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Sample records for mink neovison vison

  1. Hybridization between escaped domestic and wild American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Kidd, A G; Bowman, J; Lesbarrères, D; Schulte-Hostedde, A I

    2009-03-01

    The release of domesticated organisms into natural populations may adversely affect these populations through predation, resource competition, and the introduction of disease. Additionally, the potential for hybridization between wild and domestic conspecifics is of great concern because it can alter the evolutionary integrity of the affected populations. Wild American mink (Neovison vison) populations may be threatened not only by competition for resources with domestic mink originating from farms, but by breeding with such escapees. Using 10 microsatellite loci, we genotyped mink from Ontario, Canada, sampled from two farms, two putatively mixed populations in regions surrounding the mink farms, and two wild populations with no recent history of mink farming. Using individual-based Bayesian population assignment, we identified four population clusters, including one wild, and three domestic populations. The latter were not clustered by farm but rather by distinct line-bred colour phases. Population clustering also identified domestic and hybrid mink in the free-ranging populations. Nearly two-thirds of the mink sampled in the two putatively mixed populations (78% and 43%) were either farm escapees or descendants of escapees. Principal components analysis of allele frequencies supported our Bayesian assignment results. The power of our assignment test was assessed using simulated hybrid genotypes which suggested that our overall correct classification rate was 96.2%. The overwhelming presence of domestic animals and their hybridization with mink in natural populations is of great concern for the future sustainability of wild mink populations.

  2. An American mink (Neovison vison) transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Knud; Anistoroaei, Razvan

    2014-04-01

    HiSeq2000 Illumina pair-end sequenced transcript data originating from a pool of four different tissues of a wild-type American mink yielded approximately 90 Gb of raw data. Subsequently, unique contigs were assembled by a combined approach using velvet and phrap. Of these assembled contigs, about 136 000 match the dog genome and nearly 30 000 contigs match the human transcriptome at more than 17 000 unique gene locations. Gene annotation for these contigs was performed employing custom-made scripts run in combination with comparative sequence similarity search and alignment in the dog and human genome using blast algorithms. Transcripts representing five genes known to be associated with pigmentation were reliably aligned against large mink genomic contigs derived from BAC clones. Sequence comparison between transcript and genomic data revealed seven SNPs. In this study, we generated and annotated mink transcript sequences representing more than 16 000 known genes. This is the first comprehensive transcriptome for the American mink genome, which will facilitate further development in mink expression profiling studies and provide a good annotation basis in the perspectives of a whole genome sequencing project. The project was deposited at EMBL database with the accession number PRJEB1260. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. Development of vocalization and hearing in American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Brandt, Christian; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Rasmus L; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-09-15

    American mink (Neovison vison) kits are born altricial and fully dependent on maternal care, for which the kits' vocalizations appear essential. We used auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to determine: (1) hearing sensitivity of adult females from two breeding lines known to differ in maternal behaviour and (2) development of hearing in kits 8-52 days of age. We also studied sound production in 20 kits throughout postnatal days 1 to 44. Adult female mink had a broad hearing range from 1 kHz to above 70 kHz, with peak sensitivity (threshold of 20 dB SPL) at 8-10 kHz, and no difference in sensitivity between the two breeding lines (P>0.22) to explain the difference in maternal care. Mink kits showed no signs of hearing up to postnatal day 24. From day 30, all kits had ABRs indicative of hearing. Hearing sensitivity increased with age, but was still below the adult level at postnatal day 52. When separated from their mothers, kits vocalized loudly. Until the age of 22 days, 90% of all kits vocalized with no significant decline with age (P=0.27). From day 25, concurrent with the start of hearing, the number of vocalizing kits decreased with age (P<0.001), in particular in kits that were re-tested (P=0.004). Large numbers of mink are kept in fur industry farms, and our results are important to the understanding of sound communication, which is part of their natural behaviour. Our results also suggest mink as an interesting model for studying the development of mammalian hearing and its correlation to sound production.

  4. Inbreeding affects fecundity of American mink (Neovison vison) in Danish farm mink.

    PubMed

    Demontis, D; Larsen, P F; Baekgaard, H; Sønderup, M; Hansen, B K; Nielsen, V H; Loeschcke, V; Zalewski, A; Zalewska, H; Pertoldi, C

    2011-08-01

    Inbreeding is an increasing problem in farmed mink, because of limited exchange of individuals between farms. In this study, genetic relatedness within seven American mink (Neovison vison) colour strains originating from 13 different mink farms in Denmark was analysed using 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci. We detected large differences in the level of relatedness (range 0.017-0.520) within colour strains. Moreover, a very strong and highly significant negative correlation between the level of relatedness and fecundity was observed (r = 0.536, P < 0.001) [Correction added after online publication on 9 March 2011: r(2) has been changed to r]. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such a correlation has been demonstrated for commercially farmed mink. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. Population viability analysis of American mink (Neovison vison) escaped from Danish mink farms.

    PubMed

    Pertoldi, C; Rødjajn, S; Zalewski, A; Demontis, D; Loeschcke, V; Kjærsgaard, A

    2013-06-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) was introduced to Danish fur farms in the 1930s. An unknown number of mink have managed to escape these farms over the years. Today feral mink are found in the wild in most parts of Denmark. A population viability analysis (PVA) was performed using VORTEX, a stochastic population simulation software, to 1) predict the viability and potential population expansion from different sizes of founding populations of farm escapees, 2) investigate which parameters mostly affect the viability, 3) assess the effects of continuous escapes on the feral populations and how the feral populations are affected by management programs, and 4) discuss eradication strategies and their efficiency in management of the feral American mink population in Denmark. The simulations showed that juvenile mortality had the greatest effect on population viability followed by fecundity, adult mortality, and initial population size. Populations supplemented yearly by escapees all reached the carrying capacity and gained genetic variability over the years. Harvesting was modeled as the yearly number of mink caught in Denmark. Most of the simulated harvested populations crashed within few years after the first harvesting event. This indicates that the feral number of mink in Denmark is sustained due to supplements from mink farms and no true feral population exists. To manage the number of feral mink in Denmark it is essential to prevent escapees. The eradication effort would be most effective if focused on late summer and autumn when juvenile mink leave the maternal territory.

  6. Testing for Aleutian mink disease virus in the river otter (Lontra canadensis) in sympatry with infected American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Nituch, Larissa A; Sadowski, Carrie; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2014-07-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) occurs in the American mink (Neovison vison) in wild populations and on mink farms and can cause illness and death. The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) may be exposed to AMDV because of shared space and habitat with mink. Using serology and real-time PCR, we tested river otters across Ontario for AMDV infection. We found no evidence of infection in otters, a surprising finding given the sympatric distribution, niche overlap, and close phylogenetic relationship of the river otter and the American mink. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the major point of spillover of AMDV between mink farms and wildlife is manure and composting carcasses on mink farms. Mink farms in Ontario are generally in agricultural landscapes; it is unlikely that river otter use these habitats and thus are likely not exposed to AMDV. We found no evidence that AMD is an important disease for the river otters in Ontario.

  7. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODY TO ALEUTIAN MINK DISEASE VIRUS IN EUROPEAN MINK (MUSTELA LUTREOLA) AND AMERICAN MINK (NEOVISON VISON) IN SPAIN.

    PubMed

    Mañas, Sisco; Gómez, Asunción; Asensio, Victoria; Palazón, Santiago; Podra, Madis; Alarcia, Olga Esther; Ruiz-Olmo, Jordi; Casal, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola) has undergone a dramatic decline and is one of the most endangered mammals in the world. The invasive American mink (Neovison vison) is considered the main factor for this decline. However, the American mink's introduction and the subsequent ecological concurrence of the two species cannot solely explain the decline or disappearance of the European mink. Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the main health problem in fur farming worldwide, causing varied clinical syndromes that depend on the viral strain and host factors. Infection with AMDV has been speculated to contribute to the decline of the European mink, but a detailed study has not been performed. To assess the potential effects of AMDV infection on the conservation of the European mink, we surveyed AMDV antibody in samples from 492 native European mink and 1,735 feral American mink collected over 16 yr. The antibody prevalence in European mink was 32%. There were no statistically significant differences in antibody prevalence between sexes, among years, or among weight classes. For recaptured European mink, incidence of seroconversion (negative to positive) was 0.46 cases per animal-year at risk. For positive animals, the incidence of conversion from positive to negative was 0.18 cases per animal-year at risk. In 1,735 feral American minks, the overall prevalence was 32.4% and varied among the six wild populations studied. Infection with AMDV appears to be endemic, distributed across the entire ranges of both species, and no effects on the population dynamics of either species were observed.

  8. [Odontologic anomaly in the American mink Neovison vison (Carnivora, Mustelidae) and possible reasons for its appearance].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the phenomenon of substitution of the reduced M2 with a tooth of a complex structure in the American mink Neovison vison Schreber. The anomaly is observed on three skulls out of the 574 examined (0.52%) and is characterized by a clear localization, identical structure, and symmetrical manifestation. Atypical molars have two roots, equally well-developed paraconid, eokonid, hypoconid, and a less pronounced metaconid. Some possible hypotheses for the anomaly that are considered include disruption in the development of the dental germ, mutation, and phenotypic expression of genes that are characteristic of plesiomorphic species of mustelids. The substantiated viewpoint is that the cause of this phenomenon may be the "awakening of dormant genes" as a result of destabilizing selection and hybrid dysgenesis in the area of contact of farm and feral American minks.

  9. [Odontologic anomaly in the American mink Neovison vison (Carnivora, Mustelidae) and possible reasons for its appearance].

    PubMed

    Korablev, P N; Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Tumanov, I L

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the phenomenon of substitution of the reduced M2 with a tooth of a complex structure in the American mink Neovison vison Schreber. The anomaly is observed on three skulls out of the 574 examined (0.52%) and is characterized by a clear localization, identical structure, and symmetrical manifestation. Atypical molars have two roots, equally well-developed paraconid, eokonid, hypoconid, and a less pronounced metaconid. Some possible hypotheses for the anomaly that are considered include disruption in the development of the dental germ, mutation, and phenotypic expression of genes that are characteristic of plesiomorphic species of mustelids. The substantiated viewpoint is that the cause of this phenomenon may be the "awakening of dormant genes" as a result of destabilizing selection and hybrid dysgenesis in the area of contact of farm and feral American minks.

  10. An invasive species as an additional parasite reservoir: Trichinella in introduced American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Hurníková, Zuzana; Kołodziej-Sobocińska, Marta; Dvorožňáková, Emília; Niemczynowicz, Agnieszka; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2016-11-15

    The American mink (Neovison vison Schreber, 1777) is one of the most invasive alien mammal species which has been introduced to many countries in Europe, Asia and South America. As a predator which feeds on various prey, American mink carry many endoparasites; however, data about infection rate and prevalence of different parasites in mink are limited, especially concerning Trichinella spp. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of American mink in the circulation of Trichinella species in its introduced range. In total, 812 muscle samples of mink from six feral populations and three farms in Poland were examined for presence of Trichinella muscle larvae using the artificial HCl-pepsin digestion method. Muscle larvae were found in 27 out of 812 individuals (3.3%) from six localities in western and north-eastern Poland. The intensity of infection varied from 0.1 to 274.8 LPG. The majority of Trichinella-positive individuals - 15 (55.6%) were infected with T. britovi, one with T. spiralis, and one with T. pseudospiralis. Two animals harboured T. britovi and T. spiralis in co-infection and this data confirmed the first report of a mixed Trichinella infection in American mink. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of reproductive safety of beta-sitosterol on the American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Pölönen, Ilpo; Ikonen, Katja; Määttänen, Maija; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2008-03-01

    beta-Sitosterol is a weakly estrogenic phytosterol used extensively in functional foods to lower elevated serum cholesterol concentrations due to its inhibitory action on intestinal cholesterol absorption. It caused previously decreased sex steroid concentrations in fish and lowered sperm counts in rats. In the American mink (Neovison vison), litter size increased slightly due to dietary beta-sitosterol supplement. The aim of the present experiment was to conduct a dose-response study on the effects of beta-sitosterol on the reproduction of the American mink. Juvenile male and female mink (n=480) were exposed to 0, 5, 10 or 50 mg of peroral beta-sitosterol kg(-1)d(-1) for 10 months. After 3 months of exposure in November, 15 males per group were sacrificed and general biochemical variables reflecting overall health were determined. The beta-sitosterol-treated male mink had increased absolute and relative masses of intraabdominal fat and higher blood hemoglobin and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. In spring, the top-rated male mink were mated with multiple females within each study group and reproductive success was assessed. No differences in the reproductive performance of the males (10-11 per group) or females (47-50 per group) could be detected in the exposed groups and the kits of all groups developed in a similar manner. The results suggest that dietary beta-sitosterol presents no significant risk to mammalian fertility.

  12. Hippocampal neurogenesis increase with stereotypic behavior in mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Malmkvist, Jens; Brix, Bjarke; Henningsen, Kim; Wiborg, Ove

    2012-04-15

    We investigated the hypothesis that performance of abnormal behavior is a stress response concurrent with reduced cell formation in the hippocampal region of the brain, using groups of adult female American mink with high occurrence of stereotypic behavior (STEREO, n=12), high occurrence of fur-chewing behavior (FURCHEW, n=12), or without abnormal behavior (CONTROL, n=12). Following repeated injections of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) as a marker of dividing cells, animals were sacrificed and brain tissue fixated. After brain sectioning and a mink-adapted free-floating BrdU/NeuN doublestaining protocol, we counted the number of cells formed in the subgranular zone (SGZ) and the granular cell layer (GCL) of the dentate gyrus (DG) in the mink hippocampus. (1) proliferation of cells in the SGZ and the GCL of the ventral hippocampal DG was demonstrated for the first time in adult mink, (2) with no significant difference between the experimental groups ( 1509 (191.1); FURCHEW: 1377 (199.8); STEREO: 1968 (288.8); P=0.18), (3) however, with a positive correlation between the amount of stereotypic behavior performed and the number of new hippocampal cells formed (P=0.016). In conclusion, our results do not support that abnormal behavior in mink is concurrent with reduced hippocampal neurogenesis. On the contrary, cell proliferation increased with increasing performance of stereotypic behavior, being of an active/locomotory nature in mink. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of Aleutian mink disease virus DNA and antiviral antibodies in American mink (Neovison vison) 10 days postinoculation.

    PubMed

    Farid, A Hossain; Hussain, Irshad; Arju, Irin

    2015-05-01

    Early detection of infection by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV; Carnivore amdoparvovirus 1) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) has important ramifications in virus eradication programs. A spleen homogenate containing a local isolate of AMDV was injected intraperitoneally into black (n = 44) and sapphire (n = 12) American mink (Neovison vison). Animals were euthanized 10 days postinoculation and anti-AMDV antibodies and AMDV DNA were tested in plasma and 7 organs by CIEP and PCR, respectively. Viral DNA was detected in the plasma, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and lung samples of all inoculated mink, but was not detected in some small intestine, kidney, and liver samples. In contrast, antibodies were detected in the plasma of 3 sapphire (25.0%) and 19 black (43.2%) mink but not in any of the organs. The sensitivity of the CIEP test on plasma samples was 39.3%, implying that low levels of antibodies during the early stages of virus exposure resulted in failure to detect infection by the CIEP test. We concluded that CIEP is not a reliable test for early detection of AMDV infection in mink and that there were considerable differences among mink of each color type for production of detectable levels of antibodies. PCR tests on samples of saliva, rectal swabs, and feces did not produce consistent and reliable results. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Nutrient-specific compensatory feeding in a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Neovison vison.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kim; Simpson, Stephen J; Nielsen, Vivi H; Hunt, John; Raubenheimer, David; Mayntz, David

    2014-10-14

    Balancing of macronutrient intake has only recently been demonstrated in predators. In particular, the ability to regulate carbohydrate intake is little studied in obligate carnivores, as carbohydrate is present at very low concentrations in prey animal tissue. In the present study, we determined whether American mink (Neovison vison) would compensate for dietary nutritional imbalances by foraging for complementary macronutrients (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) when subsequently given a dietary choice. We used three food pairings, within which two macronutrients differed relative to each other (high v. low concentration), while the third was kept at a constant level. The mink were first restricted to a single nutritionally imbalanced food for 7 d and then given a free choice to feed from the same food or a nutritionally complementary food for three consecutive days. When restricted to nutritionally imbalanced foods, the mink were willing to overingest protein only to a certain level ('ceiling'). When subsequently given a choice, the mink compensated for the period of nutritional imbalance by selecting the nutritionally complementary food in the food choice pairing. Notably, this rebalancing occurred for all the three macronutrients, including carbohydrate, which is particularly interesting as carbohydrate is not a major macronutrient for obligate carnivores in nature. However, there was also a ceiling to carbohydrate intake, as has been demonstrated previously in domestic cats. The results of the present study show that mink regulate their intake of all the three macronutrients within limits imposed by ceilings on protein and carbohydrate intake and that they will compensate for a period of nutritional imbalance by subsequently selecting nutritionally complementary foods.

  15. A re-assigned American mink (Neovison vison) map optimal for genome-wide studies.

    PubMed

    Anistoroaei, Razvan; Nielsen, Vivi; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jørgensen, Claus B; Christensen, Knud; Fredholm, Merete

    2012-12-10

    Our previously published second generation genetic map for the American mink (Neovison vison) has been used and redesigned in its best for genome-wide studies with maximum of efficiency. A number of 114 selected markers, including 33 newly developed microsatellite markers from the CHORI-231 mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library, have been genotyped in a two generation population composed of 1200 individuals. The outcome reassigns the position of some markers on the chromosomes and it produces a more reliable map with a convenient distance between markers. A total of 104 markers mapped to 14 linkage groups corresponding to the mink autosomes. Six markers are unlinked and four markers are allocated to the X chromosome by homology but no linkage was detected. The sex-average linkage map spans 1192 centiMorgans (cM) with an average intermarker distance of 11.4cM and 1648cM when the ends of the linkage groups and the autosomal unlinked markers are added. Sex-specific genetic linkage maps were also generated. The male sex-specific map had a total length of 1014.6cM between the linked markers and an average inter-marker interval of 9.7cM. The female map has a corresponding length of 1378.6cM and an average inter-marker interval of 13.3cM. The study is complemented with additional anchorage for most of the chromosomes of the map by BAC in situ hybridization with clones containing microsatellites strategically selected from the various parts of the genome. This map provides an improved tool for genetic mapping and comparative genomics in mink, also useful for the future assembly of the mink genome sequence when this will be taken forward. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors associated with usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison) production in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jensen, V F; Sommer, H M; Struve, T; Clausen, J; Chriél, M

    2016-04-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is used for commercial fur production in Denmark. In recent years, antimicrobial prescription for Danish mink has been increasing. In this study, the patterns and trends in antimicrobial use in mink were described and a multi-variable variance analysis was carried out with the objective of identifying risk factors for antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was based on register data for 2007-2012. Information on antimicrobial use was obtained from the national database VetStat, monitoring all medicinal products used for animals on prescription level. Data on microbiological feed quality was obtained from the Voluntary Feed Control under the Mink producers Organization, and data on herd size and the relation between farm and feed producer was obtained from the registers at Kopenhagen Fur, based on yearly reporting from the mink producers. Descriptive analysis showed a clear significant effect of season on antimicrobial use, with a peak in "treatment proportions", TP (defined daily doses per kg biomass-days) in May, around the time of whelping, and a high level in the following months. In autumn, a minor peak in antimicrobial use occurred throughout the study period. From 2007 to 2011, a 102% increase in annual antimicrobial TP was noted; on herd level, the increase was associated with an increasing frequency of prescription, and a decrease in the amounts prescribed in months with prescription. A binomial model showed that on herd level, the annual number of months with antimicrobial prescription was significantly (p<0.01) affected by feed producer, veterinarian, disease (specific laboratory diagnosis) infection, herd size and year, with an interaction between feed producer and year. A log-normal model showed that in months with antimicrobial use, the TP on herd level was significantly (p<0.001) affected by year, month (season), feed producer, feed quality score, veterinarian, herd size and laboratory confirmed diagnosis of

  17. Comparison of hepatic and nephric total mercury concentrations between feral and ranch American mink (Neovison vison) from northwestern Poland.

    PubMed

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Budis, Halina; Lanocha, Natalia; Podlasinska, Joanna; Jedrzejewska, Ewa; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I

    2012-05-01

    For many years the American mink (Neovison vison) has been used in North America (where it originates from) as a sensitive indirect bioindicator in assessing the degree of mercury (Hg) contamination in terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this paper was the determination of total concentrations of Hg in the liver and kidneys of feral and ranch mink from the Warta Mouth National Park (WMNP) and from farms located in northwestern Poland, for comparison with similar data on American mink from North America. In road-killed feral mink from the WMNP, the mean concentrations were 11.8 and 14.1 mg/kg dry weight in the liver and kidney, respectively. Mean Hg concentrations in feral mink were from 240 to 90 times higher in these two respective tissues than in ranch mink. The feral mink from northwestern Poland had concentrations of hepatic and nephric Hg similar to the highest concentrations that have been recorded over the past several decades in wild American mink from certain areas of Canada and the USA.

  18. Wildlife reservoirs of canine distemper virus resulted in a major outbreak in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Trebbien, Ramona; Chriel, Mariann; Struve, Tina; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Gitte; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison) started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus full-length sequencing of the receptor binding surface protein hemagglutinin (H) was performed on 26 CDV's collected from mink and 10 CDV's collected from wildlife species. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus circulating in the mink farms and wildlife were highly identical with an identity at the nucleotide level of 99.45% to 100%. The sequences could be grouped by single nucleotide polymorphisms according to geographical distribution of mink farms and wildlife. The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor binding region in most viruses from both mink and wildlife contained G at position 530 and Y at position 549; however, three mink viruses had an Y549H substitution. The outbreak viruses clustered phylogenetically in the European lineage and were highly identical to wildlife viruses from Germany and Hungary (99.29% - 99.62%). The study furthermore revealed that fleas (Ceratophyllus sciurorum) contained CDV and that vertical transmission of CDV occurred in a wild ferret. The study provides evidence that wildlife species, such as foxes, play an important role in the transmission of CDV to farmed mink and that the virus may be maintained in the wild animal reservoir between outbreaks.

  19. Wildlife Reservoirs of Canine Distemper Virus Resulted in a Major Outbreak in Danish Farmed Mink (Neovison vison)

    PubMed Central

    Trebbien, Ramona; Chriel, Mariann; Struve, Tina; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Gitte; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison) started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus full-length sequencing of the receptor binding surface protein hemagglutinin (H) was performed on 26 CDV's collected from mink and 10 CDV's collected from wildlife species. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus circulating in the mink farms and wildlife were highly identical with an identity at the nucleotide level of 99.45% to 100%. The sequences could be grouped by single nucleotide polymorphisms according to geographical distribution of mink farms and wildlife. The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor binding region in most viruses from both mink and wildlife contained G at position 530 and Y at position 549; however, three mink viruses had an Y549H substitution. The outbreak viruses clustered phylogenetically in the European lineage and were highly identical to wildlife viruses from Germany and Hungary (99.29% – 99.62%). The study furthermore revealed that fleas (Ceratophyllus sciurorum) contained CDV and that vertical transmission of CDV occurred in a wild ferret. The study provides evidence that wildlife species, such as foxes, play an important role in the transmission of CDV to farmed mink and that the virus may be maintained in the wild animal reservoir between outbreaks. PMID:24454897

  20. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Farmed Minks (Neovison vison) in Northeastern and Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen-Bin; Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Ma, Jian-Gang; Wang, Chun-Feng; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important intracellular parasite, which can infect endothermic vertebrate animals, including minks (Neovison vison). However, information on T. gondii infection in minks in China is limited. Therefore, we investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors of T. gondii infection in minks in northeastern and eastern China. A total of 1499 mink blood samples were randomly collected from eight cities between March 2014 and January 2015 in northeastern and eastern China, and antibodies to T. gondii were examined using the modified agglutination test. Overall, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 8.14% in the examined minks. The T. gondii seroprevalence was different among cities (ranging from 1.85% in Changchun to 15.75% in Dalian), genders (4.31% in male and 6.22% in female), seasons (spring: 11.64%; summer: 7.34%; autumn: 7.37%; and winter: 7.32%), and ages (young: 5.79%; subadult: 5.03%; and adult: 11.08%). Region and age were considered as risk factors for T. gondii infection. These results provided baseline data for the prevention and control of T. gondii infection in minks in China.

  1. Molecular Detection and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Farmed Minks (Neovison vison) in Northern China by PCR-RFLP

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian-Gang; Li, Fa-Cai; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide prevalent parasite, affecting a wide range of mammals and human beings. Little information is available about the distribution of genetic diversity of T. gondii infection in minks (Neovison vison). This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from minks in China. A total of 418 minks brain tissue samples were collected from Jilin and Hebei provinces, northern China. Genomic DNA were extracted and assayed for T. gondii infection by semi-nested PCR of B1 gene. The positive DNA samples were typed at 10 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2 (5'+3' SAG2, alter.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology. 36 (8.6%) of 418 DNA samples were overall positive for T. gondii. Among them, 5 samples were genotyped at all loci, and 1 sample was genotyped for 9 loci. In total, five samples belong to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype#9, one belong to ToxoDB genotye#3. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii in minks in China. Meanwhile, these results revealed a distribution of T. gondii infection in minks in China. These data provided base-line information for controlling T. gondii infection in minks. PMID:27806069

  2. Increased reproductive success in the white American mink (Neovison vison) with chronic dietary beta-sitosterol supplement.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Pölönen, Ilpo; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2010-06-01

    Beta-sitosterol is a weakly estrogenic phytosterol used in functional foods to lower elevated serum cholesterol concentrations. It has been reported to cause reproductive disturbances in fish and lower the sperm count of rodents but, in contrast, there were indications of enhanced reproduction in a preliminary study on the brown American mink (Neovison vison). In the present experiment the effects of chronic dietary beta-sitosterol exposure on the reproduction of the American mink were evaluated with a large number of experimental animals. Male and female finnwhite mink (n=200)--a previously uninvestigated color type with lower reproductive success compared to brown mink--were exposed to 50 mg beta-sitosterol kg(-1)d(-1) for 10 months and compared with 200 control animals. After 3 months in November, 15 males per group were sacrificed and their biochemical variables determined. The serum glucose and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were lower in the beta-sitosterol-exposed group, while other effects were minor. The females were mated with the top-rated males (4-5:1) in March and their reproductive performance was determined. The reproductive success increased in the beta-sitosterol group with significantly fewer barren females and a higher number of successfully reproducing females than in the control group, which supports previous studies on brown mink and voles indicating that beta-sitosterol could be used to enhance the reproductive performance of these mammals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rate of exposure of a sentinel species, invasive American mink (Neovison vison) in Scotland, to anticoagulant rodenticides.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Melero, Yolanda; Giela, Anna; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Sharp, Elizabeth; Boada, Luis D; Taylor, Michael J; Camacho, María; Lambin, Xavier; Luzardo, Octavio P; Hartley, Gill

    2016-11-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are highly toxic compounds that are exclusively used for the control of rodent pests. Despite their defined use, they are nonetheless found in a large number of non-target species indicating widespread penetration of wildlife. Attempts to quantify the scale of problem are complicated by non-random sampling of individuals tested for AR contamination. The American mink (Neovison vison) is a wide ranging, non-native, generalist predator that is subject to wide scale control efforts in the UK. Exposure to eight ARs was determined in 99 mink trapped in NE Scotland, most of which were of known age. A high percentage (79%) of the animals had detectable residues of at least one AR, and more than 50% of the positive animals had two or more ARs. The most frequently detected compound was bromadiolone (75% of all animals tested), followed by difenacoum (53% of all mink), coumatetralyl (22%) and brodifacoum (9%). The probability of mink exposure to ARs increased by 4.5% per month of life, and was 1.7 times higher for mink caught in areas with a high, as opposed to a low, density of farms. The number of AR compounds acquired also increased with age and with farm density. No evidence was found for sexual differences in the concentration and number of ARs. The wide niche and dietary overlap of mink with several native carnivore species, and the fact that American mink are culled for conservation throughout Europe, suggest that this species may act as a sentinel species, and the application of these data to other native carnivores is discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Context Matters: Multiple Novelty Tests Reveal Different Aspects of Shyness-Boldness in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison)

    PubMed Central

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Needham, Esther Kjær; Wiese, Ann-Sophie; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Animal personality research is receiving increasing interest from related fields, such as evolutionary personality psychology. By merging the conceptual understanding of personality, the contributions to both fields of research may be enhanced. In this study, we investigate animal personality based on the definition of personality traits as underlying dispositional factors, which are not directly measurable, but which predispose individuals to react through different behavioural patterns. We investigated the shyness-boldness continuum reflected in the consistency of inter-individual variation in behavioural responses towards novelty in 47 farmed American mink (Neovison vison), which were raised in identical housing conditions. Different stages of approach behaviour towards novelty, and how these related within and across contexts, were explored. Our experimental design contained four tests: two novel object tests (non-social contexts) and two novel animated stimuli tests (social contexts). Our results showed consistency in shyness measures across multiple tests, indicating the existence of personality in farmed American mink. It was found that consistency in shyness measures differs across non-social and social contexts, as well as across the various stages in the approach towards novel objects, revealing that different aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. To our knowledge this is the first study to reveal aspects of the shyness-boldness continuum in the American mink. Since the mink were raised in identical housing conditions, inherited factors may have been important in shaping the consistent inter-individual variation. Body weight and sex had no effect on the personality of the mink. Altogether, our results suggest that the shyness-boldness continuum cannot be explained by a simple underlying dispositional factor, but instead encompasses a broader term of hesitating behaviour that might comprise several different personality traits. PMID

  5. Context Matters: Multiple Novelty Tests Reveal Different Aspects of Shyness-Boldness in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Needham, Esther Kjær; Wiese, Ann-Sophie; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Animal personality research is receiving increasing interest from related fields, such as evolutionary personality psychology. By merging the conceptual understanding of personality, the contributions to both fields of research may be enhanced. In this study, we investigate animal personality based on the definition of personality traits as underlying dispositional factors, which are not directly measurable, but which predispose individuals to react through different behavioural patterns. We investigated the shyness-boldness continuum reflected in the consistency of inter-individual variation in behavioural responses towards novelty in 47 farmed American mink (Neovison vison), which were raised in identical housing conditions. Different stages of approach behaviour towards novelty, and how these related within and across contexts, were explored. Our experimental design contained four tests: two novel object tests (non-social contexts) and two novel animated stimuli tests (social contexts). Our results showed consistency in shyness measures across multiple tests, indicating the existence of personality in farmed American mink. It was found that consistency in shyness measures differs across non-social and social contexts, as well as across the various stages in the approach towards novel objects, revealing that different aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. To our knowledge this is the first study to reveal aspects of the shyness-boldness continuum in the American mink. Since the mink were raised in identical housing conditions, inherited factors may have been important in shaping the consistent inter-individual variation. Body weight and sex had no effect on the personality of the mink. Altogether, our results suggest that the shyness-boldness continuum cannot be explained by a simple underlying dispositional factor, but instead encompasses a broader term of hesitating behaviour that might comprise several different personality traits.

  6. Determinants and effects of sinus worm Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidae) infestation in invasive American mink Neovison vison in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heddergott, M; Pohl, D; Steinbach, P; Salazar, L Cantú; Müller, F; Frantz, A C

    2016-09-01

    Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842) are geographically widespread nematodes that parasitize the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of smaller mustelids. As most prior work was solely based on the analysis of bone injuries of museum skull, little is known about the determinants and effects of infestation in the host species. Working on fresh skulls, we aimed to analyze infestation patterns in American mink (Neovison vison Schreber, 1777) from nine study areas in northern Germany and to identify factors that explained infestation prevalence and intensity in the host species. The prevalence (46.7-62.9 %) and infestation intensity values (4.5-10.89 nematodes) reported here were relatively large, especially compared to other American mink populations in Europe. Considering mink diet, our study sites probably harbored a larger number of infested paratenic hosts and climate did not have a substantial negative influence on survival of S. nasicola larvae. We did not observe any significant sex-age differences in either prevalence or intensity of S. nasicola infestation. We did not find a negative impact of an infestation on the host animals' body weight, confirming prior results that the parasite is not a significant mortality factor in mustelids. Our study suggests that this holds even outside the native distributional range where the host's defenses might not be optimally adapted to an autochthonous parasite.

  7. Comparative morphology of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores in the tongue of the American mink, Neovison vison.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Ken; Fukue, Yuko; Kishimoto, Ryosuke; Shindo, Junji; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2014-05-01

    We observed the morphology of the lingual papillae (filiform, conical, fungiform, and vallate papillae, and lateral organ) and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) in the American mink (Neovison vison) using light and scanning electron microscopy. Filiform papillae were distributed on the apex linguae and rostral regions of the corpus linguae. Conical papillae were distributed over the caudal region and absent in the radix linguae. Numerous ridges were present in the radix linguae. Four to six vallate papillae were situated at the border between the corpus and radix linguae. Instead of foliate papillae, a pair of lateral organs was situated on the caudal edge of the corpus. The epithelial surface of each filiform papilla consisted of a single main process and 10-12 accessory processes. Notably, filiform papillae in the apex linguae exhibited morphological variation, and some were dome-like and lacked processes. In contrast, filiform papillae on the rostral part were not variable, were extended to a sharp tip, were associated with an eosinophilic stratum corneum, and lacked nuclei. The CTCs of the filiform papillae consisted of a main core and slender accessory cores surrounding a concavity. Those in the apex linguae were similar in appearance and consisted of main and adjacent accessory cores. The fungiform papillae had a dome-like epithelial surface and their CTCs were columnar, with upper concavities and flanges. The simplified lingual morphology of the American mink, particularly in the filiform papillae in the apex linguae, may be influenced by its diet and semiaquatic lifestyle.

  8. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia sp. NV-1 detected from wild American Mink ( Neovison vison ) in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Haruyuki; Ishinabe, Satoki; Jinnai, Michio; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2013-04-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-borne protozoan disease affecting many mammalian species worldwide, caused by the intraerythrocytic multiplication of Babesia spp. The present study aimed to detect the presence of Babesia sp. in 13 American mink from Hokkaido, Japan. One of 13 animals was positive, as indicated by nested PCR targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) and subunit 7 (eta) of the chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT7) genes from species of Babesia and Theileria. Sequencing of the PCR product of SSU rDNA revealed 99% homology to the isolates of Babesia sp. SAP#131 found in raccoons in Hokkaido, whereas that of the CCT7 gene showed 80% homology to the isolates of Babesia gibsoni in dogs as determined by BLAST analysis. We refer to the cognate sequence as Babesia sp. NV-1. Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA and CCT7 genes from Babesia sp. NV-1 revealed them to be most closely related to the Babesia sp. SAP#131 from a raccoon in Hokkaido and to canine B. gibsoni, respectively. Here, we provide the first molecular evidence of the Babesia sp. NV-1 parasite in feral American mink ( Neovison vison ) in Hokkaido, Japan.

  9. Growth and reproductive effects from dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 in mink (Neovison vison), a surrogate model for marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Remington, Richard E; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the commercial mixture Aroclor 1268 were historically released into the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (southeastern Georgia, USA) from industrial operations. Sum PCBs (ΣPCBs) in blubber samples from Turtle-Brunswick River estuary bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been reported at concentrations more than 10-fold higher than those observed in dolphins from adjacent regional estuaries. Given that toxicity data specific to Aroclor 1268 and applicable to marine mammals are limited, predicting the toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 in dolphins is uncertain, particularly because of its unique congener profile and associated physiochemical characteristics compared with other PCB mixtures. American mink (Neovison vison) were chosen as a surrogate model for cetaceans to develop marine mammalian PCB toxicity benchmarks. Mink are a suitable surrogate species for cetaceans in toxicity studies because of similarities in diet and taxonomic class, and a characteristic sensitivity to PCBs provides a potential safety factor when using mink toxicology data for cross-species extrapolations. Effects of dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 on reproduction, growth, and mortality in mink were compared with both a negative control and a positive control (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, PCB 126). Aroclor 1268 dietary ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g feed wet weight to 29 µg/g feed wet weight. Whelp success was unaffected by Aroclor 1268 exposure at any level. Treatment mean litter size, kit growth, and kit survival were adversely affected relative to the negative control at dietary ΣPCB concentrations of 10.6 µg/g feed wet weight and greater.

  10. Evidence of endoplasmic reticulum stress and liver inflammation in the American mink Neovison vison with benign hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Pal, Catherine; Martin, Timothy; Harris, Lora; Astatkie, Tessema; Kryzskaya, Darya; Kärjä, Vesa; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Tammi, Raija; Tammi, Markku; Nieminen, Petteri

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the presence of inflammatory signs in the progression of fatty liver disease induced by fasting. Sixty standard black American mink (Neovison vison) were fasted for 0, 1, 3, 5, or 7 days and one group for 7 days followed by re-feeding for 28 days. Liver sections were evaluated histologically and liver mRNA levels indicating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, adipogenic transformation, and inflammation were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. After 3 days of fasting, the mink had developed moderate liver steatosis. Increased hyaluronan reactivity in lymphocytic foci but no Mallory-Denk bodies were seen in livers of the mink fasted for 5-7 days. Up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein, 78 kDa was observed on day 7 indicating ER stress, especially in the females. Liver lipoprotein lipase and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA levels increased in response to 5-7 days of food deprivation, while tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was the highest in the mink fasted for 5 days. The expression of the genes of interest, except for TNF-α, correlated with each other and with the liver fat content. The mRNA levels were found to change more rapidly below n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio threshold of 0.15. Following re-feeding, hepatocyte morphology and mRNA abundance returned to pre-fasting levels. Within the studied timeframe, evidence for ER stress, adipogenic transformation, and liver inflammation suggested incipient transition from steatosis to steatohepatitis with potential for development of more severe liver disease. This may present a possibility to influence disease progression before histologically observable steatohepatitis.

  11. Indirect genetic effects contribute substantially to heritable variation in aggression-related traits in group-housed mink (Neovison vison)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the recommendations on group housing of mink (Neovison vison) were adopted by the Council of Europe in 1999, it has become common in mink production in Europe. Group housing is advantageous from a production perspective, but can lead to aggression between animals and thus raises a welfare issue. Bite marks on the animals are an indicator of this aggressive behaviour and thus selection against frequency of bite marks should reduce aggression and improve animal welfare. Bite marks on one individual reflect the aggression of its group members, which means that the number of bite marks carried by one individual depends on the behaviour of other individuals and that it may have a genetic basis. Thus, for a successful breeding strategy it could be crucial to consider both direct (DGE) and indirect (IGE) genetic effects on this trait. However, to date no study has investigated the genetic basis of bite marks in mink. Result and discussion A model that included DGE and IGE fitted the data significantly better than a model with DGE only, and IGE contributed a substantial proportion of the heritable variation available for response to selection. In the model with IGE, the total heritable variation expressed as the proportion of phenotypic variance (T2) was six times greater than classical heritability (h2). For instance, for total bite marks, T2 was equal to 0.61, while h2 was equal to 0.10. The genetic correlation between direct and indirect effects ranged from 0.55 for neck bite marks to 0.99 for tail bite marks. This positive correlation suggests that mink have a tendency to fight in a reciprocal way (giving and receiving bites) and thus, a genotype that confers a tendency to bite other individuals can also cause its bearer to receive more bites. Conclusion Both direct and indirect genetic effects contribute to variation in number of bite marks in group-housed mink. Thus, a genetic selection design that includes both direct genetic and indirect genetic

  12. Influenza A Virus Surveillance in the Invasive American Mink (Neovison vison) from Freshwater Ecosystems, Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Gholipour, H; Busquets, N; Fernández-Aguilar, X; Sánchez, A; Ribas, M P; De Pedro, G; Lizarraga, P; Alarcia-Alejos, O; Temiño, C; Cabezón, O

    2016-12-05

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are negative-sense, single-stranded and segmented RNA viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family that may cause acute respiratory disease in a wide range of birds and mammals. Susceptibility of several species within the family Mustelidae to IAVs has been reported as a result of natural or experimental infections. The objectives of this study were to assess whether free-ranging American mink populations from Northern Spain were infected with IAV and try to define the role of this species in the epidemiology of IAV. Sera from 689 American mink from Northern Spain captured between 2011 and 2014 were tested for the presence of antibodies against IAVs using a commercial competition cELISA. Positive sera were further analysed with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Fifteen of the 689 (2.2%, 1.3-3.6 CI95% ) of the American minks analysed were ELISA positive. No significant differences were observed between years of capture, provinces, river basins, sexes or ages of the animals. All seropositive sera resulted negative to the panel strains used in the HI assay, showing that the most relevant strains circulating in swine, the most relevant avian subtypes (H5 and H7) and the H10N4 subtype isolated in minks have not been circulating in this free-ranging exotic carnivore from Spain. In the light of these results, the free-range American mink from Northern Spain do not seem to have an important role in the epidemiology of IAVs.

  13. Characterization of a Tigger1 element from the genome of the American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Smith, Amanda; Rutherford, Katherine; Benkel, Bernhard

    2012-05-01

    Tigger elements belong to the Tc1/Mariner family of DNA transposons which is remarkably widespread in nature with homologs present in organisms as diverse as fungi, plants and animals. In this report, we present the nucleotide sequence of a defragmented Tigger1 element from the genome of the American mink. The element is 2,274 bp long, carries 13 bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) and contains the vestiges of two open reading frames (ORFs), one of which is similar to the centromere associated protein CENP B. In addition, we estimate that the genome of the American mink contains approximately 1000 Tigger1 elements, but find no evidence for the transcription of extant elements in the mink. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High feeding intensity increases the severity of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison) with potential ameliorating role for long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid body fat mobilization, obesity, and an inadequate supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been suggested to play roles in the etiology of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison). This study examined the effects of feeding intensity and dietary fat source on fatty liver induced by fasting. In a multi-factorial design, 3 different fat sources (herring oil, rich in n-3 PUFA, soya oil, rich in n-6 PUFA, and canola oil, rich in n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids) were fed to mink at a low and high feeding intensity for 10 weeks, followed by an overnight or a 5-day fasting treatment to induce fatty liver. Results Fasting led to the development of fatty liver with increased severity in the mink fed at the high feeding intensity. The herring oil diet, high in long-chain n-3 PUFA, was found to decrease the severity of fatty liver in the mink at the high feeding intensity. Conclusion Preventing excessive weight gain and increasing dietary intake of n-3 long-chain PUFA may help prevent excessive lipid accumulation during prolonged periods of fasting or inappetence by promoting hepatic fatty acid oxidation. PMID:24438337

  15. High feeding intensity increases the severity of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison) with potential ameliorating role for long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Dick, Morag F; Hurford, Jennifer; Lei, Sha; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2014-01-16

    Rapid body fat mobilization, obesity, and an inadequate supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been suggested to play roles in the etiology of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison). This study examined the effects of feeding intensity and dietary fat source on fatty liver induced by fasting. In a multi-factorial design, 3 different fat sources (herring oil, rich in n-3 PUFA, soya oil, rich in n-6 PUFA, and canola oil, rich in n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids) were fed to mink at a low and high feeding intensity for 10 weeks, followed by an overnight or a 5-day fasting treatment to induce fatty liver. Fasting led to the development of fatty liver with increased severity in the mink fed at the high feeding intensity. The herring oil diet, high in long-chain n-3 PUFA, was found to decrease the severity of fatty liver in the mink at the high feeding intensity. Preventing excessive weight gain and increasing dietary intake of n-3 long-chain PUFA may help prevent excessive lipid accumulation during prolonged periods of fasting or inappetence by promoting hepatic fatty acid oxidation.

  16. Albinism in the American mink (Neovison vison) is associated with a tyrosinase nonsense mutation.

    PubMed

    Anistoroaei, R; Fredholm, M; Christensen, K; Leeb, T

    2008-12-01

    Albino phenotypes are documented in various species including the American mink. In other species the albino phenotypes are associated with tyrosinase (TYR) gene mutations; therefore TYR was considered the candidate gene for albinism in mink. Four microsatellite markers were chosen in the predicted region of the TYR gene. Genotypes at the markers Mvi6025 and Mvi6034 were found to be associated with the albino phenotype within an extended half-sib family. A BAC clone containing Mvi6034 was mapped to chromosome 7q1.1-q1.3 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Subsequent analysis of genomic TYR sequences from wild-type and albino mink samples identified a nonsense mutation in exon 1, which converts a TGT codon encoding cysteine to a TGA stop codon (c.138T>A, p.C46X; EU627590). The mutation truncates more than 90% of the normal gene product including the putative catalytic domains. The results indicate that the nonsense mutation is responsible for the albino phenotype in the American mink.

  17. Exclusion of candidate genes for coat colour phenotypes of the American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Anistoroaei, R; Markakis, M N; Vissenberg, K; Christensen, K

    2012-12-01

    In a previous project, we screened the American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library, CHORI-231, for genes potentially involved in various coat colour phenotypes in the American mink. Subsequently, we 454 sequenced the inserts containing these genes and developed microsatellite markers for each of these genes. Here, we describe a lack of association between three different 'roan-type' phenotypes represented by Cross, Stardust and Cinnamon in American mink and six different genes that we considered to be potentially linked to these phenotypes. Thus, c-KIT (HUGO-approved symbol KIT), ATOH-1 (HUGO-approved symbol ATOH1) and POMC were excluded as potential candidates for these three phenotypes. In addition, MITF and SLC24A5 were excluded for Cross and Cinnamon, and KITL (HUGO-approved symbol KITLG) for Cross and Stardust. Although most of these genes have been implicated as the cause of similar phenotypes in other mammals, including horses, pigs, cows, dogs, cats, mice and humans, they do not appear to be responsible for comparable phenotypes found in American mink. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  18. Genetic Variation and Population Structure of American Mink Neovison vison from PCB-Contaminated and Non-Contaminated Locales in Eastern North America

    PubMed Central

    Wirgin, Isaac; Maceda, Lorraine; Waldman, John; Mayack, David T.

    2015-01-01

    American mink Neovison vison may be particularly vulnerable to toxicities of persistent contaminants such as PCBs because of their aquatic-based diet, position near the top of the food web, and small deme sizes. Furthermore, ranched mink are sensitive to reproductive toxicities of fish diets from PCB-polluted sites. The upper Hudson River is highly contaminated with PCBs and previous studies have shown elevated hepatic burdens of total and coplanar PCBs in mink collected near the river compared with those from more distant locales in New York and elsewhere. We hypothesized that bioaccumulation of PCBs in Hudson River mink has reduced their levels of genetic diversity or altered their genetic population structure. To address this, we conducted microsatellite DNA analysis on collections made in proximity to and from more distant locales in the Hudson River watershed, elsewhere in New York State, and at other sites in eastern North America including New Brunswick, four locales in Ontario, multiple drainages in Maine, and two ecoregions in Rhode Island. We did not find reduced genetic diversity at the individual or population levels in mink collected near (< 6 km) to PCB hotspots in the Hudson River nor evidence of altered population structure. Consistent with their distribution in small localized and isolated demes, we did find significant genetic population structure among many mink collections in New York State and elsewhere. Depending on the analytical approach used, genetically distinct populations numbered between 16 when using STRUCTURE to 19-20 when using Exact G tests, FST, or AMOVA analyses. Genetically distinct population units were found among major ecoregions and minor ecoregions in New York State, among different hydrologic subunits within the Hudson River watershed, among spatially separate locales in Ontario, and among most watersheds in Maine. However, despite this localization and potential heightened impact of stressors, genetic diversity and genetic

  19. Role of hepatic de novo lipogenesis in the development of fasting-induced fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Harris, Lora; Dick, Morag; Pal, Catherine; Lei, Sha; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2012-10-28

    American mink (Neovison vison) develop fatty liver quickly in response to food deprivation, which results in preferential mobilisation of n-3 PUFA. The altered n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in the liver may activate the endocannabinoid system resulting in increased lipid synthesis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of feeding intensity (80 or 120% RDA), dietary fat source (n-3, n-6 or n-9 fatty acids (FA)) and short-term fasting (1-7 d) on hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and the development of fatty liver in mink. Significantly elevated expression of mRNA encoding for acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and FA synthase (FAS) was observed in the liver of mink fasted for 5-7 d, while upon re-feeding for 28 d after a 7 d food deprivation, DNL returned to pre-fasting levels. The females had a higher expression of ACC-1 and FAS mRNA than the males. In the non-fasted animals, dietary fat source and feeding intensity had significant effects on ACC-1 mRNA. The highest levels were observed in the mink fed the rapeseed oil (n-9) diet at 80% RDA, while the lowest levels were seen when the same diet was fed at 120% RDA. For FAS, the highest gene expression was seen in the fasted mink fed at 80% RDA and the lowest in the non-fasted mink fed at 80%. It is concluded that short-term food deprivation induces hepatic lipidosis in mink and that during this process, hepatic DNL further exacerbates liver fat accumulation.

