties may pose a serious threat to the captive mink and wild animal populations. Because treatment of infected free-ranging mink is not an option, AMDV control strategies for the captive mink should be primarily focused on bio-security to protect clean ranches. PMID:20357945

  12. Evidence of secondary poisoning of free-ranging riparian mustelids by anticoagulant rodenticides in France: implications for conservation of European mink (Mustela lutreola).

    PubMed

    Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; Berny, Philippe J; Coiffier, Olivier; Barbedienne, Philippe; Dassé, Bernard; Delas, Gérard; Galineau, Hubert; Mazet, Alexandra; Pouzenc, Pascal; Rosoux, René; Fournier, Pascal

    2004-10-01

    Because of the rapid decline of the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) populations in France, a national conservation program has been put into action, including research to understand the causes of decline. As part of this research, concentrations of eight anticoagulant rodenticides were examined in livers from 122 carcasses of four species of free-ranging mustelids collected between 1990 and 2002 in southwestern France. Bromadiolone residue was found in all species and 9% of the sample (one of 31 European mink, three of 47 American mink [Mustela vison], five of 33 polecats [Mustela putorius], and two of 11 European otters [Lutra lutra]). Liver concentrations ranged from 0.6 mug/g to 9.0 mug/g. Chlorophacinone residue was found in two species and 4% of the sample (in four of the American mink and in one of the otters), with liver concentrations ranging from 3.4 mug/g to 8.5 mug/g. Two polecats and one American mink had lesions and liver residues indicating bromadiolone was directly responsible for their death. However, most of our study animals survived secondary poisoning until they were caught; this study certainly underestimates the extent of fatal exposure of mustelids to rodenticides. Moreover, anticoagulant poisoning could increase their vulnerability to other causes of death. The current status of the endangered European mink population is such that any additional risk factor for mortality is important, and it is thus urgent to monitor and reduce the extensive use of bromadiolone and chlorophacinone against field rodents in France. PMID:15650086

  13. Aleutian disease of mink: the antibody response of sapphire and pastel mink to Aleutian disease virus.

    PubMed

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Hadlow, W J; Chesebro, B

    1975-10-01

    The specific antiviral antibody response of sapphire and pastel mink to Pullman strain of ADV has been examined. Sapphire mink inoculated with from 300,000-3 LD50 developed high levels of specific antibody and AD. Pastel mink inoculated with parallel doses of ADV also produced antibody but did not develop AD. The low incidence of AD in pastel mink inoculated with Pullman strain of ADV is probably related to factors other than antiviral antibody.

  14. Aleutian mink disease: puzzles and paradigms.

    PubMed

    Bloom, M E; Kanno, H; Mori, S; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1994-12-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AD) is a naturally occurring persistent virus infection of mink caused by the Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). The classical form of AD, which occurs in adult mink, is notable for high titers of antiviral antibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, plasmacytosis, and immune complex disease. In addition, there is a progressive renal disease characterized by mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and severe interstitial nephritis. Development of AD depends on both host and viral factors, and mink of certain genotypes fail to develop progressive disease when inoculated with low-virulence strains of virus. In newborn mink kits, ADV causes a fatal, acute interstitial pneumonitis associated with permissive viral replication in alveolar type 2 cells, but treatment of newborn kits with anti-viral antibody aborts the acute disease and converts into one resembling the persistent infection observed in adults. In infected adult mink, ADV is sequestered as immune complexes in lymphoid organs, but actual viral replication is restricted at the level of the individual cell and can be detected in only a small population of macrophages and follicular dendritic cells. ADV infection of mink primary macrophages and the human macrophage cell line U937 is antibody dependent and leads to the production of the cytokine interleukin-6. Furthermore, levels of interleukin-6 are increased in lymph node culture supernatants from infected mink. Chronic production of interleukin-6 may promote development of the immune disorder characteristic of AD. PMID:7889316

  15. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Distemper Vaccine-Mink. 113.302... Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus... immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials...

  16. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  17. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Distemper Vaccine-Mink. 113.302... Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus... immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials...

  18. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  19. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  20. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  1. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Distemper Vaccine-Mink. 113.302... Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus... immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials...

  2. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Distemper Vaccine-Mink. 113.302... Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus... immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials...

  3. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  4. Vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in minks exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242{reg{underscore}sign}) and copper, via diet based on freshwater or marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kaekelae, R.; Kaekelae, A.; Hyvaerinen, H.; Asikainen, J.; Dahl, S.K.

    1999-11-01

    Minks (Mustela vison) fed diets based on either freshwater fish or marine fish were exposed to 1 mg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242) daily for 28 d. To minks on the freshwater diet, copper was also given with or without PCBs. The marine diet included more vitamin A, and E than the freshwater diet. The authors studied how the exposures affected levels of vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in liver and adipose tissues and levels of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} in plasma. In females and males on the freshwater diet, the hepatic level of vitamin A{sub 2} was decreased because of the PCBs, and in these males the hepatic levels of vitamin E also decreased. Interestingly, with coexposure to PCBs and copper, the vitamin levels were, in general, close to the control values. In adipose tissues also, the PCBs induced significant changes in the concentrations of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2}. In plasma, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} were decreased in all patterns of exposure and on both diets. However, plasma thyroxine was slightly increased, a finding opposite to that reported previously in rodent studies. The results suggest that, in mink, diet greatly modulates the responses to PCBs, which may also differ in males and females. Furthermore, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} may not be metabolized equally during PCB administration.

  5. Ecological risk assessment for mink and short-tailed shrew exposed to PCBs, dioxins, and furans in the Housatonic River area.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dwayne R J; Breton, Roger L; DeLong, Tod R; Ferson, Scott; Lortie, John P; MacDonald, Drew B; McGrath, Richard; Pawlisz, Andrzej; Svirsky, Susan C; Teed, R Scott; Thompson, Ryan P; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted to characterize risks to a representative piscivorous mammal (mink, Mustela vison) and a representative carnivorous mammal (short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda) exposed to PCBs, dioxins, and furans in the Housatonic River area downstream of the General Electric (GE) facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Contaminant exposure was estimated using a probabilistic total daily intake model and parameterized using life history information of each species and concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, and furans in prey collected in the Housatonic River study area. The effects assessment preferentially relied on dose-response curves but defaulted to benchmarks or other estimates of effect when there were insufficient toxicity data. The risk characterization used a weight of evidence approach. Up to 3 lines of evidence were used to estimate risks to the selected mammal species: 1) probabilistic exposure and effects modeling, 2) field surveys, and 3) species-specific feeding or field studies. The weight of evidence assessment indicated a high risk for mink and an intermediate risk for short-tailed shrew. PMID:25976918

  6. Bait-delivered pimozide causes precocious embryo implantation in mink: a fertility control option for the exotic stoat?

    PubMed

    Marks, Clive A; Lindeberg, Heli; Van Cleeff, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Stoats (Mustela erminea), an exotic pest in New Zealand, threaten the conservation of several ground-nesting bird species and broad-scale methods for their control are sought. Females are seasonally monestrous, show a 9-month period of obligatory diapause and usually do not breed more than once in their lives. A bait-delivered agent that terminates diapause and results in a non-viable embryo may have a significant impact on their reproductive success. Prolactin (PRL) is hypothesised to be the only gonadotrophin required for renewal of luteal activity and blastocyst implantation in some mustelids. We investigated the effects of bait-delivered dopamine (DA) antagonists (which stimulate the release of PRL) using a mink model (Mustela vison), a species that maintains a short period of diapause. A bait dose of 0.8 mg kg(-1) of pimozide was more effective in elevating PRL levels than equivalent doses of fluphenazine, sulpiride (P < 0.01) or haloperidol (P < 0.05). Bait doses of 1.6 mg kg(-1) pimozide given at Days 0, 3, 9 and 11 after mating caused a significant reduction in the length of pregnancy compared with a positive control and placebo (46 days v. 51 days), indicating early termination of diapause (P < 0.01). Pimozide doses caused higher elevations in PRL concentration relative to the oral placebo by Day 12, but mean PRL levels fell below all other groups by Day 18. A borderline significant increase in progesterone (P4) secretion compared with the oral placebo was detected at Day 18. These results suggest that bait-delivered pimozide can elevate PRL outside of the normal breeding season and doses of 1.6 mg kg(-1) are effective in terminating embryonic diapause in mink. The implications and limitations of these data are discussed with reference to the use of bait-delivered DA antagonists as a possible means to affect the reproductive success of wild stoats. PMID:16930517

  7. Chromosomal mapping of canine-derived BAC clones to the red fox and American mink genomes.

    PubMed

    Kukekova, Anna V; Vorobieva, Nadegda V; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Johnson, Jennifer L; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Yudkin, Dmitry V; Trut, Lyudmila N; Andre, Catherine; Galibert, Francis; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    High-quality sequencing of the dog (Canis lupus familiaris) genome has enabled enormous progress in genetic mapping of canine phenotypic variation. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes), another canid species, also exhibits a wide range of variation in coat color, morphology, and behavior. Although the fox genome has not yet been sequenced, canine genomic resources have been used to construct a meiotic linkage map of the red fox genome and begin genetic mapping in foxes. However, a more detailed gene-specific comparative map between the dog and fox genomes is required to establish gene order within homologous regions of dog and fox chromosomes and to refine breakpoints between homologous chromosomes of the 2 species. In the current study, we tested whether canine-derived gene-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones can be routinely used to build a gene-specific map of the red fox genome. Forty canine BAC clones were mapped to the red fox genome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Each clone was uniquely assigned to a single fox chromosome, and the locations of 38 clones agreed with cytogenetic predictions. These results clearly demonstrate the utility of FISH mapping for construction of a whole-genome gene-specific map of the red fox. The further possibility of using canine BAC clones to map genes in the American mink (Mustela vison) genome was also explored. Much lower success was obtained for this more distantly related farm-bred species, although a few BAC clones were mapped to the predicted chromosomal locations. PMID:19546120

  8. Diethylstilbesterol as a Contaminant in Mink Feeding *

    PubMed Central

    Mills, James

    1961-01-01

    Diethylstilbesterol, a synthetic estrogen, has presented a problem to the mink industry in the United States since 1949 and in Canada since 1958. This hormone is ingested by mink, as a contaminant in their feed, when they consume meat by-products that contain residual amounts of the compound. Various conditions have been observed following contamination with this drug: 1. Sterility in the female. 2. Late abortions. 3. Aglactia and loss of kits in first few days of life. 4. Sterility and lack of desire to mate on the part of the male. 5. Poor growth in young mink. 6. An increased incidence of urinary calculi. Reference is made to the literature on the work that has been done to prove or disprove the above effects attributed to this drug. Three case reports are presented as clinical evidence of the effects of the DES hormone. These cases occurred within a 10 mile radius of the Ontario Veterinary College. Mention is also made as to the source of the contaminated feed. PMID:17649318

  9. [Reproductive physiology of the European mink: progesterone profile during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Amstislavskiĭ, S Ia; Zav'ialov, E L; Ternovskaia, Iu G; Gerlinskaia, L A

    2010-04-01

    Reproductive physiology of the European mink, an endangered mustelid species, has been so far scarcely investigated. This study confirms that in European mink embryo implantation occurs on the day 12 of pregnancy. Progesterone profile during pregnancy has been compared in European mink and domestic ferret. In both species, progesterone increases at peri-implantation period, i. e. on day 8 and day 12 after mating. However, toward the end of pregnancy, on day 40 after mating, progesterone concentration in faeces of the ferrets decreases and does not differ from the initial level. In contrast, increase of progesterone during first 12 days of pregnancy in European mink is not as rapid as in ferrets, but in this species, there is no visible decrease of progesterone at the end of pregnancy. Peak levels of progesterone in faeces (day 8, 12) are lower in European mink than in ferret.

  10. Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus canis, and Arcanobacterium phocae of healthy Canadian farmed mink and mink with pododermatitis.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Gabhan; McLean, John; Hunter, D Bruce; Brash, Marina; Slavic, Durda; Pearl, David L; Boerlin, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Pododermatitis is a disease of concern for mink breeders in Canada and worldwide, as it causes discomfort and lowers the breeding rates on farms affected by the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology and pathogenesis of pododermatitis are still unknown. In this study, we compared Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus canis isolates from healthy mink with isolates from animals with pododermatitis on 2 farms in Ontario. Almost all hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. isolated were shown to be Staphylococcus delphini Group A by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) did not reveal any S. delphini or S. canis clonal lineages specifically associated with pododermatitis, which suggests that these bacteria do not act as primary pathogens, but does not dismiss their potential roles as opportunistic pathogens. While S. delphini and S. canis were the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in mink pododermatitis, they were also present in samples from healthy mink. Arcanobacterium phocae is occasionally isolated from pododermatitis cases, but is difficult to recover with conventional culture methods due to its slow growth. A quantitative real-time PCR was developed for the detection of A. phocae and was tested on 138 samples of footpad tissues from 14 farms. The bacterium was detected only in pododermatitis-endemic farms in Canada and was at higher concentrations in tissues from infected footpads than in healthy tissues. This finding suggests that A. phocae is involved in the pathogenesis of pododermatitis.

  11. Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus canis, and Arcanobacterium phocae of healthy Canadian farmed mink and mink with pododermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Gabhan; McLean, John; Hunter, D. Bruce; Brash, Marina; Slavic, Durda; Pearl, David L.; Boerlin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pododermatitis is a disease of concern for mink breeders in Canada and worldwide, as it causes discomfort and lowers the breeding rates on farms affected by the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology and pathogenesis of pododermatitis are still unknown. In this study, we compared Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus canis isolates from healthy mink with isolates from animals with pododermatitis on 2 farms in Ontario. Almost all hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. isolated were shown to be Staphylococcus delphini Group A by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) did not reveal any S. delphini or S. canis clonal lineages specifically associated with pododermatitis, which suggests that these bacteria do not act as primary pathogens, but does not dismiss their potential roles as opportunistic pathogens. While S. delphini and S. canis were the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in mink pododermatitis, they were also present in samples from healthy mink. Arcanobacterium phocae is occasionally isolated from pododermatitis cases, but is difficult to recover with conventional culture methods due to its slow growth. A quantitative real-time PCR was developed for the detection of A. phocae and was tested on 138 samples of footpad tissues from 14 farms. The bacterium was detected only in pododermatitis-endemic farms in Canada and was at higher concentrations in tissues from infected footpads than in healthy tissues. This finding suggests that A. phocae is involved in the pathogenesis of pododermatitis. PMID:25852228

  12. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian mink disease virus in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjun; Wu, Wei; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Hailing; Bai, Xue; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Xijun

    2014-05-12

    Aleutian mink disease (mink plasmacytosis) is a very severe immune-complex-mediated disease affecting minks. It is caused by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). To obtain a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in China, a total of 420 samples were collected from mink farms in five major mink-farming provinces in China. After testing serum antibodies using counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP), 23 of the 340 positive samples were randomly selected and analyzed. The full length of the major structural protein gene (VP2) from all the samples was amplified and sequenced. The sequences in the twenty-three samples from 5 farms in 5 provinces were phylogenetically analyzed, and eleven were found to have homologous sequences in GenBank. A rooted phylogenetic tree was constructed using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic (UPGMA) method. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AMDV strains formed five groups (I-VI), and four of them contained Chinese strains. The tree showed that the two AMVD lineages had been introduced to China independently. Over 70% of the Chinese isolates were classified into two groups, all of which contained Chinese strains. The results of the analysis suggested that the distribution of the AMDV strains was not based on geographical origin, and both indigenous AMDV and imported AMDV were prevalent in the primary mink production areas in China. PMID:24561116

  13. Expression of immunoglobulin kappa and lambda chains in mink.

    PubMed

    Bovkun, L A; Peremislov, V V; Nayakshin, A M; Belousov, E S; Mechetina, L V; Aasted, B; Taranin, A V

    1993-08-01

    The ratio of kappa and lambda chains of immunoglobulins varies significantly from one species to another. It has previously been thought that lambda was only type expressed in mink. We tested mink immunoglobulin light chains using two monoclonal antibodies G80 and G88. It has been shown that G80 and G88 specifically recognize two antigenically different subpopulations of the light chains. Immunochemical analysis of these subpopulations separated by affinity chromatography suggested that they represent lambda and kappa types of light chains, respectively. Screening of a mink cDNA library with monoclonal antibody G88 resulted in the isolation of clone pIGK-1 containing kappa chain-encoding sequence. The cDNA insert of pIGK-1 included most of the V segment, as well as the J, C and 3' untranslated sequences. Mink V kappa sequence shown the highest homology with the human V kappa II subgroup genes (76-79%). Mink C kappa sequence was 53-63% homologous to C kappa of other species. The striking feature of mink C kappa chain is the presence of glutamine in the C-terminal position. Southern blot analysis suggested that mink haploid genome has one C kappa gene and multiple V kappa genes. The kappa:lambda chain ratio in the 12 minks studied was, on the average, 46:54. The same ratio was observed for the kappa- and lambda-producing cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. The five previously identified mink light chain allotypes were assigned to the lambda chains, thereby confirming that lambda chains in this species are additionally subdivided into several subtypes.

  14. Investigation of the pathogenesis of transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in experimentally infected mink.

    PubMed Central

    Broll, S; Alexandersen, S

    1996-01-01

    The transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) was studied in experimental infection of 1-year-old female non-Aleutian mink. The ADV-seronegative female mink were inoculated with ADV prior to mating or after the expected implantation of the embryos during pregnancy. A group of uninfected females served as a control group. Animals from each group were killed prior to or shortly after parturition. The in situ hybridization technique with radiolabeled strand-specific RNA probes was used to determine target cells of virus infection and virus replication. In both infected groups, ADV crossed the endotheliochorial placental barrier, although animals infected before mating already had high antibody titers against ADV at the time of implantation. The percentage of dead and resorbed fetuses was much higher in dams infected before mating. In the placentae of these mink, virus DNA and viral mRNA were detected in cells in the mesenchymal stroma of the placental labyrinth and hematoma but only occasionally in the cytotrophoblast of the placental hematoma. Placentae of animals infected during pregnancy showed in addition very high levels of virus and also viral replication in a large number of cytotrophoblast cells in the placental hematoma, which exhibited distinct inclusion bodies. In both groups, neither virus nor virus replication could be detected in maternal endothelial cells or fetal syncytiotrophoblast of the placental labyrinth. Fetuses were positive for virus and viral replication at high levels in a wide range of tissues. Possible routes of transplacental transmission of ADV and the role of trophoblast cells as targets for viral replication are discussed. PMID:8627663

  15. Effect of Freund's adjuvant on standard dark and pastel mink.

    PubMed

    Tabel, H; Ingram, D G

    1971-04-01

    Following a long series of injections of homologous immunoglobulin in complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant into mink, a moderate elevation in the level of gammaglobulin in the serum was observed in a few animals. Relatively mild pathological changes also were seen in liver, spleen, lymph nodes, lungs and kidney. It is concluded that the injection of Freund's adjuvant, under the experimental conditions described, produced lesions which were readily distinguishable from the lesions characteristic of aleutian disease of mink.

  16. Demonstration of Aleutian disease virus-specific lymphocyte response in mink with progressive Aleutian disease: comparison of sapphire and pastel mink infected with different virus strains.

    PubMed

    Race, R E; Bloom, M E; Coe, J E

    1983-09-01

    Lymphocyte blastogenesis was used to study the antiviral lymphocyte response of sapphire (Aleutian) and pastel (nonAleutian) mink inoculated with Pullman or Utah 1 Aleutian disease virus (ADV). Both mink genotypes developed a virus-specific response when inoculated with Utah 1 ADV. In contrast, after inoculation of Pullman ADV, sapphire mink had a positive virus-specific response, whereas pastel mink did not. Response occurred late after infection (8 wk) and correlated with the development of progressive Aleutian disease (AD). The response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and concanavalin A (Con A) was also determined. Most mink of either genotype, inoculated with either virus strain, maintained an anti-KLH response during disease. Most mink also responded to Con A, although some exhibited suppressed Con A response late in the disease course. These results indicated that mink develop an anti-ADV lymphocyte response during progressive AD and are not immunosuppressed with regard to other antigens or mitogens.

  17. [Isolation and characteristics of somatic cell hybrids of the Chinese hamster and American mink].

    PubMed

    Rubtsov, N B; Radzhabli, S I; Gradov, A A; Serov, O L

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with obtaining somatic cell hybrids of Chinese hamster and mink by means of inactivated Sendy virus. 39 hybrid clones segregating mink chromosomes were formed by fusing Chinese hamster cells deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyliransferase with normal cells of mink. Enzyme analyses of these hybrid clones revealed that in mink genes coding lactate dehydrogenase-A, lactate dehydrogenase-B, malate dehydrogenase-NAD (soluble), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase are not syntenic. A possibility of successful utilization of these somatic cell hybrids for mapping mink genes is shown. PMID:6942558

  18. [Research into the antibody detection technology of mink plasmacytosis and its current applications].

    PubMed

    Wan, Hongli; Feng, Erkai; Wu, Hongchao; Yang, Yanling; Ni, Jia; Chen, Lizhi

    2015-01-01

    Mink plasmacytosis, caused by Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV), poses a threat to the development of the animal fur industry. Neutralizing antibodies against AMDV may result in a persistent infection rather than providing protection for minks. To date,no specific methods to prevent or cure this disease have been developed. In order to eliminate mink plasmacytosis, antibody detection technology has been used globally as a dominant approach to screen for AMDV-positive minks. This paper introduces the classical technology, counterimmunoelectrophoresis and emerging technology in terms of AMDV antibody detection,and provides a glimpse into the future development of these technologies. PMID:25997336

  19. Nutrient digestibility and colonic fermentation processes in species of the families Mustelidae and Canidae fed the same diet.

    PubMed

    Gugołek, Andrzej; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Strychalski, Janusz; Konstantynowicz, Małgorzata; Zwoliński, Cezary

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient digestibility was compared and the influence of colonic fermentation processes on nutrient digestibility was determined in the American mink (Neovison vison) and the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes). It was hypothesized that gut microbiota exert varied effects on digestion processes in the analyzed species. The experiment was performed in December, on a group of 10 male mink and 10 male foxes. All animals were fed identical diets for fur-bearing carnivores, with the following chemical composition (%): dry matter (DM)-33.12, total protein (TP)-12.01, ether extract (EE)-8.64, crude fiber (CF)-12.01, N-free extracts (N-FE)-9.32, and gross energy (GE)-7.313 MJ/kg(-1) . The coefficients of DM, OM, TP and EE digestibility were significantly higher in foxes than in mink. Mink were characterized by significantly higher utilization of N-FE. In foxes, as compared with mink, fermentation rates were higher in the final section of the gastrointestinal tract, which improved nutrient digestibility. In mink, characterized by lower fermentation rates in the colon, increased enzyme secretion by bacterial cells is one of the physiological mechanisms that enable to optimize nutrient absorption in the large intestine.

  20. Monitoring chronic infection with a field strain of Aleutian mink disease virus.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Chriél, Mariann

    2014-01-31

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) readily spread within farmed mink and causes chronic infections with significant impacts for welfare and economy. In the present study a currently circulating Danish AMDV strain was used to induce chronic experimental infection of farmed mink. PCR was used to detect viral DNA in full blood, organs, faeces and oro-nasal swabs weekly for the first 8 weeks and then biweekly for another 16 weeks after AMDV challenge inoculation of wild type mink. The mink (n=29) was infected and seroconverted 2-3 weeks after AMDV inoculation and AMDV antibodies persisted during the maximum experimental period of 24 weeks. Viraemia and faecal excretion of viral DNA was detected in the mink (n=29) at various and intermittent time intervals. Excretion of viral DNA in oro-nasal swabs was detected for 1-8 weeks in 21 mink. This highlights the risk of transmitting AMDV between infected farms. PCR was successfully used to detect viral DNA in organs 8, 16 and 24 weeks after AMDV inoculation with only minor differences between these weeks which is of diagnostic interest. This AMDV challenge model was also used to mimic natural infection of susceptible sapphire mink. Four of 6 sapphire mink were infected indirectly via the AMDV inoculated wild type mink whereas the other 2 sapphire mink remained uninfected. PMID:24389253

  1. Comparison of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy Isolates in Raccoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Owing to its susceptibility to various transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and relatively short incubation times, the raccoon (Procyon lotor) has been suggested as a model for TSE strain differentiation. Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is a prion disease of undetermined origin in...

  2. Unusual, High Genetic Diversity of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Anders; Mittelholzer, Christian; Treiberg Berndtsson, Louise; Lind, Lars; Mejerland, Torbjörn; Belák, Sándor

    1999-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) was examined. Sequences obtained from 35 clinical samples were compared with five published sequences. An unusual, high genetic variability was revealed. Three phylogenetic subgroups of AMDV were identified, and the presence of more than one genotype at some farms was detected. PMID:10565948

  3. Unusual, high genetic diversity of Aleutian mink disease virus.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, A; Mittelholzer, C; Treiberg Berndtsson, L; Lind, L; Mejerland, T; Belák, S

    1999-12-01

    The genetic diversity of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) was examined. Sequences obtained from 35 clinical samples were compared with five published sequences. An unusual, high genetic variability was revealed. Three phylogenetic subgroups of AMDV were identified, and the presence of more than one genotype at some farms was detected. PMID:10565948

  4. Evaluation of the zoonotic potential of transmissible mink encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful transmission of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) to cattle supports the bovine hypothesis to the still controversial origin of TME outbreaks. Human and primate susceptibility to classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (c-BSE) and the transmissibility of L-type BSE to macaques as...

  5. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) in Estonia, and a global phylogeny of AMDV.

    PubMed

    Leimann, Aivi; Knuuttila, Anna; Maran, Tiit; Vapalahti, Olli; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-03-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a severe disease called Aleutian disease (AD). AMDV infects primarily mustelids, but also other mammal species. Recent evidence suggests that AMDV may also affect humans. To examine AMDV in different wild animals and in farmed mink in Estonia, we collected 203 blood samples from eight mammal species in 2007-2010, of which 152 were from species living in the wild (American mink, European mink, pine marten, polecat, raccoon dog, badger, otter, and stone marten) and 51 were from farmed mink. AMDV was tested by PCR amplification of NS1 and VP2 gene fragments, and was only detected in 4 free-ranging (14.8%) and 11 farmed (21.6%) American mink. No other species was positive for AMDV. In addition, the VP2 gene fragment was sequenced for 14 farmed mink isolates from Finland for which NS1 sequences were already publicly available. None of the four Estonian AMDV isolates found in free-ranging mink had identical sequences with farmed mink. In fact, isolates from free-ranging and farmed mink belonged to different clades, suggesting that the analyzed virus isolates circulating in nature are not from escapees of current farms. Two global phylogenies were built: one based on NS1 (336 bp, 151 taxa from nine countries); the other based on a combined NS1-VP2 dataset (871 bp, 40 taxa from six countries). AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their geographic origin, suggesting that transport of farm mink from multiple source farms has been intense. Nevertheless, one subclade in both phylogenies was comprised solely of isolates from farmed mink, while several subclades comprised isolates only from free-ranging mink, indicating that some isolates may circulate more in the wild and others among farm animals. PMID:25616049

  6. The impact of native competitors on an alien invasive: temporal niche shifts to avoid interspecific aggression?

    PubMed

    Harrington, Lauren A; Harrington, Andrew L; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Thom, Michael D; Ferreras, Pablo; Windham, Thomas R; Macdonald, David W

    2009-05-01

    The American mink, Neovison vison, is an established, alien invasive species in the United Kingdom that originally colonized the country at a time when two native mustelids (otters, Lutra lutra, and polecats, Mustela putorius) were largely absent. Both of these species are now recovering their populations nationally. We compared the relative abundance and the behavior of mink in the 1990s and in the 2000s in an area of southern England where both otters and polecats were absent in the 1990s but reappeared in the intervening years. We found that mink were still abundant in the 2000s in the presence of otters and polecats, but that they appeared to have altered some aspects of their behavior. In accordance with previous studies, we found that mink consumed fewer fish in the presence of otters. We also found that mink were predominantly nocturnal in the 1990s (in the absence of competitors) but were predominantly diurnal in the 2000s (in the presence of competitors). We hypothesize that this temporal shift may be an avoidance mechanism allowing the coexistence of mink with the otter and the polecat, although we are unable to attribute the shift to one or the other species. We also found that mink in the presence of competitors weighed less but remained the same size, suggesting the possibility of a competitor-mediated decline in overall body condition. This is one of very few field studies demonstrating a complete temporal shift in apparent response to competitors. The implications of this study are that recovering otter populations may not lead to significant and long-term reductions in the number of invasive mink in the United Kingdom as has been suggested in the media, although we cannot exclude the possibility of a decline in mink in the longer-term. PMID:19537542

  7. Environmental Enrichment Reduces Signs of Boredom in Caged Mink

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Mason, Georgia J.

    2012-01-01

    Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled ‘bored’. They have also been called ‘apathetic’ or ‘depressed’, particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest), by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom) should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE) cages than in complex, enriched (E) cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE) to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs), rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing) or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles). Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P = 0.003) than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013). With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures). NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P = 0.037). Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing) predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic ‘scrabbling’ or locomotion (e.g. pacing) did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication

  8. [Comparative cytogenetic analysis of cells of mouse-mink inter-species hybridoma lines].

    PubMed

    Ufimtseva, E G; Galakhar', N L; Matiakhina, L D; Khlebodarova, T M; D'iachenko, S N

    1991-01-01

    The comparative cytogenetic analysis of the interspecific mouse-mink hybridoma cells revealed a segregation of the great number of the mink chromosomes, inter- and intraline variability according to the number of cells with the mink DNA and its quantity in the cells. No characteristics of the mink chromosomal material distribution in the hybridoma cells which secreted the immunoglobulins of the American mink or lost its secretion were found. The great changes in the karyotype of the hybrid cells were revealed by in situ hybridization with 3H-labelled total mink DNA. Numerous insertions of the regions from the mink chromosomes to the mouse chromosomes and the appearance of the chromosomes not typical of the mink and mouse parent cells were observed. The number of cells with translocations of fragments from the chromosomes to the mouse one was observed to grow in the hybridoma cell lines cultivated for a long time. Synthesis of the lambda-L-chains of the mink immunoglobulin in the cells of line 7 was absent because they lost lambda-gene. PMID:1805468

  9. Therapeutic effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage YH30 on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jingmin; Li, Xinwei; Yang, Mei; Du, Chongtao; Cui, Ziyin; Gong, Pengjuan; Xia, Feifei; Song, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Juecheng; Yu, Chuang; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Lei, Liancheng; Han, Wenyu

    2016-07-15

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the most costly infectious diseases among farmed mink and commonly leads to large economic losses during mink production. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. A broad-host-range phage from the Podoviridae family, YH30, was isolated using the mink-originating P. aeruginosa (serotype G) D7 strain as a host. The genome of YH30 was 72,192bp (54.92% G+C), contained 86 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins or antibiotic resistance determinants. These characteristics make YH30 eligible for use in phage therapy. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that a single intranasal administration of YH30 was sufficient to cure hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. The mean colony count of P. aeruginosa in the blood and lung of YH30-protected mink was less than 10(3) CFU/mL (g) within 24h of bacterial challenge and ultimately became undetectable, whereas that in unprotected mink reached more than 10(8) CFU/mL (g). Additionally, YH30 dramatically improved the pathological manifestations of lung injury in mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrates the potential of phages to treat P. aeruginosa-caused hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. PMID:27283850

  10. Royal pastel mink respond variously to inoculation with Aleutian disease virus of low virulence.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1984-04-01

    Information was sought on the varied responses of royal pastel mink (a non-Aleutian genotype) to Aleutian disease virus of low virulence. Thus, of 20 yearling female pastel mink inoculated subcutaneously with a large amount of the Pullman strain of Aleutian disease virus, only 3 succumbed to the disease. Of the other 17 mink, 3 had neither viremia nor a rise in level of serum gamma globulin during the 24 weeks after inoculation. The other 14 mink were viremic for variable periods during the first 12 weeks. In only five mink was the viremia accompanied by elevated levels of serum gamma globulin, usually from week 8 on. Of the 16 subclinically infected mink that did not succumb to intercurrent disease and otherwise remained healthy, 9 were examined at 19 to 31 months for persisting virus. In only one mink, small amounts were detected in the mesenteric lymph node and spleen nearly 28 months after inoculation. The other seven mink that survived the infection were not protected when challenged 31 months later with a small amount of the highly virulent Utah-1 strain. Even though still poorly understood, these varied responses of the royal pastel mink to infection with Aleutian disease virus of low virulence have important pathogenetic and epidemiological implications.

  11. Comparative pathogenicity of four strains of Aleutian disease virus for pastel and sapphire mink.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1983-09-01

    Information was sought on the comparative pathogenicity of four North American strains (isolates) of Aleutian disease virus for royal pastel (a non-Aleutian genotype) and sapphire (an Aleutian genotype) mink. The four strains (Utah-1, Ontario [Canada], Montana, and Pullman [Washington]), all of mink origin, were inoculated intraperitoneally and intranasally in serial 10-fold dilutions. As indicated by the appearance of specific antibody (counterimmunoelectrophoresis test), all strains readily infected both color phases of mink, and all strains were equally pathogenic for sapphire mink. Not all strains, however, regularly caused Aleutian disease in pastel mink. Infection of pastel mink with the Utah-1 strain invariably led to fatal disease. Infection with the Ontario strain caused fatal disease nearly as often. The Pullman strain, by contrast, almost never caused disease in infected pastel mink. The pathogenicity of the Montana strain for this color phase was between these extremes. These findings emphasize the need to distinguish between infection and disease when mink are exposed to Aleutian disease virus. The distinction has important implications for understanding the natural history of Aleutian disease virus infection in ranch mink.

  12. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorinated hydrocarbons in mink and river otters from the United States.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Newsted, John; Halbrook, Richard S; Giesy, John P

    2002-06-15

    Mink and otters are good integrators of their aquatic environments and useful sentinel species for determining exposure to environmental contaminants. In this study, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; C8F17SO3-), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA; C8F17SO2NH2), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS; C6F13SO3-), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; C7F15CO2-) were measured in livers of mink and river otters collected from various locations in the United States. PFOS was found in all mink livers analyzed. Frequencies of occurrence of FOSA, PFHxS, and PFOA were less. The greatest concentration of PFOS measured in liver of mink was 5140 ng/g, wet weight. Maximum concentrations of FOSA, PFHxS, and PFOA in mink livers were 590, 39, and 27 ng/g, wet weight, respectively. There were no significant positive relationships between concentrations of PFOS and PFHxS or PFOA in mink livers. Concentrations of PFOS were positively correlated with those of FOSA in mink livers from Illinois. There was no significant correlation between concentrations of PFOS and lipid content in mink livers. There were no age- or sex-related differences in the concentrations of fluorochemicals in mink livers. Greater concentrations are associated with those individuals collected near urbanized and/or industrialized areas. PFOS was detected in livers of all river otters collected from Washington and Oregon at concentrations ranging from 25 to 994 ng/g, wet wt. PMID:12099451

  13. Comparative pathogenicity of four strains of Aleutian disease virus for pastel and sapphire mink.

    PubMed Central

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1983-01-01

    Information was sought on the comparative pathogenicity of four North American strains (isolates) of Aleutian disease virus for royal pastel (a non-Aleutian genotype) and sapphire (an Aleutian genotype) mink. The four strains (Utah-1, Ontario [Canada], Montana, and Pullman [Washington]), all of mink origin, were inoculated intraperitoneally and intranasally in serial 10-fold dilutions. As indicated by the appearance of specific antibody (counterimmunoelectrophoresis test), all strains readily infected both color phases of mink, and all strains were equally pathogenic for sapphire mink. Not all strains, however, regularly caused Aleutian disease in pastel mink. Infection of pastel mink with the Utah-1 strain invariably led to fatal disease. Infection with the Ontario strain caused fatal disease nearly as often. The Pullman strain, by contrast, almost never caused disease in infected pastel mink. The pathogenicity of the Montana strain for this color phase was between these extremes. These findings emphasize the need to distinguish between infection and disease when mink are exposed to Aleutian disease virus. The distinction has important implications for understanding the natural history of Aleutian disease virus infection in ranch mink. PMID:6193063

  14. Minke whale genome and aquatic adaptation in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hyung-Soon; Cho, Yun Sung; Guang, Xuanmin; Kang, Sung Gyun; Jeong, Jae-Yeon; Cha, Sun-Shin; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Lee, Jae-Hak; Yang, Eun Chan; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Wonduck; Jeon, Jeong Ho; Kim, Sang-Jin; Choi, Dong Han; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Hak-Min; Ko, Junsu; Kim, Hyunmin; Shin, Young-Ah; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Zheng, Yuan; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Yan; Chen, Ming; Jiang, Awei; Li, Erli; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Haolong; Kim, Tae Hyung; Yu, Lili; Liu, Sha; Ahn, Kung; Cooper, Jesse; Park, Sin-Gi; Hong, Chang Pyo; Jin, Wook; Kim, Heui-Soo; Park, Chankyu; Lee, Kyooyeol; Chun, Sung; Morin, Phillip A; O'Brien, Stephen J; Lee, Hang; Kimura, Jumpei; Moon, Dae Yeon; Manica, Andrea; Edwards, Jeremy; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Sangsoo; Wang, Jun; Bhak, Jong; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The shift from terrestrial to aquatic life by whales was a substantial evolutionary event. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of the minke whale genome, as well as the whole-genome sequences of three minke whales, a fin whale, a bottlenose dolphin and a finless porpoise. Our comparative genomic analysis identified an expansion in the whale lineage of gene families associated with stress-responsive proteins and anaerobic metabolism, whereas gene families related to body hair and sensory receptors were contracted. Our analysis also identified whale-specific mutations in genes encoding antioxidants and enzymes controlling blood pressure and salt concentration. Overall the whale-genome sequences exhibited distinct features that are associated with the physiological and morphological changes needed for life in an aquatic environment, marked by resistance to physiological stresses caused by a lack of oxygen, increased amounts of reactive oxygen species and high salt levels.

  15. Minke whale genome and aquatic adaptation in cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Hyung-Soon; Cho, Yun Sung; Guang, Xuanmin; Kang, Sung Gyun; Jeong, Jae-Yeon; Cha, Sun-Shin; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Lee, Jae-Hak; Yang, Eun Chan; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Wonduck; Jeon, Jeong Ho; Kim, Sang-Jin; Choi, Dong Han; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Hak-Min; Ko, Junsu; Kim, Hyunmin; Shin, Young-Ah; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Zheng, Yuan; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The shift from terrestrial to aquatic life by whales was a substantial evolutionary event. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of the minke whale genome, as well as the whole-genome sequences of three minke whales, a fin whale, a bottlenose dolphin and a finless porpoise. Our comparative genomic analysis identified an expansion in the whale lineage of gene families associated with stress-responsive proteins and anaerobic metabolism, whereas gene families related to body hair and sensory receptors were contracted. Our analysis also identified whale-specific mutations in genes encoding antioxidants and enzymes controlling blood pressure and salt concentration. Overall the whale-genome sequences exhibited distinct features that are associated with the physiological and morphological changes needed for life in an aquatic environment, marked by resistance to physiological stresses caused by a lack of oxygen, increased amounts of reactive oxygen species and high salt levels. PMID:24270359

  16. [MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEUTROPHILS AND EOSINOPHILS GRANULES IN SAPPHIRE MINKS].

    PubMed

    Uzenbaeva, L B; Kizhina, A G; Ilyukha, V A

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that sapphire minks have abnormality of subcellular structure of blood and bone marrow neutrophils and eosinophils. The abnormality consists in forming of abnormal "giant" granules. The si- ze and the number of abnormal granules significantly change during maturation of leucocytes in bone marrow. We have found differences between abnormal granules forming in neutrophils and eosinophils that depend on the maturing stage and the cells life cycle duration as well as morphofunctional features of these granulocytes. PMID:26863773

  17. Two parvoviruses that cause different diseases in mink have different transcription patterns: transcription analysis of mink enteritis virus and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in the same cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Storgaard, T; Oleksiewicz, M; Bloom, M E; Ching, B; Alexandersen, S

    1997-01-01

    The two parvoviruses of mink cause very different diseases. Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is associated with rapid, high-level viral replication and acute disease. In contrast, infection with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is associated with persistent, low-level viral replication and chronic severe immune dysregulation. In the present report, we have compared viral transcription in synchronized CRFK cells infected with either MEV or ADV using a nonradioactive RNase protection assay. The overall level of viral transcription was 20-fold higher in MEV- than in ADV-infected cells. Furthermore, MEV mRNA encoding structural proteins (MEV mRNA R3) was dominant throughout the infectious cycle, comprising approximately 80% of the total viral transcription products. In marked contrast, in ADV-infected cells, transcripts encoding nonstructural proteins (ADV mRNA R1 and R2) comprised more than 84% of the total transcripts at all times after infection, whereas ADV mRNA R3 comprised less than 16%. Thus, the ADV mRNA coding for structural proteins (ADV mRNA R3) was present at a level at least 100-fold lower than the corresponding MEV mRNA R3. These findings paralleled previous biochemical studies analyzing in vitro activities of the ADV and MEV promoters (J. Christensen, T. Storgaard, B. Viuff, B. Aasted, and S. Alexandersen, J. Virol. 67:1877-1886, 1993). The overall low levels of ADV mRNA and the paucity of the mRNA coding for ADV structural proteins may reflect an adaptation of the virus for low-level restricted infection. PMID:9188563

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian mink disease virus in Finland.

    PubMed

    Knuuttila, Anna; Uzcátegui, Nathalie; Kankkonen, Johanna; Vapalahti, Olli; Kinnunen, Paula

    2009-01-13

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a parvovirus that causes an immune complex-mediated disease in minks. To gain a more detailed view of the molecular epidemiology of mink AMDV in Finland, we phylogenetically analysed 14 new Finnish strains from 5 farms and all 40 strains with corresponding sequences available in GenBank. A part of the major non-structural (NS1) protein gene was amplified and analysed phylogenetically. A rooted nucleotide tree was constructed using the maximum parsimony method. The strains described in this study showed 86-100% nucleotide identity and were nearly identical on each farm. The ratio of synonymous to non-synonymous substitutions was approximately 2.7, indicating a mild purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that AMDV strains form three groups (I-III), all of which contained Finnish strains. The tree inferred that the three lineages of AMDV have been introduced to Finland independently. The analysis suggested that AMDV strains do not cluster into genotypes based on geographical origin, year of isolation or pathogenicity. Based on these data, the molecular clock is not applicable to AMDV, and within this gene area no recombination was detected. PMID:18799272

  19. Analyses of leucocytes in blood and lymphoid tissues from mink infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV).