  20. Genetic variation and population structure of American mink Neovison vison from PCB-contaminated and non-contaminated locales in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Wirgin, Isaac; Maceda, Lorraine; Waldman, John; Mayack, David T

    2015-11-01

    American mink Neovison vison may be particularly vulnerable to toxicities of persistent contaminants such as PCBs because of their aquatic-based diet, position near the top of the food web, and small deme sizes. Furthermore, ranched mink are sensitive to reproductive toxicities of fish diets from PCB-polluted sites. The upper Hudson River is highly contaminated with PCBs and previous studies have shown elevated hepatic burdens of total and coplanar PCBs in mink collected near the river compared with those from more distant locales in New York and elsewhere. We hypothesized that bioaccumulation of PCBs in Hudson River mink has reduced their levels of genetic diversity or altered their genetic population structure. To address this, we conducted microsatellite DNA analysis on collections made in proximity to and from more distant locales in the Hudson River watershed, elsewhere in New York State, and at other sites in eastern North America including New Brunswick, four locales in Ontario, multiple drainages in Maine, and two ecoregions in Rhode Island. We did not find reduced genetic diversity at the individual or population levels in mink collected near (<6 km) to PCB hotspots in the Hudson River nor evidence of altered population structure. Consistent with their distribution in small localized and isolated demes, we did find significant genetic population structure among many mink collections in New York State and elsewhere. Depending on the analytical approach used, genetically distinct populations numbered between 16 when using STRUCTURE to 19-20 when using Exact G tests, F ST, or AMOVA analyses. Genetically distinct population units were found among major ecoregions and minor ecoregions in New York State, among different hydrologic subunits within the Hudson River watershed, among spatially separate locales in Ontario, and among most watersheds in Maine. However, despite this localization and potential heightened impact of stressors, genetic diversity and genetic

  1. Environmental pollutants and alterations in the reproductive system in wild male mink (Neovison vison) from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Persson, Sara; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-02-01

    The wild American mink, a semi-aquatic top predator, is exposed to high levels of environmental pollutants that may affect its reproductive system. In this study, the reproductive organs from 101 wild male mink collected in Sweden were examined during necropsy. Potential associations between various variables of the reproductive system and fat concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and other organochlorine pesticides and liver concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were investigated using multiple regression models. The anogenital distance was negatively associated (p<0.05) with concentration of p,p'-DDE and some PFAAs (perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and ∑PFAA). Penis length was positively associated with PCB 28, PCB 47/48, PCB 52 and PCB 110 (p<0.05), and some of these congeners were also associated with baculum length and penis weight. In contrast, penile length tended (p<0.1) to be shorter in mink with high concentrations of p,p'-DDE. These data may help to improve the understanding of how environmental pollution affects male reproduction in both wildlife and humans. Overall, the study suggests endocrine disrupting effects in wild mink and identifies potentially important pollutants in the complex mixture of contaminants in the environment. In addition, the results suggest that the variables of the reproductive system of male mink used in this study are good candidates for use as indicators of environmental pollution affecting the mammalian reproductive system. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Identifying QTL and genetic correlations between fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Thirstrup, J P; Anistoroaei, R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Christensen, K; Fredholm, M; Nielsen, V H

    2014-02-01

    Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F2 design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally with American Black short nap mink. In all, 1082 mink encompassing three generations were used for the analyses. The mink were genotyped for 104 microsatellites covering all 14 autosomes. The QTL analyses were performed by least-square regression implemented in gridqtl software. Genetic and phenotypic correlations and heritabilities were estimated using the average information-restricted maximum-likelihood method. Evidence was found for QTL affecting fur quality traits on nine autosomes. QTL were detected for guard hair thickness on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6 and 13; for guard hair length on chromosomes 2, 3 and 6; for wool density on chromosomes 6 and 13; for surface on chromosomes 7, 12 and 13; for quality on chromosomes 6, 7, 11 and 13; and for skin length on chromosomes 7 and 9. Proximity of locations of QTL for guard hair length, guard hair thickness and for wool density and quality suggests that some of the traits are in part under the influence of the same genes. Traits under the influence of QTL at close or identical positions also were traits that were strongly genotypically correlated. Based on the results of correlation analyses, the most important single traits influencing the quality were found to be density of wool, guard hair thickness and appearance of the surface. © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. Abortion and mortality in farm mink (Neovison vison) associated with feed-born Clostridium limosum.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andresen, Lars; Aalbæk, Bent; Damborg, Peter; Weiss, Vilhelm; Christiansen, Mette Line; Selsing, Søren; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2017-05-01

    Disease in mink clinically characterized by abortion and increased mortality among pregnant female mink on 28 Danish farms was observed during April and May 2015. Most of these farms suffered extensive disease problems, including a significant increase in the number of mated females without litters. Pathological, microbiological and molecular biological methods were applied to investigate the cause of disease. Necropsies of animals found dead revealed fragile and partially dissolved (liquefying) uterine tissue, with the presence of Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria. These slow growing bacteria were isolated by anaerobic culturing and identified as Clostridium limosum by both MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All the performed tests for relevant differential diagnoses were negative. Foodborne disease was indicated because all the affected farms were served by the same feed factory. A specific PCR-based analysis was developed for positive identification of C. limosum and used to screen archived feed samples from the implicated feed factory. Both C. limosum 16S rRNA genes and C. limosum collagenase genes were identified in both mixed feed and more specifically in raw chicken carcass used as one of the components in the mixed feed, which was therefore identified as the most likely source of contamination. Based on the results of this investigation it is concluded that C. limosum can be associated with abortion and increased mortality in pregnant mink females and it is consequently recommended that raw materials contaminated with C. limosum should be avoided in mink feed, in particular during the whelping season. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Age-dependent baseline values of faecal cortisol metabolites in the American mink (Neovison vison) under semi-natural housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Rauch, E; Bergmann, S; Hagn, A; Meixensperger, J; Reese, S; Palme, R; Erhard, M H

    2014-06-01

    The welfare of an animal is ensured if it is able to fully satisfy its essential species-typical needs in all functional aspects of behaviour. In mink, stereotypies and apathy, internal and/or external injuries as well as increased susceptibility to disease have been known to occur as a result of chronic stress. The non-invasive method of analysing faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) allows conclusions to be drawn about the stress level in the respective housing system. The objective of this study is to find out how the cortisol metabolites content in the faecal changes with increasing age of the mink under semi-natural housing conditions. Thus, 40 American mink (Neovison vison) were housed in two outdoor enclosures imitating natural conditions. Throughout the entire study (13th to 32nd week of life), faecal samples were collected to measure cortisol metabolites. No differences in FCM concentrations between the two outdoor enclosures were found. In the young mink lower, less fluctuating FCM levels were found than in older animals. After the first faecal collection in the 13th/14th week of life, the level of metabolites decreased slightly (p = 0.032; 17th/18th week). From the 22nd/23rd week onwards until the 30th/31st week, shortly before the animals were pelted, continuously increasing concentrations were then measured. Increasing FCM levels with advancing age of the animals are probably attributable to the onset of sexual maturity and/or the respective season. This has to be taken into account in future studies using this method for assessing welfare and when comparing different mink housing systems.

  5. Enzyme induction and histopathology elucidate aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated versus non-aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated effects of Aroclor 1268 in American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations reported in preferred prey and blubber of bottlenose dolphins from the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (Georgia, USA) suggest the potential for adverse effects. However, PCBs in Turtle-Brunswick River estuary dolphins are primarily derived from Aroclor 1268, and predicting toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 is uncertain because of the mixture's unique composition and associated physiochemical characteristics. These differences suggest that toxicity benchmarks for other PCB mixtures may not be relevant to dolphins exposed to Aroclor 1268. American mink (Neovison vison) were used as a surrogate model for cetaceans to characterize mechanisms of action associated with Aroclor 1268 exposure. Mink share similarities in phylogeny and life history with cetaceans and are characteristically sensitive to PCBs, making them an attractive surrogate species for marine mammals in ecotoxicity studies. Adult female mink and a subsequent F1 generation were exposed to Aroclor 1268 through diet, and effects on enzyme induction, histopathology, thyroid hormone regulation, hematology, organ weights, and body condition index were compared to a negative control and a 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)-positive control. Aroclor 1268 dietary exposure concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g wet weight to 29 µg/g wet weight. Anemia, hypothyroidism, and hepatomegaly were observed in mink exposed to Aroclor 1268 beyond various dietary thresholds. Cytochrome P450 induction and squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions were low in Aroclor 1268 treatments relative to the positive control. Differences in enzyme induction and the development of squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions between Aroclor 1268 treatments and the positive control, coupled with effects observed in Aroclor 1268 treatments not observed in the positive control, indicate that mechanisms additional to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathway are associated with

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Neovison vison (Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Li; Wang, Shao-Jing; Wang, Zhuo; Liu, Han-Lu; Zhong, Wei; Yang, Ya-Han; Li, Guang-Yu

    2016-05-01

    The phylogenetic and taxonomic position of the American mink Neovison vison have long been unclear. In this paper, the complete mitogenome of N. vison was sequenced and characterized. The total length was 16,594 bp and typically consists of 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNA, a large control region (CR) and a light-strand replication origin (OL). Gene contents, locations, and arrangements were identical to those of typical vertebrate. The overall base composition is 33.6%, 25.4%, 27.8% and 13.3% for A, C, T and G, respectively, with a moderate bias on AT content (61.4%). This result is expected to provide useful molecular data and contribute to further taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Mustelidae and Carnivora.

  7. Perfluoroalkyl acids in subarctic wild male mink (Neovison vison) in relation to age, season and geographical area.

    PubMed

    Persson, Sara; Rotander, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Magnusson, Ulf

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of biological and environmental factors on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a top predator; the American mink. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with C8-C13 perfluorinated carbon chains were analyzed in livers from wild male mink liver (n=101) from four areas in Sweden representing two inland environments (rural and highly anthropogenic, respectively) and two different coastal environments. Mean PFOS concentrations were 1250ng/g wet weight and some mink from the urban inland area had among the highest PFOS concentrations ever recorded in mink (up to 21 800ng/g wet weight). PFBS was detected in 89% of the samples, but in low concentrations (mean 0.6ng/g ww). There were significant differences in PFAA concentrations between the geographical areas (p<0.001-0.01). Age, body condition and body weight did not influence the concentrations significantly, but there was a seasonal influence on the concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively), with lower concentrations in autumn samples than in samples taken in the winter and spring. It is thus recommended to take possible seasonal differences into account when using mink exposure data. The overall results suggest that the mink is a suitable sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental levels of PFAAs. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid development of fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis in the American mink (Neovison vison): effects of food deprivation and re-alimentation on body fat depots, tissue fatty acid profiles, hematology and endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Conway, Rebecca; Pal, Catherine; Harris, Lora; Saarela, Seppo; Strandberg, Ursula; Nieminen, Petteri

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is a common pathological finding in the American mink (Neovison vison) and can be caused by nutritional imbalance due to obesity or rapid body weight loss. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the timeline and characterize the development of hepatic lipidosis in mink in response to 0-7 days of food deprivation and liver recovery after 28 days of re-feeding. We report here the effects on hematological and endocrine variables, body fat mobilization, the development of hepatic lipidosis and the alterations in the liver lipid classes and tissue fatty acid (FA) sums. Food deprivation resulted in the rapid mobilization of body fat, most notably visceral, causing elevated hepatosomatic index and increased liver triacylglycerol content. The increased absolute amounts of liver total phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine suggested endoplasmic reticulum stress. The hepatic lipid infiltration and the altered liver lipid profiles were associated with a significantly reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the livers and the decrease was more evident in the females. Likewise, re-feeding of the female mink resulted in a more pronounced recovery of the liver n-3 PUFA. The rapid decrease in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in response to food deprivation could trigger an inflammatory response in the liver. This could be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in mink influencing disease progression.

  9. Food transit time, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in farmed and feral American mink (Neovison vison)--a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Gugołek, A; Zalewski, D; Strychalski, J; Konstantynowicz, M

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether farming leads to changes in gastrointestinal function and nitrogen metabolism in farmed mink (FA), as compared with their wild-living counterparts. Three digestibility and balance trials were carried out. Experiment I was performed in May, and experiments II and III were conducted in September 2011. Farmed mink with the standard coat colour were purchased from a production farm in south-eastern Poland. Feral mink were harvested using cages in the hunting grounds of the Polish Hunting Association, Branch in Olsztyn. The experimental materials comprised of the following: trial I - adult males (eight animals per group), trial II - young females (six animals per group), trial III-young animals (five males and five females per group). Food transit time was measured during digestibility trials, on 10 consecutive days. The coefficients of nutrient and energy digestibility and daily nitrogen balance values were compared between groups in each experiment. It was found that farming contributed to changes in gastrointestinal function and nitrogen metabolism in mink. Farmed animals were characterized by a longer bowel transit time, a tendency towards higher nutrient digestibility and higher nitrogen retention, which resulted from selection for higher productivity.

  10. Population genetic structure in farm and feral American mink (Neovison vison) inferred from RAD sequencing-generated single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Thirstrup, J P; Ruiz-Gonzalez, A; Pujolar, J M; Larsen, P F; Jensen, J; Randi, E; Zalewski, A; Pertoldi, C

    2015-08-01

    Feral American mink populations (), derived from mink farms, are widespread in Europe. In this study we investigated genetic diversity and genetic differentiation between feral and farm mink using a panel of genetic markers (194 SNP) generated from RAD sequencing data. Sampling included a total of 211 individuals from 14 populations, 4 feral and 10 from farms, the latter including a total of 7 color types (Brown, Black, Mahogany, Sapphire, White, Pearl, and Silver). Our study revealed similar low levels of genetic diversity in both farm and feral mink. Results are consistent with small effective population size as a consequence of line selection in the farms and founder effects of a few escapees from the farms in feral populations. Moderately high genetic differentiation was found between farm and feral animals, suggesting a scenario in which wild populations were founded from farm escapes a few decades ago. Currently, escapes and gene flow are probably limited. Genetic differentiation was higher among farm color types than among farms, consistent with line selection using few individuals to create the lines. Finally, no indications of inbreeding were found in either farm or feral samples, with significant negative values found in most farm samples, showing farms are successful in avoiding inbreeding.

  11. Benefits of a ball and chain: simple environmental enrichments improve welfare and reproductive success in farmed American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Meagher, Rebecca K; Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Campbell, Dana L M; Ross, Misha; Møller, Steen H; Hansen, Steffen W; Díez-León, María; Palme, Rupert; Mason, Georgia J

    2014-01-01

    Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains) identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E) with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE) control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: 'late E'). Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male), and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites). E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness ('late E' females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm), effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type ('Demis'), similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a.) and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets) often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical enrichments.

  12. Benefits of a Ball and Chain: Simple Environmental Enrichments Improve Welfare and Reproductive Success in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison)

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Campbell, Dana L. M.; Ross, Misha; Møller, Steen H.; Hansen, Steffen W.; Díez-León, María; Palme, Rupert; Mason, Georgia J.

    2014-01-01

    Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains) identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E) with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE) control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: ‘late E’). Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male), and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites). E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness (‘late E’ females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm), effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type (‘Demis’), similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a.) and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets) often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical

  13. Genetic parameters for fur quality graded on live animals and dried pelts of American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Thirstrup, J P; Jensen, J; Lund, M S

    2017-08-01

    Fur quality and skin size are integral qualities in the mink industry and are main determinants of sales price and subsequent income for mink fur producers. Parental animals of future generations are selected based on quality grading from live animals, but selection response is obtained from dried skins sold after pelting. In this study, we evaluated traits assessed during live grading and pelt traits examined on dried skins to determine correlation between live and pelt traits. Grading traits and body weight were measured during live animal grading for 9,539 Brown American mink, and pelt quality traits and skin size were evaluated on 8,385 dried mink skins after pelting. Data were sampled from 2 yearly production cycles. Genetic parameters were estimated using the REML method implemented in the DMU package. Heritabilities and proportions of litter variance were calculated from estimated variance components for all traits, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between all traits were estimated in a series of bivariate analyses. Heritability estimates for live grading traits ranged from 0.06 to 0.28, heritability estimates for pelt quality traits ranged from 0.20 to 0.30, and finally heritability estimates for body size traits ranged from 0.43 to 0.48. Skin size and body weight were regarded as different traits for the two sexes and were therefore analysed for each sex separately. Genetic correlations between grading traits exhibited a range of 0.30-0.99 and genetic correlations between pelt quality traits ranged from 0.38 to 0.86. Genetic correlations between quality, wool density and silky appearance evaluated during live animal grading and on dried skin after pelting were 0.74, 0.41 and 0.33, respectively. Skin size and body weight were negatively correlated with pelt quality traits and ranged from -0.55 to -0.25. Using standard selection index theory and combined information from both live grading and skin evaluation increase of reliability of selection

  14. Estradiol stimulates glycogen synthesis whereas progesterone promotes glycogen catabolism in the uterus of the American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Bowman, Kole; Rose, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Glycogen synthesis by mink uterine glandular and luminal epithelia (GE and LE) is stimulated by estradiol (E2 ) during estrus. Subsequently, the glycogen deposits are mobilized to near completion to meet the energy requirements of pre-embryonic development and implantation by as yet undetermined mechanisms. We hypothesized that progesterone (P4 ) was responsible for catabolism of uterine glycogen reserves as one of its actions to ensure reproductive success. Mink were treated with E2 , P4 or vehicle (controls) for 3 days and uteri collected 24 h (E2 , P4 and vehicle) and 96 h (E2 ) later. To evaluate E2 priming, mink were treated with E2 for 3 days, then P4 for an additional 3 days (E2 →P4 ) and uteri collected 24 h later. Percent glycogen content of uterine epithelia was greater at E2 + 96 h (GE = 5.71 ± 0.55; LE = 11.54 ± 2.32) than E2 +24 h (GE = 3.63 ± 0.71; LE = 2.82 ± 1.03), and both were higher than controls (GE = 0.27 ± 0.15; LE = 0.54 ± 0.30; P < 0.05). Treatment as E2 →P4 reduced glycogen content (GE = 0.61 ± 0.16; LE = 0.51 ± 0.13), to levels not different from controls, while concomitantly increasing catabolic enzyme (glycogen phosphorylase m and glucose-6-phosphatase) gene expression and amount of phospho-glycogen synthase protein (inactive) in uterine homogenates. Interestingly, E2 →P4 increased glycogen synthase 1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and hexokinase 1mRNA and protein. Our findings suggest to us that while E2 promotes glycogen accumulation by the mink uterus during estrus and pregnancy, it is P4 that induces uterine glycogen catabolism, releasing the glucose that is essential to support pre-embryonic survival and implantation.

  15. Conception rates in farm mink (Neovison vison) in relation to first mating date, age and color variety.

    PubMed

    Felska-Błaszczyk, Lidia; Lasota, Bogdan; Seremak, Beata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of the first mating date, age and color variety on the conception rates in farm mink. We analyzed female mink reproductive performance in 492 Sapphire and 463 Standard Black females over 3 or 4 years. The analysis included the number of inefficient matings, the interval between the first inefficient mating and the efficient mating (copulation) and the conception rates. The results show a significant effect of female's age and color variety on the conception rates. The youngest, yearling females of either color needed a higher number of matings per conception, as compared to older, 2- and 3-year-old females. Black females demonstrated a higher number of inefficient matings (1.066), as compared with Sapphires (0.730). Yearling females were most often mated from 1 to 10 March, and older females from 11 to 20 March. Older females achieved better conception rates than the yearlings. Dates between 11 and 25 March proved to be the optimum for the first mating, since the highest conception rates were observed if the females had mated during this period. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Serology and protein electrophoresis for evidence of exposure to 12 mink pathogens in free-ranging American mink (Neovison vison) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martino, Pablo Eduardo; Samartino, Luis Ernesto; Stanchi, Néstor Oscar; Radman, Nilda Esther; Parrado, Eduardo Joaquín

    2017-12-01

    Basic pathologic characteristics for farmed minks were previously reported worldwide. However, its status in the wild has not been studied in detail. Serology and electrophoresis were carried out for evidence of exposure to 12 mink pathogens on two different locations. Serology was done in 87 wild minks by reference techniques against Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Neospora caninum, Brucella abortus, Mycobacterium bovis, Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV), canine parvovirus (CPV), rabies virus (RV), Influenza A virus (FLUAV) and Aleutian disease virus (ADV). Hypergammaglobulinemia, the ADV main clinical feature, was determined by conventional electrophoresis. Seventy-one percent of the 87 sera had antibodies against one or more pathogens. ADV accounted for the highest seroprevalence (29%), followed by T. gondii (26%), L. interrogans (14%), M. bovis (12%), B. abortus (9%), N. caninum (3%), CPV (3%) and CDV (2%). Seroprevalence was influenced by location but not sex or age. Additionally, 16% of the seropositive samples for ADV had gammaglobulin levels >40.0 g/L. Antibody titers for CDV and CPV were low and difficult to interpret as almost all these cases had borderline concentrations. A cautious interpretation of the results is urged as the epidemiological role of the wild mink is largely unexplored for most of these agents. Nevertheless, the information may be clinically relevant..

  17. Foetal life protein restriction in male mink (Neovison vison) kits lowers post-weaning protein oxidation and the relative abundance of hepatic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA.

    PubMed

    Matthiesen, C F; Blache, D; Thomsen, P D; Tauson, A-H

    2012-01-01

    Foetal life malnutrition has been studied intensively in a number of animal models. Results show that especially foetal life protein malnutrition can lead to metabolic changes later in life. This might be of particular importance for strict carnivores, for example, cat and mink (Neovison vison) because of their higher protein requirement than in other domestic mammals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of low protein provision during foetal life to male mink kits on their protein metabolism during the early post-weaning period of rapid growth and to investigate whether foetal life protein deficiency affects the response to adequate or deficient protein provision post weaning. Further, we intended to study whether the changes in the gene expression of key enzymes in foetal hepatic tissue caused by maternal protein deficiency were manifested post-weaning. A total of 32 male mink kits born to mothers fed either a low-protein diet (LP), that is, 14% of metabolizable energy (ME) from protein (foetal low - FL), n = 16, or an adequate-protein (AP) diet, that is, 29% of ME from protein (foetal adequate - FA), n = 16) in the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of pregnancy were used. The FL offspring had lower birth weight and lower relative abundance of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2ase) and pyruvate kinase mRNA in foetal hepatic tissue than FA kits. The mothers were fed a diet containing adequate protein until weaning. At weaning (7 weeks of age), half of the kits from each foetal treatment group were fed an AP diet (32% of ME from protein; n = 8 FA and 8 FL) and the other half were fed a LP diet (18% of ME from protein; n = 8 FA and 8 FL) until 9.5 weeks of age, yielding four treatment groups (i.e. FA-AP, FA-LP, FL-AP and FL-LP). Low protein provision in foetal life lowered the protein oxidation post-weaning compared with the controls (P = 0.006), indicating metabolic flexibility and a better ability to conserve protein. This could not, however, be supported by

  18. Low protein provision during the first year of life, but not during foetal life, affects metabolic traits, organ mass development and growth in male mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Vesterdorf, K; Blache, D; Harrison, A; Matthiesen, C F; Tauson, A-H

    2014-04-01

    Low protein provision in utero and post-partum may induce metabolic disorders in adulthood. Studies in mink have mainly focused on short-term consequences of low protein provision in utero whereas the long-term responses to low protein (LP) provision in metabolically programmed mink are unknown. We investigated whether low protein provision in utero affects the long-term response to adequate (AP) or LP provision after weaning in male mink. Eighty-six male mink were exposed to low (19% of ME from CP; crude protein) or adequate (31% of ME from CP) protein provision in utero, and to LP (~20% of ME from CP) or AP (30-42% of ME from CP) provision post-weaning. Being metabolically programmed by low protein provision in utero did not affect the response to post-weaning diets. Dietary protein content in the LP feed after weaning was below requirements; evidenced by lower nitrogen retention (p < 0.001) preventing LP mink from attaining their growth potential (p < 0.02). LP mink had a lower liver, pancreas and kidney weight (p < 0.05) as well as lower plasma IGF-1 concentrations at 8 and 25 (p < 0.05) weeks, and a higher incidence of hepatic lipidosis at 25 weeks (p < 0.05). Furthermore, LP mink had a higher body fat (p < 0.05) and lower body CP content (p < 0.05) at 50 weeks of age. It is concluded that some effects of low protein provision in utero can be alleviated by an adequate nutrient supply post-partum. However, long-term exposure to low protein provision in mink reduces their growth potential and induces transient hepatic lipidosis and modified body composition.

  19. Estimation of indirect genetic effects in group-housed mink (Neovison vison) should account for systematic interactions either due to kin or sex.

    PubMed

    Alemu, S W; Berg, P; Janss, L; Bijma, P

    2016-02-01

    Social interactions among individuals are abundant, both in wild and in domestic populations. With social interactions, the genes of an individual may affect the trait values of other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models. Most IGE models assume that individuals interact equally to all group mates irrespective of relatedness. Kin selection theory, however, predicts that an individual will interact differently with family members versus non-family members. Here, we investigate kin- and sex-specific non-genetic social interactions in group-housed mink. Furthermore, we investigated whether systematic non-genetic interactions between kin or individuals of the same sex influence the estimates of genetic parameters. As a second objective, we clarify the relationship between estimates of the traditional IGE model and a family-based IGE model proposed in a previous study. Our results indicate that male siblings in mink show different non-genetic interactions than female siblings in mink and that this may impact the estimation of genetic parameters. Moreover, we have shown how estimates from a family-based IGE model can be translated to the ordinary direct-indirect model and vice versa. We find no evidence for genetic differences in interactions among related versus unrelated mink. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-12-01

    Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterised as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum feeding. Blood samples were collected three times during the experimental period; during restrictive feeding, and four days and three weeks after the change to ad libitum feeding. Plasma samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry non-targeted metabolomics. Subjecting data to principal component analysis showed that there was no grouping of the data according to the residual feed intake. In contrast, data were clearly grouped according to feeding level. Identification of the metabolites responsible for this grouping showed that the plasma level of metabolites related to mobilisation of energy was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterised as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species was highest after four days of ad libitum feeding suggesting a short term imbalance in the transport or metabolism of these metabolites when changing the feeding level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of environmental enrichment and stereotypic behavior on maternal behavior and infant viability in a model carnivore, the American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Díez-León, María; Mason, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    In several species, stress compromises maternal behaviors that are important for infant viability (e.g. licking and grooming). Understanding how stress in captivity affects maternal behavior could therefore be beneficial, especially for carnivores in zoos and breeding centers where infant mortality is often high. We used a model carnivore--American mink--to test two hypotheses, namely that maternal investment and/or behavior is i. improved by environmental enrichment; and ii. compromised by stereotypic behavior. We observed 22 females raised in an indoor facility, 9 enriched, 13 non-enriched. At birth, and at post-natal day 20 when altricial infants were still fully dependent on their mothers, the following offspring variables were recorded: litter size, infant mortality, litter sex ratio (post-natal day 1), and weight. Maternal behavior was assessed by recording nest shape (post-natal day 1), and the frequency of licking and grooming (post-natal days 1-7). Non-enriched females stereotyped more, had female-skewed litters at birth, and tended to make poorer, flatter nests. Maternal licking and grooming showed large, stable individual differences, but appeared unaffected by enrichment. High levels of maternal stereotypic behavior predicted slower offspring growth, replicating previous findings for farmed mink. Nevertheless, enrichment did not significantly increase infant growth rates nor decrease infant mortality. Due to small sample sizes, our study now needs replicating, particularly to explore the potential benefits of enrichment on nest building, sex ratio effects, and the implications of maternal licking and grooming for offspring stress reactivity. Findings could then apply to endangered mustelids like the European mink.

  2. Observations on Hippocampal Mossy Cells in Mink (Neovison vison) with Special Reference to Dendrites Ascending to the Granular and Molecular Layers

    PubMed Central

    Blackstad, Jan Sigurd; Osen, Kirsten K.; Scharfman, Helen E.; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Blackstad, Theodor W.; Leergaard, Trygve B.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed knowledge about the neural circuitry connecting the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex is necessary to understand how this system contributes to spatial navigation and episodic memory. The two principal cell types of the dentate gyrus, mossy cells and granule cells, are interconnected in a positive feedback loop, by which mossy cells can influence information passing from the entorhinal cortex via granule cells to hippocampal pyramidal cells. Mossy cells, like CA3 pyramidal cells, are characterized by thorny excrescences on their proximal dendrites, postsynaptic to giant terminals of granule cell axons. In addition to disynaptic input from the entorhinal cortex and perforant path via granule cells, mossy cells may also receive monosynaptic input from the perforant path via special dendrites ascending to the molecular layer. We here report qualitative and quantitative descriptions of Golgi-stained hippocampal mossy cells in mink, based on light microscopic observations and three-dimensional reconstructions. The main focus is on the location, branching pattern, and length of dendrites, particularly those ascending to the granular and molecular layers. In mink, the latter dendrites are more numerous than in rat, but fewer than in primates. They form on average 12% (and up to 29%) of the total dendritic length, and appear to cover the terminal fields of both the lateral and medial perforant paths. In further contrast to rat, the main mossy cell dendrites in mink branch more extensively with distal dendrites encroaching upon the CA3 field. The dendritic arbors extend both along and across the septotemporal axis of the dentate gyrus, not conforming to the lamellar pattern of the hippocampus. The findings suggest that the afferent input to the mossy cells becomes more complex in species closer to primates. PMID:26286893

  3. The gastrointestinal tract of farmed mink (Neovison vison) maintains a diverse mucosa-associated microbiota following a 3-day fasting period.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Martin I; Hammer, Anne S; Clausen, Tove; Jakobsen, Anabelle; Skov, Søren; Andresen, Lars

    2017-01-16

    Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short length and fast transit time, as compared to omnivores and herbivores, which is due to the low level of inherent fermentation. Mink represents an example of this, which have a GI tract only four times the length of the body and a transit time of approximately 4-5 hr. In this study, we used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the resident gut microbiota of the mink in terms of intra-and interindividual diversity. We report, for the first time, that the mucosa-associated bacterial community within the colon is diverse and dissimilar from the community found in the feed. We found large interindividual differences in bacterial composition between individual animals being dominated generally by the phylum Firmicutes, but in some cases also Proteobacteria or Fusobacteria. The bacterial load and community structure within the mucus was not severely impacted by 3 days of fasting, which implies that a resident and stable microbiota is hosted by these animals.

  4. Foetal life protein provision of mink (Neovison vison) changes the relative mRNA abundance of some hepatic enzymes regulating fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Matthiesen, Connie Frank; Casañas, Maria Arantzazu Aguinaga; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2014-01-01

    The nutrient provision to pregnant females has high impact on the growth and metabolism of their offspring. The objective was to investigate if the expression of hepatic enzymes regulating the fat metabolism was affected in foetuses and adult female mink born by dams fed either a low or an adequate level of protein during late gestation. The relative abundances of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1) mRNA were determined by qualitative polymerase chain reaction in the livers of F₀- and F₁-generation dams and in F₁-generation foetuses. Low protein provision during foetal life resulted in a lower expression of FAS in foetal liver but a tendency towards increased expression in the liver of adult dams. There was a tendency towards an effect of life stage of the animal on the expression of ACC resulting in a higher expression among F₁ foetuses exposed to low protein during foetal life than F₀ dams fed a low protein diet during late gestation. The expression of CPT1 was significantly lower among dams exposed to low protein provision during foetal life than controls, possibly indicating a lower rate of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Further investigations are needed to clarify the consequences of these changes for the fat metabolism.

  5. [Population aspects of sexual dimorphism in guild of the Mustelidae: Mustela lutreola, Neovison vison, Mustela putorius, Martes martes as an example].

    PubMed

    Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2013-01-01

    Size sexual dimorphism was investigated on 695 skulls of four Mustelidae species. By extent of increasing of differences between sexes the species are placed in following order: European pine marten (Martes martes), European mink (Mustela lutreola), American mink (Neovison vison), and European polecat (Mustela putorius). Extent of the dimorphism characterizes ecological plasticity of the species and is population characteristic. It is shown that M. martes takes specific and relatively narrow ecological niche of forest ecosystems, entering into weak competitive relationships with smaller Mustelidae species. The level of sexual dimorphism of M. lutreola, N. vison and M. putorius reflects intensity of its interspecific relationships within study area. High level of sexual dimorphism of M. putorius is determined by further divergence of ecological niches of males and females, and also appears to be compensatory mechanism reducing consequences of hardened environmental requirements.

  6. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Tracy, Shawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  7. Mustela or Vison? Evidence for the taxonomic status of the American mink and a distinct biogeographic radiation of American weasels.

    PubMed

    Harding, Larisa E; Smith, Felisa A

    2009-09-01

    The American mink's relationship to the weasels in Mustela has been uncertain. Karyological, morphological, and phylogenetic comparisons to Eurasian Mustela support placing the mink outside the genus as Neovison vison. However, genetic comparisons that incorporate other endemic American Mustela suggest the interpretation of N. vison's position to Mustela has been handicapped by biased geographic sampling. Here, we analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome-b from all weasels endemic to the Americas, including two poorly known South American species (M. felipei, M. africana), weasels native to North America (M. vison, M. frenata, M. nigripes), Mustela migrant to North America (M. erminea, M. nivalis), palearctic Mustela, and other American members of Mustelidae. Bayesian and likelihood inference methods were used to construct a phylogeny of Mustela, and relaxed Bayesian phylogenetic techniques estimated ages of divergence within the genus using priors calibrated by fossil ages. Our analyses show that the American mink and the smaller Mustela endemic to the Americas represent a distinct phylogenetic heritage apart from their Eurasian cousins, and biogeographic barriers like the Bering and Panamanian land bridges have influenced the evolutionary history of Mustela in the Americas.

  8. Canine distemper epizootic in Everglades mink.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, M W; Shindle, D B; Allison, A B; Terrell, S P; Mead, D G; Owen, M

    2009-10-01

    Four free-ranging mink, Neovison vison, collected between June and September 2004 in the Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park (FSPSP, Florida, USA), were examined for canine distemper virus (CDV) infection. Microscopic lesions and viral inclusions consistent with CDV infection were observed in three mink. Virus isolation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on all mink were positive for CDV. Anecdotal records of mink observations in FSPSP suggest a postepizootic decline in the mink population followed by an apparent recovery. We recommend further research to assess the status of the Everglades mink and the impact of CDV on this and other American mink populations in Florida.

  9. Selective predation by mink, Mustela vison, on waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Swanson, G.A.; Doty, H.A.

    1973-01-01

    Predation by mink (Mustela vison) on three types of ducks (captive, pen-reared-released and wild) was documented in two studies at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota. In the first study, 36 of 60 flightless adult and juvenile ducks held on eight 0.1-acre experimental ponds disappeared between 10 July and 4 August 1969. Available evidence indicated that all were killed by a large adult mink. The mink selected recently released incubator-hatched ducklings, females in the process of incubating, and adults and juveniles on a marginal food supply.In the second study, 152 wood duck ducklings (Aix sponsa) were released on a 76-acre marsh during 1971. Half of the ducklings, when 24 to 27 days old, were placed at weekly intervals in four floating pens and allowed to escape after 4 days. Each time birds were placed in the floating pens, a comparable group was placed in a predator-proof shoreline pen. Birds in the shoreline pen escaped as they learned to fly when approximately 60 days old. The shoreline of the marsh was periodically searched, and the remains of 21 (28%) of the floating-pen birds were identified in food remains found at 16 mink dens. No remains of birds from the shoreline pen were found at the dens. Coots (Fulica americana) were also taken commonly. Wild ducklings appeared to have been almost totally consumed, but the legs and feet of the wood ducks were often left uneaten because of bands and tags.

  10. First report of Cryptosporidium parvum 'ferret' genotype in American mink (Mustela vison Shreber 1777).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Couso, H; Méndez-Hermida, F; Ares-Mazás, E

    2007-03-01

    A total of 51 faecal samples from wild and farmed mink were analysed by a direct immunofluorescence antibody test. Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified in eight, apparently healthy, farmed American mink (Mustela vison). The isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium parvum 'ferret' genotype by PCR-RFLP and sequencing analysis of a 341-base-pair fragment of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium in American mink.

  11. The development of homeothermy in mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Harjunpää, Sanna; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2004-02-01

    In mink (Mustela vison) kits newborn mortality is very high. One of the major causes of death is hypothermia. The objectives of this study were to observe the development of thermoregulation in mink kits, and their ability to maintain their body temperature during the postnatal period (1-50 days of age). Based on the kit's body weight (BW), and rectal and ambient temperature measurements during cold (+4 degrees C) and warm (+40 degrees C) exposures, a homeothermy index (HI) and cooling and warming rates were calculated. No significant differences in the body temperatures were found between the kits and the dam after 36 days of age. The kits were able to maintain homeothermy by 22 days of age (HI 90%). The body cooling rate was 0.88+/-0.04 degrees C min(-1) on day 1 but only 0.35+/-0.03 degrees C min(-1) at 22 days of age. The body WR was lower: day 1, 0.85+/-0.04 degrees C min(-1) and 0.22+/-0.03 degrees C min(-1) at 22 days of age. All measured and calculated thermophysiological variables were significantly influenced by BW and age of the kit.

  12. Spatial and temporal differences in giant kidney worm, dictophyma renale, prevalence in Minnesota Mink, Mustela vison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii in feral american minks at the Maullin river, Chile

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    American mink (Neovison vison) is a widely distributed invasive species in southern Chile. Thirty four feral minks were trapped at two distinct sites (rural and peri-urban), diet analyzed, and Toxoplasma gondii exposure compared using PCR and specific antibodies. Serum samples were evaluated using a...

  14. Incidence of mink, Mustela vison, and river otter, Lutra canadensis, in a highly urbanized area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2003-01-01

    Mink (Musela vison ) frequently inhabited or traversed a residential, business, and industrial part of the Twin Cities, Minnesota, with little water or natural vegetation. At least one River Otter (Lutra canadensis ) also resided on a small pond on a golf course in the area for several winter months.

  15. Incidence of Mink, Mustela vison, and River Otter, Lutra canadensis, in a Highly Urbanized Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Mink (Mustela vison) frequently inhabited or traversed a residential, business, and industrial part of the Twin Cities, Minnesota, with little water or natural vegetation. At least one River Otter (Lutra canadensis) also resided on a small pond on a golf course in the area for several winter months.

  16. Mink Farms Predict Aleutian Disease Exposure in Wild American Mink

    PubMed Central

    Nituch, Larissa A.; Bowman, Jeff; Beauclerc, Kaela B.; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases can often be of conservation importance for wildlife. Spillover, when infectious disease is transmitted from a reservoir population to sympatric wildlife, is a particular threat. American mink (Neovison vison) populations across Canada appear to be declining, but factors thus far explored have not fully explained this population trend. Recent research has shown, however, that domestic mink are escaping from mink farms and hybridizing with wild mink. Domestic mink may also be spreading Aleutian disease (AD), a highly pathogenic parvovirus prevalent in mink farms, to wild mink populations. AD could reduce fitness in wild mink by reducing both the productivity of adult females and survivorship of juveniles and adults. Methods To assess the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of AD infection in free-ranging mink in relation to the presence of mink farms, we conducted both a large-scale serological survey, across the province of Ontario, and a smaller-scale survey, at the interface between a mink farm and wild mink. Conclusions/Significance Antibodies to AD were detected in 29% of mink (60 of 208 mink sampled); however, seroprevalence was significantly higher in areas closer to mink farms than in areas farther from farms, at both large and small spatial scales. Our results indicate that mink farms act as sources of AD transmission to the wild. As such, it is likely that wild mink across North America may be experiencing increased exposure to AD, via disease transmission from mink farms, which may be affecting wild mink demographics across their range. In light of declining mink populations, high AD seroprevalence within some mink farms, and the large number of mink farms situated across North America, improved biosecurity measures on farms are warranted to prevent continued disease transmission at the interface between mink farms and wild mink populations. PMID:21789177

  17. Mink farms predict Aleutian disease exposure in wild American mink.

    PubMed

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Beauclerc, Kaela B; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases can often be of conservation importance for wildlife. Spillover, when infectious disease is transmitted from a reservoir population to sympatric wildlife, is a particular threat. American mink (Neovison vison) populations across Canada appear to be declining, but factors thus far explored have not fully explained this population trend. Recent research has shown, however, that domestic mink are escaping from mink farms and hybridizing with wild mink. Domestic mink may also be spreading Aleutian disease (AD), a highly pathogenic parvovirus prevalent in mink farms, to wild mink populations. AD could reduce fitness in wild mink by reducing both the productivity of adult females and survivorship of juveniles and adults. To assess the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of AD infection in free-ranging mink in relation to the presence of mink farms, we conducted both a large-scale serological survey, across the province of Ontario, and a smaller-scale survey, at the interface between a mink farm and wild mink. Antibodies to AD were detected in 29% of mink (60 of 208 mink sampled); however, seroprevalence was significantly higher in areas closer to mink farms than in areas farther from farms, at both large and small spatial scales. Our results indicate that mink farms act as sources of AD transmission to the wild. As such, it is likely that wild mink across North America may be experiencing increased exposure to AD, via disease transmission from mink farms, which may be affecting wild mink demographics across their range. In light of declining mink populations, high AD seroprevalence within some mink farms, and the large number of mink farms situated across North America, improved biosecurity measures on farms are warranted to prevent continued disease transmission at the interface between mink farms and wild mink populations.

  18. The first linkage map of the American mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Anistoroaei, R; Menzorov, A; Serov, O; Farid, A; Christensen, K

    2007-08-01

    Described herein, the first microsatellite linkage map for the American mink consists of 85 microsatellite markers resolved into 17 linkage groups. The map was constructed using 92 F(1) progeny from five sire families created by crossing mink with different colour types. The linkage groups ranged from 0 to 137 cM. These linkage groups were assigned to 12 of the 14 mink autosomes using a somatic cell hybrid panel. The total map covered 690 sex-averaged Kosambi units with an average marker spacing of 8 cM. This map will facilitate further genetic mapping of monogenic characters and QTL.

  19. Immunocytological analysis of meiotic recombination in the American mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Borodin, P M; Basheva, E A; Zhelezova, A I

    2009-04-01

    Using immunolocalization of MLH1, a mismatch repair protein that marks crossover sites along synaptonemal complexes, we estimated the total length of the genetic map, the recombination rate and crossover distribution in the American mink (Mustela vison). We prepared spreads from 130 spermatocytes of five male minks and mapped 3320 MLH1 foci along 1820 bivalents. The total recombination length of the male mink genome, based on the mean number of MLH1 foci for all chromosomes, was 1327 cM. The overall recombination rate was estimated to be 0.48 cM/Mb. In all bivalents, we observed prominent peaks of MLH1 foci near the distal ends and a paucity of them near the centromeres. This indicates that genes located at proximal regions of the chromosomes should display much tighter genetic linkage than physically equidistant markers located near the telomeres.

  20. Dermatophytosis in farmed mink (Mustela vison) caused by Trichophyton equinum.

    PubMed

    Overy, David P; Marron-Lopez, Fany; Muckle, Anne; Bourque, Andrea; Lund, Lorraine; MacHattie, David; Lopez, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    This report details 2 outbreaks of dermatophytosis in 2 different mink ranches. On the first farm, only kits were affected, while on the second farm, small numbers of adults were infected. Affected mink were otherwise clinically healthy and in good body condition. Three animals were euthanized and submitted for autopsy. Grossly, mink exhibited locally extensive to coalescing areas of crusting alopecia but no other significant gross lesions in internal organs. Microscopically, skin lesions were characterized by chronic hyperplastic dermatitis with folliculitis, furunculosis, occasional intracorneal pustules, and large numbers of intrafollicular fungal arthrospores and hyphae. The dermatophyte was cultured and identified as Trichophyton equinum based on molecular barcoding of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA gene. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Assessing effects of PCB exposure on American mink (Mustela vison) abundance in Portland Harbor.

    PubMed

    Luxon, Matt; Toll, John; Hanson, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an integrated analysis using a Monte Carlo exposure model, dose–response effects model and habitat,and population dynamics models, all of which allow us to quantitatively estimate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)exposure on American mink (Mustela vison) abundance at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site (Site), and the associated uncertainties. The Site extends from river mile 1.9 of the Lower Willamette River, near its confluence with the Columbia River, to river mile 11.8, just downstream of downtown Portland, Oregon. The potential effects of PCBs on the American mink population were evaluated in the Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment (BERA) due to the historical presence of mink in the are a and because mink are known to be highly sensitive to the effects of PCBs. Hazard quotients (HQs) calculated in the BERA indicated that PCB concentrations measured in Portland Harbor fish were above levels known to cause reproductive effects in mink. Further analysis was needed to evaluate the potential magnitude of effects on the Site mink population. The integrated analysis presented herein demonstrates that if an effect of PCB exposure is a less than 30% reduction in kit production, then PCB remediation is not expected to have any effect on mink abundance. This is a Site‐specific conclusion that depends on the quality, abundance, and distribution of mink habitat in Portland Harbor. The PCB dose associated with a 30% reduction in kit production was calculated as 101 mg/kg bw/d (90% CI ¼ 69–146 mg/kg bw/d). The mink PCB dose estimates from the Portland Harbor BERA indicate that if mink are present, their baseline exposure levels probably exceed 101 mg/kg bw/d. Therefore, some level of reduction in PCB exposure could be beneficial to the species if the study area provides sufficient habitat to support a mink population. This analysis demonstrates that risk analysis for population‐level assessment endpoints benefits from analyses

  2. Hyperthermia and increased physical activity in the fasting American mink Mustela Vison.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Pyykönen, Teija; Aho, Jari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the thermoregulatory adaptations to fasting in a medium-sized mustelid with a high metabolic rate and energetic requirements. Sixteen farm-bred female American minks, Mustela vison, were divided into a fed control group and an experimental group fasted for 5 days. The deep body temperature (T(b)) of the minks was registered at 10 min intervals with intraabdominal thermosensitive loggers and the locomotor activity was videotaped continuously for 5 days during the fasting procedure. The T(b) of the fasted animals increased during the first day of fasting and decreased during the second day. After 3-4 days of fasting, the levels of physical activity and T(b) of the fasted minks increased above the levels of the fed animals. Significant increases in these parameters were observed at the beginning of the working day on the farm, during the feeding of the fed animals and around midnight. It is concluded that the mink differs from previously studied homeotherms in thermoregulatory and behavioral responses to fasting probably due to its high energy requirements and predatory success. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Biliary parasite Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opistorchiidae) in American mink (Mustela vison) and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Conall J; Caffrey, Joe M; Stuart, Peter; Lawton, Colin

    2010-09-01

    Native Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and introduced American mink (Mustela vison) carcasses collected throughout Ireland were screened for biliary parasites. Secondary intermediate hosts, Cyprinid fish, were also examined for Opistorchiid metacercariae. Twenty-nine mink and 24 otter gall bladders were screened for biliary parasites. A single mink and three otters were found to be infected with the digenetic trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum. Eighty-nine percent of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the River Shannon were infected with P. truncatum metacercariae, confirming the persistence of the parasite. This is the first record of the species in Ireland, and its recent introduction is probably related to the movement and release of Cyprinid fishes by anglers.

  4. Phytoestrogens alter the reproductive organ development in the mink (Mustela vison)

    SciTech Connect

    Ryoekkynen, Ari . E-mail: ryokkyne@cc.joensuu.fi; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Pyykoenen, Teija; Asikainen, Juha; Haenninen, Sari; Mononen, Jaakko; Kukkonen, Jussi V.K.