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Aasted, B

    1998-06-12

    Mink were infected with Aleutian Mink Disease Parvovirus (AMDV) and sacrificed at monthly intervals after infection. During this time humoral immune responses and leucocyte numbers in blood, mesenteric lymph node, spleen and thymus were monitored. Serum hypergammaglobulinaemia was observed together with elevated antibody responses to AMDV NS1 and VP1/2 proteins. In blood, a highly significant increase in CD8+ lymphocytes was observed. However, (presumed)CD4+ cells defined as CD3+CD8- cells, and B lymphocytes remained relatively constant throughout the study. The (presumed)CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased significantly from greater than 2 to less than 0.5 and MHC-II+ blood leucocytes increased significantly during infection, a large proportion of these being CD8+. Similar changes were observed in the mesenteric lymph node and spleen. Immunohistology of lymph nodes showed a massive expansion of the paracortical area due to increased numbers of CD8+ cells. The staining intensity of B lymphocytes in lymph nodes with a CD79a reactive monoclonal antibody was decreased in the late infection, indicating a possible greater number of plasma cells. Thymic involution was observed during the AMDV infection, although relative increases in CD3high (presumed)CD4+ and CD3highCD8+ single positive cells were observed. These increases were countered by a corresponding reduction in the CD3low(presumed)CD4+CD8+ double positive cell population. Immunohistology of the thymus in normal mink showed that most of the matured CD3+ T cells were present in the inner medulla, while only few CD3+ cells could be found in the outer cortex. In severely infected mink the thymic structural organisation vanished, and CD3+ cells were found throughout the organ. PMID:9656422

  20. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed: Effect of irradiated feed on reproductive performance, growth and fur quality of mink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passey, C. A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Malo, R.; Wilson, J.

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P = 0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P < 0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5 % more, and their fur was on average about 1 ± 0.26 cm longer (12 % more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep the animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality.

  1. Neuropathologic features of Aleutian disease in farmed mink in Ireland and molecular characterization of Aleutian mink disease virus detected in brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Hanne; Daly, Paul; McElroy, Maire C; Sammin, Donal J; Bassett, Hugh F; Callanan, John J

    2010-01-01

    A neuropathologic survey was conducted on mink brains from the 5 licensed mink farms in Ireland. The survey was part of a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy surveillance study. Aleutian disease (AD) was present on 4 of the 5 farms (80%). Neuropathologic features of nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis were common in mink from the 4 affected farms but were absent in the mink from the fifth farm, which was free of AD. The meningoencephalitis was characterized by infiltrates of lymphocytes and plasma cells, which were present in meninges, perivascular spaces, and the brain parenchyma. Fibrinoid necrotizing arteritis was seen in 11 mink brains, all of which were obtained from a single farm. Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) sequences for the capsid protein VP2 were obtained from brain samples from all affected farms. Although containing previously unreported amino acid residues, similarities with European and North American isolates were observed in the hypervariable regions within VP2, suggesting Irish AMDV is related to those isolates. The predicted amino acid residues, suspected of conferring pathogenicity at certain positions of the VP2 sequence, were present in the viral nucleic acid sequences. PMID:20093694

  2. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii exposure in semiaquatic mammals in a freshwater ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Adam A; Mitchell, Mark A; Dubey, Jitender P; Schooley, Robert L; Heske, Edward J

    2015-04-01

    We assessed risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii exposure in semiaquatic mammals in east-central Illinois, US. This agricultural region has extensive drainage systems that could potentially transport T. gondii oocysts into the watershed. We used muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) and American mink (Neovison vison) as sentinels of watershed contamination. We predicted individuals from larger subwatersheds would more likely be antibody-positive for T. gondii, as they were exposed to drainage from larger areas. We also evaluated amount of urban land cover within the subwatershed, proximity to farmsteads, and age of individuals in competing models of T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in animal sera by modified agglutination tests (titer 25 or higher) and detected in 18 (60%) of 30 muskrats and 20 (77%) of 26 mink. Infection rates were ≥1.7 times higher than those typical for mammals in upland habitats in this region. Subwatershed size and age class were important predictors of T. gondii infection in muskrats (R(2) = 0.35). Models incorporating urban land cover and proximity to farmsteads had little support. None of our models of antibody prevalence in mink were well supported, possibly because mink are less strictly associated with riparian habitats. Because ~91% of our study area is devoted to agricultural production and urbanization, transport of T. gondii into freshwater ecosystems is likely facilitated by modified drainage practices common in these areas.

  3. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii exposure in semiaquatic mammals in a freshwater ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Adam A; Mitchell, Mark A; Dubey, Jitender P; Schooley, Robert L; Heske, Edward J

    2015-04-01

    We assessed risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii exposure in semiaquatic mammals in east-central Illinois, US. This agricultural region has extensive drainage systems that could potentially transport T. gondii oocysts into the watershed. We used muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) and American mink (Neovison vison) as sentinels of watershed contamination. We predicted individuals from larger subwatersheds would more likely be antibody-positive for T. gondii, as they were exposed to drainage from larger areas. We also evaluated amount of urban land cover within the subwatershed, proximity to farmsteads, and age of individuals in competing models of T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in animal sera by modified agglutination tests (titer 25 or higher) and detected in 18 (60%) of 30 muskrats and 20 (77%) of 26 mink. Infection rates were ≥1.7 times higher than those typical for mammals in upland habitats in this region. Subwatershed size and age class were important predictors of T. gondii infection in muskrats (R(2) = 0.35). Models incorporating urban land cover and proximity to farmsteads had little support. None of our models of antibody prevalence in mink were well supported, possibly because mink are less strictly associated with riparian habitats. Because ~91% of our study area is devoted to agricultural production and urbanization, transport of T. gondii into freshwater ecosystems is likely facilitated by modified drainage practices common in these areas. PMID:25574808

  4. The accidental release of exotic species from breeding colonies and zoological collections.

    PubMed

    Barrat, J; Richomme, C; Moinet, M

    2010-04-01

    Exotic species have often been introduced into a new country in zoological or botanical gardens or on game and fur farms. When accidentally or deliberately released, these alien species can become invasive and have negative impacts on native plant and animal communities and human activities. This article focuses on a selection of such invasive species: principally the American mink (Neovison vison), but also the coypu (Myocastor coypus), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), raccoon (Procyon lotor) and African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus). In each of these cases, the authors describe the biological characteristics and life history of the species, in relation to its invasive capacity, the origins and establishment of non-native populations, the environmental consequences and possible control measures. The main negative impacts observed are the destruction of habitat, the introduction and/or spread of pathogens and changes in the composition of native communities with consequent effects on biodiversity. PMID:20617652

  5. Genetic variability and structure of the water vole Arvicola amphibius across four metapopulations in northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Claudia; Borg, Åsa Alexandra; Jensen, Henrik; Bjørkvoll, Eirin; Ringsby, Thor H; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Water vole Arvicola amphibius populations have recently experienced severe decline in several European countries as a consequence of both reduction in suitable habitat and the establishment of the alien predator American mink Neovison vison. We used DNA microsatellite markers to describe the genetic structure of 14 island populations of water vole off the coast of northern Norway. We looked at intra- and inter-population levels of genetic variation and examined the effect of distance among pairs of populations on genetic differentiation (isolation by distance). We found a high level of genetic differentiation (measured by FST) among populations overall as well as between all pairs of populations. The genetic differentiation between populations was positively correlated with geographic distance between them. A clustering analysis grouped individuals into 7 distinct clusters and showed the presence of 3 immigrants among them. Our results suggest a small geographic scale for evolutionary and population dynamic processes in our water vole populations. PMID:23610623

  6. Interferon response in normal and Aleutian disease virus-infected mink.

    PubMed

    Wiedbrauk, D L; Hadlow, W J; Ewalt, L C; Lodmell, D L

    1986-08-01

    Studies were done to determine whether differences in interferon production are responsible for the resistance of pastel mink to Aleutian disease. The abilities of normal pastel and sapphire mink to produce interferon when inoculated with either Newcastle disease virus or a synthetic polyribonucleotide, poly (I):poly (C), were identical, even to the production of a novel, acid-labile interferon. The resistance of pastel mink to Aleutian disease did not correlate with interferon production, because neither sapphire nor pastel mink produced detectable amounts of interferon when infected with either the Pullman strain of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) or the highly virulent Utah I strain. Sapphire mink infected with the Pullman strain responded normally to poly (I):poly (C) early in the course of the disease, but interferon production was impaired late, when the mink were hypergammaglobulinemic and had renal, vascular, and hepatic lesions. These data suggest that ADV Pullman neither stimulates nor interferes with interferon production in infected mink and may represent a mechanism whereby ADV can more readily establish infection.

  7. Evaluation of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for serodiagnosis of Aleutian mink disease virus infection in mink

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aleutian disease in mink is caused by infection with Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). In Sweden, the infection most commonly causes classical Aleutian disease in which the immune system fails to neutralize the virus and the infection becomes persistent. Diagnosis of AMDV infection is based on serological methods that detect virus-specific antibodies. Traditionally counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) has been the preferred method, but in order to enable automation interest has been paid to other antibody detecting systems. Recently, at least two different ELISA systems that detect antibodies to AMDV have been manufactured; one is based on an in vitro grown AMDV as antigen, and the other system is based on the AMDV capsid protein VP2 as antigen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the two ELISA systems for detection of antibodies to AMDV using CIEP as the gold standard. Results When employing the mean optical density of the samples from CIEP negative mink plus three standard deviations as cut-off value, the ELISA with the VP2 antigen had a sensitivity of 99.7% and a specificity of 98.3% compared to CIEP (n = 364). Analysis of samples with the AMDV-G antigen based ELISA employing an assay cut-off value based on the negative control samples, as suggested by the manufacturer, resulted in a sensitivity of 54.3% and a specificity of 93.2% with reference to CIEP as the gold standard (n = 359). When employing the mean optical density of the samples from CIEP negative mink plus three standard deviations as cut-off value, the AMDV-G ELISA had a sensitivity of 37.6% and a specificity of 98.3%. Conclusions The ELISA system based on VP2 antigen had high sensitivity and specificity, and was concluded to be an alternative to the CIEP as a diagnostic tool for AMDV antibodies. In contrast, the AMDV-G ELISA suffered from low sensitivity when compared to CIEP. PMID:24274663

  8. Aleutian mink disease virus in furbearing mammals in Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is widespread among ranched and free-ranging American mink in Canada, but there is no information on its prevalence in other wild animal species. This paper describes the prevalence of AMDV of 12 furbearing species in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada. Methods Samples were collected from carcasses of 462 wild animals of 12 furbearing species, trapped in 10 NS counties between November 2009 and February 2011. Viral DNA was tested by PCR using two primer pairs, and anti-viral antibodies were tested by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) on spleen homogenates. Results Positive PCR or CIEP samples were detected in 56 of 60 (93.3%) American mink, 43 of 61 (70.5%) short-tailed weasels, 2 of 8 (25.0%) striped skunks, 2 of 11 (18.2%) North American river otters, 9 of 85 (10.6%) raccoons, and 2 of 20 (10.0%) bobcats. Samples from six fishers, 24 coyotes, 25 red foxes, 58 beavers, 45 red-squirrels and 59 muskrats were negative. Antibodies to AMDV were detected by CIEP in 16 of 56 (28.6%) mink and one of the 8 skunks (12.5%). Thirteen of the mink were positive for PCR and CIEP, but three mink and one skunk were CIEP positive and PCR negative. Positive CIEP or PCR animals were present in all nine counties from which mink or weasel samples were collected. Conclusions The presence of AMDV in so many species across the province has important epidemiological ramifications and could pose a serious health problem for the captive mink, as well as for susceptible wildlife. The mechanism of virus transmission between wildlife and captive mink and the effects of AMDV exposure on the viability of the susceptible species deserve further investigation. PMID:23394546

  9. Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) respond to navy training.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephen W; Martin, Cameron R; Matsuyama, Brian M; Henderson, E Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were acoustically detected and localized via their boing calls using 766 h of recorded data from 24 hydrophones at the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility located off Kauai, Hawaii. Data were collected before, during, and after naval undersea warfare training events, which occurred in February over three consecutive years (2011-2013). Data collection in the during periods were further categorized as phase A and phase B with the latter being the only period with naval surface ship activities (e.g., frigate and destroyer maneuvers including the use of mid-frequency active sonar). Minimum minke whale densities were estimated for all data periods based upon the numbers of whales acoustically localized within the 3780 km(2) study area. The 2011 minimum densities in the study area were: 3.64 whales [confidence interval (CI) 3.31-4.01] before the training activity, 2.81 whales (CI 2.31-3.42) for phase A, 0.69 whales (CI 0.27-1.8) for phase B and 4.44 whales (CI 4.04-4.88) after. The minimum densities for the phase B periods were highly statistically significantly lower (p < 0.001) from all other periods within each year, suggesting a clear response to the phase B training. The phase A period results were mixed when compared to other non-training periods.

  10. A test of mink microsatellite markers in the ferret: amplification and sequence comparisons.

    PubMed

    Anistoroaei, R; Christensen, K

    2006-12-01

    Short tandem repeats are a source of highly polymorphic markers in mammalian genomes. Genetic variation at these hypervariable loci is extensively used for linkage analysis and to identify individuals, and is very useful for interpopulation and interspecies studies. Fifty-nine microsatellite markers from American mink were tested in the ferret, under the same conditions as for the mink. Of the 59, 43 of them (73.5%) amplified a ferret sequence; 5 amplification products differed in size from the respective mink sequences. Ten amplified fragments from ferret were sequenced. The sequences that were identical in size to those from mink displayed a high degree of conservation, with some differences at the repeat motif sites. These results could aid cross-utilization of markers between these two species. PMID:17362355

  11. Mink biomagnification factors for dioxin-like compounds fed Saginaw Bay carp

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, T.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Heaton, S.N.; Bursian, S.N.; Giesy, J.P.; Render, J.A.; Aulerich, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Diets containing 0, 10, 20 and 40% Saginaw Bay carp were fed to ranch mink to assess reproductive effects. All carp diets adversely affected reproduction. The diets and livers of the adult mink at the end of the study were chemically analyzed for planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHS) that induce aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH)/ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD). Biomagnification factors (BMFS) from diets to mink livers were calculated. AHH and EROD-active PCB congeners uniformly magnified across diets except for PCB 126, which had higher magnification at lowest carp and control diets. PCB and PCDF congener magnification ranged from incalculable to 60-fold higher and individual PCDDs ranged from incalculable to 165 times the diet. As expected from previous mammalian studies, 2378-TCDD magnified over an order of magnitude more than 2378-TCDF but by 4 to 5-fold less than 23478-PCDF. Based on dioxin equivalents theory and TEFS, PCB 126 ranked first in the liver residues of 2378-TCDD equivalents followed by PCB 105, 23478-PCDF and 2378-TCDD. Magnification factors allow for interpretation of relative exposure risks from certain wild forage species if wild mink liver concentrations are known. Conversely, knowledge of wild mink forage item concentrations allows for calculation of an estimated wild mink liver residue, when the concentration and dietary forage percentage are multiplied by the BMF. Therefore, BMFs can assist in the elucidation of relative risk of a population to these contaminants without necessarily having large numbers of mink samples, especially in habitats such as the Saginaw Bay area where mink and otter populations are presumed to be affected by high PHH contamination.

  12. Persistent spatial clusters of plasmacytosis among Danish mink farms.

    PubMed

    Themudo, Gonçalo Espregueira; Østergaard, Jørgen; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2011-10-01

    Aleutian disease (Plasmacytosis) is caused by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV), an autonomous parvovirus and affects many mustelid species, including the American mink (Neovisonvison). In Denmark, an eradication program reduced the prevalence of test-positive farms from 100% in 1976 to 15% in 1996. Nevertheless, the disease persists in the Vendsyssel district of Northern Jutland, despite the eradication efforts. In this study, we used spatial epidemiological analysis to test for spatial autocorrelation of the distribution of farms positive for the disease. We investigated 2375 farms in Denmark (342 of which were located in the Vendsyssel district), during the period 2000-2008. For the purpose of our study, a farm was considered positive when, on any test conducted in a year, at least three animals were tested positive. To detect spatial clusters, we performed a retrospective analysis with spatial scan statistics. We performed one analysis for each of the nine years (2000-2008). A separate analysis was conducted with only the farms in Vendsyssel included. The spatial cluster analysis revealed a significant cluster throughout the time period studied in Northern Jutland. The only exception was 2002 when an outbreak was detected in the southern part of Jutland, and not in the north. The farm-level prevalence of the disease in Denmark was highest in this year, suggesting that the outbreak in the south could have masked the persistent signal from the north; the northern cluster was still significant when analysing only the Vendsyssel populations. These results confirm that Northern Jutland continues to have a significantly higher number of cases than expected if the disease was randomly distributed. PMID:21788091

  13. Genetic characterization of Aleutian mink disease viruses isolated in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwu; Huang, Juan; Jia, Yun; Du, Yijun; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Rui

    2012-08-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a parvovirus that causes an immune complex mediated disease in minks. To understand the genetic characterization of AMDV in China, the genomic sequences of three isolates, ADV-LN1, ADV-LN2, and ADV-LN3, from different farms in the Northern China were analyzed. The results showed that the lengths of genomic sequences of three isolates were 4,543, 4,566, and 4,566 bp, respectively. They shared only 95.5-96.3 % nucleotide identity with each other. The nucleotide and amino acid homology of genome sequence between the Chinese isolates and European or American strains (ADV-G, ADV-Utah1, and ADV-SL3) were 92.4-95.0 % and 92.1-93.8 %, respectively. The amino acid substitutions randomly distributed in the genome, especially NS gene. ADV-LN1 strain had a 9-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 70 and 72-79 in the VP1 gene, comparing with ADV-G strain; ADV-LN2 and ADV-LN3 strains had 1-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 70 in the VP1. Some potential glycosylation site mutations in VP and NS genes were also observed. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that the three strains belonged to two different branches based on the complete coding sequence of VP2 gene. However, they all were in the same group together with the strains from United States based on the NS1 sequence. It indicated that Chinese AMDV isolates had genetic diversity. The origin of the ancestors of the Chinese AMDV strains might be associated with the American strains. PMID:22415541

  14. Mink reproductive and physiological response to diets supplemented with PCB and mercury contaminated fish collected on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.; Aulerich, R.; Bursian, S.; Lewis, L.

    1995-12-31

    Plant operations and waste disposal at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have resulted in increased concentrations of PCBs and mercury (Hg) in fish inhabiting streams located on the reservation. As a component of environmental restoration investigation, fish were collected from streams on the reservation, analyzed for tissue concentrations of PCBs and Hg, and fed to ranch mink 3 months prior to and during the breeding season. As reference, fish also were collected from the Clinch River (CR) above the ORR and from the ocean (O), and fed to mink following similar procedures. Five prepared diets containing either 75% O, 75% CR, 25% ORR + 50% O, 50% ORR + 25% O, or 75% ORR fish and 25% standard mink diet were fed to 8 female and 2 male mink, each, following normal mink farm practices. PCB (Aroclor 1260 and CB congeners) and Hg concentrations were greatest in fish collected from the ORR and diets containing ORR fish exhibited a progressive increase in PCBs and Hg concentration with increased percentage of ORR fish. Female mink fed diets containing 75% ORR fish had decreased litter size and decreased mean whole body weights, Mean weight of male offspring of females fed 75% ORR fish also were decreased. Do to the contaminated environment, other aquatic prey of mink probably have elevated contaminant burdens that would contribute to effects in mink. Adverse reproductive and health effects in mink living on the ORR are speculative at this time.

  15. Summer Precipitation Predicts Spatial Distributions of Semiaquatic Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ahlers, Adam A.; Cotner, Lisa A.; Wolff, Patrick J.; Mitchell, Mark A.; Heske, Edward J.; Schooley, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of droughts and intensity of seasonal precipitation in many regions. Semiaquatic mammals should be vulnerable to this increased variability in precipitation, especially in human-modified landscapes where dispersal to suitable habitat or temporary refugia may be limited. Using six years of presence-absence data (2007–2012) spanning years of record-breaking drought and flood conditions, we evaluated regional occupancy dynamics of American mink (Neovison vison) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) in a highly altered agroecosystem in Illinois, USA. We used noninvasive sign surveys and a multiseason occupancy modeling approach to estimate annual occupancy rates for both species and related these rates to summer precipitation. We also tracked radiomarked individuals to assess mortality risk for both species when moving in terrestrial areas. Annual model-averaged estimates of occupancy for mink and muskrat were correlated positively to summer precipitation. Mink and muskrats were widespread during a year (2008) with above-average precipitation. However, estimates of site occupancy declined substantially for mink (0.56) and especially muskrats (0.09) during the severe drought of 2012. Mink are generalist predators that probably use terrestrial habitat during droughts. However, mink had substantially greater risk of mortality away from streams. In comparison, muskrats are more restricted to aquatic habitats and likely suffered high mortality during the drought. Our patterns are striking, but a more mechanistic understanding is needed of how semiaquatic species in human-modified ecosystems will respond ecologically in situ to extreme weather events predicted by climate-change models. PMID:26284916

  16. Summer Precipitation Predicts Spatial Distributions of Semiaquatic Mammals.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Adam A; Cotner, Lisa A; Wolff, Patrick J; Mitchell, Mark A; Heske, Edward J; Schooley, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of droughts and intensity of seasonal precipitation in many regions. Semiaquatic mammals should be vulnerable to this increased variability in precipitation, especially in human-modified landscapes where dispersal to suitable habitat or temporary refugia may be limited. Using six years of presence-absence data (2007-2012) spanning years of record-breaking drought and flood conditions, we evaluated regional occupancy dynamics of American mink (Neovison vison) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) in a highly altered agroecosystem in Illinois, USA. We used noninvasive sign surveys and a multiseason occupancy modeling approach to estimate annual occupancy rates for both species and related these rates to summer precipitation. We also tracked radiomarked individuals to assess mortality risk for both species when moving in terrestrial areas. Annual model-averaged estimates of occupancy for mink and muskrat were correlated positively to summer precipitation. Mink and muskrats were widespread during a year (2008) with above-average precipitation. However, estimates of site occupancy declined substantially for mink (0.56) and especially muskrats (0.09) during the severe drought of 2012. Mink are generalist predators that probably use terrestrial habitat during droughts. However, mink had substantially greater risk of mortality away from streams. In comparison, muskrats are more restricted to aquatic habitats and likely suffered high mortality during the drought. Our patterns are striking, but a more mechanistic understanding is needed of how semiaquatic species in human-modified ecosystems will respond ecologically in situ to extreme weather events predicted by climate-change models. PMID:26284916

  17. Comparison of the tyrosine aminotransferase cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of normal mink and mink affected with tyrosinemia type II.

    PubMed

    Leib, S R; McGuire, T C; Prieur, D J

    2005-01-01

    Type II tyrosinemia, designated Richner-Hanhart syndrome in humans, is a hereditary metabolic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by a deficiency of tyrosine aminotransferase activity. Mutations occur in the human tyrosine aminotransferase gene, resulting in high levels of tyrosine and disease. Type II tyrosinemia occurs in mink, and our hypothesis was that it would also be associated with mutation(s) in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene. Therefore, the transcribed cDNA and the genomic tyrosine aminotransferase gene were sequenced from normal and affected mink. The gene extended over 11.9 kb and had 12 exons coding for a predicted 454-amino-acid protein with 93% homology with human tyrosine aminotransferase. FISH analysis mapped the gene to chromosome 8 using the Mandahl and Fredga (1975) nomenclature and chromosome 5 using the Christensen et al. (1996) nomenclature. The hypothesis was rejected because sequence analysis disclosed no mutations in either cDNA or introns that were associated with affected mink. This suggests that an unlinked gene regulatory mutation may be the cause of tyrosinemia in mink.

  18. Brains of Native and Alien Mesocarnivores in Biomonitoring of Toxic Metals in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Budis, Halina; Podlasinska, Joanna; Popiolek, Marcin; Pirog, Agnieszka; Jedrzejewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are involved in mammalian brain damage. However, little is known about Pb and Cd brain levels in wildlife that reflect the geochemical background. The aims of the study include the estimation of Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations, and the determination of relationships between these elements in the brains of 94 mesocarnivores. Road-killed or hunted animals were obtained from north-western Poland near the Polish-German border. The investigation covered the native Eurasian otter Lutra lutra, badger Meles meles, pine marten Martes martes, beech marten M. foina, European polecat Mustela putorius, red fox Vulpes vulpes, and alien species: feral and ranch American mink Neovison vison, raccoon Procyon lotor and raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides. Depending on the diet and environmental pollution, the carnivore brains accumulated toxic metals in varying amounts. The highest median Hg levels (in mg/kg dry weight, dw) were found in the piscivorous Eurasian otter and feral mink (2.44 and 3.96), Pb in the omnivorous raccoon (0.47), while Cd in minks (~0.06). We indicated that Pb-based ammunition is a significant source of the element in scavengers from hunting area, and we also found a significant correlation between Pb and Cd levels in the fox brain. Finally, this study is the first to suggest background levels for brain Pb and Cd in mesocarnivores (<0.50 and <0.04 mg/kg dw, respectively). PMID:27513467

  19. Brains of Native and Alien Mesocarnivores in Biomonitoring of Toxic Metals in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Budis, Halina; Podlasinska, Joanna; Popiolek, Marcin; Pirog, Agnieszka; Jedrzejewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are involved in mammalian brain damage. However, little is known about Pb and Cd brain levels in wildlife that reflect the geochemical background. The aims of the study include the estimation of Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations, and the determination of relationships between these elements in the brains of 94 mesocarnivores. Road-killed or hunted animals were obtained from north-western Poland near the Polish-German border. The investigation covered the native Eurasian otter Lutra lutra, badger Meles meles, pine marten Martes martes, beech marten M. foina, European polecat Mustela putorius, red fox Vulpes vulpes, and alien species: feral and ranch American mink Neovison vison, raccoon Procyon lotor and raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides. Depending on the diet and environmental pollution, the carnivore brains accumulated toxic metals in varying amounts. The highest median Hg levels (in mg/kg dry weight, dw) were found in the piscivorous Eurasian otter and feral mink (2.44 and 3.96), Pb in the omnivorous raccoon (0.47), while Cd in minks (~0.06). We indicated that Pb-based ammunition is a significant source of the element in scavengers from hunting area, and we also found a significant correlation between Pb and Cd levels in the fox brain. Finally, this study is the first to suggest background levels for brain Pb and Cd in mesocarnivores (<0.50 and <0.04 mg/kg dw, respectively). PMID:27513467

  20. Are Antarctic minke whales unusually abundant because of 20th century whaling?

    PubMed

    Ruegg, Kristen C; Anderson, Eric C; Scott Baker, C; Vant, Murdoch; Jackson, Jennifer A; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    Severe declines in megafauna worldwide illuminate the role of top predators in ecosystem structure. In the Antarctic, the Krill Surplus Hypothesis posits that the killing of more than 2 million large whales led to competitive release for smaller krill-eating species like the Antarctic minke whale. If true, the current size of the Antarctic minke whale population may be unusually high as an indirect result of whaling. Here, we estimate the long-term population size of the Antarctic minke whale prior to whaling by sequencing 11 nuclear genetic markers from 52 modern samples purchased in Japanese meat markets. We use coalescent simulations to explore the potential influence of population substructure and find that even though our samples are drawn from a limited geographic area, our estimate reflects ocean-wide genetic diversity. Using Bayesian estimates of the mutation rate and coalescent-based analyses of genetic diversity across loci, we calculate the long-term population size of the Antarctic minke whale to be 670,000 individuals (95% confidence interval: 374,000-1,150,000). Our estimate of long-term abundance is similar to, or greater than, contemporary abundance estimates, suggesting that managing Antarctic ecosystems under the assumption that Antarctic minke whales are unusually abundant is not warranted.

  1. Agonistic and Antagonistic Roles for TNIK and MINK in Non-Canonical and Canonical Wnt Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Mikryukov, Alexander; Moss, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Wnt signalling is a key regulatory factor in animal development and homeostasis and plays an important role in the establishment and progression of cancer. Wnt signals are predominantly transduced via the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors to two distinct pathways, the canonical ß-catenin pathway and a non-canonical pathway controlling planar cell polarity and convergent extension. Interference between these pathways is an important determinant of cellular and phenotypic responses, but is poorly understood. Here we show that TNIK (Traf2 and Nck-interacting kinase) and MINK (Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase) MAP4K signalling kinases are integral components of both canonical and non-canonical pathways in Xenopus. xTNIK and xMINK interact and are proteolytically cleaved in vivo to generate Kinase domain fragments that are active in signal transduction, and Citron-NIK-Homology (CNH) Domain fragments that are suppressive. The catalytic activity of the Kinase domain fragments of both xTNIK and xMINK mediate non-canonical signalling. However, while the Kinase domain fragments of xTNIK also mediate canonical signalling, the analogous fragments derived from xMINK strongly antagonize this signalling. Our data suggest that the proteolytic cleavage of xTNIK and xMINK determines their respective activities and is an important factor in controlling the balance between canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling in vivo. PMID:22984420

  2. Are Antarctic minke whales unusually abundant because of 20th century whaling?

    PubMed

    Ruegg, Kristen C; Anderson, Eric C; Scott Baker, C; Vant, Murdoch; Jackson, Jennifer A; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    Severe declines in megafauna worldwide illuminate the role of top predators in ecosystem structure. In the Antarctic, the Krill Surplus Hypothesis posits that the killing of more than 2 million large whales led to competitive release for smaller krill-eating species like the Antarctic minke whale. If true, the current size of the Antarctic minke whale population may be unusually high as an indirect result of whaling. Here, we estimate the long-term population size of the Antarctic minke whale prior to whaling by sequencing 11 nuclear genetic markers from 52 modern samples purchased in Japanese meat markets. We use coalescent simulations to explore the potential influence of population substructure and find that even though our samples are drawn from a limited geographic area, our estimate reflects ocean-wide genetic diversity. Using Bayesian estimates of the mutation rate and coalescent-based analyses of genetic diversity across loci, we calculate the long-term population size of the Antarctic minke whale to be 670,000 individuals (95% confidence interval: 374,000-1,150,000). Our estimate of long-term abundance is similar to, or greater than, contemporary abundance estimates, suggesting that managing Antarctic ecosystems under the assumption that Antarctic minke whales are unusually abundant is not warranted. PMID:20025655

  3. Growth of respiratory syncytial virus in mink lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yeolekar, L R; Damle, R G; Basu, A; Rao, B L

    2002-12-01

    Mink lung epithelial cells (Mv-1-Lu) were tested for their ability to support the growth and serial passage of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in vitro. Indian isolates of RSV induced distinctive cytopathic effect with typical rounding of cells followed by detachment with more than 50 per cent cells showing bright fluorescence using anti-RSV monoclonal antibodies in immunofluorescence test. Serial passage of RSV was possible in Mv-1-Lu cells without loss of sensitivity of the cells for virus growth. Titration of cell associated virus and virus released in the supernatant indicated that 60 per cent of the virus was released in the supernatant, and 40 per cent remained cell associated. Transmission electron microscopic studies of negatively stained RSV particles and ultra-thin sections of RSV infected Mv-1-Lu cells showed roughly spherical particles with club shaped projections, budding from the cytoplasmic membrane. These results indicate that Mv-1-Lu cell line is suitable for the growth and propagation of RSV.

  4. Muscular dystrophy of mink: a new animal model.

    PubMed

    Hegreberg, G A; Hamilton, M J; Padgett, G A

    1976-04-01

    Muscular dystrophies comprise an important group of inherited disorders of man. Although the disease has been studied extensively, little is known about the underlying primary pathomechanisms. Consequently, treatment of patients is difficult and prognosis is poor. An animal model of muscular dystrophy is a useful research tool for approaching the basic problems of pathogenesis in muscle diseases. An inherited progressive muscular dystrophy of mink which resembles the amyotonic forms of human muscular dystrophy is currently under study. Clinically, the earliest sign is progressive muscular weakness and atrophy. Muscle enzyme activities in serum are usually elevated to pathologic levels. Urinary creatine/creatinine ratio is elevated. Pathologic changes are limited to skeletal muscle and are typical of those seen in amyotonic forms of human muscular dystrophy. These changes include variation in diameter size of muscle fibers, centralized nuclei, floccular and hyaline degeneration of scattered muscle fibers, increase in connective tissue in endomysial and perimysial areas, and regenerative attempts. Both type I and type II muscle fibers are involved in the disease process. Genetic studies indicate an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Although the primary defect in muscular dystrophy is traditionally thought to reside in skeletal muscle, recent studies have produced theories of primary involvement of other tissues and organ systems. These theories are presented and relationships to the traditional theory are discussed.

  5. 21 CFR 522.1350 - Melatonin implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...—(1) Amount. One implant per mink. (2) Indications for use. For use in healthy male and female kit and adult female mink (Mustela vison) to accelerate the fur priming cycle. (3) Limitations. For...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1350 - Melatonin implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...—(1) Amount. One implant per mink. (2) Indications for use. For use in healthy male and female kit and adult female mink (Mustela vison) to accelerate the fur priming cycle. (3) Limitations. For...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1350 - Melatonin implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...—(1) Amount. One implant per mink. (2) Indications for use. For use in healthy male and female kit and adult female mink (Mustela vison) to accelerate the fur priming cycle. (3) Limitations. For...

  8. 21 CFR 522.1350 - Melatonin implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...—(1) Amount. One implant per mink. (2) Indications for use. For use in healthy male and female kit and adult female mink (Mustela vison) to accelerate the fur priming cycle. (3) Limitations. For...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1350 - Melatonin implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...—(1) Amount. One implant per mink. (2) Indications for use. For use in healthy male and female kit and adult female mink (Mustela vison) to accelerate the fur priming cycle. (3) Limitations. For...

  10. Parasites of the mink frog (rana septentrionalis) from minnesota, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schotthoefer, A.M.; Bolek, M.G.; Cole, R.A.; Beasley, V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two mink frogs, Rana septentrionalis, collected from two locations in Minnesota, United States, were examined for helminth and protozoan blood parasites in July 1999. A total of 16 parasite taxa were recovered including 5 larval digenean trematodes, 7 adult digenean trematodes, 3 nematodes, and I Trypanosorna species. Infracommunities were dominated by the digeneans in terms of richness and abundance. In particular, echinostomatid metacercariae in the kidneys of frogs were the most common parasites found, infecting 100% of the frogs and consisting of about 90% of all helminth individuals recovered. Gorgodera amplicava, Gorgoderina multilohata, Haernaroloechus pan'iplexus, Haernatoloechus breviplexus, Cosnwcercoides dukae, and Oswaldocruzia pipiens represent new host records. The survey presented here represents the second known helminth survey of mink frogs conducted in North America. A summary of metazoan parasites reported from mink frogs is included.

  11. Fecal progestin concentrations as an indicator of reproductive success in American Mink.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinyan; Wei, Haijun; Xue, Hailong; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Weigang; Xu, Chao; Wang, Shiyong; Diao, Yunfei; Rose, Jack; Xu, Baozeng

    2016-02-01

    Efforts to increase mink reproductive success (live births and litter sizes) can be partly assessed by measurement of blood progesterone levels. However, the stress of blood sampling increases the incidence of failed matings, aborted fetuses and death of the dam. We have therefore non-invasively measured fecal progesterone metabolite (progestin) concentrations during the reproductive cycle of mink. We tested the hypothesis that fecal progestin concentrations during the window of implantation (late March-early April) will, (1): be higher for whelping than non-whelping mink, and (2): be higher for mink mated multiple times, compared to single matings. Mink were mated once (March 3), twice (March 3 and 10) or three times (March 3, 10 and 11) and fecal progestin concentrations determined from March 1 to April 30. The percent mink in each group giving birth to live offspring was 42.8%, 80.8% and 92.3% for mink mated once, twice or three times, respectively (P<0.05). Litter sizes did not differ among mink mated once (5.22±0.55), twice (6.29±0.35) or three times (6.08±0.32; P>0.05). Mean fecal progestin concentrations from mating to diapause (March 19) did not differ between mink that whelped or not, nor in response to the number of times mated. However, mean fecal progestin concentrations for mink that whelped were higher on March 25 (peri-implantation) than March 19 after being mated once (51.96±2.96 vs 23.53±1.89nM/g dry wt; P<0.05), twice (66.00±1.60 vs 25.57±1.28nM/g dry wt; P<0.05) or three times (66.48±1.42/g vs 19.16±1.09nM/g dry wt; P<0.05). During implantation (April 5), mean fecal progestin concentrations for mink that whelped after being mated once (146.60±10.02nM/g dry wt), twice (162.10±5.64nM/g dry wt) or three times (188.50±3.92nM/g dry wt) were significantly higher than for those that failed to whelp; 119.30±8.87nM/g dry wt, 77.84±5.86nM/g dry wt. and 118.9±6.55nM/g dry wt., respectively (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that measurement of

  12. Analysis of the quantity of antiviral antibodies from mink infected with different Aleutian disease virus strains.

    PubMed

    Aasted, B; Tierney, G S; Bloom, M E

    1984-05-01

    Mink persistently infected with Aleutian disease virus (ADV) develop hypergammaglobulinaemia and immune complex disease. Radiolabelled antibodies from mink infected with ADV-G, DK, Pullman , and Utah I strains of ADV were reacted against all four ADV strains in radioimmunoassay (RIA). The amount of anti-ADV antibody in two equally hypergammaglobulinaemic serum pools varied from 13% (anti- Pullman ) to 57% (anti-Utah I). Serum pools from two other sources (anti-DK and anti-ADV-G), although less hypergammaglobulinaemic , had 5% and 13%, respectively, indicating that 43-95% of the Ig in the sera of mink with AD was not specific antibody to ADV structural antigens. The possibility of a general polyclonal activation of the humoral immune system is being discussed. Comparison of plateau RIA binding levels for the four serum pools against the four viral antigens suggested three patterns of reactivity: DK and Utah I reacted similarly, but Pullman and ADV-G reacted serologically different.

  13. Temporal replication of the Pullman strain of Aleutian disease virus in royal pastel mink.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1985-09-01

    Information was sought on the temporal replication of Aleutian disease virus in 27 royal pastel mink. Groups of three were examined 8 to 126 days after they were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(3) 50% lethal doses of the Pullman strain. Much individual variation was noted in the onset of infection, occurrence of viremia, and extent of virus replication in the tissues. Thus, virus was detected in lymph nodes regional to the site of inoculation in only some mink during the first 14 days after inoculation. During this period, virus was often present as well in the mesenteric lymph node and spleen. First detected on day 10, viremia was present in all mink examined on day 28 but occurred irregularly thereafter, even when virus was widespread in the tissues. Except in five mink succumbing to the disease, the tissue distribution of virus after day 28 tended to be more limited, and the titers were generally lower than they had been earlier. Even though present in the lymph nodes and spleen, virus was often absent from the kidney, liver, and intestine after day 28. Specific antibody was detected on day 28 and was present in all mink thereafter, ostensibly without any adverse effect on virus replication. In most mink, the infection was considered subclinical, for it was usually not accompanied by a rise in serum gamma globulin or by morphologic evidence of the disease. The virologic findings in this study have a bearing on the relationship of subclinical infections to both horizontal and vertical transmission of the virus.

  14. Optical conductivity of visons in Z2 spin liquids close to a valence bond solid transition on the kagome lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Yejin; Punk, Matthias; Sachdev, Subir

    2013-06-01

    We consider Z2 spin liquids on the kagome lattice on the verge of a valence bond solid (VBS) transition, where vortex excitations carrying Z2 magnetic flux—so-called visons—condense. We show that these vison excitations can couple directly to the external electromagnetic field, even though they carry neither spin nor charge. This is possible via a magnetoelastic coupling mechanism recently identified. [Potter, Senthil, and Lee, arXiv:1301.3495; Hao, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.85.174432 85, 174432 (2012)] For the case of transitions to a 36-site unit cell VBS state, the corresponding finite ac conductivity has a specific power-law frequency dependence, which is related to the crossover exponent of the quantum critical point. The visons’ contribution to the optical conductivity at transitions to VBS states with a 12-site unit cell vanishes, however.

  15. A natural reassortant and mutant serotype 3 reovirus from mink in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Wu; Liu, Ye; Lian, Hai; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2016-02-01

    Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) are widespread and infect virtually all mammals. We report here the first case of a natural mutant and reassortant serotype 3 reovirus from mink in China, known as MRV3 SD-14. Whole-genome sequence analysis showed that the MRV3 SD-14 may have resulted from a reassortment involving MRVs that infected swine, humans and mink. Interestingly, the S1 segment, which encodes the viral attachment protein σ1, which influences viral virulence and cell tropism in the host, had a stop codon mutation at amino acid 246. Surveillance of the virulence and evolution of MRVs in humans and other animals deserves more attention. PMID:26573525

  16. Inactivation of Aleutian mink disease virus through high temperature exposure in vitro and under field-based composting conditions.

    PubMed

    Hussain, I; Price, G W; Farid, A H

    2014-09-17

    Disposal of manure contaminated with Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a significant concern to the mink industry. Inactivation of AMDV under field conditions has received limited attention in the scientific literature. We evaluated the thermal inactivation of AMDV in vitro and during composting of mink manure. Spleen homogenate containing AMDV was heated under controlled conditions at 45°C, 55°C, and 65°C for 3 days. Results of the in vitro study identified complete absence of viral replication in mink at 65°C only. Next, manure-mixed AMDV packed in polyester pouches was inserted in different layers of three replicate mink manure compost piles. The virus was retrieved after the compost piles had undergone a heating period and subsequently returned to ambient temperatures. Temperature regimes in the compost piles were categorized as ≥65°C, ≥60-64°C, and ≥55-59°C. Initially, layer-wise composite virus samples were assayed for virus replication in mink. Twenty-one-day post-inoculation (p.i.) plasma tested for AMDV and antibodies indicated infection in 40%, 80%, and 100% of mink inoculated from samples originating from the top, center and bottom layers of the piles, respectively. Subsequently, the virus was extracted from individual pouches in compost layers achieving thermal activity ≥65°C and was tested in mink. No antibodies or virus was detected in plasma taken weekly up to day 21 p.i. PCR data of bone marrow and lymph nodes collected on day 21 p.i. also showed no AMDV. However, mink that received virus from positive control manure indicated infection in their plasma as early as 1 week p.i. PMID:25139658

  17. Experimental Inoculation of Spiroplasma mirum and Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) into Raccoons (Procyon lotor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if Spiroplasma mirum would be capable of producing lesions of spongiform encephalopathy in raccoons (Procyon lotor), 5 groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either S. mirum and/or transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME). Two other groups (n = 5) of raccoon...

  18. Hepatic microsomal cytochromes P450 in mink fed Saginaw Bay carp (SBC)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; LeCaptain, L.; Rattner, B.A.; Heaton, S.; Aulerich, R.; Tillitt, D.; Stegeman, John J.; Woodin, B.

    1992-01-01

    Livers from mink fed diets containing 0% (n = 12), 10% (n = 11), 20% (n = 12) and 40% (n = 10) SBC for 6 months contained 0.1, 2.2, 3.6, and 6.3 ug/g total PCBs, respectively. Hepatic microsomes were prepared and assayed for protein, arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (BROD), ethoxy-ROD (ER0D), pentoxy-ROD (PROD), and ethoxycoumarin-OD (ECOD). Mink fed SBC had increased AHH, EROD, and ECOD (group means 2.2-3.4 X control means), decreased BROD and unchanged PROD (the latter 2 assays indicators for phenobarbital-type induction in mammals). Three samples from each group were examined by western blot using a polyclonal anti-P450llB antibody and a monoclonal anti-P450lA antibody (MAb 1-12-3). Mink fed SBC showed induction of a protein recognized by anti-P450lA (8 X control), but had little protein recognized by anti-P450IlB. The monooxygenase activities and western blot data give a consistent picture of MC-type but not PB-type induction in mink fed SBC.

  19. The effects of photoperiod and melatonin on serum prolactin levels of mink during the autumn molt.

    PubMed

    Rose, J; Stormshak, F; Oldfield, J; Adair, J

    1985-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of a reduced daily photoperiod and exogenous melatonin on serum prolactin levels of mink during the autumn molt and growth of the winter pelage. During the last week of June, adult standard dark female mink (Mustela vision) were exposed to natural changes in daylength (controls), a reduced photoperiod of 6 h light: 18 h dark (6L:18D) or exposure to natural changes in daylength and treated with melatonin (10 mg) in a Silastic implant inserted subcutaneously over the scapular area. Beginning July 2, and continuing through October 22, blood samples were collected at nine biweekly intervals, and serum prolactin concentrations were quantified by a heterologous double antibody radioimmunoassay. Both reduced photoperiod and exogenous melatonin caused serum prolactin levels to decline rapidly after mid-July, resulting in concentrations that were significantly lower than those of controls 6 to 8 wk earlier. These data suggest that growth of the winter pelage of mink is strongly associated with declining prolactin levels. It appears that part of the photoperiodic-induced effects on fur growth of the mink are mediated through melatonin and its effects on prolactin synthesis and/or secretion. PMID:3831298

  20. The causes of the low breeding success of European mink (Mustela lutreola) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Kiik, Kairi; Maran, Tiit; Nagl, Astrid; Ashford, Kadri; Tammaru, Toomas

    2013-01-01

    High among-individual variation in mating success often causes problems in conservation breeding programs. This is also the case for critically endangered European mink and may jeopardize the long-term maintenance of the species' genetic diversity under the European mink EEP Program. In this study, breeding success of wild and captive born European minks at Tallinn Zoological Garden are compared, and the mating behavior of the males is analyzed. Results show that wild born males successfully mate significantly more often than captive born males (89% and 35%, respectively). On the basis of an extensive record of mating attempts, both male aggressiveness and passivity are identified as primary causes of the observed mating failures. All other potential determinants have only a minor role. Mating success as well as a male's aggressiveness and passivity are shown to depend more strongly on the male than the female partner. We did not find any evidence that the behavior of an individual is dependent on the identity of its partner. We suggest that aggressiveness and passivity are two expressions of abnormal behavior brought about by growing up in captivity: the same individuals are likely to display both aggressive and passive behavior. The results point to the need to study and modify maintenance conditions and management procedures of mink to reduce the negative impact of the captive environment on the long-term goals of the program. PMID:23426800

  1. Cerebrocortical degeneration in goats inoculated with mink-passaged scrapie virus.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E

    1986-09-01

    Widespread spongiform degeneration of the cerebral cortex occurred in four African pygmy goats that became affected with scrapie after intracerebral inoculation with scrapie virus (Suffolk sheep brain origin) that had been passed three times in ranch mink. The occurrence of such cerebrocortical degeneration was a distinct departure from the topographic pattern of neuropathologic changes that characterizes scrapie in sheep and goats. But the cortical lesion was identical to the one found in goats that became affected with a disease otherwise indistinguishable from scrapie after intracerebral inoculation with transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) virus that had been passed twice in mink. If TME originated from infection with wild scrapie virus, as is generally thought, then the viruses used in these two instances would be equivalent in their passage history in this aberrant host. Given this similarity, the common occurrence of the cortical lesion is thought to be consistent with the view that TME virus almost certainly is scrapie virus whose biologic properties became altered by chance passage in ranch mink. PMID:2946103

  2. Application of real-time PCR to detect Aleutian Mink Disease Virus on environmental farm sources.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Alberto; Díaz-Cao, José Manuel; Fernández-Antonio, Ricardo; Panadero, Rosario; Díaz, Pablo; López, Ceferino; Morrondo, Patrocinio; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Fernández, Gonzalo

    2014-10-10

    The Aleutian Mink Virus (AMDV) causes the Aleutian Mink Disease (AMD) or Mink Plasmacytosis, a disease responsible of high economic losses for industry worldwide. Despite there is evidence of the environmental persistence of the virus, there is not literature on the detection of this virus in environmental samples in farms and this fact would have great importance in the control programs of the disease. In order to detect contamination caused by AMDV on farms, several environmental samples were taken and examined using qPCR. 93.9% of samples taken from farms confirmed to be infected tested positive. The virus was also detected on a farm which, despite having no previous positive results, was sharing personnel with an infected farm. All samples taken from AMD-free farms tested negative, including a farm where an eradication procedure by stamping out had been performed during the preceding months. Higher contamination levels were observed in samples from those surfaces in direct contact with animals. These results are the first demonstration of environmental contamination in farms, hitherto suggested by epidemiological evidences, caused by AMDV on surfaces, furniture and equipments inside mink farms. qPCR is an useful tool for evaluating the spread of AMDV into the environment, and it may have important applications within the disease control programs. PMID:25183237

  3. The causes of the low breeding success of European mink (Mustela lutreola) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Kiik, Kairi; Maran, Tiit; Nagl, Astrid; Ashford, Kadri; Tammaru, Toomas

    2013-01-01

    High among-individual variation in mating success often causes problems in conservation breeding programs. This is also the case for critically endangered European mink and may jeopardize the long-term maintenance of the species' genetic diversity under the European mink EEP Program. In this study, breeding success of wild and captive born European minks at Tallinn Zoological Garden are compared, and the mating behavior of the males is analyzed. Results show that wild born males successfully mate significantly more often than captive born males (89% and 35%, respectively). On the basis of an extensive record of mating attempts, both male aggressiveness and passivity are identified as primary causes of the observed mating failures. All other potential determinants have only a minor role. Mating success as well as a male's aggressiveness and passivity are shown to depend more strongly on the male than the female partner. We did not find any evidence that the behavior of an individual is dependent on the identity of its partner. We suggest that aggressiveness and passivity are two expressions of abnormal behavior brought about by growing up in captivity: the same individuals are likely to display both aggressive and passive behavior. The results point to the need to study and modify maintenance conditions and management procedures of mink to reduce the negative impact of the captive environment on the long-term goals of the program.

  4. Antibody-forming cells and serum hemolysin responses of pastel and sapphire mink inoculated with Aleutian disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lodmell, D L; Bergman, R K; Hadlow, W J

    1973-11-01

    The effect of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) on serum hemolysin titers and antibody-forming cells in lymph nodes and spleens of sapphire and pastel mink inoculated with goat erythrocytes (G-RBC) was investigated. ADV injected 1 day after primary antigenic stimulation with G-RBC did not depress the immune responses of either color phase for a period of 26 days. However, when G-RBC were injected 47 days after ADV, both the number of antibody-forming cells and hemolysin titers were more markedly depressed in sapphire than in pastel mink. The results are discussed in relation to the greater susceptibility of sapphire mink and the variable susceptibility of pastel mink to the Pullman isolate of ADV.

  5. Antibody-Forming Cells and Serum Hemolysin Responses of Pastel and Sapphire Mink Inoculated with Aleutian Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lodmell, Donald L.; Bergman, R. Kaye; Hadlow, William J.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) on serum hemolysin titers and antibody-forming cells in lymph nodes and spleens of sapphire and pastel mink inoculated with goat erythrocytes (G-RBC) was investigated. ADV injected 1 day after primary antigenic stimulation with G-RBC did not depress the immune responses of either color phase for a period of 26 days. However, when G-RBC were injected 47 days after ADV, both the number of antibody-forming cells and hemolysin titers were more markedly depressed in sapphire than in pastel mink. The results are discussed in relation to the greater susceptibility of sapphire mink and the variable susceptibility of pastel mink to the Pullman isolate of ADV. PMID:4584051

  6. Feeding rates and under-ice foraging strategies of the smallest lunge filter feeder, the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    PubMed

    Friedlaender, A S; Goldbogen, J A; Nowacek, D P; Read, A J; Johnston, D; Gales, N

    2014-08-15

    Body size and feeding mode are two fundamental characteristics that determine foraging performance and ecological niche. As the smallest obligate lunge filter feeders, minke whales represent an ideal system for studying the physical and energetic limits of filter feeding in endotherms. We used multi-sensor suction cup tags to quantify the feeding performance of Antarctic minke whales. Foraging dives around and beneath sea ice contained up to 24 lunges per dive, the highest feeding rates for any lunge-feeding whale. Their small size allows minke whales access to krill in sea-ice environments not easily accessible to larger baleen whales. Furthermore, their ability to filter feed provides an advantage over other smaller sympatric krill predators such as penguins and seals that feed on individual prey. The unique combination of body size, feeding mechanism and sea-ice habitat of Antarctic minke whales defines a previously undocumented energetic niche that is unique among aquatic vertebrates.

  7. Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. This exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic animals or humans. Methods In the present study we evaluated the viral diversity of fecal samples (n = 42) collected from 10 different species of wild small carnivores inhabiting the northern part of Spain using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Samples were collected from American mink (Neovison vison), European mink (Mustela lutreola), European polecat (Mustela putorius), European pine marten (Martes martes), stone marten (Martes foina), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) of the family of Mustelidae; common genet (Genetta genetta) of the family of Viverridae; red fox (Vulpes vulpes) of the family of Canidae and European wild cat (Felis silvestris) of the family of Felidae. Results A number of sequences of possible novel viruses or virus variants were detected, including a theilovirus, phleboviruses, an amdovirus, a kobuvirus and picobirnaviruses. Conclusions Using random PCR in combination with next generation sequencing, sequences of various novel viruses or virus variants were detected in fecal samples collected from Spanish carnivores. Detected novel viruses highlight the viral diversity that is present in fecal material of wild carnivores. PMID:24886057

  8. Cellular and humoral antibody responses of normal pastel and sapphire mink to goat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lodmell, D L; Bergman, R K; Hadlow, W J; Munoz, J J

    1971-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether normal sapphire and royal pastel mink differ immunologically at the cellular and humoral levels. Two days after primary intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of goat erythrocytes (GE), essentially no 19 or 7S plaque-forming cells (PFC) per 10(6) cells were detected in spleen or in abdominal and peripheral lymph nodes of either color phase. On the 4th day, more 19S PFC were detected in pastel than in sapphire tissues; pastel tissues also contained 7S PFC, whereas essentially none was present in sapphires until the 6th day. After an ip booster inoculation, the number of PFC was markedly different between the two color phases. These differences were most apparent in spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. In parallel with differences observed in PFC responses between the color phases, total hemolysin and 2-mercaptoethanol-resistant hemolysin titers of pastels exceeded those of sapphires in all but one interval after the primary, and at every interval after the booster, inoculation. These data indicate that sapphire mink are not immunological cripples, nor are they immunologically hyperactive, but that differences do exist between sapphire and royal pastel mink, especially in the response to booster injections of GE. PMID:16557957

  9. Cellular and humoral antibody responses of normal pastel and sapphire mink to goat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lodmell, D L; Bergman, R K; Hadlow, W J; Munoz, J J

    1971-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether normal sapphire and royal pastel mink differ immunologically at the cellular and humoral levels. Two days after primary intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of goat erythrocytes (GE), essentially no 19 or 7S plaque-forming cells (PFC) per 10(6) cells were detected in spleen or in abdominal and peripheral lymph nodes of either color phase. On the 4th day, more 19S PFC were detected in pastel than in sapphire tissues; pastel tissues also contained 7S PFC, whereas essentially none was present in sapphires until the 6th day. After an ip booster inoculation, the number of PFC was markedly different between the two color phases. These differences were most apparent in spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. In parallel with differences observed in PFC responses between the color phases, total hemolysin and 2-mercaptoethanol-resistant hemolysin titers of pastels exceeded those of sapphires in all but one interval after the primary, and at every interval after the booster, inoculation. These data indicate that sapphire mink are not immunological cripples, nor are they immunologically hyperactive, but that differences do exist between sapphire and royal pastel mink, especially in the response to booster injections of GE.

  10. Cellular and Humoral Antibody Responses of Normal Pastel and Sapphire Mink to Goat Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lodmell, D. L.; Bergman, R. K.; Hadlow, W. J.; Munoz, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether normal sapphire and royal pastel mink differ immunologically at the cellular and humoral levels. Two days after primary intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of goat erythrocytes (GE), essentially no 19 or 7S plaque-forming cells (PFC) per 106 cells were detected in spleen or in abdominal and peripheral lymph nodes of either color phase. On the 4th day, more 19S PFC were detected in pastel than in sapphire tissues; pastel tissues also contained 7S PFC, whereas essentially none was present in sapphires until the 6th day. After an ip booster inoculation, the number of PFC was markedly different between the two color phases. These differences were most apparent in spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. In parallel with differences observed in PFC responses between the color phases, total hemolysin and 2-mercaptoethanol-resistant hemolysin titers of pastels exceeded those of sapphires in all but one interval after the primary, and at every interval after the booster, inoculation. These data indicate that sapphire mink are not immunological cripples, nor are they immunologically hyperactive, but that differences do exist between sapphire and royal pastel mink, especially in the response to booster injections of GE. PMID:16557957

  11. Detection of mink enteritis virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianke; Cheng, Shipeng; Yi, Li; Cheng, Yuening; Yang, Shen; Xu, Hongli; Li, Zhenguang; Shi, Xinchuan; Wu, Hua; Yan, Xijun

    2013-02-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was discovered in the last decade but only used for the first time in the diagnosis of mink enteritis virus (MEV) infection in this study. The amplification could be completed within 60 min, under isothermal condition at 65°C, by employing a set of four primers targeting the VP2 gene of MEV. The LAMP was more sensitive than the conventional PCR, with a detection limit of 10(-1) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50))/ml per reaction, compared with 10 TCID(50)/ml for PCR analysis. No cross reactivity was observed for other related viruses, including canine distemper virus (CDV) and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV). Eighty four of 230 clinical samples were found to be positive for MEV, which is higher than that determined by using the conventional PCR method (68). The results indicate the LAMP can be potentially used to determine MEV as a simple, rapid procedure. This assay would be an available alternative to PCR analysis for the diagnosis of MEV infection in mink, particularly in less well-equipped laboratories and in rural settings where resources are limited. PMID:23183142

  12. Epitope mapping of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus virion protein VP1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Costello, F; Steenfos, N; Jensen, K T; Christensen, J; Gottschalck, E; Holm, A; Aasted, B

    1999-04-01

    Six overlapping fragments of the Aleutian Mink Disease parvoVirus (AMDV) virion protein VP1 and 2 (VP1/2) gene were inserted into the expression vector pMAL-c2. Four of the clones carried large overlapping fragments covering the entire VP1/2 gene. The remaining two clones covered specifically chosen regions within the VP1/2 gene. Using a Western blotting detection system, sera from AMDV-infected mink were tested against the recombinant polypeptides. These studies showed reactions primarily directed against the two AMDV polypeptides ranging from amino acids 297 to 518. Weaker reactions against other regions of the VP1/2 were also observed. The small fusion protein designed to cover the presumed AMDV VP1/2 loop 4 was purified by affinity chromatography and used to develop solid-phase immunoassays. Twelve small synthetic peptides were constructed and used as inhibitors. A peptide covering amino acids S428 to T448 was shown to block the reactivity of a pool of positive mink sera, indicating the presence of one dominant linear epitope. PMID:10219758

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP2 gene of Aleutian mink disease parvoviruses isolated from 2009 to 2011 in China.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yu; Ma, Jian; Hou, Zhijun; Zhang, Yanlong

    2012-08-01

    Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV) is a non-enveloped virus with a single-stranded DNA genome that causes a fatal, usually persistent immune complex disease in minks. In this study, a total of 18,654 serum samples were collected from minks that were farmed in China from 2009 to 2011. After testing by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), the seroprevalence of AMDV was found to be 68.67 %. The results show that there is a serious epidemic among Chinese minks used for breeding. To gain detailed information regarding the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in China, nine strains of AMDV were isolated from mink samples that were collected from four of the primary mink farming areas in China. The full-length capsid protein VP2 gene from each strain was sequenced after PCR amplification, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed on the VP2 gene sequence, including the VP2 genes from the other 10 AMDV strains available in the GenBank database, which were submitted from the 1970s to 2009. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the AMDV isolates were divided into five independent clades. The Chinese AMDV strains were distributed among all five groups and showed a high level of genetic diversity. Over 50 % of the Chinese AMDV strains were classified into two clades that consisted only of isolates from China and that were distinct from AMDV strains found in other countries. This finding indicated that both local and imported ADMV species are prevalent in the Chinese mink farming population. PMID:22415542

  14. Prevalence of the Aleutian mink disease virus infection in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Farid, A H; Zillig, M L; Finley, G G; Smith, G C

    2012-10-01

    Despite many years of testing mink for serum antibodies against the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) and elimination of reactors, this virus has remained the number one disease threat for the mink industry in Nova Scotia (NS). The objective of this study was to analyze CIEP test results to determine the success of the AMDV-control strategy in NS. A total of 2,964,920 CIEP test results from 82 ranches, spanning an eight-year period between 1998 and 2005, were analyzed. This survey included approximately 60% of the active ranchers in the province. The number of ranchers that tested their animals was 42 in 1998, gradually increased to 58 in 2003 and then showed some decline. The overall proportion of CIEP-positive mink was 3.34%, and varied between 5.22% in 1999 and 1.35% in 2005. The proportion of infected ranches ranged between 23.8% in 1998 and 70.7% in 2003. The overall trend was for a smaller proportion of infected animals but a larger proportion of infected ranches during this time period. Of the 82 ranches, 24 (29.3%) had negative CIEP in all tests, 15 (18.3%) had CIEP positive animals in every year tested, and 43 (52.4%) had positive and negative results in different years, indicating that AMDV infection was widespread in NS. There were 23 infected ranches with 8 years of uninterrupted testing. These ranchers performed 75.8% of the total samples tested (2,246,711), implying that they have diligently been trying to eradicate the virus. Infection persisted on three of these ranches for the entire 8 year period, and only two of the ranches remained CIEP negative for longer than four years. The average percentage of CIEP-positive mink on these ranches was 2.2, which was lower than 6.35% for the 33 infected ranches with occasional testing, and 73.6% and 82.4% for two ranches that had never used the CIEP test, showing that persistent test-and-removal strategy has been effective in reducing the prevalence of infected animals

  15. Chemical characterization of the oligosaccharides in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) milk.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Tadasu; Sato, Harumi; Munakata, Jiro; Nakamura, Tadashi; Arai, Ikichi; Saito, Tadao; Tetsuka, Masafumi; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M

    2002-07-01

    Carbohydrates were extracted from the milk of a beluga, Delphinopterus leucas (family Odontoceti), and two Minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Family Mysticeti), sampled late in their respective lactation periods. Free oligosaccharides were separated by gel filtration and then neutral oligosaccharides were purified by preparative thin layer chromatography and gel filtration, while acidic oligosaccharides were purified by ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their structures were determined by 1H-NMR. In one of the Minke whale milk samples, lactose was a dominant saccharide, with Fuc(alpha1-2)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(2'-fucosyllactose), Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(lacto-N-neotetraose), GalNAc(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc(A-tetrasaccharide), Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (para lacto-N-neohexaose), Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-neotetraose), Neu5Ac(alpha2-6)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (LST c) and Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (sialyl para lacto-N-neohexaose) also being found in the milk. The second Minke whale sample contained similar amounts of lactose, 2'-fucosyllactose and A-tetrasaccharide, but no free sialyl oligosaccharides. Sialyl lacto-N-neotetraose and sialyl para lacto-N-neohexaose are novel oligosaccharides which have not been previously reported from any mammalian milk or colostrum. These and other oligosaccharides of Minke whale milk may have biological significance as anti-infection factors, protecting the suckling young against bacteria and viruses. The lactose of Minke whale milk could be a source of energy for them. The beluga whale milk contained trace amounts of Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(3'-N-acetylneuraminyllactose), but the question of whether it contained free lactose could not be clarified. Therefore

  16. Ecological risk assessment in a large river-reservoir. 8: Experimental study of the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on reproductive success in mink

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Aulerich, R.J.; Bursian, S.J.; Lewis, L.

    1999-04-01

    As a component of an ecological risk assessment of Poplar Creek (located on the Oak Ridge Reservation [ORR]) and the Clinch River (a large river-reservoir system), fish from Poplar Creek, the Clinch River, and Atlantic Ocean were fed to ranch mink to evaluate reproductive success. Five diets, each composed of 75% fish and 25% normal ranch mink chow, were prepared. Two diets served as reference diets and contained 75% Atlantic Ocean fish or 75% Clinch River fish collected above the ORR. The fish portion of the remaining three diets contained 25, 50, and 75% fish collected from Poplar Creek and 50, 25, and 0% ocean fish, respectively. Five mink groups (eight females and two males each) were each fed one of the prepared diets for 196 days. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were determined in diets and various mink tissues, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was determined in liver tissue, and reproductive success was evaluated. Concentrations of PCB were greatest in the diet composed of 75% Poplar Creek fish and in tissues from mink fed this diet and their offspring. There was a trend toward decreased adult female and kit weights and reduced mean litter size in mink fed diets containing 75% Poplar Creek fish; however, at 6 weeks of age, kit survival was similar among diet groups. Liver EROD activity significantly increased in adult female mink fed 50 and 75% Poplar Creek fish diets. Estimated dietary concentrations of PCBs were similar to or slightly lower than concentrations associated with adverse effects in experimentally dosed mink. Mercury (Hg) concentrations previously reported in these same mink were below that associated with adverse effects, and there was no indication of additive or synergistic effects from exposure to PCBs plus Hg. It is unlikely that population-level reproductive effects would be observed in mink consuming fish from Poplar Creek on the ORR.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of a “phiKMV-Like” Bacteriophage and Its Therapeutic Effect on Mink Hemorrhagic Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhenhui; Zhang, Jiancheng; Niu, Yan D.; Cui, Naizhong; Ma, Yongsheng; Cao, Fang; Jin, Liji; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink both in vitro and in vivo. Five Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) strains were isolated from lungs of mink with suspected hemorrhagic pneumonia and their identity was confirmed by morphological observation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Compared to P. aeruginosa strains isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia in 2002, these isolates were more resistant to antibiotics selected. A lytic phage vB_PaeP_PPA-ABTNL (PPA-ABTNL) of the Podoviridae family was isolated from hospital sewage using a P. aeruginosa isolate as host, showing broad host range against P. aeruginosa. A one-step growth curve analysis of PPA-ABTNL revealed eclipse and latent periods of 20 and 35 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 110 PFU per infected cell. Phage PPA-ABTNL significantly reduced the growth of P. aeruginosa isolates in vitro. The genome of PPA-ABTNL was 43,227 bp (62.4% G+C) containing 54 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins and antibiotic resistance determinants. Genome architecture analysis showed that PPA-ABTNL belonged to the “phiKMV-like Viruses” group. A repeated dose inhalational toxicity study using PPA-ABTNL crude preparation was conducted in mice and no significantly abnormal histological changes, morbidity or mortality were observed. There was no indication of any potential risk associated with using PPA-ABTNL as a therapeutic agent. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that atomization by ultrasonic treatment could efficiently deliver phage to the lungs of mink and a dose of 10 multiplicity of infection was optimal for treating mink hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrated the potential for phage to fight P. aeruginosa involved in mink lung infections when administered by means of ultrasonic nebulization. PMID:25615639

  18. Replication of Aleutian Mink Disease Parvovirus In Vivo Is Influenced by Residues in the VP2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James M.; McCrackin Stevenson, Mary A.; Bloom, Marshall E.

    1999-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is the etiological agent of Aleutian disease of mink. Several ADV isolates have been identified which vary in the severity of the disease they elicit. The isolate ADV-Utah replicates to high levels in mink, causing severe Aleutian disease that results in death within 6 to 8 weeks, but does not replicate in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells. In contrast, ADV-G replicates in CrFK cells but does not replicate in mink. The ability of the virus to replicate in vivo is determined by virally encoded determinants contained within a defined region of the VP2 gene (M. E. Bloom, J. M. Fox, B. D. Berry, K. L. Oie, and J. B. Wolfinbarger. Virology 251:288–296, 1998). Within this region, ADV-G and ADV-Utah differ at only five amino acid residues. To determine which of these five amino acid residues comprise the in vivo replication determinant, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to individually convert the amino acid residues of ADV-G to those of ADV-Utah. A virus in which the ADV-G VP2 residue at 534, histidine (H), was converted to an aspartic acid (D) of ADV-Utah replicated in CrFK cells as efficiently as ADV-G. H534D also replicated in mink, causing transient viremia at 30 days postinfection and a strong antibody response. Animals infected with this virus developed diffuse hepatocellular microvesicular steatosis, an abnormal accumulation of intracellular fat, but did not develop classical Aleutian disease. Thus, the substitution of an aspartic acid at residue 534 for a histidine allowed replication of ADV-G in mink, but the ability to replicate was not sufficient to cause classical Aleutian disease. PMID:10482625

  19. Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation (Two-Year Gradient Stress Relaxation Testing Update)

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; King, James

    2009-09-01

    Min-K 1400TE insulation material was characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions. A previous report (ORNL/TM-2008/089) discusses the testing and results from the original three year duration of the project. This testing included compression testing to determine the effect of sample size and test specimen geometry on the compressive strength of Min-K, subsequent compression testing on cylindrical specimens to determine loading rates for stress relaxation testing, isothermal stress relaxation testing, and gradient stress relaxation testing. This report presents the results from the continuation of the gradient temperature stress relaxation testing and the resulting updated modeling.

  20. Comparative toxicology of tetrachlorobiphenyls in mink and rats. I. Changes in hepatic enzyme activity and smooth endoplasmic reticulum volume

    SciTech Connect

    Gillette, D.M.; Corey, R.D.; Helferich, W.G.; McFarland, J.M.; Lowenstine, L.J.; Moody, D.E.; Hammock, B.D.; Shull, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Mink have been shown previously to be extraordinarily sensitive to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related classes of halogenated hydrocarbons. This study explored several aspects of the acute response of mink to two purified tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) congeners and compared their response with that of the rat, a less sensitive and more thoroughly studied species. Young female pastel mink and young female Sprague-Dawley rats received three daily intraperitoneal injections with equimolar doses of either 2,4,2',4'-TCB or 3,4,3',4'-TCB, and were sacrificed after 7 days. Two control groups were used for each species; one was allowed free access to food and the other was pair-fed to the 3,4,3',4'-TCB treatment group. Rats remained clinically normal, while mink treated with 3,4,3',4'-TCB developed severe anorexia, diarrhea, and melena. Both species had significant increases in hepatic cytochrome P-450 content and the characteristic shift in the spectral maxima from 450 to 448 nm in the 3,4,3',4'-TCB- but not in the 2,4,2',4'-TCB-treated animals. Rats but not mink had increased activities of several hepatic monooxygenases in response to both congeners while microsomal epoxide hydrolase was increased in rats after 2,4,2',4'-TCB and in mink after 3,4,3',4'-TCB. Significant increases in the relative volume of smooth endoplasmic reticulum within hepatocytes of 2,4,2',4'-TCB-treated rats but not mink were confirmed by ultrastructural morphometry. Accumulation of both congeners was greater in adipose tissue than in the liver of either species. In both species, concentrations in adipose tissue were much greater for 2,4,2',4'-TCB than for 3,4,3',4'-TCB. PCB toxicosis in mink, as in other species, appeared to be dependent on isomeric arrangement of chlorine substituents. However, unlike other species, the toxicosis was not associated with biochemical or morphological evidence of hepatic enzyme induction.

  1. Structure and dynamics of minke whale surfacing patterns in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Fredrik; Lynas, Ned M; Lusseau, David; Tscherter, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Animal behavioral patterns can help us understand physiological and ecological constraints on animals and its influence on fitness. The surfacing patterns of aquatic air-breathing mammals constitute a behavioral pattern that has evolved as a trade-off between the need to replenish oxygen stores at the surface and the need to conduct other activities underwater. This study aims to better understand the surfacing pattern of a marine top predator, the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), by investigating how their dive duration and surfacing pattern changes across their activity range. Activities were classified into resting, traveling, surface feeding and foraging at depth. For each activity, we classified dives into short and long dives and then estimated the temporal dependence between dive types. We found that minke whales modified their surfacing pattern in an activity-specific manner, both by changing the expression of their dives (i.e. density distribution) and the temporal dependence (transition probability) between dive types. As the depth of the prey layer increased between activities, the surfacing pattern of foraging whales became increasingly structured, going from a pattern dominated by long dives, when feeding at the surface, to a pattern where isolated long dives were followed by an increasing number of breaths (i.e. short dives), when the whale was foraging at depth. A similar shift in surfacing pattern occurred when prey handling time (inferred from surface corralling maneuvers) increased for surface feeding whales. The surfacing pattern also differed between feeding and non-feeding whales. Resting whales did not structure their surfacing pattern, while traveling whales did, possibly as a way to minimize cost of transport. Our results also suggest that minke whales might balance their oxygen level over multiple, rather than single, dive cycles.

  2. Retinal function and morphology are altered in cattle infected with the prion disease transmissible mink encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, J D; Greenlee, J J; Hamir, A N; Richt, J A; Greenlee, M H West

    2009-09-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of diseases that result in progressive and invariably fatal neurologic disease in both animals and humans. TSEs are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal protease-resistant form of the prion protein in the central nervous system. Transmission of infectious TSEs is believed to occur via ingestion of prion protein-contaminated material. This material is also involved in the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") to humans, which resulted in the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Abnormal prion protein has been reported in the retina of TSE-affected cattle, but despite these observations, the specific effect of abnormal prion protein on retinal morphology and function has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize potential functional and morphologic abnormalities in the retinas of cattle infected with a bovine-adapted isolate of transmissible mink encephalopathy. We used electroretinography and immunohistochemistry to examine retinas from 10 noninoculated and 5 transmissible mink encephalopathy-inoculated adult Holstein steers. Here we show altered retinal function, as evidenced by prolonged implicit time of the electroretinogram b-wave, in transmissible mink encephalopathy-infected cattle before the onset of clinical illness. We also demonstrate disruption of rod bipolar cell synaptic terminals, indicated by decreased immunoreactivity for the alpha isoform of protein kinase C and vesicular glutamate transporter 1, and activation of Müller glia, as evidenced by increased glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase expression, in the retinas of these cattle at the time of euthanasia due to clinical deterioration. This is the first study to identify both functional and morphologic alterations in the retinas of TSE-infected cattle. Our results support future efforts to focus on the retina for the development of

  3. Effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints for environmental research.

    PubMed

    Spörndly-Nees, Ellinor; Ekstedt, Elisabeth; Magnusson, Ulf; Fakhrzadeh, Azadeh; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L; Holm, Lena

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in using wild animals to monitor the real-life cocktail effect of environmental chemicals on male reproduction. However, practical difficulties, such as long distances to the laboratory, generally prolong the time between euthanisation and specimen handling. For instance, tissue fixation is often performed on frozen material or on material where deterioration has started, which may affect tissue morphology. This study examined the effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints in order to determine robust endpoints in suboptimally handled specimens. Sexually mature farmed mink (n=30) selected at culling were divided into six groups and subjected to different time intervals between euthanisation and fixation or freezing: 0 hours (fixed immediately post mortem), 6 hours, 18 hours, 30 hours, 42 hours, or frozen 6 hours post mortem and thawed overnight. Unaffected endpoints when pre-fixation storage was extended to 30 hours included: area and diameter of the seminiferous tubules, length and weight of the testes, and acrosomes marked with Gata-4. Epithelial height, Sertoli cells marked with Gata-4 and cell morphology were affected endpoints after 6 hours of storage. Freezing the tissue prior to fixation severely altered cell morphology and reduced testicular weight, tubular diameter and area. Morphological changes seen after 6 hours included shredded germ cells and excess cytoplasm in seminiferous tubular lumen, chromatin rearrangements and increased germ cell death. Extended delay before fixation and freezing affected many endpoints in the mink testicular tissue. Some of these endpoints may mimic chemically induced effects, which is important to consider when evaluating specimens from wild animals for environmental toxicity. PMID:25933113

  4. Effect of Pre-Fixation Delay and Freezing on Mink Testicular Endpoints for Environmental Research

    PubMed Central

    Spörndly-Nees, Ellinor; Ekstedt, Elisabeth; Magnusson, Ulf; Fakhrzadeh, Azadeh; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.; Holm, Lena

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in using wild animals to monitor the real-life cocktail effect of environmental chemicals on male reproduction. However, practical difficulties, such as long distances to the laboratory, generally prolong the time between euthanisation and specimen handling. For instance, tissue fixation is often performed on frozen material or on material where deterioration has started, which may affect tissue morphology. This study examined the effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints in order to determine robust endpoints in suboptimally handled specimens. Sexually mature farmed mink (n=30) selected at culling were divided into six groups and subjected to different time intervals between euthanisation and fixation or freezing: 0 hours (fixed immediately post mortem), 6 hours, 18 hours, 30 hours, 42 hours, or frozen 6 hours post mortem and thawed overnight. Unaffected endpoints when pre-fixation storage was extended to 30 hours included: area and diameter of the seminiferous tubules, length and weight of the testes, and acrosomes marked with Gata-4. Epithelial height, Sertoli cells marked with Gata-4 and cell morphology were affected endpoints after 6 hours of storage. Freezing the tissue prior to fixation severely altered cell morphology and reduced testicular weight, tubular diameter and area. Morphological changes seen after 6 hours included shredded germ cells and excess cytoplasm in seminiferous tubular lumen, chromatin rearrangements and increased germ cell death. Extended delay before fixation and freezing affected many endpoints in the mink testicular tissue. Some of these endpoints may mimic chemically induced effects, which is important to consider when evaluating specimens from wild animals for environmental toxicity. PMID:25933113

  5. Structure and dynamics of minke whale surfacing patterns in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Fredrik; Lynas, Ned M; Lusseau, David; Tscherter, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Animal behavioral patterns can help us understand physiological and ecological constraints on animals and its influence on fitness. The surfacing patterns of aquatic air-breathing mammals constitute a behavioral pattern that has evolved as a trade-off between the need to replenish oxygen stores at the surface and the need to conduct other activities underwater. This study aims to better understand the surfacing pattern of a marine top predator, the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), by investigating how their dive duration and surfacing pattern changes across their activity range. Activities were classified into resting, traveling, surface feeding and foraging at depth. For each activity, we classified dives into short and long dives and then estimated the temporal dependence between dive types. We found that minke whales modified their surfacing pattern in an activity-specific manner, both by changing the expression of their dives (i.e. density distribution) and the temporal dependence (transition probability) between dive types. As the depth of the prey layer increased between activities, the surfacing pattern of foraging whales became increasingly structured, going from a pattern dominated by long dives, when feeding at the surface, to a pattern where isolated long dives were followed by an increasing number of breaths (i.e. short dives), when the whale was foraging at depth. A similar shift in surfacing pattern occurred when prey handling time (inferred from surface corralling maneuvers) increased for surface feeding whales. The surfacing pattern also differed between feeding and non-feeding whales. Resting whales did not structure their surfacing pattern, while traveling whales did, possibly as a way to minimize cost of transport. Our results also suggest that minke whales might balance their oxygen level over multiple, rather than single, dive cycles. PMID:25970425

  6. Structure and Dynamics of Minke Whale Surfacing Patterns in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Fredrik; Lusseau, David; Tscherter, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Animal behavioral patterns can help us understand physiological and ecological constraints on animals and its influence on fitness. The surfacing patterns of aquatic air-breathing mammals constitute a behavioral pattern that has evolved as a trade-off between the need to replenish oxygen stores at the surface and the need to conduct other activities underwater. This study aims to better understand the surfacing pattern of a marine top predator, the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), by investigating how their dive duration and surfacing pattern changes across their activity range. Activities were classified into resting, traveling, surface feeding and foraging at depth. For each activity, we classified dives into short and long dives and then estimated the temporal dependence between dive types. We found that minke whales modified their surfacing pattern in an activity-specific manner, both by changing the expression of their dives (i.e. density distribution) and the temporal dependence (transition probability) between dive types. As the depth of the prey layer increased between activities, the surfacing pattern of foraging whales became increasingly structured, going from a pattern dominated by long dives, when feeding at the surface, to a pattern where isolated long dives were followed by an increasing number of breaths (i.e. short dives), when the whale was foraging at depth. A similar shift in surfacing pattern occurred when prey handling time (inferred from surface corralling maneuvers) increased for surface feeding whales. The surfacing pattern also differed between feeding and non-feeding whales. Resting whales did not structure their surfacing pattern, while traveling whales did, possibly as a way to minimize cost of transport. Our results also suggest that minke whales might balance their oxygen level over multiple, rather than single, dive cycles. PMID:25970425

  7. The effects of diisopropylmethylphosphonate, a by-product of the production of sarin and a contaminant in drinking water at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, on female mink.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2003-04-01

    This paper challenges the interpretation of the report on the effects of DIMP on mink with respect to mortality causation and organ-specific toxicity (i.e., liver, kidney, and thymus). During the second generation (F(1)) of a two generation toxicity study by on the effects of DIMP on female brown Ranch Wild mink, a cluster of six premature deaths occurred, being attributed to an unintentional anesthetic overdose that induced a stress-related syndrome rather than DIMP exposure. The present paper reveals that the six adult female mink (i.e., four DIMP treated and two controls) had medical conditions that pre-existed the administration of anesthetic. Three of the four DIMP-exposed mink that died displayed evidence of medically significant red blood cell damage and immune system involvement, while all six mink had elevated blood serum enzymes (ALT/AST) indicative of liver damage along with confirmatory histopathology indicating severe liver damage. These findings challenge the conclusion of Bucci et al. that the six mink deaths were solely caused by stress induced by anesthesia, and suggest DIMP related pre-existing conditions (e.g., red blood cell damage and elevated ALT/AST) may have contributed to the deaths in DIMP-treated mink. also inexplicably combined both the pregnant and non-pregnant animal data, thereby precluding an assessment of the effects of DIMP on pregnant and non-pregnant mink. A re-evaluation of the findings of the data revealed that pregnancy/lactation significantly influenced the incidence of physiologic alterations and histological lesions in the female mink for the kidney, liver, and thymus, findings that were masked by the combining of pregnant and non-pregnant results. Further evaluations indicated that DIMP treatment also significantly induced liver lesions in pregnant mink and kidney lesions in both pregnant and non-pregnant mink. These findings challenge the conclusions of Bucci et al. concerning the effects of DIMP on mink as well as

  8. Black crystal: a novel color mutant in the American mink (Mustela vision Schreber).

    PubMed

    Trapezov, O V

    1997-01-01

    Black crystal, a new mutant of coat color pattern occurring in the American mink in the course of selection for domestic behavior, is described. A salient feature of the mutation is the appearance of white guard hairs producing a veil-like covering of the body. In the Black crystal homozygote, coat color is of the Himalayan type. Breeding data demonstrate that the novel color phase is inherited as a monogenic autosomal semidominant trait. The mutant gene is designated as Black crystal and is symbolized by Cr. The Cr gene is not allelic to the multiple-allelic series at the Black cross locus.

  9. Flow-cytometric determination of genotoxic effects of exposure to petroleum in mink and sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bickham, J.W.; Mazet, J.A.; Blake, J.; Smolen, M.J.; Lou, Y.; Ballachey, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the genotoxic effects of crude oil on mink and sea otters, In the first experiment, the effects on mink of chronic exposure to weathered Prudhoe Bay crude oil were studied, Female mink were fed a diet that included weathered crude oil for a period of 3 weeks prior to mating, during pregnancy and until weaning. Kits were exposed through lactation and by diet after weaning until 4 months of age. Kidney and liver tissues of the kits were examined using flow cytometry (FCM) and it was found that the genome size was increased in kidney samples from the experimental group compared to the control group. This effect was probably due to some type of DNA amplification and it could have been inherited from the exposed mothers or have been a somatic response to oil exposure in the pups, No evidence of clastogenic effects, as measured by the coefficient of variation (CV) of the G(1) peak, was found in kidney or liver tissue. In the second experiment, yearling female mink were exposed either by diet or externally to crude oil or bunker C fuel oil. Evidence for clastogenic damage was found in spleen tissue for the exposure groups, but not in kidney tissue. No evidence of increased genome size was observed. In the third experiment, blood was obtained from wild-caught sea otters in Prince William Sound. The sea otters represented two populations: one from western Prince William Sound that was potentially exposed to oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and a reference population from eastern Prince William Sound that did not receive oil from the spill. The spill had occurred 1.5 years prior to obtaining the blood samples. Although the mean CVs did not differ between the populations, the exposed population had a significantly higher variance of CV measurements and five out of 15 animals from the exposed population had CVs higher than the 95% confidence limits of the reference population, It is concluded that FCM is a sensitive indicator

  10. Minke whale song, spacing, and acoustic communication on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedamke, Jason

    An inquisitive population of minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) that concentrates on the Great Barrier Reef during its suspected breeding season offered a unique opportunity to conduct a multi-faceted study of a little-known Balaenopteran species' acoustic behavior. Chapter one investigates whether the minke whale is the source of an unusual, complex, and stereotyped sound recorded, the "star-wars" vocalization. A hydrophone array was towed from a vessel to record sounds from circling whales for subsequent localization of sound sources. These acoustic locations were matched with shipboard and in-water observations of the minke whale, demonstrating the minke whale was the source of this unusual sound. Spectral and temporal features of this sound and the source levels at which it is produced are described. The repetitive "star-wars" vocalization appears similar to the songs of other whale species and has characteristics consistent with reproductive advertisement displays. Chapter two investigates whether song (i.e. the "star-wars" vocalization) has a spacing function through passive monitoring of singer spatial patterns with a moored five-sonobuoy array. Active song playback experiments to singers were also conducted to further test song function. This study demonstrated that singers naturally maintain spatial separations between them through a nearest-neighbor analysis and animated tracks of singer movements. In response to active song playbacks, singers generally moved away and repeated song more quickly suggesting that song repetition interval may help regulate spatial interaction and singer separation. These results further indicate the Great Barrier Reef may be an important reproductive habitat for this species. Chapter three investigates whether song is part of a potentially graded repertoire of acoustic signals. Utilizing both vessel-based recordings and remote recordings from the sonobuoy array, temporal and spectral features, source levels, and

  11. A frameshift mutation in the LYST gene is responsible for the Aleutian color and the associated Chédiak-Higashi syndrome in American mink.