    2005-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reproductive effects of two perorally applied phytoestrogens, genistein (8 mg/kg/day) and {beta}-sitosterol (50 mg/kg/day), on the mink (Mustela vison) at human dietary exposure levels. Parental generations were exposed over 9 months to these phytoestrogens and their offspring were exposed via gestation and lactation. Parents and their offspring were sampled 21 days after the birth of the kits. Sex hormone levels, sperm quality, organ weights, and development of the kits were examined. The exposed females were heavier than the control females at the 1st postnatal day (PND). The control kits were heavier than the exposed kits from the 1st to the 21st PND. Phytoestrogens did not affect the organ weights of the adult minks, but the relative testicular weight of the exposed kits was higher than in the control kits. The relative prostate weight was higher and the relative uterine weight lower in the {beta}-sitosterol-exposed kits than in the control kits. Moreover, the plasma dihydrotestosterone levels were lower in the genistein-exposed male kits compared to the control male kits. This study could not explain the mechanisms behind these alterations. The results indicate that perinatal phytoestrogen exposures cause alterations in the weight of the reproductive organs of the mink kits.

  5. Chronic oral exposure to bunker C fuel oil causes adrenal insufficiency in ranch mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Mohr, F C; Lasley, B; Bursian, S

    2008-02-01

    Animals living in the near-shore marine environment are predisposed to contact with chemical contaminants through land- and ocean-based activities. The release of petroleum hydrocarbons into the marine environment is a stressor to this environment and its resident wildlife. The stress response to chemical threats is dependent on an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which also may be a target to the effects of these chemicals. Ranch mink (Mustela vison) were used as surrogates for sea otters (Enhydra lutris) to examine the development of adrenal hypertrophy after chronic, oral exposure to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil. Animals were fed three different concentrations of fuel oil (48, 520, and 908 ppm) or mineral oil (control) for 60-62 days. At the end of the exposure, blood and fecal samples were collected and organs were weighed and examined microscopically. In all fuel oil groups, exposure resulted in adrenal hypertrophy, an adaptation suggestive of adrenal activation. However, concentrations of serum and fecal glucocorticoids and serum progesterone were not elevated over control values. Hematologic parameters and serum chemistries showed no changes consistent with increased adrenal activity. In addition, adrenal glands from animals fed the higher concentrations of fuel oil contained large numbers of heavily vacuolated cells. We conclude that petroleum hydrocarbons are inducing an adrenal insufficiency that leads to the adaptive enlargement of the gland. This would increase the susceptibility of fuel oil-exposed animals to the deleterious effects of other environmental stressors.

  6. Nursing sickness in lactating mink (Mustela vison). I. Epidemiological and pathological observations.

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, T N; Olesen, C R; Hansen, O; Wamberg, S

    1992-01-01

    In a retrospective survey, the epidemiological characteristics of nursing sickness in Standard Black and Pastel mink (Mustela vison) were examined in a Danish fur research farm. Based on the clinical diagnosis of the disease, the overall morbidity in a total of 1774 lactating females amounted to 14.4% and the case fatality rate to 7.8%. Apparently healthy females weaned an average of 5.0 kits per litter, while dams suffering from nursing sickness raised and weaned an average of 5.4 kits per litter (p less than 0.01). Based on logistic regression analysis, the increasing age of the lactating dam, followed by littersize and female weight loss, appeared to be major determinants for the development of nursing sickness. The impact of additional covariates such as litter weight gain and female color type were remarkably low. At weaning (day 43) the mean individual live weight of the kits of either sex did not differ between healthy and sick dams. In Standard Black, the total biomass of the offspring raised by sick dams was significantly larger than that of the healthy controls (p less than 0.01). During the final two weeks of lactation, apparently healthy dams lost on average 14% of their body mass, whereas those affected by nursing sickness had a mean weight loss of about 31% (p less than 0.001). Postmortem examination of 25 dams with severe nursing sickness verified the clinical findings of progressive dehydration and emaciation. The gastrointestinal tract was empty and gastric ulcers and melaena were frequently present. Other common findings included small livers,enlarged adrenals and pitted kidneys.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1591661

  7. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: relationship to age and parasitism.

    PubMed

    Klenavic, Katherine; Champoux, Louise; Mike, O'Brien; Daoust, Pierre-Y; Evans, R Douglas; Evans, Hayla E

    2008-11-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink.

  8. Disease-associated prion protein in neural and lymphoid tissues of mink (Mustela vison) inoculated with transmissible mink encephalopathy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is a prion disorder of farmed raised mink. As with the other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the disorder is associated with accumulation of the misfolded prion protein in the brain and an invariably fatal outcome. TME outbreaks have been rare but...

  9. Organochlorine contaminants in wild mink from the lower Great Lakes basin, Canada, 1998-2006.

    PubMed

    Martin, Pamela A; McDaniel, Tana V; Hughes, Kimberley D; Hunter, Bruce

    2017-08-19

    Organochlorine contaminants were measured in livers of wild mink (Neovison vison) trapped in the lower Great Lakes basin from 1998 to 2006. To assess exposure and potential risk in mink feeding on Great Lakes biota, concentrations of contaminants were compared in mink trapped within 7.8 km of the shoreline as well as at inland sites (i.e., 8-40 km). Overall, significant spatial variation in mean hepatic concentrations of sum PCBs and seven other organochlorines was found in mink from 13 Great Lakes sites, many of which are within the Great Lakes Areas of Concern. Mean sum PCB concentrations, on a lipid weight basis, ranged from 2 μg/g in mink from inland Lake Ontario sites to 44 μg/g in mink from western Lake Erie. Concentrations of other organochlorines in mink were generally low. Mink from western Lake Erie had the highest mean cumulative organochlorine burdens dominated largely by PCBs. A significant age effect was found with 1-year-old mink having significantly higher PCB burdens than mink less than 1 year in age. With respect to published PCB threshold effect concentrations, some mink exceeded those associated with effects on reproduction and survival as well as the presence of jaw lesions. This was most consistently found in western Lake Erie where the health of populations of wild mink may be adversely affected and where no mink 2 years of age or older were collected.

  10. The mink is not a reliable sentinel species.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Jeff; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2009-10-01

    In a recent review paper, Basu et al. [Basu, N., Scheuhammer, A.M., Bursian, S.J., Elliott, J., Rouvinen-Watt, K., Chan, H.M., 2007. Mink as a sentinel species in environmental health. Environ. Res. 103, 130-144] suggested that the American mink (formerly Mustela vison, now Neovison vison) should be used as a sentinel species for studies of the effects of pollution on environmental health. They based this assertion in large part on their conclusion that mink meet a set of criteria required by a sentinel species. In this commentary, we suggest that Basu et al. overlooked an important criterion for sentinel species - that the species must be a continuous resident of the environment under evaluation. Across their native range and beyond, mink are commonly farmed for the fur industry, and a long history of studies has shown that where they are farmed, they escape. For example, in southern Ontario, Canada, 64% of the mink have been genetically identified as domestic in origin, or domestic-wild hybrids. Thus, we argue that mink do not meet the criterion of continuous residence, and cannot be reliably used as sentinel species. There is a strong likelihood of biased inference when mink are used for such purposes.

  11. Disease-Associated Prion Protein in Neural and Lymphoid Tissues of Mink (Mustela vison) Inoculated with Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, D. A.; Harrington, R. D.; Zhuang, D.; Yan, H.; Truscott, T. C.; Dassanayake, R. P.; O'Rourke, K. I.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are diagnosed by immunodetection of disease-associated prion protein (PrPd). The distribution of PrPd within the body varies with the time-course of infection and between species, during interspecies transmission, as well as with prion strain. Mink are susceptible to a form of TSE known as transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), presumed to arise due to consumption of feed contaminated with a single prion strain of ruminant origin. After extended passage of TME isolates in hamsters, two strains emerge, HY and DY, each of which is associated with unique structural isoforms of PrPTME and of which only the HY strain is associated with accumulation of PrPTME in lymphoid tissues. Information on the structural nature and lymphoid accumulation of PrPTME in mink is limited. In this study, 13 mink were challenged by intracerebral inoculation using late passage TME inoculum after which brain and lymphoid tissues were collected at preclinical and clinical time points. The distribution and molecular nature of PrPTME was investigated by techniques including blotting of paraffin wax-embedded tissue and epitope mapping by western blotting. PrPTME was detected readily in the brain and retropharyngeal lymph node during preclinical infection with delayed progression of accumulation within other lymphoid tissues. For comparison, three mink were inoculated by the oral route and examined during clinical disease. Accumulation of PrPTME in these mink was greater and more widespread, including follicles of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Western blot analyses revealed that PrPTME accumulating in the brain of mink is structurally most similar to that accumulating in the brain of hamsters infected with the DY strain. Collectively, the results of extended passage in mink are consistent with the presence of only a single strain of TME, the DY strain, capable of inducing accumulation of PrPTME in the lymphoid tissues of

  12. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian disease virus in free-ranging domestic, hybrid, and wild mink

    PubMed Central

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2012-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a prominent infectious disease in mink farms. The AMD virus (AMDV) has been well characterized in Europe where American mink (Neovison vison) are an introduced species; however, in North America, where American mink are native and the disease is thought to have originated, the virus’ molecular epidemiology is unknown. As such, we characterized viral isolates from Ontario free-ranging mink of domestic, hybrid, and wild origin at two proteins: NS1, a nonstructural protein, and VP2, a capsid protein. AMDV DNA was detected in 25% of free-ranging mink (45 of 183), indicating prevalent active infection. Median-joining networks showed that Ontario AMDV isolates formed two subgroups in the NS1 region and three in the VP2 region, which were somewhat separate from, but closely related to, AMDVs circulating in domestic mink worldwide. Molecular analyses showed evidence of AMDV crossing from domestic to wild mink. Our results suggest that AMDV isolate grouping is linked to both wild endogenous reservoirs and the long-term global trade in domestic mink, and that AMD spills back and forth between domestic and wild mink. As such, biosecurity on mink farms is warranted to prevent transmission of the disease between mink farms and the wild. PMID:25568054

  13. A species barrier limits transmission of chronic wasting disease to mink (Mustela vison)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) occurs as sporadic outbreaks associated with ingestion of feed presumably contaminated with some type of prion disease. Mink lack a species barrier to primary oral challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, whereas they have a barrier to such challenge ...

  14. The central localization of the vagus nerve in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and the mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Ranson, R N; Butler, P J; Taylor, E W

    1993-05-01

    The location of vagal preganglionic neurones (VPN) has been determined in nine ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) and seven mink (M. vison) using neuronal tract-tracing techniques employing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and wheat-germ agglutinin conjugated HRP (WGA-HRP) mixtures injected into the nodose ganglion of the vagus nerve. Labelled VPN were located ipsilaterally in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DmnX), nucleus ambiguus (nA), and reticular formation (rf) of the medulla oblongata. In four of the ferrets, labelled VPN were also identified in the nucleus dorsomedialis (ndm) and the nucleus of the spinal accessory nerve (nspa). In a single mink a few labelled cells were observed in the ndm but no labelled VPN were found in the nspa. Labelling of afferent components of the vagus nerve was seen in two ferrets and two mink with the best labelling obtained following an injection of an HRP/WGA-HRP mixture into the nodose ganglion. Labelled afferents were observed to cross the ipsilateral spinal trigeminal tract (SpV) before entering the tractus solitarius (TS) in regions separate from the motor axons which exit the medulla in separate fasicles. Sensory terminal fields were identified bilaterally in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (nTS) in both species and bilaterally in the area postrema (ap) of the ferret; however, the contralateral labelling was sparse in comparison to the densely labelled ipsilateral nTS/ap. Maximal terminal labelling was seen in regions just rostral and caudal to obex in both species.

  15. Orienting behaviour during aerial and underwater visual discrimination by the mink (Mustela vison schreber).

    PubMed

    Dunstone, N; Sinclair, W

    1978-02-01

    Orienting responses by mink during aerial and underwater visual discrimination tests were most frequent when the grating lines subtended angles at the eye near the visual threshold angle. Factorial analysis showed that in air and in water at ranges from 10 to 90 cm most responses occurred at 30 cm discrimination distance and more occurred to marginally supra-threshold than to marginally sub-threshold stimuli. Between media, more responses occurred in air than in water. At longer ranges the mink oriented less readily than at 30 cm but if orienting occurred better discrimination followed than if the mink did not orient.

  16. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on reproduction, kit growth, and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursian, S.J.; Sharma, C.; Aulerich, R.J.; Yamini, B.; Mitchell, R.R.; Orazio, C.E.; Moore, D.R.J.; Svirsky, S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of feeding farm-raised mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) on adult reproductive performance and kit growth and survival. Diets contained 0.22-3.54% HR fish, providing 0.34-3.7 ??g total PCBs (TPCB)/g feed wet wt (3.5-68.5 pg toxic equivalence [TEQ]/g). Female mink were fed diets before breeding through weaning of kits. Twelve kits from each treatment were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. Dietary PCBs had no effect on the number of offspring produced, gestation period, or other measures of adult reproductive performance. Mink kits exposed to 3.7 ??g TPCB/g feed (68.5 pg TEQ/g) in utero and during lactation had reduced survivability between three and six weeks of age. The lethal concentrations to 10 and 20% of the population (LC10 and LC20, respectively) were estimated to be 0.231 and 0.984 ??g TPCB/g feed, respectively. Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish that composed approximately 1% of the diet would reduce mink kit survival by 20% or more, it is likely that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would have an adverse effect on wild mink populations. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  17. Mastitis in the lactating mink female (Mustela vison S.) and the development of "greasy kits".

    PubMed

    Clausen, T N; Dietz, H H

    2000-01-01

    "Greasy kits" is the result of a multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink females. In this study we sacrificed 2 groups of lactating mink females with a total of 78 mammary glands at day 19-30 after giving birth. The first group had raised normal mink kits while the other group had suffered severe attacks of greasy kits. We found no clinical or histopathological evidence of mastitis but isolated streptococci and staphylococci from 2 mammary glands in females raising greasy kits. These glands showed no clinical or histological signs of inflammation attributable to bacteria and we conclude that mastitis is not necessary for the generation of greasy kits.

  18. Fuel oil-induced adrenal hypertrophy in ranch mink (Mustela vison): effects of sex, fuel oil weathering, and response to adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Mohr, F C; Lasley, B; Bursian, S

    2010-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons from anthropogenic sources can be a cause of stress for free-ranging wildlife. The response of wildlife to chemical contaminants requires that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis be precisely regulated to allow for proper glucocorticoid-mediated adaptive responses. Chronic oral exposure to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil causes the development of adrenal hypertrophy in male ranch mink (Mustela vison) without increasing serum or fecal glucocorticoid concentrations. This hypertrophy is an adaptive response to fuel oil-induced adrenal insufficiency. To determine if the same phenomenon occurs in female mink or male mink exposed to artificially weathered fuel oil, female mink were fed 0 ppm (mineral oil) or 420 ppm fuel oil and male mink were exposed to 0 ppm, 420 ppm fuel oil, or 480 ppm artificially weathered fuel oil in the diet for 60-62 days. At the end of the exposure, serum glucocorticoid concentrations were assayed along with body and organ weight measurements. Fecal glucocorticoid concentrations were assayed at time points throughout the exposure. Male mink fed fuel oil or weathered fuel oil and female mink fed fuel oil had adrenal enlargement without any significant increases in the serum or fecal concentration of glucocorticoids, which is consistent with fuel oil-induced adrenal insufficiency. To address the physiological consequences of adrenal insufficiency, fuel oil-exposed male mink were administered an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. Fuel oil-exposed animals had a smaller incremental increase in serum glucocorticoid concentration after ACTH challenge compared to control animals. Our findings provide further evidence that the HPA axis of fuel oil-exposed animals is compromised and, therefore, not able to respond appropriately to the diverse stressors found in the environment.

  19. Aleutian mink disease virus in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis): evidence for cross-species spillover.

    PubMed

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2015-04-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a parvovirus infection, initially characterized in American mink (Neovison vison), that may have harmful effects on wild populations of susceptible animals. In North America, where American mink are native, the origin, host range, and prevalence of AMDV in wild species is not clear. We studied striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) to determine whether species sympatric with mink are potential reservoirs in the transmission of AMDV to wild mink and mink farms. Antibodies to AMDV were detected in 41% of skunk serum samples (143/347) and AMDV nucleic acids were detected in 32% (14/40) of skunk spleen samples by PCR, indicating that AMDV exposure and infection were frequent in skunks. We detected no AMDV antibodies in 144 raccoon blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a newly identified AMDV haplogroup consisting of isolates from Ontario skunks and a free-ranging domestic mink from Ontario. Our findings of frequent AMDV infection in skunks, close genetic similarity between skunk and mink AMDV isolates, and evidence of AMDV transmission from skunks to mink support the hypothesis that skunks may be acting as alternative hosts and reservoirs of AMDV to wild mink through cross-species virus spillover.

  20. Metabolism of dietary cetoleic acid (22:1n-11) in mink (Mustela vison) and gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) studied using radiolabeled fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Margaret H; Iverson, Sara J; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2006-01-01

    Cetoleic acid (22:1n-11) is a good indicator of diet in marine predators and has proven to be an important fatty acid (FA) when using adipose tissue FA composition to study diet in marine mammals and seabirds. Feeding studies have shown that 22:1 isomers are predictably underrepresented in adipose tissue relative to diet, implying that metabolism within the predator strongly influences the relationship between the level of these FAs in diet and adipose tissue. Fully understanding such metabolic processes for individual FAs is important for the quantitative estimation of predator diets. We employed a dual-label radioisotope tracer technique to investigate the potential modification of 22:1n-11 and its recovery in the blubber of gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) and in the adipose tissue and liver of mink (Mustela vison), a smaller model carnivore also accustomed to fish-based diets. In both seals and mink, (3)H radioactivity was found in the chain-shortened products of 22:1n-11, with 18:1 being the dominant product. We also found (3)H radioactivity in saturated FAs. The distribution patterns of (3)H radioactivity across the FAs isolated from seal blubber and mink subcutaneous adipose tissue were comparable, indicating that mink are a good model for the investigation of lipid metabolism in marine carnivores.

  1. Accumulation of mercury and selenium in the brain of river otters (Lontra canadensis) and wild mink (Mustela vison) from Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Haines, Kevin J R; Evans, R Douglas; O'Brien, Michael; Evans, Hayla E

    2010-01-01

    Total Hg, methyl-Hg (MeHg) and Se levels were measured in the brain of river otters (Lontra canadensis) and wild mink (Mustela vison) carcasses collected from Nova Scotia, Canada. Total Hg concentrations in the otters' brain were highly variable, ranging from 0.3 to 18.0 microg/g dw and were significantly higher in animals caught from inland areas of the province versus coastal animals. Similarly, inland otters contained significantly more MeHg in the brain than did coastal otters. MeHg was highly correlated with total Hg in both inland and coastal otters and represented on average approximately 82% of the total Hg. Selenium concentrations in the otter brain ranged from 1.0 to 7.8 microg/g dw but unlike Hg, there was no significant difference in Se levels between inland and coastal otters. There was a significant positive relationship between Se and total Hg concentrations in the otters with the molar ratio of Se:Hg approximately 1:1 for animals having an Hg concentration>18 nmol/g dw. The non-random sampling protocol for the mink precluded extensive statistical analysis of the data. However, unlike otters, virtually all (i.e. 98%) of the total Hg in mink brain was present as MeHg in both inland and coastal mink. Also unlike the otter results, Se concentrations showed no relationship with either total or MeHg in both inland and coastal mink. The data suggest that mink and otters may have different mechanisms for managing high levels of Hg in the brain.

  2. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in livers of American mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lutra canadensis) from the Columbia and Fraser River Basins, 1990-1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Henny, Charles J.; Harris, M.L.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in aquatic mustelid species on the Fraser and Columbia Rivers of northwestern North America. Carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis) (N=24) and mink (Mustela vison) (N=34) were obtained from commercial trappers during the winters of 1990-91 and 1991a??92. Pooled liver samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Most samples contained detectable concentrations of DDE, PCBs, although there was substantial variability in patterns and trends among neighboring samples. Concentrations of DDE were in some mink and several otter samples from the lower Columbia River elevated (to 4700 g/kg wet weight); excluding one mink sample from the Wenatchee area, mean DDE levels generally decreased between 1978a??79 and 1990a??92. PCBs were present in all samples. PCB concentrations in otter livers collected from the lower Columbia were ten-fold lower than measured a decade previously; nevertheless, a sample taken near Portland had a mean concentration of 1500 g/kg, within a range of concentrations associated with reproductive effects in captive mink. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and TCDF were generally below detection limits, except for one otter collected near a pulp mill at Castlegar, on the upper Columbia, with 11 ng TCDD/kg in liver. Elevated concentrations of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, probably resulting from use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives, were found in both species; one otter sample from the lower Columbia had 2200 ng OCDD/kg. International TCDD toxic equivalent levels in mink (31 ng/kg) and otter (93 ng/kg) from the lower Columbia River approached toxicity thresholds for effects on reproduction in ranch mink.

  3. Distribution and molecular phylogeny of biliary trematodes (Opisthorchiidae) infecting native Lutra lutra and alien Neovison vison across Europe.

    PubMed

    Sherrard-Smith, Ellie; Stanton, David W G; Cable, Jo; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Simpson, Vic R; Elmeros, Morten; van Dijk, Jiska; Simonnet, Franck; Roos, Anna; Lemarchand, Charles; Poledník, Lukáš; Heneberg, Petr; Chadwick, Elizabeth A

    2016-04-01

    The recent identification of Pseudamphistomum truncatum, (Rudolphi, 1819) (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae) and Metorchis bilis (Braun, 1790) Odening, 1962 (synonymous with Metorchis albidus (Braun, 1893) Loos, 1899 and Metorchis crassiusculus (Rudolphi, 1809) Looss, 1899 (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae)) in otters from Britain caused concern because of associated biliary damage, coupled with speculation over their alien status. Here, we investigate the presence, intensity and phylogeny of these trematodes in mustelids (principally otters) across Europe (Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, Poland and Sweden and Britain). The trematodes were identified to species using the internal transcribed spacer II (ITS2) locus. Both parasites were found across Europe but at unequal frequency. In the German state of Saxony, eight out of eleven (73%) otters examined were infected with P. truncatum whilst this parasite was not found in either mink from Scotland (n=40) or otters from Norway (n=21). Differences in the phylogenies between the two species suggest divergent demographic histories possibly reflecting contrasting host diet or competitive exclusion, with M. bilis exhibiting greater mitochondrial diversity than P. truncatum. Shared haplotypes within the ranges of both parasite species probably reflect relatively unrestricted movements (both natural and anthropogenic) of intermediate and definitive hosts across Europe.

  4. Testing for bias in a sentinel species: contaminants in free-ranging domestic, wild, and hybrid mink.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Martin, Pamela A; McDaniel, Tana V; Nituch, Larissa A; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2012-01-01

    Sentinel species are important tools for studies of biodiversity and environmental health. The American mink (Neovison vison) has long been considered a sentinel of environmental contamination, since the species is known to be sensitive to a number of common contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and mercury. Mink may not always satisfy an important criterion of sentinels however--that they are continuous residents of the environment being sampled. This is because domestic mink commonly escape from farms, and can be confused with wild mink in areas where mink ranching is prevalent, biasing estimates of environmental contamination taken from free-ranging mink samples. We tested for bias in a sample of free-ranging mink from Ontario, Canada, where both genetic ancestry (domestic, wild, and domestic-wild hybrid) and contaminant burdens (PCBs and mercury) were known. Of 133 mink sampled for both contaminants and genetic ancestry, 9% were determined to be domestic and 10.5% hybrid animals. We found that including domestic and hybrid mink in our analysis resulted in overestimating mean PCB burdens in wild mink by 27%, and underestimating mercury by 13%. We also investigated morphological methods to aid in excluding domestic mink from free-ranging mink samples and found that we had the highest classification success using skull size (condylobasal length), which was 15% and 12% greater in male and female domestic than wild mink, respectively. Given the potential use of mink as sentinels, and also the potential for bias, we recommend that researchers take steps to exclude domestic mink from free-ranging mink samples in studies of environmental health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-Ranging Mink from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine H.; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Appelberg, Mia Tjernström; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies) and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133) had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006), heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen. PMID:25822750

  6. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine H; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Appelberg, Mia Tjernström; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies) and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133) had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006), heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen.

  7. First report of Cryptosporidium canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and identification of several novel subtype families for Cryptosporidium mink genotype in minks (Mustela vison) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siwen; Tao, Wei; Liu, Chengwu; Jiang, Yanxue; Wan, Qiang; Li, Qiao; Yang, Hang; Lin, Yongchao; Li, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Despite the rapid and extensive advances in molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in humans and a variety of animals, the prevalence and genetic traits of the parasite in wildlife bred in captivity and the role of the neglected hosts in zoonotic transmission of human cryptosporidiosis are rarely understood. This study investigated the prevalence, species/genotype, and subtype of Cryptosporidium in farmed fur animals in China and assessed the possibility of zoonotic transmission. Three of 191 (1.6%) foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 17 of 162 (10.5%) raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 48 of 162 (29.6%) minks (Mustela vison) were positive for Cryptosporidium by nested PCRs targeting the small subunit rRNA gene. Sequence analysis indicated the presence of only Cryptosporidium canis in foxes and raccoon dogs. There is no significant difference in prevalence between young and adult foxes (or raccoon dogs). Three Cryptosporidium species or genotype including C. canis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and mink genotype were determined in minks aged five to six months. Subtyping based on nucleotide and amino acid sequence polymorphisms of the 60kDa glycoprotein facilitated identification of three novel subtype families named as Xb to Xd for Cryptosporidium mink genotype. The presence of zoonotic C. canis, C. meleagridis, and Cryptosporidium mink genotype in captive-bred fur animals is of public health concerns. The findings expanded the host ranges of C. canis and C. meleagridis and confirmed genetic diversity at the subtype level in Cryptosporidium mink genotype. This is the first study reporting Cryptosporidium infections in foxes and raccoon dogs in China.

  8. Assessing the cryptic invasion of a domestic conspecific: American mink in their native range

    PubMed Central

    Beauclerc, Kaela B; Bowman, Jeff; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2013-01-01

    Control of invasions is facilitated by their early detection, but this may be difficult when invasions are cryptic due to similarity between invaders and native species. Domesticated conspecifics offer an interesting example of cryptic invasions because they have the ability to hybridize with their native counterparts, and can thus facilitate the introgression of maladaptive genes. We assessed the cryptic invasion of escaped domestic American mink (Neovison vison) within their native range. Feral mink are a known alien invader in many parts of the world, but invasion of their native range is not well understood. We genetically profiled 233 captive domestic mink from different farms in Ontario, Canada and 299 free-ranging mink from Ontario, and used assignments tests to ascertain genetic ancestries of free-ranging animals. We found that 18% of free-ranging mink were either escaped domestic animals or hybrids, and a tree regression showed that these domestic genotypes were most likely to occur south of a latitude of 43.13°N, within the distribution of mink farms in Ontario. Thus, domestic mink appear not to have established populations in Ontario in locations without fur farms. We suspect that maladaptation of domestic mink and outbreeding depression of hybrid and introgressed mink have limited their spread. Mink farm density and proximity to mink farms were not important predictors of domestic genotypes but rather, certain mink farms appeared to be important sources of escaped domestic animals. Our results show that not all mink farms are equal with respect to biosecurity, and thus that the spread of domestic genotypes can be mitigated by improved biosecurity. PMID:23919171

  9. Assessing the cryptic invasion of a domestic conspecific: American mink in their native range.

    PubMed

    Beauclerc, Kaela B; Bowman, Jeff; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2013-07-01

    Control of invasions is facilitated by their early detection, but this may be difficult when invasions are cryptic due to similarity between invaders and native species. Domesticated conspecifics offer an interesting example of cryptic invasions because they have the ability to hybridize with their native counterparts, and can thus facilitate the introgression of maladaptive genes. We assessed the cryptic invasion of escaped domestic American mink (Neovison vison) within their native range. Feral mink are a known alien invader in many parts of the world, but invasion of their native range is not well understood. We genetically profiled 233 captive domestic mink from different farms in Ontario, Canada and 299 free-ranging mink from Ontario, and used assignments tests to ascertain genetic ancestries of free-ranging animals. We found that 18% of free-ranging mink were either escaped domestic animals or hybrids, and a tree regression showed that these domestic genotypes were most likely to occur south of a latitude of 43.13°N, within the distribution of mink farms in Ontario. Thus, domestic mink appear not to have established populations in Ontario in locations without fur farms. We suspect that maladaptation of domestic mink and outbreeding depression of hybrid and introgressed mink have limited their spread. Mink farm density and proximity to mink farms were not important predictors of domestic genotypes but rather, certain mink farms appeared to be important sources of escaped domestic animals. Our results show that not all mink farms are equal with respect to biosecurity, and thus that the spread of domestic genotypes can be mitigated by improved biosecurity.

  10. An extended anchored linkage map and virtual mapping for the American mink genome based on homology to human and dog.

    PubMed

    Anistoroaei, R; Ansari, S; Farid, A; Benkel, B; Karlskov-Mortensen, P; Christensen, K

    2009-09-01

    In this report we present an extended linkage map of the American mink (Neovison vison) consisting of 157 microsatellite markers and comprising at least one linkage group for each of the autosomes. Each linkage group has been assigned to a chromosome and oriented by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or by means of human/dog/mink comparative homology. The average interval between markers is 8.5 cM and the linkage groups collectively span 1340 cM. In addition, 217 and 275 mink microsatellites have been placed on human and dog genomes, respectively. In conjunction with the existing comparative human/dog/mink data, these assignments represent useful virtual maps for the American mink genome. Comparison of the current human/dog assembled sequential map with the existing Zoo-FISH-based human/dog/mink maps helped to refine the human/dog/mink comparative map. Furthermore, comparison of the human and dog genome assemblies revealed a number of large synteny blocks, some of which are corroborated by data from the mink linkage map.

  11. Invasive crayfish reduce food limitation of alien American mink and increase their resilience to control.

    PubMed

    Melero, Yolanda; Palazón, Santiago; Lambin, Xavier

    2014-02-01

    Trophic relationships between invasive species in multiply invaded ecosystems may reduce food limitation relative to more pristine ecosystems and increase resilience to control. Here, we consider whether invasive predatory American mink Neovison vison are trophically subsidized by invasive crayfish. We collated data from the literature on density and home range size of mink populations in relation to the prevalence of crayfish in the diet of mink. We then tested the hypothesis that populations of an invasive predator reach higher densities and are more resilient to lethal control when they have access to super-abundant non-native prey, even in the absence of changes in density dependence, hence compensatory capacity. We found a strong positive relationship between the proportion of crayfish in mink diet and mink population density, and a negative relationship between the proportion of crayfish in mink diet and mink home range size, with crayfish contribution to mink diet reflecting their abundance in the ecosystem. We then explored the consequence of elevated mink density by simulating a hypothetical eradication program with a constant harvest in a Ricker model. We found that mink populations were more resilient to harvest in the presence of crayfish. As a result, the simulated number of mink harvested to achieve eradication increased by 500% in the presence of abundant crayfish if carrying capacity increased by 630%. This led to a threefold increase in time to eradication under a constant harvest and an approximately 20-fold increase in the cumulative management cost. Our results add to evidence of inter-specific positive interactions involving invasive species, and our simple model illustrates how this increases management cost.

  12. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N; Jensen, Søren K

    2016-03-14

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose-response and chemical form. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of increasing the amount of retinol in combination with RRR-α-tocopherol or all-rac-α-tocopherol in the feed given to growing mink on their retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol concentrations in plasma and selected organs. The results showed that the mink met their retinol requirements from the basal diet, but there were no negative effects of supplying various amounts of retinol on their plasma α-tocopherol concentrations. On the other hand, the study showed that the cholecalciferol status in plasma, assessed as the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration, was low when retinol was supplemented in the feed at high levels. In addition, supplementation with RRR-α-tocopherol in the feed negatively affected the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol compared with supplementation with all-rac-α-tocopherol. In general, female mink had higher concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in plasma than male mink.

  13. Mercury and other heavy metals in free-ranging mink of the lower Great Lakes basin, Canada, 1998-2006.

    PubMed

    Martin, Pamela A; McDaniel, Tana V; Hughes, Kimberley D; Hunter, Bruce

    2011-10-01

    Mercury concentrations were examined in livers of free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) trapped in the lower Great Lakes basin from 1998 to 2006. Significant geographic variation in total mercury levels was found in mink from 13 Great Lakes locations, many of which are within Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs). Total mercury levels in mink from these locations were generally low to moderate, with means (±SE) ranging from 0.99 (±0.36) μg/g dry weight in mink from inland Lake Erie to 7.31 (±1.52) μg/g in mink from Walpole Island in the St. Clair River AOC. Overall, mercury exposure was highest in mink trapped in locations associated with large riverine wetlands. Total mercury concentrations were negatively related to the percentage of mercury present as methylmercury and positively related to selenium concentrations, consistent with increasing demethylation of methylmercury with increasing total mercury concentrations. One-year old mink had significantly higher levels of mercury and selenium than mink under 1 year but similar to mink 2 years of age and older. Mercury levels were below those associated with mercury toxicity. Concentrations of cadmium, lead and arsenic were low and largely associated with environmental background levels. Significant age and sex effects were found for cadmium. Lead levels were significantly lower in mink infected by the lung nematode parasite compared to uninfected animals. Further studies of biomagnification of methylmercury in wetland environments, where top predators such as mink may be an increased risk of exposure, are warranted.

  14. [Evaluation of the immune response after vaccination against distemper at a mink (Mustela vison) farm in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Jar, A M; Ramayo, L G; Stempler, A; Goldman, L H; Mundo, S L

    2010-01-01

    Distemper virus causes a disease affecting minks with respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological and skin symptoms and showing high morbidity and mortality, mainly among puppies. It is controlled through immunization, using vaccines that are supplied for mink use. The aim of this work was to determine the seroneutralization titer against the distemper virus at a mink farm in Argentina. The antibody kinetics obtained after vaccination in 27 adult animals, as well as the duration of colostrum-transferred antibodies in 10 puppies were determined. All vaccinated adult minks showed protective titers up to at least 3 months after vaccination, and 37.5% significantly reduced their antibody levels, 12 months after vaccination. Only 20% of the puppies showed protective levels of colostrum-transferred antibodies at the age of 7 weeks, while non-detectable levels of antibodies were found when puppies reached 11 weeks old. Vaccination performed in these puppies at the age of 13 weeks, elicited protective seroneutralization titers. These results show that vaccination induces a satisfactory humoral immune response in our environment, and support the convenience of vaccinating dams annually before the beginning of the breeding season. The vaccination plan in puppies is also discussed.

  15. [Effect of mutations affecting coat color on the blood lymphocyte structure in the American mink (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777)].

    PubMed

    Uzenbaeva, L B; Trapezov, O V; Kizhina, A G; Iliukha, V A; Trapezova, L I; Tiutiunnik, N N

    2011-01-01

    American minks with different genotypes containing the Aleutian coat color allele in the homozygous state, including the single recessive Aleutian (a/a); double recessive sapphire (a/a p/p) and lavender (m/m a/a); triple recessive violet (m/m a/a p/p); and dominant-recessive cross sapphire (S/+ a/a p/p), sapphire leopard (S(K)/+ a/a p/p), and shadow sapphire (S(H)/+ a/a p/p) minks, as well as American minks without the Aleutian allele, including the standard (+/+); single recessive silver-blue (p/p) and hedlund-white (h/h); double recessive pearl (k/k p/p), Finnish topaz (t(S)/t(S) b/b); incompletely dominant royal silver (S(R)/+), standard leopard (S(K)/+), and black crystal (C(R)/+); and dominant-recessive snowy topaz (C(R)/+ t(S)/t(S) b/b) and Kujtezhy-spotted (S(K)/+ b/b) minks have been studied. Homozygosity for the a allele has been found to disturb the subcellular structure of leukocyte, namely the formation of abnormally large granules.

  16. Accuracy of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for quantification of antibodies against Aleutian mink disease virus.

    PubMed

    Farid, A H; Rupasinghe, P P

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing interest among mink ranchers to select their stock for tolerance to the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are used to identify mink which have low anti-AMDV antibody titres and are expected to tolerate the AMDV infection. The objective of this study was to calculate the accuracy of three ELISA systems which were performed on blood or serum of AMDV-inoculated American mink (Neovison vison) at five laboratories in Canada, USA, Finland, the Netherlands and Denmark. The accuracy was determined by comparing the ELISA results with antibody titres measured by the counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) using 10 two-fold serial dilutions of the plasma. Antibody titres of 880 black mink which were inoculated with a spleen homogenate from a naturally infected mink were measured between 16 and 176 weeks post-inoculation. Each ELISA result from every laboratory covered a wide range of antibody titres and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between CIEP and ELISA results from different laboratories varied between 0.41 and 0.83, indicating a low to moderate accuracy of ELISA systems for ranking mink by antibody titre. The recombinant VP2-based ELISA used in the Netherlands and Finland ranked the mink by antibody titres more accurately than did the AMDV-G-based ELISA platforms developed in Denmark and the USA, suggesting that the source of antigen was one of the factors affecting the accuracy of ELISA results. It was concluded that the ELISA systems, particularly those based on AMDV-G antigen, require further refinement to improve their accuracy for ranking mink by antibody titre. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Invasive American mink: linking pathogen risk between domestic and endangered carnivores.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Singer, Randall S; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A; Eguren, Antonieta; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katherine

    2014-09-01

    Infectious diseases, in particular canine distemper virus (CDV), are an important threat to the viability of wild carnivore populations. CDV is thought to be transmitted by direct contact between individuals; therefore, the study of species interactions plays a pivotal role in understanding CDV transmission dynamics. However, CDV often appears to move between populations that are ecologically isolated, possibly through bridge hosts that interact with both species. This study investigated how an introduced species could alter multihost interactions and act as a bridge host in a novel carnivore assemblage of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), invasive American mink (Neovison vison), and threatened river otters (Lontra provocax) in southern Chile. We found that rural dogs interact with mink near farms whereas in riparian habitats, minks and river otters shared the same latrines with both species visiting sites frequently within time intervals well within CDV environmental persistence. No interactions were observed between dogs and otters at either location. Both dog and mink populations were serologically positive for CDV, making the pathogen transfer risk to otters a conservation concern. Altogether, introduced mink in this ecosystem have the potential to act as bridge hosts between domestic dogs and endangered carnivores.

  18. [Effect of coat color genes on the hair pigmentation morphology in the American mink (Mustela vison Schr. L.)].

    PubMed

    Prasolova, L A; Trapezov, O V

    2007-07-01

    The morphological patterns of hair pigmentation (the size and shape of pigment granules and their distribution among layers) have been studied in four compound coat color forms of the American mink: moil-sapphire also known as violet (genotype m/m a/a p/p); moil-silver or sage (genotype m/m p/p); the color form determined by genotype m/+ a/a; and platinum leopard (S(k)/+ a/+ p/p). The hair pigmentation pattern specific for each coat color form and its difference from the standard coat color of the American mink (genotype +/+) has been determined. The possible mechanisms of the phenotypic expression of the nonallelic genes contributing to the described compound color forms are discussed.

  19. Reproductive and morphological condition of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) in relation to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.

    PubMed Central

    Harding, L E; Harris, M L; Stephen, C R; Elliott, J E

    1999-01-01

    We assessed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of mink and river otters on the Columbia and Fraser River systems of northwestern North America, in relation to morphological measures of condition. We obtained carcasses of mink and river otters from commercial trappers during the winters 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analyzed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. Contaminant levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-1992) of these regional populations. Body condition varied slightly among collection regions, but showed no relationship with contaminant burden. Mink from the upper Fraser River had less fat stores and also had some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had low contaminant levels. Although a few individual animals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between total PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1260) and baculum length in juvenile mink (r = 0.707; p = 0.033; n = 8). The association of juvenile baculum length with eventual reproductive success is unknown, but further characterization of reproductive organ morphology and relationship to contaminants should be undertaken in a larger subset of these populations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9924010

  20. Serum prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations during the summer and winter hair growth cycles of mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Rose, J; Kennedy, M; Johnston, B; Foster, W

    1998-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) during initiation and development of summer and winter hair growth (anagen) cycles in mink. In the spring, haloperidol (HAL) increased PRL concentrations and induced summer anagen earlier than controls, whereas melatonin (MEL) inhibited PRL secretion and completely blocked summer anagen. In the fall, HAL increased PRL concentrations, inducing anagen at an earlier time than controls, although the resulting fur was abnormal being almost devoid of underhair fibers. Exogenous MEL during the fall reduced PRL concentrations, initiating winter anagen 4 weeks earlier than controls. Adrenalectomy (ADX) induced earlier onset of summer and winter anagen and neutralized the inhibitory effects of HAL in the fall and MEL in the spring. No change in serum DHEA concentrations was observed during the onset of summer or winter anagen in any group although MEL increased DHEA levels from 27 March through 5 June relative to HAL-treated mink. We conclude that changes in serum levels of DHEA and PRL are not requisite to onset of summer or winter anagen in mink. It is possible that metabolites of DHEA and/or PRL may still affect other aspects of the hair growth cycle.

  1. Endogenous zinc excretion in relation to various levels of dietary zinc intake in the mink (Mustela vison)

    SciTech Connect

    Mejborn, H. )

    1990-08-01

    Endogenous zinc excretion was studied in adult male mink fed experimental diets for 73 d, including a collection period from d 69 to 73. Dietary zinc levels were 2.8, 26 or 121 mg/kg wet weight. In accordance with the results of a methodological study, also reported here, the animals had an intramuscular injection of 65ZnCl2 12 d before the start of the collection period. Total fecal (endogenous + unabsorbed) zinc excretion for d 69-73 in the three groups was 2.3, 20.4 and 91.0 mg. The endogenous zinc excretion was 1.3, 2.0 and 6.4 mg, corresponding to 80.8, 10.6 and 6.4% of the zinc intake. Thus, the endogenous excretion was mainly important for the zinc homeostasis at low zinc intake, whereas at high intake the homeostasis was regulated via absorption from the digestive tract. The overall conclusion of the experiment was that mink are comparable to other species (including man) in regard to mechanisms controlling zinc homeostasis.

  2. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Angela K.; Sutherland, Christopher S.; Royle, Andy; Hare, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture–recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture–recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km2 area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture–recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species.

  3. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Angela K; Sutherland, Chris S; Royle, J Andrew; Hare, Matthew P

    2016-06-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture-recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture-recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km² area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture-recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species.

  4. Effective Control of Non-Native American Mink by Strategic Trapping in a River Catchment in Mainland Britain

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Jonathan C; Richardson, Suzanne M; Rodgers, Ben J E; Rodgers, Owain R K

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of American mink (Neovison vison; hereafter mink) into Europe has had severe impacts on many native wildlife species, including the water vole (Arvicola amphibius) in mainland Britain. Although trapping has been widely used to attempt to control mink, managers have little direct evidence of its effect on mink density or distribution, particularly where immigration of mink from nearby areas is inevitable. Such evidence is needed to justify the use of lethal methods in conservation policy. During 2006–2010 we removed mink from the River Monnow Catchment in western Britain, using track-recording rafts to monitor continuously for mink presence, guiding a strategic trapping effort. The area monitored and trapped was increased in stages, from a core sub-catchment with 109 km of water-course in 2006, to a 421-km2 catchment with 203 km of water-course in 2009. In each successive sub-catchment, mink detection and capture rates declined rapidly to near-zero levels after trapping began. Detections and captures showed seasonal peaks in every year corresponding to known dispersal periods, but also declined steadily from year to year, with increasing periods in which we did not detect mink. These results suggested that each sub-catchment was cleared of mink within a few months, with subsequent captures attributable to immigration. On average, we detected each mink 5.1 times before capture (daily probability of detection = 0.059 per mink and raft), and trapped them 3.4 days after deploying traps in response. On average, mink entering the area were likely to have been present for less than 13 days before capture. Water voles had been extinct in the Monnow Catchment since the 1980s. During 2006–2008 (starting 6 months after mink trapping commenced), we released 700 captive-bred water voles into the treatment area to re-establish a wild population. Persistence of this population through the 4 years of the project was considered indicative of effective mink

  5. Effective Control of Non-Native American Mink by Strategic Trapping in a River Catchment in Mainland Britain.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jonathan C; Richardson, Suzanne M; Rodgers, Ben J E; Rodgers, Owain R K

    2013-04-01

    The introduction of American mink (Neovison vison; hereafter mink) into Europe has had severe impacts on many native wildlife species, including the water vole (Arvicola amphibius) in mainland Britain. Although trapping has been widely used to attempt to control mink, managers have little direct evidence of its effect on mink density or distribution, particularly where immigration of mink from nearby areas is inevitable. Such evidence is needed to justify the use of lethal methods in conservation policy. During 2006-2010 we removed mink from the River Monnow Catchment in western Britain, using track-recording rafts to monitor continuously for mink presence, guiding a strategic trapping effort. The area monitored and trapped was increased in stages, from a core sub-catchment with 109 km of water-course in 2006, to a 421-km(2) catchment with 203 km of water-course in 2009. In each successive sub-catchment, mink detection and capture rates declined rapidly to near-zero levels after trapping began. Detections and captures showed seasonal peaks in every year corresponding to known dispersal periods, but also declined steadily from year to year, with increasing periods in which we did not detect mink. These results suggested that each sub-catchment was cleared of mink within a few months, with subsequent captures attributable to immigration. On average, we detected each mink 5.1 times before capture (daily probability of detection = 0.059 per mink and raft), and trapped them 3.4 days after deploying traps in response. On average, mink entering the area were likely to have been present for less than 13 days before capture. Water voles had been extinct in the Monnow Catchment since the 1980s. During 2006-2008 (starting 6 months after mink trapping commenced), we released 700 captive-bred water voles into the treatment area to re-establish a wild population. Persistence of this population through the 4 years of the project was considered indicative of effective mink control

  6. [Introduction of species and microevolution: the European beaver, raccoon dog, and American mink].

    PubMed

    Korablev, N P; Korablev, M P; Korablev, P N

    2011-01-01

    Nine skull samples of the beaver Castor fiber, six samples of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides, and six samples of the American mink Neovison vison were studied using phenetic and craniometric methods. Analysis of the phenofund structure suggests that in all of the studied species the emergence of novel character variations does not lead to their fixation with a significant frequency. Considerable morphological variability emerges in the contact zone of different autochtonous populations, of wild and breeding forms, as well as in geographically and reproductively isolated small groups of individuals. Morphological differences of introduced animals fit into the conception of species polymorphism and are smoothed over when separate colonies merge into metapopulations, which does not lead to the emergence of novel stable taxa.

  7. [Heterozygosity for Mutations Affecting Coat Pigmentation in the American Mink (Neovison vison) Enhances Structural Stability of Adrenal Cortex under Stress Conditions].

    PubMed

    Trapezov, O V; Luzenko, N D; Trapezova, L I

    2016-04-01

    The results of the study of the effects of heterozygosity for mutations affecting coat pigmentation on the response to the environmental stress caused by extreme feeding conditions are provided. The animals with the following genotypes were taken into the study: homozygotes standard (+/+), hedlund white (h/h), and aleutian (a/a) and heterozygotes hedlund white (h/+) and aleutian (a/+). The animals homozygous for the aleutian mutation (a/a) showed a statistically lower growth rate than the animals of other genotypes both in the ontrol and in the experiment (p < 0.05). Under the control conditions, the animals homozygous forboth the wild type standard allele (+/+) and the mutant hedlund white (h/h) and aleutian (a/a) alleles showed the evident tendency for the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex broadening compared to the experimental conditions. At the same time, in the animals heterozygous for the hedlund white (h/+) and the aleutian (a/+) mutations, a clear tendency for increasing size of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis under the experimental conditions was observed. In the heterozygous animals, although we observed single destructive changes in the adrenal cortex under stress conditions, they were much less profound than in the homozygous ones. This may be related to the broader range of morphological adaptation in the heterozygotes, which gives them the possibility of more significant enlargement of the secreting zone to provide for its adequate functioning.