    PubMed

    Anistoroaei, R; Krogh, A K; Christensen, K

    2013-04-01

    One of the colors of mink is Aleutian (aa)-a specific gun-metal gray pigmentation of the fur-commonly used in combination with other color loci to generate popular colors such as Violet (aammpp) and Sapphire (aapp). The Aleutian color allele is a manifestation of mink Chédiak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), which has been described in humans and several other species. As with forms of CHS in other species, we report that the mink CHS is linked to the lysosomal trafficking regulator ( LYST ) gene. Furthermore, we have identified a base deletion (c.9468delC) in exon 40 of LYST, which causes a frameshift and virtually terminates the LYST product prematurely (p.Leu3156Phefs*37). We investigated the blood parameters of three wild-type mink and three CHS mink. No difference in the platelet number between the two groups was observed, but an accumulation of platelets between the groups appears different when collagen is used as a coagulant. Microscopic analysis of peripheral blood indicates giant inclusions in the neutrophils of the Aleutian mink types. Molecular findings at the LYST locus enable the development of genetic tests for analyzing the color selection in American mink. PMID:22762706

  12. Noninvasive monitoring of female reproductive hormone metabolites in the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola).

    PubMed

    Nagl, Astrid; Kneidinger, Nadja; Kiik, Kairi; Lindeberg, Heli; Maran, Tiit; Schwarzenberger, Franz

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the reproductive physiology of female European mink (Mustela lutreola) to augment the available information on estrus, ovulation, and pregnancy with the long-term goal of supporting ex situ breeding management of this highly endangered species. Fecal reproductive hormone metabolites were measured using EIAs for estrogen and 20-oxo-pregnane metabolites. Seasonal hormone profiles were established. A comparison of hormone fluctuations in pregnant and nonpregnant females showed that both estrogen and 20-oxo-pregnane metabolites were significantly elevated during gestation, which is 42 days in length. Delayed implantation or embryonic diapause does not occur in this species. Litter size was correlated with 20-oxo-pregnane levels but not with estrogen concentrations. During lactation, 20-oxo-pregnane metabolite levels remained higher than in nonpregnant females. The breeding season was characterized by peaks in vaginal cornified cells and fecal estrogen metabolite levels. Up to four peaks in estrogen levels were identified and confirmed that European mink are seasonally polyestrous. The results of 20-oxo-pregnane measurements indicated that hCG can be applied to induce ovulation. With the establishment of this noninvasive method, we present a new tool to support population management of this species. PMID:26324114

  13. [Bioactive Effect of the Preparation Biostyl on the Reproductive Function of Different Genotypes of American Mink].

    PubMed

    Trapezov, O V; Zemljanitskajia, E I; Rasputina, O V; Naumkin, I V; Trapezova, L I

    2016-01-01

    The different role of coat color mutations in the American mink on the per os effect of the biologically active preparation Biostyl was shown. The number of kits per female was the same in all control genotypes, including Standard (+/+ +/+), sapphire (a/a p/p), and lavender (a/a m/m): 4.4 ± 0.4, 4.4 ± 0.5, and 4.3 ± 0.5, respectively. Experimental groups of these genotypes have shown a great contrast among each other: stimulation of the reproductive function was 5.2 ± 0.3 in Standard minks, while suppression of the reproductive function was 3.8 ± 0.6, and 2.3 ± 0.5 in the double recessive mutants sapphire and lavender, respectively. The differentiation in body mass between experimental and control newborn Standard kits was not revealed. A significant decrease in the body mass of newborn experimental sapphire kits as compared to control group in a sex-specific manner was registered. PMID:27183801

  14. Implementation and validation of a sensitive PCR detection method in the eradication campaign against Aleutian mink disease virus.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Trine H; Christensen, Laurids S; Chriél, Mariann; Uttenthal, Ase; Hammer, Anne Sofie

    2011-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a severe progressive disease causing multiple different clinical syndromes in mink. In Denmark, the disease is notifiable and under official control. The control programme, based on serological screening, has confined successfully AMDV to the northern part of Denmark. However, re-infections and new introductions of virus into farms require a confirmatory virological test to verify the positive test results of single animals and ultimately to investigate disease transmission. A one step PCR amplifying a 374-base fragment of the NS1 gene of AMDV was compared to the counter-current immune electrophoresis (CIE) routinely used in the serological screening programme. Mink organs (n=299) obtained from 55 recently infected farms and 8 non-infected farms from 2008 to 2010 were tested by PCR, and the results were found to have a high correlation with the serological status of the mink. The relative diagnostic sensitivity of the PCR was 94.7%, and the relative diagnostic specificity was 97.9% when read in parallel with the CIE. PCR positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis revealed high similarity within the analysed AMDV strains and to AMDV strains described previously. PMID:20951744

  15. Identification of a novel Aleutian mink disease virus B-cell epitope using a monoclonal antibody against VP2 protein.

    PubMed

    Yi, Li; Cheng, Yuening; Zhang, Miao; Cao, Zhigang; Tong, Mingwei; Cheng, Shipeng; Yan, Xijun

    2016-09-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a parvovirus that causes an immune complex-mediated disease in minks. Capsid protein VP2 is a major structural viral protein and can be used to diagnose AMDV. In this study, a specific monoclonal antibody, 1M13, was produced against the AMDV VP2 protein (amino acids 291-502). A linear VP2-protein epitope was identified by subjecting a series of partially overlapping synthesized peptides to be enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. The results indicated that (386)HLQQNFSTRYIYD(398) was the minimal linear epitope that could be recognized by mAb 1M13. ELISA assays revealed that mink anti-AMDV sera could also recognize the minimal linear epitope. Sequence alignments demonstrated that the linear epitope is highly conserved among AMDV strains except (386)H and is less conserved among Raccoon dog amdovirus, Gray fox amdovirus, Red fox amdovirus, Bat parvovirus and Mink enteritis parvovirus. Taken together, the generation of this VP2-specific mAb with a defined linear peptide epitope may have potential applications in the development of suitable diagnostic techniques for AMDV. PMID:27354304

  16. Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata).

    PubMed

    Dell, Leigh-Anne; Karlsson, Karl Ae; Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Siegel, Jerome M; Manger, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    The current study analyzed the nuclear organization of the neural systems related to the control and regulation of sleep and wake in the basal forebrain, diencephalon, midbrain, and pons of the minke whale, a mysticete cetacean. While odontocete cetaceans sleep in an unusual manner, with unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS) and suppressed REM sleep, it is unclear whether the mysticete whales show a similar sleep pattern. Previously, we detailed a range of features in the odontocete brain that appear to be related to odontocete-type sleep, and here present our analysis of these features in the minke whale brain. All neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals and the harbor porpoise were present in the minke whale, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems, and the GABAergic elements of these nuclei. Quantitative analysis revealed that the numbers of pontine cholinergic (274,242) and noradrenergic (203,686) neurons, and hypothalamic orexinergic neurons (277,604), are markedly higher than other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. Small telencephalic commissures (anterior, corpus callosum, and hippocampal), an enlarged posterior commissure, supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic cells, and an enlarged peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex of the minke whale, all indicate that the suite of neural characteristics thought to be involved in the control of USWS and the suppression of REM in the odontocete cetaceans are present in the minke whale. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2018-2035, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mustelids in Finland - a cross-sectional epidemiological and phylogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Knuuttila, A; Aaltonen, K; Virtala, A-M K; Henttonen, H; Isomursu, M; Leimann, A; Maran, T; Saarma, U; Timonen, P; Vapalahti, O; Sironen, T

    2015-06-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) can cause severe immune-complex-mediated disease in American mink. AMDV has also been detected in several other mustelid species with potential negative impact on their health and population. A molecular and cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to obtain data on the prevalence, distribution, transmission and diversity of AMDV strains in Finnish free-ranging mustelids and risk factors associated with infection. The presence of anti-AMDV antibodies and/or AMDV DNA was tested from 308 samples representing eight mustelid species and 17 administrative regions. Positive samples were detected across Finland, and in 54 % (31/57) of feral American mink, 27 % (7/26) of European badgers and 7 % (1/14) of European polecats. Samples from Eurasian otters, European pine martens, least weasels, stoat and wolverine were negative. Major risk factors for infection were the species American mink with 335 and badger with 74 times higher odds than other species, and the years 2006-2009 with five times higher odds than the years 2010-2014. No clustering according to species, geographical origin or year was evident in phylogeny, except for four divergent sequences from Estonian badgers that formed a separate phylogroup distinct from other AMDV strains. This study showed that AMDV was prevalent in certain species of Finnish free-ranging mustelids and widely distributed across Finland. Furthermore, the free-ranging mustelids carried both strains similar to those found in farmed mink, but also distinct strains that may represent novel amdoparvoviruses. PMID:25667324

  18. The nature of aleutian disease in mink. I. Two forms of hypergammaglobulinemia as related to method of disease transmission and type of lesion.

    PubMed

    Bazeley, P L

    1976-09-01

    Aleutian mink disease is generally considered to precipitate spontaneously in ranch mink, with a lethal outcome. A two-year field study of a herd of susceptible mutant mink (sapphires and violets), however, has shown that all individual mink were affected from birth; the well state consisted of periodic low-level hypergammaglobulinemia accompanied by minute vascular occlusions. The spontaneous lethal change in an individual appeared to arise during one of these hypergammaglobulinemic episodes and thus represented a failure of the immune system to control an inherent virus-induced mononucleosis. The fact that the entire herd was affected by the periodic form from birth is considered strong evidence for vertical transmission at a rate of 100%. The incidence of spontaneous precipitation was found to be dependent on the level of hypergammaglobulinemia in the mother during pregnancy. PMID:977996

  19. The nature of aleutian disease in mink. I. Two forms of hypergammaglobulinemia as related to method of disease transmission and type of lesion.

    PubMed

    Bazeley, P L

    1976-09-01

    Aleutian mink disease is generally considered to precipitate spontaneously in ranch mink, with a lethal outcome. A two-year field study of a herd of susceptible mutant mink (sapphires and violets), however, has shown that all individual mink were affected from birth; the well state consisted of periodic low-level hypergammaglobulinemia accompanied by minute vascular occlusions. The spontaneous lethal change in an individual appeared to arise during one of these hypergammaglobulinemic episodes and thus represented a failure of the immune system to control an inherent virus-induced mononucleosis. The fact that the entire herd was affected by the periodic form from birth is considered strong evidence for vertical transmission at a rate of 100%. The incidence of spontaneous precipitation was found to be dependent on the level of hypergammaglobulinemia in the mother during pregnancy.

  20. Isolation and identification of bat viruses closely related to human, porcine and mink orthoreoviruses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing-Lou; Tan, Bing; Wang, Bo; Li, Wen; Wang, Ning; Luo, Chu-Ming; Wang, Mei-Niang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Bei; Peng, Cheng; Ge, Xing-Yi; Zhang, Li-Biao; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2015-12-01

    Bats have been identified as natural reservoirs of many viruses, including reoviruses. Recent studies have demonstrated the interspecies transmission of bat reoviruses to humans. In this study, we report the isolation and molecular characterization of six strains of mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) from Hipposideros and Myotis spp. These isolates were grouped into MRV serotype 1, 2 or 3 based on the sequences of the S1 gene, which encodes the outer coat protein s1. Importantly, we found that three of six bat MRV strains shared high similarity with MRVs isolated from diseased minks, piglets or humans based on the S1 segment, suggesting that interspecies transmission has occurred between bats and humans or animals. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 10 segments showed that the genomic segments of these bat MRVs had different evolution lineages, suggesting that these bat MRVs may have arisen through reassortment of MRVs of different origins. PMID:26475793

  1. Molecular characterization of the small nonstructural proteins of parvovirus Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) during infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qinfeng; Luo, Yong; Cheng, Fang; Best, Sonja M; Bloom, Marshall E; Qiu, Jianming

    2014-03-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the only member in genus Amdovirus of the family Parvoviridae. During AMDV infection, six species of viral transcripts are generated from one precursor mRNA through alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation. In addition to the large non-structural protein NS1, two small non-structural proteins, NS2 and NS3, are putatively encoded (Qiu J, et al., 2006. J. Virol. 80 654-662). However, these two proteins have not been experimentally demonstrated during virus infection, and nothing is known about their function. Here, we studied the nonstructural protein expression profile of AMDV, and for the first time, confirmed expression of NS2 and NS3 during infection, and identified their intracellular localization. More importantly, we provided evidence that both NS2 and NS3 are necessary for AMDV replication. PMID:24606679

  2. Molecular Characterization of the Small Nonstructural Proteins of Parvovirus Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) During Infection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qinfeng; Luo, Yong; Cheng, Fang; Best, Sonja M.; Bloom, Marshall E.; Qiu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the only member in genus Amdovirus of the family Parvoviridae. During AMDV infection, six species of viral transcripts are generated from one precursor mRNA through alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation. In addition to the large non-structural protein NS1, two small non-structural proteins, NS2 and NS3, are putatively encoded (Qiu J, et al: Journal of Virology, 80:654–62, 2006). However, these two proteins have not been experimentally demonstrated during virus infection, and nothing is known about their function. Here, we studied the nonstructural protein expression profile of AMDV, and for the first time, confirmed expression of NS2 and NS3 during infection, and identified their intracellular localization. More importantly, we provided evidence that both NS2 and NS3 are necessary for AMDV replication. PMID:24606679

  3. Effects of different dietary manganese levels on growth performance and N balance of growing mink (Neovision vision).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H H; Zhou, N; Zhang, T T; Bao, K; Xu, C; Song, X C; Li, G Y

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of dietary manganese levels on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, and N balance of minks during growing period. In experiment 1, 75 healthy male minks (60 days old) were selected and randomly divided into five groups with different types of diet. The diet was supplemented with 0 (control), 50, 100, 300, and 600 ppm of manganese as MnSO4 of dry matter (DM) in basic diet, respectively. From early July to middle September, the results showed that the final body weights of minks were significantly affected by diets (P < 0.05). Average daily gains (ADG) were significantly higher in the 300-ppm manganese group than those in other groups. The ratio of feed to body weight gain (F/G) was significantly affected by manganese level (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, 45 male minks (75 days old) with the same body weight were selected from each group of experiment 1 to carry out the nutrient digestion and N-balance tests which lasted for 4 days for the collection of the feces and urine, and the diets and treatment codes were same as in experiment 1. The results showed that no significant differences were found in DM, crude protein (CP), and crude carbohydrate (CC) digestibility among all groups (P > 0.05), but ether extract (EE) and gross energy (GE) digestibility were all the highest in the 300-ppm group. N intake and fecal N were similar among all groups (P > 0.05). Urinary N was lower in the 300-ppm group; in contrast, N retention was higher in this group (P < 0.05). In conclusion of experiment 1 and experiment 2, the diet supplemented with 300 ppm of manganese (as manganese sulfate) could improve the growth performance and increase the EE and GE digestibility of mink during the growing period and moreover reduce the nitrogen emissions to the environment, and the optimal total manganese level in mink's diet was 409.16 in DM during the growing period.

  4. The capsid proteins of Aleutian mink disease virus activate caspases and are specifically cleaved during infection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Chen, Aaron Yun; Best, Sonja M; Bloom, Marshall E; Pintel, David; Qiu, Jianming

    2010-03-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is currently the only known member of the genus Amdovirus in the family Parvoviridae. It is the etiological agent of Aleutian disease of mink. We have previously shown that a small protein with a molecular mass of approximately 26 kDa was present during AMDV infection and following transfection of capsid expression constructs (J. Qiu, F. Cheng, L. R. Burger, and D. Pintel, J. Virol. 80:654-662, 2006). In this study, we report that the capsid proteins were specifically cleaved at aspartic acid residue 420 (D420) during virus infection, resulting in the previously observed cleavage product. Mutation of a single amino acid residue at D420 abolished the specific cleavage. Expression of the capsid proteins alone in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells reproduced the cleavage of the capsid proteins in virus infection. More importantly, capsid protein expression alone induced active caspases, of which caspase-10 was the most active. Active caspases, in turn, cleaved capsid proteins in vivo. Our results also showed that active caspase-7 specifically cleaved capsid proteins at D420 in vitro. These results suggest that viral capsid proteins alone induce caspase activation, resulting in cleavage of capsid proteins. We also provide evidence that AMDV mutants resistant to caspase-mediated capsid cleavage increased virus production approximately 3- to 5-fold in CrFK cells compared to that produced from the parent virus AMDV-G at 37 degrees C but not at 31.8 degrees C. Collectively, our results indicate that caspase activity plays multiple roles in AMDV infection and that cleavage of the capsid proteins might have a role in regulating persistent infection of AMDV. PMID:20042496

  5. In situ molecular hybridization for detection of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus DNA by using strand-specific probes: identification of target cells for viral replication in cell cultures and in mink kits with virus-induced interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Alexandersen, S; Bloom, M E; Wolfinbarger, J; Race, R E

    1987-08-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were utilized in in situ molecular hybridization specifically to localize replicative form DNA of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Throughout in vitro infection, duplex replicative form DNA of ADV was located in the cell nuclei. Single-stranded virion DNA and capsid proteins were present in the nuclei early in infection, but were later translocated to the cytoplasm. In neonatal mink, ADV causes acute interstitial pneumonia, and replicative forms of viral DNA were found predominantly in alveolar type II cells of the lung. Viral DNA was also found in other organs, but strand-specific probes made it possible to show that most of this DNA represented virus sequestration. In addition, glomerular immune complexes containing intact virions were detected, suggesting that ADV virions may have a role in the genesis of ADV-induced glomerulonephritis.

  6. The Role of Misshapen NCK-related kinase (MINK), a Novel Ste20 Family Kinase, in the IRES-Mediated Protein Translation of Human Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Shi Yun; Ong, Bryan Kit Teck; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2015-01-01

    Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) commonly causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in young children, and occasional occurrences of neurological complications can be fatal. In this study, a high-throughput cell-based screening on the serine/threonine kinase siRNA library was performed to identify potential antiviral agents against EV71 replication. Among the hits, Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase (MINK) was selected for detailed analysis due to its strong inhibitory profile and novelty. In the investigation of the stage at which MINK is involved in EV71 replication, virus RNA transfection in MINK siRNA-treated cells continued to cause virus inhibition despite bypassing the normal entry pathway, suggesting its involvement at the post-entry stage. We have also shown that viral RNA and protein expression level was significantly reduced upon MINK silencing, suggesting its involvement in viral protein synthesis which feeds into viral RNA replication process. Through proteomic analysis and infection inhibition assay, we found that the activation of MINK was triggered by early replication events, instead of the binding and entry of the virus. Proteomic analysis on the activation profile of p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) indicated that the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was stimulated by EV71 infection upon MINK activation. Luciferase reporter assay further revealed that the translation efficiency of the EV71 internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) was reduced after blocking the MINK/p38 MAPK pathway. Further investigation on the effect of MINK silencing on heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) localisation demonstrated that cytoplasmic relocalisation of hnRNP A1 upon EV71 infection may be facilitated via the MINK/p38 MAPK pathway which then positively regulates the translation of viral RNA transcripts. These novel findings hence suggest that MINK plays a functional role in the IRES-mediated translation of EV71 viral RNA and may provide a potential target for the

  7. A review of Chilean chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), with the description of a new genus and ten new species.

    PubMed

    Stekolnikov, Alexandr A; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of chigger mites, Diaguitacarus choapensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from four lizard species of the genus Liolaemus in Choapa Province of Chile. Eight new chigger species are described from lizards of the genera Liolaemus, Phymaturus (Squamata: Liolaemidae), and Microlophus (Squamata: Tropiduridae), in Arica and Parinacota, Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaíso, and Biobío Regions: Eutrombicula nerudai sp. nov., Eutrombicula mistrali sp. nov., Eutrombicula picunche sp. nov., Microtrombicula mapuche sp. nov., Parasecia molini sp. nov., Paratrombicula philippii sp. nov., Morelacarus jorgei sp. nov., and Morelacarus camanchaca sp. nov. A new species Proschoengastia antarctica sp. nov., which is described from American mink Neovison vison on Navarino Island (Region of Magallanes and Antártica Chilena), is the most southerly chigger species, found at the distance of about 1000 km from the continent of Antarctica. Whartonacarus chaetosus (Brennan and Jones, 1961) comb. nov., which was described from Peru, is for the first time recorded in Chile (Atacama Region) and on Microlophus atacamensis. A new combination Proschoengastia macrochaeta (Brennan and Jones, 1961) comb. nov. is established. The genus Morelacarus Vercammen-Grandjean, 1973 previously known from Mexico and southwestern USA is for the first time recorded in Chile. A review of all previously described Chilean chiggers and a key to Eutrombicula species from Chile are provided. In all, 22 species from 13 genera were recorded in Chile, of which only one species (Whartonacarus chaetosus) is known outside the country. PMID:26249418

  8. Bald eagle predation on common loon egg

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, Stephen; McCarthy, Kyle P.; Laskowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) must defend against many potential egg predators during incubation, including corvids, Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), fisher (Martes pennanti), and mink (Neovison vison) (McIntyre 1988, Evers 2004, McCann et al. 2005). Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been documented as predators of both adult Common Loons and their chicks (Vliestra and Paruk 1997, Paruk et al. 1999, Erlandson et al. 2007, Piper et al. 2008). In Wisconsin, where nesting Bald Eagles are abundant (>1200 nesting pairs, >1 young/pair/year), field biologists observed four instances of eagle predation of eggs in loon nests during the period 2002–2004 (M. Meyer pers. comm.). In addition, four cases of eagle predation of incubating adult loons were inferred from evidence found at the loon nest (dozens of plucked adult loon feathers, no carcass remains) and/or loon leg, neck, and skull bones beneath two active eagle nests, including leg bones containing the bands of the nearby (<25 m) incubating adult loon. However, although loon egg predation has been associated with Bald Eagles, predation events have yet to be described in peer-reviewed literature. Here we describe a photographic observation of predation on a Common Loon egg by an immature Bald Eagle as captured by a nest surveillance video camera on Lake Umbagog, a large lake (32 km2) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (UNWR) in Maine.

  9. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter

    PubMed Central

    MORI, Kent; SUZUKI, Satoshi; KOYABU, Daisuke; KIMURA, Junpei; HAN, Sung-Yong; ENDO, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids. PMID:25715875

  10. A review of Chilean chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), with the description of a new genus and ten new species.

    PubMed

    Stekolnikov, Alexandr A; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of chigger mites, Diaguitacarus choapensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from four lizard species of the genus Liolaemus in Choapa Province of Chile. Eight new chigger species are described from lizards of the genera Liolaemus, Phymaturus (Squamata: Liolaemidae), and Microlophus (Squamata: Tropiduridae), in Arica and Parinacota, Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaíso, and Biobío Regions: Eutrombicula nerudai sp. nov., Eutrombicula mistrali sp. nov., Eutrombicula picunche sp. nov., Microtrombicula mapuche sp. nov., Parasecia molini sp. nov., Paratrombicula philippii sp. nov., Morelacarus jorgei sp. nov., and Morelacarus camanchaca sp. nov. A new species Proschoengastia antarctica sp. nov., which is described from American mink Neovison vison on Navarino Island (Region of Magallanes and Antártica Chilena), is the most southerly chigger species, found at the distance of about 1000 km from the continent of Antarctica. Whartonacarus chaetosus (Brennan and Jones, 1961) comb. nov., which was described from Peru, is for the first time recorded in Chile (Atacama Region) and on Microlophus atacamensis. A new combination Proschoengastia macrochaeta (Brennan and Jones, 1961) comb. nov. is established. The genus Morelacarus Vercammen-Grandjean, 1973 previously known from Mexico and southwestern USA is for the first time recorded in Chile. A review of all previously described Chilean chiggers and a key to Eutrombicula species from Chile are provided. In all, 22 species from 13 genera were recorded in Chile, of which only one species (Whartonacarus chaetosus) is known outside the country.

  11. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids.

  12. West Foster Creek Expansion Project 2007 HEP Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-02-01

    During April and May 2007, the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980, 1980a) analyses on five parcels collectively designated the West Foster Creek Expansion Project (3,756.48 acres). The purpose of the HEP analyses was to document extant habitat conditions and to determine how many baseline/protection habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding maintenance and enhancement activities on project lands as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. HEP evaluation models included mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sharp-tailed grouse, (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), mink (Neovison vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Combined 2007 baseline HEP results show that 4,946.44 habitat units were generated on 3,756.48 acres (1.32 HUs per acre). HEP results/habitat conditions were generally similar for like cover types at all sites. Unlike crediting of habitat units (HUs) on other WDFW owned lands, Bonneville Power Administration received full credit for HUs generated on these sites.

  13. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids. PMID:25715875

  14. Impairment of cellular immunity in west Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to polluted minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Larsen, Hans J S; Loft, Klaus Earl; Kirkegaard, Maja; Letcher, Robert J; Shahmiri, Soheila; Móller, Per

    2006-03-15

    Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber is rich in organohalogen contaminants, mercury, and n-3 fatty acids. In the present study we show that a daily intake of 50-200 g of minke whale blubber causes an impairment of the nonspecific and specific cellular immune system in the West Greenland sledge dog (Canis familiaris). Immune reactions were measured by mitogen (PHA, Con A) and antigen (KLH) intradermal testing, and as the study used exposure levels similar to those of Inuits and polar bears (Ursus maritimus), it is reasonable to infer that Inuits and polar bears suffer from similar decreased resistance to diseases. It is speculated that food sources are depleted by thinning sea ice due to climate change and that more research should assess the forecasted rise in additive immunopathy effects in polar bears. Additionally, our study suggests that the fatty acid composition may be of importance when investigating combined immunotoxic effects of contaminated food resources in future Inuit and polar bear studies.

  15. Analysis of the vp2 gene sequence of a new mutated mink enteritis parvovirus strain in PR China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mink enteritis virus (MEV) causes a highly contagious viral disease of mink with a worldwide distribution. MEV has a linear, single-stranded, negative-sense DNA with a genome length of approximately 5,000 bp. The VP2 protein is the major structural protein of the parvovirus encoded by the vp2 gene. VP2 is highly antigenic and plays important roles in determining viral host ranges and tissue tropisms. This study describes the bionomics and vp2 gene analysis of a mutated strain, MEV-DL, which was isolated recently in China and outlines its homologous relationships with other selected strains registered in Genbank. Results The MEV-DL strain can infect F81 cells with cytopathic effects. Pig erythrocytes were agglutinated by the MEV-DL strain. The generation of MEV-DL in F81 cells could infect mink within three months and cause a disease that was similar to that caused by wild-type MEV. A comparative analysis of the vp2 gene nucleotide (nt) sequence of MEV-DL showed that this was more than 99% homologous with other mink enteritis parvoviruses in Genbank. However, the nucleotide residues at positions 1,065 and 1,238 in the MEV-DL strain of the vp2 gene differed from those of all the other MEV strains described previously. It is noteworthy that the mutation at the nucleotide residues position 1,238 led to Asp/Gly replacement. This may lead to structural changes. A phylogenetic tree and sequence distance table were obtained, which showed that the MEV-DL and ZYL-1 strains had the closest inheritance distance. Conclusions A new variation of the vp2 gene exists in the MEV-DL strain, which may lead to structural changes of the VP2 protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MEV-DL may originate from the ZYL-1 strain in DaLian. PMID:20540765

  16. Longitudinal analysis of residual feed intake and BW in mink using random regression with heterogeneous residual variance.

    PubMed

    Shirali, M; Nielsen, V H; Møller, S H; Jensen, J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genetic background of longitudinal residual feed intake (RFI) and BW gain in farmed mink using random regression methods considering heterogeneous residual variances. The individual BW was measured every 3 weeks from 63 to 210 days of age for 2139 male+female pairs of juvenile mink during the growing-furring period. Cumulative feed intake was calculated six times with 3-week intervals based on daily feed consumption between weighing's from 105 to 210 days of age. Genetic parameters for RFI and BW gain in males and females were obtained using univariate random regression with Legendre polynomials containing an animal genetic effect and permanent environmental effect of litter along with heterogeneous residual variances. Heritability estimates for RFI increased with age from 0.18 (0.03, posterior standard deviation (PSD)) at 105 days of age to 0.49 (0.03, PSD) and 0.46 (0.03, PSD) at 210 days of age in male and female mink, respectively. The heritability estimates for BW gain increased with age and had moderate to high range for males (0.33 (0.02, PSD) to 0.84 (0.02, PSD)) and females (0.35 (0.03, PSD) to 0.85 (0.02, PSD)). RFI estimates during the growing period (105 to 126 days of age) showed high positive genetic correlations with the pelting RFI (210 days of age) in male (0.86 to 0.97) and female (0.92 to 0.98). However, phenotypic correlations were lower from 0.47 to 0.76 in males and 0.61 to 0.75 in females. Furthermore, BW records in the growing period (63 to 126 days of age) had moderate (male: 0.39, female: 0.53) to high (male: 0.87, female: 0.94) genetic correlations with pelting BW (210 days of age). The result of current study showed that RFI and BW in mink are highly heritable, especially at the late furring period, suggesting potential for large genetic gains for these traits. The genetic correlations suggested that substantial genetic gain can be obtained by only considering the RFI estimate and BW at pelting

  17. Development and Evaluation of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on Recombinant VP2 Capsids for the Detection of Antibodies to Aleutian Mink Disease Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    Knuuttila, Anna; Aronen, Pirjo; Saarinen, Auli; Vapalahti, Olli

    2009-01-01

    Aleutian disease (AD), a common infectious disease in farmed minks worldwide, is caused by Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). Serodiagnosis of AD in minks has been based on detection of AMDV antibodies by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) since the 1980s. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) for identifying AMDV antibodies from mink sera. AMDV capsid protein (VP2) of a Finnish wild-type strain was expressed by the baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 insect cells and was shown to self-assemble to VLPs (with an ultrastructure similar to that of the actual virion). A direct immunoglobulin G ELISA was established using purified recombinant AMDV VP2 VLPs as an antigen. Sera from farmed minks were collected to evaluate the AMDV VP2 ELISA (n = 316) and CIE (n = 209) based on AMDV VP2 recombinant antigen in parallel with CIE performed using a commercially available traditional antigen. CIE performed with the recombinant antigen had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and ELISA a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 97%, with reference to CIE performed with the commercial antigen. The results show that the recombinant AMDV VP2 VLPs are antigenic and that AMDV VP2 ELISA is sensitive and specific and encourage further development of the method for high-throughput diagnostics, involving hundreds of thousands of samples in Finland annually. PMID:19641102

  18. Development and evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on recombinant VP2 capsids for the detection of antibodies to Aleutian mink disease virus.

    PubMed

    Knuuttila, Anna; Aronen, Pirjo; Saarinen, Auli; Vapalahti, Olli

    2009-09-01

    Aleutian disease (AD), a common infectious disease in farmed minks worldwide, is caused by Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). Serodiagnosis of AD in minks has been based on detection of AMDV antibodies by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) since the 1980s. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) for identifying AMDV antibodies from mink sera. AMDV capsid protein (VP2) of a Finnish wild-type strain was expressed by the baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 insect cells and was shown to self-assemble to VLPs (with an ultrastructure similar to that of the actual virion). A direct immunoglobulin G ELISA was established using purified recombinant AMDV VP2 VLPs as an antigen. Sera from farmed minks were collected to evaluate the AMDV VP2 ELISA (n = 316) and CIE (n = 209) based on AMDV VP2 recombinant antigen in parallel with CIE performed using a commercially available traditional antigen. CIE performed with the recombinant antigen had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and ELISA a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 97%, with reference to CIE performed with the commercial antigen. The results show that the recombinant AMDV VP2 VLPs are antigenic and that AMDV VP2 ELISA is sensitive and specific and encourage further development of the method for high-throughput diagnostics, involving hundreds of thousands of samples in Finland annually. PMID:19641102

  19. Contribution of spermatozoal centrosomes to the microtubule-organizing centre in Antarctic minke whale ( Balaenoptera bonaerensis ).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Amemiya, Kazue; Takeuchi, Kana; Tsujioka, Tomomi; Tominaga, Keiichiro; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Ishikawa, Hajime; Fukui, Yutaka; Hochi, Shinichi

    2006-02-01

    Using an interspecies microinsemination assay with bovine oocytes, it was examined whether centrosomes of Antarctic minke whale spermatozoa function as the microtubule-organizing centre (MTOC). Bull and rat spermatozoa were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Vitrified-warmed bovine mature oocytes were subjected to immunostaining against alpha-tubulin 4-6 h after intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) of 5 mM dithiothreitol-treated spermatozoa. Aster formation occurred from whale spermatozoa (33%) and bull spermatozoa (33%), but very little from rat spermatozoa (3%). Activation treatment for the microinseminated oocytes with 7% ethanol + 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine resulted in a similar proportion of oocytes forming a whale sperm aster (35% vs 27% in the non-treated group; 4 h after ICSI) but a significantly larger aster (ratio of aster diameter to oocyte diameter, 0.57 vs 0.30 in the non-treated group). These results indicate that the centrosome introduced into bovine oocytes by whale spermatozoa contributes to the MTOC and that assembly of the microtubule network is promoted by oocyte activation.

  20. Developmental changes in the skull morphology of common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Gen; Kato, Hidehiro

    2014-10-01

    We investigated growth-related and sex-related morphological changes in the skulls of 144 North Pacific common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Measurement was conducted at 39 points on the skull and mandible to extract individual allometric equations relating the length and zygomatic width of the skull. The results revealed no significant differences in skull morphology by sex except for width of occipital bone. The size relative to the skull of the anatomical parts involved in feeding, such as the rostrum and mandible, increased after birth. In contrast, the sensory organs and the anatomical regions involved in neurological function, such as the orbit, tympanic bullae, and foramen magnum, were fully developed at birth, and their relative size reduced over the course of development. This is the first study to investigate developmental changes in the skull morphology using more than 100 baleen whale specimens, and we believe the results of this study will contribute greatly to multiple areas of baleen whale research, including taxonomy and paleontology.

  1. A prediction of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) middle-ear transfer functiona)

    PubMed Central

    Tubelli, Andrew A.; Zosuls, Aleks; Ketten, Darlene R.; Yamato, Maya; Mountain, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The lack of baleen whale (Cetacea Mysticeti) audiograms impedes the assessment of the impacts of anthropogenic noise on these animals. Estimates of audiograms, which are difficult to obtain behaviorally or electrophysiologically for baleen whales, can be made by simulating the audiogram as a series of components representing the outer, middle, and inner ear (Rosowski, 1991; Ruggero and Temchin, 2002). The middle-ear portion of the system can be represented by the middle-ear transfer function (METF), a measure of the transmission of acoustic energy from the external ear to the cochlea. An anatomically accurate finite element model of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) middle ear was developed to predict the METF for a mysticete species. The elastic moduli of the auditory ossicles were measured by using nanoindentation. Other mechanical properties were estimated from experimental stiffness measurements or from published values. The METF predicted a best frequency range between approximately 30 Hz and 7.5 kHz or between 100 Hz and 25 kHz depending on stimulation location. Parametric analysis found that the most sensitive parameters are the elastic moduli of the glove finger and joints and the Rayleigh damping stiffness coefficient β. The predicted hearing range matches well with the vocalization range. PMID:23145610

  2. Complex cytokine modulation of a continuous line of mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu).

    PubMed

    Kelley, J; Baldor, L; Absher, M

    1992-01-01

    The continuous mink lung epithelial cell line Mv1Lu has proven to be a sensitive reporter line in the bioassay for purified TGF-beta, exhibiting a sigmoid-shaped concentration-response relationship with an EC50 of 12 pM (0.3 ng/mL). Maximal inhibition of Mv1Lu cells generates a 75-95% decrement in the number of adherent cells. However, this bioassay is not specific for TGF-beta as originally claimed. Mv1Lu cells are sensitive to other cytokines and substances found in complex biological fluids. In this study the effects of other biological response modifiers in this assay were tested and several were found to have important growth modulatory capacities that confound the quantitation of TGF-beta. EGF, TGF-alpha, fibronectin, and IGF-I all induce Mv1Lu cell proliferation. In contrast, neither PDGF (-AA, -AB, -BB) nor endotoxin (< or = 10 micrograms/mL) affect Mv1Lu cell number. TGF-beta and TNF-alpha at high concentrations (> or = 10 ng/mL) are the only cytokines examined that inhibit Mv1Lu proliferation. TGF-beta decreases final cell number both by preventing mitosis and by inhibition of adherence of cells to the uncoated dish. Several strategies are suggested to assure the specificity of this otherwise convenient bioassay for TGF-beta.

  3. Genetic characterization of the complete genome of an Aleutian mink disease virus isolated in north China.

    PubMed

    Xi, Ji; Wang, Jigui; Yu, Yongle; Zhang, Xiaomei; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-08-01

    The genome of a highly pathogenic strain of Aleutian disease mink virus (AMDV-BJ) isolated from a domestic farm in North China has been determined and compared with other strains. Alignment analysis of the major structural protein VP2 revealed that AMDV-BJ is unique among 17 other AMDV strains. Compared with the nonpathogenic strain ADV-G, the 3' end Y-shaped hairpin was highly conserved, while a 4-base deletion in the 5' U-shaped terminal palindrome resulted in a different unpaired "bubble" group near the NS1-binding region of the 5' end hairpin which may affect replication efficiency in vivo. We also performed a protein analysis of the NS1, NS2, and new-confirmed NS3 of AMDV-BJ with some related AMDV DNA sequence published, providing information on evolution of AMDV genes. This study shows a useful method to obtain the full-length genome of AMDV and some other parvoviruses. PMID:27007772

  4. Three-Dimensional Structure of Aleutian Mink Disease Parvovirus: Implications for Disease Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Robert; Olson, Norman H.; Chipman, Paul R.; Baker, Timothy S.; Booth, Tim F.; Christensen, Jesper; Aasted, Bent; Fox, James M.; Bloom, Marshall E.; Wolfinbarger, James B.; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    1999-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of expressed VP2 capsids of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus strain G (ADVG-VP2) has been determined to 22 Å resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction techniques. A structure-based sequence alignment of the VP2 capsid protein of canine parvovirus (CPV) provided a means to construct an atomic model of the ADVG-VP2 capsid. The ADVG-VP2 reconstruction reveals a capsid structure with a mean external radius of 128 Å and several surface features similar to those found in human parvovirus B19 (B19), CPV, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), and minute virus of mice (MVM). Dimple-like depressions occur at the icosahedral twofold axes, canyon-like regions encircle the fivefold axes, and spike-like protrusions decorate the threefold axes. These spikes are not present in B19, and they are more prominent in ADV compared to the other parvoviruses owing to the presence of loop insertions which create mounds near the threefold axes. Cylindrical channels along the fivefold axes of CPV, FPV, and MVM, which are surrounded by five symmetry-related β-ribbons, are closed in ADVG-VP2 and B19. Immunoreactive peptides made from segments of the ADVG-VP2 capsid protein map to residues in the mound structures. In vitro tissue tropism and in vivo pathogenic properties of ADV map to residues at the threefold axes and to the wall of the dimples. PMID:10400786

  5. Mechanism of leukemogenesis induced by mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J P; Baltimore, D

    1991-01-01

    The Friend or Moloney mink cell focus-forming (MCF) virus encodes a recombinant-type envelope glycoprotein, gp70, that is closely related to the membrane glycoprotein, gp55, of Friend spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV). We have shown previously that gp55 has the ability to activate cell growth by binding to the cellular receptor for erythropoietin. Here we show that gp70 encoded by either the Friend or Moloney MCF virus also binds to the erythropoietin receptor and that coexpression of the receptor and gp70 in an interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent cell line can activate IL-3-independent growth. Furthermore, when the cDNA for the human IL-2 receptor beta chain, which is related by sequence to the erythropoietin receptor, was introduced into this cell line, it became growth factor independent after infection either with SFFV or with one of the two MCF viruses but not with an ecotropic virus. Based on these observations, we propose a mechanism for the early stage of leukemogenesis induced by the MCF-type murine leukemia viruses. Images PMID:1850020

  6. Microbial enhanced waterflooding pilot project, Mink Unit, Delaware-Childers (OK) field

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R.S.; Burchfield, T.E.; Dennis, D.M.; Hitzman, D.O.