  8. Hepatic mercury, cadmium, and lead in mink and otter from New York State: monitoring environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Mayack, David T

    2012-04-01

    Many non-linear processes link atmospheric emissions to the bioavailability of metals; consequently, the monitoring of metals in ecosystem components is required to model their ecodynamics. American mink (Neovison vison) and river otter (Lontra canadensis) have the potential to serve as an upper-level-consumer component in monitoring metals bioavailability. However, the relationship of bioaccumulated metals to various environmental factors has not been explored nor have the effects of demographic factors been resolved. To address these limitations, mink and otter, collected throughout New York State during 1998-2002, were analyzed for hepatic concentrations of total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). Relationships were investigated between metals concentrations and landscape-level factors (physiographic zone, hydrologic unit, and elevation) and demographic factors (gender and age). Considerable variation in Hg and Cd concentrations was observed relative to both physiographic zone and hydrologic unit for both species. In contrast with Hg, Cd concentration increased predictably with increasing elevation. Mercury concentrations were greater, but for Cd less, in otter than mink. Lead concentrations showed little landscape heterogeneity and were independent of elevation. Age-related bioaccumulation was evident for Hg and Cd, but not for Pb, in both species. Mercury and Cd concentrations were greater in female than male mink; however, Pb concentrations were greater in males than females. Inverse relationships of relative growth (weight/length) to metals concentrations explained gender differences in Hg and Cd in mink. For otter, no gender-related differences in metals concentrations were apparent. The suitability of mink and otter for monitoring programs is discussed.

  9. [Effects of monorecessive and double recessive mutations affecting coat color on the monoamine content of the brain of the American mink (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777)].

    PubMed

    Trapezov, O V; Trapezova, L I; alekhina, T A; Klochkov, D V; Ivanov, Iu N

    2009-12-01

    The effects of mutations affecting the coat color on the dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin contents of the hypothalamus and brainstem of the American mink have been studied. The sample comprised standard (+/+) and mutant minks, including the monorecessive pastel (b/b), silver-blue (p/p), and white hedlund (h/h) and the combination double recessive sapphire (a/a p/p) and pearl (k/k p/p) ones. The dopamine content of the brainstem of the monorecessive pastel (b/b) and silver-blue (p/p) minks has been found to be higher than in standard (+/+) minks. Conversely, the homozigosity for two coat color loci in double recessive pearl minks (k/k p/p) significantly decreases the noradrenaline and serotonin contents of the hypothalamus. In addition, monorecessive and double recessive minks differ from each other in the serotonin contents of the midbrain and medulla.

  10. Full genome comparison and characterization of avian H10 viruses with different pathogenicity in Mink (Mustela vison) reveals genetic and functional differences in the non-structural gene

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The unique property of some avian H10 viruses, particularly the ability to cause severe disease in mink without prior adaptation, enabled our study. Coupled with previous experimental data and genetic characterization here we tried to investigate the possible influence of different genes on the virulence of these H10 avian influenza viruses in mink. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between the viruses studied. Our study also showed that there are no genetic differences in receptor specificity or the cleavability of the haemagglutinin proteins of these viruses regardless of whether they are of low or high pathogenicity in mink. In poly I:C stimulated mink lung cells the NS1 protein of influenza A virus showing high pathogenicity in mink down regulated the type I interferon promoter activity to a greater extent than the NS1 protein of the virus showing low pathogenicity in mink. Conclusions Differences in pathogenicity and virulence in mink between these strains could be related to clear amino acid differences in the non structural 1 (NS1) protein. The NS gene of mink/84 appears to have contributed to the virulence of the virus in mink by helping the virus evade the innate immune responses. PMID:20591155

  11. First report of Filaria martis Gmelin, 1790 in the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus, 1761).

    PubMed

    Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André, Adrien; Urra Maya, Fermín; Giralda Carrera, Gloria; Fournier, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    The riparian European mink (Mustela lutreola), currently surviving in only three unconnected sites in Europe, is now listed as a critically endangered species according to the IUCN. Habitat loss and degradation, anthropic mortality, interaction with the feral American mink (Neovison vison), and infectious diseases are among the principal causes of its decline. Surveys of helminth parasites of this host that also include focus on subcutaneous potentially pathogenic helminths such as those belonging to the genus Filaria are very scarce. We report here the presence of specimens of Filaria martis in the subcutaneous connective tissues of three M. lutreola individuals from Spain. This is the first finding of a subcutaneous nematode in a representative of the genus Mustela. The report also enlarges the known range of the definitive hosts of this nematode. These worms were mainly located in the dorsal region of mink and more rarely in the knees, elbows, and hips. Skin sloughing was only observed in one M. lutreola with both septicaemia and an associated high burden of F. martis. Therefore, more attention should be paid to potentially pathogenic helminths when designing conservation programs dedicated to M. lutreola.

  12. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursian, Steven J.; Sharma, Chanda; Aulerich, Richard J.; Yamini, Behzad; Mitchell, Rachel R.; Beckett, Kerrie J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Moore, Dwayne; Svirsky, Susan; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of feeding ranch mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish (88 gold fish [Carassius auratus] weighing a total of 70.3 kg and 16 carp [Cyprinus carpio] weighing a total of 77.3 kg) collected from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) in October 1999 on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of total PCBs (ΣPCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence (TEQ) were evaluated. Diets contained 0.22 to 3.54% HR fish, which provided 0.34 to 3.7 μg ΣPCBs/g feed (3.5-69 pg TEQ/g feed). Female mink were fed the diets eight weeks before breeding through weaning of kits at six weeks of age. Offspring were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. The dietary concentration of PCBs that caused a decrease in kit survival (3.7 μg ΣPCBs/g feed [69 pg TEQ/g]) resulted in a maternal hepatic concentration of 3.1 μg ΣPCBs/g wet weight (218 pg TEQ/g). Organ weights were not consistently affected. Mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation was apparent in 31-week-old juveniles exposed to as low as 0.96 (xg ΣPCBs/g feed (9.2 pg TEQ/g). Juveniles in this treatment group had a liver concentration of 1.7 μg ΣPCBs/g wet weight (40 pg TEQ/g). Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish, which comprised approximately 1% of the diet, resulted in mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation, it is possible that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would result in more severe lesions characterized by loss of teeth, thus impacting survivability.

  13. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursian, S.J.; Sharma, C.; Aulerich, R.J.; Yamini, B.; Mitchell, R.R.; Beckett, K.J.; Orazio, C.E.; Moore, D.; Svirsky, S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of feeding ranch mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish (88 gold fish [Carassius auratus] weighing a total of 70.3 kg and 16 carp [Cyprinus carpio] weighing a total of 77.3 kg) collected from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) in October 1999 on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of total PCBs (??PCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence (TEQ) were evaluated. Diets contained 0.22 to 3.54% HR fish, which provided 0.34 to 3.7 ??g ??PCBs/g feed (3.5-69 pg TEQ/g feed). Female mink were fed the diets eight weeks before breeding through weaning of kits at six weeks of age. Offspring were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. The dietary concentration of PCBs that caused a decrease in kit survival (3.7 ??g ??PCBs/g feed [69 pg TEQ/g]) resulted in a maternal hepatic concentration of 3.1 ??g ??PCBs/g wet weight (218 pg TEQ/g). Organ weights were not consistently affected. Mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation was apparent in 31-week-old juveniles exposed to as low as 0.96 ??g ??PCBs/g feed (9.2 pg TEQ/g). Juveniles in this treatment group had a liver concentration of 1.7 ??g ??PCBs/g wet weight (40 pg TEQ/g). Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish, which comprised approximately 1% of the diet, resulted in mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation, it is possible that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would result in more severe lesions characterized by loss of teeth, thus impacting survivability. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  14. [Effect of coat color mutations on behavioral polymorphism in farm populations of american minks (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777) and sables (Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758)].

    PubMed

    Trapezov, O V; Trapezova, L I; Sergeev, E G

    2008-04-01

    Behavioral polymorphism estimated by the expression of the defensive reaction towards humans has been studied in farm-bred American minks and sables with different color types. Most animals (both minks and sables) from farm populations displayed passive defensive behavior towards humans in the standard hand catch test. Coat color genes have been found to have pleiotropic effects; they influence both the penetrance and expressivity of domestication behavior: in animals with aberrant color types (both sapphire minks and white-and-black sables), the proportion of animals with domestication behavior and the expressivity of this behavior are significantly higher (p <0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively).

  15. Comparison of American mink embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cell transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently fibroblasts of many mammalian species have been reprogrammed to pluripotent state using overexpression of several transcription factors. This technology allows production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with properties similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells. The completeness of reprogramming process is well studied in such species as mouse and human but there is not enough data on other species. We produced American mink (Neovison vison) ES and iPS cells and compared these cells using transcriptome analysis. Results We report the generation of 10 mink ES and 22 iPS cell lines. The majority of the analyzed cell lines had normal diploid chromosome number. The only ES cell line with XX chromosome set had both X-chromosomes in active state that is characteristic of pluripotent cells. The pluripotency of ES and iPS cell lines was confirmed by formation of teratomas with cell types representing all three germ layers. Transcriptome analysis of mink embryonic fibroblasts (EF), two ES and two iPS cell lines allowed us to identify 11831 assembled contigs which were annotated. These led to a number of 6891 unique genes. Of these 3201 were differentially expressed between mink EF and ES cells. We analyzed expression levels of these genes in iPS cell lines. This allowed us to show that 80% of genes were correctly reprogrammed in iPS cells, whereas approximately 6% had an intermediate expression pattern, about 7% were not reprogrammed and about 5% had a "novel" expression pattern. We observed expression of pluripotency marker genes such as Oct4, Sox2 and Rex1 in ES and iPS cell lines with notable exception of Nanog. Conclusions We had produced and characterized American mink ES and iPS cells. These cells were pluripotent by a number of criteria and iPS cells exhibited effective reprogramming. Interestingly, we had showed lack of Nanog expression and consider it as a species-specific feature. PMID:26694224

  16. Comparison of American mink embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cell transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Menzorov, Aleksei G; Matveeva, Natalia M; Markakis, Marios N; Fishman, Venyamin S; Christensen, Knud; Khabarova, Anna A; Pristyazhnyuk, Inna E; Kizilova, Elena A; Cirera, Susanna; Anistoroaei, Razvan; Serov, Oleg L

    2015-01-01

    Recently fibroblasts of many mammalian species have been reprogrammed to pluripotent state using overexpression of several transcription factors. This technology allows production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with properties similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells. The completeness of reprogramming process is well studied in such species as mouse and human but there is not enough data on other species. We produced American mink (Neovison vison) ES and iPS cells and compared these cells using transcriptome analysis. We report the generation of 10 mink ES and 22 iPS cell lines. The majority of the analyzed cell lines had normal diploid chromosome number. The only ES cell line with XX chromosome set had both X-chromosomes in active state that is characteristic of pluripotent cells. The pluripotency of ES and iPS cell lines was confirmed by formation of teratomas with cell types representing all three germ layers. Transcriptome analysis of mink embryonic fibroblasts (EF), two ES and two iPS cell lines allowed us to identify 11831 assembled contigs which were annotated. These led to a number of 6891 unique genes. Of these 3201 were differentially expressed between mink EF and ES cells. We analyzed expression levels of these genes in iPS cell lines. This allowed us to show that 80% of genes were correctly reprogrammed in iPS cells, whereas approximately 6% had an intermediate expression pattern, about 7% were not reprogrammed and about 5% had a "novel" expression pattern. We observed expression of pluripotency marker genes such as Oct4, Sox2 and Rex1 in ES and iPS cell lines with notable exception of Nanog. We had produced and characterized American mink ES and iPS cells. These cells were pluripotent by a number of criteria and iPS cells exhibited effective reprogramming. Interestingly, we had showed lack of Nanog expression and consider it as a species-specific feature.

  17. MERCURY AND STABLE ISOTPOES OF CARBON AND NITROGEN IN MINK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The total mercury concentrations, δ15N and δ13C in tissues of mink (Mustela vison) captured in Rhode Island during winters of the years 1999-2004 showed samples to be statistically distinct based on location. Mink captured in salt marsh environments (salt marsh group mink, SMGM)...

  18. Organochlorine and PCB residues in Lake Erie mink populations

    SciTech Connect

    Proulx, G.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Elliott, J.E.; Teeple, S.; Anghern, P.A.M.; Mineau, P.

    1987-12-01

    PCB poisoning has been found in mink (Mustela vison) fed on Great Lakes fish but is poorly know for wild mink populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether mink from the Lake Erie basin were accumulating levels of PCB and organochlorine residues high enough to cause health effects

  19. MERCURY AND STABLE ISOTPOES OF CARBON AND NITROGEN IN MINK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The total mercury concentrations, δ15N and δ13C in tissues of mink (Mustela vison) captured in Rhode Island during winters of the years 1999-2004 showed samples to be statistically distinct based on location. Mink captured in salt marsh environments (salt marsh group mink, SMGM)...

  20. Cause-effect linkages between chemicals and populations of mink (Mustela vison) and otter (Lutra canadensis) in the Great Lakes basin

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, C.D. )

    1991-08-01

    Following outbreaks of reproductive failure in commercial ranching operations, laboratory experiments showed that mink are extremely sensitive to organochlorine chemicals, particularly PCBs and dioxins. The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that, since wild mink are exposed to these compounds through consumption of Great Lakes fish, they might exhibit reproductive dysfunction and population declines. The otter, another piscivorous animal, should show the same effects. The available information is reviewed according to five epidemiological criteria. Harvest data are presented as a surrogate for the population status of mink and otters in certain locations around the Great Lakes. Data from Ohio show that the mink harvest between 1982 and 1987 from contaminated counties bordering Lake Erie was consistently lower than those from counties removed from Lake Erie, suggesting an effect of chemicals on the status of mink populations. Preliminary studies from Ontario also suggest that mink harvest is lower in potentially high PCB exposure areas compared with lower exposure areas. Evidence is also presented on the harvest data for otters taken from four New York State counties adjacent to Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. The harvest data from these four counties show that between 1960 and early 1970 otter harvest remained stable but has since increased. Increased harvest is consistent with improved water quality in Lake Ontario during the past 15 yr. Data relating to strength of association between chemicals and populations of mink and otter are weak and need to be further analyzed. The specificity of the effects of the chemicals on mink reproduction and mortality is well established from toxicological experiments, but there is poor resolution of the information on effects using field data. 104 references.

  1. Landscape barriers reduce gene flow in an invasive carnivore: geographical and local genetic structure of American mink in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Andrzej; Piertney, Stuart B; Zalewska, Hanna; Lambin, Xavier

    2009-04-01

    To be effective, management programmes geared towards halting or reversing the spread of invasive species must focus on defined and defensible areas. This requires knowledge of the dispersal of non-native species targeted for control to better understand invasion and recolonisation scenarios. We investigated the genetic structure of invasive American mink (Neovison vison) in Scotland, and incorporated landscape genetic approaches to examine resultant patterns in relation to geographical features that may influence dispersal. Populations of mink sampled from 10 sites in two regions (Argyll and Northeast Scotland) show a distinct genetic structure. First, the majority of pairwise population comparisons yielded F(ST) values that were significantly greater than zero. Second, AMOVA revealed that most of the genetic variance was attributable to differences among regions. Assignment tests placed 89 or more of individuals into their sampled region. Bayesian clustering methods grouped samples into two clusters according to their region of origin. Wombling approach identified the Cairngorms Mountains as a major impediment to gene flow between the regions. Mantel pairwise correlations between genetic and geographical distances estimated as least-cost distance assuming a linear increase in the cost of movement with increasing elevation were higher than Euclidean distances or distance along waterways. Spatial autocorrelation analyses revealed stronger spatial structuring for females than for males. These results suggest that gene flow by American mink is restricted by landscape features (mountain ranges) and that eradication attempt should in the first instance break down the connectivity between management units separated by mountains.

  2. Cloning of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and its expression in the uterus during embryonic diapause and implantation in the mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Song, J H; Houde, A; Murphy, B D

    1998-09-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is essential for embryo implantation in mice. Whether LIF plays a role in termination of embryonic diapause and initiation of implantation in carnivores, especially in species with obligate delayed implantation such as the mink, is not known. The objectives of this study were to clone the LIF coding sequence in the mink and determine its mRNA abundance in the uterus through embryonic diapause, implantation, and early postimplantation. We show that the mink LIF cDNA contains 609 nt encoding a deduced protein of 203 amino acids. The homologies are 80.6, 90, 88.2, 87.6, and 86.8% in coding sequence and 79.2, 90.1, 91, 90.1 and 85.4% in amino acid sequence with mouse, human, pig, cow, and sheep respectively. Glycosylation sites and disulfide bonds present in other species are generally conserved in the mink LIF sequence. Quantitation by polymerase chain reaction amplification indicates that LIF mRNA is expressed in mink uterus just prior to implantation and during the first two days after implantation, but not during diapause or later after implantation pregnancy. The abundance of LIF mRNA was significantly higher in the uterus at the embryo expansion stage (P < 0.05) than at days 1-2 of postimplantation. By immunohistochemical localization it was shown that LIF is expressed in the uterine epithelial glands at time of embryonic expansion and in early postimplantation. The coincidence of LIF expression with implantation in this species suggests that LIF is involved in the implantation process, and may be a maternal signal which terminates obligate embryonic diapause.

  3. Effects of different sources and levels of copper on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and elemental balance in young female mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Liu, Zhi; Zheng, Junjun; Guo, Jungang; Yang, Fuhe; Gao, Xiuhua

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted in a 3 × 3 + 1 factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of different sources of copper on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and elemental balance in young female mink on a corn-fishmeal-based diet. Animals in the control group were fed a basal diet (containing 8.05 mg Cu/kg DM; control), which mainly consisted of corn, fish meal, meat bone meal, and soybean oil, with no copper supplementation. Minks in other nine treatments were fed basal diets supplemented with Cu from reagent-grade copper sulfate, tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) and copper methionate. Cu concentrations of experiment diets were 10, 25, and 40 mg/kg copper. A metabolism trial of 4 days was conducted during the last week of experimental feeding. Final body weight and average daily gain increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) as Cu increased in the diet; maximal growth was seen in the Cu25 group. Cu supplementation slightly improved the feed conversion rate (P = 0.095). Apparent fat digestibility was increased by copper level (P = 0.020). Retention nitrogen was increased by copper level (linear, P = 0.003). Copper source had a significant effect on copper retention with Cu-Met and copper sulfate treatments retention more than TBCC treatments (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that mink can efficiently utilize added dietary fat and that Cu plays an important role in the digestion of dietary fat in mink, and mink can efficiently utilize Cu-Met and CuSO4.

  4. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Angela K; Sutherland, Chris S; Royle, J Andrew; Hare, Matthew P

    2016-06-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture-recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture-recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km(2) area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture-recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  6. Effects of lactic acid fermentation and gamma irradiation of barley on antinutrient contents and nutrient digestibility in mink (Mustela vison) with and without dietary enzyme supplement.

    PubMed

    Skrede, Anders; Sahlstrøm, Stefan; Ahlstrøm, Oystein; Connor, Kirsti Hjelme; Skrede, Grete

    2007-06-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the effects of fermentation of barley, using two different strains of lactic acid bacteria, a Lactobacillus plantarum/pentosus strain isolated from spontaneously fermented rye sourdough (AD2) and a starch-degrading Lactobacillus plantarum (AM4), on contents of mixed-linked (1 --> 3) (1 --> 4)-beta-glucans, alpha-amylase inhibitor activity, inositol phosphates, and apparent digestibility of macronutrients in mink. Effects of fermentation were compared with effects of gamma irradiation (gamma-irradiation: 60Co gamma-rays at 25 kGy). The diets were fed to mink with and without a supplementary enzyme preparation. Both lactic acid fermentation and gamma-irradiation followed by soaking and incubation, reduced concentrations of soluble beta-glucans, phytate and alpha-amylase inhibitor activity. Dietary enzyme supplementation increased significantly digestibility of crude protein, fat, starch and crude carbohydrate (CHO). Fermentation of the barley increased digestibility of starch and CHO. Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria AD2 resulted in higher starch and CHO digestibility than strain AM4, and had greater effect than gamma-irradiation, soaking and incubation. The highest digestibility of starch and CHO was obtained after AD2 fermentation followed by enzyme supplementation. It is concluded that both lactic acid fermentation of barley and enzyme supplementation have positive nutritional implications in the mink by limiting the effects of antinutrients and improving digestibility and energy utilization.

  7. Molecular and morphometric study of metacercariae and adults of Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opisthorchiidae) from roach (Rutilus rutilus) and wild American mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Skov, Jakob; Kania, Per W; Jørgensen, Thomas R; Buchmann, Kurt

    2008-08-17

    The presence of metacercariae and adults of the trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum in roach and mink, respectively, was recorded in Lake Fure North of Copenhagen, Denmark. This zoonotic digenean opisthorchiid represents a threat to humans due to its ability to infect the biliary system following ingestion of inadequately processed infected fish. Therefore precise species identification of infective metacercariae in fish used for human consumption is essential. Due to the relatively limited information on metacercarial identity obtained by morphometric studies a series of molecular techniques were used to link the larval parasite in fish with the un-equivocally diagnosed adults in the biliary system of the mink. By the use of carefully selected polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and subsequent sequencing of the ITS region from both metacercariae and adults full sequence identity of both metacercariae and adults were confirmed. The presence of this parasitosis in fish from a lake used for both commercial and recreational fisheries call for hygienic alerts in order to prevent accidental human infection with this opisthorchiid.

  8. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Andrzej; Zalewska, Hanna; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; André, Carl; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison) to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55), genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates.

  9. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control

    PubMed Central

    Zalewska, Hanna; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; André, Carl; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison) to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55), genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates. PMID:27333328

  10. Using Fur to Estimate Mercury Concentrations in Mink

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in fur and muscle tissue from mink (Mustela vison) were compared to determine the utility of fur analysis as a non-lethal and convenient method for predicting mercury concentrations in tissues. Sixty nine wild-trapped mink were collected in Rhode...

  11. Common loon nest defense against an American mink

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kyle P.; Destefano, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We describe a successful nest defense strategy of an adult Gavia immer (Common Loon) during an attempted predation event by a Nevison vison (American Mink) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge, NH. It is suspected that mink occasionally depredate loon nests, but defense strategies have not been described previously.

  12. Using Fur to Estimate Mercury Concentrations in Mink

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in fur and muscle tissue from mink (Mustela vison) were compared to determine the utility of fur analysis as a non-lethal and convenient method for predicting mercury concentrations in tissues. Sixty nine wild-trapped mink were collected in Rhode...

  13. [Morphology and biochemistry of blood of various mustelids. 4. Determination of various metabolites in the arterial plasma of mink--principles of the preparation of standard values for laboratory diagnosis in farm mink (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777)].

    PubMed

    Zeissler, R; Wenzel, U D; Strauch, W

    1980-01-01

    An account is first given of latest knowledge on how to determine clinico-diagnostic applicability of certain metabolites in mink plasma and serum. Then, statistically treated results obtained from analysis of levels of total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea, total cholesterin, triglyceride, and total bilirubin are tabulated and discussed, with due consideration being given to sexual dimorphism, following determination of those values from arterial plasma of 118 male and 124 female minks, aged between six and seven months and kept under anaesthesia. The following preliminary findings are somewhat worth mentioning: (a) Total cholesterin concentrations in plasma of females were found to be higher than those recorded from the males tested. However, no sex-related differences were established for any of the other parameters. (b) Creatinine, urea, and total cholesterin followed simple normal distribution. However, plasma protein concentrations exhibited no Gaussian distribution until all individual data had been logarithmically transformed. (c) In a complementary model experiment, in which the above plasma data were determined from nine male ferrets, aged between six and seven months, evidence was produced to differentiated effects of neuroleptanalgesia on metabolite concentrations.

  14. New insights into the melanophilin (MLPH) gene controlling coat color phenotypes in American mink.

    PubMed

    Cirera, Susanna; Markakis, Marios N; Christensen, Knud; Anistoroaei, Razvan

    2013-09-15

    The mutation causing the Silverblue color type (pp) is one of the most used recessive mutations within American mink (Neovison vison) fur farming, since it is involved in some of the popular color types such as Violet and Saphire which originate from a combination of recessive mutations. In the present study, the genomic and mRNA sequences of the melanophilin (MLPH) gene were studied in Violet, Silverblue and wild-type (wt) mink animals. Although breeding schemes and previous literature indicates that the Violet (aammpp) phenotype is a triple recessive color type involving the same locus as the Silverblue (pp) color type, our findings indicate different genotypes at the MLPH locus. Upon comparison at genomic level, we identified two deletions of the entire intron 7 and of the 5' end of intron 8 in the sequence of the Silverblue MLPH gene. When investigating the mRNA, the Silverblue animals completely lack exon 8, which encodes 65 residues, of which 47 define the Myosin Va (MYO5A) binding domain. This may cause the incorrect anchoring of the MLPH protein to MYO5A in Silverblue animals, resulting in an improper pigmentation as seen in diluted phenotypes. Additionally, in the MLPH mRNA of wt, Violet and Silverblue phenotypes, part of intron 8 is retained resulting in a truncated MLPH protein, which is 359 residues long in wt and Violet and 284 residues long in Silverblue. Subsequently, our findings point out that the missing actin-binding domain, in neither of the 3 analyzed phenotypes affects the transport of melanosomes or the consequent final pigmentation. Moreover, the loss of the major part of the MYO5A domain in the Silverblue MLPH protein seems to be the responsible for the dilute phenotype. Based on our genomic DNA data, genetic tests for selecting Silverblue and Violet carrier animals can be performed in American mink. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Skeleton of Extinct North American Sea Mink ( Mustela macrodon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Spiess, Arthur E.; Sobolik, Kristin D.

    2000-03-01

    Mustela macrodon (extinct sea mink) is known only from prehistoric and historic Native American shell middens dating less than 5100 years old along coastal islands of the Gulf of Maine, northeastern North America. The species is distinct from all known extant subspecies of M. vison (American mink) but still belongs to the North American subgenus Vison. Metric comparisons between M. macrodon and five subspecies of M. vison, using skull, mandible, humerus, radius, femur, and tibia skeletal elements, show that M. macrodon is larger in overall size and robustness and is proportionately larger in the dental region. Many habitat-related parallels exist between coastal island mink of the Gulf of Maine and those of the Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska, where the overall largest living subspecies of mink is found (M. v. nesolestes).

  16. MERCURY IN MINK IN RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tissues of mink (Mustela vison) collected from Rhode Island sites during winters of 1999-2002 were analyzed for mercury and stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon to determine the extent of Hg contamination in these aquatic dependent wildlife, and to evaluate whether stable isoto...

  17. MERCURY IN MINK IN RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tissues of mink (Mustela vison) collected from Rhode Island sites during winters of 1999-2002 were analyzed for mercury and stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon to determine the extent of Hg contamination in these aquatic dependent wildlife, and to evaluate whether stable isoto...

  18. Cranial helminths of Mustela vison Schreber, 1777 in Spain.

    PubMed

    Torres, J; Miquel, J; Mañas, S; Asensio, V; Eira, C; Palazón, S

    2006-04-30

    A survey was carried out to investigate the presence of cranial helminths in 337 American minks (Mustela vison) from Spain. This information was obtained partly in order to evaluate potential conservation problems and sanitary risks to the congeneric European mink (Mustela lutreola), one of the most endangered carnivores in the world. Skulls and rectal faeces of each specimen were simultaneously analysed. Troglotrema acutum and Skrjabingylus nasicola were found in 5.6% of the M. vison analysed. No cranial lesions were seen in any of the examined skulls. The finding of both helminths in Spanish free-living M. vison specimens enlarges their natural definitive host spectrum in Western Europe. One relatively important focus of T. acutum in M. vison was detected (30.4%) in the Spanish Alava province while S. nasicola was found to be very infrequent. The suitability of both analytical methods was assessed in order to know to what degree coprological analysis reflects the real prevalence of cranial helminths in this host. It is possible to conclude that coprological analysis can be used instead of necropsies to analyse the possible incidence of pathogenic cranial helminths in mustelids. This aspect is very important and useful when trying to analyse the helminthological status of endangered species such as the native mink (M. lutreola) particularly in areas where both congeneric species are present and strict competition occurs.

  19. Environmentally Enriched Male Mink Gain More Copulations than Stereotypic, Barren-Reared Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition (‘perseveration’) as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise

  20. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    PubMed

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration') as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise that

  1. Construction of an American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. Results Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison). The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library. These included candidate genes for coat coloring, hair growth and length, coarseness, and some receptors potentially involved in viral diseases in mink. The extensive screening yielded positive results for 19 of these genes. Thirty-five clones corresponding to 19 genes were sequenced using 454 Roche, and large contigs (184 kb in average) were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes. Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80% of BACs) were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. Conclusions The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the first report of 454

  2. Construction of an American mink bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry.

    PubMed

    Anistoroaei, Razvan; ten Hallers, Boudewijn; Nefedov, Michael; Christensen, Knud; de Jong, Pieter

    2011-07-08

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison). The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library. These included candidate genes for coat coloring, hair growth and length, coarseness, and some receptors potentially involved in viral diseases in mink. The extensive screening yielded positive results for 19 of these genes. Thirty-five clones corresponding to 19 genes were sequenced using 454 Roche, and large contigs (184 kb in average) were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes.Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80% of BACs) were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the first report of 454 sequencing of selected BAC clones

  3. Toxoplasmosis in a free-ranging mink.

    PubMed

    Jones, Yava L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Sikarske, James G; Murphy, Alice; Grosjean, Nicole; Kiupel, Matti

    2006-10-01

    A free-ranging mink (Mustela vison), estimated to be 3 mo old, was found on the campus of Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; it exhibited clinical signs of left hind limb lameness, ataxia, head tremors, and bilateral blindness. Histologically, the animal had a mild, nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis and severe chorioretinitis with intralesional bradyzoites and tachyzoites. Protozoal organisms were identified as Toxoplasma gondii based on histology, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a free-ranging mink.

  4. Newcastle disease virus from domestic mink, China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Panpan; Sun, Lingshuang; Sun, Xiao; Li, Siwen; Zhang, Wen; Pulscher, Laura A; Chai, Hongliang; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a pathogen that most often infects poultry species. In investigating a 2014 outbreak of encephalitis and death among farmed mink (Mustela vison), we found pathological and later experimental evidence that NDV can infect and cause severe encephalitic and pneumonic disease in these animals. Our findings confirm the host range of NDV.

  5. Sequencing and characterization of mixed function monooxygenase genes CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 of Mink (Mustela vison) to facilitate study of dioxin-like compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaowei; Moore, Jeremy N.; Newsted, John L.; Hecker, Markus Zwiernik, Matthew J.; Jones, Paul D.; Bursian, Steven J.

    2009-02-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to understand aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity in mink, cDNAs encoding for CYP1A1 and the CYP1A2 mixed function monooxygenases were cloned and characterized. In addition, the effects of selected dibenzofurans on the expression of these genes and the presence of their respective proteins (P4501A) were investigated, and then correlated with the catalytic activities of these proteins as measured by ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) activities. The predicted protein sequences for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 comprise 517 and 512 amino acid residues, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of the mink CYP1As with protein sequences of other mammals revealed high sequence homology with sea otter, seals and the dog, with amino acid identities ranging from 89 to 95% for CYP1A1 and 81 to 93% for CYP1A2. Since exposure to both 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) resulted in dose-dependent increases of CYP1A1 mRNA, CYP1A2 mRNA and CYP1A protein levels an underlying AhR-mediated mechanism is suggested. The up-regulation of CYP1A mRNA in liver was more consistent to the sum adipose TEQ concentration than to the liver TEQ concentration in minks treated with TCDF or PeCDF. The result suggested that the hepatic-sequestered fraction of PeCDF was biologically inactive to the induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2.

  6. Lead and cadmium concentrations in mink from northern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine concentrations of cadmium and lead in mink (Mustela vison) in northern Idaho, to discuss potential effects, and to determine whether levels have declined. Mink (skinned carcasses) from the Coeur d'Alene River system (northern Idaho) were ohtained from trappers during the 1981-82 (n = 17) and 1986-87 (n= 14) seasons. Livers of all eight mink from the uncontaminated North Fork contained low levels of lead; whereas, 9 of the 23 mink from lateral lakes adjoining the contaminated main stem, downstream from a mining-smelting complex, contained potentially hazardous lead levels (>5 ?g/g). Stomach contents of nine mink contained variahle concentrations of lead (0.15 to 51 ?g/g); samples from the main stem contained the highest values. No difference was detected in lead concentrations in livers of mink trapped from the lateral lakes in 1981-82 and 1986-87. Levels of cadmium were low in all samples, but lead levels were the highest ever recorded in mink. Our results suggest that metal pollution has probably led to localized declines in mink populations.

  7. A COMAPRISON OF MERCURY IN MINK AND FISHER IN RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparison of total mercury concentrations and nitrogen and carbon stable isotope values in muscle tissue and stomach contents of mink (Mustela vison) and fisher (Martes pennanti) from Rhode Island in 2000- 2003 showed results which appeared to reflect dietary differences betwee...

  8. A COMAPRISON OF MERCURY IN MINK AND FISHER IN RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparison of total mercury concentrations and nitrogen and carbon stable isotope values in muscle tissue and stomach contents of mink (Mustela vison) and fisher (Martes pennanti) from Rhode Island in 2000- 2003 showed results which appeared to reflect dietary differences betwee...

  9. Progressive retinal degeneration in ranch mink.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, W J

    1984-01-01

    Retinal degeneration was prevalent in a large group of sapphire and pastel mink (Mustela vison) kept for studies on slow viral diseases. Nearly 78% of those two to eight years old were affected. The retinopathy was equally common in both sexes but more frequent in sapphires (85%) than in pastels (63%), and it was severe more often in sapphires than in pastels. By light microscopy, the primary change appeared to be progressive degeneration of fully developed photoreceptors, beginning in their outer segments. In many mink, including some younger ones, the rods and cones and outer nuclear layer had disappeared from all but the far periphery of the fundus. The inner retinal layers were spared until late in the disease, and the pigment epithelium remained essentially unchanged. The cause of the retinopathy was not established. It may represent an abiotrophy in which the structural integrity of the photoreceptors began to wane in many mink after they reached two years of age. Apart from reducing visual acuity, the retinopathy has implications for the photoperiodic control of fur growth and reproduction in this highly light-sensitive carnivore.

  10. Dietary exposure of mink to carp from Saginaw Bay, Michigan: 2. Hematology and liver pathology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heaton, S. N.; Bursian, S.J.; Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D. E.; Render, J. A.; Jones, P.D.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Kubiak, T.J.; Aulerich, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of consumption of environmental contaminants contained in carp (Cyprinus carpio)from Saginaw Bay, Michigan on various hematological parameters and liver integrity of adult female mink (Mustela vison) were determined. Mink were fed diets that contained 0 (control), 10, 20, or 40% carp prior to and throughout the reproductive period (182 days). The diets contained 0.015, 0.72, 1.53, and 2.56 mg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)/kg diet and 1.0, 19, 40, and 81 pg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs)/g diet, respectively. Mink fed the diets containing carp showed a general dose-dependent occurrence of clinical signs commonly associated with chlorinated hydrocarbon toxicity, including listlessness, nervousness when approached, anorexia, and melena. Erythrocyte counts were less in mink exposed to Saginaw Bay carp than in controls, while the number of white blood cells was greater than in controls. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the concentrations of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils were also found between the control and carp-fed groups, but are considered to be of limited clinical or biological importance. Hematocrit values for the mink fed the 20 and 40% carp diets were significantly less than those of mink in the control and 10% carp groups. There were no significant differences in hemoglobin concentrations among the groups. Necropsies revealed enlarged yellowish livers in many of the carp-fed mink, especially those fed the 40% carp diet. Liver, spleen, and lung weights of carp-fed mink were significantly greater than those of control mink. Histopathologic examination of the livers revealed various degrees of congestion, hepatocellular fatty changes, and scattered portal lymphocytic infiltration which were most prevalent in mink fed the carp diets. These clinical signs, hematological effects, and histologic alterations are similar to those previously described for chlorinated hydrocarbon toxicoses in mink.

  11. Risk induced by a native top predator reduces alien mink movements.

    PubMed

    Salo, Pälvi; Nordström, Mikael; Thomson, Robert L; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2008-11-01

    1. Nonlethal predation effects may have stronger impacts on prey populations than direct predation impacts, and this should also apply to intraguild predation. The consequences of such interactions become especially important if invasive, and potentially destructive alien predators act as intraguild prey. 2. We studied the predation-risk impacts of a re-colonizing native top predator, Haliaeetus albicilla (white-tailed sea eagle), on the movements of Mustela vison (American mink), an alien predator in Europe. We radiocollared 20 mink in two study areas in the outer archipelago of the Baltic Sea, South-west Finland, during 2004 and 2005. In the archipelago, mink home ranges incorporate many islands, and mink are most predisposed to eagle predation while swimming between islands. Observed swimming distances of mink were compared to distances expected at random, and deviations from random swimming were explained by mink distance from nearest eagle nest, number of eagle observations near mink location, and mink home-range size. 3. Mink reduced their swimming distances with increasing sea eagle predation risk: for females, the reduction was 10% for an increase of 10 eagle observations, and 5% for each kilometre towards an eagle nest. Conclusions for males were restricted by their small sample size. 4. Our results suggest that female mink modify their behaviour according to eagle predation risk, which may reduce their population growth and have long-term cascading effects on lower trophic levels including bird, mammal and amphibian populations in the archipelago. Ecosystem restoration by bringing back the top predators may be one way of mitigating alien predator effects on native biota.

  12. Aleutian Disease of Mink

    PubMed Central

    Karstad, Lars; Pridham, T. J.

    1962-01-01

    A suspension of tissues from field cases of Aleutian disease was used successfully to reproduce the disease in Aleutian mink. Similarly, suspensions of diseased tissues from the experimentally infected mink were used to transmit the agent of Aleutian disease to both Aleutian mink and standard dark mink. Seitz and millipore filtrates prepared from these tissue suspensions were also infective; a suggestion that the etiologic agent is a virus. Genetic factors and hypersensitivity are discussed as possibly contributing to development of the disease. PMID:17649371

  13. PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in wild mink and river otters from Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Gregory, S.V.; Stafford, C.J.; Chapman, Joseph A.; Pursley, Duane

    1981-01-01

    Mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) collected during the 1978-1979 trapping season in Oregon were analyzed for organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues. PCB residues were most frequently encountered in both species from the Lower Columbia River. PCB residues in 6 of 9 Columbia River mink livers were as high as those reported in livers of experimental female mink that experienced total reproductive failure after eating a PCB-contaminated diet of 0.64 ppm for 160 days. Also, some fish from the Columbia River contained PCBs (range 0.24-2.8 ppm) equivalent to or higher than the dietary dosage given in the same laboratory study. River otter livers from the same area contained even higher levels of PCBs [(M) geometric mean 9.3 ppm, (F) geometric mean 3.5 ppm], but the relative sensitivity of the 2 species to these contaminants is unknown. The river otter harvest along the Lower Columbia River has declined in the last 3 decades, whereas the statewide harvest trend is upward. PCBs were generally low or not detected in the remainder of the Oregon locations studied. Lower Columbia River collections also showed the highest organochlorine pesticides (mainly DDE) in both species. We are less concerned about the DDE residues reported, particularly in mink, because mink are less sensitive to DDT than to PCBs. Population declines of both mink and otters resulting from PCB contamination may have occurred, and may still be occurring, along the Lower Columbia River.

  14. Production of recombinant mink growth hormone in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Sereikaite, Jolanta; Statkute, Alina; Morkunas, Mindaugas; Radzevicius, Kostas; Borromeo, Vitaliano; Secchi, Camillo; Bumelis, Vladas-Algirdas

    2007-02-01

    Escherichia coli cells expressing mink (Mustela vison) growth hormone were grown in a batch fermentation process. The expression level was estimated to be 27% of the total cellular protein after 3 h of induction with 1 mM isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG). If the expression of mink growth hormone (mGH) was induced with 0.2 mM IPTG, the concentration of target protein was slightly lower and was found to be 23% at the same time after induction. mGH expressed as inclusion bodies was solubilized in 8 M urea and renatured by dilution protocol at a protein concentration of 1.4-2.1 mg/ml in the presence of glutathione pair in a final concentration of 11.3 mM. [GSH]/[GSSG] ratio equal to 2/1 was used. Two-step purification process comprising of ion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and hydrophobic chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose was developed. Some 25-30 mg of highly purified and biologically active mGH was obtained from 4 g of biomass. The method presented in this study allows producing large quantities of mGH and considering initiation of scientific investigation on mGH effect on mink in vivo and availability in fur industry.

  15. Alien mink predation induces prolonged declines in archipelago amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Ahola, Markus; Nordström, Mikael; Banks, Peter B; Laanetu, Nikolai; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2006-01-01

    Amphibians are undergoing enigmatic global declines variously attributed to a complex web of anthropogenic forces. Alien predators pose a fundamental threat to biodiversity generally that is predicted to be most acute in island ecosystems. While amphibian eggs and tadpoles are vulnerable to aquatic predators, the effect of predators on adult, reproducing frogs, which most influence amphibian population processes, is unknown. Here, we report on the responses of amphibian populations in the outer Finnish Archipelago to a long-term, large-scale removal of American mink (Mustela vison Schreb.), an invasive predator linked to recent biodiversity loss across Europe. Removal increased both the densities and distribution of common frogs (Rana temporaria L.) but not those of common toads (Bufo bufo L.), which appear to escape mink predation because of their unpalatable skin. Importantly, the largest benefits of mink removal to frog recovery were slow to appear as frogs apparently have a delayed maturation in these harsh environments, which means we must be cautious about reliance upon short-term results. PMID:16720400

  16. Efficacy of imidacloprid, imidacloprid/permethrin and phoxim for flea control in the Mustelidae (ferrets, mink).

    PubMed

    Larsen, K S; Siggurdsson, H; Mencke, N

    2005-10-01

    Farmed mink (Mustela vison), a close relative of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo), naturally infested with the squirrel flea (Ceratophyllus sciurorum) were included in a study to investigate three compounds for flea control. The test products were imidacloprid in a 10% (w/v) solution, an imidacloprid 10% (w/v)/permethrin 50% (w/v) solution, and phoxim; all three are well-known compounds for the control of different ectoparasites in a wide range of animals. Two groups of mink received 0.1 ml per animal of the imidacloprid or the imidacloprid/permethrin combination at days 0 and 28, respectively. Two groups of mink were sprayed with 25 ml of a 0.1% phoxim solution at day 0 and either 1x25 ml or 2x25 ml, respectively, of a 0.05% phoxim solution at day 28. One group of mink served as an untreated control. At assessment on day 56 the efficacy was 91.9% in the imidacloprid group, 89.3% in the imidacloprid/permethrin group, 92.2% in the phoxim 1x25-ml group and 99.3% in the phoxim 2x25 ml group, respectively. In the untreated control group an average of 757 fleas per mink nesting material was recorded.

  17. Dietary exposure of mink to carp from Saginaw Bay, Michigan. 1. Effects on reproduction and survival, and the potential risks to wild mink populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heaton, S. N.; Bursian, S.J.; Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D. E.; Render, J. A.; Jones, P.D.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Kubiak, T.J.; Aulerich, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from Saginaw Bay, Michigan, containing 8.4 mg total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)/kg and 194 ng of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs)/kg, were substituted for marine fish at levels of 0, 10, 20, or 40% in the diets of adult ranch mink (Mustela vison). The diets, containing 0.015, 0.72, 1.53, and 2.56 mg PCBs/kg diet, or 1.03, 19.41, 40.02, and 80.76 ng TEQs/kg diet, respectively, were fed to mink prior to and throughout the reproductive period to evaluate the effects of a naturally-contaminated prey species on their survival and reproductive performance. The total quantities of PCBs ingested by the mink fed 0, 10, 20, or 40% carp over the 85-day treatment period were 0.34, 13.2, 25.3, and 32.3 mg PCBs/mink, respectively. The corresponding quantities of TEQs ingested by the mink over the same treatment period were 23, 356, 661, and 1,019 ng TEQs/mink, respectively. Consumption of feed by mink was inversely proportional to the PCB and TEQ content of the diet. The diets containing Saginaw Bay carp caused impaired reproduction and/or reduced survival of the kits. Compared to controls, body weights of kits at birth were significantly reduced in the 20 and 40% carp groups, and kit body weights and survival in the 10 and 20% carp groups were significantly reduced at three and six weeks of age. The females fed 40% carp whelped the fewest number of kits, all of which were stillborn or died within 24 hours. Lowest observable adverse effect levels (LOAEL) of 0.134 mg PCBs/kg body weight/day or 3.6 ng TEQs/kg body weight/day for adult female mink were determined. The potential effects of exposure of wild mink to contaminated Great Lakes fish were assessed by calculating “maximum allowable daily intakes” and “hazard indices” based on total concentrations of PCB residues in several species of Great Lakes fish and mink toxicity data derived from the study.

  18. Definitive hosts of a fatal Versteria species (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We previously reported fatal metacestode infection in a captive orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) with a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. Data from ermine (Mustela erminea) and mink (Neovison vison) implicate mustelids as definitive North America hosts and expand known Versteria diversity. The orangu...

  19. Habitat-mediated impact of alien mink predation on common frog densities in the outer archipelago of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Salo, Pälvi; Ahola, Markus P; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2010-06-01

    Alien predators have been recognised as one possible cause for amphibian declines around the world, but little is known of habitat-mediated predation impacts especially on adult amphibians. We studied common frog Rana temporaria under American mink Mustela vison predation in the outer archipelago of the Baltic Sea, south-western Finland. Using egg batches as an index of breeding frog female numbers we compared frog numbers and densities between a large, long-term mink-removal area and a comparable control area. Frog numbers in the removal area were at least 2.7-fold higher than those in the control area. In the presence of mink, frog densities increased with the amount of vegetation cover on the islands, indicating that mink predation affected frog densities especially on less-vegetated islands. An opposite trend appeared to be true for frogs in the mink-removal area, where other predators like snakes could induce a decline of frog densities on more vegetated islands. Shrub or grass vegetation seems to provide frogs shelter against alien mink predation. Our result highlights the importance of landscape-level habitat management as a conservation tool for amphibian populations.

  20. Concentrations of metals in mink and other mammals from Washington and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    From 1981 to 1983, concentrations dfof metals were determined in mink Mustela vison, muskrats Ondatra zibethica, and small mammals at one contaminated site in Idaho and at two less contaminated sites in Idaho and Washington. The highest concentrations of Pb and Cd occurred in samples from the Coeur d'Alene River system near or downstream from an extensive mining?smelting complex in northern Idaho. Maximum concentrations of Pb in the liver of a mink (22 :g g-1) and in pooled liver samples of both voles (Microtus spp., 5?8 :g g-1) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, 10?5 :g g-1) were higher than those inducing serious problems, including mortality, in experimental mammals on Pb-contaminated diets. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn were generally low. Declines in certain mammal populations have probably occurred in northern Idah as a result of direct toxicity of metals and associated secondary effects on cover and food supply.

  1. Histological lesions in mink jaws are a highly sensitive biomarker of effect after exposure to TCDD-like chemicals: field and literature-based confirmations.

    PubMed

    Haynes, James M; Wellman, Sara T; Beckett, Kerrie J; Pagano, James J; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Bursian, Steven J

    2009-11-01

    The mink (Mustela vison) is one of the most sensitive mammals to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-like chemicals. By literature review we established that a histological lesion of the jaw bone of mink, evidenced by squamous epithelial hyperplasia in the gingival tissue that forms nests or cords that infiltrate the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone causing osteolysis of the mandible and maxilla that could lead to squamous cell carcinoma, is the most sensitive known biomarker of effect following exposure of mink to TCDD-like chemicals. Lesions have been observed when total TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ: dioxins, furans, coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs) in liver exceed 40 ng/kg wet weight (ww) or when total PCB exceeds 1698 ng/g ww. This is the second report of histological evidence of this lesion in wild-caught mink, and it is the first report of the lesion being grossly detectable in naturally exposed mink. Some mink living near the south shore of Lake Ontario (exposed to the lake's food web), but not inland mink (not exposed to the lake's food web), accumulate more than 40 ng total TEQ/kg or 1698 ng total PCB/kg in liver. Because of its sensitivity, the jaw lesion biomarker is very useful for assessing the health of wildlife populations exposed to TCDD-like chemicals.

  2. Leptospirosis in free-ranging endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other small carnivores (Mustelidae, Viverridae) from southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Moinet, Marie; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Aulagnier, Stéphane; Mesplède, Alain; Blanchard, Béatrice; Descarsin, Véronique; Dumas, Philippe; Dumas, Yann; Coïc, Christophe; Couzi, Laurent; Fournier, Pascal

    2010-10-01

    To study the possible role of disease in the decline of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola), we conducted a survey of antibody prevalence and renal carriage of pathogenic leptospira (Leptospira interrogans sensu lato) using serum and kidney samples collected from 1990 to 2007 from several free-ranging small carnivores and farmed American mink (Mustela vison) in southwestern France. An indirect microscopic agglutination test using a panel of 16 serovars belonging to 6 serogroups (Australis, Autumnalis, Icterohæmorrhagiæ, Grippotyphosa, Panama, Sejroe) revealed antibodies in all species, with significant differences in antibody prevalences: 74% in European mink (n=99), 65.4% in European polecats (Mustela putorius, n=133), 86% in American mink (n=74), 89% in stone martens (Martes foina, n=19), 74% in pine martens (Martes martes, n=19), 35% in common genets (Genetta genetta, n=79), and 31% in farmed American mink (n=51). Serogroups Australis and Icterohæmorragiæ were dominant in most free-ranging species; serogroup Grippotyphosa had high prevalences in European mink. Such high antibody prevalences have never been reported. They are probably related to the large number of known reservoirs, rats (Rattus spp.), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), and coypu (Myocastor coypu), in the study area. The polymerase chain reaction test specific for pathogenic leptospiral DNA detected renal carriage in 23% of 34 European mink, 22% of 18 polecats, and 15% of 33 free-ranging American mink, with no significant differences. Renal carriage shows that mustelids may shed leptospira for short periods, but their epidemiologic role is probably limited. High antibody prevalences suggest that the disease is unlikely to be highly pathogenic for these species; however, chronic forms of the disease (abortions, renal lesions) could reduce the reproductive success or life span of infected animals. Further studies on the pathogenicity of leptospirosis in these populations are needed to

  3. Decline in Endangered Species as an Indication of Anthropic Pressures: The Case of European Mink Mustela lutreola Western Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodé, Thierry; Cormier, Jean-Paul; Le Jacques, Dominique

    2001-12-01

    Populations of threatened species, especially predators at the top of the food chain, may be affected by anthropic pressures. The endangered western population of European mink Mustela lutreola has shown a large decline over 50% of its natural range. M. lutreola disappeared from northwestern France between 1984 and 1997, and the decline was associated with an increase in mustelid trapping, changes in watercourse quality, and habitat modifications due to agricultural practices. The pattern of decline showed a fragmentation restricting the minks into very small areas. Trapping was the first known cause of mortality. Although feral American mink Mustela vison may compete with autochthonous carnivores, M. lutreola had disappeared from streams before the introduction of the American species, suggesting that competitive interactions were not responsible. Furthermore, American mink has never been found or has remained rare in 62.4% of the area from which M. lutreola has disappeared. During the past 25 years, permanent grassland surfaces were reduced by 40%, whereas fodder culture increased by 470%, causing considerable habitat changes. Furthermore, 55.7% of water courses were classified as being of bad quality or polluted. Therefore, our data suggests that a conjunction of intensive trapping, alterations in water quality and habitat modification was critical for the European mink's decline. Although there are difficulties in ascribing specific cause to distribution changes in a top predator, this decline can be regarded as an indication for anthropic pressures on natural habitats.

  4. Serologic survey for selected viral pathogens in free-ranging endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other mustelids from south-western France.

    PubMed

    Philippa, Joost; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; Fournier, Pascal; Schaftenaar, Willem; van de Bildt, Marco; van Herweijnen, Rob; Kuiken, Thijs; Liabeuf, Marie; Ditcharry, Sébastien; Joubert, Laurent; Bégnier, Michel; Osterhaus, Ab

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the possible role of selected pathogens in the decline of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) populations and the potential for these pathogens to affect mink survival, a serologic survey was conducted using serum samples collected from March 1996 to March 2003 in eight departments of south-western France. In total, 481 free-ranging individuals of five mustelid species (including the European mink) were tested. Sympatric mustelids can serve as sentinels to determine the presence of antibodies to viruses in the study area that could potentially infect mink. Antibodies to Canine distemper virus (CDV) were detected in all species; 9% of 127 European mink, 20% of 210 polecats (Mustela putorius), 5% of 112 American mink (Mustela vison), 33% of 21 stone marten (Martes foina) and 5% of 20 pine marten (Martes martes). Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in stone marten and polecats, possibly because their ranges overlap more closely with that of domestic species than that of the other species tested. Antibodies to Canine adenovirus were detected in all species but the pine marten; antibody prevalence estimates ranging from 2% to 10%. Antibodies to canine parainfluenza virus were detected in 1% of European mink, 1% of American mink and 5% of tested polecats but were not detected in Martes species. Antibodies to Rabies virus (RV) were detected in three animals, possibly because of interspecies transmission of bat lyssaviruses as the sampling area is considered to be free of RV, or to a lack of test specificity, as antibody titers were low. The high antibody prevalence to potentially lethal CDV suggests that this pathogen could have significant effects on the free-ranging populations and has implications for the conservation efforts for the endangered European mink.

  5. Effect of selection on digestibility and carcass composition in mink.

    PubMed

    Lagerkvist, G; Tauson, A H

    1993-01-01

    In a 5-generation selection experiment, separate lines of mink (Mustela vison) were selected for litter size at 3 weeks (F-line) and body weight in September (BS-line). One unselected line served as a control (C). Nutrient digestibility was studied in a balance experiment with four male kits from each line in the last generation. Carcass composition was determined for four 4th-generation F- and BS-males each that had been killed on September 21. The feed consumption rate was higher in the BS-line animals in the balance experiment than in the F- and C-animals (1687 versus 1532 and 1504 kJ/animal and day). These differences reflected the higher average live weights measured on August 25, of the BS-males (1831 g versus 1728 and 1619). CP and CHO digestibility were similar in all lines, whereas a numerically small but significant difference in apparent fat digestibility was found between the F- and BS-lines (95%) and the C-line (93%). Average body weights of animals in the carcass composition evaluation were 2607 g (BS-line) and 2023 g (F-line). Retained protein, fat, and energy were significantly affected by line. The amount of protein retained per kg metabolic weight (kg0.75) was nearly equal in the two lines, indicating that the animals' genetic capacity for protein retention was similar and probably utilized to its full extent. Retained fat and energy per kg0.75 were higher in the BS-line, indicating that the animals had been selected for fat deposition rather than for body size. Hence, selection for body size in mink should be performed by using a selection criterion with which the negative effects of increased fat deposition on reproductive performance can be avoided.

  6. Symmetry fractionalization of visons in Z2 spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yang; Cheng, Meng; Fang, Chen

    In this work we study symmetry fractionalization of vison excitations in topological Z2 spin liquids. We show that in the presence of the full SO (3) spin-rotational symmetry and if there is an odd number of spin-1/2 per unit cell, the symmetry fractionalization of visons is completely fixed. On the other hand, visons can have different classes of symmetry fractionalization if the spin-rotational symmetry is reduced. As a concrete example, we show that visons in the Balents-Fisher-Girvin Z2 spin liquid have crystal symmetry fractionalization classes which are not allowed in SO (3) symmetric spin liquids, due to the reduced spin-rotational symmetry.

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Mink

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1983-01-01

    The mink (Mustela vison) is a predatory, semiaquatic mammal that is generally associated with stream and river banks, lake shores, fresh and saltwater marshes, and marine shore habitats (Gerell 1970).  Mink are chiefly nocturnal and remain active throughout the year (Marshall 1936); Gerell 1969; Burgess 1978).  The species is adaptable in its use of habitat, modifying daily habits according to environmental conditions, particularly prey availability (Wise et al. 1981; Linn and Birds 1981; Birks and Linn 1982).  The species is tolerant of human activity and will inhabit suboptimum habitats as long as an adequate food source is available; however, mink will be more mobile and change home ranges more frequently under such conditions (Linn pers. comm.).

  8. Bacterial diskospondylitis in juvenile mink from 2 Ontario mink farms

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Jorge; Vidaña, Beatriz; Cruz-Arambulo, Robert; Slavic, Durda; Tapscott, Brian; Brash, Marina L.

    2013-01-01

    Nine juvenile mink with hind-limb paresis/paralysis from 2 Ontario farms were submitted for necropsy. Diagnostic tests revealed spinal compression and severe thoracic diskospondylitis with intralesional Gram-positive coccoid bacterial colonies. Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, and hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from vertebral lesions. PMID:24155490

  9. Bacterial diskospondylitis in juvenile mink from 2 Ontario mink farms.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jorge; Vidaña, Beatriz; Cruz-Arambulo, Robert; Slavic, Durda; Tapscott, Brian; Brash, Marina L

    2013-09-01

    Nine juvenile mink with hind-limb paresis/paralysis from 2 Ontario farms were submitted for necropsy. Diagnostic tests revealed spinal compression and severe thoracic diskospondylitis with intralesional Gram-positive coccoid bacterial colonies. Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, and hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from vertebral lesions.

  10. A survey of Aleutian mink disease virus infection of feral American mink in Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Farid, A Hossain; Rupasinghe, Priyanka; Mitchell, Jessicca L; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2010-01-01

    Spleen samples from 14 mink that were trapped in 4 counties of Nova Scotia were tested for the presence of the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) by polymerase chain reaction. Viral DNA was not detected in samples from Kings County (n = 2), but was detected in all the mink sampled from Colchester (n = 2) and Halifax (n = 6) counties, and 3 of 4 mink from Yarmouth County. The high level of AMDV-infected mink in Colchester and Halifax counties may pose a serious threat to the captive mink and wild animal populations. Because treatment of infected free-ranging mink is not an option, AMDV control strategies for the captive mink should be primarily focused on bio-security to protect clean ranches.

  11. A survey of Aleutian mink disease virus infection of feral American mink in Nova Scotia

    PubMed Central

    Farid, A. Hossain; Rupasinghe, Priyanka; Mitchell, Jessicca L.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2010-01-01

    Spleen samples from 14 mink that were trapped in 4 counties of Nova Scotia were tested for the presence of the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) by polymerase chain reaction. Viral DNA was not detected in samples from Kings County (n = 2), but was detected in all the mink sampled from Colchester (n = 2) and Halifax (n = 6) counties, and 3 of 4 mink from Yarmouth County. The high level of AMDV-infected mink in Colchester and Halifax counties may pose a serious threat to the captive mink and wild animal populations. Because treatment of infected free-ranging mink is not an option, AMDV control strategies for the captive mink should be primarily focused on bio-security to protect clean ranches. PMID:20357945

  12. Chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PCB causes reproductive toxicity in mink

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstroem, B.; Oerberg, J.; Lund, B.O.; Athanasiadou, M.

    1995-12-31

    Female mink (Mustela vison) were exposed to the technical PCB preparation Clophen A50 (0.3 or 0.1 mg/animal/day) in the feed for 18 months, including two reproduction seasons. Isomer-specific PCB-analysis of the technical mixture was made and the concentrations of toxic equivalents (TEQs) in the feed were calculated. In addition, Clophen A50 was separated into two fractions, one containing the non and mono-ortho-chlorinated PCB congeners (planar fraction) and the other containing congeners with 2-4 chlorines in ortho-position (non-planar fraction). Animals in two separate groups were exposed daily to these individual fractions extracted from 0.3 mg Clophen A50. No effect on the reproduction outcome was observed during the first reproduction season. However, reduced birth weights were noted in the kits born to animals treated with 0.3 mg Clophen A50 per day. The reproductive performance was seriously affected in the second season. Only 39% of the females exposed to 0.3 mg Clophen A50 per day whelped, compared with 93% in the control group. All whelps in the group exposed to the high dose of Clophen A50 died within 1 day after birth. Kit survival and growth were reduced also in the group treated with the low dose of Clophen A50. Treatment with the non and mono-orthochlorinated PCB congeners strongly reduced kit survival and body weight gain. Only 8% of the kits survived until 2 weeks of age. It is concluded that the non and monoortho-chlorinated PCB congeners were responsible for the major part of the reproductive toxicity caused by Clophen A50. PCB residue concentrations in the mink, determined at the end of the experiment, were within the range of the levels that have been observed in wild mink in Sweden.

  13. Naturally occurring picornavirus infection of domestic mink.

    PubMed Central

    Long, G G; Evermann, J F; Gorham, J R

    1980-01-01

    The isolation and preliminary characterization of a virus from domestic mink- are reported. The virus was tentatively classified as a member of the family Picornaviridae on the basis of its physicochemical properties. The mink virus was not neutralized by antiserum to some known members of the calicivirus genus, which included the nine serotypes of vesicular exanthema of swine virus, ten serotypes of San Miguel sea lion virus and feline calicivirus. Seroepidemiological studies indicated that the incidence of mink virus infection was widespread in domestic mink populations. Although the virus was isolated from mink on ranches with a history of hemorrhagic pneumonia (pseudomonas pneumonia), no specific disease process could be attributed to the virus infection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6256041

  14. Spatial variation in mercury concentrations in wild mink and river Otter carcasses from the James bay territory, Québec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Fortin, C; Beauchamp, G; Dansereau, M; Larivière, N; Bélanger, D

    2001-01-01

    Mercury concentrations were analyzed in different organs/tissues of wild minks (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) trapped during two seasons in the James Bay territory (49 degrees N to 55 degrees N, Québec, Canada). In 1993-94, mean total Hg concentration (microg/g, wet weight) in 39 wild mink and 12 river otter carcasses was greatest in fur/hair samples (30.1 and 20.7 microg/g, respectively) and least in brain samples (0.96 and 0.8 microg/g, respectively) with liver, kidney, and muscle samples showing intermediate values. Pooling data from the 1993-94 and 1994-95 trapping seasons revealed mean (SD) liver total Hg concentrations of 3.71 microg/g (3.91) in 316 wild mink carcasses and 4.05 microg/g (3.41) in 153 river otter carcasses. Log liver total Hg concentration increased with age in wild mink but not in river otter. Log liver total Hg concentration in each species was greatest in areas with moraine deposits and least in areas with rich clay deposits, but the effect of soil deposits could be confounded by uneven deposition of anthropogenic Hg. Controlling for type of soil deposits, log liver total Hg concentration decreased with increasing distance from local industrial centers in each species but varied little with changes in distance from hydroelectric reservoirs. In a subsample of carcasses from the moraine sector, log liver total Hg concentration was higher in wild mink than in river otter. Spatial variation in log liver total Hg concentration in relation to soil deposit type and proximity to industrial centers suggests that the two wild furbearer species could be useful indicators of environmental contamination.

  15. Reduced severity of histopathological lesions in mink selected for tolerance to Aleutian mink disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Farid, A Hossain; Ferns, Linda E

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effect of selection for tolerance on the severity of the Aleutian disease (AD) lesions in mink. Sensitivity and specificity of antibody detection in the blood by counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) relative to the presence of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) in the spleen by PCR in naturally infected farmed mink were also estimated. Carcasses of 680 sero-positive (CIEP-P) black mink from 28 farms in Nova Scotia, Canada, and from 132 sero-negative (CIEP-N) mink from 14 of these farms were collected at pelting time. A total of 116 of the CIEP-P mink were from three farms where animals have been selected for tolerating AD for almost 20years. The severity of the AD lesions was assessed by histopathological examination of kidneys, lungs, heart, brain and liver on a scale of 0 to 4. Sensitivity and specificity of CIEP relative to PCR were 0.97 and 0.85, respectively, and 16.5% of CIEP-N mink were PCR positive, which could be one of the reasons for the failure of virus eradication by CIEP in Canada. The CIEP-N and tolerant CIEP-P animals had 9.39 and 6.23 greater odds of showing lower lesion severity, respectively, than the CIEP-P animals (P<0.01). The CIEP-N mink had a slightly higher chance (P=0.07) of showing lower lesion severity (odds ratio 1.51) compared with tolerant CIEP-P mink. The results suggested that tolerant mink had significantly reduced severity of AD lesions despite having anti-viral antibodies and carrying the virus.

  16. Contaminants in fishes from Great Lakes-influenced sections and above dams of three Michigan rivers. II: Implications for health of mink.

    PubMed

    Giesy, J P; Verbrugge, D A; Othout, R A; Bowerman, W W; Mora, M A; Jones, P D; Newsted, J L; Vandervoort, C; Heaton, S N; Aulerich, R J

    1994-08-01

    Populations of mink (Mustela vison) have declined in many areas of the world. Such declines have been linked to exposures to synthetic, halogenated hydrocarbons. In the Great Lakes region, mink are fewer in areas along the shore of the Great Lakes and their tributaries where mink have access to fish from the Great Lakes. Recently, there has been discussion of the relative merits of passage of fishes around hydroelectric dams on rivers in Michigan. A hazard assessment was conducted to determine the potential for adverse effects on mink, which could consume such fishes from above or below dams on the rivers. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), and total mercury were measured in composite samples of fishes from above or below hydroelectric dams on the Manistee and Muskegon Rivers, which flow into Lake Michigan, and the Au Sable River, which flows into Lake Huron. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides, PCBs, and TCDD-EQ were all greater in fishes from below the dams than those from above. Concentrations of neither organochlorine insecticides nor mercury in fishes are currently a risk to mink above or below the dams. All of the species of fishes collected from downstream of the dams contained concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ, which represent a hazard to mink. The hazard index for PCBs was less than one for the average of all species from the upstream reaches of the Manistee and Au Sable Rivers, but not the Muskegon. The hazard index (concentration in fish/NOAEC) was greater than 1 for all of the species collected from below the dams, in all three rivers. The greatest hazard index was observed for carp (Cyprinus carpio) downstream on the Muskegon River. Because the concentrations of PCBs used in the hazard assessment were corrected for relative toxic potencies, the hazard ratios based on PCBs should be similar to those based on TCDD-EQ. This was found to be

  17. Theory of quantum kagome ice and vison zero modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Ping; Hermele, Michael

    2017-02-01

    We derive an effective Z2 gauge theory to describe the quantum kagome ice (QKI) state that has been observed by Carrasquilla et al. [Nat. Commun. 6, 7421 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms8421] in Monte Carlo studies of the S =1/2 kagome XYZ model in a Zeeman field. The numerical results on QKI are consistent with, but do not confirm or rule out, the hypothesis that it is a Z2 spin liquid. Our effective theory allows us to explore this hypothesis and make a striking prediction for future numerical studies, namely, that symmetry-protected vison zero modes arise at lattice disclination defects, leading to a Curie defect term in the spin susceptibility, and a characteristic (Ndis-1 )ln2 contribution to the entropy, where Ndis is the number of disclinations. Only the Z2 Ising symmetry is required to protect the vison zero modes. This is remarkable because a unitary Z2 symmetry cannot be responsible for symmetry-protected degeneracies of local degrees of freedom. We also discuss other signatures of symmetry fractionalization in the Z2 spin liquid, and phase transitions out of the Z2 spin liquid to nearby ordered phases.

  18. Vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in minks exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242{reg{underscore}sign}) and copper, via diet based on freshwater or marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kaekelae, R.; Kaekelae, A.; Hyvaerinen, H.; Asikainen, J.; Dahl, S.K.

    1999-11-01

    Minks (Mustela vison) fed diets based on either freshwater fish or marine fish were exposed to 1 mg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242) daily for 28 d. To minks on the freshwater diet, copper was also given with or without PCBs. The marine diet included more vitamin A, and E than the freshwater diet. The authors studied how the exposures affected levels of vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in liver and adipose tissues and levels of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} in plasma. In females and males on the freshwater diet, the hepatic level of vitamin A{sub 2} was decreased because of the PCBs, and in these males the hepatic levels of vitamin E also decreased. Interestingly, with coexposure to PCBs and copper, the vitamin levels were, in general, close to the control values. In adipose tissues also, the PCBs induced significant changes in the concentrations of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2}. In plasma, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} were decreased in all patterns of exposure and on both diets. However, plasma thyroxine was slightly increased, a finding opposite to that reported previously in rodent studies. The results suggest that, in mink, diet greatly modulates the responses to PCBs, which may also differ in males and females. Furthermore, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} may not be metabolized equally during PCB administration.

  19. Ecological risk assessment for mink and short-tailed shrew exposed to PCBs, dioxins, and furans in the Housatonic River area.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dwayne R J; Breton, Roger L; DeLong, Tod R; Ferson, Scott; Lortie, John P; MacDonald, Drew B; McGrath, Richard; Pawlisz, Andrzej; Svirsky, Susan C; Teed, R Scott; Thompson, Ryan P; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted to characterize risks to a representative piscivorous mammal (mink, Mustela vison) and a representative carnivorous mammal (short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda) exposed to PCBs, dioxins, and furans in the Housatonic River area downstream of the General Electric (GE) facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Contaminant exposure was estimated using a probabilistic total daily intake model and parameterized using life history information of each species and concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, and furans in prey collected in the Housatonic River study area. The effects assessment preferentially relied on dose-response curves but defaulted to benchmarks or other estimates of effect when there were insufficient toxicity data. The risk characterization used a weight of evidence approach. Up to 3 lines of evidence were used to estimate risks to the selected mammal species: 1) probabilistic exposure and effects modeling, 2) field surveys, and 3) species-specific feeding or field studies. The weight of evidence assessment indicated a high risk for mink and an intermediate risk for short-tailed shrew.

  20. Evidence of restricted viral replication in adult mink infected with Aleutian disease of mink parvovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Alexandersen, S; Bloom, M E; Wolfinbarger, J

    1988-01-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were used in in situ molecular hybridization specifically to localize cells containing replicative intermediates of Aleutian disease of mink parvovirus (ADV). When adult mink of Aleutian genotype were infected with ADV Utah I, the largest number of cells positive for viral replication (i.e., containing replicative-form DNA and RNA) were found in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens at 10 days after infection. The localization of positive cells in the middle of germinal centers suggested that they were B lymphoblasts. Circulating leukocytes and bone marrow cells also contained viral RNA, but the levels of replicative-form DNA were below detectability. The levels of viral DNA and RNA in adult mink cells replicating ADV were decreased compared with those in permissively infected cell cultures or neonatal mink, suggesting that the replication of ADV in adult mink might be semipermissive or restricted at some early stage of viral gene expression. The low level of viral replication and transcription in lymphoid cells might provide a mechanism for the development of immune disorders and for the maintenance of persistent infection. Single-stranded virion DNA was found in other organs, but the strand-specific probes made it possible to show that this DNA represented virus sequestration. In addition, glomerular immune complexes containing virion DNA were detected, suggesting that ADV virions, or perhaps free DNA, may have a role in the development of ADV-induced glomerulonephritis. Images PMID:2833604

  1. Chromosomal mapping of canine-derived BAC clones to the red fox and American mink genomes.

    PubMed

    Kukekova, Anna V; Vorobieva, Nadegda V; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Johnson, Jennifer L; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Yudkin, Dmitry V; Trut, Lyudmila N; Andre, Catherine; Galibert, Francis; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    High-quality sequencing of the dog (Canis lupus familiaris) genome has enabled enormous progress in genetic mapping of canine phenotypic variation. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes), another canid species, also exhibits a wide range of variation in coat color, morphology, and behavior. Although the fox genome has not yet been sequenced, canine genomic resources have been used to construct a meiotic linkage map of the red fox genome and begin genetic mapping in foxes. However, a more detailed gene-specific comparative map between the dog and fox genomes is required to establish gene order within homologous regions of dog and fox chromosomes and to refine breakpoints between homologous chromosomes of the 2 species. In the current study, we tested whether canine-derived gene-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones can be routinely used to build a gene-specific map of the red fox genome. Forty canine BAC clones were mapped to the red fox genome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Each clone was uniquely assigned to a single fox chromosome, and the locations of 38 clones agreed with cytogenetic predictions. These results clearly demonstrate the utility of FISH mapping for construction of a whole-genome gene-specific map of the red fox. The further possibility of using canine BAC clones to map genes in the American mink (Mustela vison) genome was also explored. Much lower success was obtained for this more distantly related farm-bred species, although a few BAC clones were mapped to the predicted chromosomal locations.

  2. Chromosomal Mapping of Canine-Derived BAC Clones to the Red Fox and American Mink Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Vorobieva, Nadegda V.; Beklemisheva, Violetta R.; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Temnykh, Svetlana V.; Yudkin, Dmitry V.; Trut, Lyudmila N.; Andre, Catherine; Galibert, Francis; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.

    2009-01-01

    High-quality sequencing of the dog (Canis lupus familiaris) genome has enabled enormous progress in genetic mapping of canine phenotypic variation. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes), another canid species, also exhibits a wide range of variation in coat color, morphology, and behavior. Although the fox genome has not yet been sequenced, canine genomic resources have been used to construct a meiotic linkage map of the red fox genome and begin genetic mapping in foxes. However, a more detailed gene-specific comparative map between the dog and fox genomes is required to establish gene order within homologous regions of dog and fox chromosomes and to refine breakpoints between homologous chromosomes of the 2 species. In the current study, we tested whether canine-derived gene–containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones can be routinely used to build a gene-specific map of the red fox genome. Forty canine BAC clones were mapped to the red fox genome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Each clone was uniquely assigned to a single fox chromosome, and the locations of 38 clones agreed with cytogenetic predictions. These results clearly demonstrate the utility of FISH mapping for construction of a whole-genome gene-specific map of the red fox. The further possibility of using canine BAC clones to map genes in the American mink (Mustela vison) genome was also explored. Much lower success was obtained for this more distantly related farm-bred species, although a few BAC clones were mapped to the predicted chromosomal locations. PMID:19546120

  3. Contaminants in fishes from Great Lakes-influenced sections and above dams of three Michigan rivers. II: Implications for health of mink

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesy, J.P.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Othoudt, R. A.; Bowerman, W.W.; Mora, M.A.; Jones, P.D.; Newsted, J.L.; Vandervoort, C.; Heaton, S. N.; Aulerich, R.J.; Bursian, S.J.; Ludwig, J. P.; Dawson, G. A.; Kubiak, T.J.; Best, D. A.; Tillitt, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Populations of mink (Mustela vison) have declined in many areas of the world. Such declines have been linked to exposures to synthetic, halogenated hydrocarbons. In the Great Lakes region, mink are fewer in areas along the shore of the Great Lakes and their tributaries where mink have access to fish from the Great Lakes. Recently, there has been discussion of the relative merits of passage of fishes around hydroelectric dams on rivers in Michigan. A hazard assessment was conducted to determine the potential for adverse effects on mink, which could consume such fishes from above or below dams on the rivers. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachloridibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), and total mercury were measured in composite samples of fishes from above or below hydroelectric dams on the Manistee and Muskegon Rivers, which flow into Lake Michigan, and the Au Sable River, which flows into Lake Huron. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides, PCBs, and TCDD-EQ were all greater in fishes from below the dams than those from above. Concentrations of neither organochlorine insecticides nor mercury in fishes are currently a risk to mink above or below the dams. All of the species of fishes collected from downstream of the dams contained concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ, which represent a hazard to mink. The hazard index for PCBs was less than one for the average of all species from the upstream reaches of the Manistee and Au Sable Rivers, but not the Muskegon. The hazard index (concentration in fish/NOAEC) was greater than 1 for all of the species collected from below the dams, in all three rivers. The greatest hazard index was observed for carp (Cyprinus carpio) downstream on the Muskegon River. Because the concentrations of PCBs used in the hazard assessment were corrected for relative toxic potencies, the hazard ratios based on PCBs should be similar to those based on TCDD-EQ. This was found to be

  4. Diethylstilbesterol as a Contaminant in Mink Feeding *

    PubMed Central

    Mills, James

    1961-01-01

    Diethylstilbesterol, a synthetic estrogen, has presented a problem to the mink industry in the United States since 1949 and in Canada since 1958. This hormone is ingested by mink, as a contaminant in their feed, when they consume meat by-products that contain residual amounts of the compound. Various conditions have been observed following contamination with this drug: 1. Sterility in the female. 2. Late abortions. 3. Aglactia and loss of kits in first few days of life. 4. Sterility and lack of desire to mate on the part of the male. 5. Poor growth in young mink. 6. An increased incidence of urinary calculi. Reference is made to the literature on the work that has been done to prove or disprove the above effects attributed to this drug. Three case reports are presented as clinical evidence of the effects of the DES hormone. These cases occurred within a 10 mile radius of the Ontario Veterinary College. Mention is also made as to the source of the contaminated feed. PMID:17649318

  5. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe, and...

  6. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe, and...

  7. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe, and...

  8. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or tissues obtained from mink that...

  9. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or tissues obtained from mink that...

  10. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or tissues obtained from mink that...

  11. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or tissues obtained from mink that...

  12. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or tissues obtained from mink that...

  13. San Miguel sea lion virus fed to mink and pigs.

    PubMed

    Wilder, F W; Dardiri, A H

    1978-04-01

    Mink became infected with San Miguel sea lion virus when fed ground meat from seal carcasses showing vesicular-like lesions in the skin. The mink also contracted the infection when they were fed San Miguel sea lion virus infected pig meat or cell culture propagated virus. San Miguel sea lion virus infection in mink was inapparent but the virus was isolated from blood and rectal swabs. Pigs treated similarly with the same virus preparations given to mink developed a severe vesicular disease syndrome similar to that produced by vesicular exanthema of swine. In a separate trial, pigs fed a large sample of commercial ground seal meat did not develop disease signs or antibodies. Further work is needed to assess the hazard of introducing San Miguel sea lion virus into swine on the same premises when potentially San Miguel sea lion virus infective seal meat is fed to mink.

  14. Additional Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; King, James

    2011-01-01

    Min-K 1400TE (Thermal Ceramics, Augusta, Georgia) insulation material was further characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions in an inert environment. Original characterization of Min-K was undertaken from April 1997 to July 2008 to determine its high temperature compressive strength and stress relaxation behavior up to 900 C in helium along with the formulation of a general model for the mechanical behavior exhibited by Min-K under these conditions. The additional testing described in this report was undertaken from April 2009 to June 2010 in an effort to further evaluate the mechanical behavior of Min-K when subjected to a variety of conditions including alternative test temperatures and time scales than previously measured. The behavior of Min-K under changing environments (temperature and strain), lateral loads, and additional isothermal temperatures was therefore explored.

  15. Analysis of experimental mink enteritis virus infection in mink: in situ hybridization, serology, and histopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Uttenthal, A; Larsen, S; Lund, E; Bloom, M E; Storgård, T; Alexandersen, S

    1990-01-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were used in in situ hybridization studies to localize cells containing mink enteritis virus (MEV) virion DNA or MEV replicative-form DNA and mRNA. Following the experimental MEV infection of 3-month-old unvaccinated mink, a significant increase in serum antibodies to MEV was detected at postinfection day (PID) 6, 2 days after the onset of fecal shedding of virus. Prior to the appearance of virus in feces, viral DNA could be detected in the mesenteric lymph node and intestine. The largest percentage of cells positive for virion DNA was 10% and was detected in the intestine on PID 6. However, replication of the virus apparently peaked at PID 4. The number of MEV replicative-form DNA and mRNA molecules was found to be approximately 250,000 copies per infected lymph node cell or crypt epithelial cell. The localization, levels, and time course of viral replication have important implications for the pathogenesis of MEV-induced disease. The data presented on MEV are correlated with earlier results on the other mink parvovirus, Aleutian mink disease parvovirus, and a possible explanation for the remarkable differences in pathogenesis of disease caused by these two parvoviruses is discussed. Images PMID:2159543

  16. Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus canis, and Arcanobacterium phocae of healthy Canadian farmed mink and mink with pododermatitis.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Gabhan; McLean, John; Hunter, D Bruce; Brash, Marina; Slavic, Durda; Pearl, David L; Boerlin, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Pododermatitis is a disease of concern for mink breeders in Canada and worldwide, as it causes discomfort and lowers the breeding rates on farms affected by the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology and pathogenesis of pododermatitis are still unknown. In this study, we compared Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus canis isolates from healthy mink with isolates from animals with pododermatitis on 2 farms in Ontario. Almost all hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. isolated were shown to be Staphylococcus delphini Group A by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) did not reveal any S. delphini or S. canis clonal lineages specifically associated with pododermatitis, which suggests that these bacteria do not act as primary pathogens, but does not dismiss their potential roles as opportunistic pathogens. While S. delphini and S. canis were the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in mink pododermatitis, they were also present in samples from healthy mink. Arcanobacterium phocae is occasionally isolated from pododermatitis cases, but is difficult to recover with conventional culture methods due to its slow growth. A quantitative real-time PCR was developed for the detection of A. phocae and was tested on 138 samples of footpad tissues from 14 farms. The bacterium was detected only in pododermatitis-endemic farms in Canada and was at higher concentrations in tissues from infected footpads than in healthy tissues. This finding suggests that A. phocae is involved in the pathogenesis of pododermatitis.

  17. Investigation of the pathogenesis of transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in experimentally infected mink.

    PubMed Central

    Broll, S; Alexandersen, S

    1996-01-01

    The transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) was studied in experimental infection of 1-year-old female non-Aleutian mink. The ADV-seronegative female mink were inoculated with ADV prior to mating or after the expected implantation of the embryos during pregnancy. A group of uninfected females served as a control group. Animals from each group were killed prior to or shortly after parturition. The in situ hybridization technique with radiolabeled strand-specific RNA probes was used to determine target cells of virus infection and virus replication. In both infected groups, ADV crossed the endotheliochorial placental barrier, although animals infected before mating already had high antibody titers against ADV at the time of implantation. The percentage of dead and resorbed fetuses was much higher in dams infected before mating. In the placentae of these mink, virus DNA and viral mRNA were detected in cells in the mesenchymal stroma of the placental labyrinth and hematoma but only occasionally in the cytotrophoblast of the placental hematoma. Placentae of animals infected during pregnancy showed in addition very high levels of virus and also viral replication in a large number of cytotrophoblast cells in the placental hematoma, which exhibited distinct inclusion bodies. In both groups, neither virus nor virus replication could be detected in maternal endothelial cells or fetal syncytiotrophoblast of the placental labyrinth. Fetuses were positive for virus and viral replication at high levels in a wide range of tissues. Possible routes of transplacental transmission of ADV and the role of trophoblast cells as targets for viral replication are discussed. PMID:8627663

  18. Mink Cell Focus-Forming Murine Leukemia Virus Killing of Mink Cells Involves Apoptosis and Superinfection

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Fayth K.; Wang, Tao; Nanua, Suparna

    2001-01-01

    Induction of apoptosis by different types of pathogenic retroviruses is an important step in disease development. We have observed that infection of thymic lymphocytes by the mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus (MCF MLV) during the preleukemic period resulted in an enhancement of apoptosis of these cells. To further study the ability of MCF MLVs to induce apoptosis and the role of this process in viral pathogenesis, we have developed an in vitro system of virus-induced apoptosis. MCF13 MLV infection of mink epithelial cells resulted in the production of cytopathic foci. In contrast, infection of mink cells with the 4070A amphotropic MLV did not produce any cytopathic effects. Staining of MCF13 MLV-infected cells with propidium iodide and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate indicated that virus-induced cell death was due to apoptosis. At 6 days postinfection, the percentage of apoptotic MCF13 MLV-infected cells was 27% compared with 2 to 3% for mock- or amphotropic MLV-infected cells, representing a 9- to 14-fold difference. Assays for caspase-3 activation confirmed the detection by flow cytometry of apoptosis of MCF13 MLV-infected cells. Large amounts of unintegrated linear viral DNA were detectable by Southern blot analysis during the acute phase of infection, which indicated that MCF13 MLV is able to superinfect mink cells. Unintegrated viral DNA of only the linear form was detectable in thymic lymphocytes isolated from MCF13 MLV-inoculated mice during the preleukemic period. These results indicated that the ability of MCF13 MLV to induce apoptosis is correlated with its ability to superinfect cells and that this occurs as an early step in thymic lymphoma development. PMID:11390602

  19. The Ecology and Acoustic Behavior of Minke Whales in the Hawaiian and other Pacific Islands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Ecology and Acoustic Behavior of Minke Whales in the...behavior of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in their presumed breeding habitats around the Hawaiian Islands and other subtropical Pacific...biology of minke whales so that more effective management and conservation practices can be implemented. OBJECTIVES The overall objectives were to

  20. The Ecology and Acoustic Behavior of Minke Whales in the Hawaiian and Pacific Islands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Ecology and Acoustic Behavior of Minke Whales in the...behavior of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in their presumed breeding habitats around the Hawaiian Islands and other subtropical Pacific...of minke whales so that more effective management and conservation practices can be implemented. OBJECTIVES The overall objectives were to use

  1. Experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino sinusitis in mink.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, S; Hammer, A S; Høiby, N; Salomonsen, C M

    2017-05-01

    The nasal and sinus cavities in children may serve as reservoirs for microorganisms that cause recurrent and chronic lung infections. This study evaluates whether the mink can be used as an animal model for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis since there is no suitable traditional animal model for this disease. Nasal tissue samples from infected and control mink were fixed in formalin, demineralized, and embedded in paraffin. A histological examination of sections from the infected animals revealed disintegration of the respiratory epithelium lining the nasal turbinates and swelling and edema of the submucosa. The expression of mucins and sialylated glycans was examined using immunohistochemistry. MUC1, MUC2 and MUC5AC were upregulated in the inoculated animals as a much stronger staining was present in the respiratory epithelium in the infected animals compared to the controls. The goblet cells in the nasal epithelium from the infected mink showed high affinity to the Maackia amurensis lectin and anti-asialo GM1 indicating a high concentration of α2-3 sialic acid respectively βGalNAc1-4Galβ containing glycans in these mucin producing cells. The nasal cavity in the infected mink shows features of carbohydrate expression comparable to what has been described in the respiratory system after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in humans. It is suggested that the mink is suitable for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrient digestibility and colonic fermentation processes in species of the families Mustelidae and Canidae fed the same diet.

    PubMed

    Gugołek, Andrzej; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Strychalski, Janusz; Konstantynowicz, Małgorzata; Zwoliński, Cezary

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient digestibility was compared and the influence of colonic fermentation processes on nutrient digestibility was determined in the American mink (Neovison vison) and the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes). It was hypothesized that gut microbiota exert varied effects on digestion processes in the analyzed species. The experiment was performed in December, on a group of 10 male mink and 10 male foxes. All animals were fed identical diets for fur-bearing carnivores, with the following chemical composition (%): dry matter (DM)-33.12, total protein (TP)-12.01, ether extract (EE)-8.64, crude fiber (CF)-12.01, N-free extracts (N-FE)-9.32, and gross energy (GE)-7.313 MJ/kg(-1) . The coefficients of DM, OM, TP and EE digestibility were significantly higher in foxes than in mink. Mink were characterized by significantly higher utilization of N-FE. In foxes, as compared with mink, fermentation rates were higher in the final section of the gastrointestinal tract, which improved nutrient digestibility. In mink, characterized by lower fermentation rates in the colon, increased enzyme secretion by bacterial cells is one of the physiological mechanisms that enable to optimize nutrient absorption in the large intestine.

  3. Toxaphene in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Gouteux, B; Muir, D C G; Backus, S; Born, E W; Dietz, R; Haug, T; Metcalfe, T; Metcalfe, C; Øien, N

    2008-05-01

    Toxaphene contamination of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from North Atlantic waters was examined for the first time. Total toxaphene and SigmaCHB (sum of 11 chlorobornanes) concentrations in blubber samples ranged from 170+/-110 and 41+/-39 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) for female minke whales from southeastern Greenland to 5800+/-4100 and 1100+/-780 ng/g l.w. for males from the North Sea, respectively. Very large variations in toxaphene concentrations among sampling areas were observed suggesting a spatial segregation of minke whales. However, much of the apparent geographical discrimination was explained by the seasonal fluctuation of animal fat mass. Patterns of CHBs in males revealed that recalcitrant CHBs were in higher proportions in animals from the more easterly areas than in animals from the more westerly areas. This trend may be influenced by the predominance of the US, over the European, input of toxaphene to North Atlantic waters.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) in Estonia, and a global phylogeny of AMDV.

    PubMed

    Leimann, Aivi; Knuuttila, Anna; Maran, Tiit; Vapalahti, Olli; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-03-02

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a severe disease called Aleutian disease (AD). AMDV infects primarily mustelids, but also other mammal species. Recent evidence suggests that AMDV may also affect humans. To examine AMDV in different wild animals and in farmed mink in Estonia, we collected 203 blood samples from eight mammal species in 2007-2010, of which 152 were from species living in the wild (American mink, European mink, pine marten, polecat, raccoon dog, badger, otter, and stone marten) and 51 were from farmed mink. AMDV was tested by PCR amplification of NS1 and VP2 gene fragments, and was only detected in 4 free-ranging (14.8%) and 11 farmed (21.6%) American mink. No other species was positive for AMDV. In addition, the VP2 gene fragment was sequenced for 14 farmed mink isolates from Finland for which NS1 sequences were already publicly available. None of the four Estonian AMDV isolates found in free-ranging mink had identical sequences with farmed mink. In fact, isolates from free-ranging and farmed mink belonged to different clades, suggesting that the analyzed virus isolates circulating in nature are not from escapees of current farms. Two global phylogenies were built: one based on NS1 (336 bp, 151 taxa from nine countries); the other based on a combined NS1-VP2 dataset (871 bp, 40 taxa from six countries). AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their geographic origin, suggesting that transport of farm mink from multiple source farms has been intense. Nevertheless, one subclade in both phylogenies was comprised solely of isolates from farmed mink, while several subclades comprised isolates only from free-ranging mink, indicating that some isolates may circulate more in the wild and others among farm animals.

  5. Comparison of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy Isolates in Raccoons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Owing to its susceptibility to various transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and relatively short incubation times, the raccoon (Procyon lotor) has been suggested as a model for TSE strain differentiation. Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is a prion disease of undetermined origin in...

  6. Evaluation of the zoonotic potential of transmissible mink encephalopathy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Successful transmission of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) to cattle supports the bovine hypothesis to the still controversial origin of TME outbreaks. Human and primate susceptibility to classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (c-BSE) and the transmissibility of L-type BSE to macaques as...

  7. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Distemper Vaccine-Mink. 113.302 Section 113.302 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe, and...

  8. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Distemper Vaccine-Mink. 113.302 Section 113.302 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe, and...

  9. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    PubMed Central

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data. Images PMID:6264109

  10. Hybrids between common and Antarctic minke whales are fertile and can back-cross.

    PubMed

    Glover, Kevin A; Kanda, Naohisa; Haug, Tore; Pastene, Luis A; Øien, Nils; Seliussen, Bjørghild B; Sørvik, Anne G E; Skaug, Hans J

    2013-04-15

    Minke whales are separated into two genetically distinct species: the Antarctic minke whale found in the southern hemisphere, and the common minke whale which is cosmopolitan. The common minke whale is further divided into three allopatric sub-species found in the North Pacific, southern hemisphere, and the North Atlantic. Here, we aimed to identify the genetic ancestry of a pregnant female minke whale captured in the North Atlantic in 2010, and her fetus, using data from the mtDNA control region, 11 microsatellite loci and a sex determining marker. All statistical parameters demonstrated that the mother was a hybrid displaying maternal and paternal contribution from North Atlantic common and Antarctic minke whales respectively. Her female fetus displayed greater genetic similarity to North Atlantic common minke whales than herself, strongly suggesting that the hybrid mother had paired with a North Atlantic common minke whale. This study clearly demonstrates, for the first time, that hybrids between minke whale species may be fertile, and that they can back-cross. Whether contact between these species represents a contemporary event linked with documented recent changes in the Antarctic ecosystem, or has occurred at a low frequency over many years, remains open.

  11. Hybrids between common and Antarctic minke whales are fertile and can back-cross

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Minke whales are separated into two genetically distinct species: the Antarctic minke whale found in the southern hemisphere, and the common minke whale which is cosmopolitan. The common minke whale is further divided into three allopatric sub-species found in the North Pacific, southern hemisphere, and the North Atlantic. Here, we aimed to identify the genetic ancestry of a pregnant female minke whale captured in the North Atlantic in 2010, and her fetus, using data from the mtDNA control region, 11 microsatellite loci and a sex determining marker. Results All statistical parameters demonstrated that the mother was a hybrid displaying maternal and paternal contribution from North Atlantic common and Antarctic minke whales respectively. Her female fetus displayed greater genetic similarity to North Atlantic common minke whales than herself, strongly suggesting that the hybrid mother had paired with a North Atlantic common minke whale. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrates, for the first time, that hybrids between minke whale species may be fertile, and that they can back-cross. Whether contact between these species represents a contemporary event linked with documented recent changes in the Antarctic ecosystem, or has occurred at a low frequency over many years, remains open. PMID:23586609

  12. Therapeutic effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage YH30 on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jingmin; Li, Xinwei; Yang, Mei; Du, Chongtao; Cui, Ziyin; Gong, Pengjuan; Xia, Feifei; Song, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Juecheng; Yu, Chuang; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Lei, Liancheng; Han, Wenyu

    2016-07-15

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the most costly infectious diseases among farmed mink and commonly leads to large economic losses during mink production. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. A broad-host-range phage from the Podoviridae family, YH30, was isolated using the mink-originating P. aeruginosa (serotype G) D7 strain as a host. The genome of YH30 was 72,192bp (54.92% G+C), contained 86 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins or antibiotic resistance determinants. These characteristics make YH30 eligible for use in phage therapy. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that a single intranasal administration of YH30 was sufficient to cure hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. The mean colony count of P. aeruginosa in the blood and lung of YH30-protected mink was less than 10(3) CFU/mL (g) within 24h of bacterial challenge and ultimately became undetectable, whereas that in unprotected mink reached more than 10(8) CFU/mL (g). Additionally, YH30 dramatically improved the pathological manifestations of lung injury in mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrates the potential of phages to treat P. aeruginosa-caused hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink.

  13. Comparative pathogenicity of four strains of Aleutian disease virus for pastel and sapphire mink.

    PubMed Central

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1983-01-01

    Information was sought on the comparative pathogenicity of four North American strains (isolates) of Aleutian disease virus for royal pastel (a non-Aleutian genotype) and sapphire (an Aleutian genotype) mink. The four strains (Utah-1, Ontario [Canada], Montana, and Pullman [Washington]), all of mink origin, were inoculated intraperitoneally and intranasally in serial 10-fold dilutions. As indicated by the appearance of specific antibody (counterimmunoelectrophoresis test), all strains readily infected both color phases of mink, and all strains were equally pathogenic for sapphire mink. Not all strains, however, regularly caused Aleutian disease in pastel mink. Infection of pastel mink with the Utah-1 strain invariably led to fatal disease. Infection with the Ontario strain caused fatal disease nearly as often. The Pullman strain, by contrast, almost never caused disease in infected pastel mink. The pathogenicity of the Montana strain for this color phase was between these extremes. These findings emphasize the need to distinguish between infection and disease when mink are exposed to Aleutian disease virus. The distinction has important implications for understanding the natural history of Aleutian disease virus infection in ranch mink. PMID:6193063

  14. Environmental Enrichment Reduces Signs of Boredom in Caged Mink

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Mason, Georgia J.