    1991-08-01

    The first microbial-enhanced waterflood field project was initiated in October of 1986. The site selected for the project is in the Mink Unit of Delaware-Childers field in Nowata County, Oklahoma. The pilot area consists of four adjacent inverted five-spot patterns drilled on 5-acre spacing. There are 21 injection and 15 production wells on this pilot. Four of the 21 injection wells were treated with microbial formulation. Laboratory screening criteria were developed to evaluate microorganisms for this project. Several different microbial formulations were tested. Injectivity and microbial field survivability tests were conducted during the baseline period on two off-pattern wells, and a chemical tracer, fluorescein, was injected into the four injection wells during the baseline period. Methodologies for field applications of microorganisms in ongoing waterfloods were developed as a result of this project. Results from the field pilot showed that microorganisms could be injected into an ongoing waterflood without causing any problems in injectivity. Microbial treatment did improve oil production rate, and water/oil ratios for producing wells nearest the microbially treated injection wells continue to be more favorable than baseline values. 23 refs., 30 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Detection of Neospora caninum in wild carnivorans in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Bartley, P M; Wright, S E; Zimmer, I A; Roy, S; Kitchener, A C; Meredith, A; Innes, E A; Katzer, F

    2013-02-18

    Samples of brain and other tissues were collected from 99 ferrets (Mustela furo), 83 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 70 European polecats (Mustela putorius), 65 American mink (Neovison vison), 64 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and 9 stoats (Mustela erminea), from around Great Britain. DNA was extracted from approximately 1g of tissue and tested by specific nested ITS1 PCR for Neospora caninum. The results from the PCR demonstrated that Neospora specific DNA was detected in all species of wild carnivorans with the exception of the stoats (0/9). Neospora DNA positive samples were detected in: polecats 18.6% (13/70), badgers 10.9% (7/64), ferrets 10.1% (10/99), foxes 4.8% (4/83) and mink 4.6% (3/65). In the badgers N. caninum DNA positive samples were found in brain (n=2), liver (n=2) and neck muscle (n=3). Selected positive ITS1 DNA sequences were submitted to Genbank. Sequence UKwildlife1 (accession number JX857862) was found in two badgers, whilst UKwildlife2 and UKwildlife3 (accession numbers JX857863 and JX857864 respectively) were found in ferrets, all three sequences demonstrated point mutations at a single base, while sequence UKwildlife4 (accession number JX857865) was found in all the species that tested positive and showed complete identity when compared against published reference sequences for: N. caninum (Nc Liverpool isolate, EU564166). Our data shows that almost all the wild carnivoran mammal species tested are intermediate hosts for N. caninum and are therefore capable of acting as reservoirs of infection for other species. These species could also act as useful sentinel species, demonstrating the presence of the parasite in particular geographical and environmental locations.

  8. Emetic responses to T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and emetine correspond to plasma elevations of peptide YY3-36 and 5-hydroxytryptamine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenda; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Bursian, Steven J; Link, Jane E; Pestka, James J

    2016-04-01

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are a family of potent translational inhibitors that are associated with foodborne outbreaks of human and animal gastroenteritis in which vomiting is a clinical hallmark. Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) and other Type B trichothecenes have been previously demonstrated to cause emesis in the mink (Neovison vison), and this response has been directly linked to secretion of both the satiety hormone peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Here, we characterized the emetic responses in the mink to T-2 toxin (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), two highly toxic Type A trichothecenes that contaminate cereals, and further compared these effects to those of emetine, a natural alkaloid that is used medicinally and also well known to block translation and cause vomiting. Following intraperitoneal (IP) and oral exposure, all three agents caused vomiting with evident dose-dependent increases in both duration and number of emetic events as well as decreases in latency to emesis. T-2 and HT-2 doses causing emesis in 50 % of treated animals (ED50s) were 0.05 and 0.02 mg/kg BW following IP and oral administration, respectively, whereas the ED50s for emetine were 2.0 and 1.0 mg/kg BW for IP and oral exposure, respectively. Importantly, oral administration of all three toxins elicited marked elevations in plasma concentrations of PYY3-36 and 5-HT that corresponded to emesis. Taken together, the results suggest that T-2 and HT-2 were much more potent than emetine and that emesis induction by all three translational inhibitors co-occurred with increases in circulating levels of PYY3-36 and 5-HT.

  9. Identification of a nonvirion protein of Aleutian disease virus: mink with Aleutian disease have antibody to both virion and nonvirion proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1982-01-01

    We studied Aleutian disease virus polypeptides in Crandall feline kidney (CRFK) cells. When CRFK cells labeled with [35S]methionine at 60 h postinfection were studied by immunoprecipitation with sera from infected mink, the major Aleutian disease virus virion polypeptides (p85 and p75) were consistently identified, as was a 71,000-dalton nonvirion protein (p71). The peptide maps of p85 and p75 were similar, but the map of p71 was different. p85, p75, and p71 were all precipitated by sera from Aleutian disease virus-infected mink, including those with signs of progressive disease, but heterologous sera raised against purified Aleutian disease virus did not precipitate the nonvirion p71. These results indicated that the nonvirion p71 was unrelated to p85 and p75 and further suggested that mink infected with Aleutian disease virus develop antibody to nonvirion, as well as structural, viral proteins. Images PMID:6287034

  10. Vaccination with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV) capsid proteins enhances disease, while vaccination with the major non-structural AMDV protein causes partial protection from disease.

    PubMed

    Aasted, B; Alexandersen, S; Christensen, J

    1998-07-01

    Vaccination studies were performed with partially purified recombinant AMDV VP1/2 capsids as well as with the major AMDV non-structural protein (NS1). All vaccine constructs induced an antibody response, but did not prevent infection upon challenge with AMDV. The severity of Aleutian disease (AD) was judged by the serum gammaglobulin level, the quantity of peripheral blood CD8 lymphocytes, antibody titers to VP1/2 and NS1 proteins and mink death rates. The VP1/2 vaccine constructs enhanced the disease process with drastic death rates for the vaccinated mink. On the contrary, the NS1 vaccine constructs resulted in milder AD than seen in the non-vaccinated mink. PMID:9682374

  11. Effects of different dietary protein levels and DL-methionine supplementation on hair growth and pelt quality in mink (Neovision vision).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H H; Jiang, Q K; Sun, W L; Xu, C; Cong, B; Yang, F H; Li, G Y

    2013-12-01

    The effect of different dietary protein levels and DL-methionine (Met) supplementation on hair growth and the resulting pelt quality in mink was studied. Four groups of male mink were fed with four isocaloric diets containing 32% (P32), 24% (P24), 16% (P16) or P24+Met (0.8%) crude protein of dry matter (DM) from September to December. Skin biopsies were taken at the pelting. Histological techniques and computer-assisted light microscopy were used to determine the ratio of activity (ROA) of under hairs and guard hairs respectively. The results showed that when the dietary protein level reduced from 32% to 16%, body length, number and diameter of under hairs and guard hairs of minks declined, and pelt length and pelt weight of minks decreased significantly (p < 0.05). These parameters were similar between P32 and P24 with Met supplementation (p > 0.05). The hair follicle density of the winter coat was not influenced by the dietary protein levels and Met supplementation (p > 0.05). Low-protein diets content led to a reduction of hair follicle developing to next phase. It was documented that 24% crude protein of DM with Met supplementation during growing-furring period was sufficient for minks to express their genetic capacity to develop hair follicles and achieve the prime fur characteristics. Overall this study demonstrated that hair growth and hair properties in pelts are very dependent on the dietary protein and Met supply in the growing-furring period of minks.

  12. Driving forces behind the evolution of the Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in the context of intensive farming

    PubMed Central

    Canuti, Marta; O’Leary, Kimberly E.; Hunter, Bruce D.; Spearman, Grant; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh G.; Lang, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes plasmacytosis, an immune complex-associated syndrome that affects wild and farmed mink. The virus can also infect other small mammals (e.g., ferrets, skunks, ermines, and raccoons), but the disease in these hosts has been studied less. In 2007, a mink plasmacytosis outbreak began on the Island of Newfoundland, and the virus has been endemic in farms since then. In this study, we evaluated the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in farmed and wild animals of Newfoundland since before the beginning of the outbreak and investigated the epidemic in a global context by studying AMDV worldwide, thereby examining its diffusion and phylogeography. Furthermore, AMDV evolution was examined in the context of intensive farming, where host population dynamics strongly influence viral evolution. Partial NS1 sequences and several complete genomes were obtained from Newfoundland viruses and analyzed along with numerous sequences from other locations worldwide that were either obtained as part of this study or from public databases. We observed very high viral diversity within Newfoundland and within single farms, where high rates of co-infection, recombinant viruses and polymorphisms were observed within single infected individuals. Worldwide, we documented a partial geographic distribution of strains, where viruses from different countries co-exist within clades but form country-specific subclades. Finally, we observed the occurrence of recombination and the predominance of negative selection pressure on AMDV proteins. A surprisingly low number of immunoepitopic sites were under diversifying pressure, possibly because AMDV gains no benefit by escaping the immune response as viral entry into target cells is mediated through interactions with antibodies, which therefore contribute to cell infection. In conclusion, the high prevalence of AMDV in farms facilitates the establishment of co-infections that can favor the occurrence of recombination

  13. Differential gene expression induced by exposure of captive mink to fuel oil: A model for the sea otter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, L.; Riva, F.; Mohr, C.; Aldridge, B.; Schwartz, J.; Miles, A.K.; Stott, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Free-ranging sea otters are subject to hydrocarbon exposure from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Effects of direct exposure to unrefined crude oil, such as that associated with the Exxon Valdez oil spill, are readily apparent. However, the impact of subtle but pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of crude oil on sea otters is difficult to assess. The present study was directed at developing a model for assessing the impact of low concentrations of fuel oil on sea otters. Quantitative PCR was used to identify differential gene expression in American mink that were exposed to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil. A total of 23 genes, representing 10 different physiological systems, were analyzed for perturbation. Six genes with immunological relevance were differentially expressed in oil-fed mink. Interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and complement cytolysis inhibitor (CLI) were down-regulated while IL-2 was up-regulated. Expression of two additional genes was affected; heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was up-regulated and thyroid hormone receptor (THR) was down-regulated. While the significance of each perturbation is not immediately evident, we identified differential expression of genes that would be consistent with the presence of immune system-modifying and endocrine-disrupting compounds in fuel oil. Application of this approach to identify effects of petroleum contamination on sea otters should be possible following expansion of this mink model to identify a greater number of affected genes in peripheral blood leukocytes. ?? 2007 Ecohealth Journal Consortium.

  14. [Sequencing Analyses of the Hypervariable Region within the VP2 Gene of a Strain of the Aleutian Mink Disease Virus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Hailing; Zhao, Jianjun; Wang, Zhenjun; Ma, Fanshu; Yan, Xijun; Wu, Wei; Xu, Shujuan

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the molecular mechanisms of cross-host transmission of the Aleutian mink disease vi rus (ADV), the hypervariable region fragment of the VP2 gene of the ADV in Jilin Province (China) was amplified. Sequencing analyses showed diversity at residue 174 by comparison with other VP2 genes in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the ADV-JL strain had a close relationship with the highly pathogenic strain from Denmark: ADV-K. Results implied that residue 174 may be associated with ADV infectivity. PMID:26470526

  15. Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline kidney cells.

    PubMed Central

    Oleksiewicz, M B; Costello, F; Huhtanen, M; Wolfinbarger, J B; Alexandersen, S; Bloom, M E

    1996-01-01

    Confocal microscopy allowed us to localize viral nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins and DNA simultaneously in cells permissively infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Early after infection, NS proteins colocalized with viral DNA to form intranuclear inclusions, whereas VP proteins formed hollow intranuclear shells around the inclusions. Later, nuclei had irregular outlines and were virtually free of ADV products. In these cells, inclusions of viral DNA with or without associated NS protein were embedded in cytoplasmic VP protein. These findings implied that ADV replication within an infected cell is regulated spatially as well as temporally. PMID:8627805

  16. Uterine glycogen metabolism in mink during estrus, embryonic diapause and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dean, Matthew; Hunt, Jason; McDougall, Lisa; Rose, Jack

    2014-01-01

    We have determined uterine glycogen content, metabolizing enzyme expression and activity in the mink, a species that exhibits obligatory embryonic diapause, resulting in delayed implantation. Gross uterine glycogen concentrations were highest in estrus, decreased 50% by diapause and 90% in pregnancy (P ≤ 0.05). Endometrial glycogen deposits, which localized primarily to glandular and luminal epithelia, decreased 99% between estrus and diapause (P ≤ 0.05) and were nearly undetectable in pregnancy. Glycogen synthase and phosphorylase proteins were most abundant in the glandular epithelia. Glycogen phosphorylase activity (total) in uterine homogenates was higher during estrus and diapause, than pregnancy. While glycogen phosphorylase protein was detected during estrus and diapause, glycogen synthase was almost undetectable after estrus, which probably contributed to a higher glycogenolysis/glycogenesis ratio during diapause. Uterine glucose-6-phosphatase 3 gene expression was greater during diapause, when compared to estrus (P ≤ 0.05) and supports the hypothesis that glucose-6-phosphate resulting from phosphorylase activity was dephosphorylated in preparation for export into the uterine lumen. The relatively high amount of hexokinase-1 protein detected in the luminal epithelia during estrus and diapause may have contributed to glucose trapping after endometrial glycogen reserves were depleted. Collectively, our findings suggest to us that endometrial glycogen reserves may be an important source of energy, supporting uterine and conceptus metabolism up to the diapausing blastocyst stage. As a result, the size of uterine glycogen reserves accumulated prior to mating may in part, determine the number of embryos that survive to the blastocyst stage, and ultimately litter size. PMID:25225159

  17. A large insertion in intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene associated with American Palomino phenotype in American mink.

    PubMed

    Cirera, Susanna; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Kristiansen, Thea; Vissenberg, Kris; Fredholm, Merete; Christensen, Knud; Anistoroaei, Razvan

    2016-04-01

    A number of American mink phenotypes display a range of brownish colours. One of these phenotypes, namely American Palomino (b (P) b (P) ) (AP) has been found to be associated with the tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene by genotyping microsatellite markers in one sire family. Trials for amplifying the genomic DNA and cDNA at the beginning of intron 2 of AP TYRP1 revealed the presence of a large insertion of approximately eight kb. The insertion most likely disrupts different elements necessary for the splicing of intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene. In AP RNAseq data indicate, however, the presence of the wild-type (wt) transcript at very low levels and Western blot reveals three products when using an antibody raised against middle part of the TYRP1 protein. One individual from another brown mink phenotype-commercially named Dawn-was also investigated at the molecular level by long-range PCR and the same size insertion appears to be present. By this we suggest that certain modifiers of TYRP1 would induce different brown colour degradation, which results in at least two different phases of brown. PMID:26886941

  18. Morphology of the tracheobronchial tree and the route of the pulmonary artery in the fetal minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata).

    PubMed

    Kida, M Y

    1998-12-01

    Molecular and statistical studies support the close phylogenetic relation between Cetacea and Artiodactyla. The presence of the tracheal bronchus has been pointed out as one of the common traits between only these groups. Nakakuki (1980) has investigated the mammalian tracheobronchial trees in 50 species based on his new nomenclature, and his study has consequently demonstrated the above-mentioned indication. Therefore, comparative anatomy of the tracheobronchial tree based on the nomenclature seems to be useful for investigations of the cetacean phylogeny. Three pairs of fetal lungs of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were supplied from the Institute of Cetacean Research, Tokyo (1991) to observe their tracheobronchial trees and the ramification of the pulmonary artery. The fetal tracheobronchial tree consisted of one tracheal, four lateral, four dorsal and one medial secondary bronchi in the right lung, and five or six lateral and four or five dorsal secondary bronchi in the left, using the new nomenclature. The right pulmonary artery crossed the right axial bronchus from the ventral side to the dorsal over the third lateral bronchus. The tracheal bronchus in the fetal minke whale seems to belong to the type II of Nakakuki's nomenclature, and this type is seen in one species of the river dolphins. The other conspicuous traits of the fetal lungs are the defect of the second lateral broncus and the route of the pulmonary artery in the right side. This route is very different from that of many other mammals.

  19. A fast and robust method for whole genome sequencing of the Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) genome.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Emma E; Krarup, Anders; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Larsen, Lars E; Dam-Tuxen, Rebekka; Pedersen, Anders G

    2016-08-01

    Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) is a frequently encountered pathogen associated with commercial mink breeding. AMDV infection leads to increased mortality and compromised animal health and welfare. Currently little is known about the molecular evolution of the virus, and the few existing studies have focused on limited regions of the viral genome. This paper describes a robust, reliable, and fast protocol for amplification of the full AMDV genome using long-range PCR. The method was used to generate next generation sequencing data for the non-virulent cell-culture adapted AMDV-G strain as well as for the virulent AMDV-Utah strain. Comparisons at nucleotide- and amino acid level showed that, in agreement with existing literature, the highest variability between the two virus strains was found in the left open reading frame, which encodes the non-structural (NS1-3) genes. This paper also reports a number of differences that potentially can be linked to virulence and host range. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to apply next generation sequencing on the entire AMDV genome. The results from the study will facilitate the development of new diagnostic tools and can form the basis for more detailed molecular epidemiological analyses of the virus. PMID:27060623

  20. Development of a PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanmei; Yu, Yongle; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Guimei; Yu, Zekun; Zhang, Hongliang; Shan, Hu

    2014-12-15

    A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay has been developed to detect and differentiate between canine parvovirus (CPV) and mink enteritis virus (MEV). Eight CPV and three MEV epidemic strains isolated from 28 pathological samples from dogs and minks suspected of being infected with parvovirus were amplified by PCR using a pair of specific primers designed based on the CPV-N strain (M19296). PCR amplified a fragment of 1016bp from the genomic DNA of both MEV and CPV. The MEV-derived fragment could be digested with the restriction enzyme BSP1407I into three fragments of 102bp, 312bp and 602bp, while the fragment amplified from the CPV genomic DNA was digested into only two fragments of 414bp and 602bp. The lowest DNA concentration of CPV and MEV that could be detected using this assay was 0.004μg/ml and 0.03μg/ml, respectively. The PCR-RFLP assay developed in the present study can, therefore, be used to detect and differentiate MEV from CPV with high specificity and sensitivity.

  1. The Auditory Anatomy of the Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata): A Potential Fatty Sound Reception Pathway in a Baleen Whale

    PubMed Central

    Yamato, Maya; Ketten, Darlene R; Arruda, Julie; Cramer, Scott; Moore, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Cetaceans possess highly derived auditory systems adapted for underwater hearing. Odontoceti (toothed whales) are thought to receive sound through specialized fat bodies that contact the tympanoperiotic complex, the bones housing the middle and inner ears. However, sound reception pathways remain unknown in Mysticeti (baleen whales), which have very different cranial anatomies compared to odontocetes. Here, we report a potential fatty sound reception pathway in the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), a mysticete of the balaenopterid family. The cephalic anatomy of seven minke whales was investigated using computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, verified through dissections. Findings include a large, well-formed fat body lateral, dorsal, and posterior to the mandibular ramus and lateral to the tympanoperiotic complex. This fat body inserts into the tympanoperiotic complex at the lateral aperture between the tympanic and periotic bones and is in contact with the ossicles. There is also a second, smaller body of fat found within the tympanic bone, which contacts the ossicles as well. This is the first analysis of these fatty tissues' association with the auditory structures in a mysticete, providing anatomical evidence that fatty sound reception pathways may not be a unique feature of odontocete cetaceans. Anat Rec, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22488847

  2. Processes for Identifying Regional Influences of and Responses to Increasing Atmospheric CO sub 2 and Climate Change --- The MINK Project

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, W.E. III; McKenney, M.S.; Rosenberg, N.J.; Lemon, K.M.

    1991-08-01

    The second report of a series Processes for Identifying Regional Influences of and Responses to Increasing Atmospheric CO{sub 2} and Climate Change -- The MINK Project is composed of two parts. This Report (IIB) deals with agriculture at the level of farms and Major Land Resource Areas (MLRAs). The Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC), a crop growth simulation model developed by scientists at the US Department of Agriculture, is used to study the impacts of the analog climate on yields of main crops in both the 1984/87 and the 2030 baselines. The results of this work with EPIC are the basis for the analysis of the climate change impacts on agriculture at the region-wide level undertaken in this report. Report IIA treats agriculture in MINK in terms of state and region-wide production and resource use for the main crops and animals in the baseline periods of 1984/87 and 2030. The effects of the analog climate on the industry at this level of aggregation are considered in both baseline periods. 41 refs., 40 figs., 46 tabs.

  3. Human cryptosporidiosis diagnosed in Western Australia: a mixed infection with Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the Cryptosporidium mink genotype, and an unknown Cryptosporidium species.

    PubMed

    Ng-Hublin, Josephine S Y; Combs, Barry; Mackenzie, Brian; Ryan, Una

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a case of cryptosporidiosis from an immunocompetent patient from Perth, Western Australia, suffering from diarrhea and a spectrum of other symptoms. Molecular identification revealed that this patient was infected with three Cryptosporidium species-Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the Cryptosporidium mink genotype, and an unknown Cryptosporidium species.

  4. Diagnosing Aleutian mink disease infection by a new fully automated ELISA or by counter current immunoelectrophoresis: a comparison of sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Dam-Tuxen, Rebekka; Dahl, Jan; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Dam-Tuxen, Thomas; Struve, Tina; Bruun, Leif

    2014-04-01

    Aleutian disease (AD) is a severe disease characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia causing multiple symptoms such as acute renal failure, arteritis, reduced reproductive performance and pneumonia in mink. AD is caused by the parvovirus Aleutian mink disease virus (ADV) and diagnosed primarily based on ADV serology sometimes supplemented by organ PCR analysis. In Denmark, approximately 3.5-4 million serum samples are tested every year for the presence of anti ADV antibodies as part of a national eradication program. The present study compares the diagnostic performance of the two most commonly used assays for serological screening for Aleutian disease: counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) and ELISA. In total, 3810 mink were sampled in doublets and analyzed by CIEP and a newly developed fully automated ELISA. The results show that the two assays have a comparable diagnostic performance with the ELISA having a higher sensitivity but lower specificity than the CIEP assay. The ELISA has been approved by the Danish authorities for diagnosing Aleutian disease in mink.

  5. Expression of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus capsid proteins in defined segments: localization of immunoreactive sites and neutralizing epitopes to specific regions.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Martin, D A; Oie, K L; Huhtanen, M E; Costello, F; Wolfinbarger, J B; Hayes, S F; Agbandje-McKenna, M

    1997-01-01

    The capsid proteins of the ADV-G isolate of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) were expressed in 10 nonoverlapping segments as fusions with maltose-binding protein in pMAL-C2 (pVP1, pVP2a through pVP2i). The constructs were designed to capture the VP1 unique sequence and the portions analogous to the four variable surface loops of canine parvovirus (CPV) in individual fragments (pVP2b, pVP2d, pVP2e, and pVP2g, respectively). The panel of fusion proteins was immunoblotted with sera from mink infected with ADV. Seropositive mink infected with either ADV-TR, ADV-Utah, or ADV-Pullman reacted preferentially against certain segments, regardless of mink genotype or virus inoculum. The most consistently immunoreactive regions were pVP2g, pVP2e, and pVP2f, the segments that encompassed the analogs of CPV surface loops 3 and 4. The VP1 unique region was also consistently immunoreactive. These findings indicated that infected mink recognize linear epitopes that localized to certain regions of the capsid protein sequence. The segment containing the hypervariable region (pVP2d), corresponding to CPV loop 2, was also expressed from ADV-Utah. An anti-ADV-G monoclonal antibody and a rabbit anti-ADV-G capsid antibody reacted exclusively with the ADV-G pVP2d segment but not with the corresponding segment from ADV-Utah. Mink infected with ADV-TR or ADV-Utah also preferentially reacted with the pVP2d sequence characteristic of that virus. These results suggested that the loop 2 region may contain a type-specific linear epitope and that the epitope may also be specifically recognized by infected mink. Heterologous antisera were prepared against the VP1 unique region and the four segments capturing the variable surface loops of CPV. The antisera against the proteins containing loop 3 or loop 4, as well as the anticapsid antibody, neutralized ADV-G infectivity in vitro and bound to capsids in immune electron microscopy. These results suggested that regions of the ADV capsid proteins

  6. Complementary expression and phosphorylation of Cx46 and Cx50 during development and following gene deletion in mouse and in normal and orchitic mink testes

    PubMed Central

    Akpovi, Casimir D.; Chen, Li; Kumar, Nalin M.; Vitale, María L.

    2015-01-01

    Gap junction-mediated communication helps synchronize interconnected Sertoli cell activities. Besides, coordination of germ cell and Sertoli cell activities depends on gap junction-mediated Sertoli cell–germ cell communication. This report assesses mechanisms underlying the regulation of connexin 46 (Cx46) and Cx50 in mouse testis and those accompanying a “natural” seasonal and a pathological arrest of spermatogenesis, resulting from autoimmune orchitis (AIO) in mink. Furthermore, the impact of deleting Cx46 or Cx50 on the expression, phosphorylation of junction proteins, and spermatogenesis is evaluated. Cx46 mRNA and protein expression increased, whereas Cx50 decreased with adulthood in normal mice and mink. Cx46 mRNA and protein expression increased, whereas Cx50 decreased with adulthood in normal mice and mink. During the mink active spermatogenic phase, Cx50 became phosphorylated and localized to the site of the blood-testis barrier. By contrast, Cx46 was dephosphorylated and associated with annular junctions, suggesting phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of Cx46 and Cx50 involvement in the barrier dynamics. Cx46-positive annular junctions in contact with lipid droplets were found. Cx46 and Cx50 expression and localization were altered in mink with AIO. The deletion of Cx46 or Cx50 impacted on other connexin expression and phosphorylation and differently affected tight and adhering junction protein expression. The level of apoptosis, determined by ELISA, and a number of Apostain-labeled spermatocytes and spermatids/tubules were higher in mice lacking Cx46 (Cx46−/−) than wild-type and Cx50−/− mice, arguing for life-sustaining Cx46 gap junction-mediated exchanges in late-stage germ cells secluded from the blood by the barrier. The data show that expression and phosphorylation of Cx46 and Cx50 are complementary in seminiferous tubules. PMID:26017495

  7. S-phase-dependent cell cycle disturbances caused by Aleutian mink disease parvovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Oleksiewicz, M B; Alexandersen, S

    1997-01-01

    We examined replication of the autonomous parvovirus Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) in relation to cell cycle progression of permissive Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that ADV caused a composite, binary pattern of cell cycle arrest. ADV-induced cell cycle arrest occurred exclusively in cells containing de novo-synthesized viral nonstructural (NS) proteins. Production of ADV NS proteins, indicative of ADV replication, was triggered during S-phase traverse. The NS+ cells that were generated during later parts of S phase did not undergo cytokinesis and formed a distinct population, termed population A. Formation of population A was not prevented by VM-26, indicating that these cells were arrested in late S or G2 phase. Cells in population A continued to support high-level ADV DNA replication and production of infectious virus after the normal S phase had ceased. A second, postmitotic, NS+ population (termed population B) arose in G0/G1, downstream of population A. Population B cells were unable to traverse S phase but did exhibit low-level DNA synthesis. Since the nature of this DNA synthesis was not examined, we cannot at present differentiate between G1 and early S arrest in population B. Cells that became NS+ during S phase entered population A, whereas population B cells apparently remained NS- during S phase and expressed high NS levels postmitosis in G0/G1. This suggested that population B resulted from leakage of cells with subthreshold levels of ADV products through the late S/G2 block and, consequently, that the binary pattern of ADV-induced cell cycle arrest may be governed merely by viral replication levels within a single S phase. Flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide fluorescence and bromodeoxyuridine uptake showed that population A cells sustained significantly higher levels of DNA replication than population B cells during the ADV-induced cell cycle arrest. Therefore, the type of ADV-induced cell

  8. Screening for antibodies against Aleutian disease virus (ADV) in mink. Elucidation of dubious results by additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Uttenthal, A

    1992-01-01

    In order to distinguish true positive results in counterimmunoelectrophoresis from false positive ones an additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis was developed. The method was tested on selected mink serum samples as part of a routine testing for antibodies towards Aleutian disease virus on 3 million blood samples. The procedure of the method is, that a known positive serum sample is mixed with the patient serum to be tested. The result from a false positive sample will be one precipitin line towards virus and one nonspecific line. If the serum sample is a true positive one, the antibodies originating from the patient serum will be added to the antibodies in the standard positive serum giving only one precipitin line. The system is further extended by testing the serum samples towards an antigen preparation containing all the cellular components but free from virus. PMID:1335756

  9. Radiation and speciation of pelagic organisms during periods of global warming: the case of the common minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata.

    PubMed

    Pastene, Luis A; Goto, Mutsuo; Kanda, Naohisa; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Kerem, Dan; Watanabe, Kazuo; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Hasegawa, Masami; Nielsen, Rasmus; Larsen, Finn; Palsbøll, Per J

    2007-04-01

    How do populations of highly mobile species inhabiting open environments become reproductively isolated and evolve into new species? We test the hypothesis that elevated ocean-surface temperatures can facilitate allopatry among pelagic populations and thus promote speciation. Oceanographic modelling has shown that increasing surface temperatures cause localization and reduction of upwelling, leading to fragmentation of feeding areas critical to pelagic species. We test our hypothesis by genetic analyses of populations of two closely related baleen whales, the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) and common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) whose current distributions and migration patterns extent are largely determined by areas of consistent upwelling with high primary production. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA control-region nucleotide sequences collected from 467 whales sampled in four different ocean basins were employed to infer the evolutionary relationship among populations of B. acutorostrata by rooting an intraspecific phylogeny with a population of B. bonaerensis. Our findings suggest that the two species diverged in the Southern Hemisphere less than 5 million years ago (Ma). This estimate places the speciation event during a period of extended global warming in the Pliocene. We propose that elevated ocean temperatures in the period facilitated allopatric speciation by disrupting the continuous belt of upwelling maintained by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Our analyses revealed that the current populations of B. acutorostrata likely diverged after the Pliocene some 1.5 Ma when global temperatures had decreased and presumably coinciding with the re-establishment of the polar-equatorial temperature gradient that ultimately drives upwelling. In most population samples, we detected genetic signatures of exponential population expansions, consistent with the notion of increasing carrying capacity

  10. Type C Botulism Due to Toxic Feed Affecting 52,000 Farmed Foxes and Minks in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Miia; Nevas, Mari; Kurki, Joanna; Sauna-aho, Raija; Latvala-Kiesilä, Annikki; Pölönen, Ilpo; Korkeala, Hannu

    2004-01-01

    The largest reported outbreak of type C botulism in fur production animals is described. Epidemiological investigation of 117 out of 157 (response rate, 74.5%) farms revealed that 44,130 animals died or were euthanized, while 8,033 animals with milder symptoms recovered. The overall death rate in all animals at risk was 21.7%. The death rates were significantly higher in blue and shadow foxes (24.2 and 27.8%, respectively) than in silver and blue silver foxes and minks (below 4%). All minks had been immunized against botulinum toxin type C. Deaths were associated with feed manufactured by a local processor, 83 of whose customer farms (70.9%) reported dead or sick animals. Five feedlots out of 19 delivered to the farms on the day preceding the onset of the outbreak (day 2) were associated with a death rate higher than 40%. These feedlots consisted of fresh feed processed on day 2 and feed processed 1 day earlier (day 1). In laboratory analysis, the day 2 feed contained botulinum toxin type C (>600 minimum lethal doses/g), while the day 1 feed did not contain toxin. Toxin was not detected in feed raw-material samples. Clostridium botulinum type C was detected by PCR in some feed components and in feed. However, as the feed temperature was continuously 8°C or below and the pH was continuously 5.6 or below according to the manufacturer, it seems unlikely that spore germination and toxin formation occurred during overnight storage. Hence, the events leading to toxin formation were not determined. PMID:15472332

  11. The Capsid Proteins of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus Activate Caspases and Are Specifically Cleaved during Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fang; Chen, Aaron Yun; Best, Sonja M.; Bloom, Marshall E.; Pintel, David; Qiu, Jianming

    2010-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is currently the only known member of the genus Amdovirus in the family Parvoviridae. It is the etiological agent of Aleutian disease of mink. We have previously shown that a small protein with a molecular mass of approximately 26 kDa was present during AMDV infection and following transfection of capsid expression constructs (J. Qiu, F. Cheng, L. R. Burger, and D. Pintel, J. Virol. 80:654-662, 2006). In this study, we report that the capsid proteins were specifically cleaved at aspartic acid residue 420 (D420) during virus infection, resulting in the previously observed cleavage product. Mutation of a single amino acid residue at D420 abolished the specific cleavage. Expression of the capsid proteins alone in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells reproduced the cleavage of the capsid proteins in virus infection. More importantly, capsid protein expression alone induced active caspases, of which caspase-10 was the most active. Active caspases, in turn, cleaved capsid proteins in vivo. Our results also showed that active caspase-7 specifically cleaved capsid proteins at D420 in vitro. These results suggest that viral capsid proteins alone induce caspase activation, resulting in cleavage of capsid proteins. We also provide evidence that AMDV mutants resistant to caspase-mediated capsid cleavage increased virus production approximately 3- to 5-fold in CrFK cells compared to that produced from the parent virus AMDV-G at 37°C but not at 31.8°C. Collectively, our results indicate that caspase activity plays multiple roles in AMDV infection and that cleavage of the capsid proteins might have a role in regulating persistent infection of AMDV. PMID:20042496

  12. Identification of a Cell Surface Protein from Crandell Feline Kidney Cells That Specifically Binds Aleutian Mink Disease Parvovirus

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James M.; Bloom, Marshall E.

    1999-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is the etiological agent of Aleutian disease of mink. The acute disease caused by ADV consists of permissive infection of alveolar type II cells that results in interstitial pneumonitis. The permissive infection is experimentally modeled in vitro by infecting Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells with a tissue culture-adapted isolate of ADV, ADV-G. ADV-G VP2 empty virions expressed in a recombinant baculovirus system were analyzed for the ability to bind to the surface of CrFK cells. Radiolabeled VP2 virions bound CrFK cells specifically, while they did not bind either Mus dunni or Spodoptera frugiperda cells, cells which are resistant to ADV infection. The binding to CrFK cells was competitively inhibited by VP2 virions but not by virions of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), another unenveloped virus similar in size to ADV. Furthermore, preincubation of CrFK cells with the VP2 virions blocked infection by ADV-G. The VP2 virions were used in a virus overlay protein binding assay to identify a single protein of approximately 67 kDa, named ABP (for ADV binding protein), that demonstrates specific binding of VP2 virions. Exogenously added VP2 virions were able to competitively inhibit the binding of labeled VP2 virions to ABP, while CCMV virions had no effect. Polyclonal antibodies raised against ABP reacted with ABP on the outer surface of CrFK cells and blocked infection of CrFK cells by ADV-G. In addition, VP2 virion attachment to CrFK cells was blocked when the VP2 virions were preincubated with partially purified ABP. Taken together, these results indicate that ABP is a cellular receptor for ADV. PMID:10196278

  13. The relationship between capsid protein (VP2) sequence and pathogenicity of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV): a possible role for raccoons in the transmission of ADV infections.

    PubMed Central

    Oie, K L; Durrant, G; Wolfinbarger, J B; Martin, D; Costello, F; Perryman, S; Hogan, D; Hadlow, W J; Bloom, M E

    1996-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) DNA was identified by PCR in samples from mink and raccoons on commercial ranches during an outbreak of Aleutian disease (AD). Comparison of DNA sequences of the hypervariable portion of VP2, the major capsid protein of ADV, indicated that both mink and raccoons were infected by a new isolate of ADV, designated ADV-TR. Because the capsid proteins of other parvoviruses play a prominent role in the determination of viral pathogenicity and host range, we decided to examine the relationship between the capsid protein sequences and pathogenicity of ADV. Comparison of the ADV-TR hypervariable region sequence with sequences of other isolates of ADV revealed that ADV-TR was 94 to 100% related to the nonpathogenic type 1 ADV-G at both the DNA and amino acid levels but less than 90% related to other pathogenic ADVs like the type 2 ADV-Utah, the type 3 ADV-ZK8, or ADV-Pullman. This finding indicated that a virus with a type 1 hypervariable region could be pathogenic. To perform a more comprehensive analysis, the complete VP2 sequence of ADV-TR was obtained and compared with that of the 647-amino-acid VP2 of ADV-G and the corresponding VP2 sequences of the pathogenic ADV-Utah, ADV-Pullman, and ADV-ZK8. Although the hypervariable region amino acid sequence of ADV-TR was identical to that of ADV-G, there were 12 amino acid differences between ADV-G and ADV-TR. Each of these differences was at a position where other pathogenic isolates also differed from ADV-G. Thus, although ADV-TR had the hypervariable sequence of the nonpathogenic type 1 ADV-G, the remainder of the VP2 sequence resembled sequences of other pathogenic ADVs. Under experimental conditions, ADV-TR and ADV-Utah were highly pathogenic and induced typical AD in trios of both Aleutian and non-Aleutian mink, whereas ADV-Pullman was pathogenic only for Aleutian mink and ADV-G was noninfectious. Trios of raccoons experimentally inoculated with ADV-TR and ADV-Utah all became infected

  14. Validation of the sperm quality analyzer and the hypo-osmotic swelling test for frozen-thawed ram and minke whale (Balaenoptera bonarensis) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yutaka; Togawa, Morihiko; Abe, Norihito; Takano, Yuuki; Asada, Masatsugu; Okada, Aki; Iida, Kenji; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2004-02-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the validation of the sperm quality analyzer (SQA) and the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test with standard sperm analysis methods in frozen-thawed ram and minke whale spermatozoa. In rams, highly significant correlations were observed in the percentage of motile spermatozoa (P<0.01) and sperm concentration (P<0.01) between the standard and SQA methods. But, the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa did not significantly correlate between the standard and SQA methods. The percentages of swollen spermatozoa at 15 minutes by the HOS test were significantly correlated with the motility by the standard (P<0.05) and by the SQA (P<0.05) methods. For minke whale spermatozoa, the SVI (sperm viability index) values by the standard method were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the sperm motility index (SMI) values by SQA. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was also significantly correlated (P<0.01) with the motility measured by SQA. Using different hypo-osmotic solutions and incubation times, the HOS test with 25, 100 and 150 mOsM did not show significant variations. Motility observed by the standard method and the percentage of swollen spermatozoa were significantly correlated (P<0.05). These results indicate that the SQA and HOS test can be utilized to assess the post-thawing motility of ram and minke whale spermatozoa, and that the SQA and HOS test values are significantly correlated in ram spermatozoa. However, sperm concentration and morphologically normal spermatozoa are not assessed accurately by SQA in minke whales.

  15. Attempt at intracytoplasmic sperm injection of in vitro matured oocytes in common minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) captured during the Kushiro Coast Survey.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yutaka; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Taiki; Nagai, Hiroki; Koma, Noriko; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Hajime; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Hochi, Shinichi; Kato, Hidehiro; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2007-08-01

    The present study was conducted during the Kushiro Coast Survey in an attempt to produce common minke whale embryos. In Experiment 1, we attempted to determine the appropriate culture duration (30 or 40 h) for in vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes using the Well of the Well method. In Experiment 2, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was applied to matured oocytes from prepubertal and adult common minke whales after IVM culture (40 or 48 h), and then their embryonic development was assessed. In Experiment 1, the maturation rate of oocytes cultured for 40 h (30.4%) was significantly higher than that of oocytes cultured for 30 h (6.8%; P<0.01). In Experiment 2, a total of 35 and 46 immature oocytes derived from adult (n=2) and prepubertal (n=6) minke whales, respectively, were cultured for 40 or 48 h. The maturation rate in the oocytes from the adult whales (34.2%) tended to be higher than that of the oocytes from the prepubertal whales (19.6%), but there was no significant difference. Following ICSI, 3 out of the 10 inseminated and cultured oocytes from the adult whales cleaved (2-, 8-, and 16-cell stages); all of these oocytes had been matured for 40 in culture. However, these oocytes did not develop to further stages. Only one of the 6 oocytes derived from the prepubertal whales, IVM cultured for 40 h and inseminated, developed to the 4-cell stage. The present results indicate that a 40 h IVM culture produces significantly higher rates of in vitro maturation than a 30 h IVM culture for common minke whale oocytes. Following ICSI, some oocytes cleaved to the 16-cell stage, but no further development was observed.

  16. Characterization of a New Epidemic Necrotic Pyoderma in Fur Animals and Its Association with Arcanobacterium phocae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Heli; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Sironen, Tarja; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Kivistö, Ilkka; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Moisander-Jylhä, Anna-Maria; Korpela, Johanna; Kokkonen, Ulla-Maija; Hetzel, Udo; Sukura, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-01-01

    A new type of pyoderma was detected in Finnish fur animals in 2007. The disease continues to spread within and between farms, with severe and potentially fatal symptoms. It compromises animal welfare and causes considerable economic losses to farmers. A case-control study was performed in 2010–2011 to describe the entity and to identify the causative agent. Altogether 99 fur animals were necropsied followed by pathological and microbiological examination. The data indicated that the disease clinically manifests in mink (Neovison vison) by necrotic dermatitis of the feet and facial skin. In finnraccoons (Nyctereutes procyonoides), it causes painful abscesses in the paws. Foxes (Vulpes lagopus) are affected by severe conjunctivitis and the infection rapidly spreads to the eyelids and facial skin. A common finding at necropsy was necrotic pyoderma. Microbiological analysis revealed the presence of a number of potential causative agents, including a novel Streptococcus sp. The common finding from all diseased animals of all species was Arcanobacterium phocae. This bacterium has previously been isolated from marine mammals with skin lesions but this is the first report of A. phocae isolated in fur animals with pyoderma. The results obtained from this study implicate A. phocae as a potential causative pathogen of fur animal epidemic necrotic pyoderma (FENP) and support observations that the epidemic may have originated in a species -shift of the causative agent from marine mammals. The variable disease pattern and the presence of other infectious agents (in particular the novel Streptococcus sp.) suggest a multifactorial etiology for FENP, and further studies are needed to determine the environmental, immunological and infectious factors contributing to the disease. PMID:25302603

  17. Re-evaluation of the species composition of Bashkirovitrema Skrjabin, 1944 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), with the description of two new species of this genus and the proposal of Kostadinovatrema novaeguiniense n. g., n. sp.