    2012-01-01

    Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled ‘bored’. They have also been called ‘apathetic’ or ‘depressed’, particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest), by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom) should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE) cages than in complex, enriched (E) cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE) to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs), rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing) or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles). Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P = 0.003) than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013). With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures). NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P = 0.037). Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing) predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic ‘scrabbling’ or locomotion (e.g. pacing) did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication

  15. Poly IC therapy in aleutian disease of mink.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Cho, H J

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-four virgin female aleutian mink were infected with aleutian disease agent and after 24 hours, 12 of these were treated with a course of polyinosinic acid-polycytidilic acid (Poly IC) injections. After six weeks the gammaglobulin level was significantly lower in the treated group but at 12 weeks this difference was no longer present. Four of the treated mink had normal target organ histology when killed at 20 weeks. The untreated group all showed moderate to marked changes but this difference was not statistically significant. There was a marked increase in the reactive lymphocyte blastogenesis index during the first weeks of infection and the phytohaemagglutinin response was seen to fall progressively. The antiglobulin reaction usually became positive after infection but neither antinuclear nor antierythrocyte antibodies were found. Precipitating antibodies to several polynucleotides were frequently present and were unrelated to infection or to Poly IC treatment. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2A Fig. 2B. PMID:1095164

  16. Minke whale genome and aquatic adaptation in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hyung-Soon; Cho, Yun Sung; Guang, Xuanmin; Kang, Sung Gyun; Jeong, Jae-Yeon; Cha, Sun-Shin; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Lee, Jae-Hak; Yang, Eun Chan; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Wonduck; Jeon, Jeong Ho; Kim, Sang-Jin; Choi, Dong Han; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Hak-Min; Ko, Junsu; Kim, Hyunmin; Shin, Young-Ah; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Zheng, Yuan; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Yan; Chen, Ming; Jiang, Awei; Li, Erli; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Haolong; Kim, Tae Hyung; Yu, Lili; Liu, Sha; Ahn, Kung; Cooper, Jesse; Park, Sin-Gi; Hong, Chang Pyo; Jin, Wook; Kim, Heui-Soo; Park, Chankyu; Lee, Kyooyeol; Chun, Sung; Morin, Phillip A; O'Brien, Stephen J; Lee, Hang; Kimura, Jumpei; Moon, Dae Yeon; Manica, Andrea; Edwards, Jeremy; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Sangsoo; Wang, Jun; Bhak, Jong; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The shift from terrestrial to aquatic life by whales was a substantial evolutionary event. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of the minke whale genome, as well as the whole-genome sequences of three minke whales, a fin whale, a bottlenose dolphin and a finless porpoise. Our comparative genomic analysis identified an expansion in the whale lineage of gene families associated with stress-responsive proteins and anaerobic metabolism, whereas gene families related to body hair and sensory receptors were contracted. Our analysis also identified whale-specific mutations in genes encoding antioxidants and enzymes controlling blood pressure and salt concentration. Overall the whale-genome sequences exhibited distinct features that are associated with the physiological and morphological changes needed for life in an aquatic environment, marked by resistance to physiological stresses caused by a lack of oxygen, increased amounts of reactive oxygen species and high salt levels.

  17. Aleutian disease serology, protein electrophoresis, and pathology of the European mink (Mustela lutreola) from Navarra, Spain.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Migallón Guzmán, David; Carvajal, Ana; García-Marín, Juan F; Ferreras, María C; Pérez, Valentín; Mitchell, Mark; Urra, Fermín; Ceña, Juan C

    2008-09-01

    The European mink, Mustela lutreola, has suffered a dramatic decline in Europe during the 20th century and is one of the most endangered carnivores in the world. The subpopulation of European mink from Navarra, Spain, estimated to number approximately 420, represents approximately two thirds of the total number of mink in Spain. Aleutian Disease Virus (ADV) is a parvovirus with a high degree of variability that can infect a broad range of mustelid hosts. The pathogenesis of this virus in small carnivores is variable and can be influenced by both host factors (e.g., species, American mink genotype, and immune status) and viral strain. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the pre-reproductive period of February-March 2004 and 2005 and the postreproductive period of September-December 2004. Mink were intensively trapped along seven rivers that were representative of the European mink habitat in Navarra. Antibody counter immunoelectrophoresis against ADV was performed on 84 European mink blood samples. All the samples were negative. Protein electrophoresis was performed on 93 plasma samples. Nine of those samples (9.6%) had gamma globulin levels exceeding 20% of the total plasma protein. Complete necropsies were performed on 23 cadavers of European mink collected in the area between 2000 and 2005. Seventeen of the mink (74%) had traumatic and hemorrhagic lesions compatible with vehicular impact injuries. Although there were no histopathologic lesions associated with ADV, this study documents the first description of a naturally occurring canine distemper virus infection in a European mink. In addition, pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in three European mink from Spain was reported.

  18. Effect of infectious dose and season on development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine H; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Høiby, Niels; Hammer, Anne Sofie

    2013-07-01

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia is an acute and fatal disease of farmed mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The pathogenesis of this disease has not yet been resolved. Mink are the only animals known to be susceptible to acute, contagious, and fatal lung infections caused by P. aeruginosa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between dose-response and season of infection and to clarify whether Danish mink are carriers of P. aeruginosa on their nasal mucosa during the season for hemorrhagic pneumonia. To elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease, an infectious dose-response trial was carried out on adult mink and mink kits, both in the season for hemorrhagic pneumonia (November) as well as out of season (July). It proved difficult to infect mink via the intra-nasal route. Only 4 out of 60 infected mink developed clinical disease and were euthanized, all of them in November, illustrating that predisposing factors in the mink itself and not infectious dose might be crucial for disease development. We were able to culture P. aeruginosa from the nasal cavity of the clinically healthy experimental mink 8 d after inoculation. This indicated that the mink can carry P. aeruginosa on their nasal mucosa without developing the disease. It was not possible, however, to culture P. aeruginosa from the nasal cavity of clinically healthy mink obtained from farms in November, which indicates that the organism is not a normal part of the nasal mucosal flora of mink.

  19. Clinical Chemical Studies in Aleutian Disease of Mink

    PubMed Central

    Gershbein, Leon L.; Spencer, Kathryn L.

    1964-01-01

    Clinical chemical determinations were carried out on blood removed by cardiac puncture from 49 mink affected with Aleutian disease and 25 normal animals and the respective differences tested for statistical significance. Blood urea nitrogen, serum total protein and globulin, thymol turbidity, glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases and amylase were definitely elevated in the affected animals whereas serum calcium, albumin and A/G ratio were depressed. No statistically significant difference was apparent between the two groups in the comparison of inorganic phosphorus, alkaline and acid phosphatases, bilirubin, total cholesterol and esters, cephalin-cholesterol flocculation (3+ in each case), sodium, potassium, chloride, CO2-combining power, leucine aminopeptidase and lactic dehydrogenase (means: over 2,000 u./ml.). For both the control and affected mink, the distribution of serum lactic dehydrogenase isozymes resembled that of human homologous serum hepatitis. Electrophoresis of serum proteins confirmed earlier findings of hypergammaglobulinemia in the diseased animals but a fast-moving or pre-albumin component, averaging 4% of the total protein, occurred in both the diseased and normal mink. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17649484

  20. MINK1: The missing link between ROS and its inhibition of Th17 cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Gustavo J

    2017-05-01

    In this issue of JEM, Fu et al. (https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20161120) identified the kinase Mink1 as a novel negative regulator of Th17 cell generation. Mink1, activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), prevents TGF-β activation of Smad2, therefore limiting Th17 cell differentiation. © 2017 Martinez.

  1. Detection and Sequence Analysis of Danish and Swedish Strains of Mink Astrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Mittelholzer, Christian; Englund, Lena; Hedlund, Kjell-Olof; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Svensson, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    The sequences of mink astroviruses collected from 11 farms in Denmark and Sweden were analyzed and found to be homologous with one another but different from those of other astroviruses. A species-specific reverse transcriptase-PCR for mink astrovirus was established and shown to be suitable for the analysis of clinical samples. PMID:14605160

  2. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed: Effect of irradiated feed on reproductive performance, growth and fur quality of mink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passey, C. A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Malo, R.; Wilson, J.

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P = 0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P < 0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5 % more, and their fur was on average about 1 ± 0.26 cm longer (12 % more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep the animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality.

  3. Conservation of the European mink (Mustela lutreola): focus on reproduction and reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Amstislavsky, S; Lindeberg, H; Aalto, J; Kennedy, M W

    2008-08-01

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola) is a small mammal, which belongs to the Mustelidae family (Carnivora). Earlier, the range of distribution of this species encompassed much of the European continent. During the 20th century, the numbers of European mink declined and the range of its distribution became reduced to three fragmented populations; today this species faces extinction. The urgent necessity for effective conservation efforts to protect the European mink is accepted by the governmental organizations as well as scientific communities of most European countries. In this paper, the reasons for the disappearance of European mink are reviewed and results of past conservation efforts based on captive breeding and reintroduction programmes are critically evaluated in the broad context of modern concepts of conservation genetics and reproductive biology. The data recently obtained on the reproduction and pre-implantation development of European mink and the prospects of incorporation of modern reproductive technologies into the conservation programme of this species are discussed.

  4. Reproductive capacity in male mink after long distance transportation in pregnant females.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, C; Lukola, A; Valtonen, M

    1985-01-01

    Young American male mink born in Finland from imported pregnant females showed a clear delay (p less than 0.05) in testicular development as compared with local male mink in late February and produced semen of unsatisfactory quality during the breeding season in March. Better sperm quality (p less than 0.05) and better testicular development (p less than 0.1-0.05) was obtained in older American male mink born in Finland as compared with younger American male mink and the local breeding stock. Serum testosterone concentrations during six successive months in American males indicated a clear delay in sexual maturity and it could also be established that testosterone development reached normal levels in American males after 2 generations born in Finland. There were no differences in the serum thyroxine concentrations between American and local male mink.

  5. Radiographic evaluation of destructive periodontal disease in blue mink in relation to age and blood morphology

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract In this study, blood samples and jaws were collected from 2 genotypes of blue mink (n = 289) in order to examine phenotypic expression of specific characteristics of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (C-HS). Blood samples were subjected to differential counts to assess the proportion of abnormal polymorphonuclear leukocytes characteristic for CH-S (C-HS-leukocytes). Abnormal leukocytes with characteristic signs of C-HS were found in blood smears from all mink included in this study. Four teeth in one half of the mandible (P3, P4, M1, M2) were subjected to quantitative radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss and tooth loss. There was a high prevalence of destructive periodontal disease among blue mink included in this study. Mild to moderate periodontal disease (defined by less than 50% alveolar bone loss related to 1 or more teeth) affected 73.7% of young mink (age = 7 mo) and 67.9% of older animals (age ≥ 19 mo). Severe periodontal disease (defined by more than 50% bone loss related to one or more teeth) was not detected in mink aged 7 mo, but affected 15.3% of mink aged 19 mo and 39.6% of mink aged 31 mo. The positive relationship between age and periodontal disease was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The prevalence of tooth loss was found to be high among blue mink aged >19 mo (21.6%) and was also significantly related to age (P < 0.01). A significant positive interaction between alveolar bone loss and tooth loss (P < 0.01), implies that the highly prevalent tooth loss in the mink was related to and possibly caused by destructive periodontal disease. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of periodontal disease between the 2 genotypes and age was found to be the only statistical predictor of poor production results (P < 0.01) in blue mink. PMID:15971677

  6. Neuropathologic features of Aleutian disease in farmed mink in Ireland and molecular characterization of Aleutian mink disease virus detected in brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Hanne; Daly, Paul; McElroy, Maire C; Sammin, Donal J; Bassett, Hugh F; Callanan, John J

    2010-01-01

    A neuropathologic survey was conducted on mink brains from the 5 licensed mink farms in Ireland. The survey was part of a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy surveillance study. Aleutian disease (AD) was present on 4 of the 5 farms (80%). Neuropathologic features of nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis were common in mink from the 4 affected farms but were absent in the mink from the fifth farm, which was free of AD. The meningoencephalitis was characterized by infiltrates of lymphocytes and plasma cells, which were present in meninges, perivascular spaces, and the brain parenchyma. Fibrinoid necrotizing arteritis was seen in 11 mink brains, all of which were obtained from a single farm. Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) sequences for the capsid protein VP2 were obtained from brain samples from all affected farms. Although containing previously unreported amino acid residues, similarities with European and North American isolates were observed in the hypervariable regions within VP2, suggesting Irish AMDV is related to those isolates. The predicted amino acid residues, suspected of conferring pathogenicity at certain positions of the VP2 sequence, were present in the viral nucleic acid sequences.

  7. Polyamines are implicated in the emergence of the embryo from obligate diapause.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Pavine L C; Palin, Marie-France; Chen, Gary; Turecki, Gustavo; Murphy, Bruce D

    2011-04-01

    Embryonic diapause is a poorly understood phenomenon of reversible arrest of embryo development prior to implantation. In many carnivores, such as the mink (Neovison vison), obligate diapause characterizes each gestation. Embryo reactivation is controlled by the uterus by mechanisms that remain elusive. Because polyamines are essential regulators of cell proliferation and growth, it was hypothesized that they trigger embryo reactivation. To test this, mated mink females were treated with α-difluoromethylornithine, an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, or saline as a control during the first 5 d of reactivation. This treatment induced polyamine deprivation with the consequence of rearrest in embryo cell proliferation. A mink trophoblast cell line in vitro subjected to α-difluoromethylornithine treatment likewise displayed an arrest in cell proliferation, morphological changes, and intracellular translocation of ornithine decarboxylase 1 protein. The arrest in embryo development deferred implantation for a period consistent with the length of treatment. Successful implantation and parturition ensued. We conclude that polyamine deprivation brought about a reversible rearrest of embryo development, which returned the mink embryo to diapause and induced a second delay in embryo implantation. The results are the first demonstration of a factor essential to reactivation of embryos in obligate diapause.

  8. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii exposure in semiaquatic mammals in a freshwater ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Adam A; Mitchell, Mark A; Dubey, Jitender P; Schooley, Robert L; Heske, Edward J

    2015-04-01

    We assessed risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii exposure in semiaquatic mammals in east-central Illinois, US. This agricultural region has extensive drainage systems that could potentially transport T. gondii oocysts into the watershed. We used muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) and American mink (Neovison vison) as sentinels of watershed contamination. We predicted individuals from larger subwatersheds would more likely be antibody-positive for T. gondii, as they were exposed to drainage from larger areas. We also evaluated amount of urban land cover within the subwatershed, proximity to farmsteads, and age of individuals in competing models of T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in animal sera by modified agglutination tests (titer 25 or higher) and detected in 18 (60%) of 30 muskrats and 20 (77%) of 26 mink. Infection rates were ≥1.7 times higher than those typical for mammals in upland habitats in this region. Subwatershed size and age class were important predictors of T. gondii infection in muskrats (R(2) = 0.35). Models incorporating urban land cover and proximity to farmsteads had little support. None of our models of antibody prevalence in mink were well supported, possibly because mink are less strictly associated with riparian habitats. Because ~91% of our study area is devoted to agricultural production and urbanization, transport of T. gondii into freshwater ecosystems is likely facilitated by modified drainage practices common in these areas.

  9. Minke whales maximise energy storage on their feeding grounds.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Fredrik; Víkingsson, Gísli A; Rasmussen, Marianne H; Lusseau, David

    2013-02-01

    Seasonal trends in energy storage of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), a capital breeder, were investigated in Iceland, a North Atlantic feeding ground. The aim was to better understand the energy acquisition strategies of minke whales and the energetic costs that different reproductive classes face during the breeding season. We modelled total blubber volume, using blubber thickness and morphometric measurements of individual whales. Blubber volume was influenced by body length, and was higher for pregnant females than mature whales. Blubber volume increased linearly through the feeding season at the same rate for mature (mean ± s.e.m.=0.0028 ± 0.00103 m(3) day(-1); N=61 male, 5 female) and pregnant whales (0.0024 ± 0.00100 m(3) day(-1); N=49), suggesting that minke whales aim to maximise energy storage while on the feeding grounds. The total amount of blubber accumulated over the feeding season (0.51 ± 0.119 m(3) for mature and 0.43 ± 0.112 m(3) for pregnant whales), together with energy stored as muscle and intra-abdominal fats, constitutes the total amount of energy available for reproduction (fetus development and lactation) on the breeding grounds, as well as migration, daily field metabolic rates, growth and body maintenance. No seasonal variation was observed for immature whales (N=4 male, 12 female), suggesting that they are investing most of their excess energy into growth rather than reproduction, in order to reach the length of sexual maturity faster and start reproducing earlier. Our novel modelling approach provides insight into large whale bioenergetics and life history strategies, as well as the relationship between single-site measurement of blubber thickness and total blubber volume.

  10. Copper bioavailability, blood parameters, and nutrient balance in mink.

    PubMed

    Wu, X Z; Zhang, T T; Guo, J G; Liu, Z; Yang, F H; Gao, X H

    2015-01-01

    A 3 × 3 + 1 factorial experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of different sources of copper on plasma metabolites, nutrient digestibility, relative copper bioavailability, and retention of some minerals in male mink. Animals in the control group were fed a basal diet, which mainly consisted of corn, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and soybean oil, with no copper supplementation. Mink in the other 9 treatments were fed the basal diet supplemented with Cu from reagent-grade copper sulfate (CuSO4), tribasic copper chloride (TBCC), or copper methionine (CuMet). Copper concentrations of the experimental diets were 50, 100, and 150 mg Cu/kg DM. Blood samples were collected via the toe clip at the end of study (d 42) to determine blood hematology and blood metabolites. A metabolism trial of 4 d was conducted during the last week of experimental feeding. There was a linear (P < 0.01) effect of dose of Cu on plasma Cu concentrations, ceruloplasmin concentration, and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activity. A linear response to Cu dose was noted for fat (P < 0.05) digestibility. Supplemental dose of Cu linearly increased (P < 0.05) liver Cu and decreased (P < 0.05) liver Zn level but did not alter liver Fe. The concentration of liver Cu of the mink fed with TBCC and CuMet diets was greater (P < 0.05) than that fed CuSO4. Compared with CuSO4 (100%), relative bioavailability values of TBCC were 104 and 104%, based on serum ceruloplasmin and liver copper, respectively, and relative bioavailability values of CuMet were 130 and 111%. CuMet and TBCC are more bioavailable than CuSO4. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of CuMet obtained in this study was greater than that of CuSO4 and TBCC. Dose of Cu had an important effect on the regulating ceruloplasmin concentration, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activity, and the digestion of dietary fat in mink.

  11. Mercury accumulation in mink fed fish collected from streams on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

    PubMed

    Halbrook, R S; Lewis, L A; Aulerich, R I; Bursian, S J

    1997-10-01

    This study evaluates effects of feeding mercury (Hg) contaminated fish collected from streams on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on mink. Diets composed of 25, 50, or 75% fish collected from streams on the ORR were fed to mink beginning 3 months prior to breeding and ending 6 weeks following whelping. Mercury concentrations in diets, tissues of adult mink and their offspring, and physiological and reproductive effects were recorded and compared to concentrations and effects observed in mink fed diets composed of 75% fish collected from the Clinch River above the ORR or from the ocean. Mercury concentrations in prepared diets and in tissues of adult mink and their offspring increased progressively with increased percentage of ORR fish in the diets. Female mink fed diets containing 75% ORR fish had reduced body weight and a decreased number of kits compared to those fed diets containing 75% fish collected above the ORR or from the ocean. However, based on previously reported Hg concentrations associated with adverse effects in mink, the observed adverse effects are not thought to result from exposure to Hg.

  12. Parasitism of mustelids by ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), Maine and New Hampshire, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Lubelczyk, Charles; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Elias, Susan P; Beati, Lorenza; Rand, Peter W; Smith, Robert P

    2014-06-01

    Ticks collected from mustelids from four counties in Maine and one in New Hampshire were identified after harvest. Of the 18 fishers Martes pennanti Erxleben, two mink Neovison vison Schreber, and one long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata Lichtenstein, 589 ticks were collected and identified. They were identified as, in order of abundance, Ixodes gregsoni Lindquist, Wu, and Redner (158 larvae, 189 nymphs, four adults), Ixodes cookei Packard (99 larvae, 77 nymphs, six adults), Ixodes scapularis Say (53 adults), Dermacentor variabilis Say (two nymphs), and Ixodes angustus Neumann (one nymph). Seasonally, all but the D. variabilis were collected in winter. This study reports the first record of adult I. scapularis from a M. pennanti in the northeastern United States. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Aleutian mink disease virus in furbearing mammals in Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is widespread among ranched and free-ranging American mink in Canada, but there is no information on its prevalence in other wild animal species. This paper describes the prevalence of AMDV of 12 furbearing species in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada. Methods Samples were collected from carcasses of 462 wild animals of 12 furbearing species, trapped in 10 NS counties between November 2009 and February 2011. Viral DNA was tested by PCR using two primer pairs, and anti-viral antibodies were tested by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) on spleen homogenates. Results Positive PCR or CIEP samples were detected in 56 of 60 (93.3%) American mink, 43 of 61 (70.5%) short-tailed weasels, 2 of 8 (25.0%) striped skunks, 2 of 11 (18.2%) North American river otters, 9 of 85 (10.6%) raccoons, and 2 of 20 (10.0%) bobcats. Samples from six fishers, 24 coyotes, 25 red foxes, 58 beavers, 45 red-squirrels and 59 muskrats were negative. Antibodies to AMDV were detected by CIEP in 16 of 56 (28.6%) mink and one of the 8 skunks (12.5%). Thirteen of the mink were positive for PCR and CIEP, but three mink and one skunk were CIEP positive and PCR negative. Positive CIEP or PCR animals were present in all nine counties from which mink or weasel samples were collected. Conclusions The presence of AMDV in so many species across the province has important epidemiological ramifications and could pose a serious health problem for the captive mink, as well as for susceptible wildlife. The mechanism of virus transmission between wildlife and captive mink and the effects of AMDV exposure on the viability of the susceptible species deserve further investigation. PMID:23394546

  14. Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) respond to navy training.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephen W; Martin, Cameron R; Matsuyama, Brian M; Henderson, E Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were acoustically detected and localized via their boing calls using 766 h of recorded data from 24 hydrophones at the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility located off Kauai, Hawaii. Data were collected before, during, and after naval undersea warfare training events, which occurred in February over three consecutive years (2011-2013). Data collection in the during periods were further categorized as phase A and phase B with the latter being the only period with naval surface ship activities (e.g., frigate and destroyer maneuvers including the use of mid-frequency active sonar). Minimum minke whale densities were estimated for all data periods based upon the numbers of whales acoustically localized within the 3780 km(2) study area. The 2011 minimum densities in the study area were: 3.64 whales [confidence interval (CI) 3.31-4.01] before the training activity, 2.81 whales (CI 2.31-3.42) for phase A, 0.69 whales (CI 0.27-1.8) for phase B and 4.44 whales (CI 4.04-4.88) after. The minimum densities for the phase B periods were highly statistically significantly lower (p < 0.001) from all other periods within each year, suggesting a clear response to the phase B training. The phase A period results were mixed when compared to other non-training periods.

  15. ERIC-PCR genotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from haemorrhagic pneumonia cases in mink.

    PubMed

    Han, Ming-Ming; Mu, Lian-Zhi; Liu, Xu-Ping; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant pathogen of mink and the cause of haemorrhagic pneumonia, an acute fatal disease in farmed mink. Among 90 P. aeruginosa isolates from haemorrhagic pneumonia in mink from 16 farms in Shandong province, China, 43 genotypes were identified by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR), with a diversity index of 0.96. The most prevalent ERIC-PCR types were type 18, found in 16 isolates, and type 39, found in 15 isolates. Four serotypes were detected, with serotype G (55.6 per cent) being the most frequent. These results showed that there was a high degree of clonal diversity among mink P. aeruginosa clinical isolates in this study.

  16. ERIC-PCR genotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from haemorrhagic pneumonia cases in mink

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ming-ming; Mu, Lian-zhi; Liu, Xu-ping; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Xiao-fei; Liu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant pathogen of mink and the cause of haemorrhagic pneumonia, an acute fatal disease in farmed mink. Results Among 90 P. aeruginosa isolates from haemorrhagic pneumonia in mink from 16 farms in Shandong province, China, 43 genotypes were identified by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR), with a diversity index of 0.96. The most prevalent ERIC-PCR types were type 18, found in 16 isolates, and type 39, found in 15 isolates. Four serotypes were detected, with serotype G (55.6 per cent) being the most frequent. Conclusions These results showed that there was a high degree of clonal diversity among mink P. aeruginosa clinical isolates in this study. PMID:26392878

  17. Comparative evaluation of the Minimally-Invasive Karyotyping (MINK) algorithm for non-invasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tianjiao; Shaw, Patricia A; Yeniterzi, Suveyda; Dunkel, Mary; Rajkovic, Aleksander; Hogge, W Allen; Bunce, Kimberly D; Peters, David G

    2017-01-01

    Minimally Invasive Karyotyping (MINK) was communicated in 2009 as a novel method for the non-invasive detection of fetal copy number anomalies in maternal plasma DNA. The original manuscript illustrated the potential of MINK using a model system in which fragmented genomic DNA obtained from a trisomy 21 male individual was mixed with that of his karyotypically normal mother at dilutions representing fetal fractions found in maternal plasma. Although it has been previously shown that MINK is able to non-invasively detect fetal microdeletions, its utility for aneuploidy detection in maternal plasma has not previously been demonstrated. The current study illustrates the ability of MINK to detect common aneuploidy in early gestation, compares its performance to other published third party methods (and related software packages) for prenatal aneuploidy detection and evaluates the performance of these methods across a range of sequencing read inputs. Plasma samples were obtained from 416 pregnant women between gestational weeks 8.1 and 34.4. Shotgun DNA sequencing was performed and data analyzed using MINK RAPIDR and WISECONDOR. MINK performed with greater accuracy than RAPIDR and WISECONDOR, correctly identifying 60 out of 61 true trisomy cases, and reporting only one false positive in 355 normal pregnancies. Significantly, MINK achieved accurate detection of trisomy 21 using just 2 million aligned input reads, whereas WISECONDOR required 6 million reads and RAPIDR did not achieve complete accuracy at any read input tested. In conclusion, we demonstrate that MINK provides an analysis pipeline for the detection of fetal aneuploidy in samples of maternal plasma DNA.

  18. Mink biomagnification factors for dioxin-like compounds fed Saginaw Bay carp

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, T.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Heaton, S.N.; Bursian, S.N.; Giesy, J.P.; Render, J.A.; Aulerich, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Diets containing 0, 10, 20 and 40% Saginaw Bay carp were fed to ranch mink to assess reproductive effects. All carp diets adversely affected reproduction. The diets and livers of the adult mink at the end of the study were chemically analyzed for planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHS) that induce aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH)/ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD). Biomagnification factors (BMFS) from diets to mink livers were calculated. AHH and EROD-active PCB congeners uniformly magnified across diets except for PCB 126, which had higher magnification at lowest carp and control diets. PCB and PCDF congener magnification ranged from incalculable to 60-fold higher and individual PCDDs ranged from incalculable to 165 times the diet. As expected from previous mammalian studies, 2378-TCDD magnified over an order of magnitude more than 2378-TCDF but by 4 to 5-fold less than 23478-PCDF. Based on dioxin equivalents theory and TEFS, PCB 126 ranked first in the liver residues of 2378-TCDD equivalents followed by PCB 105, 23478-PCDF and 2378-TCDD. Magnification factors allow for interpretation of relative exposure risks from certain wild forage species if wild mink liver concentrations are known. Conversely, knowledge of wild mink forage item concentrations allows for calculation of an estimated wild mink liver residue, when the concentration and dietary forage percentage are multiplied by the BMF. Therefore, BMFs can assist in the elucidation of relative risk of a population to these contaminants without necessarily having large numbers of mink samples, especially in habitats such as the Saginaw Bay area where mink and otter populations are presumed to be affected by high PHH contamination.

  19. Genetic mapping of a mouse chromosomal locus required for mink cell focus-forming virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, C A

    1983-01-01

    Mouse-hamster somatic cell hybrids were used to show that the recombinant mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viruses and their ecotropic virus progenitors require different mouse chromosomes for replication. Mouse chromosome 1 was shown to carry the genetic information necessary for the replication of six different mink cell focus-forming isolates, and this gene, designated Rmc-1, was tentatively positioned at the distal end of the chromosome. PMID:6310150

  20. Comparative evaluation of the Minimally-Invasive Karyotyping (MINK) algorithm for non-invasive prenatal testing

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Tianjiao; Shaw, Patricia A.; Yeniterzi, Suveyda; Dunkel, Mary; Rajkovic, Aleksander; Hogge, W. Allen; Bunce, Kimberly D.; Peters, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Minimally Invasive Karyotyping (MINK) was communicated in 2009 as a novel method for the non-invasive detection of fetal copy number anomalies in maternal plasma DNA. The original manuscript illustrated the potential of MINK using a model system in which fragmented genomic DNA obtained from a trisomy 21 male individual was mixed with that of his karyotypically normal mother at dilutions representing fetal fractions found in maternal plasma. Although it has been previously shown that MINK is able to non-invasively detect fetal microdeletions, its utility for aneuploidy detection in maternal plasma has not previously been demonstrated. The current study illustrates the ability of MINK to detect common aneuploidy in early gestation, compares its performance to other published third party methods (and related software packages) for prenatal aneuploidy detection and evaluates the performance of these methods across a range of sequencing read inputs. Plasma samples were obtained from 416 pregnant women between gestational weeks 8.1 and 34.4. Shotgun DNA sequencing was performed and data analyzed using MINK RAPIDR and WISECONDOR. MINK performed with greater accuracy than RAPIDR and WISECONDOR, correctly identifying 60 out of 61 true trisomy cases, and reporting only one false positive in 355 normal pregnancies. Significantly, MINK achieved accurate detection of trisomy 21 using just 2 million aligned input reads, whereas WISECONDOR required 6 million reads and RAPIDR did not achieve complete accuracy at any read input tested. In conclusion, we demonstrate that MINK provides an analysis pipeline for the detection of fetal aneuploidy in samples of maternal plasma DNA. PMID:28306738

  1. MINK and TNIK differentially act on Rap2-mediated signal transduction to regulate neuronal structure and AMPA receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Natasha K.; Hsin, Honor; Huganir, Richard L.; Sheng, Morgan

    2010-01-01

    Misshapen/NIKs-related Kinase (MINK) and closely related TRAF2/Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) are proteins that specifically bind to activated Rap2 and are thus hypothesized to relay its downstream signal transduction. Activated Rap2 has been found to stimulate dendritic pruning, reduce synaptic density and cause removal of synaptic AMPA receptors (AMPA-Rs) (Zhu et al., 2005; Fu et al., 2007). Here we report that MINK and TNIK are postsynaptically enriched proteins whose clustering within dendrites is bi-directionally regulated by the activation state of Rap2. Expression of MINK and TNIK in neurons is required for normal dendritic arborization and surface expression of AMPA receptors. Overexpression of a truncated MINK mutant unable to interact with Rap2 leads to reduced dendritic branching and this MINK-mediated effect on neuronal morphology is dependent upon Rap2 activation. While similarly truncated TNIK also reduces neuronal complexity, its effect does not require Rap2 activity. Furthermore, Rap2-mediated removal of surface AMPA-Rs from spines is entirely abrogated by co-expression of MINK, but not TNIK. Thus, although both MINK and TNIK bind GTP-bound Rap2, these kinases employ distinct mechanisms to modulate Rap2-mediated signaling. MINK appears to antagonize Rap2 signal transduction by binding to activated Rap2. We suggest that MINK interaction with Rap2 plays a critical role in maintaining the morphological integrity of dendrites and synaptic transmission. PMID:21048137

  2. Mink reproductive and physiological response to diets supplemented with PCB and mercury contaminated fish collected on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.; Aulerich, R.; Bursian, S.; Lewis, L.

    1995-12-31

    Plant operations and waste disposal at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have resulted in increased concentrations of PCBs and mercury (Hg) in fish inhabiting streams located on the reservation. As a component of environmental restoration investigation, fish were collected from streams on the reservation, analyzed for tissue concentrations of PCBs and Hg, and fed to ranch mink 3 months prior to and during the breeding season. As reference, fish also were collected from the Clinch River (CR) above the ORR and from the ocean (O), and fed to mink following similar procedures. Five prepared diets containing either 75% O, 75% CR, 25% ORR + 50% O, 50% ORR + 25% O, or 75% ORR fish and 25% standard mink diet were fed to 8 female and 2 male mink, each, following normal mink farm practices. PCB (Aroclor 1260 and CB congeners) and Hg concentrations were greatest in fish collected from the ORR and diets containing ORR fish exhibited a progressive increase in PCBs and Hg concentration with increased percentage of ORR fish. Female mink fed diets containing 75% ORR fish had decreased litter size and decreased mean whole body weights, Mean weight of male offspring of females fed 75% ORR fish also were decreased. Do to the contaminated environment, other aquatic prey of mink probably have elevated contaminant burdens that would contribute to effects in mink. Adverse reproductive and health effects in mink living on the ORR are speculative at this time.

  3. Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; King, James

    2008-07-01

    Min-K 1400TE insulation material was characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions. Initial compression testing was performed at room temperature at various loading rates ranging between 5 and 500 psi/hour (≈35 and 3500 kPa/hour) to determine the effect of sample size and test specimen geometry on the compressive strength of Min-K. To determine the loading rates that would be used for stress relaxation testing, compression tests were next carried out at various levels followed by stress relaxation under constant strain at temperatures of 650, 850, and 900oC. Additional high temperature compression testing was performed with samples loaded at a rate of 53 psi/hour (365 kPa/hour) in three load steps of 50, 100 and 200 psi (345, 690, and 1380 kPa) with quick unload/load cycles between steps and followed by a hold period in load control (3 to 100 hours) to allow for sample creep. Testing was carried out at 190, 382, 813, and 850oC. Isothermal stress relaxation testing was performed at temperatures of 190, 382, 813, and 850oC and initial loads of 100 and 200 psi (690 and 1380 kPa). Gradient stress relaxation testing was intended to be performed at temperatures of 850/450oC and 450/190oC with initial loads of 100 or 200 psi (690 and 1380 kPa) performed under constant strain utilizing a twelve-step loading scheme with loading every half hour at a rate of 5.56% strain/hour.

  4. Genetic characterization of Aleutian mink disease viruses isolated in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwu; Huang, Juan; Jia, Yun; Du, Yijun; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Rui

    2012-08-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a parvovirus that causes an immune complex mediated disease in minks. To understand the genetic characterization of AMDV in China, the genomic sequences of three isolates, ADV-LN1, ADV-LN2, and ADV-LN3, from different farms in the Northern China were analyzed. The results showed that the lengths of genomic sequences of three isolates were 4,543, 4,566, and 4,566 bp, respectively. They shared only 95.5-96.3 % nucleotide identity with each other. The nucleotide and amino acid homology of genome sequence between the Chinese isolates and European or American strains (ADV-G, ADV-Utah1, and ADV-SL3) were 92.4-95.0 % and 92.1-93.8 %, respectively. The amino acid substitutions randomly distributed in the genome, especially NS gene. ADV-LN1 strain had a 9-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 70 and 72-79 in the VP1 gene, comparing with ADV-G strain; ADV-LN2 and ADV-LN3 strains had 1-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 70 in the VP1. Some potential glycosylation site mutations in VP and NS genes were also observed. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that the three strains belonged to two different branches based on the complete coding sequence of VP2 gene. However, they all were in the same group together with the strains from United States based on the NS1 sequence. It indicated that Chinese AMDV isolates had genetic diversity. The origin of the ancestors of the Chinese AMDV strains might be associated with the American strains.

  5. Persistent spatial clusters of plasmacytosis among Danish mink farms.

    PubMed

    Themudo, Gonçalo Espregueira; Østergaard, Jørgen; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2011-10-01

    Aleutian disease (Plasmacytosis) is caused by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV), an autonomous parvovirus and affects many mustelid species, including the American mink (Neovisonvison). In Denmark, an eradication program reduced the prevalence of test-positive farms from 100% in 1976 to 15% in 1996. Nevertheless, the disease persists in the Vendsyssel district of Northern Jutland, despite the eradication efforts. In this study, we used spatial epidemiological analysis to test for spatial autocorrelation of the distribution of farms positive for the disease. We investigated 2375 farms in Denmark (342 of which were located in the Vendsyssel district), during the period 2000-2008. For the purpose of our study, a farm was considered positive when, on any test conducted in a year, at least three animals were tested positive. To detect spatial clusters, we performed a retrospective analysis with spatial scan statistics. We performed one analysis for each of the nine years (2000-2008). A separate analysis was conducted with only the farms in Vendsyssel included. The spatial cluster analysis revealed a significant cluster throughout the time period studied in Northern Jutland. The only exception was 2002 when an outbreak was detected in the southern part of Jutland, and not in the north. The farm-level prevalence of the disease in Denmark was highest in this year, suggesting that the outbreak in the south could have masked the persistent signal from the north; the northern cluster was still significant when analysing only the Vendsyssel populations. These results confirm that Northern Jutland continues to have a significantly higher number of cases than expected if the disease was randomly distributed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic effects of polychlorinated dibenzofurans on mink in laboratory and field environments.

    PubMed

    Zwiernik, Matthew J; Beckett, Kerrie J; Bursian, Steve; Kay, Denise P; Holem, Ryan R; Moore, Jeremy N; Yamini, Behzad; Giesy, John P

    2009-04-01

    Mink are often used as a sentinel species in ecological risk assessments of chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) that cause toxicity mediated through the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor. Considerable toxicological information is available on the effects of PCBs and PCDDs on mink, but limited toxicological information is available for PCDFs. Thus, exposure concentrations at which adverse effects occur could not be determined reliably for complex mixtures in which PCDFs dominate the total calculated concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent (TEQ). Two studies were conducted to evaluate the potential toxicity of PCDFs to mink. The first was a chronic exposure, conducted under controlled laboratory conditions, in which mink were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) concentrations as great as 2.4 x 10(3) ng 2,3,7,8-TCDF/kg wet-weight (ww) diet or 2.4 x 10(2) ng TEQ(2006-WHO-mammal)/kg ww diet. In that study, transient decreases in body masses of kits relative to the controls was the only statistically significant effect observed. The second study was a 3-y field study during which indicators of individual health, including hematological and morphological parameters, were determined for mink exposed chronically to a mixture of PCDDs and PCDFs under field conditions. In the field study, there were no statistically significant differences in any of the measured parameters between mink exposed to a median estimated dietary dose of 31 ng TEQ(2006-WHO-mammal)/kg ww and mink from an upstream reference area where they had a median dietary exposure of 0.68 ng TEQ(2006-WHO-mammal)/kg ww. In both studies, concentrations of TEQ(2006-WHO-mammal) to which the mink were exposed exceeded those at which adverse effects, based on studies with PCDD and PCB congeners, would have been expected. Yet in both instances where PCDF congeners were the sole or predominant source of the TEQ

  7. Summer Precipitation Predicts Spatial Distributions of Semiaquatic Mammals.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Adam A; Cotner, Lisa A; Wolff, Patrick J; Mitchell, Mark A; Heske, Edward J; Schooley, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of droughts and intensity of seasonal precipitation in many regions. Semiaquatic mammals should be vulnerable to this increased variability in precipitation, especially in human-modified landscapes where dispersal to suitable habitat or temporary refugia may be limited. Using six years of presence-absence data (2007-2012) spanning years of record-breaking drought and flood conditions, we evaluated regional occupancy dynamics of American mink (Neovison vison) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) in a highly altered agroecosystem in Illinois, USA. We used noninvasive sign surveys and a multiseason occupancy modeling approach to estimate annual occupancy rates for both species and related these rates to summer precipitation. We also tracked radiomarked individuals to assess mortality risk for both species when moving in terrestrial areas. Annual model-averaged estimates of occupancy for mink and muskrat were correlated positively to summer precipitation. Mink and muskrats were widespread during a year (2008) with above-average precipitation. However, estimates of site occupancy declined substantially for mink (0.56) and especially muskrats (0.09) during the severe drought of 2012. Mink are generalist predators that probably use terrestrial habitat during droughts. However, mink had substantially greater risk of mortality away from streams. In comparison, muskrats are more restricted to aquatic habitats and likely suffered high mortality during the drought. Our patterns are striking, but a more mechanistic understanding is needed of how semiaquatic species in human-modified ecosystems will respond ecologically in situ to extreme weather events predicted by climate-change models.

  8. Summer Precipitation Predicts Spatial Distributions of Semiaquatic Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ahlers, Adam A.; Cotner, Lisa A.; Wolff, Patrick J.; Mitchell, Mark A.; Heske, Edward J.; Schooley, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of droughts and intensity of seasonal precipitation in many regions. Semiaquatic mammals should be vulnerable to this increased variability in precipitation, especially in human-modified landscapes where dispersal to suitable habitat or temporary refugia may be limited. Using six years of presence-absence data (2007–2012) spanning years of record-breaking drought and flood conditions, we evaluated regional occupancy dynamics of American mink (Neovison vison) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) in a highly altered agroecosystem in Illinois, USA. We used noninvasive sign surveys and a multiseason occupancy modeling approach to estimate annual occupancy rates for both species and related these rates to summer precipitation. We also tracked radiomarked individuals to assess mortality risk for both species when moving in terrestrial areas. Annual model-averaged estimates of occupancy for mink and muskrat were correlated positively to summer precipitation. Mink and muskrats were widespread during a year (2008) with above-average precipitation. However, estimates of site occupancy declined substantially for mink (0.56) and especially muskrats (0.09) during the severe drought of 2012. Mink are generalist predators that probably use terrestrial habitat during droughts. However, mink had substantially greater risk of mortality away from streams. In comparison, muskrats are more restricted to aquatic habitats and likely suffered high mortality during the drought. Our patterns are striking, but a more mechanistic understanding is needed of how semiaquatic species in human-modified ecosystems will respond ecologically in situ to extreme weather events predicted by climate-change models. PMID:26284916

  9. Brains of Native and Alien Mesocarnivores in Biomonitoring of Toxic Metals in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Budis, Halina; Podlasinska, Joanna; Popiolek, Marcin; Pirog, Agnieszka; Jedrzejewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are involved in mammalian brain damage. However, little is known about Pb and Cd brain levels in wildlife that reflect the geochemical background. The aims of the study include the estimation of Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations, and the determination of relationships between these elements in the brains of 94 mesocarnivores. Road-killed or hunted animals were obtained from north-western Poland near the Polish-German border. The investigation covered the native Eurasian otter Lutra lutra, badger Meles meles, pine marten Martes martes, beech marten M. foina, European polecat Mustela putorius, red fox Vulpes vulpes, and alien species: feral and ranch American mink Neovison vison, raccoon Procyon lotor and raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides. Depending on the diet and environmental pollution, the carnivore brains accumulated toxic metals in varying amounts. The highest median Hg levels (in mg/kg dry weight, dw) were found in the piscivorous Eurasian otter and feral mink (2.44 and 3.96), Pb in the omnivorous raccoon (0.47), while Cd in minks (~0.06). We indicated that Pb-based ammunition is a significant source of the element in scavengers from hunting area, and we also found a significant correlation between Pb and Cd levels in the fox brain. Finally, this study is the first to suggest background levels for brain Pb and Cd in mesocarnivores (<0.50 and <0.04 mg/kg dw, respectively). PMID:27513467

  10. Brains of Native and Alien Mesocarnivores in Biomonitoring of Toxic Metals in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Budis, Halina; Podlasinska, Joanna; Popiolek, Marcin; Pirog, Agnieszka; Jedrzejewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are involved in mammalian brain damage. However, little is known about Pb and Cd brain levels in wildlife that reflect the geochemical background. The aims of the study include the estimation of Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations, and the determination of relationships between these elements in the brains of 94 mesocarnivores. Road-killed or hunted animals were obtained from north-western Poland near the Polish-German border. The investigation covered the native Eurasian otter Lutra lutra, badger Meles meles, pine marten Martes martes, beech marten M. foina, European polecat Mustela putorius, red fox Vulpes vulpes, and alien species: feral and ranch American mink Neovison vison, raccoon Procyon lotor and raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides. Depending on the diet and environmental pollution, the carnivore brains accumulated toxic metals in varying amounts. The highest median Hg levels (in mg/kg dry weight, dw) were found in the piscivorous Eurasian otter and feral mink (2.44 and 3.96), Pb in the omnivorous raccoon (0.47), while Cd in minks (~0.06). We indicated that Pb-based ammunition is a significant source of the element in scavengers from hunting area, and we also found a significant correlation between Pb and Cd levels in the fox brain. Finally, this study is the first to suggest background levels for brain Pb and Cd in mesocarnivores (<0.50 and <0.04 mg/kg dw, respectively).

  11. Development of a Peptide ELISA for the Diagnosis of Aleutian Mink Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lu, Rongguang; Hu, Bo; Lv, Shuang; Xue, Xianghong; Li, Xintong; Ling, Mingyu; Fan, Sining; Zhang, Hailing; Yan, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian disease (AD) is a common immunosuppressive disease in mink farms world-wide. Since the 1980s, counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) has been the main detection method for infection with the Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV). In this study, six peptides derived from the AMDV structural protein VP2 were designed, synthesized, and used as ELISA antigens to detect anti-AMDV antibodies in the sera of infected minks. Serum samples were collected from 764 minks in farms from five different provinces, and analyzed by both CIEP (a gold standard) and peptide ELISA. A peptide designated P1 (415 aa–433 aa) exhibited good antigenicity. A novel ELISA was developed using ovalbumin-linked peptide P1 to detect anti-AMDV antibodies in mink sera. The sensitivity and specificity of the peptide ELISA was 98.0% and 97.5%, respectively. Moreover, the ELISA also detected 342 early-stage infected samples (negative by CIEP and positive by PCR), of which 43.6% (149/342) were true positives. These results showed that the peptide ELISA had better sensitivity compared with CIEP, and therefore could be preferable over CIEP for detecting anti-AMDV antibodies in serological screening. PMID:27802320

  12. Are Antarctic minke whales unusually abundant because of 20th century whaling?

    PubMed

    Ruegg, Kristen C; Anderson, Eric C; Scott Baker, C; Vant, Murdoch; Jackson, Jennifer A; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    Severe declines in megafauna worldwide illuminate the role of top predators in ecosystem structure. In the Antarctic, the Krill Surplus Hypothesis posits that the killing of more than 2 million large whales led to competitive release for smaller krill-eating species like the Antarctic minke whale. If true, the current size of the Antarctic minke whale population may be unusually high as an indirect result of whaling. Here, we estimate the long-term population size of the Antarctic minke whale prior to whaling by sequencing 11 nuclear genetic markers from 52 modern samples purchased in Japanese meat markets. We use coalescent simulations to explore the potential influence of population substructure and find that even though our samples are drawn from a limited geographic area, our estimate reflects ocean-wide genetic diversity. Using Bayesian estimates of the mutation rate and coalescent-based analyses of genetic diversity across loci, we calculate the long-term population size of the Antarctic minke whale to be 670,000 individuals (95% confidence interval: 374,000-1,150,000). Our estimate of long-term abundance is similar to, or greater than, contemporary abundance estimates, suggesting that managing Antarctic ecosystems under the assumption that Antarctic minke whales are unusually abundant is not warranted.

  13. Evaluation of alternative PCB clean-up strategies using an individual-based population model of mink.

    PubMed

    Salice, Christopher J; Sample, Bradley E; Miller Neilan, Rachael; Rose, Kenneth A; Sable, Shaye

    2011-12-01

    Population models can be used to place observed toxic effects into an assessment of the impacts on population-level endpoints, which are generally considered to provide greater ecological insight and relevance. We used an individual-based model of mink to evaluate the population-level effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the impact that different remediation strategies had on mink population endpoints (population size and extinction risk). Our simulations indicated that the initial population size had a strong impact on mink population dynamics. In addition, mink populations were extremely responsive to clean-up scenarios that were initiated soon after the contamination event. In fact, the rate of PCB clean-up did not have as strong a positive effect on mink as did the initiation of clean-up (start time). We show that population-level approaches can be used to understand adverse effects of contamination and to also explore the potential benefits of various remediation strategies.

  14. Parasites of the mink frog (rana septentrionalis) from minnesota, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schotthoefer, A.M.; Bolek, M.G.; Cole, R.A.; Beasley, V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two mink frogs, Rana septentrionalis, collected from two locations in Minnesota, United States, were examined for helminth and protozoan blood parasites in July 1999. A total of 16 parasite taxa were recovered including 5 larval digenean trematodes, 7 adult digenean trematodes, 3 nematodes, and I Trypanosorna species. Infracommunities were dominated by the digeneans in terms of richness and abundance. In particular, echinostomatid metacercariae in the kidneys of frogs were the most common parasites found, infecting 100% of the frogs and consisting of about 90% of all helminth individuals recovered. Gorgodera amplicava, Gorgoderina multilohata, Haernaroloechus pan'iplexus, Haernatoloechus breviplexus, Cosnwcercoides dukae, and Oswaldocruzia pipiens represent new host records. The survey presented here represents the second known helminth survey of mink frogs conducted in North America. A summary of metazoan parasites reported from mink frogs is included.