    PubMed

    Dronen, Norman O

    2009-11-01

    A comparison of specimens previously identified as Bashkirovitrema incrassatum (Diesing, 1850) from the African or cape clawless otter Aonyx capensis, and the speckle-throated or spotted-throated otter Hydrictis maculicollis from the Old World with specimens and descriptions of B. incrassatum from the New World showed that those from Africa (Bashkirovitrema africanum n. sp.) had a more extensive distribution of the vitelline fields than either B. canadense n. sp. from the northern river otter Lontra canadensis and the American mink Neovison vison (North America) and B. incrassatum from the Neotropical river otter Lontra longicaudis (South America). B. africanum n. sp. further differs from B. canadense n. sp. by having a smaller body, shorter forebody, smaller oral sucker, longer cirrus, shorter intertesticular space, shorter post-testicular space and longer eggs. B. canadense n. sp. can be distinguished from B. incrassatum by having a longer body, longer forebody, smaller sucker ratio, smaller testes, greater distance between the ventral sucker and the ovary, shorter cirrus-sac, longer post-testicular space and narrower eggs. B. africanum n. sp. differs from B. incrassatum by having a smaller ventral sucker, larger ovary, shorter cirrus-sac, smaller intertesticular space, larger post-testicular space and longer eggs that are not as wide. Kostadinovatrema n. g., as represented by K. novaeguiniense n. sp., can be separated from species of Bashkirovitrema Skrjabin, 1944 by having a wider body width to length profile, a head collar that is narrower than the forebody and armed with 33 rather than 27 collar spines, an ovary that is further removed anteriorly from the testes, and a dorso-ventrally flattened hindbody that is nearly as broad as the forebody. The new genus differs from Hypoderaeum Dietz, 1909 and Moliniella Hübner, 1939 by having 33 head collar spines. PMID:19789998

  18. Peptide YY3–36 and 5-Hydroxytryptamine Mediate Emesis Induction by Trichothecene Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin)

    PubMed Central

    Pestka, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp. that frequently occurs in cereal grains, has been associated with human and animal food poisoning. Although a common hallmark of DON-induced toxicity is the rapid onset of emesis, the mechanisms for this adverse effect are not fully understood. Recently, our laboratory has demonstrated that the mink (Neovison vison) is a suitable small animal model for investigating trichothecene-induced emesis. The goal of this study was to use this model to determine the roles of two gut satiety hormones, peptide YY3–36 (PYY3–36) and cholecystokinin (CCK), and the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in DON-induced emesis. Following ip exposure to DON at 0.1 and 0.25mg/kg bw, emesis induction ensued within 15–30min and then persisted up to 120min. Plasma DON measurement revealed that this emesis period correlated with the rapid distribution and clearance of the toxin. Significant elevations in both plasma PYY3–36 (30–60min) and 5-HT (60min) but not CCK were observed during emesis. Pretreatment with the neuropeptide Y2 receptor antagonist JNJ-31020028 attenuated DON- and PYY-induced emesis, whereas the CCK1 receptor antagonist devezapide did not alter DON’s emetic effects. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron completely suppressed induction of vomiting by DON and the 5-HT inducer cisplatin. Granisetron pretreatment also partially blocked PYY3–36-induced emesis, suggesting a potential upstream role for this gut satiety hormone in 5-HT release. Taken together, the results suggest that both PYY3–36 and 5-HT play contributory roles in DON-induced emesis. PMID:23457120

  19. A recessive cellular mutation in v-fes-transformed mink cells restores contact inhibition and anchorage-dependent growth.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, J R; Downing, J R

    1988-01-01

    A contact-inhibited revertant of mink cells transformed by the Gardner-Arnstein strain of feline sarcoma virus was isolated by fluorescence-activated sorting of cells stained with the mitochondria-specific dye rhodamine 123. The revertant cell line exhibited a decrease in its proliferative rate and saturation density and a complete loss of its capacity for anchorage-independent growth, but it remained tumorigenic when inoculated into nude mice. The revertant cells retained a rescuable Gardner-Arnstein feline sarcoma provirus, expressed high levels of the v-fes oncogene product and its associated tyrosine kinase activity, manifested elevated levels of phosphotyrosine-containing cellular proteins similar to those observed in v-fes-transformed cells, and were refractory to retransformation by retroviruses containing the v-fes, v-fms, and v-ras oncogenes. Fusion of the revertant and parental cells generated somatic cell hybrids which formed colonies in semisolid medium, indicating that the block in transformation was recessive. These data together with the observation that the revertant phenotype is unstable in continuous culture suggest that the loss of transformation is due to the presence of limiting quantities of a gene product which functions downstream of the v-fes-coded kinase in the mitogenic pathway. Images PMID:3261387

  20. Annotated checklist and fisheries interactions of cetaceans in Togo, with evidence of Antarctic minke whale in the Gulf of Guinea.

    PubMed

    Segniagbeto, Gabriel H; VAN Waerebeek, Koen; Bowessidjaou, Joseph E; Ketoh, Koffivi; Kpatcha, Takouda K; Okoumassou, Kotchikpa; Ahoedo, Kossi

    2014-01-01

    Based on strandings and captures, 9 cetacean species, including 6 odontocetes and 3 mysticetes, are documented (photos and specimens) in Togo's coastal waters (newly-recorded species marked with an asterisk): Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis*), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera brydei or B. edeni), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps*), short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus*), pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata*), common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and common dolphin Delphinus sp. An anecdotal sighting record for killer whale (Orcinus orca) is considered reliable. The lack of Sousa teuszii records in Togo is consistent with its apparent contemporaneous absence in Ghana. The B. bonaerensis specimen, entangled in a purse seine set on small pelagics, is a first record for the Gulf of Guinea. The occurrence of this Southern Ocean species north of the equator underscores the severe gaps in our understanding of cetacean distribution off western Africa. The majority of artisanal fishermen operating in Togolese coastal waters are of Ghanaian origin and are thought to promote trade and consumption of cetacean bushmeat. Because captures are illegal, enforced with some success in the main fishing centers, covert landings of cetaceans are exceedingly difficult to monitor, quantify or sample. Concern is expressed about pollution of Togo's coastal waters with heavy metals due to phosphorite mining and export from the coastal basin near Hahotoé and Kpogamé.

  1. On the olfactory anatomy in an archaic whale (Protocetidae, Cetacea) and the minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Balaenopteridae, Cetacea).

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Stephen J; Geisler, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G

    2013-02-01

    The structure of the olfactory apparatus is not well known in both archaic and extant whales; the result of poor preservation in most fossils and locational isolation deep within the skulls in both fossil and Recent taxa. Several specimens now shed additional light on the subject. A partial skull of an archaic cetacean is reported from the Pamunkey River, Virginia, USA. The specimen probably derives from the upper middle Eocene (Piney Point Formation) and is tentatively assigned to the Protocetidae. Uncrushed cranial cavities associated with the olfactory apparatus were devoid of sediment. CT scans clearly reveal the dorsal nasal meatus, ethmoturbinates within the olfactory recess, the cribriform plate, the area occupied by the olfactory bulbs, and the olfactory nerve tract. Several sectioned skulls of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were also examined, and olfactory structures are remarkably similar to those observed in the fossil skull from the Pamunkey River. One important difference between the two is that the fossil specimen has an elongate olfactory nerve tract. The more forward position of the external nares in extant balaenopterids when compared with those of extant odontocetes is interpreted to be the result of the need to retain a functional olfactory apparatus and the forward position of the supraoccipital/cranial vertex. An increase in the distance between the occipital condyles and the vertex in balaenopterids enhances the mechanical advantage of the epaxial musculature that inserts on the occiput, a specialization that likely stabilizes the head of these enormous mammals during lunge feeding.

  2. Annotated checklist and fisheries interactions of cetaceans in Togo, with evidence of Antarctic minke whale in the Gulf of Guinea.

    PubMed

    Segniagbeto, Gabriel H; VAN Waerebeek, Koen; Bowessidjaou, Joseph E; Ketoh, Koffivi; Kpatcha, Takouda K; Okoumassou, Kotchikpa; Ahoedo, Kossi

    2014-01-01

    Based on strandings and captures, 9 cetacean species, including 6 odontocetes and 3 mysticetes, are documented (photos and specimens) in Togo's coastal waters (newly-recorded species marked with an asterisk): Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis*), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera brydei or B. edeni), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps*), short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus*), pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata*), common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and common dolphin Delphinus sp. An anecdotal sighting record for killer whale (Orcinus orca) is considered reliable. The lack of Sousa teuszii records in Togo is consistent with its apparent contemporaneous absence in Ghana. The B. bonaerensis specimen, entangled in a purse seine set on small pelagics, is a first record for the Gulf of Guinea. The occurrence of this Southern Ocean species north of the equator underscores the severe gaps in our understanding of cetacean distribution off western Africa. The majority of artisanal fishermen operating in Togolese coastal waters are of Ghanaian origin and are thought to promote trade and consumption of cetacean bushmeat. Because captures are illegal, enforced with some success in the main fishing centers, covert landings of cetaceans are exceedingly difficult to monitor, quantify or sample. Concern is expressed about pollution of Togo's coastal waters with heavy metals due to phosphorite mining and export from the coastal basin near Hahotoé and Kpogamé. PMID:24447657

  3. [Eenie, Meenie, Miney, Moe, who is responsible for the antibody-dependent enhancement of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus infection?].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Wei; Xing, Xiu-Mei; Wen, Yong-Jun

    2014-07-01

    Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV) causes a persistent infection associated with immune complex disease, hypergammaglobulinemia, and high levels of antiviral antibodies. Despite the presence of an antibody, the virus is not cleared in vivo. Pre-existing antibodies may enhance viral infections, by Fc-receptor-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), but the mechanism that underlies ADE has not been fully defined. Three models have been proposed, including: (1) interactions between antibody and FcR, complement C3 fragment and CR, or between C1q and C1qR, which promotes viral attachment to cells; (2) suppression of IFN-gamma-mediated host-cell antiviral gene expression by the upregulation of negative regulators of pathogen pattern recognition; and (3) the promotion of early IL-10 secretion. In addition, the role of cytokine IL-6 in ADE mediated disease development is discussed, to facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis of AMDV infection, as well as give insights into rational vaccine design approaches. PMID:25272602

  4. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on Fusion VP2332-452 Antigen for Detecting Antibodies against Aleutian Mink Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowei; Song, Cailing; Liu, Yun; Qu, Liandong; Liu, Dafei; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Ming

    2016-02-01

    For detection of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) antibodies, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using the recombinant VP2332-452 protein as an antigen. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) was used as a reference test to compare the results of the ELISA and Western blotting (WB); the specificity and sensitivity of the VP2332-452 ELISA were 97.9% and 97.3%, respectively, which were higher than those of WB. Therefore, this VP2332-452 ELISA may be a preferable method for detecting antibodies against AMDV.

  5. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on Fusion VP2332-452 Antigen for Detecting Antibodies against Aleutian Mink Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaowei; Song, Cailing; Liu, Yun; Qu, Liandong; Liu, Dafei

    2015-01-01

    For detection of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) antibodies, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using the recombinant VP2332-452 protein as an antigen. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) was used as a reference test to compare the results of the ELISA and Western blotting (WB); the specificity and sensitivity of the VP2332-452 ELISA were 97.9% and 97.3%, respectively, which were higher than those of WB. Therefore, this VP2332-452 ELISA may be a preferable method for detecting antibodies against AMDV. PMID:26582828

  6. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on Fusion VP2332-452 Antigen for Detecting Antibodies against Aleutian Mink Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowei; Song, Cailing; Liu, Yun; Qu, Liandong; Liu, Dafei; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Ming

    2016-02-01

    For detection of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) antibodies, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using the recombinant VP2332-452 protein as an antigen. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) was used as a reference test to compare the results of the ELISA and Western blotting (WB); the specificity and sensitivity of the VP2332-452 ELISA were 97.9% and 97.3%, respectively, which were higher than those of WB. Therefore, this VP2332-452 ELISA may be a preferable method for detecting antibodies against AMDV. PMID:26582828

  7. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Chiyo; Sasaki, Motoki; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe(3+)) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  8. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Chiyo; Sasaki, Motoki; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe(3+)) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time.

  9. Antimicrobial properties of two purified skin peptides from the Mink Frog (Rana septentrionalis) against bacteria isolated from the natural habitat

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, Jonathan W.; Zalinger, Zachary B.; Bevier, Catherine R.; Fekete, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. Numerous peptides exhibiting antimicrobial properties have been isolated from the skins of many amphibian species. These peptides offer an innate chemical defense system against various microbial agents that exist in the amphibian's environment. Amphibian skin peptides are typically tested for antimicrobial activity against microbial strains that are pathogenic to humans, but not on potential pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria that exist in the organism's habitat. Two peptides, a brevinin-2 related peptide and temporin-1SPb previously isolated from secretions of the Mink Frog, Rana septentrionalis, were tested for antimicrobial activity on bacterial isolates endemic to the frog's habitat. Ten isolates were identified, using 16S rRNA sequencing techniques, in the genera Pseudomonas, Serratia, Bacillus, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Microbacterium, and Delftia. Bacterial isolates were tested with peptides at concentrations ranging from 0.8 μM to 1000 μM to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to inhibit growth. Growth of four of the isolates was inhibited by temporin-1SPb at the concentrations used, but all of the isolates were inhibited by the brevinin-2 related within the range of peptide concentrations used. This demonstrates the efficacy of both peptides as a component of the frog's innate chemical defense system. PMID:17499556

  10. Predictive habitat modelling of humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) and Antarctic minke (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) whales in the Southern Ocean as a planning tool for seismic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombosch, Annette; Zitterbart, Daniel P.; Van Opzeeland, Ilse; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Burkhardt, Elke; Wisz, Mary S.; Boebel, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    Seismic surveys are frequently a matter of concern regarding their potentially negative impacts on marine mammals. In the Southern Ocean, which provides a critical habitat for several endangered cetacean species, seismic research activities are undertaken at a circumpolar scale. In order to minimize impacts of these surveys, pre-cruise planning requires detailed, spatio-temporally resolved knowledge on the likelihood of encountering these species in the survey area. In this publication we present predictive habitat modelling as a potential tool to support decisions for survey planning. We associated opportunistic sightings (2005-2011) of humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae, N=93) and Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis, N=139) with a range of static and dynamic environmental variables. A maximum entropy algorithm (Maxent) was used to develop habitat models and to calculate daily basinwide/circumpolar prediction maps to evaluate how species-specific habitat conditions evolved throughout the spring and summer months. For both species, prediction maps revealed considerable changes in habitat suitability throughout the season. Suitable humpback whale habitat occurred predominantly in ice-free areas, expanding southwards with the retreating sea ice edge, whereas suitable Antarctic minke whale habitat was consistently predicted within sea ice covered areas. Daily, large-scale prediction maps provide a valuable tool to design layout and timing of seismic surveys as they allow the identification and consideration of potential spatio-temporal hotspots to minimize potential impacts of seismic surveys on Antarctic cetacean species.

  11. Analysis of Aleutian disease virus infection in vitro and in vivo: demonstration of Aleutian disease virus DNA in tissues of infected mink.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Aasted, B; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1985-01-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV) infection was analyzed in vivo and in vitro to compare virus replication in cell culture and in mink. Initial experiments compared cultures of Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells infected with the avirulent ADV-G strain or the highly virulent Utah I ADV. The number of ADV-infected cells was estimated by calculating the percentage of cells displaying ADV antigen by immunofluorescence (IFA), and several parameters of infection were determined. Infected cells contained large quantities of viral DNA (more than 10(5) genomes per infected cell) as estimated by dot-blot DNA-DNA hybridization, and much of the viral DNA, when analyzed by Southern blot hybridization, was found to be of a 4.8-kilobase-pair duplex monomeric replicative form (DM DNA). Furthermore, the cultures contained 7 to 67 fluorescence-forming units (FFU) per infected cell, and the ADV genome per FFU ratio ranged between 2 X 10(3) and 164 X 10(3). Finally, the pattern of viral antigen detected by IFA was characteristically nuclear, although cytoplasmic fluorescence was often found in the same cells. Because no difference was noted between the two virus strains when cultures containing similar numbers of infected cells were compared, it seemed that both viruses behaved similarly in infected cell culture. These data were used as a basis for the analysis of infection of mink by virulent Utah I ADV. Ten days after infection, the highest levels of viral DNA were detected in spleen (373 genomes per cell), mesenteric lymph node (MLN; 750 genomes per cell), and liver (373 genomes per cell). In marked contrast to infected CRFK cells, the predominant species of ADV DNA in all tissues was single-stranded virion DNA; however, 4.8-kilobase-pair DM DNA was found in MLN and spleen. This observation suggested that MLN and spleen were sites of virus replication, but that the DNA found in liver reflected sequestration of virus produced elsewhere. A final set of experiments examined MLN taken

  12. [Frequency ratio of two forms of amitotic division of trophoblast cell nuclei in the mink blastocysts during the period of delayed implantation].

    PubMed

    Isakova, G K; Shilova, I E

    2003-01-01

    A comparative study of amitotic division activity of trophoblast cells by constriction and by extrusion in blastocysts of American mink during the obligatory period of delayed implantation has been carried out. The frequency of occurrence of amitotic figures was found to be nearly 10% at the onset of renewal of blastocyst growth (the blastocyst size was 0.4 mm in diameter), and nearly 20% at the stage of active growth (0.9 mm), as well as at the stage of expansion prior to blastocyst attachment to the uterine wall (1.7 mm). The ratios between the frequencies of division by extrusion and by constriction were 2:1, 5:1, and 4:1 at the three stages, respectively. We suggest that the cells generated via different amitotic ways play different roles in trophoblast differentiation. PMID:12942744

  13. The Transcription Profile of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in CRFK Cells Is Generated by Alternative Processing of Pre-mRNAs Produced from a Single Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jianming; Cheng, Fang; Burger, Lisa R.; Pintel, David

    2006-01-01

    A reevaluation of the transcription profile of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV)-infected CRFK cells at either 32°C or 37°C has determined that strain AMDV-G encodes six species of mRNAs produced by alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation of a pre-mRNA generated by a single promoter at the left end of the genome. Three different splicing patterns are used, and each type is found polyadenylated at either the 3′ end of the genome (the distal site) or at a site in the center of the genome (the proximal site). All spliced species accumulate similarly over the course of infection, with the R2 RNA predominant throughout. The R2 RNA, which contains and can express the NS2 coding region, encodes the viral capsid proteins VP1 and VP2. PMID:16378968

  14. The Abundant R2 mRNA Generated by Aleutian Mink Disease Parvovirus Is Tricistronic, Encoding NS2, VP1, and VP2▿

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jianming; Cheng, Fang; Pintel, David

    2007-01-01

    The abundant R2 mRNA encoded by the single left-end promoter of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus is tricistronic; it not only expresses the capsid proteins VP1 and VP2 but is also the major source for the nonstructural protein NS2. A cis-acting sequence within the NS2 gene was shown to be required for efficient capsid protein production, and its effect displayed a distinct location dependence. Ribosome transit through the upstream NS2 gene region was necessary for efficient VP1 and VP2 expression; however, neither ablation nor improvement of the NS2 initiating AUG had an effect on capsid protein production, suggesting that the translation of the NS2 protein per se had little influence on VP1 and VP2 expression. Thus, proper control of the alternative translation of the tricistronic R2 mRNA, a process critical for viral replication, is governed in a complex manner. PMID:17428872

  15. The transcription profile of Aleutian mink disease virus in CRFK cells is generated by alternative processing of pre-mRNAs produced from a single promoter.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jianming; Cheng, Fang; Burger, Lisa R; Pintel, David

    2006-01-01

    A reevaluation of the transcription profile of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV)-infected CRFK cells at either 32 degrees C or 37 degrees C has determined that strain AMDV-G encodes six species of mRNAs produced by alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation of a pre-mRNA generated by a single promoter at the left end of the genome. Three different splicing patterns are used, and each type is found polyadenylated at either the 3' end of the genome (the distal site) or at a site in the center of the genome (the proximal site). All spliced species accumulate similarly over the course of infection, with the R2 RNA predominant throughout. The R2 RNA, which contains and can express the NS2 coding region, encodes the viral capsid proteins VP1 and VP2. PMID:16378968

  16. A comparative study of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in mink using a modified agglutination test, a Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yi; Wang, Zedong; Cai, Yufeng; Li, Xiaoxing; Wei, Feng; Shang, Limin; Li, Jiping; Liu, Quan

    2015-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, and many serological methods have been developed to detect T. gondii infection in a variety of animal species. In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in farmed mink in northeast China was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT), a Western blot (WB), and 3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with protein A/G conjugate, using either of 2 recombinant dense granule antigens, GRA1 and GRA7, or Toxoplasma soluble antigens (TSA). There was no significant difference between the detection results of the GRA1-, GRA7-, and TSA-ELISAs and WB (McNemar chi-square, P > 0.05), but a significant difference was observed between MAT and WB (P < 0.05). A near perfect agreement (97.0%) was found between the GRA7-ELISA and WB (κ = 0.83), and a substantial agreement (92.4-93.1%) was observed in the TSA- and GRA1-ELISAs (κ = 0.68-0.73). The GRA7-ELISA showed the highest sensitivity and specificity, and the lowest false-positive and negative rates, while the MAT gave both a low sensitivity and frequent false positives in comparison to the WB. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed the largest area under curve of 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.96), and the highest relative sensitivity (72.7%) and specificity (99.0%) for a cutoff value of 0.19 in the GRA7-ELISA. These results indicate that the GRA7-ELISA is suitable for detection of T. gondii infection in mink and that MAT should be used with caution.

  17. Investigating population genetic structure in a highly mobile marine organism: the minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata acutorostrata in the North East Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Quintela, María; Skaug, Hans J; Øien, Nils; Haug, Tore; Seliussen, Bjørghild B; Solvang, Hiroko K; Pampoulie, Christophe; Kanda, Naohisa; Pastene, Luis A; Glover, Kevin A

    2014-01-01

    Inferring the number of genetically distinct populations and their levels of connectivity is of key importance for the sustainable management and conservation of wildlife. This represents an extra challenge in the marine environment where there are few physical barriers to gene-flow, and populations may overlap in time and space. Several studies have investigated the population genetic structure within the North Atlantic minke whale with contrasting results. In order to address this issue, we analyzed ten microsatellite loci and 331 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop on 2990 whales sampled in the North East Atlantic in the period 2004 and 2007-2011. The primary findings were: (1) No spatial or temporal genetic differentiations were observed for either class of genetic marker. (2) mtDNA identified three distinct mitochondrial lineages without any underlying geographical pattern. (3) Nuclear markers showed evidence of a single panmictic population in the NE Atlantic according STRUCTURE's highest average likelihood found at K = 1. (4) When K = 2 was accepted, based on the Evanno's test, whales were divided into two more or less equally sized groups that showed significant genetic differentiation between them but without any sign of underlying geographic pattern. However, mtDNA for these individuals did not corroborate the differentiation. (5) In order to further evaluate the potential for cryptic structuring, a set of 100 in silico generated panmictic populations was examined using the same procedures as above showing genetic differentiation between two artificially divided groups, similar to the aforementioned observations. This demonstrates that clustering methods may spuriously reveal cryptic genetic structure. Based upon these data, we find no evidence to support the existence of spatial or cryptic population genetic structure of minke whales within the NE Atlantic. However, in order to conclusively evaluate population structure within this highly mobile

  18. Investigating Population Genetic Structure in a Highly Mobile Marine Organism: The Minke Whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata acutorostrata in the North East Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Quintela, María; Skaug, Hans J.; Øien, Nils; Haug, Tore; Seliussen, Bjørghild B.; Solvang, Hiroko K.; Pampoulie, Christophe; Kanda, Naohisa; Pastene, Luis A.; Glover, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    Inferring the number of genetically distinct populations and their levels of connectivity is of key importance for the sustainable management and conservation of wildlife. This represents an extra challenge in the marine environment where there are few physical barriers to gene-flow, and populations may overlap in time and space. Several studies have investigated the population genetic structure within the North Atlantic minke whale with contrasting results. In order to address this issue, we analyzed ten microsatellite loci and 331 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop on 2990 whales sampled in the North East Atlantic in the period 2004 and 2007–2011. The primary findings were: (1) No spatial or temporal genetic differentiations were observed for either class of genetic marker. (2) mtDNA identified three distinct mitochondrial lineages without any underlying geographical pattern. (3) Nuclear markers showed evidence of a single panmictic population in the NE Atlantic according STRUCTURE's highest average likelihood found at K = 1. (4) When K = 2 was accepted, based on the Evanno's test, whales were divided into two more or less equally sized groups that showed significant genetic differentiation between them but without any sign of underlying geographic pattern. However, mtDNA for these individuals did not corroborate the differentiation. (5) In order to further evaluate the potential for cryptic structuring, a set of 100 in silico generated panmictic populations was examined using the same procedures as above showing genetic differentiation between two artificially divided groups, similar to the aforementioned observations. This demonstrates that clustering methods may spuriously reveal cryptic genetic structure. Based upon these data, we find no evidence to support the existence of spatial or cryptic population genetic structure of minke whales within the NE Atlantic. However, in order to conclusively evaluate population structure within this highly mobile

  19. Spatial and temporal variation of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in the Antarctic minke whales, Balaenoptera bonaerensis, in the period 1987-2005.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Zenitani, Ryoko; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kato, Hidehiro

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and chlordane compounds (CHLs) were determined in the blubber of males (20-25 years old) of Antarctic minke whales, Balaenoptera bonaerensis, from the International Whaling Commission (IWC) management Areas IV (70°-130°E) and V (130°E-170°W), south 60°S. The ranges of concentrations (ng g(-1) lipid wt.) for each compound were, PCBs: 7.7-89; DDTs: 29-340; HCHs: 0.20-4.3; HCB: 75-430; CHLs: 10-120, which were much lower than those in common minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, from the northern hemisphere. The levels of PCBs, HCHs, HCB and CHLs in Area IV were significantly higher than those in Area V, while the levels of DDTs in both areas were similar. For comparing the fate among four pesticides in the Antarctic Ocean avoiding the effect of variance due to food intake, the ratios of the pesticides to PCBs, which has an extremely high chemical stability and environmental persistence, were examined. The HCHs/PCBs ratio decreased by a factor of about 20 in a span of 16 years in both Areas IV and V, while temporal trends of DDTs/PCBs, HCB/PCBs and CHLs/PCBs ratios were not observed. These results indicate that PCBs, DDTs, HCB and CHLs levels did not vary or slightly decreased in Areas IV and V during the study period. However HCHs levels clearly decreased. Spatial differences seems to be related to differences in food intake among whales, and temporal differences seems to be related to the length stay of OCs in the Antarctic Ocean.

  20. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    MacIntosh, D.L. . School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. )

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  1. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    MacIntosh, D.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  2. Characteristics and contributions of defective, ecotropic, and mink cell focus-inducing viruses involved in a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome of mice.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, S K; Sengupta, D N; Fredrickson, T N; Morse, H C; Hartley, J W

    1991-08-01

    LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus, a derivative of Duplan-Laterjet virus, contains a mixture of replication-competent B-tropic ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) viruses and a defective genome that is the proximal cause of a syndrome, murine AIDS (MAIDS), characterized by lymphoproliferation and immunodeficiency. The defective (BM5d) and ecotropic components of this mixture were molecularly cloned, and complete (BM5d) or partial (ecotropic) nucleotide sequences were determined. BM5d closely resembled the Du5H genome cloned from the Duplan virus, featuring a highly divergent p12 sequence in the gag open reading frame. In MAIDS-sensitive C57BL/6 mice, BM5d was detected in tissues within 2 weeks of infection but was absent from tissues of the MAIDS-resistant strain, A/J, 12 weeks after infection. B-cell-lineage tumors from mice with MAIDS contained and expressed BM5d, and clonal integrations of this genome were variably associated with clonal expansions of B cells in infected mice. Finally, mRNA crosshybridizing with a probe for BM5d was present in spleen but not kidney cells of uninfected B6 mice.

  3. Characteristics and contributions of defective, ecotropic, and mink cell focus-inducing viruses involved in a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, S K; Sengupta, D N; Fredrickson, T N; Morse, H C; Hartley, J W

    1991-01-01

    LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus, a derivative of Duplan-Laterjet virus, contains a mixture of replication-competent B-tropic ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) viruses and a defective genome that is the proximal cause of a syndrome, murine AIDS (MAIDS), characterized by lymphoproliferation and immunodeficiency. The defective (BM5d) and ecotropic components of this mixture were molecularly cloned, and complete (BM5d) or partial (ecotropic) nucleotide sequences were determined. BM5d closely resembled the Du5H genome cloned from the Duplan virus, featuring a highly divergent p12 sequence in the gag open reading frame. In MAIDS-sensitive C57BL/6 mice, BM5d was detected in tissues within 2 weeks of infection but was absent from tissues of the MAIDS-resistant strain, A/J, 12 weeks after infection. B-cell-lineage tumors from mice with MAIDS contained and expressed BM5d, and clonal integrations of this genome were variably associated with clonal expansions of B cells in infected mice. Finally, mRNA crosshybridizing with a probe for BM5d was present in spleen but not kidney cells of uninfected B6 mice. Images PMID:1649328

  4. The concept of superfetation: a critical review on a 'myth' in mammalian reproduction.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Kathleen; Menzies, Brandon R; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Goeritz, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Superfetation is understood as another conception during an already ongoing pregnancy. This implies the existence of young of different developmental stages within the female reproductive tract during certain periods of pregnancy. Nevertheless, a clear definition of the term as well as distinct criteria to identify the occurrence of superfetation in a species is missing. The variable anatomy of mammalian reproductive tracts seems to make the occurrence of superfetation more or less likely but impedes the simple evaluation of whether it is present or not. Additionally, adequate determination methods are missing or are difficult to apply at the right time. Superfetation or rather superfetation-like pregnancies are reported for numerous species including humans, livestock and rodents. The usual criteria to assume a case of superfetation include the finding of discordantly developed young within the uterus during post mortem or parturition of young after a birth interval shorter than the assumed pregnancy length. Often the occurrence of superfetation is concluded because other explanations of reproductive artifacts are missing. Even severe reproductive pathologies are often confused with superfetation. True superfetation or superfetation as a reproductive strategy may exist in some mammals. In the American mink (Neovison (Mustela) vison) and the European badger (Meles meles) superfetation occurs in combination with embryonic diapause. In the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus), superfetation has long been assumed to exist but evidence is still controversial. Superfetation definitely occurs in certain species of poeciliid and zenarchopterid fish, some of which also exhibit viviparity and maternal care. In mammals, the evolution of such a reproductive mechanism poses many interesting evolutionary, endocrine, microbial and immunological questions that require further investigation. Here we review the scant and at times ancient literature on this poorly understood topic

  5. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales

    PubMed Central

    KITAYAMA, Chiyo; SASAKI, Motoki; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KONDOH, Daisuke; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe3+) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  6. Nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV): sequence comparisons between a nonpathogenic and a pathogenic strain of ADV.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Alexandersen, S; Perryman, S; Lechner, D; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1988-01-01

    A DNA sequence of 4,592 nucleotides (nt) was derived for the nonpathogenic ADV-G strain of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). The 3'(left) end of the virion strand contained a 117-nt palindrome that could assume a Y-shaped configuration similar to, but less stable than, that of other parvoviruses. The sequence obtained for the 5' end was incomplete and did not contain the 5' (right) hairpin structure but ended just after a 25-nt A + T-rich direct repeat. Features of ADV genomic organization are (i) major left (622 amino acids) and right (702 amino acids) open reading frames (ORFs) in different translational frames of the plus-sense strand, (ii) two short mid-ORFs, (iii) eight potential promoter motifs (TATA boxes), including ones at 3 and 36 map units, and (iv) six potential polyadenylation sites, including three clustered near the termination of the right ORF. Although the overall homology to other parvoviruses is less than 50%, there are short conserved amino acid regions in both major ORFs. However, two regions in the right ORF allegedly conserved among the parvoviruses were not present in ADV. At the DNA level, ADV-G is 97.5% related to the pathogenic ADV-Utah 1. A total of 22 amino acid changes were found in the right ORF; changes were found in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions and generally did not affect the theoretical hydropathy. However, there is a short heterogeneous region at 64 to 65 map units in which 8 out of 11 residues have diverged; this hypervariable segment may be analogous to short amino acid regions in other parvoviruses that determine host range and pathogenicity. These findings suggested that this region may harbor some of the determinants responsible for the differences in pathogenicity of ADV-G and ADV-Utah 1. PMID:2839709

  7. Infection by mink cell focus-forming viruses confers interleukin 2 (IL-2) independence to an IL-2-dependent rat T-cell lymphoma line.

    PubMed Central

    Tsichlis, P N; Bear, S E

    1991-01-01

    The development of T-cell lymphomas in rodents infected with type C retroviruses has been linked to the generation of a class of envelope (env) recombinant viruses called mink cell focus-forming viruses (MCF viruses) in the preleukemic thymus. To determine whether infection by MCF viruses altered the growth phenotype of retrovirus-induced T-cell lymphomas, a Moloney murine leukemia virus-induced interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent rat T-cell lymphoma line (4437A) was infected with MCF-247, modified MCF-V33 (mMCF-V33), or NZB-xenotropic (NZB-X) virus. The effects of virus infection on the IL-2 dependence of these cells was examined by cultivating them in the absence of IL-2. After IL-2 withdrawal, the uninfected and NZB-X-infected cells went through a crisis period characterized by massive death. All the independently maintained cultures of MCF- and mMCF-V33-infected cells, on the other hand, became IL-2 independent without a crisis. All the polytropic virus-infected IL-2-independent cultures contained a population of cells that was polyclonal with regard to polytropic provirus integration. Over this polyclonal background each culture produced multiple clones of cells that were selected rapidly after IL-2 withdrawal. Furthermore, the resulting MCF- or mMCF-V33-infected IL-2-independent cells retained the expression of IL-2 receptor. These data show that MCF and mMCF-V33 viruses may alter the growth phenotype of a T-cell lymphoma line and suggest that their effect on cell growth may be due to the direct interaction of the MCF envelope glycoprotein with cellular components, perhaps the IL-2 receptor. Images PMID:2052545

  8. Identification of Aleutian Mink Disease Parvovirus Capsid Sequences Mediating Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Infection, Virus Neutralization, and Immune Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Marshall E.; Best, Sonja M.; Hayes, Stanley F.; Wells, Richard D.; Wolfinbarger, James B.; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2001-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) causes a persistent infection associated with circulating immune complexes, immune complex disease, hypergammaglobulinemia, and high levels of antiviral antibody. Although antibody can neutralize ADV infectivity in Crandell feline kidney cells in vitro, virus is not cleared in vivo, and capsid-based vaccines have proven uniformly ineffective. Antiviral antibody also enables ADV to infect macrophages, the target cells for persistent infection, by Fc-receptor-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). The antibodies involved in these unique aspects of ADV pathogenesis may have specific targets on the ADV capsid. Prominent differences exist between the structure of ADV and other, more-typical parvoviruses, which can be accounted for by short peptide sequences in the flexible loop regions of the capsid proteins. In order to determine whether these short sequences are targets for antibodies involved in ADV pathogenesis, we studied heterologous antibodies against several peptides present in the major capsid protein, VP2. Of these antibodies, a polyclonal rabbit antibody to peptide VP2:428-446 was the most interesting. The anti-VP2:428-446 antibody aggregated virus particles into immune complexes, mediated ADE, and neutralized virus infectivity in vitro. Thus, antibody against this short peptide can be implicated in key facets of ADV pathogenesis. Structural modeling suggested that surface-exposed residues of VP2:428-446 are readily accessible for antibody binding. The observation that antibodies against a single target peptide in the ADV capsid can mediate both neutralization and ADE may explain the failure of capsid-based vaccines. PMID:11602751

  9. Alleles A and B of non-structural protein 1 of avian influenza A viruses differentially inhibit beta interferon production in human and mink lung cells.

    PubMed

    Munir, Muhammad; Zohari, Siamak; Metreveli, Giorgi; Baule, Claudia; Belák, Sándor; Berg, Mikael

    2011-09-01

    Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) counteracts the production of host type I interferons (IFN-α/β) for the efficient replication and pathogenicity of influenza A viruses. Here, we reveal another dimension of the NS1 protein of avian influenza A viruses in suppressing IFN-β production in cultured cell lines. We found that allele A NS1 proteins of H6N8 and H4N6 have a strong capacity to inhibit the activation of IFN-β production, compared with allele B from corresponding subtypes, as measured by IFN stimulatory response element (ISRE) promoter activation, IFN-β mRNA transcription and IFN-β protein expression. Furthermore, the ability to suppress IFN-β promoter activation was mapped to the C-terminal effector domain (ED), while the RNA-binding domain (RBD) alone was unable to suppress IFN-β promoter activation. Chimeric studies indicated that when the RBD of allele A was fused to the ED of allele B, it was a strong inhibitor of IFN-β promoter activity. This shows that well-matched ED and RBD are crucial for the function of the NS1 protein and that the RBD could be one possible cause for this differential IFN-β inhibition. Notably, mutagenesis studies indicated that the F103Y and Y103F substitutions in alleles A and B, respectively, do not influence the ISRE promoter activation. Apart from dsRNA signalling, differences were observed in the expression pattern of NS1 in transfected human and mink lung cells. This study therefore expands the versatile nature of the NS1 protein in inhibiting IFN responses at multiple levels, by demonstrating for the first time that it occurs in a manner dependent on allele type.

  10. The neocortex of cetartiodactyls: I. A comparative Golgi analysis of neuronal morphology in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Butti, Camilla; Janeway, Caroline M; Townshend, Courtney; Wicinski, Bridget A; Reidenberg, Joy S; Ridgway, Sam H; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Jacobs, Bob

    2015-11-01

    The present study documents the morphology of neurons in several regions of the neocortex from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the North Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Golgi-stained neurons (n = 210) were analyzed in the frontal and temporal neocortex as well as in the primary visual and primary motor areas. Qualitatively, all three species exhibited a diversity of neuronal morphologies, with spiny neurons including typical pyramidal types, similar to those observed in primates and rodents, as well as other spiny neuron types that had more variable morphology and/or orientation. Five neuron types, with a vertical apical dendrite, approximated the general pyramidal neuron morphology (i.e., typical pyramidal, extraverted, magnopyramidal, multiapical, and bitufted neurons), with a predominance of typical and extraverted pyramidal neurons. In what may represent a cetacean morphological apomorphy, both typical pyramidal and magnopyramidal neurons frequently exhibited a tri-tufted variant. In the humpback whale, there were also large, star-like neurons with no discernable apical dendrite. Aspiny bipolar and multipolar interneurons were morphologically consistent with those reported previously in other mammals. Quantitative analyses showed that neuronal size and dendritic extent increased in association with body size and brain mass (bottlenose dolphin < minke whale < humpback whale). The present data thus suggest that certain spiny neuron morphologies may be apomorphies in the neocortex of cetaceans as compared to other mammals and that neuronal dendritic extent covaries with brain and body size. PMID:25100560

  11. The neocortex of cetartiodactyls: I. A comparative Golgi analysis of neuronal morphology in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Butti, Camilla; Janeway, Caroline M; Townshend, Courtney; Wicinski, Bridget A; Reidenberg, Joy S; Ridgway, Sam H; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Jacobs, Bob

    2015-11-01

    The present study documents the morphology of neurons in several regions of the neocortex from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the North Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Golgi-stained neurons (n = 210) were analyzed in the frontal and temporal neocortex as well as in the primary visual and primary motor areas. Qualitatively, all three species exhibited a diversity of neuronal morphologies, with spiny neurons including typical pyramidal types, similar to those observed in primates and rodents, as well as other spiny neuron types that had more variable morphology and/or orientation. Five neuron types, with a vertical apical dendrite, approximated the general pyramidal neuron morphology (i.e., typical pyramidal, extraverted, magnopyramidal, multiapical, and bitufted neurons), with a predominance of typical and extraverted pyramidal neurons. In what may represent a cetacean morphological apomorphy, both typical pyramidal and magnopyramidal neurons frequently exhibited a tri-tufted variant. In the humpback whale, there were also large, star-like neurons with no discernable apical dendrite. Aspiny bipolar and multipolar interneurons were morphologically consistent with those reported previously in other mammals. Quantitative analyses showed that neuronal size and dendritic extent increased in association with body size and brain mass (bottlenose dolphin < minke whale < humpback whale). The present data thus suggest that certain spiny neuron morphologies may be apomorphies in the neocortex of cetaceans as compared to other mammals and that neuronal dendritic extent covaries with brain and body size.

  12. Nucleotide sequence analysis establishes the role of endogenous murine leukemia virus DNA segments in formation of recombinant mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A S

    1984-01-01

    The sequence of 363 nucleotides near the 3' end of the pol gene and 564 nucleotides from the 5' terminus of the env gene in an endogenous murine leukemia viral (MuLV) DNA segment, cloned from AKR/J mouse DNA and designated as A-12, was obtained. For comparison, the nucleotide sequence in an analogous portion of AKR mink cell focus-forming (MCF) 247 MuLV provirus was also determined. Sequence features unique to MCF247 MuLV DNA in the 3' pol and 5' env regions were identified by comparison with nucleotide sequences in analogous regions of NFS -Th-1 xenotropic and AKR ecotropic MuLV proviruses. These included (i) an insertion of 12 base pairs encoding four amino acids located 60 base pairs from the 3' terminus of the pol gene and immediately preceding the env gene, (ii) the deletion of 12 base pairs (encoding four amino acids) and the insertion of 3 base pairs (encoding one amino acid) in the 5' portion of the env gene, and (iii) single base substitutions resulting in 2 MCF247 -specific amino acids in the 3' pol and 23 in the 5' env regions. Nucleotide sequence comparison involving the 3' pol and 5' env regions of AKR MCF247 , NFS xenotropic, and AKR ecotropic MuLV proviruses with the cloned endogenous MuLV DNA indicated that MCF247 proviral DNA sequences were conserved in the cloned endogenous MuLV proviral segment. In fact, total nucleotide sequence identity existed between the endogenous MuLV DNA and the MCF247 MuLV provirus in the 3' portion of the pol gene. In the 5' env region, only 4 of 564 nucleotides were different, resulting in three amino acid changes between AKR MCF247 MuLV DNA and the endogenous MuLV DNA present in clone A-12. In addition, nucleotide sequence comparison indicated that Moloney-and Friend-MCF MuLVs were also highly related in the 3' pol and 5' env regions to the cloned endogenous MuLV DNA. These results establish the role of endogenous MuLV DNA segments in generation of recombinant MCF viruses. PMID:6328017

  13. [Chromosomal localization and evolutionary age of satellite DNAs of Mustelidae].

    PubMed

    Lushnikova, T P; Grafodatskiĭ, A S; Romashchenko, A G; Radzhabli, S I

    1988-12-01

    DNA reassociation kinetics were studied in the European mink (Mustela lutreola), the American mink (M. vison), the marbled polecat (Vormela peregusna). Variation in DNA quantity and heterochromatin amount occurs in connection with changes in the size of all kinetic fractions. Moderately repetitive genome component is the most variable in these three species. Cryptic CsCl satellite of the stoat (M. erminea), Ag+/Cs2SO4 satellites of the M. vison, V. peregusna were used for in situ homo- and heterologous hybridizations. Satellite DNAs revealed may be classified for the evolution age and chromosomal location type. More ancient satellite DNAs were dispersed in carnivors or mammalian genomes. Mustelids' specific satellites are concentrated in heterochromatic chromosome regions. The evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:3250906

  14. Sarcocystis and other coccidia in foxes and other wild carnivores from Montana.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    1982-12-01

    Sarcocystis spp sporocysts were found in feces of 10.1% of 198 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), in 3.2% of 61 bobcats (Lynx rufus), in 16.6% of 12 mountain lions (Felis concolor), in 16.6% of 6 fisher (Martes pennanti), and in none of 20 wolverines (Gulo gulo), 4 mink (Mustela vison), or 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor). Sarcocystis muris and Toxoplasma gondii were not found in laboratory mice inoculated with feces of bobcats and mountain lions. PMID:6816776

  15. Generation of an Archaean H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ fluid enriched in Au, W and Mo by fractional crystallization in the Mink Lake intrusion, NW Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, D.R.; Spooner, E.T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Fractional crystallization (FC) of the post-tectonic trondhjemitic Mink Lake intrusion in NW Ontario resulted in a residual H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ low salinity fluid with an isotopic composition (delta /sup 13/C/sub cc/ x = -3.3 per thousand +/- 0.4 per thousand (1s), delta/sup 18/O/sub cc/ + 10.7 to 15.9 per thousand, deltaD/sub FI/ -70 +/- 9 per thousand (1s) and delta /sup 34/S/sub py/ +0.4 to +2.90 per thousand) compatible with magmatic derivation and extremely similar to that in vein quartz-carbonate-pyrite +/- scheelite, +/- tourmaline, +/- MoS/sub 2/ +/- telluride systems characteristic of major Archaean lode gold deposits. Inward FC of the granodiorite magma (69-71% SiO/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/O/K/sub 2/O = 1.6-3.9), as indicated by trace and REE data, produced a sequence of microgranites and aplitic dykes with mean values by INNA (n=10) for Au of 2.3ppb, Mo = 22ppm and W = 7.3ppm as compared to mean background values in the granodiorite of Au <1ppb, Mo less than or equal to 1ppm with W less than or equal to 3.7ppm (n=4). The latest aplites are observed to coexist with a H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ mixture and are characterized by carbonate alteration selvages and minor MoS/sub 2/. Subsequent separation of the H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ fluid and interaction with an otherwise fresh granodiorite within the already solidified southern margin, produced MoS/sub 2/ mineralized sub-horizontal quartz veins and larger tabular lenses of carbonate alteration without internal veining. Such zones are anomalously enriched (n=10) in Au (anti x = 153 pbb, range 2-570ppb) Mo (anti x 660ppm, range 1-2500ppm and W (anti x = 61 ppm, range 23-95 ppm).

  16. Ecological risk assessment in a large river-reservoir. 4: Piscivorous wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1999-04-01

    Over 50 years of operations of facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Tennessee, has resulted in the release of contaminants into the water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek, downstream of the ORR. An iterative, weight-of-evidence approach was employed to assess risks these contaminants present to four piscivorous wildlife species (osprey [Pandion haliatus], great blue heron [Ardea herodias], mink [Mustela vison], and river otter [Lutra canadensis]) in the Clinch River/Poplar Creek (CR/PC) watershed. Available data consisted of literature-derived NOAELs and LOAELs, field surveys, and toxicity tests. Contaminants of potential ecological concern (COPECs) were identified by comparing point estimates of exposure to NOAELs and included mercury and PCBs. Exposure to COPECs was reestimated using Monte Carlo methods, first at individual locations, then over ecologically relevant spatial scales. These exposure distributions were compared to LOAELs. Estimated exposure for mink was not sufficient to present a risk from any COPEC. Mercury and PCBs presented a significant risk to river otter at one location each. Exposure of osprey and great blue herons to mercury represented a significant risk at one and two locations, respectively. Field surveys of heron rookeries and osprey nests indicated no adverse effects on reproduction. Mink red fish from the Clinch River displayed reduced reproduction only in the most contaminated of five toxicity test diets; this reduction was not statistically significant, however. The maximum mercury and PCB exposures estimated for mink along the Clinch River were significantly lower than the toxicity test exposures associated with adverse effects. The weight of evidence indicates that contaminants from the ORR do not present a risk to mink, great blue heron, or osprey along the Clinch River; river otter, however, may be at risk from mercury and PCBs.

  17. Recording the free-living behaviour of small-bodied, shallow-diving animals with data loggers.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C; Forman, Dan W; Harrington, Lauren A; Harrington, Andrew L; MacDonald, David W; Righton, David

    2007-01-01

    1. Time-depth data recorders (TDRs) have been widely used to explore the behaviour of relatively large, deep divers. However, little is known about the dive behaviour of small, shallow divers such as semi-aquatic mammals. 2. We used high-resolution TDRs to record the diving behaviour of American mink Mustela vison (weight of individuals 580-1275 g) in rivers in Oxfordshire (UK) between December 2005 and March 2006. 3. Dives to > 0.2 m were measured in all individuals (n = 6). Modal dive depth and duration were 0.3 m and 10 s, respectively, although dives up to 3 m and 60 s in duration were recorded. Dive duration increased with dive depth. 4. Temperature data recorded by TDRs covaried with diving behaviour: they were relatively cold (modal temperature 4-6 degrees C across individuals) when mink were diving and relatively warm (modal temperature 24-36 degrees C across individuals) when mink were not diving. 5. Individuals differed hugely in their use of rivers, reflecting foraging plasticity across both terrestrial and aquatic environments. For some individuals there was < 1 dive per day while for others there was > 100 dives per day. 6. We have shown it is now possible to record the diving behaviour of small free-living animals that only dive a few tens of centimetres, opening up the way for a new range of TDR studies on shallow diving species. PMID:17184367

  18. Investigating the role of wild carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Peter; Zintl, Annetta; De Waal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; Hawkins, Conall; Lawton, Colin

    2013-03-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite, primarily associated with bovine abortion. The only definitive hosts discovered to date are carnivores. This study aimed to identify the role of mammalian carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis. A sample bank of serum, fecal and brain samples was established: American mink (Mustela vison), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pine martens (Martes martes), badgers (Meles meles), stoats (Mustela erminea), otters (Lutra lutra) and feral ferrets (Mustela putorius). Approximately 1% of mink and 1% of fox samples were positive by IFAT. According to PCR analysis of DNA extracted from brain tissue, 3% of the mink, 4% of the otters and 6% of the foxes examined were infected with N. caninum. All fecal samples tested negative for N. caninum DNA (n = 311), suggesting that the species that tested positive were intermediate not definitive hosts. This is the first time that tissues from mustelids have tested positive for N. caninum. The need to test 2 relatively large (~200 mg) targeted parts of the brain to avoid false negatives was also identified. The relatively low prevalence of N. caninum in Irish carnivores suggests that the local ecology of a species has an important influence on its epidemiological role.

  19. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials of... Virus shall not be used. (c) Each lot of Master Seed Virus used for vaccine production shall be tested... during the observation period, the Master Seed Virus is unsatisfactory. (4) An Outline of...

  20. Cranial variation in British mustelids.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Mill, P J

    2004-04-01

    Nineteen measurements were made on 136 skulls belonging to seven mustelid species: Meles meles (Eurasian badger), Mustela nivalis, (weasel), Mustela erminea (stoat), Mustela putorius (polecat), Lutra lutra (otter), Mustela furo (ferret), and Mustela vison (American mink), and polecat-ferret hybrids. To investigate shape, size-related effects were eliminated by dividing all measurements by their geometric means. Canonical variate analysis was used to reveal major interspecies distinctions. Excluding the ferrets and polecat-ferrets from the analysis, only 3.2% of the skulls misclassified (one mink, one weasel, and two stoats). Three groups separated on the first canonical axis: 1) badgers, 2) polecats, mink, and otters, and 3) stoats and weasels. The important variables were width of zygomatic arch and height of sagittal crest opposed to the postorbital distance, condylobasal length, and basilar length. Otters separated out on the second canonical axis; the most important variables were postorbital breadth and width of the postorbital constriction opposed to the basioccipital width. There was reasonable separation of polecats from mink on a combination of the second and third canonical axes. On the latter the most important variables were postorbital breadth opposed to postorbital distance. Addition of the ferret data showed that they lay closest to, and overlapped with, the polecats. The stoat and weasel data alone gave complete separation, with height of sagittal crest and width of zygomatic arch opposed to basioccipital width. However, using size-in data the best separation was the relationship between postorbital breadth and either basioccipital width or postorbital distance. Sexual dimorphism was demonstrated in the skulls of badgers but was shown to be relatively insignificant when compared to the interspecific differences. PMID:15052596

  1. Accumulation patterns of heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons by sea otters, Enhydra lutris, in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Risebrough, R.W.

    1989-06-30

    Chemical contaminants and naturally occurring toxic compounds in the coastal ecosystem of California currently inhabited by sea otters, Enhydra lutris, do not appear to have, or have had, any effect on the status of the population. Ratios of pups to adults appear to be within the expected ranges and do not indicate any depressed productivity that might be caused by one or a combination of environmental toxicants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), however, which cause nearly complete reproductive failures when fed at levels as low as 0.6 ppm in another member of the family Mustelidae, the mink, Mustela vison, were present in livers of a number of animals at higher levels than those associated with reproductive failure in mink. An interspecific difference in sensitivity, or relatively lower amounts of the more toxic PCB compounds in the sea otter population, is indicated. A decline in PCB (and DDE) levels along the California coast recorded in mussels, Mytilus californianus, and the ending of PCB uses reduce any potential threat to the otter population from PCB contamination.

  2. Relationships between organochlorine concentrations in liver and muscle of otters

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F. )

    1989-10-01

    The European otter (Lutra lutra) is now threatened or endangered over much of its European range. The decline, which has taken place mainly during the past three decades, has been attributed to the toxic effects of organochlorine residues, with emphasis being placed on dieldrin or PCBs. Few otters were analyzed for organochlorines during the main period of decline but there is not considerable interest in the species. Experiments with ranch mink (Mustela vison) have shown that reproductive failure occurs when PCB concentrations in thigh muscle approach 50 mg kg{sup {minus}1} lipid. Because otters are closely related and have similar habits this value is becoming widely used to interpret the potential significance of PCB concentrations determined in otters. Furthermore, although the mink data refer to concentrations in muscle, interpretations of concentrations in otters have frequently been based on analyses of livers. Because of the diverse sources of material in Europe, only limited tissues may be made available for analysis, while costs may also prohibit the analysis of several tissues from a single carcass. The relationship between concentrations of organochlorines in muscle and liver tissues in otters has not been determined. This is the purpose of the present communication.

  3. Developing ecologically based PCB, pesticide, and metal remedial goals for an impacted northeast wooded swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Rury, P.M.; Turton, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Historically, remedial goals at hazardous waste sites have been developed based on human health risk estimates. As the disciplines of remedial investigation, risk assessment, and remedial design have evolved, there has been a shift toward the development of remedial goals that are protective of both human health and the environment. This has increased the need for sound quantitative ecological risk methodologies from which to derive ecologically protective remedial goals. The foundation of many ecological risk assessment models is the bioconcentration or bioaccumulation factor that estimates the partitioning of the compound of concern between the media (e.g., water, soil, or food) and the organism. Simple dietary food-chain models are then used to estimate the dose and resulting risk to higher trophic levels. For a Superfund site that encompassed a northeastern wooded swamp, a PCB pesticide and metal uptake and toxicity study was conducted on the earthworm commonly known as the red wiggler (Eisenea foetida). The study resulted in site-specific sediment to earthworm bioconcentration factors for PCBs and a range of pesticides and metals. In addition, largemouth bass and yellow perch were collected from an impacted pond to identify PCB and pesticide concentrations in mink (Mustela vison) prey. Utilizing the empirical data and site-specific bioconcentration factors in food-chain models, potential risks to the American woodcock (Scolopax minor) and mink were assessed, and ecologically protective PCB, pesticide, and metal remedial goals for the sediments of the wooded swamp were developed.

  4. The genome phylogeny of domestic cat, red panda and five mustelid species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and G-banding.

    PubMed

    Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Fu, Beiyuan; Ying, Tian; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang

    2002-01-01

    Genome-wide homology maps among stone marten (Martes foina, 2n = 38), domestic cat (Felis catus, 2n = 38), American mink (Mustela vison, 2n = 30), yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula, 2n = 40), Old World badger (Meles meles, 2n = 44), ferret badger (Melogale moschata, 2n = 38) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens, 2n = 36) have been established by cross-species chromosome painting with a complete set of stone marten probes. In total, 18 stone marten autosomal probes reveal 20, 19, 21, 18 and 21 pairs of homologous chromosomal segments in the respective genomes of American mink, yellow-throated marten. Old World badger, ferret badger and red panda. Reciprocal painting between stone marten and cat delineated 21 pairs of homologous segments shared in both stone marten and cat genomes. The chromosomal painting results indicate that most chromosomes of these species are highly conserved and show one-to-one correspondence with stone marten and cat chromosomes or chromosomal arms, and that only a few interchromosomal rearrangements (Robertsonian fusions and fissions) have occurred during species radiation. By comparing the distribution patterns of conserved chromosomal segments in both these species and the putative ancestral carnivore karyotype, we have reconstructed the pathway of karyotype evolution of these species from the putative 2n = 42 ancestral carnivore karyotype. Our results support a close phylogenetic relationship between the red panda and mustelids. The homology data presented in these maps will allow us to transfer the cat gene mapping data to other unmapped carnivore species.

  5. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild mammals of Missouri and east central Kansas: biologic and ecologic considerations of transmission.

    PubMed

    Smith, D D; Frenkel, J K

    1995-01-01

    Sera from 273 wild mammals from Missouri and Kansas (USA), collected between December 1974 and December 1987, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the Sabin-Feldman dye test. Sixty-five (24%) had antibodies at titers of > or = 1:8, including 38 (66%) of 58 carnivores, 14 (15%) of 94 omnivores, 13 (11%) of 117 herbivores, and none of four insectivores. The prevalence of antibodies in mice (Mus musculus and Peromyscus spp.) and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Sigmodon hispidus) was low (3%), while medium sized herbivores such as squirrels (Sciurus spp.), rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) had prevalences of about 18%. Red foxes (Vulpes fulva) and mink (Mustela vison) had the highest prevalence of antibodies with frequencies of 90 and 66%, respectively. In 32 attempts to isolate Toxoplasma gondii from wild mammals with positive (> or = 1:4) titers, only six (19%) were successful: a gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), a beaver (Castor canadensis), an opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), a red fox and two mink. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the probability of infection with Toxoplasma gondii, and therefore prevalence of antibodies in wildlife, is greatest in carnivores.

  6. A coprological survey of parasites of wild carnivores in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Peter; Golden, Olwen; Zintl, Annetta; de Waal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; McCarthy, Elaine; Lawton, Colin

    2013-10-01

    The increasing movement of people to wilderness areas, shrinking of wildlife habitats and the resulting urbanisation of wildlife has led to growing concerns about the transfer of parasitic diseases, particularly from contaminated faeces. Faecal samples from wild carnivores in Ireland were examined for the presence of protozoan and nematode parasites. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) samples (n = 91) were positive for Uncinaria stenocephala (38%), Eucoleus aerophilus (26%), Toxocara canis (20%), Trichuris vulpis (4%) and Isospora-like oocysts (9%). Badger (Meles meles) samples (n = 50) were positive for Uncinaria criniformis (40%), E. aerophilus (6%) and Isospora-like oocysts (16%). No parasites were observed in pine marten (n = 48; Martes martes) faeces. Approximately 5% of American mink (Mustela vison) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium by polymerase chain reaction (identified as Cryptosporidium andersoni (n = 3) and 'mink' genotype (n = 1)). The results suggest that wild carnivores in Ireland have a range of parasites, although it is unclear from the present study to what extent these infections are associated with morbidity. While it can be expected that, via their faeces, wild carnivores contribute to the spread of these parasites, they are unlikely the primary source of environmental contamination. Therefore, they should not always be the principal target of control measures.

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Oxbow Conservation Area, 2002-2005 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Brian

    2005-02-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the Oxbow Conservation Area in Grant County, Oregon. The evaluation is a required part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) relating to the acquisition and management of the Oxbow Conservation Area. The HEP team was comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. The survey was conducted using the following HEP evaluation models for key species: black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), mink (Mustela vison), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), and yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Cover types used in this survey were conifer forest, irrigated meadow, riparian meadow, upland meadow, riparian shrub, upland shrub, and mine tailings. The project generated 701.3 habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. Results for each HEP species are: (1) Black-capped chickadee habitat was good, with only isolated areas lacking snags or having low tree canopy cover. (2) Mallard habitat was poor in upland meadows and marginal elsewhere due to a lack of herbaceous/shrub cover and low herbaceous height. (3) Mink habitat was good, limited only by the lack of the shrub component. (4) Western meadowlark habitat was marginal in upland meadow and mine tailing cover types and good in irrigated meadow. Percent cover of grass and height of herbaceous variables were limiting factors. (5) White-tailed deer habitat was marginal due to relatively low tree canopy cover, reduced shrub cover, and limited browse diversity. (6) Yellow Warbler habitat was marginal due to less than optimum shrub height and the lack of hydrophytic shrubs. General ratings (poor, marginal, etc.) are described in the introduction section.

  8. The use of operant technology to measure behavioral priorities in captive animals.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J J; Mason, G J

    2001-08-01

    Addressing the behavioral priorities of captive animals and the development of practical, objective measures of the value of environmental resources is a principal objective of animal welfare science. In theory, consumer demand approaches derived from human microeconomics should provide valid measures of the value of environmental resources. In practice, however, a number of empirical and theoretical problems have rendered these measures difficult to interpret in studies with animals. A common approach has been to impose a cost on access to resources and to use time with each resource as a measure of consumption to construct demand curves. This can be recorded easily by automatic means, but in a number of studies, it has been found that animals compensate for increased cost of access with longer visit time. Furthermore, direct observation of the test animals' behavior has shown that resource interaction is more intense once the animals have overcome higher costs. As a consequence, measures based on time with the resource may underestimate resource consumption at higher access costs, and demand curves derived from these measures may not be a true reflection of the value of different resources. An alternative approach to demand curves is reservation price, which is the maximum price individual animals are prepared to pay to gain access to resources. In studies using this approach, farmed mink (Mustela vison) paid higher prices for food and swimming water than for resources such as tunnels, water bowls, pet toys, and empty compartments. This indicates that the mink placed a higher value on food and swimming water than on other resources. PMID:11591075

  9. Differences in the ability to suppress interferon β production between allele A and allele B NS1 proteins from H10 influenza A viruses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In our previous study concerning the genetic relationship among H10 avian influenza viruses with different pathogenicity in mink (Mustela vison), we found that these differences were related to amino acid variations in the NS1 protein. In this study, we extend our previous work to further investigate the effect of the NS1 from different gene pools on type I IFN promoter activity, the production of IFN-β, as well as the expression of the IFN-β mRNA in response to poly I:C. Results Using a model system, we first demonstrated that NS1 from A/mink/Sweden/84 (H10N4) (allele A) could suppress an interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) reporter system to about 85%. The other NS1 (allele B), from A/chicken/Germany/N/49 (H10N7), was also able to suppress the reporter system, but only to about 20%. The differences in the abilities of the two NS1s from different alleles to suppress the ISRE reporter system were clearly reflected by the protein and mRNA expressions of IFN-β as shown by ELISA and RT-PCR assays. Conclusions These studies reveal that different non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza viruses, one from allele A and another from allele B, show different abilities to suppress the type I interferon β expression. It has been hypothesised that some of the differences in the different abilities of the alleles to suppress ISRE were because of the interactions and inhibitions at later stages from the IFN receptor, such as the JAK/STAT pathway. This might reflect the additional effects of the immune evasion potential of different NS1s. PMID:21194454

  10. Detection of Multi-drug Resistant Acinetobacter Lwoffii Isolated from Soil of Mink Farm.

    PubMed

    Sun, Na; Wen, Yong Jun; Zhang, Shu Qin; Zhu, Hong Wei; Guo, Li; Wang, Feng Xue; Chen, Qiang; Ma, Hong Xia; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2016-07-01

    There were 4 Acinetobacter lwoffii obtained from soil samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the strains to 16 antimicrobial agents was investigated using K-B method. Three isolates showed the multi-drug resistance. The presence of resistance genes and integrons was determined using PCR. The aadA1, aac(3')-IIc, aph(3')-VII, aac(6')-Ib, sul2, cat2, floR, and tet(K) genes were detected, respectively. Three class 1 integrons were obtained. The arr-3-aacA4 and blaPSE-1 gene cassette, which cause resistance to aminoglycoside and beta-lactamase antibiotics. Our results reported the detection of multi-drug resistant and carried resistant genes Acinetobacter lwoffii from soil. The findings suggested that we should pay close attention to the prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacterial species of environment. PMID:27554122

  11. Microbial enhanced waterflooding Mink Unit and Phoenix field pilots. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R.S.; Steep, A.K.; Bertus, K.M.; Burchfield, T.E.; Dennis, M.

    1993-07-01

    To determine the feasibility of improving oil recovery and the economics of microbial enhanced waterflooding in mature oil wells in the United States, two field pilots have been conducted. Candidate fields were screened to determine whether they have any potential for a microbial system developed at the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER), and microbial compatibility tests were conducted in the laboratory to select the target field. A specific microbial formulation was selected that was compatible with the chosen reservoir environment and had been shown to recover oil after waterflooding in Berea sandstone and field core. The microbial formulation was designed to improve microscopic oil displacement efficiency by surfactant, gas and acid production from fermentation of molasses. A 20-acre pilot test was initiated in October 1986, and completed in December 1989. Results from this pilot demonstrated that microorganisms could be injected into an ongoing waterflood and that such injection could increase oil production by at least 13%. A larger test (520 acres) was completed in the same formation to evaluate the feasibility of commercial application of the technology. This field pilot was injected with microorganisms and molasses from a centralized injection station in June 1990. Although microorganisms were injected only once per site, nutrient injection continued throughout the project life. All 19 injection wells were treated, and oil production was monitored from the 47 production wells. Injection pressures and volumes were monitored throughout the project. No operational problems were encountered. At the end of May 1993, oil production was improved by 19.6 %. Results from both projects are presented and the potential for microbial-enhanced waterflooding technology is evaluated.

  12. Sarcocystis sp. in mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Washington: prevalence and search for the definitive host.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J

    1989-10-01

    During October and November 1986, Sarcocystis sp. was detected in 24 of 56 (43%) tongues from hunter-killed mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Washington (USA). Sarcocysts had an unusual sessile polyp-shaped branched wall. Mean size of 154 sarcocysts was 71.3 x 37.8 microns (range, 20 to 248 x 10 to 120 microns), and the mean intensity was 2.3 (range, 1 to 28). In an attempt to identify the definitive host, infected tongues were fed to four coyotes (Canis latrans), eight domestic dogs, four domestic cats, three bears (Ursus americanus), two raccoons (Procyon lotor), two martens (Martes americana), two fishers (Martes pennanti), three skunks (Mephitis mephitis), five mink (Mustela vison), five ferrets (Mustela putorius), one pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina), two red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and one great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). Oocysts or sporocysts were not detected in the feces of any host for less than or equal to 20 days after ingestion of the infected meat. The definitive host for Sarcocystis sp. in mountain goats was not identified.

  13. Scale-dependent analysis of an otter-crustacean system in Argentinean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassini, Marcelo H.; Fasola, Laura; Chehébar, Claudio; MacDonald, David W.

    2009-05-01

    The Southern river otter or ‘huillin’, Lontra provocax, is an endangered species endemic of the Andean Patagonian region of Argentina and Chile. It feeds almost exclusively on the genera of macro-crustacea: Aegla and Sammastacus. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of food availability on the huillin’s distribution using a scale-dependent analysis of crustacean and otter distributions. We compared the distributions of otters and macro-crustaceans along a north-south regional gradient, between river basins of northern Patagonia, in an altitudinal gradient within a river basin, and between habitat types within a lake. We investigated the distribution of otters by sign surveys along lake shores, river banks and marine coasts, and of crustaceans using surveys in the water, undigested remains in mink ( Mustela vison) scats, presence of external skeletons at the waterside and through interviews with local people. Our results show that there were heterogeneities in the distributions of macro-crustaceans at four scales and these were generally reflected in the distributions of freshwater otters. We conclude that the main factor limiting the distributions of L. provocax in freshwater environments is the availability of macro-crustaceans. This paper shows how scale-dependent type analyses of population distribution serves as a method for identifying key environmental factors for species for which the use of long-term demographies is unfeasible.

  14. Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report / Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites.

  15. Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project; Long-term Management Plan, Project Report 1993, Final Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Matthew T.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted on the Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project area, a 4,943 acre ranch purchased for mitigating some habitat losses associated with the original construction of Grand Coulee Dam and innundation of habitat by Lake Roosevelt. A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was used to determine habitat quality and quantity baseline data and future projections. Target species used in the study were sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemoinus), mink (Mustela vison), spotted sandpiper (Actiius colchicus), bobcat (Felis reufs), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura). From field data collected, limiting life values or HSI's (Habitat Suitability Index's) for each indicator species was determined for existing habitats on project lands. From this data a long term management plan was developed. This report is designed to provide guidance for the management of project lands in relation to the habitat cover types discussed and the indicator species used to evaluate these cover types. In addition, the plan discusses management actions, habitat enhancements, and tools that will be used to enhance, protect and restore habitats to desired conditions. Through planned management actions biodiversity and vegetative structure can be optimized over time to reduce or eliminate, limiting HSI values for selected wildlife on project lands.

  16. Late summer survival of adult female and juvenile spectacled eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Barry, Grand J.; Morse, J.A.; Fondell, T.F.

    2000-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to examine survival of adult female and juvenile Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) from 30 days after hatch until departure from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) during 1997-1999. Juvenile survival was 71.4%; adult female survival was 88.5%. Mink (Mustella vison) were the most common predator identified for both adults and juveniles. Detectable levels of lead were found in bones of 74% of juvenile carcasses recovered and 21% had levels indicative of acute exposure. Average age at departure was 59 ?? 1 days old for juveniles and 56 ?? 1 days after hatch for adults. Most broods (60.5%) departed the YKD synchronously. Overall our data indicate that mortality during the latter half of brood-rearing is higher than previously thought. We conclude that brood rearing is a period of high mortality for brood-rearing females and that lead poisoning is responsible for reductions in juvenile survival to fledging. Received 15 February 2000, accepted 1 April 2000.

  17. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Forrest Conservation Area, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brent

    2005-01-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the 4,232-acre Forrest Conservation Area managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribe) in Grant County, Oregon. The habitat evaluation is required as part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration. Representatives from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Tribes conducted the field surveys for the HEP. The survey collected data for habitat variables contained in habitat suitability index (HIS) models for wildlife species; the key species were black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), mink (Mustela vison), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), California Quail (Callipepla californica), and yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Cover types surveyed were grassland, meadow grassland, conifer forest, riparian tree shrub, shrub steppe, juniper forest, and juniper steppe. Other cover types mapped, but not used in the models were open water, roads, gravel pits, corrals, and residential.

  18. Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-11-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

  19. Survival of radiomarked canvasback ducklings in northwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, Carl E.; Kenow, Kevin P.; Green, William L.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    1996-01-01

    Duckling survival, an important factor affecting annual recruitment, has not been determined adequately for canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria). We investigated the magnitude, timing, and causes of mortality of canvasback ducklings from hatch to fledging at the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in northwestern Minnesota during 1987-90. During the 4 years, 217 day-old ducklings were radiomarked and released in 52 broods. Another 141 ducklings were radiomarked at 4 weeks of age. Survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier nonparametric estimator and the Weibull parametric model. Most mortalities occurred within 10 days after hatch. Total brood loss occurred in 18 (35%) of 52 broods released. The primary sources of mortality were predation, principally by mink (Mustela vison), and exposure to precipitation and cold temperature. For combined years, females had lower survival than males (P = 0.03). If the disparate survival between sexes of canvasbacks observed in this study is representative of canvasbacks in their breeding range, this phenomenon contributes to reduced reproductive potential and the male-biased sex ratio of the species.

  20. Survival of radiomarked canvasback ducklings in northwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, Carl E.; Kenow, Kevin P.; Green, William L.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Samuel, Michael D.; Sileo, Louis

    1996-01-01

    Duckling survival, an important factor affecting annual recruitment, has not been determined adequately for canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria). We investigated the magnitude, timing, and causes of mortality of canvasback ducklings from hatch to fledging at the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in northwestern Minnesota during 1987-90. During the 4 years, 217 day-old ducklings were radiomarked and released in 52 broods. Another 141 ducklings were radiomarked at greater than or equal to 4weeks of age. Survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier nonparametric estimator and the Weibull parametric model. Most mortalities occurred within 10 days after hatch. Total brood loss occurred in 18 (85%) of 52 broods released. The primary sources of mortality were predation principally by mink (Mustela vison), and exposure to precipitation and cold temperature. For combined years, females had lower survival than males (P=0.03). If the disparate survival between sexes of canvasbacks observed in this study is representative of canvasbacks in their breeding range, this phenomenon contributes to reduced reproductive potential and the male-biased sex ratio of the species.

  1. Fasting in the American marten (Martes americana): a physiological model of the adaptations of a lean-bodied animal.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Saarela, Seppo; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2007-10-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) is a boreal forest marten with low body adiposity throughout the year. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptations of this lean-bodied species to fasting for an ecologically relevant duration (48 h) by exposing eight farm-bred animals to total food deprivation with seven control animals. Selected morphological and hematological parameters, plasma and serum biochemistry, endocrinological variables and liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) enzyme activities were determined. After 48 h without food, the marten were within phase II of fasting with depleted liver and muscle glycogen stores, but with active lipid mobilization indicated by the high lipase activities in several WAT depots. The plasma ghrelin concentrations were higher due to food deprivation, possibly increasing appetite and enhancing foraging behavior. The lower plasma insulin and higher cortisol concentrations could mediate augmented lipolysis and the lower triiodothyronine levels could suppress the metabolic rate. Fasting did not affect the plasma levels of stress-associated catecholamines or variables indicating tissue damage. In general, the adaptations to short-term fasting exhibited some differences compared to the related farm-bred American mink (Mustela vison), an example of which was the better ability of the marten to hydrolyze lipids despite its significantly lower initial fat mass.

  2. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, W.N.

    1996-12-31

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. They probably entered the water as leachates from chemical waste dumps and as effluents from manufacturing. Hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene are commonly present in Herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from the Great Lakes, and some of the isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene are occasionally detected at low concentrations. Hexachlorobenzene, which was formerly used as a fungicide, has been the most thoroughly studied chlorinated benzene, and has been detected in many species. Its use as a fungicide in the United States was canceled in 1984. Since about 1975 hexachlorobenzene has been formed mainly in the production of chlorinated solvents. It is highly persistent in the environment and some species are poisoned by hexachlorobenzene at very low chronic dietary exposures. As little as 1 ppm in the diet of mink (Mustela vison) reduced the birth weights of young, and 5 ppm in the diet of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) caused slight liver damage. This paper describes a long-term (26 wk) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to length of exposure and three 8 wk experiments relating concentration to the concentration in soil the soil organic matter content, and the degree of chlorination. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Sarcocystis sp. in mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Washington: prevalence and search for the definitive host.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J

    1989-10-01

    During October and November 1986, Sarcocystis sp. was detected in 24 of 56 (43%) tongues from hunter-killed mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Washington (USA). Sarcocysts had an unusual sessile polyp-shaped branched wall. Mean size of 154 sarcocysts was 71.3 x 37.8 microns (range, 20 to 248 x 10 to 120 microns), and the mean intensity was 2.3 (range, 1 to 28). In an attempt to identify the definitive host, infected tongues were fed to four coyotes (Canis latrans), eight domestic dogs, four domestic cats, three bears (Ursus americanus), two raccoons (Procyon lotor), two martens (Martes americana), two fishers (Martes pennanti), three skunks (Mephitis mephitis), five mink (Mustela vison), five ferrets (Mustela putorius), one pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina), two red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and one great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). Oocysts or sporocysts were not detected in the feces of any host for less than or equal to 20 days after ingestion of the infected meat. The definitive host for Sarcocystis sp. in mountain goats was not identified. PMID:2509738

  4. Organochlorine residues in northeaster Alberta otters

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, J.D.; Goski, B.C.; Barrett, M.W.

    1987-11-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides in North America has for the most part been legislatively curtailed during the last decade, and North American production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCS's) was stopped in the 1970's. However, monitoring of chemical residues in fish and wildlife indicates that these persistent compound are still much in evidence throughout North America. Data on chemical residues in Alberta wildlife, particularly non-migratory species, is for the most part unknown. Otters (Lutra canadensis) are consumers of fish, invertebrates, amphibians and small mammals cohabiting their aquatic habitat. As carnivores at the terminus of their respective food chains, semi-aquatic mammals such as otter and mink (Mustela vison) may be expected to accumulate pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. Otters are relatively sedentary and monitoring of chemical residues in their tissues might yield a diverse contaminant profile unique to the specific environs from which the animals are collected. The purpose of this report is to present chemical residue data for otters collected from aquatic habitats in northeastern Alberta.

  5. PCB and DDE methyl sulfones in mammals from Canada and Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, A.; Kuroki, Hiroaki . Environmental Chemistry); Norstrom, R.J. . Environment Canada); Haraguchi, Koichi ); Beland, P. )

    1994-01-01

    Levels of PCB methyl sulfones (MeSO[sub 2]-CBs) and DDE methyl sulfones (MeSO[sub 2]-DDEs) have been determined in tissues from polar bear (Ursus martimus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), and false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) from the Canadian environment, and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), otter (Lutra lutra), and wild mink (Mustela vison) from the Swedish environment. Up to 30 MeSO[sub 2]-CB congeners and three MeSO[sub 2]-DdE isomers were shown to be present in the analyzed tissues. The concentration of total MeSO[sub 2]-CBs ranged from 0.1 to 21 [mu]g/g extracted lipids. 3-MeSO[sub 2]-2,5,2[prime],4[prime],5[prime]-penta-CB is the dominating MeSO[sub 2]-CB congener in all the analyzed samples, but the corresponding 4-MeSO[sub 2]-CB also is present in high concentrations. A smaller number of MeSO[sub 2]-CBs, always dominated by the meta-substituted MeSO[sub 2]-CBs, were present in livers of grey seal, otter, and mink than in adipose tissue or muscle. In all studied mammals the concentration of MeSO[sub 2]-CBs were higher in liver than in blubber or muscle. Seven PCB congeners were identified as precursors of the PCB methyl sulfones: 2,4,2[prime],5[prime]-tetra-CB (CB-49),2,5,3[prime],4[prime]-tetra-CB (CB-70), 2,4,5,2[prime],5[prime]-penta-CB (CB-101),2,3,4,5,2[prime],5[prime]-penta-CB (CB-87),2,3,6,2[prime],4[prime],5[prime]-hexa-CB (CB-149),2,3,4,2[prime],3[prime],6[prime]-hexa-CB (CB-132), and 2,3,4,2[prime],5[prime]-hexa-CB (CB-141). All species except beluga whale contained 3-MeSO[sub 2]-4,4[prime]-DDE, but at a much lower concentration in mink and otter than in the other mammals. Polar bear and grey seal liver also contained 2-MeSO[sub 2]-4,4[prime]-DDE. The concentration of 2- and 3-MeSo[sub 2]-DDE ranged from 0.01 to 1.3 [mu]g/g extracted lipids.

  6. Predators of Dusky Canada Goose goslings and the effect of transmitters on gosling survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fondell, T.F.; Grand, J.B.; Miller, David A.; Anthony, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    The population of Dusky Canada Geese (Branta canadensis occidentalis) has been in long-term decline, likely due to reduced breeding productivity. To identify causes of mortality, we monitored goslings marked with radio transmitters on the western Copper River Delta, Alaska, from 1997 to 1999. Almost all gosling mortality (96%; 81 of 84) was due to predation, with mink (Mustela vison) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) the most important predators. Bald Eagles are also major nest predators and, thus, appear to play a key role in limiting the breeding productivity of Dusky Canada Geese. Daily survival rate for goslings to 28 d of age was lower (0.011; 95% CI 0.002-0.024) for those with transmitters than for those without, but did not differ for older goslings (29-45 d). Although finer resolution in the timing of the transmitter effect within the first 28 d was not possible, we found that, by limiting our sample to goslings that survived until after 2-3 d posthatching, support for a transmitter effect was much reduced. Younger, smaller birds are inherently more vulnerable than older birds to transmitter effects. In addition, the process of radio-marking may have delayed the departure of goslings from nests and increased their risk of mortality shortly after hatching. Although radio transmitters may often be the only practical means for determining causes of mortality for young waterfowl, we suggest caution in using transmitters because of their potential negative effects, particularly during the first few days after hatching. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  7. Factors affecting the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers Haematopus palliatus on the outer banks of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulte, Shiloh A.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2015-01-01

    We used an information-theoretic approach to assess the factors affecting the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers Haematopus palliatus on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. We evaluated survival with respect to nesting island, year, time of season, brood age, distance to tide (m), presence of off-road vehicles and proximity of foraging habitat. The daily nest survival (mean 0.981, standard error [SE] 0.002) was affected by year and island, and declined over the nesting season. Mammals were responsible for 54% of identified nest failures. Daily brood survival (mean 0.981, SE 0.002) varied by island and increased non-linearly with age, with highest mortality in the seven days after hatching. Model results indicate direct access to foraging sites has a positive effect on brood survival, whereas presence of off-road vehicles has a negative effect. We studied chick behavior and survival using radio telemetry and direct observation and found that vehicles caused mortality and affected behavior and resource use by oystercatcher chicks. We identified the source of mortality for 37 radio-tagged chicks. Six (16%) were killed by vehicles, 21 (57%) by predators, and 10 (27%) by exposure and starvation. From 1995 to 2008, 25 additional oystercatcher chicks were found dead, 13 (52%) killed by vehicles. Chicks on beaches closed to vehicles used beach and intertidal zones more frequently than chicks on beaches open to vehicles. Chick predators included Great Horned Owls Bubo virginianus, Fish Crows Corvus ossifragus, cats Felis catus, mink Mustela vison, raccoons Procyon lotor, and ghost crabs Ocypode albicans. The factors affecting reproductive success differed between the incubation and chick-rearing stages.  Management actions that influence chick survival will have a larger effect on total productivity than actions affecting nest survival.

  8. Picillo Farm ecological risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rury, P.M.; Turton, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Under the direction of US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 1, a baseline ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted for terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic ecosystems located on-site and off-site/downstream of a Superfund site in Coventry, Rhode Island. Surveys of biota and ecosystems were focused in the vicinity of 26 soil, sediment, and surface water sampling locations used for the RI/FS site contamination assessment, to cross-link data on biological receptors to site-specific habitat maps. Classes of contaminants of concern (COCs), selected independently for each medium based on exceedances of ecotoxicity criteria, for which risks to one or more indicator communities and species were calculated, included VOCs, SVOCs, metals, PCBs and pesticides. Simple hazard quotients were used to estimate risks for benthic and pelagic communities of the aquatic and wetland exposure zones, using AWQC and NOAA sediment guidelines. These aquatic criteria also were applied to a site-specific exposure models for all life stages of the Green Frog (Rana clamitans). To complement the benthic invertebrate risk estimates, site-derived sediments also were used for toxicity tests of Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca. Published, species-specific and/or extrapolated toxicity effects endpoints were used in site-specific, mathematical food chain exposure assessment models for the Amedcan Woodcock (Scolopax minor), Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina brevicauda) and Mink (Mustela vison), to estimate organismal risks for a variety of foraging scenarios within one or more exposure zone. Incremental site contributions to risks from metals were inferred using local background data, whereas all risks from organic compounds were assumed to be site-derived.

  9. Processes for identifying regional influences of and responses to increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate change - the MINK project: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Crosson, P.R.

    1991-08-01

    Scientists believe that a serious change in the climate of the earth could occur in the course of the next two to five decades as a result of warming caused by the rapid accumulation of radiatively active trace gases in the atmosphere. There is concern that not only the amount of warming but the rate at which it occurs could be unprecedented, at least since the current interglacial period began. Scientific uncertainties remain in our understanding of the climatic changes that may follow from greenhouse warming. Nevertheless, large and rapid changes in regional climate are conceivable. General circulation models (GCMs) predict changes for the central U.S. as large as an 8{degrees}C increase in mean summertime temperature accompanied by a 1 mm/day decrease in mean precipitation. Most predictions are less extreme but, so long as the direction of change is credible, efforts are warranted to identify just what kinds of impacts to expect if society chooses to allow climate to change or cannot stop it from changing, and just what might be done to adjust to those impacts.

  10. Modelling multi-species interactions in the Barents Sea ecosystem with special emphasis on minke whales and their interactions with cod, herring and capelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrøm, Ulf; Smout, Sophie; Howell, Daniel; Bogstad, Bjarte

    2009-10-01

    The Barents Sea ecosystem, one of the most productive and commercially important ecosystems in the world, has experienced major fluctuations in species abundance the past five decades. Likely causes are natural variability, climate change, overfishing and predator-prey interactions. In this study, we use an age-length structured multi-species model (Gadget, Globally applicable Area-Disaggregated General Ecosystem Toolbox) to analyse the historic population dynamics of major fish and marine mammal species in the Barents Sea. The model was used to examine possible effects of a number of plausible biological and fisheries scenarios. The results suggest that changes in cod mortality from fishing or cod cannibalism levels have the largest effect on the ecosystem, while changes to the capelin fishery have had only minor effects. Alternate whale migration scenarios had only a moderate impact on the modelled ecosystem. Indirect effects are seen to be important, with cod fishing pressure, cod cannibalism and whale predation on cod having an indirect impact on capelin, emphasising the importance of multi-species modelling in understanding and managing ecosystems. Models such as the one presented here provide one step towards an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management.

  11. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Iskuulpa Wildlife Mitigation and Watershed Project, Technical Report 1998-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Quaempts, Eric

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to evaluate lands acquired and leased in Eskuulpa Watershed, a Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation watershed and wildlife mitigation project. The project is designed to partially credit habitat losses incurred by BPA for the construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grasslands cover types were included in the evaluation. Indicator species included downy woodpecker (Picuides puhescens), black-capped chickadee (Pams atricopillus), blue grouse (Beadragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petschia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnello neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 55,500 feet of transects, 678 m2 plots, and 243 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 123.9 and f 0,794.4 acres were evaluated for each indicator species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total habitat units credited to BPA for the Iskuulpa Watershed Project and its seven indicator species is 4,567.8 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest, which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing or implementation of restoration grazing schemes, road de-commissioning, reforestation, large woody debris additions to floodplains, control of competing and unwanted vegetation, reestablishing displaced or reduced native vegetation species

  12. Rainwater Wildlife Area Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland cover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2}2 plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  13. Overview of developmental, reproductive, and behavioral/ neurological effects of mercury exposures in wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.; Klimstra, J.; Stebbins, K.