  15. Necrotizing and eosinophilic masticatory myositis in farmed mink: a preliminary description.

    PubMed

    Needle, D B; Hollinger, C; Shelton, G D; Fitzgerald, S D

    2014-01-01

    This report describes necrotizing and eosinophilic myositis affecting the masticatory muscles of a group of mink. Affected animals demonstrated sudden death with marked subcutaneous oedema over the dorsal head. The temporalis and masseter muscles were pale, swollen and friable. Histologic changes consisted of varying degrees of myodegeneration, myonecrosis and inflammation. Eosinophils were prominent in the inflammatory infiltrate. Similar to dogs, masticatory muscles in mink were found to contain unique type 2M fibres, suggesting a possible target for an immune response. Aerobic and anaerobic tissue cultures of the affected musculature revealed no significant pathogens. Histological and nutritional analyses were not typical of vitamin E/selenium deficiency. This case series supports the existence of a novel disease entity in mink with some features comparable with masticatory muscle myositis in dogs.

  16. Fecal progestin concentrations as an indicator of reproductive success in American Mink.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinyan; Wei, Haijun; Xue, Hailong; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Weigang; Xu, Chao; Wang, Shiyong; Diao, Yunfei; Rose, Jack; Xu, Baozeng

    2016-02-01

    Efforts to increase mink reproductive success (live births and litter sizes) can be partly assessed by measurement of blood progesterone levels. However, the stress of blood sampling increases the incidence of failed matings, aborted fetuses and death of the dam. We have therefore non-invasively measured fecal progesterone metabolite (progestin) concentrations during the reproductive cycle of mink. We tested the hypothesis that fecal progestin concentrations during the window of implantation (late March-early April) will, (1): be higher for whelping than non-whelping mink, and (2): be higher for mink mated multiple times, compared to single matings. Mink were mated once (March 3), twice (March 3 and 10) or three times (March 3, 10 and 11) and fecal progestin concentrations determined from March 1 to April 30. The percent mink in each group giving birth to live offspring was 42.8%, 80.8% and 92.3% for mink mated once, twice or three times, respectively (P<0.05). Litter sizes did not differ among mink mated once (5.22±0.55), twice (6.29±0.35) or three times (6.08±0.32; P>0.05). Mean fecal progestin concentrations from mating to diapause (March 19) did not differ between mink that whelped or not, nor in response to the number of times mated. However, mean fecal progestin concentrations for mink that whelped were higher on March 25 (peri-implantation) than March 19 after being mated once (51.96±2.96 vs 23.53±1.89nM/g dry wt; P<0.05), twice (66.00±1.60 vs 25.57±1.28nM/g dry wt; P<0.05) or three times (66.48±1.42/g vs 19.16±1.09nM/g dry wt; P<0.05). During implantation (April 5), mean fecal progestin concentrations for mink that whelped after being mated once (146.60±10.02nM/g dry wt), twice (162.10±5.64nM/g dry wt) or three times (188.50±3.92nM/g dry wt) were significantly higher than for those that failed to whelp; 119.30±8.87nM/g dry wt, 77.84±5.86nM/g dry wt. and 118.9±6.55nM/g dry wt., respectively (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that measurement of

  17. Studies on the mechanism of the acute and carcinogenic effects of N-nitrosodimethylamine on mink liver

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, P.E.; Diaz Gomez, M.I.; Tamayo, D.; Lopez, A.J.; Castro, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Outbreaks of liver necrosis and liver hemangiosarcoma were detected in a mink breeding colony in Argentina. Analysis of the Minks' food revealed the presence of 2.6 ppm dimethylnitrosamine (NDMA) in it, apparently as a result of the addition of nitrite as preservative. Previous studies gave evidence of the particular susceptibility of minks to NDMA and other hepatic insults. The authors have determined several biochemical parameters known to correlate with NDMA hepatotoxic effects and compared with them those in rat liver. NDMA administration to both species resulted in the formation of reactive metabolites able to interact with liver DNA to give N/sup 7/-methylguanine and O/sup 6/-methylguanine adducts. Biotransformation of NDMA by liver slices to CO/sub 2/ was significantly lower in the mink than in the rat, whereas the covalent binding (CB) to nucleic acids was slightly lower than in the rat. Aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was also significantly less in mink than in rat liver. The CB of NDMA reactive metabolites to microsomal proteins was not significantly lower in mink as compared to the rat, and the same holds true for the biotransformation of NDMA to formaldehyde by microsomal preparations. Results suggest that the high susceptibility of minks to NDMA might be partially due to a decreased ability to detoxicate NDMA but also a higher intrinsic susceptibility of their liver cells to a given chemical insult.

  18. Studies on the mechanism of the acute and carcinogenic effects of N-nitrosodimethylamine on mink liver.

    PubMed

    Martino, P E; Diaz Gomez, M I; Tamayo, D; Lopez, A J; Castro, J A

    1988-01-01

    Outbreaks of liver necrosis and liver hemangiosarcoma were detected in a mink breeding colony in Argentina. Analysis of the Minks' food revealed the presence of 2.6 ppm dimethylnitrosamine (NDMA) in it, apparently as a result of the addition of nitrite as preservative. Previous studies gave evidence of the particular susceptibility of minks to NDMA and other hepatic insults. We have determined several biochemical parameters known to correlate with NDMA hepatotoxic effects and compared them with those in rat liver. NDMA administration to both species resulted in the formation of reactive metabolites able to interact with liver DNA to give N7-methylguanine and O6-methylguanine adducts. Biotransformation of NDMA by liver slices to CO2 was significantly lower in the mink than in the rat, whereas the covalent binding (CB) to nucleic acids was slightly lower than in in the rat. Aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was also significantly less in mink than in rat liver. The CB of NDMA reactive metabolites to microsomal proteins was not significantly lower in mink as compared to the rat, and the same holds true for the biotransformation of NDMA to formaldehyde by microsomal preparations. Results suggest that the high susceptibility of minks to NDMA might be partially due to a decreased ability to detoxicate NDMA but also to a higher intrinsic susceptibility of their liver cells to a given chemical insult.

  19. Optical conductivity of visons in Z2 spin liquids close to a valence bond solid transition on the kagome lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Yejin; Punk, Matthias; Sachdev, Subir

    2013-06-01

    We consider Z2 spin liquids on the kagome lattice on the verge of a valence bond solid (VBS) transition, where vortex excitations carrying Z2 magnetic flux—so-called visons—condense. We show that these vison excitations can couple directly to the external electromagnetic field, even though they carry neither spin nor charge. This is possible via a magnetoelastic coupling mechanism recently identified. [Potter, Senthil, and Lee, arXiv:1301.3495; Hao, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.85.174432 85, 174432 (2012)] For the case of transitions to a 36-site unit cell VBS state, the corresponding finite ac conductivity has a specific power-law frequency dependence, which is related to the crossover exponent of the quantum critical point. The visons’ contribution to the optical conductivity at transitions to VBS states with a 12-site unit cell vanishes, however.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Mink Cell Focus-Inducing Murine Leukemia Viruses with Xenotropic Host Range from Mouse Strain SL

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Akio; Sakai, Koji; Ishimoto, Akinori

    1983-01-01

    A new type of mink cell focus-inducing virus was persistently isolated from the leukemic tissues of SL mice. In contrast to the dual tropic mink cell focus-inducing viruses reported to date, the new virus has the host range of the xenotropic murine leukemia virus. Analysis of RNase T1 fingerprints of genomic RNAs suggested that the mink cell focus-inducing virus with the xenotropic host range isolated from SL mice is a recombinant virus deriving from xenotropic murine leukemia virus. Images PMID:6296452

  1. Hepatic microsomal cytochromes P450 in mink fed Saginaw Bay carp (SBC)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; LeCaptain, L.; Rattner, B.A.; Heaton, S.; Aulerich, R.; Tillitt, D.; Stegeman, John J.; Woodin, B.

    1992-01-01

    Livers from mink fed diets containing 0% (n = 12), 10% (n = 11), 20% (n = 12) and 40% (n = 10) SBC for 6 months contained 0.1, 2.2, 3.6, and 6.3 ug/g total PCBs, respectively. Hepatic microsomes were prepared and assayed for protein, arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (BROD), ethoxy-ROD (ER0D), pentoxy-ROD (PROD), and ethoxycoumarin-OD (ECOD). Mink fed SBC had increased AHH, EROD, and ECOD (group means 2.2-3.4 X control means), decreased BROD and unchanged PROD (the latter 2 assays indicators for phenobarbital-type induction in mammals). Three samples from each group were examined by western blot using a polyclonal anti-P450llB antibody and a monoclonal anti-P450lA antibody (MAb 1-12-3). Mink fed SBC showed induction of a protein recognized by anti-P450lA (8 X control), but had little protein recognized by anti-P450IlB. The monooxygenase activities and western blot data give a consistent picture of MC-type but not PB-type induction in mink fed SBC.

  2. Experimental Inoculation of Spiroplasma mirum and Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) into Raccoons (Procyon lotor)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine if Spiroplasma mirum would be capable of producing lesions of spongiform encephalopathy in raccoons (Procyon lotor), 5 groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either S. mirum and/or transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME). Two other groups (n = 5) of raccoon...

  3. Application of real-time PCR to detect Aleutian Mink Disease Virus on environmental farm sources.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Alberto; Díaz-Cao, José Manuel; Fernández-Antonio, Ricardo; Panadero, Rosario; Díaz, Pablo; López, Ceferino; Morrondo, Patrocinio; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Fernández, Gonzalo

    2014-10-10

    The Aleutian Mink Virus (AMDV) causes the Aleutian Mink Disease (AMD) or Mink Plasmacytosis, a disease responsible of high economic losses for industry worldwide. Despite there is evidence of the environmental persistence of the virus, there is not literature on the detection of this virus in environmental samples in farms and this fact would have great importance in the control programs of the disease. In order to detect contamination caused by AMDV on farms, several environmental samples were taken and examined using qPCR. 93.9% of samples taken from farms confirmed to be infected tested positive. The virus was also detected on a farm which, despite having no previous positive results, was sharing personnel with an infected farm. All samples taken from AMD-free farms tested negative, including a farm where an eradication procedure by stamping out had been performed during the preceding months. Higher contamination levels were observed in samples from those surfaces in direct contact with animals. These results are the first demonstration of environmental contamination in farms, hitherto suggested by epidemiological evidences, caused by AMDV on surfaces, furniture and equipments inside mink farms. qPCR is an useful tool for evaluating the spread of AMDV into the environment, and it may have important applications within the disease control programs.

  4. Intraspecies and interspecies transmission of mink H9N2 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Yong-Feng, Zhao; Fei-Fei, Diao; Jia-Yu, Yu; Feng-Xia, Zhang; Chang-Qing, Jiang; Jian-Li, Wang; Shou-Yu, Guo; Kai, Cui; Chuan-Yi, Liu; Xue-Hua, Wei; Jiang, Shi-Jin; Zhi-Jing, Xie

    2017-08-07

    H9N2 influenza A virus (IAV) causes low pathogenic respiratory disease and infects a wide range of hosts. In this study, six IAVs were isolated from mink and identified as H9N2 IAV. Sequence analysis revealed that the six isolates continued to evolve, and their PB2 genes shared high nucleotide sequence identity with H7N9 IAV. The six isolates contained an amino acid motif PSRSSR↓GL at the hemagglutinin cleavage site, which is a characteristic of low pathogenic influenza viruses. A serosurvey demonstrated that H9N2 IAV had spread widely in mink and was prevalent in foxes and raccoon dogs. Transmission experiments showed that close contact between H9N2-infected mink and naive mink, foxes and raccoon dogs resulted in spread of the virus to the contact animals. Furthermore, H9N2 challenge experiments in foxes and raccoon dogs showed that H9N2 IAV could infect these hosts. Virological and epidemiological surveillance of H9N2 IAV should be strengthened for the fur animal industry.

  5. Reproductive failure in mink and ferrets after intravenous or oral inoculation of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, J A; Manning, D D

    1990-01-01

    Four pregnant mink and seven pregnant ferrets, including five with previous exposure and specific antibody, were injected intravenously with 10(8)-10(10) colony-forming units of Campylobacter jejuni. All 11 pregnancies failed 1-16 days after infection, with results ranging from fetal resorption to expulsion of dead or premature living kits. In every case, uterine contents (placenta, uterine fluid and/or kits) were culture-positive for C. jejuni. Three pregnant mink and nine pregnant ferrets, including four with previous exposure and antibody, were fed 10(9)-10(11) C. jejuni. Two of the mink aborted; kits of all three were culture-positive, but those of one female survived. Seven of the nine ferrets aborted, with two having culture-positive uterine contents. None of 28 uninfected ferret control pregnancies ended in abortion. The most prominent histological feature observed was severe placentitis, which appears to be a more likely cause of Campylobacter-induced abortion than direct pathogenic effects on infected kits. These results suggest that infection of mink or ferrets with C. jejuni during pregnancy poses a serious risk of reproductive failure, even for previously exposed females. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2249178

  6. Immunohistochemical confirmation of Sarcocystis neurona infections in raccoons, mink, cat, skunk, and pony.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hamir, A N

    2000-10-01

    In the central nervous system of 2 raccoons, 1 cat, 1 pony, 2 mink, and 1 skunk, protozoa previously thought to be Sarcocystis-like reacted positively to Sarcocystis neurona-specific antibodies in an immunohistochemical test. In addition, S. neurona was identified in the brain of another skunk. These observations indicate that S. neurona is not confined to opossums and horses.

  7. The causes of the low breeding success of European mink (Mustela lutreola) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Kiik, Kairi; Maran, Tiit; Nagl, Astrid; Ashford, Kadri; Tammaru, Toomas

    2013-01-01

    High among-individual variation in mating success often causes problems in conservation breeding programs. This is also the case for critically endangered European mink and may jeopardize the long-term maintenance of the species' genetic diversity under the European mink EEP Program. In this study, breeding success of wild and captive born European minks at Tallinn Zoological Garden are compared, and the mating behavior of the males is analyzed. Results show that wild born males successfully mate significantly more often than captive born males (89% and 35%, respectively). On the basis of an extensive record of mating attempts, both male aggressiveness and passivity are identified as primary causes of the observed mating failures. All other potential determinants have only a minor role. Mating success as well as a male's aggressiveness and passivity are shown to depend more strongly on the male than the female partner. We did not find any evidence that the behavior of an individual is dependent on the identity of its partner. We suggest that aggressiveness and passivity are two expressions of abnormal behavior brought about by growing up in captivity: the same individuals are likely to display both aggressive and passive behavior. The results point to the need to study and modify maintenance conditions and management procedures of mink to reduce the negative impact of the captive environment on the long-term goals of the program.

  8. Isolation of Clostridium limosum from an outbreak of metritis in farmed mink.

    PubMed

    Biström, Mia; Moisander-Jylhä, Anna-Maria; Heinikainen, Sirpa; Pelkola, Kirsti; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja

    2016-09-06

    An outbreak of sudden death of pregnant farmed mink in Finland occurred during the busiest whelping period in the spring of 2013. The affected farms were all located in western Finland in a rather narrow geographic area, Ostrobothnia. Dead mink from 22 farms were submitted for laboratory diagnostics to the Finnish Food Safety Authority (Evira). The carcasses were necropsied and tissue specimens were prepared for histology. Samples of internal organs and peritoneal fluid were cultured bacteriologically. Major pathological findings included hemorrhagic vaginal discharge, severely inflamed uteri with luminal hemorrhagic exudate and dead fetuses. Dead fetuses were present in the peritoneal cavity and associated severe peritonitis occurring as sequela of uterine rupture were found in most minks. Histological findings included hemorrhages, neutrophil infiltrations, degenerative inflammatory cells, edema, fibrin and rod-shaped bacteria on all layers of the uterine wall. In most samples abundant and pure anaerobic bacterial growth of Clostridium limosum was found. This is the first report of C. limosum associated metritis in farmed mink. Disease was only observed in pregnant females and the uterus was the primary site of infection. The source of infection and the route of transmission remained unclear, but feed borne transmission was suspected.

  9. Whole genome resequencing reveals diagnostic markers for investigating global migration and hybridization between minke whale species.

    PubMed

    Malde, Ketil; Seliussen, Bjørghild B; Quintela, María; Dahle, Geir; Besnier, Francois; Skaug, Hans J; Øien, Nils; Solvang, Hiroko K; Haug, Tore; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Kanda, Naohisa; Pastene, Luis A; Jonassen, Inge; Glover, Kevin A

    2017-01-13

    In the marine environment, where there are few absolute physical barriers, contemporary contact between previously isolated species can occur across great distances, and in some cases, may be inter-oceanic. An example of this can be seen in the minke whale species complex. Antarctic minke whales are genetically and morphologically distinct from the common minke found in the north Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and the two species are estimated to have been isolated from each other for 5 million years or more. Recent atypical migrations from the southern to the northern hemisphere have been documented and fertile hybrids and back-crossed individuals between both species have also been identified. However, it is not known whether this represents a contemporary event, potentially driven by ecosystem changes in the Antarctic, or a sporadic occurrence happening over an evolutionary time-scale. We successfully used whole genome resequencing to identify a panel of diagnostic SNPs which now enable us address this evolutionary question. A large number of SNPs displaying fixed or nearly fixed allele frequency differences among the minke whale species were identified from the sequence data. Five panels of putatively diagnostic markers were established on a genotyping platform for validation of allele frequencies; two panels (26 and 24 SNPs) separating the two species of minke whale, and three panels (22, 23, and 24 SNPs) differentiating the three subspecies of common minke whale. The panels were validated against a set of reference samples, demonstrating the ability to accurately identify back-crossed whales up to three generations. This work has resulted in the development of a panel of novel diagnostic genetic markers to address inter-oceanic and global contact among the genetically isolated minke whale species and sub-species. These markers, including a globally relevant genetic reference data set for this species complex, are now openly available for researchers interested

  10. Heterosis and genetic variation in the litter size of purebred and crossbred mink.

    PubMed

    Thirstrup, J P; Larsen, P F; Pertoldi, C; Jensen, J

    2014-12-01

    Crosses between different mink lines from 3 Danish mink farms that use different breeding strategies were studied to estimate heterosis and variance components for litter size. The study was designed to analyze crosses between lines of the same color type, between different color types, and between animals originating from different farms. Effect of heterosis, color type, and variance components were estimated using Average information REML (AI-REML) algorithm implemented in the DMU package for analyzing multivariate mixed models. Females from 7 generations that gave birth to at least 1 offspring were analyzed and the effects of parity and production year were included in the analyses. Genetic trend and the proportions of the total variance explained by the effects of additive genetics (h2), common environment (due to repeated litters from the same female; c2), and dam of the female (granddame of the born litter; d2) were estimated. The results showed that mink of the Black color type potentially produced smaller litters compared to mink of the other studied color types. We found significant general maternal effect of heterosis for litter size. Analyses of specific heterosis showed a significant positive effect of crossing between lines of the same color type. Estimates of variance components revealed h2 levels for farm A, B, and C of 0.15, 0.06, and 0.09, respectively; thus litter size could be selected for in the future. The effect of common environment on litter size was also considerable, with c2 values of 0.005, 0.11, and 0.15 at farms A, B, and C, respectively. In conclusion, we recommend genetic selection as a means of increasing litter size in farmed mink.

  11. Interplay between aggression, brain monoamines and fur color mutation in the American mink.

    PubMed

    Kulikov, A V; Bazhenova, E Y; Kulikova, E A; Fursenko, D V; Trapezova, L I; Terenina, E E; Mormede, P; Popova, N K; Trapezov, O V

    2016-11-01

    Domestication of wild animals alters the aggression towards humans, brain monoamines and coat pigmentation. Our aim is the interplay between aggression, brain monoamines and depigmentation. The Hedlund white mutation in the American mink is an extreme case of depigmentation observed in domesticated animals. The aggressive (-2.06 ± 0.03) and tame (+3.5 ± 0.1) populations of wild-type dark brown color (standard) minks were bred during 17 successive generations for aggressive or tame reaction towards humans, respectively. The Hedlund mutation was transferred to the aggressive and tame backgrounds to generate aggressive (-1.2 ± 0.1) and tame (+3.0 ± 0.2) Hedlund minks. Four groups of 10 males with equal expression of aggressive (-2) or tame (+5) behavior, standard or with the Hedlund mutation, were selected to study biogenic amines in the brain. Decreased levels of noradrenaline in the hypothalamus, but increased concentrations of the serotonin metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid, in the striatum were measured in the tame compared with the aggressive standard minks. The Hedlund mutation increased noradrenaline level in the hypothalamus and substantia nigra, serotonin level in the substantia nigra and striatum and decreased dopamine concentration in the hypothalamus and striatum. Significant interaction effects were found between the Hedlund mutation and aggressive behavior on serotonin metabolism in the substantia nigra (P < 0.001), dopamine level in the midbrain (P < 0.01) and its metabolism in the striatum (P < 0.05). These results provide the first experimental evidence of the interplay between aggression, brain monoamines and the Hedlund mutation in the American minks. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  12. Recombinant Newcastle disease viral vector expressing hemagglutinin or fusion of canine distemper virus is safe and immunogenic in minks.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tian, Meijie; Gao, Yuwei; Wen, Zhiyuan; Yu, Guimei; Zhou, Weiwei; Zu, Shulong; Bu, Zhigao

    2015-05-15

    Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) infects many carnivores and cause several high-mortality disease outbreaks. The current CDV live vaccine cannot be safely used in some exotic species, such as mink and ferret. Here, we generated recombinant lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota expressing either envelope glycoproyein, heamagglutinine (H) or fusion protein (F), named as rLa-CDVH and rLa-CDVF, respectively. The feasibility of these recombinant NDVs to serve as live virus-vectored CD vaccine was evaluated in minks. rLa-CDVH induced significant neutralization antibodies (NA) to CDV and provided solid protection against virulent CDV challenge. On the contrast, rLa-CDVF induced much lower NA to CDV and fail to protected mink from virulent CDV challenge. Results suggest that recombinant NDV expressing CDV H is safe and efficient candidate vaccine against CDV in mink, and maybe other host species.

  13. Antibody-Forming Cells and Serum Hemolysin Responses of Pastel and Sapphire Mink Inoculated with Aleutian Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lodmell, Donald L.; Bergman, R. Kaye; Hadlow, William J.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) on serum hemolysin titers and antibody-forming cells in lymph nodes and spleens of sapphire and pastel mink inoculated with goat erythrocytes (G-RBC) was investigated. ADV injected 1 day after primary antigenic stimulation with G-RBC did not depress the immune responses of either color phase for a period of 26 days. However, when G-RBC were injected 47 days after ADV, both the number of antibody-forming cells and hemolysin titers were more markedly depressed in sapphire than in pastel mink. The results are discussed in relation to the greater susceptibility of sapphire mink and the variable susceptibility of pastel mink to the Pullman isolate of ADV. PMID:4584051

  14. Response of mink, skunk, red fox and raccoon to inoculation with mink virus enteritis, feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus and prevalence of antibody to parvovirus in wild carnivores in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, I K; Povey, R C; Voigt, D R

    1983-01-01

    Mink virus enteritis, feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus-2 were inoculated separately into groups of raccoon, mink, red fox and striped skunk. Raccoons were highly susceptible to mink virus enteritis and feline panleukopenia, with animals developing clinical illness, and several dying within six to ten days of inoculation with lesions typical of parvovirus infection. Both viruses were shed in high titre in the feces of infected raccoons, and high antibody titres were stimulated. Raccoons inoculated with canine parvovirus-2 showed no signs; shedding of virus was sporadic though moderate titres of antibody developed. Mink inoculated with mink virus enteritis and feline panleukopenia developed signs and lesions of early parvovirus infection. No signs or significant lesions followed canine parvovirus-2 inoculation. Shedding of virus was heavy (mink virus enteritis) or sporadic (feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus-2), though good serological responses were elicited to all three viruses. Red fox showed no signs of infection, shed all three viruses only sporadically, and the serological response was strong only to feline panleukopenia. Skunks developed low antibody titres, but no signs, and did not shed virus. Antibody to parvovirus was found in 79.2% of 144 wild red foxes; 22.3% of 112 wild raccoons; 1.3% of 157 wild skunks and 6/7 coyotes in southern Ontario. The likely significance of these viruses to wild and captive individuals and populations of these carnivores is discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6309349

  15. Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. This exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic animals or humans. Methods In the present study we evaluated the viral diversity of fecal samples (n = 42) collected from 10 different species of wild small carnivores inhabiting the northern part of Spain using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Samples were collected from American mink (Neovison vison), European mink (Mustela lutreola), European polecat (Mustela putorius), European pine marten (Martes martes), stone marten (Martes foina), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) of the family of Mustelidae; common genet (Genetta genetta) of the family of Viverridae; red fox (Vulpes vulpes) of the family of Canidae and European wild cat (Felis silvestris) of the family of Felidae. Results A number of sequences of possible novel viruses or virus variants were detected, including a theilovirus, phleboviruses, an amdovirus, a kobuvirus and picobirnaviruses. Conclusions Using random PCR in combination with next generation sequencing, sequences of various novel viruses or virus variants were detected in fecal samples collected from Spanish carnivores. Detected novel viruses highlight the viral diversity that is present in fecal material of wild carnivores. PMID:24886057

  16. Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores.

    PubMed

    Bodewes, Rogier; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; Schapendonk, Claudia M E; van den Brand, Judith M A; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Smits, Saskia L

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. This exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic animals or humans. In the present study we evaluated the viral diversity of fecal samples (n = 42) collected from 10 different species of wild small carnivores inhabiting the northern part of Spain using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Samples were collected from American mink (Neovison vison), European mink (Mustela lutreola), European polecat (Mustela putorius), European pine marten (Martes martes), stone marten (Martes foina), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) of the family of Mustelidae; common genet (Genetta genetta) of the family of Viverridae; red fox (Vulpes vulpes) of the family of Canidae and European wild cat (Felis silvestris) of the family of Felidae. A number of sequences of possible novel viruses or virus variants were detected, including a theilovirus, phleboviruses, an amdovirus, a kobuvirus and picobirnaviruses. Using random PCR in combination with next generation sequencing, sequences of various novel viruses or virus variants were detected in fecal samples collected from Spanish carnivores. Detected novel viruses highlight the viral diversity that is present in fecal material of wild carnivores.

  17. Predictive meta-regressions relating mercury tissue concentrations of freshwater piscivorous mammals.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Kristin M; Thomas, Philippe J; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a pollutant of global concern. Sentinel species such as river otter (Lontra canadensis) and mink (Neovison vison) are often used to monitor environmental concentrations in freshwater ecosystems. Tissue total Hg (THg) concentrations are frequently used as biomarkers of exposure. However, there is no comprehensive model relating Hg tissue concentrations in different tissues, making interstudy comparisons challenging. Our objective was to establish conversion factors relating fur, brain, liver, kidney, and muscle THg concentrations using mean concentrations and standard errors reported in the literature. We used data from more than 6000 samples, pooled across 16 studies and 96 sampling sites in North America and Europe. Sixteen regressions were derived for the river otter and mink models, which were statistically significant at a 95% confidence interval and yielded high explained variances. The models were validated using an external data set of individually measured THg tissue concentrations. The validated conversions were used to evaluate the current fur Hg screening guidelines of 20 µg/g and 30 µg/g. At both of these fur concentrations, brain concentrations are of concern for altering brain neurochemistry. We suggest a more conservative fur Hg screening guideline of 15 µg/g to protect sensitive furbearers. The conversion factors can be used to predict internal organ THg concentrations from fur measurements, eliminating the need for invasive tissue sampling. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2377-2384. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. Development of the external genitalia in fetuses of the southern minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata.

    PubMed

    Amasaki, H; Ishikawa, H; Daigo, M

    1989-01-01

    The developmental changes of the anogenital distance and external genitalia were studied in 81 fetuses of the southern minke whale. It was difficult to sex the fetuses with less than 55.8 mm crown-rump length (CRL) even by histological means, but it was easy in the fetuses with more than 77.0 mm CRL and less than 110.0 mm CRL. The histologically determined male fetuses had a ratio of anogenital distance to CRL or body length of more than 5%, while females had a value of less than 4%. At later stages with a CRL of more than 113.0 mm, male fetuses had an umbilicus-directed genital tubercle, while in females a tail-directed tubercle was observed. The present study suggests that the stage with sexual dimorphism might be earlier in the southern minke whale than that previously reported.

  19. Effect of evening primrose oil as food supplement on reproduction in the mink.

    PubMed

    Tauson, A H; Neil, M; Forsberg, M

    1991-01-01

    The effects of addition of evening primrose oil (EPO) to a mink diet in the breeding season on the reproductive performance and kit and female performance during the lactation period were investigated in an experiment with 4 groups of male and female mink. Matings were carried out so that control males were mated to both control and supplemented females. Similarly, supplemented males mated both control and supplemented females. Reproductive results were evaluated both on a group basis and as an effect of male or female treatment, respectively. After males supplemented with EPO, there was a tendency for reduced rate of stillborn kits and kit losses during the first 21 days of life. These effects could not be explained physiologically. Female treatment did not affect reproductive performance, but there was a tendency for lower weight losses during lactation for EPO-supplemented females. Kit performance during the lactation period was independent of experimental treatment.

  20. Characterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic mink influenza viruses in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenming; Wang, Suchun; Zhang, Chuanmei; Li, Jinping; Hou, Guangyu; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Jiming; Shan, Hu

    2017-03-01

    Members of the H5 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses pose a great threat to both poultry and humans with severe consequences for both industry and public health sectors. Here, we isolated and characterized two H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza viruses in deceased mink from eastern China. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the G15 and XB15 viruses belonged to clade 2.3.2.1b and 2.3.2.1e, respectively. Both of these viruses were highly pathogenic in chickens. They were also shown to exhibit moderate to high pathogenicity in mice without pre-adaptation. Further, the mink influenza viruses had severe antigenic drift with corresponding Re-6 vaccine and current vaccines may fail to confer protection against these H5N1 viruses in poultry.

  1. Structure and Steroidogenesis of the Placenta in the Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Motoki; AMANO, Yoko; HAYAKAWA, Daisuke; TSUBOTA, Toshio; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; TETSUKA, Masafumi; MIYAMOTO, Akio; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There are few reports describing the structure and function of the whale placenta with the advance of pregnancy. In this study, therefore, the placenta and nonpregnant uterus of the Antarctic minke whale were observed morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas and nonpregnant uteri were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Programme with Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. In the macro- and microscopic observations, the placenta of the Antarctic minke whale was a diffuse and epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion was interdigitated to the endometrium by primary, secondary and tertiary villi, which contained no specialized trophoblast cells such as binucleate cells, and the interdigitation became complicated with the progress of gestation. Furthermore, fetal and maternal blood vessels indented deeply into the trophoblast cells and endometrial epithelium respectively with fetal growth. The minke whale placenta showed a fold-like shape as opposed to a finger-like shape. In both nonpregnant and pregnant uteri, many uterine glands were distributed. The uterine glands in the superficial layer of the pregnant endometrium had a wide lumen and large epithelial cells as compared with those in the deep layer. On the other hand, in the nonpregnant endometrium, the uterine glands had a narrower lumen and smaller epithelial cells than in the pregnant endometrium. In immunohistochemical detection, immunoreactivity for P450scc was detected in most trophoblast cells, but not in nonpregnant uteri, suggesting that trophoblast epithelial cells synthesized and secreted the sex steroid hormones and/or their precursors to maintain the pregnancy in the Antarctic minke whale. PMID:23269486

  2. Structure and steroidogenesis of the placenta in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Motoki; Amano, Yoko; Hayakawa, Daisuke; Tsubota, Toshio; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Tetsuka, Masafumi; Miyamoto, Akio; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    There are few reports describing the structure and function of the whale placenta with the advance of pregnancy. In this study, therefore, the placenta and nonpregnant uterus of the Antarctic minke whale were observed morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas and nonpregnant uteri were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Programme with Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. In the macro- and microscopic observations, the placenta of the Antarctic minke whale was a diffuse and epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion was interdigitated to the endometrium by primary, secondary and tertiary villi, which contained no specialized trophoblast cells such as binucleate cells, and the interdigitation became complicated with the progress of gestation. Furthermore, fetal and maternal blood vessels indented deeply into the trophoblast cells and endometrial epithelium respectively with fetal growth. The minke whale placenta showed a fold-like shape as opposed to a finger-like shape. In both nonpregnant and pregnant uteri, many uterine glands were distributed. The uterine glands in the superficial layer of the pregnant endometrium had a wide lumen and large epithelial cells as compared with those in the deep layer. On the other hand, in the nonpregnant endometrium, the uterine glands had a narrower lumen and smaller epithelial cells than in the pregnant endometrium. In immunohistochemical detection, immunoreactivity for P450scc was detected in most trophoblast cells, but not in nonpregnant uteri, suggesting that trophoblast epithelial cells synthesized and secreted the sex steroid hormones and/or their precursors to maintain the pregnancy in the Antarctic minke whale.

  3. Spatial distribution of common Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) as an indication of a biological hotspot in the East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dasom; An, Yong Rock; Park, Kyum Joon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Dabin; Joo, Hui Tae; Oh, Young Geun; Kim, Su Min; Kang, Chang Keun; Lee, Sang Heon

    2017-09-01

    The minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) is the most common baleen whale among several marine mammal species observed in Korea. Since a high concentrated condition of prey to whales can be obtained by physical structures, the foraging whale distribution can be an indicator of biological hotspot. Our main objective is verifying the coastal upwelling-southwestern East Sea as a productive biological hotspot based on the geographical distribution of minke whales. Among the cetacean research surveys of the National Institute of Fisheries Science since 1999, 9 years data for the minke whales available in the East Sea were used for this study. The regional primary productivity derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used for a proxy of biological productivity. Minke whales observed during the sighting surveys were mostly concentrated in May and found mostly (approximately 70%) in the southwestern coastal areas (< 300 m) where high chlorophyll concentrations and primary productivity were generally detected. Based on MODIS-derived primary productivity algorithm, the annual primary production (320 g C m-2 y-1) estimated in the southwestern coastal region of the East Sea belongs to the highly productive coastal upwelling regions in the world. A change in the main spatial distribution of minke whales was found in recent years, which indicate that the major habitats of mink whales have been shifted into the north of the common coastal upwelling regions. This is consistent with the recently reported unprecedented coastal upwelling in the mid-eastern coast of Korea. Based on high phytoplankton productivity and high distribution of minke whales, the southwestern coastal regions can be considered as one of biological hotspots in the East Sea. These regions are important for ecosystem dynamics and the population biology of top marine predators, especially migratory whales and needed to be carefully managed from a resource management perspective.

  4. Canine distemper virus DNA vaccination of mink can overcome interference by maternal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Line; Aasted, Bent; Pertoldi, Cino; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2015-03-10

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is highly contagious and can cause severe disease against which conventional live vaccines are ineffective in the presence of maternal antibodies. Vaccination in the presences of maternal antibodies was challenged by vaccination of 5 days old and 3 weeks old mink kits with CDV DNA vaccines. Virus neutralising (VN) antibody responses were induced in mink kits vaccinated with a plasmid encoding the haemaglutinin protein (H) of CDV (n=5, pCDV-H) or a combination of the H, fusion (F) and nucleoprotein (N) of CDV (n=5, pCDV-HFN). These DNA vaccinated kits were protected against virulent experimental infection with field strains of CDV. The pCDV-H was more efficient in inducing protective immunity in the presence of maternal antibodies compared to the pCDV-HFN. The results show that DNA vaccination with the pCDV-H or pCDV-HFN (n=4) only given once at 5 days of age induces virus specific immune response in neonatal mink and protection against virulent CDV exposure later in life.

  5. The pattern of ovarian development in the prepubertal antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    PubMed

    Tetsuka, Masafumi; Asada, Masatsugu; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2004-08-01

    This study describes the morphological and morphometrical changes associated with prepubertal ovarian development in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Ovaries were harvested from 94 immature minke whales caught in the Antarctic Ocean during the summer feeding season (December-March). Notable differences in ovarian size and morphology were found among animals. Up to 10 folds difference in ovarian weight was found among prepubertal whales of similar body size. During the prepubertal period, ovaries grew slowly and approximately doubled their weight. The morphologies of right and left ovaries were almost identical while the growth of the ovary appears to occur preferentially on the right side. The most striking morphological feature was numerous small antral follicles less than 5 mm in diameter found in ovaries of younger immature whales. The occurrence of these ovaries was highest in whales less than 6 m long and gradually decreased as body length increased. In larger whales, the occurrence of ovaries with a smaller number of follicles up to 10 mm and thick tunica albuginea increased. Thus, the ovary of the Antarctic minke whale experiences bursts of small follicular development during the early prepubertal period before becoming a more developed ovary with fewer but larger follicles, and thick tunica albuginea.

  6. Cellular and Humoral Antibody Responses of Normal Pastel and Sapphire Mink to Goat Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lodmell, D. L.; Bergman, R. K.; Hadlow, W. J.; Munoz, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether normal sapphire and royal pastel mink differ immunologically at the cellular and humoral levels. Two days after primary intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of goat erythrocytes (GE), essentially no 19 or 7S plaque-forming cells (PFC) per 106 cells were detected in spleen or in abdominal and peripheral lymph nodes of either color phase. On the 4th day, more 19S PFC were detected in pastel than in sapphire tissues; pastel tissues also contained 7S PFC, whereas essentially none was present in sapphires until the 6th day. After an ip booster inoculation, the number of PFC was markedly different between the two color phases. These differences were most apparent in spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. In parallel with differences observed in PFC responses between the color phases, total hemolysin and 2-mercaptoethanol-resistant hemolysin titers of pastels exceeded those of sapphires in all but one interval after the primary, and at every interval after the booster, inoculation. These data indicate that sapphire mink are not immunological cripples, nor are they immunologically hyperactive, but that differences do exist between sapphire and royal pastel mink, especially in the response to booster injections of GE. PMID:16557957

  7. Cellular and humoral antibody responses of normal pastel and sapphire mink to goat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lodmell, D L; Bergman, R K; Hadlow, W J; Munoz, J J

    1971-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether normal sapphire and royal pastel mink differ immunologically at the cellular and humoral levels. Two days after primary intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of goat erythrocytes (GE), essentially no 19 or 7S plaque-forming cells (PFC) per 10(6) cells were detected in spleen or in abdominal and peripheral lymph nodes of either color phase. On the 4th day, more 19S PFC were detected in pastel than in sapphire tissues; pastel tissues also contained 7S PFC, whereas essentially none was present in sapphires until the 6th day. After an ip booster inoculation, the number of PFC was markedly different between the two color phases. These differences were most apparent in spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. In parallel with differences observed in PFC responses between the color phases, total hemolysin and 2-mercaptoethanol-resistant hemolysin titers of pastels exceeded those of sapphires in all but one interval after the primary, and at every interval after the booster, inoculation. These data indicate that sapphire mink are not immunological cripples, nor are they immunologically hyperactive, but that differences do exist between sapphire and royal pastel mink, especially in the response to booster injections of GE.

  8. Chemical characterization of the oligosaccharides in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) milk.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Tadasu; Sato, Harumi; Munakata, Jiro; Nakamura, Tadashi; Arai, Ikichi; Saito, Tadao; Tetsuka, Masafumi; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M

    2002-07-01

    Carbohydrates were extracted from the milk of a beluga, Delphinopterus leucas (family Odontoceti), and two Minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Family Mysticeti), sampled late in their respective lactation periods. Free oligosaccharides were separated by gel filtration and then neutral oligosaccharides were purified by preparative thin layer chromatography and gel filtration, while acidic oligosaccharides were purified by ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their structures were determined by 1H-NMR. In one of the Minke whale milk samples, lactose was a dominant saccharide, with Fuc(alpha1-2)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(2'-fucosyllactose), Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(lacto-N-neotetraose), GalNAc(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc(A-tetrasaccharide), Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (para lacto-N-neohexaose), Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-neotetraose), Neu5Ac(alpha2-6)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (LST c) and Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (sialyl para lacto-N-neohexaose) also being found in the milk. The second Minke whale sample contained similar amounts of lactose, 2'-fucosyllactose and A-tetrasaccharide, but no free sialyl oligosaccharides. Sialyl lacto-N-neotetraose and sialyl para lacto-N-neohexaose are novel oligosaccharides which have not been previously reported from any mammalian milk or colostrum. These and other oligosaccharides of Minke whale milk may have biological significance as anti-infection factors, protecting the suckling young against bacteria and viruses. The lactose of Minke whale milk could be a source of energy for them. The beluga whale milk contained trace amounts of Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(3'-N-acetylneuraminyllactose), but the question of whether it contained free lactose could not be clarified. Therefore

  9. Experimental Infection of Mink Enforces the Role of Arcanobacterium phocae as Causative Agent of Fur Animal Epidemic Necrotic Pyoderma (FENP)

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Heli; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Sukura, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Fur Animal Epidemic Necrotic Pyoderma (FENP) is a severe, often lethal infectious disease affecting all three fur animal species: mink (Neovision vision), foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and finnraccoons (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Previous studies showed an association between Arcanobacterium phocae and FENP. An experimental infection was conducted to confirm the ability of A. phocae to infect mink either alone or concurrently with a novel Streptococcus sp. found together with A. phocae in many cases of FENP. Different inoculation methods were tested to study possible routes of transmission. Typical signs, and gross- and histopathological findings for FENP were detected when naïve mink were infected with the tissue extract of mink with FENP, using a subcutaneous/ intradermal infection route. Edema, hemorrhage, necrosis and pus formation were detected in the infection site. A pure culture preparation of A. phocae alone or concurrently with the novel Streptococcus sp. caused severe acute signs of lethargy, apathy and anorexia and even mortality. The histopathological findings were similar to those found in naturally occurring cases of FENP. In contrast, the perorally infected mink presented no clinical signs nor any gross- or histopathological lesions. This study showed that A. phocae is able to cause FENP. The study also indicated that predisposing factors such as the environment, the general condition of the animals, temperature and skin trauma contribute to the development of the disease. PMID:27973532

  10. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mustelids in Finland - a cross-sectional epidemiological and phylogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Knuuttila, A; Aaltonen, K; Virtala, A-M K; Henttonen, H; Isomursu, M; Leimann, A; Maran, T; Saarma, U; Timonen, P; Vapalahti, O; Sironen, T

    2015-06-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) can cause severe immune-complex-mediated disease in American mink. AMDV has also been detected in several other mustelid species with potential negative impact on their health and population. A molecular and cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to obtain data on the prevalence, distribution, transmission and diversity of AMDV strains in Finnish free-ranging mustelids and risk factors associated with infection. The presence of anti-AMDV antibodies and/or AMDV DNA was tested from 308 samples representing eight mustelid species and 17 administrative regions. Positive samples were detected across Finland, and in 54 % (31/57) of feral American mink, 27 % (7/26) of European badgers and 7 % (1/14) of European polecats. Samples from Eurasian otters, European pine martens, least weasels, stoat and wolverine were negative. Major risk factors for infection were the species American mink with 335 and badger with 74 times higher odds than other species, and the years 2006-2009 with five times higher odds than the years 2010-2014. No clustering according to species, geographical origin or year was evident in phylogeny, except for four divergent sequences from Estonian badgers that formed a separate phylogroup distinct from other AMDV strains. This study showed that AMDV was prevalent in certain species of Finnish free-ranging mustelids and widely distributed across Finland. Furthermore, the free-ranging mustelids carried both strains similar to those found in farmed mink, but also distinct strains that may represent novel amdoparvoviruses.

  11. Monitoring blood glucose levels in female mink during the reproductive cycle: 1. Prevention of hyperglycemia during the nursing period

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Amber M.J.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2007-01-01

    Nursing sickness, the largest cause of death in female adult mink, is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. The impacts of body condition, dietary supplements, and reproductive status on the blood glucose concentration in female mink during the reproductive cycle were investigated. Mink dams on 3 farms were assigned to receive either herring oil (HerO) or chromium picolinate (CrPic) or to be in a control group, receiving only the basal diet, for 6 wk at the onset of lactation. Hyperglycemia was observed throughout the reproductive cycle. Significant differences in blood glucose levels were observed between farms, emphasizing the importance of herd genetics and of animal management and feeding practices in glycemic regulation. Female mink exhibiting hyperglycemia early in the reproductive cycle tended to remain hyperglycemic and to have poorer health and fewer kits. Glucose levels > 7 mmol/L can be considered critical in this regard. Supplementing the diet with CrPic reduced the blood glucose concentration. Results from this study suggest that a diet containing high-quality n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, high levels of carbohydrate, and CrPic supplementation may help the nursing mink dam maintain a normal blood glucose concentration during lactation. PMID:17955897

  12. Ecological risk assessment in a large river-reservoir. 8: Experimental study of the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on reproductive success in mink

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Aulerich, R.J.; Bursian, S.J.; Lewis, L.

    1999-04-01

    As a component of an ecological risk assessment of Poplar Creek (located on the Oak Ridge Reservation [ORR]) and the Clinch River (a large river-reservoir system), fish from Poplar Creek, the Clinch River, and Atlantic Ocean were fed to ranch mink to evaluate reproductive success. Five diets, each composed of 75% fish and 25% normal ranch mink chow, were prepared. Two diets served as reference diets and contained 75% Atlantic Ocean fish or 75% Clinch River fish collected above the ORR. The fish portion of the remaining three diets contained 25, 50, and 75% fish collected from Poplar Creek and 50, 25, and 0% ocean fish, respectively. Five mink groups (eight females and two males each) were each fed one of the prepared diets for 196 days. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were determined in diets and various mink tissues, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was determined in liver tissue, and reproductive success was evaluated. Concentrations of PCB were greatest in the diet composed of 75% Poplar Creek fish and in tissues from mink fed this diet and their offspring. There was a trend toward decreased adult female and kit weights and reduced mean litter size in mink fed diets containing 75% Poplar Creek fish; however, at 6 weeks of age, kit survival was similar among diet groups. Liver EROD activity significantly increased in adult female mink fed 50 and 75% Poplar Creek fish diets. Estimated dietary concentrations of PCBs were similar to or slightly lower than concentrations associated with adverse effects in experimentally dosed mink. Mercury (Hg) concentrations previously reported in these same mink were below that associated with adverse effects, and there was no indication of additive or synergistic effects from exposure to PCBs plus Hg. It is unlikely that population-level reproductive effects would be observed in mink consuming fish from Poplar Creek on the ORR.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of a “phiKMV-Like” Bacteriophage and Its Therapeutic Effect on Mink Hemorrhagic Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhenhui; Zhang, Jiancheng; Niu, Yan D.; Cui, Naizhong; Ma, Yongsheng; Cao, Fang; Jin, Liji; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink both in vitro and in vivo. Five Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) strains were isolated from lungs of mink with suspected hemorrhagic pneumonia and their identity was confirmed by morphological observation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Compared to P. aeruginosa strains isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia in 2002, these isolates were more resistant to antibiotics selected. A lytic phage vB_PaeP_PPA-ABTNL (PPA-ABTNL) of the Podoviridae family was isolated from hospital sewage using a P. aeruginosa isolate as host, showing broad host range against P. aeruginosa. A one-step growth curve analysis of PPA-ABTNL revealed eclipse and latent periods of 20 and 35 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 110 PFU per infected cell. Phage PPA-ABTNL significantly reduced the growth of P. aeruginosa isolates in vitro. The genome of PPA-ABTNL was 43,227 bp (62.4% G+C) containing 54 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins and antibiotic resistance determinants. Genome architecture analysis showed that PPA-ABTNL belonged to the “phiKMV-like Viruses” group. A repeated dose inhalational toxicity study using PPA-ABTNL crude preparation was conducted in mice and no significantly abnormal histological changes, morbidity or mortality were observed. There was no indication of any potential risk associated with using PPA-ABTNL as a therapeutic agent. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that atomization by ultrasonic treatment could efficiently deliver phage to the lungs of mink and a dose of 10 multiplicity of infection was optimal for treating mink hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrated the potential for phage to fight P. aeruginosa involved in mink lung infections when administered by means of ultrasonic nebulization. PMID:25615639

  14. Isolation and characterization of a "phiKMV-like" bacteriophage and its therapeutic effect on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhenhui; Zhang, Jiancheng; Niu, Yan D; Cui, Naizhong; Ma, Yongsheng; Cao, Fang; Jin, Liji; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink both in vitro and in vivo. Five Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) strains were isolated from lungs of mink with suspected hemorrhagic pneumonia and their identity was confirmed by morphological observation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Compared to P. aeruginosa strains isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia in 2002, these isolates were more resistant to antibiotics selected. A lytic phage vB_PaeP_PPA-ABTNL (PPA-ABTNL) of the Podoviridae family was isolated from hospital sewage using a P. aeruginosa isolate as host, showing broad host range against P. aeruginosa. A one-step growth curve analysis of PPA-ABTNL revealed eclipse and latent periods of 20 and 35 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 110 PFU per infected cell. Phage PPA-ABTNL significantly reduced the growth of P. aeruginosa isolates in vitro. The genome of PPA-ABTNL was 43,227 bp (62.4% G+C) containing 54 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins and antibiotic resistance determinants. Genome architecture analysis showed that PPA-ABTNL belonged to the "phiKMV-like Viruses" group. A repeated dose inhalational toxicity study using PPA-ABTNL crude preparation was conducted in mice and no significantly abnormal histological changes, morbidity or mortality were observed. There was no indication of any potential risk associated with using PPA-ABTNL as a therapeutic agent. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that atomization by ultrasonic treatment could efficiently deliver phage to the lungs of mink and a dose of 10 multiplicity of infection was optimal for treating mink hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrated the potential for phage to fight P. aeruginosa involved in mink lung infections when administered by means of ultrasonic nebulization.