    2007-01-01

    We review wildlife/mercury literature and our own research findings that demonstrate the relevance of wildlife toxicity data in protecting human health. Methylmercury affects wildlife through reduced adult survival and reproduction, aberrant behavior, immune system effects, and teratogenic effects. Methylmercury can readily cross the blood-brain barrier, is excreted into eggs in birds, and is transferred to young mammals across the placenta and in milk. Its principal effect on wildlife is on neurological functions. Wild mink (Mustela vison) and otter (Lutra canadensis) have died from methylmercury poisoning, with signs of poisoning including anorexia, loss of weight, incoordination, tremors, and convulsions, which are symptoms similar to those experienced by mercury-poisoned humans. Mammals also may experience tonic and clonic convulsions and an increase in fetal anomalies, again paralleling toxic problems in people. Antibody-producing cells can be suppressed by methylmercury. Microscopically, the most notable lesions are in the cerebrum. Extensive vacuolation of hepatocytes in the liver and necrosis and other changes in the appearance of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys are often noted. When harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) were dosed with methylmercury chloride the number of circulating erythrocytes decreased and white blood cell counts greatly increased. The poisoned seals also suffered from uremia, hyperproteinemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevations in lactic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase. In birds, signs of methylmercury poisoning included emaciation and weakness in the extremities, which progressed until the birds died. Mercury poisoning in birds and mammals can be diagnosed from a combination of the signs of poisoning if the animal is still alive, the pathological effects seen in a gross necropsy, the histopathological effects seen with a microscope, and the concentrations of mercury in various tissues. Our

  14. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Hellsgate Project, 1999-2000 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Matthew

    2000-05-01

    A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was conducted on lands acquired and/or managed (4,568 acres total) by the Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Hellsgate project) to mitigate some of the losses associated with the original construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam and inundation of habitats behind the dams. Three separate properties, totaling 2,224 acres were purchased in 1998. One property composed of two separate parcels, mostly grassland lies southeast of the town of Nespelem in Okanogan County (770 acres) and was formerly called the Hinman property. The former Hinman property lies within an area the Tribes have set aside for the protection and preservation of the sharp-tailed grouse (Agency Butte unit). This special management area minus the Hinman acquisition contains 2,388 acres in a long-term lease with the Tribes. The second property lies just south of the Silver Creek turnoff (Ferry County) and is bisected by the Hellsgate Road (part of the Friedlander unit). This parcel contains 60 acres of riparian and conifer forest cover. The third property (now named the Sand Hills unit) acquired for mitigation (1,394 acres) lies within the Hellsgate Reserve in Ferry County. This new acquisition links two existing mitigation parcels (the old Sand Hills parcels and the Lundstrum Flat parcel, all former Kuehne purchases) together forming one large unit. HEP team members included individuals from the Colville Confederated Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department (CTCR), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The HEP team conducted a baseline habitat survey using the following HEP species models: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), mink (Mustela vison), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), bobcat (Lynx rufus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus). HEP analysis and results are discussed within the body of the text. The cover types

  15. Distribution and abundance of predators that affect duck production--prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Greenwood, R.J.; Sovada, M.A.; Shaffer, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    predator species averaged 12.2 (SD = 1.60) per study area; common or numerous predator species averaged 6.0 (SD = 1.54) per study area (minimal because the abundance of weasels [Mustela erminea; M. frenata] in all areas and of minks [Mustela vison] and raptors in some areas was not rated). Major changes in relative abundance of individual predator species studied >1 year were few. Predator species most restricted to the aspen parkland were the Franklin's ground squirrel, black-billed magpie (Pica pica), American crow (Corvus brachyrlus), and red-tailed hawk; species most restricted to the prairie were the badger (Taxidea taxus), Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainsoni), and ferruginous hawk (B. regalis). The coyote, black-billed magpie, and American crow were most numerous in Canada, whereas the red fox, raccoon, mink, ferruginous hawk, and great horned owl were most numerous in the United States. The number of common or numerous egg-eating predator species (excludes large gulls and weasels, which were not rated) averaged 4.6 (SD = 0.90) per study area. The average numbers of common or numerous egg-eating species per study area did not differ among provinces and states, but birds gradually replaced mammals from southeast to northwest across the region. Investigators are urged to assess composition of predator populations and relative abundance of predator species for evaluations of waterfowl recruitment.

  16. 2013 update on sea otter studies to assess recovery from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Monson, Daniel H.; Esslinger, George G.; Kloecker, Kimberly; Bodkin, James; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the tanker vessel Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling an estimated 42 million liters of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Oil spread in a southwesterly direction and was deposited on shores and waters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS). The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) was one of more than 20 nearshore species considered to have been injured by the spill. Since 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey has led a research program to evaluate effects of the spill on sea otters and assess progress toward recovery, as defined by demographic and biochemical indicators. Here, we provide an update on the status of sea otter populations in WPWS, presenting findings through 2013. To assess recovery based on demographic indicators, we used aerial surveys to estimate abundance and annual collections of sea otter carcasses to evaluate patterns in ages-at-death. To assess recovery based on biochemical indicators, we quantified transcription rates for a suite of genes selected as potential indicators of oil exposure in sea otters based on laboratory studies of a related species, the mink (Mustela vison). In our most recent assessment of sea otter recovery, which incorporated results from a subset of studies through 2009, we concluded that recovery of sea otters in WPWS was underway. This conclusion was based on increasing abundance throughout WPWS, including increasing numbers at northern Knight Island, an area that was heavily oiled in 1989 and where the local sea otter population had previously shown protracted injury and lack of recovery. However, we did not conclude that the WPWS sea otter population had fully recovered, due to indications of continuing reduced survival and exposure to lingering oil in sea otters at Knight Island, at least through 2009. Based on data available through 2013, we now conclude that the status of sea otters—at all spatial scales within WPWS—is consistent with the designation of recovery from the spill as

  17. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Rainwater Wildlife Area, 1998-2001 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland rover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2} plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  18. Destroying a topological quantum bit by condensing Ising vortices.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhihao; Inglis, Stephen; Melko, Roger

    2014-12-09

    The imminent realization of topologically protected qubits in fabricated systems will provide not only an elementary implementation of fault-tolerant quantum computing architecture, but also an experimental vehicle for the general study of topological order. The simplest topological qubit harbours what is known as a Z2 liquid phase, which encodes information via a degeneracy depending on the system's topology. Elementary excitations of the phase are fractionally charged objects called spinons, or Ising flux vortices called visons. At zero temperature, a Z2 liquid is stable under deformations of the Hamiltonian until spinon or vison condensation induces a quantum-phase transition destroying the topological order. Here we use quantum Monte Carlo to study a vison-induced transition from a Z2 liquid to a valence-bond solid in a quantum dimer model on the kagome lattice. Our results indicate that this critical point is beyond the description of the standard Landau paradigm.

  19. 76 FR 6430 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... pelagic 2636 \\6\\ EN 0.01 0.01 Blue whale Rare Pelagic and coastal.. 1415 \\9\\ EN 0.13 1.86 Common minke... Balaenoptera (blue, sei, fin, and minke whales) have occasionally been seen in areas ensonified by airgun pulses (Stone, 2003; MacLean and Haley, 2004; Stone and Tasker, 2006), and calls from blue and fin...

  20. 77 FR 12244 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16325

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... permit to conduct research on humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), blue whales (B. musculus), sei whales (B. borealis), minke whales (B. acutorostrata), sperm whales... Atlantic (fin, blue, sei, minke, sperm and killer whales). Research would occur in the waters off Maine...

  1. AGU member running to fill congressional seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Emily

    John F Mink, an AGU member (Hydrology) for 50 years, and husband of the late Representative Patsy T. Mink (D-Hawaii), will run in a special election on 30 November to fill the remainder of his wife's unexpired congressional term. Patsy Mink, who represented the 2nd Congressional District of Hawaii, passed away on 28 September after battling pneumonia.Her name will appear on the 5 November election ballot as a candidate for Hawaii's 2nd District in the 108th Congress. If she is elected posthumously, the state of Hawaii will hold a special election in January to select an official to serve the full two-year term.

  2. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... decrease the normal life and durability of such product. (b) When damaged furs are used in a fur product..., or advertising such product; as for example: Mink Fur origin: Canada Contains Damaged Fur...

  3. 50 CFR 218.230 - Specified activity, level of taking, and species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the following species and species groups: (1) Mysticetes-blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), minke whale...

  4. 50 CFR 218.230 - Specified activity, level of taking, and species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the following species and species groups: (1) Mysticetes-blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), minke whale...

  5. 50 CFR 218.230 - Specified activity, level of taking, and species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the following species and species groups: (1) Mysticetes-blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), minke whale...

  6. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Atypical Pros and Cons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that affect several mammalian species including human beings. Four animal TSE agents have been reported: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink encephalopath...

  7. 50 CFR 216.161 - Specified activity and incidental take levels by species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... species: Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia simus); pygmy sperm whale (K. breviceps); pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus); Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis); spinner...); rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis); common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), false killer...

  8. 50 CFR 216.161 - Specified activity and incidental take levels by species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... species: Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia simus); pygmy sperm whale (K. breviceps); pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus); Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis); spinner...); rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis); common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), false killer...

  9. The prion diseases of animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect several species of animals and include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, and transmissible mink encephalopat...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodology for the Development of Wildlife Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; they are the bald eagle, herring gull, belted kingfisher, mink, and river otter. B. This appendix... non-aquatic portion of the bald eagle and mink diets in the criteria calculations is available in the...; TL4: 20. Other: 0.0267 Other: 10. Bald eagle 4.6 0.160 TL3: 0.371; TL4: 0.0929 Fish: 92—TL3: 80;...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodology for the Development of Wildlife Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; they are the bald eagle, herring gull, belted kingfisher, mink, and river otter. B. This appendix... non-aquatic portion of the bald eagle and mink diets in the criteria calculations is available in the...; TL4: 20. Other: 0.0267 Other: 10. Bald eagle 4.6 0.160 TL3: 0.371; TL4: 0.0929 Fish: 92—TL3: 80;...

  12. Spin-Liquid Phase in a Spin-1/2 Quantum Magnet on the Kagome Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, S. V.; Kim, Yong Baek; Paramekanti, A.

    2006-11-01

    We study a model of hard-core bosons with short-range repulsive interactions at half filling on the kagome lattice. Using quantum Monte Carlo numerics, we find that this model shows a continuous superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition, with exponents z=1 and ν≈0.67(5). The insulator, I*, exhibits short-ranged density and bond correlations, topological order, and exponentially decaying spatial vison correlations, all of which point to a Z2 fractionalized phase. We estimate the vison gap in I* from the temperature dependence of the energy. Our results, together with the equivalence between hard-core bosons and S=1/2 spins, provide compelling evidence for a spin-liquid phase in an easy-axis spin-1/2 model with no special conservation laws.

  13. Spin-liquid phase in a spin-1/2 quantum magnet on the kagome lattice.

    PubMed

    Isakov, S V; Kim, Yong Baek; Paramekanti, A

    2006-11-17

    We study a model of hard-core bosons with short-range repulsive interactions at half filling on the kagome lattice. Using quantum Monte Carlo numerics, we find that this model shows a continuous superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition, with exponents z=1 and nu approximately 0.67(5). The insulator, I*, exhibits short-ranged density and bond correlations, topological order, and exponentially decaying spatial vison correlations, all of which point to a Z2 fractionalized phase. We estimate the vison gap in I* from the temperature dependence of the energy. Our results, together with the equivalence between hard-core bosons and S=1/2 spins, provide compelling evidence for a spin-liquid phase in an easy-axis spin-1/2 model with no special conservation laws.

  14. A resolution celebrating the accomplishments of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, also known as the Patsy Takemoto Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act, and recognizing the need to continue pursuing the goal of equal educational opportunities for all women and girls.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Murray, Patty [D-WA

    2012-06-20

    06/20/2012 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S4375-4377; text as passed Senate: CR S4375-4376; text of measure as introduced: CR S4373-4374) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Topological Phases of Interacting Bosons on the Kagome Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychowdhury, Krishanu; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Pollmann, Frank

    2015-03-01

    We consider an extended Hubbard model of hard core bosons including nearest-neighbour hopping and long range repulsive interactions on a kagome lattice. The system is an insulator at commensurate fillings of 1/6, 1/3 and 1/2 and can be mapped to different dimer models on the triangular lattice (depending on the filling). We focus on the filling of 1/3, which transforms to a fully packed loop (FPL) model, and derive the full phase diagram in the low-energy subspace. Similar to the quantum dimer model and easy-axis kagome antiferromagnetic model studied before, we find an extended region of a gapped Z2 liquid with vison excitations. The gauge fluctuations, responsible for the vison modes, are dictated by the action of an even Ising gauge theory. In the ordered phase, where the vison gap closes, we observe a 3-fold rotationally symmetric loop ordering and present the critical theory for the amplitude fluctuations of the condensed modes. We also speculate the phase diagram for the fermionic counterpart of the model at all the above mentioned fractional fillings.

  16. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R.; Kelly, N.; Boebel, O.; Friedlaender, A. S.; Herr, H.; Kock, K.-H.; Lehnert, L. S.; Maksym, T.; Roberts, J.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U.; Brierley, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:24622821

  17. [Animal corynosomosis is a potential human helminthiasis in the Republic of Belarus].

    PubMed

    Shimalov, V V

    2008-01-01

    In the Republic of Belarus, one representative of the genus Corynosoma - C. strumosum (Rudolphi, 1802) that is a causative agent of corynosomosis and that is of medical value is parasitic on animals. In Belarus, this proboscis worm has been encountered only in European and American minks. The author of the paper found this helminth in 2 of the 50 examined American minks in Byelorussian Polesye in 1980-2001. In this region, there were no C. strumosum larvae in fishes (1394 fishes of 21 species were studied). It is noted that the American mink plays a dominant role in the circulation of invasion and the attention of medical workers ofBelarus is drawn to the existing risk of human infection with the pathogen of Corynosomosis. PMID:18557363

  18. [Animal corynosomosis is a potential human helminthiasis in the Republic of Belarus].

    PubMed

    Shimalov, V V

    2008-01-01

    In the Republic of Belarus, one representative of the genus Corynosoma - C. strumosum (Rudolphi, 1802) that is a causative agent of corynosomosis and that is of medical value is parasitic on animals. In Belarus, this proboscis worm has been encountered only in European and American minks. The author of the paper found this helminth in 2 of the 50 examined American minks in Byelorussian Polesye in 1980-2001. In this region, there were no C. strumosum larvae in fishes (1394 fishes of 21 species were studied). It is noted that the American mink plays a dominant role in the circulation of invasion and the attention of medical workers ofBelarus is drawn to the existing risk of human infection with the pathogen of Corynosomosis.

  19. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment.

    PubMed

    Williams, R; Kelly, N; Boebel, O; Friedlaender, A S; Herr, H; Kock, K-H; Lehnert, L S; Maksym, T; Roberts, J; Scheidat, M; Siebert, U; Brierley, A S

    2014-03-13

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change.

  20. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment.

    PubMed

    Williams, R; Kelly, N; Boebel, O; Friedlaender, A S; Herr, H; Kock, K-H; Lehnert, L S; Maksym, T; Roberts, J; Scheidat, M; Siebert, U; Brierley, A S

    2014-01-01

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:24622821

  1. Reentry thermal protection from Pioneer F RTG insulation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorreiter, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Ablation tests were performed on the insulation material used in the Pioneer F radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) in the Ames Arc-Heated Planetary-Gas Wind Tunnel. Test results indicate that the material, trade name Min-K 1301, should experience little ablation for heat transfer rates below 40 BTU/sq ft-sec. If the current design were to be changed so that the various pieces of Min-K were fastened or interlocked together the total amount of heat delivered to the RTG heat source during an earth orbital decay reentry would be reduced by at least 22.7%.

  2. 76 FR 330 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... ringed seal (75 FR 77476) and a notice of proposed threatened and not warranted status for subspecies and distinct population segments of the bearded seal (75 FR 77496) in the Federal Register. Neither species is... supports a diverse assemblage of marine mammals, including: Bowhead, gray, beluga, killer, minke,...

  3. Temporal Dynamics of Top Predators Interactions in the Barents Sea

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Joël M.; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Krasnov, Yuri V.; Nikolaeva, Natalia G.; Lindstrøm, Ulf; Dolgov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    The Barents Sea system is often depicted as a simple food web in terms of number of dominant feeding links. The most conspicuous feeding link is between the Northeast Arctic cod Gadus morhua, the world's largest cod stock which is presently at a historical high level, and capelin Mallotus villosus. The system also holds diverse seabird and marine mammal communities. Previous diet studies may suggest that these top predators (cod, bird and sea mammals) compete for food particularly with respect to pelagic fish such as capelin and juvenile herring (Clupea harengus), and krill. In this paper we explored the diet of some Barents Sea top predators (cod, Black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, Common guillemot Uria aalge, and Minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata). We developed a GAM modelling approach to analyse the temporal variation diet composition within and between predators, to explore intra- and inter-specific interactions. The GAM models demonstrated that the seabird diet is temperature dependent while the diet of Minke whale and cod is prey dependent; Minke whale and cod diets depend on the abundance of herring and capelin, respectively. There was significant diet overlap between cod and Minke whale, and between kittiwake and guillemot. In general, the diet overlap between predators increased with changes in herring and krill abundances. The diet overlap models developed in this study may help to identify inter-specific interactions and their dynamics that potentially affect the stocks targeted by fisheries. PMID:25365430

  4. 16 CFR 303.6 - Generic names of fibers to be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... hair or fiber of a fur-bearing animal present in the amount 5 per centum or more of the total fiber... Mink fiber. (c) The term fur fiber may be used to describe the hair or fur fiber or mixtures thereof of... vicuna where such hair or fur fiber or mixture is present in the amount of 5 per centum or more of...

  5. 16 CFR 303.6 - Generic names of fibers to be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... hair or fiber of a fur-bearing animal present in the amount 5 per centum or more of the total fiber... Mink fiber. (c) The term fur fiber may be used to describe the hair or fur fiber or mixtures thereof of... vicuna where such hair or fur fiber or mixture is present in the amount of 5 per centum or more of...

  6. 16 CFR 303.6 - Generic names of fibers to be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... hair or fiber of a fur-bearing animal present in the amount 5 per centum or more of the total fiber... Mink fiber. (c) The term fur fiber may be used to describe the hair or fur fiber or mixtures thereof of... vicuna where such hair or fur fiber or mixture is present in the amount of 5 per centum or more of...

  7. 16 CFR 303.6 - Generic names of fibers to be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... hair or fiber of a fur-bearing animal present in the amount 5 per centum or more of the total fiber... Mink fiber. (c) The term fur fiber may be used to describe the hair or fur fiber or mixtures thereof of... vicuna where such hair or fur fiber or mixture is present in the amount of 5 per centum or more of...

  8. 50 CFR 216.272 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... percent of the number of takes indicated below): (i) Mysticetes: (A) Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)—110 (an average of 22 annually) (B) Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)—870 (an average of 174 annually) (C) Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus)—3085 (an average of 617 annually) (D) Minke...

  9. 76 FR 62778 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ..., humpback, and fin whales, and is not likely to adversely affect sperm, sei, or blue whales and Kemp's..., and is not likely to adversely affect sperm, sei, or blue whales. NMFS' Permits, Conservation and...: North Atlantic right whale, humpback whale, fin whale, minke whale, long-finned pilot whale,...

  10. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Large Cetaceans (Whales): Blue whale—Balaenoptera musculus. Fin whale—Balaenoptera physalus. Humpback whale—Megaptera novaeangliae. Minke whale—Balaenoptera acutrostrata. Pygmy blue whale—Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda Sei whale—Balaenoptera borealis Southern right whale—Balaena glacialis australis...

  11. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Large Cetaceans (Whales): Blue whale—Balaenoptera musculus. Fin whale—Balaenoptera physalus. Humpback whale—Megaptera novaeangliae. Minke whale—Balaenoptera acutrostrata. Pygmy blue whale—Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda Sei whale—Balaenoptera borealis Southern right whale—Balaena glacialis australis...

  12. 76 FR 34157 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... mammals, including: The North Atlantic right whale; blue whale; fin whale; sei whale; minke whale... species. Of the species listed here, the North Atlantic right, blue, fin, sei, humpback, and sperm whales... of their rarity in the Massachusetts Bay area (blue whale, sperm whale, harp seal, hooded...

  13. 77 FR 29966 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17157

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... anthropogenic and physiological data from whale earplugs and determine individual- through population-level exposure and stress. Up to 25 earplugs each of blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), sei whale (B. borealis), minke whale (B. acutorostrata), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), and gray whale...

  14. 76 FR 43639 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ..., humpback, and fin whales, and is not likely to adversely affect sperm, sei, or blue whales and Kemp's... facility in Massachusetts Bay. They are: North Atlantic right whale, humpback whale, fin whale, minke whale, long-finned pilot whale, Atlantic white-sided dolphin, bottlenose dolphin, common dolphin, killer...

  15. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Large Cetaceans (Whales): Blue whale—Balaenoptera musculus. Fin whale—Balaenoptera physalus. Humpback whale—Megaptera novaeangliae. Minke whale—Balaenoptera acutrostrata. Pygmy blue whale—Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda Sei whale—Balaenoptera borealis Southern right whale—Balaena glacialis australis...

  16. 75 FR 3395 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... whale, blue whale, sperm whale, and West Indian manatee. Of these 30 species with occurrence records in... whale, fin whale, blue whale, minke whale, True's beaked whale, and West Indian manatee) are... whale Endangered. B. physalus Fin whale Endangered. B. musculus Blue whale Endangered.......

  17. 50 CFR 218.82 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Mysticetes: (A) Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus)—817. (B) Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni)—5,079. (C) Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)—25,239. (D) North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis)—955. (E) Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)—9,196. (F) Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)—336,623....

  18. 75 FR 28568 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...), blue (Balaenoptera musculus), and sperm (Physeter macrocephalus) whale. The western North Pacific gray... pelagic. Blue whale Pelagic and coastal... 3500 \\k\\......... EN EN I Odontocetes Sperm whale Usually... and Williams, 2006). Various species of Balaenoptera (blue, sei, fin, and minke whales)...

  19. 50 CFR 216.272 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... percent of the number of takes indicated below): (i) Mysticetes: (A) Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)—110 (an average of 22 annually) (B) Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)—870 (an average of 174 annually) (C) Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus)—3085 (an average of 617 annually) (D) Minke...

  20. 78 FR 10137 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey on the Mid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ...\\..... EN 4.46 Blue whale 937 \\6\\........ EN 1.49 Odontocetes: Sperm whale 13,190 \\7\\..... EN 3.71 Pygmy... example, blue whales are found to increase call rates when exposed to noise from seismic surveys in the St... Balaenoptera (blue, sei, fin, and minke whales) in areas ensonified by airgun pulses (Stone, 2003; MacLean...

  1. 76 FR 30397 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... from Killer whales, Minke whales and Humpback whales to study their movement patterns, diet preferences, and genetics. The applicant requests a modification to his permit to add two additional whale species: 200 Blue whales and 200 Fin whales. In addition, the applicant wishes to revise his current takes...

  2. 77 FR 56613 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16325

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... published in the Federal Register (77 FR 12244) that a request for a permit to conduct research on humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), blue whales (B. musculus), sei... harassment of humpback, fin, blue, sei, minke, sperm and killer whales by close vessel approaches;...

  3. 75 FR 24906 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...: North Atlantic right whale; blue whale; fin whale; sei whale; minke whale; humpback whale; killer whale..., the North Atlantic right, blue, fin, sei, humpback, and sperm whales are all listed as endangered... the ``Estimated Take by Incidental Harassment'' section). Blue and sperm whales are not commonly......

  4. 76 FR 57959 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Balaenoptera (blue, sei, fin, and minke whales) have occasionally been seen in areas ensonified by airgun pulses (Stone, 2003; MacLean and Haley, 2004; Stone and Tasker, 2006), and calls from blue and fin whales... proposed survey area, including 19 odontocetes (toothed cetaceans), 6 mysticetes (baleen whales) and...

  5. 75 FR 80259 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... the: North Atlantic right whale; blue whale; fin whale; sei whale; minke whale; humpback whale; killer..., the North Atlantic right, blue, fin, sei, humpback, and sperm whales are all listed as endangered... Harassment'' section). Blue and sperm whales are not commonly found in Massachusetts Bay. The sperm......

  6. 50 CFR 216.272 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... percent of the number of takes indicated below): (i) Mysticetes: (A) Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)—110 (an average of 22 annually) (B) Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)—870 (an average of 174 annually) (C) Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus)—3085 (an average of 617 annually) (D) Minke...

  7. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Large Cetaceans (Whales): Blue whale—Balaenoptera musculus. Fin whale—Balaenoptera physalus. Humpback whale—Megaptera novaeangliae. Minke whale—Balaenoptera acutrostrata. Pygmy blue whale—Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda Sei whale—Balaenoptera borealis Southern right whale—Balaena glacialis australis...

  8. 77 FR 12010 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Atlantic right whale, sei whale, fin whale, blue whale, and sperm whale. Of these 29 species with..., sei whale, fin whale, blue whale, minke whale, and True's beaked whale) are extralimital and are......... Endangered. ] B. musculus Blue whale..... Endangered. Suborder Odontoceti (toothed......

  9. 77 FR 49412 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Atlantic right whale, sei whale, fin whale, blue whale, and sperm whale. Of these 29 species with..., sei whale, fin whale, blue whale, minke whale, and True's beaked whale) are extralimital and are... whale........ Endangered. B. musculus Blue whale....... Endangered. Suborder Odontoceti......

  10. 78 FR 69049 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... right whale, humpback whale, fin whale, sei whale, minke whale, long-finned pilot whale, Atlantic white-sided dolphin, bottlenose dolphin, short- beaked common dolphin, killer whale, Risso's dolphin, harbor... NEG Port and the Algonquin Pipeline Lateral (72 FR 27077; May 14, 2007). Subsequently, NMFS...

  11. 77 FR 45592 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17157

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... the receipt, import and export of up to 25 earplugs each of blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), sei whale (B. borealis), minke whale (B. acutorostrata), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), and gray... published in the Federal Register (77 FR 29966) that a request for a permit to import specimens...

  12. 76 FR 18167 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...), fin (Balaenoptera physalus), blue (Balaenoptera musculus), and sperm (Physeter macrocephalus) whales... (blue, sei, fin, and minke whales) have occasionally been seen in areas ensonified by airgun pulses (Stone, 2003; MacLean and Haley, 2004; Stone and Tasker, 2006), and calls from blue and fin whales...

  13. 50 CFR 216.272 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... percent of the number of takes indicated below): (i) Mysticetes: (A) Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)—110 (an average of 22 annually) (B) Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)—870 (an average of 174 annually) (C) Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus)—3085 (an average of 617 annually) (D) Minke...

  14. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Large Cetaceans (Whales): Blue whale—Balaenoptera musculus. Fin whale—Balaenoptera physalus. Humpback whale—Megaptera novaeangliae. Minke whale—Balaenoptera acutrostrata. Pygmy blue whale—Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda Sei whale—Balaenoptera borealis Southern right whale—Balaena glacialis australis...

  15. 75 FR 43150 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 10018, 13846, 14451, 14585, 14599, 14122, 14296, and 14353

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... endangered blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus), fin whales (B. physalus), humpback whales, sei whales (B... Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica), fin whale, blue whale, Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius... playbacks; (4) to gray, minke, fin, sei, blue, and North Pacific right whales for biological sampling......

  16. Assessing the Child Care and Development Block Grant. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    In preparation for the reauthorization of the Child Care and Development Block Grant, these hearings transcripts present testimony on issues related to assessing the Child Care and Development Block Grant, focusing on the impact of federal child care assistance. Statements offered by Representatives Howard "Buck" McKeon and Patsy Mink identified…

  17. Experimental Interspecies Transmission Studies of the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies to Cattle: Comparison to Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of animals include scrapie of sheep and goats; transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME); chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk and moose; and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle. Since the emergence of BSE and its pr...

  18. 50 CFR 216.172 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... number of takes indicated below): (i) Mysticetes: (A) Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)—49470 (an average of 9894 annually). (B) Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)—320 (an average of 64 annually). (C) Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis)—230 (an average of 46 annually). (D) Fin whale...

  19. 50 CFR 216.172 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... number of takes indicated below): (i) Mysticetes: (A) Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)—49470 (an average of 9894 annually). (B) Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)—320 (an average of 64 annually). (C) Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis)—230 (an average of 46 annually). (D) Fin whale...

  20. 50 CFR 218.11 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... annually); (viii) Pilot whales (Globicephala sp.)—100 (an average of 20 annually); (ix) Dwarf or pygmy sperm whales (Kogia sp.)—15 (an average of 3 annually); (x) Beaked whales—100 (an average of 20 annually); (xi) Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)—15 (an average of 3 annually). (2) Level A...

  1. 50 CFR 216.172 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... number of takes indicated below): (i) Mysticetes: (A) Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)—49470 (an average of 9894 annually). (B) Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)—320 (an average of 64 annually). (C) Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis)—230 (an average of 46 annually). (D) Fin whale...

  2. 50 CFR 216.172 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... number of takes indicated below): (i) Mysticetes: (A) Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)—49470 (an average of 9894 annually). (B) Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)—320 (an average of 64 annually). (C) Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis)—230 (an average of 46 annually). (D) Fin whale...

  3. 50 CFR 218.11 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... annually); (viii) Pilot whales (Globicephala sp.)—100 (an average of 20 annually); (ix) Dwarf or pygmy sperm whales (Kogia sp.)—15 (an average of 3 annually); (x) Beaked whales—100 (an average of 20 annually); (xi) Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)—15 (an average of 3 annually). (2) Level A...

  4. 50 CFR 218.11 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... annually); (viii) Pilot whales (Globicephala sp.)—100 (an average of 20 annually); (ix) Dwarf or pygmy sperm whales (Kogia sp.)—15 (an average of 3 annually); (x) Beaked whales—100 (an average of 20 annually); (xi) Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)—15 (an average of 3 annually). (2) Level A...

  5. 50 CFR 218.11 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... annually); (viii) Pilot whales (Globicephala sp.)—100 (an average of 20 annually); (ix) Dwarf or pygmy sperm whales (Kogia sp.)—15 (an average of 3 annually); (x) Beaked whales—100 (an average of 20 annually); (xi) Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)—15 (an average of 3 annually). (2) Level A...

  6. Novel Amdovirus in Gray Foxes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Woods, Leslie; Clifford, Deana L.; Luff, Jennifer; Wang, Chunlin

    2011-01-01

    We used viral metagenomics to identify a novel parvovirus in tissues of a gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Nearly full genome characterization and phylogenetic analyses showed this parvovirus (provisionally named gray fox amdovirus) to be distantly related to Aleutian mink disease virus, representing the second viral species in the Amdovirus genus. PMID:22000359

  7. The Indian Liberation and Social Rights Movement in Kollasuyu (Bolivia). IWGIA Document 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apaza, Julio Tumiri, Ed.

    For some time the Aymara and Quechua Indians have been adopting resolutions and submitting them to the relevant authorities. Compiled by the Centro de Coordinacion y Promocion Campesina "Mink'A" for consideration by the "First Meeting of Anthropologists in the Andean Region" held in September 1975, this document gives a general outline of the most…

  8. Working toward Independence: The Administration's Plan To Build upon the Successes of Welfare Reform. Hearing before the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session (April 9, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document reports on a congressional hearing on the George W. Bush administration's proposals for welfare reform and legislation to reauthorize the 1996 welfare reform law. Testimony includes statements from United States (US) Representatives John Boehner and Patsy Mink; Tommy G. Thompson, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human…

  9. 26 CFR 1.1245-3 - Definition of section 1245 property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... building thereon, and if 40 percent of the fair market value of such property is properly allocable to..., goats, and mink and other furbearing animals, irrespective of the use to which they are put or the..., or as an integral part of furnishing transportation, communications, electrical energy, gas,...

  10. On concise hypotheses for the interpretation of a wide scalar resonance as gauge boson binary in QCD → some new analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkowski, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to give some answers to questions raised at QCD2008 [P. Minkowski, 'On concise hypotheses for the interpretation of a wide scalar resonance as gauge boson binary in QCD', contribution to QCD2008, Montpellier, 6.-13. July 2008, URL : http://www.mink.itp.unibe.ch in variationsQCD2008.pdf].

  11. Temporal dynamics of top predators interactions in the Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Durant, Joël M; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Krasnov, Yuri V; Nikolaeva, Natalia G; Lindstrøm, Ulf; Dolgov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    The Barents Sea system is often depicted as a simple food web in terms of number of dominant feeding links. The most conspicuous feeding link is between the Northeast Arctic cod Gadus morhua, the world's largest cod stock which is presently at a historical high level, and capelin Mallotus villosus. The system also holds diverse seabird and marine mammal communities. Previous diet studies may suggest that these top predators (cod, bird and sea mammals) compete for food particularly with respect to pelagic fish such as capelin and juvenile herring (Clupea harengus), and krill. In this paper we explored the diet of some Barents Sea top predators (cod, Black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, Common guillemot Uria aalge, and Minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata). We developed a GAM modelling approach to analyse the temporal variation diet composition within and between predators, to explore intra- and inter-specific interactions. The GAM models demonstrated that the seabird diet is temperature dependent while the diet of Minke whale and cod is prey dependent; Minke whale and cod diets depend on the abundance of herring and capelin, respectively. There was significant diet overlap between cod and Minke whale, and between kittiwake and guillemot. In general, the diet overlap between predators increased with changes in herring and krill abundances. The diet overlap models developed in this study may help to identify inter-specific interactions and their dynamics that potentially affect the stocks targeted by fisheries. PMID:25365430

  12. Five Asian and Pacific American Perspectives on Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education, Berkeley, CA.

    This is a compilation of five brief commentaries on Federal educational policy as it relates to Asian and Pacific Americans. In the first, former Congresswoman Patsy Takemoto Mink stresses the importance of organized political action in overcoming problems related to discrimination and economic and educational disadvantages. In the second paper,…

  13. Pathobiology and diagnosis of animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: current knowledge, research gaps, and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that can affect several animal species and human beings. There are four animal TSE agents found in the United States: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink ...

  14. Environmental contaminants in freshwater fish and their risk to piscivorous wildlife based on a national monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J; Chojnacki, Kimberly A; Tillitt, Donald E

    2009-05-01

    Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental concentrations were measured in piscivorous and benthivorous fish at 111 sites from large U.S. river basins. Potential contaminant sources such as urban and agricultural runoff, industrial discharges, mine drainage, and irrigation varied among the sampling sites. Our objectives were to provide summary statistics for chemical contaminants and to determine if contaminant concentrations in the fish were a risk to wildlife that forage at these sites. Concentrations of dieldrin, total DDT, total PCBs, toxaphene, TCDD-EQ, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium, and zinc exceeded toxicity thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife in samples from at least one site; most exceedences were for total PCBs, mercury, and zinc. Chemical concentrations in fish from the Mississippi River Basin exceeded the greatest number of toxicity thresholds. Screening level wildlife risk analysis models were developed for bald eagle and mink using no adverse effect levels (NOAELs), which were derived from adult dietary exposure or tissue concentration studies and based primarily on reproductive endpoints. No effect hazard concentrations (NEHC) were calculated by comparing the NOAEL to the food ingestion rate (dietary-based NOAEL) or biomagnification factor (tissue-based NOAEL) of each receptor. Piscivorous wildlife may be at risk from a contaminant if the measured concentration in fish exceeds the NEHC. Concentrations of most organochlorine residues and elemental contaminants represented no to low risk to bald eagle and mink at most sites. The risk associated with pentachloroanisole, aldrin, Dacthal, methoxychlor, mirex, and toxaphene was unknown because NOAELs for these contaminants were not available for bald eagle or mink. Risk differed among modeled species and sites. Our screening level analysis indicates that the greatest risk to piscivorous wildlife was from total DDT, total PCBs, TCDD-EQ, mercury, and selenium. Bald eagles

  15. Environmental contaminants in freshwater fish and their risk to piscivorous wildlife based on a national monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Chojnacki, K.A.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental concentrations were measured in piscivorous and benthivorous fish at 111 sites from large U.S. river basins. Potential contaminant sources such as urban and agricultural runoff, industrial discharges, mine drainage, and irrigation varied among the sampling sites. Our objectives were to provide summary statistics for chemical contaminants and to determine if contaminant concentrations in the fish were a risk to wildlife that forage at these sites. Concentrations of dieldrin, total DDT, total PCBs, toxaphene, TCDD-EQ, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium, and zinc exceeded toxicity thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife in samples from at least one site; most exceedences were for total PCBs, mercury, and zinc. Chemical concentrations in fish from the Mississippi River Basin exceeded the greatest number of toxicity thresholds. Screening level wildlife risk analysis models were developed for bald eagle and mink using no adverse effect levels (NOAELs), which were derived from adult dietary exposure or tissue concentration studies and based primarily on reproductive endpoints. No effect hazard concentrations (NEHC) were calculated by comparing the NOAEL to the food ingestion rate (dietary-based NOAEL) or biomagnification factor (tissue-based NOAEL) of each receptor. Piscivorous wildlife may be at risk from a contaminant if the measured concentration in fish exceeds the NEHC. Concentrations of most organochlorine residues and elemental contaminants represented no to low risk to bald eagle and mink at most sites. The risk associated with pentachloroanisole, aldrin, Dacthal, methoxychlor, mirex, and toxaphene was unknown because NOAELs for these contaminants were not available for bald eagle or mink. Risk differed among modeled species and sites. Our screening level analysis indicates that the greatest risk to piscivorous wildlife was from total DDT, total PCBs, TCDD-EQ, mercury, and selenium. Bald eagles

  16. Environmental contaminants in freshwater fish and their risk to piscivorous wildlife based on a national monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J; Chojnacki, Kimberly A; Tillitt, Donald E

    2009-05-01

    Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental concentrations were measured in piscivorous and benthivorous fish at 111 sites from large U.S. river basins. Potential contaminant sources such as urban and agricultural runoff, industrial discharges, mine drainage, and irrigation varied among the sampling sites. Our objectives were to provide summary statistics for chemical contaminants and to determine if contaminant concentrations in the fish were a risk to wildlife that forage at these sites. Concentrations of dieldrin, total DDT, total PCBs, toxaphene, TCDD-EQ, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium, and zinc exceeded toxicity thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife in samples from at least one site; most exceedences were for total PCBs, mercury, and zinc. Chemical concentrations in fish from the Mississippi River Basin exceeded the greatest number of toxicity thresholds. Screening level wildlife risk analysis models were developed for bald eagle and mink using no adverse effect levels (NOAELs), which were derived from adult dietary exposure or tissue concentration studies and based primarily on reproductive endpoints. No effect hazard concentrations (NEHC) were calculated by comparing the NOAEL to the food ingestion rate (dietary-based NOAEL) or biomagnification factor (tissue-based NOAEL) of each receptor. Piscivorous wildlife may be at risk from a contaminant if the measured concentration in fish exceeds the NEHC. Concentrations of most organochlorine residues and elemental contaminants represented no to low risk to bald eagle and mink at most sites. The risk associated with pentachloroanisole, aldrin, Dacthal, methoxychlor, mirex, and toxaphene was unknown because NOAELs for these contaminants were not available for bald eagle or mink. Risk differed among modeled species and sites. Our screening level analysis indicates that the greatest risk to piscivorous wildlife was from total DDT, total PCBs, TCDD-EQ, mercury, and selenium. Bald eagles

  17. Involvement of a high-molecular-weight polyprotein translational product of Snyder-Theilen Feline sarcoma virus in malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, F H; Van de Ven, W J; Blomberg, J; Stephenson, J R

    1981-02-01

    The previously described high-molecular-weight polyprotein major translational product of the Snyder-Theilen strain of feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) was shown to possess protein kinase activity with specificity for tyrosine acceptor sites. Cells transformed by Snyder-Theilen FeSV exhibited constitutively elevated levels of phosphotyrosine and a concomitant reduction in epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding sites. By endpoint cloning in microtiter plates, a number of transformation-defective (tf) mutants of the Snyder-Theilen strain of FeSV were isolated. Mink cells nonproductively infected by such mutants were morphologically nontransformed, failed to grow in soft agar, bound EGF as efficiently as control mink cells, and lacked rescuable transforming virus. Although the level of expression of the major viral polyprotein translational product in td mutant-infected clones was comparable to that of wild-type (wt) transformants, the polyprotein in mutant clones lacked detectable protein kinase activity and total cellular phosphotyrosine levels were not elevated significantly above control values. Of a large number of wt Snyder-Theilen FeSV-transformed mink cell clones isolated, the majority were found to revert to a nontransformed morphology upon continuous passage in cell culture. Such nontransformed variants, as well as a Gardner FeSV-transformed mink cell revertant, lacked detectable polyprotein expression and exhibited levels of phosphotyrosine and EGF binding similar to those of control mink cells. These findings provide strong evidence favoring the involvement of the Snyder-Theilen FeSV-encoded high-molecular-weight polyprotein and its associated tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity in transformation.

  18. Tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities in the Greater Himalayan Sequence in Central Himalaya: in-sequence shearing by accretion from the Indian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carosi, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    . Geol. Soc. London Sp. Publ., 268, 1-23. Carosi R., Montomoli C., Rubatto D. & Visonà D. 2010. Tectonics, 29, TC4029. Iaccarino S., Montomoli C., Carosi R., Massonne H-J., Langone A., Visonà D. 2015. Lithos, 231, 103-121. Montomoli C., Iaccarino S., Carosi R., Langone A. & Visonà D. 2013. Tectonophysics 608, 1349-1370, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2013.06.006. Montomoli C., Carosi R., Iaccarino S. 2015. Geol. Soc. London Sp. Publ., 412, 25-41.

  19. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  20. The emergence of parvoviruses of carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Hoelzer, Karin; Parrish, Colin R.

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of canine parvovirus (CPV) represents a well-documented example highlighting the emergence of a new virus through cross-species transmission. CPV emerged in the mid-1970s as a new pathogen of dogs and has since become endemic in the global dog population. Despite widespread vaccination, CPV has remained a widespread disease of dogs, and new genetic and antigenic variants have arisen and sometimes reached high frequency in certain geographic regions or throughout the world. Here we review our understanding of this emergence event and contrast it to what is known about the emergence of a disease in mink caused by mink enteritis virus (MEV). In addition, we summarize the evolution of CPV over the past 30 years in the global dog population, and describe the epidemiology of contemporary parvovirus infections of dogs and cats. CPV represents a valuable model for understanding disease emergence through cross-species transmission, while MEV provides an interesting comparison. PMID:20152105