  15. Replication of Aleutian Mink Disease Parvovirus In Vivo Is Influenced by Residues in the VP2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James M.; McCrackin Stevenson, Mary A.; Bloom, Marshall E.

    1999-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is the etiological agent of Aleutian disease of mink. Several ADV isolates have been identified which vary in the severity of the disease they elicit. The isolate ADV-Utah replicates to high levels in mink, causing severe Aleutian disease that results in death within 6 to 8 weeks, but does not replicate in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells. In contrast, ADV-G replicates in CrFK cells but does not replicate in mink. The ability of the virus to replicate in vivo is determined by virally encoded determinants contained within a defined region of the VP2 gene (M. E. Bloom, J. M. Fox, B. D. Berry, K. L. Oie, and J. B. Wolfinbarger. Virology 251:288–296, 1998). Within this region, ADV-G and ADV-Utah differ at only five amino acid residues. To determine which of these five amino acid residues comprise the in vivo replication determinant, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to individually convert the amino acid residues of ADV-G to those of ADV-Utah. A virus in which the ADV-G VP2 residue at 534, histidine (H), was converted to an aspartic acid (D) of ADV-Utah replicated in CrFK cells as efficiently as ADV-G. H534D also replicated in mink, causing transient viremia at 30 days postinfection and a strong antibody response. Animals infected with this virus developed diffuse hepatocellular microvesicular steatosis, an abnormal accumulation of intracellular fat, but did not develop classical Aleutian disease. Thus, the substitution of an aspartic acid at residue 534 for a histidine allowed replication of ADV-G in mink, but the ability to replicate was not sufficient to cause classical Aleutian disease. PMID:10482625

  16. Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation (Two-Year Gradient Stress Relaxation Testing Update)

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; King, James

    2009-09-01

    Min-K 1400TE insulation material was characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions. A previous report (ORNL/TM-2008/089) discusses the testing and results from the original three year duration of the project. This testing included compression testing to determine the effect of sample size and test specimen geometry on the compressive strength of Min-K, subsequent compression testing on cylindrical specimens to determine loading rates for stress relaxation testing, isothermal stress relaxation testing, and gradient stress relaxation testing. This report presents the results from the continuation of the gradient temperature stress relaxation testing and the resulting updated modeling.

  17. Comparative toxicology of tetrachlorobiphenyls in mink and rats. I. Changes in hepatic enzyme activity and smooth endoplasmic reticulum volume

    SciTech Connect

    Gillette, D.M.; Corey, R.D.; Helferich, W.G.; McFarland, J.M.; Lowenstine, L.J.; Moody, D.E.; Hammock, B.D.; Shull, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Mink have been shown previously to be extraordinarily sensitive to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related classes of halogenated hydrocarbons. This study explored several aspects of the acute response of mink to two purified tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) congeners and compared their response with that of the rat, a less sensitive and more thoroughly studied species. Young female pastel mink and young female Sprague-Dawley rats received three daily intraperitoneal injections with equimolar doses of either 2,4,2',4'-TCB or 3,4,3',4'-TCB, and were sacrificed after 7 days. Two control groups were used for each species; one was allowed free access to food and the other was pair-fed to the 3,4,3',4'-TCB treatment group. Rats remained clinically normal, while mink treated with 3,4,3',4'-TCB developed severe anorexia, diarrhea, and melena. Both species had significant increases in hepatic cytochrome P-450 content and the characteristic shift in the spectral maxima from 450 to 448 nm in the 3,4,3',4'-TCB- but not in the 2,4,2',4'-TCB-treated animals. Rats but not mink had increased activities of several hepatic monooxygenases in response to both congeners while microsomal epoxide hydrolase was increased in rats after 2,4,2',4'-TCB and in mink after 3,4,3',4'-TCB. Significant increases in the relative volume of smooth endoplasmic reticulum within hepatocytes of 2,4,2',4'-TCB-treated rats but not mink were confirmed by ultrastructural morphometry. Accumulation of both congeners was greater in adipose tissue than in the liver of either species. In both species, concentrations in adipose tissue were much greater for 2,4,2',4'-TCB than for 3,4,3',4'-TCB. PCB toxicosis in mink, as in other species, appeared to be dependent on isomeric arrangement of chlorine substituents. However, unlike other species, the toxicosis was not associated with biochemical or morphological evidence of hepatic enzyme induction.

  18. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Jensen, Tove Dannemann; Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2009-07-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate the different phases of the immune response after DNA immunization with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from canine distemper virus (CDV). Although attenuated live CDV vaccines have effectively reduced the incidence of disease, canine distemper is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV. The DNA vaccine-induced immunity protected the natural host against disease development.

  19. Retinal function and morphology are altered in cattle infected with the prion disease transmissible mink encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, J D; Greenlee, J J; Hamir, A N; Richt, J A; Greenlee, M H West

    2009-09-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of diseases that result in progressive and invariably fatal neurologic disease in both animals and humans. TSEs are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal protease-resistant form of the prion protein in the central nervous system. Transmission of infectious TSEs is believed to occur via ingestion of prion protein-contaminated material. This material is also involved in the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") to humans, which resulted in the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Abnormal prion protein has been reported in the retina of TSE-affected cattle, but despite these observations, the specific effect of abnormal prion protein on retinal morphology and function has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize potential functional and morphologic abnormalities in the retinas of cattle infected with a bovine-adapted isolate of transmissible mink encephalopathy. We used electroretinography and immunohistochemistry to examine retinas from 10 noninoculated and 5 transmissible mink encephalopathy-inoculated adult Holstein steers. Here we show altered retinal function, as evidenced by prolonged implicit time of the electroretinogram b-wave, in transmissible mink encephalopathy-infected cattle before the onset of clinical illness. We also demonstrate disruption of rod bipolar cell synaptic terminals, indicated by decreased immunoreactivity for the alpha isoform of protein kinase C and vesicular glutamate transporter 1, and activation of Müller glia, as evidenced by increased glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase expression, in the retinas of these cattle at the time of euthanasia due to clinical deterioration. This is the first study to identify both functional and morphologic alterations in the retinas of TSE-infected cattle. Our results support future efforts to focus on the retina for the development of

  20. Effect of Pre-Fixation Delay and Freezing on Mink Testicular Endpoints for Environmental Research

    PubMed Central

    Spörndly-Nees, Ellinor; Ekstedt, Elisabeth; Magnusson, Ulf; Fakhrzadeh, Azadeh; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.; Holm, Lena

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in using wild animals to monitor the real-life cocktail effect of environmental chemicals on male reproduction. However, practical difficulties, such as long distances to the laboratory, generally prolong the time between euthanisation and specimen handling. For instance, tissue fixation is often performed on frozen material or on material where deterioration has started, which may affect tissue morphology. This study examined the effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints in order to determine robust endpoints in suboptimally handled specimens. Sexually mature farmed mink (n=30) selected at culling were divided into six groups and subjected to different time intervals between euthanisation and fixation or freezing: 0 hours (fixed immediately post mortem), 6 hours, 18 hours, 30 hours, 42 hours, or frozen 6 hours post mortem and thawed overnight. Unaffected endpoints when pre-fixation storage was extended to 30 hours included: area and diameter of the seminiferous tubules, length and weight of the testes, and acrosomes marked with Gata-4. Epithelial height, Sertoli cells marked with Gata-4 and cell morphology were affected endpoints after 6 hours of storage. Freezing the tissue prior to fixation severely altered cell morphology and reduced testicular weight, tubular diameter and area. Morphological changes seen after 6 hours included shredded germ cells and excess cytoplasm in seminiferous tubular lumen, chromatin rearrangements and increased germ cell death. Extended delay before fixation and freezing affected many endpoints in the mink testicular tissue. Some of these endpoints may mimic chemically induced effects, which is important to consider when evaluating specimens from wild animals for environmental toxicity. PMID:25933113

  1. Structure and Dynamics of Minke Whale Surfacing Patterns in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Fredrik; Lusseau, David; Tscherter, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Animal behavioral patterns can help us understand physiological and ecological constraints on animals and its influence on fitness. The surfacing patterns of aquatic air-breathing mammals constitute a behavioral pattern that has evolved as a trade-off between the need to replenish oxygen stores at the surface and the need to conduct other activities underwater. This study aims to better understand the surfacing pattern of a marine top predator, the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), by investigating how their dive duration and surfacing pattern changes across their activity range. Activities were classified into resting, traveling, surface feeding and foraging at depth. For each activity, we classified dives into short and long dives and then estimated the temporal dependence between dive types. We found that minke whales modified their surfacing pattern in an activity-specific manner, both by changing the expression of their dives (i.e. density distribution) and the temporal dependence (transition probability) between dive types. As the depth of the prey layer increased between activities, the surfacing pattern of foraging whales became increasingly structured, going from a pattern dominated by long dives, when feeding at the surface, to a pattern where isolated long dives were followed by an increasing number of breaths (i.e. short dives), when the whale was foraging at depth. A similar shift in surfacing pattern occurred when prey handling time (inferred from surface corralling maneuvers) increased for surface feeding whales. The surfacing pattern also differed between feeding and non-feeding whales. Resting whales did not structure their surfacing pattern, while traveling whales did, possibly as a way to minimize cost of transport. Our results also suggest that minke whales might balance their oxygen level over multiple, rather than single, dive cycles. PMID:25970425

  2. Effects of dietary hexachlorobenzene exposure on regional brain biogenic amine concentrations in mink and European ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Bleavins, M.R.; Bursian, S.J.; Brewster, J.S.; Aulerich, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In the initial trial, adult mink and ferrets were administered hexachlorobenzene (HCB) via the feed at concentrations of 1, 5, or 25 ppm for 47 wk. Animals receiving 125 and 625 ppm HCB in the diet died before termination of the experiment, with female ferrets at the 125 ppm level displaying abnormal aggressiveness and hyperexcitability just prior to death. Hypothalamic serotonin (5-HT) was significantly elevated at all dose levels in mink, and cerebellar 5-HT was significantly elevated at 1 ppm in the ferret. Regional brain biogenic amine concentrations were also determined in the offspring of the female mink that were administered 1 and 5 ppm HCB. Hypothalamic dopamine (DA) concentrations were significantly depressed by 1 and 5 ppm in these kits. In a second study, adult male and female ferrets were administered 250 or 500 ppm HCB via the diet for 7 wk. Two animals at the 250-ppm level and 3 animals at the 500-ppm level died before termination of the experiment without showing behavioral changes. Of the remaining animals, 3 ferrets at 250 ppm and 1 ferret at 500 ppm showed slight aggressiveness and hyperexcitability during the last week of the experiment. Concentrations of 5-HT were significantly elevated at 500 ppm in the cerebral hemispheres and at 250 ppm in the midbrain of male ferrets, while in the females, 5-HT was elevated in the cerebral hemispheres at 250 ppm and in the hypothalamus at both 250 and 500 ppm. Norepinephrine (NE) concentrations were significantly elevated in the cerebellum of males exposed to 250 and 500 ppm, as were NE concentrations in the midbrain. HCB at 500 ppm caused a significant increase in medullary NE, while 250 ppm caused an increase in hypothalamic NE in males. The only change in regional brain dopamine (DA) concentrations occurred at 500 ppm HCB in the midbrain of males, where there was a significant elevation of this neurotransmitter. 34 references, 7 tables.

  3. Flow-cytometric determination of genotoxic effects of exposure to petroleum in mink and sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bickham, J.W.; Mazet, J.A.; Blake, J.; Smolen, M.J.; Lou, Y.; Ballachey, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the genotoxic effects of crude oil on mink and sea otters, In the first experiment, the effects on mink of chronic exposure to weathered Prudhoe Bay crude oil were studied, Female mink were fed a diet that included weathered crude oil for a period of 3 weeks prior to mating, during pregnancy and until weaning. Kits were exposed through lactation and by diet after weaning until 4 months of age. Kidney and liver tissues of the kits were examined using flow cytometry (FCM) and it was found that the genome size was increased in kidney samples from the experimental group compared to the control group. This effect was probably due to some type of DNA amplification and it could have been inherited from the exposed mothers or have been a somatic response to oil exposure in the pups, No evidence of clastogenic effects, as measured by the coefficient of variation (CV) of the G(1) peak, was found in kidney or liver tissue. In the second experiment, yearling female mink were exposed either by diet or externally to crude oil or bunker C fuel oil. Evidence for clastogenic damage was found in spleen tissue for the exposure groups, but not in kidney tissue. No evidence of increased genome size was observed. In the third experiment, blood was obtained from wild-caught sea otters in Prince William Sound. The sea otters represented two populations: one from western Prince William Sound that was potentially exposed to oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and a reference population from eastern Prince William Sound that did not receive oil from the spill. The spill had occurred 1.5 years prior to obtaining the blood samples. Although the mean CVs did not differ between the populations, the exposed population had a significantly higher variance of CV measurements and five out of 15 animals from the exposed population had CVs higher than the 95% confidence limits of the reference population, It is concluded that FCM is a sensitive indicator

  4. Improvement on in vitro maturation, fertilization and development of minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Asada, M; Tetsuka, M; Ishikawa, H; Ohsumi, S; Fukui, Y

    2001-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to improve in vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequent development of minke whale oocytes. We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 10 and 20%) of fetal whale serum (FWS) in maturation medium on nuclear maturation, morphological grade (A or B) of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) obtained from prepubertal and adult minke whales. Grade A (> or = 5 layers of cumulus cells) COC collected from the adult whales and cultured in the medium with 20% FWS had a higher (P < 0.05) maturation rate (31.8%) than those in the medium without FWS (0%). Adding FWS to the maturation medium significantly (P < 0.01) improved the proportion of oocytes at Metaphase II (M-II): without FWS (7.9%), with 10% (19.4%) and 20% (21.4%) FWS. However, sexual maturity of whales and COC grades were not significantly affected by M-II oocytes. When in vitro fertilization of matured oocytes was performed in the presence of 20% FWS or 0.6% BSA in the fertilization medium, the proportions of sperm penetration and two-pronuclei formation in matured oocytes were not significantly different. Grade A COC cultured in a culture medium supplemented with 10% FWS cleaved at a higher rate (15.4%, P < 0.05) than did Grade A and B COCs cultured in the medium without FWS (0%). Neither Grade A nor B COCs cleaved when the medium was without FWS. The proportions of cleaved oocytes increased (P < 0.05) with FWS supplementation (6.9% and 8.1% for 1.0% FWS and 20% FWS, respectively). Grade A COC was significantly (P < 0.05) superior in its ability to cleave (14.5%) and develop to morula (4.2%) compared with that of the oocytes from Grade B COC (2.5% and 0%). Coculture with granulosa cells during in vitro culture did not significantly affect cleavage and development to the morula stage. These results indicate that FWS addition in the maturation medium improved the rate of in vitro maturation and cleavage after insemination of minke whale oocytes. The BSA

  5. Smoothing for spatiotemporal models and its application to modeling muskrat-mink interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenyang; Yao, Qiwei; Tong, Howell; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2003-12-01

    For a set of spatially dependent dynamical models, we propose a method for estimating parameters that control temporal dynamics by spatial smoothing. The new approach is particularly relevant for analyzing spatially distributed panels of short time series. The asymptotic results show that spatial smoothing will improve the estimation in the presence of nugget effect, even when the sample size in each location is large. The proposed methodology is used to analyze the annual mink and muskrat data collected in a period of 25 years in 81 Canadian locations. Based on the proposed method, we are able to model the temporal dynamics which reflects the food chain interaction of the two species.

  6. Black crystal: a novel color mutant in the American mink (Mustela vision Schreber).

    PubMed

    Trapezov, O V

    1997-01-01

    Black crystal, a new mutant of coat color pattern occurring in the American mink in the course of selection for domestic behavior, is described. A salient feature of the mutation is the appearance of white guard hairs producing a veil-like covering of the body. In the Black crystal homozygote, coat color is of the Himalayan type. Breeding data demonstrate that the novel color phase is inherited as a monogenic autosomal semidominant trait. The mutant gene is designated as Black crystal and is symbolized by Cr. The Cr gene is not allelic to the multiple-allelic series at the Black cross locus.

  7. A frameshift mutation in the LYST gene is responsible for the Aleutian color and the associated Chédiak-Higashi syndrome in American mink.

    PubMed

    Anistoroaei, R; Krogh, A K; Christensen, K

    2013-04-01

    One of the colors of mink is Aleutian (aa)-a specific gun-metal gray pigmentation of the fur-commonly used in combination with other color loci to generate popular colors such as Violet (aammpp) and Sapphire (aapp). The Aleutian color allele is a manifestation of mink Chédiak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), which has been described in humans and several other species. As with forms of CHS in other species, we report that the mink CHS is linked to the lysosomal trafficking regulator ( LYST ) gene. Furthermore, we have identified a base deletion (c.9468delC) in exon 40 of LYST, which causes a frameshift and virtually terminates the LYST product prematurely (p.Leu3156Phefs*37). We investigated the blood parameters of three wild-type mink and three CHS mink. No difference in the platelet number between the two groups was observed, but an accumulation of platelets between the groups appears different when collagen is used as a coagulant. Microscopic analysis of peripheral blood indicates giant inclusions in the neutrophils of the Aleutian mink types. Molecular findings at the LYST locus enable the development of genetic tests for analyzing the color selection in American mink.

  8. Digestibility of krill (Euphausia superba and Thysanoessa sp.) in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophagus).

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, P E; Nordøy, E S; Blix, A S

    1994-11-01

    Apparent digestible efficiency (% DE) was studied by use of dietary Mn as an inert marker, in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophagus) which had been eating krill. Median % DE in minke whales (n5) eating krill of the genus Thysanoessa sp. (energy density (ED) 23.8 kJ/g) was 93 (range 87-93). Median % DE in crabeater seals (n6) eating krill of the species Euphausia superba (ED 20.8 kJ/g) was 84 (range 79-85), which is significantly lower than the % DE of krill in minke whales (P = 0.008). Since the chemical composition in E. superba and in Thysanoessa sp. is similar, it is suggested that the complex multi-stomached system of minke whales, which contains both chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14)-producing as well as several other types of bacteria, is superior to the single-stomached system of crabeater seals with regard to krill digestion. It is worth noting, however, that the % DE of krill in the crabeater seal is still very high.

  9. Aging influences steroid hormone release by mink ovaries and their response to leptin and IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Mertin, Dušan; Süvegová, Karin; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Kotwica, Jan

    2016-01-21

    The aim of our study was to understand whether ovarian steroid hormones, and their response to the metabolic hormones leptin and IGF-I leptin, could be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging via changes in basal release of ovarian progesterone and estradiol. For this purpose, we compared the release of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian fragments isolated from young (yearlings) and old (3-5 years of age) minks cultured with and without leptin and IGF-I (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml). We observed that isolated ovaries of older animals produced less progesterone but not less estradiol than the ovaries of young animals. Leptin addition stimulated estradiol release by the ovarian tissue of young animals but inhibited it in older females. Leptin did not influence progesterone output by the ovaries of either young or older animals. IGF-I inhibited estradiol output in young but not old animals, whereas progesterone release was inhibited by IGF-I irrespective of the animal age. Our observations demonstrate the involvement of both leptin and IGF-I in the control of mink ovarian steroid hormones release. Furthermore, our findings suggest that reproductive aging in minks can be due to (a) reduction in basal progesterone release and (b) alterations in the response of estradiol but not of progesterone to leptin and IGF-I.

  10. Aging influences steroid hormone release by mink ovaries and their response to leptin and IGF-I

    PubMed Central

    Sirotkin, Alexander V.; Mertin, Dušan; Süvegová, Karin; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Kotwica, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of our study was to understand whether ovarian steroid hormones, and their response to the metabolic hormones leptin and IGF-I leptin, could be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging via changes in basal release of ovarian progesterone and estradiol. For this purpose, we compared the release of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian fragments isolated from young (yearlings) and old (3-5 years of age) minks cultured with and without leptin and IGF-I (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml). We observed that isolated ovaries of older animals produced less progesterone but not less estradiol than the ovaries of young animals. Leptin addition stimulated estradiol release by the ovarian tissue of young animals but inhibited it in older females. Leptin did not influence progesterone output by the ovaries of either young or older animals. IGF-I inhibited estradiol output in young but not old animals, whereas progesterone release was inhibited by IGF-I irrespective of the animal age. Our observations demonstrate the involvement of both leptin and IGF-I in the control of mink ovarian steroid hormones release. Furthermore, our findings suggest that reproductive aging in minks can be due to (a) reduction in basal progesterone release and (b) alterations in the response of estradiol but not of progesterone to leptin and IGF-I. PMID:26794607

  11. Properly Characterizing Clusters of Families Who Have Children with Mental Retardation: A Comment on Mink, Blacher, and Nihira.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widaman, Keith F.

    1991-01-01

    This reaction paper criticizes the characterizations of clusters used in a study concerning a taxonomy of lifestyles of families with severely mentally retarded children, by I. T. Mink and others (EC 211 387). The criticism focuses on the use of cluster scores on criterion variables and use of cluster profiles across studies. (JDD)

  12. Feeding of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus on minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata in the St Lawrence Estuary, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nichols, O C; Tscherter, U T

    2011-01-01

    Sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus were observed on 109 occasions on 47 individual minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Bloody lesions could be identified as previous attachment sites, indicating P. marinus feeding on B. acutorostrata blood. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Purification and characterization of the major nonstructural protein (NS-1) of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, J; Pedersen, M; Aasted, B; Alexandersen, S

    1995-01-01

    We have previously described the expression of the major nonstructural protein (NS-1) of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) in insect cells by using a baculovirus vector (J. Christensen, T. Storgaard, B. Bloch, S. Alexandersen, and B. Aasted, J. Virol. 67:229-238, 1993). To study its biochemical properties, ADV NS-1 was expressed in Sf9 insect cells and purified to apparent homogeneity with a combination of nuclear extraction, Zn2+ ion chromatography, and immunoaffinity chromatography on monoclonal antibodies. The purified protein showed ATP binding and ATPase- and ATP- or dATP-dependent helicase activity requiring either Mg2+ or Mn2+ as a cofactor. The ATPase activity of NS-1 was efficiently stimulated by single-stranded DNA and, to a lesser extent, double-stranded DNA. We also describe the expression, purification, and characterization of a mutant NS-1 protein, in which a lysine in the putative nucleotide binding consensus sequence of the molecule was replaced with serine. The mutated NS-1 was expressed at 10-fold higher levels than wild-type NS-1, but it exhibited no ATP binding. ATPase, or helicase activity. The availability of large amounts of purified functional NS-1 protein will facilitate studies of the biochemistry of ADV replication and gene regulation leading to disease in mink. PMID:7853520

  14. [Bioactive Effect of the Preparation Biostyl on the Reproductive Function of Different Genotypes of American Mink].

    PubMed

    Trapezov, O V; Zemljanitskajia, E I; Rasputina, O V; Naumkin, I V; Trapezova, L I

    2016-01-01

    The different role of coat color mutations in the American mink on the per os effect of the biologically active preparation Biostyl was shown. The number of kits per female was the same in all control genotypes, including Standard (+/+ +/+), sapphire (a/a p/p), and lavender (a/a m/m): 4.4 ± 0.4, 4.4 ± 0.5, and 4.3 ± 0.5, respectively. Experimental groups of these genotypes have shown a great contrast among each other: stimulation of the reproductive function was 5.2 ± 0.3 in Standard minks, while suppression of the reproductive function was 3.8 ± 0.6, and 2.3 ± 0.5 in the double recessive mutants sapphire and lavender, respectively. The differentiation in body mass between experimental and control newborn Standard kits was not revealed. A significant decrease in the body mass of newborn experimental sapphire kits as compared to control group in a sex-specific manner was registered.

  15. Seasonal migrations of North Atlantic minke whales: novel insights from large-scale passive acoustic monitoring networks.

    PubMed

    Risch, Denise; Castellote, Manuel; Clark, Christopher W; Davis, Genevieve E; Dugan, Peter J; Hodge, Lynne Ew; Kumar, Anurag; Lucke, Klaus; Mellinger, David K; Nieukirk, Sharon L; Popescu, Cristian Marian; Ramp, Christian; Read, Andrew J; Rice, Aaron N; Silva, Monica A; Siebert, Ursula; Stafford, Kathleen M; Verdaat, Hans; Van Parijs, Sofie M

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about migration patterns and seasonal distribution away from coastal summer feeding habitats of many pelagic baleen whales. Recently, large-scale passive acoustic monitoring networks have become available to explore migration patterns and identify critical habitats of these species. North Atlantic minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) perform seasonal migrations between high latitude summer feeding and low latitude winter breeding grounds. While the distribution and abundance of the species has been studied across their summer range, data on migration and winter habitat are virtually missing. Acoustic recordings, from 16 different sites from across the North Atlantic, were analyzed to examine the seasonal and geographic variation in minke whale pulse train occurrence, infer information about migration routes and timing, and to identify possible winter habitats. Acoustic detections show that minke whales leave their winter grounds south of 30° N from March through early April. On their southward migration in autumn, minke whales leave waters north of 40° N from mid-October through early November. In the western North Atlantic spring migrants appear to track the warmer waters of the Gulf Stream along the continental shelf, while whales travel farther offshore in autumn. Abundant detections were found off the southeastern US and the Caribbean during winter. Minke whale pulse trains showed evidence of geographic variation, with longer pulse trains recorded south of 40° N. Very few pulse trains were recorded during summer in any of the datasets. This study highlights the feasibility of using acoustic monitoring networks to explore migration patterns of pelagic marine mammals. Results confirm the presence of minke whales off the southeastern US and the Caribbean during winter months. The absence of pulse train detections during summer suggests either that minke whales switch their vocal behaviour at this time of year, are absent from available

  16. Mink aging is associated with a reduction in ovarian hormone release and the response to FSH and ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Mertin, Dušan; Süvegová, Karina; Lauričik, Jozef; Morovič, Martin; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Kotwica, Jan

    2016-09-15

    The endocrine mechanisms of mink ovarian hormones release and reproductive aging are poorly investigated. The aims of our study were to: (1) identify hormones produced by mink ovaries (the steroids progesterone [P] and estradiol [E], the peptide hormone oxytocin [OT], and the prostaglandin F [PGF] and prostaglandin E [PGE]); (2) examine the effect of FSH and ghrelin on the release of the hormones listed previously; and (3) understand whether these hormones can be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging, i.e., whether aging can be associated with changes (a) in the basal release of P, E, OT, PGF, or PGE and (b) their response to FSH and ghrelin. Fragments of ovaries of young (yearlings) and old (3-5 years of age) minks were cultured with and without FSH and ghrelin (0, 1, 10, or 100 ng/mL), and the release of hormones was analyzed by EIA/RIA. We found that isolated ovaries were able to release P, E, OT, PGF, and PGE, and the levels of P produced in the ovaries of old animals were lower than those produced in the ovaries of young animals, whereas the levels of other hormones did not differ. FSH was able to stimulate P and E and suppress OT and PGF and did not affect PGE release. Aging was associated with the inhibition of the effect of FSH on ovarian P and E, the appearance of the inhibitory action of FSH on OT, and the disappearance of this action on ovarian PGF. PGE was not affected by FSH, irrespective of animal age. Ghrelin was able to promote E (but not P) and suppress OT, PGF, and PGE output. Aging was associated with the appearance of an inhibitory influence of ghrelin on ovarian OT and PGE and with the disappearance of this influence on PGF output. Aging did not affect the action of ghrelin on ovarian P and E. Our observations (1) confirm the production of P and E and show that OT, PGF, and PGE are released from mink ovaries, (2) confirm the involvement of FSH and demonstrate the involvement of ghrelin in the control of mink ovarian hormone

  17. Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata).

    PubMed

    Dell, Leigh-Anne; Karlsson, Karl Ae; Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Siegel, Jerome M; Manger, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    The current study analyzed the nuclear organization of the neural systems related to the control and regulation of sleep and wake in the basal forebrain, diencephalon, midbrain, and pons of the minke whale, a mysticete cetacean. While odontocete cetaceans sleep in an unusual manner, with unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS) and suppressed REM sleep, it is unclear whether the mysticete whales show a similar sleep pattern. Previously, we detailed a range of features in the odontocete brain that appear to be related to odontocete-type sleep, and here present our analysis of these features in the minke whale brain. All neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals and the harbor porpoise were present in the minke whale, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems, and the GABAergic elements of these nuclei. Quantitative analysis revealed that the numbers of pontine cholinergic (274,242) and noradrenergic (203,686) neurons, and hypothalamic orexinergic neurons (277,604), are markedly higher than other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. Small telencephalic commissures (anterior, corpus callosum, and hippocampal), an enlarged posterior commissure, supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic cells, and an enlarged peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex of the minke whale, all indicate that the suite of neural characteristics thought to be involved in the control of USWS and the suppression of REM in the odontocete cetaceans are present in the minke whale. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2018-2035, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The nature of aleutian disease in mink. I. Two forms of hypergammaglobulinemia as related to method of disease transmission and type of lesion.

    PubMed

    Bazeley, P L

    1976-09-01

    Aleutian mink disease is generally considered to precipitate spontaneously in ranch mink, with a lethal outcome. A two-year field study of a herd of susceptible mutant mink (sapphires and violets), however, has shown that all individual mink were affected from birth; the well state consisted of periodic low-level hypergammaglobulinemia accompanied by minute vascular occlusions. The spontaneous lethal change in an individual appeared to arise during one of these hypergammaglobulinemic episodes and thus represented a failure of the immune system to control an inherent virus-induced mononucleosis. The fact that the entire herd was affected by the periodic form from birth is considered strong evidence for vertical transmission at a rate of 100%. The incidence of spontaneous precipitation was found to be dependent on the level of hypergammaglobulinemia in the mother during pregnancy.

  19. Monitoring blood glucose levels in female mink during the reproductive cycle: 2. Effects of short-term fish oil, chromium picolinate, and acetylsalicylic acid supplementation during late lactation

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Amber M.J.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2007-01-01

    Mink nursing sickness is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia that is similar to the metabolic syndrome associated with type 2, or non-insulin-dependent, diabetes mellitus. This research studied the effects of short-term administration of antidiabetic supplements on the blood glucose concentration in female mink during late lactation. Female mink that had blood glucose levels < 5.5 mmol/L (normoglycemic [NG]) or ≥ 5.5 mmol/L (hyperglycemic [HG]) early in lactation were given daily supplements of various combinations of herring oil (HerO, 3% in diet), chromium picolinate (CrPic, 200 μg), and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg) for 1 wk starting at day 21 post partum. In the NG mink, most of the treatments did not significantly change the blood glucose concentration from day 28 to 42 post partum. However, treatment with ASA alone and treatment with the combination HerO-CrPic-ASA elevated the blood glucose levels when compared with those of the control group, which had received just the basal diet. In the HG mink, all treatment combinations except CrPic alone and ASA alone, reduced the blood glucose concentration. Thus, in lactating mink with hyperglycemia, the blood glucose concentration may be effectively lowered by dietary antidiabetic supplementation; however, because hyperglycemia also occurs before nursing, preventive measures are recommended throughout the year. PMID:17955898

  20. Phase coupling and synchrony in the spatiotemporal dynamics of muskrat and mink populations across Canada.

    PubMed

    Haydon, D T; Stenseth, N C; Boyce, M S; Greenwood, P E

    2001-11-06

    Population ecologists have traditionally focused on the patterns and causes of population variation in the temporal domain for which a substantial body of practical analytic techniques have been developed. More recently, numerous studies have documented how populations may fluctuate synchronously over large spatial areas; analyses of such spatially extended time-series have started to provide additional clues regarding the causes of these population fluctuations and explanations for their synchronous occurrence. Here, we report on the development of a phase-based method for identifying coupling between temporally coincident but spatially distributed cyclic time-series, which we apply to the numbers of muskrat and mink recorded at 81 locations across Canada. The analysis reveals remarkable parallel clines in the strength of coupling between proximate populations of both species--declining from west to east--together with a corresponding increase in observed synchrony between these populations the further east they are located.

  1. Molecular Characterization of the Small Nonstructural Proteins of Parvovirus Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) During Infection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qinfeng; Luo, Yong; Cheng, Fang; Best, Sonja M.; Bloom, Marshall E.; Qiu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the only member in genus Amdovirus of the family Parvoviridae. During AMDV infection, six species of viral transcripts are generated from one precursor mRNA through alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation. In addition to the large non-structural protein NS1, two small non-structural proteins, NS2 and NS3, are putatively encoded (Qiu J, et al: Journal of Virology, 80:654–62, 2006). However, these two proteins have not been experimentally demonstrated during virus infection, and nothing is known about their function. Here, we studied the nonstructural protein expression profile of AMDV, and for the first time, confirmed expression of NS2 and NS3 during infection, and identified their intracellular localization. More importantly, we provided evidence that both NS2 and NS3 are necessary for AMDV replication. PMID:24606679

  2. Avoidance responses of minke whales to 1-4kHz naval sonar.

    PubMed

    Kvadsheim, Petter H; DeRuiter, Stacy; Sivle, Lise D; Goldbogen, Jeremy; Roland-Hansen, Rune; Miller, Patrick J O; Lam, Frans-Peter A; Calambokidis, John; Friedlaender, Ari; Visser, Fleur; Tyack, Peter L; Kleivane, Lars; Southall, Brandon

    2017-08-15

    Minke whales are difficult to study and little information exists regarding their responses to anthropogenic sound. This study pools data from behavioural response studies off California and Norway. Data are derived from four tagged animals, of which one from each location was exposed to naval sonar signals. Statistical analyses were conducted using Mahalanobis distance to compare overall changes in parameters summarising dive behaviour, avoidance behaviour, and potential energetic costs of disturbance. Our quantitative analysis showed that both animals initiated avoidance behaviour, but responses were not associated with unusual dive behaviour. In one exposed animal the avoidance of the sonar source included a 5-fold increase in horizontal speed away from the source, implying a significant increase in metabolic rate. Despite the different environmental settings and exposure contexts, clear changes in behaviour were observed providing the first insights into the nature of responses to human noise for this wide-ranging species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Incidence of nursing sickness and biochemical observations in lactating mink with and without dietary salt supplementation.

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, T N; Wamberg, S; Hansen, O

    1996-01-01

    The impact of dietary sodium on the incidence of nursing sickness in mink dams and on the average litter biomass of 28 and 42 day old kits was studied. One group (n = 115 including 12 barren females) was given a standard feed mixture with a natural content of 0.53 g NaCl/MJ and another group (n = 115 including 8 barren females) was given the same feed mixture supplemented with NaCl to a final content of 1.00 g/MJ. The average dam weight at weaning was significantly lower (P < 0.001) and the incidence of nursing sickness during the last part of the lactation period 3 times higher in the nonsupplemented group. The average litter biomass at weaning did not differ between the 2 experimental groups. A number of biochemical markers of preclinical nursing sickness, e.g. plasma aldosterone and osmolality, Na+ and Cl concentrations in plasma and urine, were studied during the last part of the lactation period and at weaning in 20 dams of the nonsupplemented group, in 10 dams of the salt supplemented group and, for comparison, in 5 + 5 barren females on the day corresponding to day 34 after parturition in nursing mink. The nonsupplemented group had significantly lower concentrations of sodium and chloride in plasma and urine and a significantly higher concentration of plasma aldosterone as compared to the salt supplemented group. Distinct signs of relative salt deficiency and preclinical nursing sickness thus characterized the nonsupplemented group throughout this period, while more blurred hints of electrolyte imbalances were noticed in the sodium chloride supplemented group at weaning. A beneficial effect of salt supplementation on the incidence of nursing sickness was shown; however, it remains unclear whether salt deficiency can cause nursing sickness or whether salt acts as an appetite stimulant preventing inanition and the development of the disorder. PMID:8904663

  4. Characterization of proviruses cloned from mink cell focus-forming virus-infected cellular DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A S; Repaske, R; Garon, C F; Chan, H W; Rowe, W P; Martin, M A

    1982-01-01

    Two proviruses were cloned from EcoRI-digested DNA extracted from mink cells chronically infected with AKR mink cell focus-forming (MCF) 247 murine leukemia virus (MuLV), using a lambda phage host vector system. One cloned MuLV DNA fragment (designated MCF 1) contained sequences extending 6.8 kilobases from an EcoRI restriction site in the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) to an EcoRI site located in the envelope (env) region and was indistinguishable by restriction endonuclease mapping for 5.1 kilobases (except for the EcoRI site in the LTR) from the 5' end of AKR ecotropic proviral DNA. The DNA segment extending from 5.1 to 6.8 kilobases contained several restriction sites that were not present in the AKR ecotropic provirus. A 0.5-kilobase DNA segment located at the 3' end of MCF 1 DNA contained sequences which hybridized to a xenotropic env-specific DNA probe but not to labeled ecotropic env-specific DNA. This dual character of MCF 1 proviral DNA was also confirmed by analyzing heteroduplex molecules by electron microscopy. The second cloned proviral DNA (designated MCF 2) was a 6.9-kilobase EcoRI DNA fragment which contained LTR sequences at each end and a 2.0-kilobase deletion encompassing most of the env region. The MCF 2 proviral DNA proved to be a useful reagent for detecting LTRs electron microscopically due to the presence of nonoverlapping, terminally located LTR sequences which effected its circularization with DNAs containing homologous LTR sequences. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of a 104-base-pair direct repeat in the LTR of MCF 2 DNA. In contrast, only a single copy of the reiterated component of the direct repeat was present in MCF 1 DNA. Images PMID:6281459

  5. In situ molecular hybridization for detection of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus DNA by using strand-specific probes: identification of target cells for viral replication in cell cultures and in mink kits with virus-induced interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Alexandersen, S; Bloom, M E; Wolfinbarger, J; Race, R E

    1987-01-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were utilized in in situ molecular hybridization specifically to localize replicative form DNA of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Throughout in vitro infection, duplex replicative form DNA of ADV was located in the cell nuclei. Single-stranded virion DNA and capsid proteins were present in the nuclei early in infection, but were later translocated to the cytoplasm. In neonatal mink, ADV causes acute interstitial pneumonia, and replicative forms of viral DNA were found predominantly in alveolar type II cells of the lung. Viral DNA was also found in other organs, but strand-specific probes made it possible to show that most of this DNA represented virus sequestration. In addition, glomerular immune complexes containing intact virions were detected, suggesting that ADV virions may have a role in the genesis of ADV-induced glomerulonephritis. Images PMID:3037104

  6. The role of Misshapen NCK-related kinase (MINK), a novel Ste20 family kinase, in the IRES-mediated protein translation of human enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Leong, Shi Yun; Ong, Bryan Kit Teck; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2015-03-01

    Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) commonly causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in young children, and occasional occurrences of neurological complications can be fatal. In this study, a high-throughput cell-based screening on the serine/threonine kinase siRNA library was performed to identify potential antiviral agents against EV71 replication. Among the hits, Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase (MINK) was selected for detailed analysis due to its strong inhibitory profile and novelty. In the investigation of the stage at which MINK is involved in EV71 replication, virus RNA transfection in MINK siRNA-treated cells continued to cause virus inhibition despite bypassing the normal entry pathway, suggesting its involvement at the post-entry stage. We have also shown that viral RNA and protein expression level was significantly reduced upon MINK silencing, suggesting its involvement in viral protein synthesis which feeds into viral RNA replication process. Through proteomic analysis and infection inhibition assay, we found that the activation of MINK was triggered by early replication events, instead of the binding and entry of the virus. Proteomic analysis on the activation profile of p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) indicated that the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was stimulated by EV71 infection upon MINK activation. Luciferase reporter assay further revealed that the translation efficiency of the EV71 internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) was reduced after blocking the MINK/p38 MAPK pathway. Further investigation on the effect of MINK silencing on heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) localisation demonstrated that cytoplasmic relocalisation of hnRNP A1 upon EV71 infection may be facilitated via the MINK/p38 MAPK pathway which then positively regulates the translation of viral RNA transcripts. These novel findings hence suggest that MINK plays a functional role in the IRES-mediated translation of EV71 viral RNA and may provide a potential target for the

  7. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks: comparative studies on protein turnover rate and urinary excretion of purine base derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders; Kjos, Nils Petter; Ahlstrøm, Oystein

    2007-12-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein turnover rate was measured by means of the end-product method using [15N]glycine as tracer and urinary nitrogen as end-product. In minks, protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown increased significantly with increasing dietary BPM. In pigs, diet had no observed effect on protein turnover rate. The intake of nucleic acid nitrogen (NAN) increased from 0.15 g/kg W0.75 on M1 to 0.26 g/kg W0.75 on M3 and M4 in the mink experiment, and from 0.08 g/kg W0.75 on P1 to 0.33 g/kg W0.75 on P4 in the pig experiment. Increased NAN intake led, in both experiments, to increased allantoin excretion. Analysis of species effects showed that minks excreted 1.72 mmol/ kg W0.75 of allantoin, significantly more than the 0.95 mmol/kg W0.75 excreted by pigs. In minks, approximately 96% of the excreted purine base derivatives consisted of allantoin, whereas in pigs approximately 93% did. Thus, increasing the dietary content of BPM increased protein turnover rate in minks but not in pigs, and allantoin excretion increased with increasing dietary BPM although it seemed that mink decomposed purine bases to their end-product more completely than pigs did. Collectively these data show that BPM is a suitable protein source for pigs and mink, and recorded differences between species were to a large extent due to differences in protein retention capacity and muscle mass.

  8. Geostatistical Analyses of Interactions between Minke Whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and Whale-Watching Boats in Skjalfandi Bay, Northeast Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Joshua I.

    The Icelandic whale-watching industry has experienced rapid growth since its inception in 1991, and today represents the fastest growing economic activity of the country. Skjalfandi Bay in Northeast Iceland has become the epicenter of whale-watching in Iceland, yet little is known about the local effects of the whale-watching industry on cetaceans. I used theodolite techniques and GIS to examine boat effects on the swimming speed, directionality, inter-breath intervals, and surface feeding events of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in Skjalfandi Bay. The proximity and number of vessels did not have a statistically significant effect on any aspect of minke behavior. These results contradict a previous study from Faxafloi Bay, suggesting that differences exist between the two locations, and that management strategies may need to be location-specific.

  9. Impairment of cellular immunity in west Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to polluted minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Larsen, Hans J S; Loft, Klaus Earl; Kirkegaard, Maja; Letcher, Robert J; Shahmiri, Soheila; Móller, Per

    2006-03-15

    Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber is rich in organohalogen contaminants, mercury, and n-3 fatty acids. In the present study we show that a daily intake of 50-200 g of minke whale blubber causes an impairment of the nonspecific and specific cellular immune system in the West Greenland sledge dog (Canis familiaris). Immune reactions were measured by mitogen (PHA, Con A) and antigen (KLH) intradermal testing, and as the study used exposure levels similar to those of Inuits and polar bears (Ursus maritimus), it is reasonable to infer that Inuits and polar bears suffer from similar decreased resistance to diseases. It is speculated that food sources are depleted by thinning sea ice due to climate change and that more research should assess the forecasted rise in additive immunopathy effects in polar bears. Additionally, our study suggests that the fatty acid composition may be of importance when investigating combined immunotoxic effects of contaminated food resources in future Inuit and polar bear studies.

  10. Bald eagle predation on common loon egg

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, Stephen; McCarthy, Kyle P.; Laskowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) must defend against many potential egg predators during incubation, including corvids, Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), fisher (Martes pennanti), and mink (Neovison vison) (McIntyre 1988, Evers 2004, McCann et al. 2005). Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been documented as predators of both adult Common Loons and their chicks (Vliestra and Paruk 1997, Paruk et al. 1999, Erlandson et al. 2007, Piper et al. 2008). In Wisconsin, where nesting Bald Eagles are abundant (>1200 nesting pairs, >1 young/pair/year), field biologists observed four instances of eagle predation of eggs in loon nests during the period 2002–2004 (M. Meyer pers. comm.). In addition, four cases of eagle predation of incubating adult loons were inferred from evidence found at the loon nest (dozens of plucked adult loon feathers, no carcass remains) and/or loon leg, neck, and skull bones beneath two active eagle nests, including leg bones containing the bands of the nearby (<25 m) incubating adult loon. However, although loon egg predation has been associated with Bald Eagles, predation events have yet to be described in peer-reviewed literature. Here we describe a photographic observation of predation on a Common Loon egg by an immature Bald Eagle as captured by a nest surveillance video camera on Lake Umbagog, a large lake (32 km2) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (UNWR) in Maine.

  11. Identification of Euryhelmis costaricensis metacercariae in the skin of Tohoku hynobiid salamanders (Hynobius lichenatus), northeastern Honshu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Ihara, Sadao; Inaba, Osamu; Une, Yumi

    2010-07-01

    Since 2000, cutaneous nodular lesions were observed in Tohoku hynobiid salamanders (Hynobius lichenatus) in the northern Abukuma Mountains, northeastern Honshu, Japan. The distribution of diseased salamanders has expanded, along with the increasing severity of the disease. Samples (foreleg, hindleg, and tail) from five diseased salamanders caught in the spring of 2009 contained 11 to 383 metacercarial cysts (0.43-0.48 mm in diameter) per individual. Experimental inoculations of the metacercariae into rats (Rattus norvegicus) resulted in the development of pentagonal adults with intrauterine eggs that were collected at 3 days, 2 wk, and 5 wk postinoculation. Although adults obtained from rats were smaller, the flukes were morphologically similar to Euryhelmis costaricensis, recorded from Japanese martens (Martes melampus) in northeastern Honshu. The ribosomal RNA gene sequences of the metacercariae collected from salamanders and the E. costaricensis collected from a Japanese marten were identical, confirming the morphology-based species identification. Environmental changes responsible for the increased frequency of diseased salamanders and the increased parasite load are unknown, although increases in feral populations of introduced raccoons (Procyon lotor) and American minks (Neovison vison) may be associated.

  12. A review of Chilean chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), with the description of a new genus and ten new species.

    PubMed

    Stekolnikov, Alexandr A; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2015-05-29

    A new genus and species of chigger mites, Diaguitacarus choapensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from four lizard species of the genus Liolaemus in Choapa Province of Chile. Eight new chigger species are described from lizards of the genera Liolaemus, Phymaturus (Squamata: Liolaemidae), and Microlophus (Squamata: Tropiduridae), in Arica and Parinacota, Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaíso, and Biobío Regions: Eutrombicula nerudai sp. nov., Eutrombicula mistrali sp. nov., Eutrombicula picunche sp. nov., Microtrombicula mapuche sp. nov., Parasecia molini sp. nov., Paratrombicula philippii sp. nov., Morelacarus jorgei sp. nov., and Morelacarus camanchaca sp. nov. A new species Proschoengastia antarctica sp. nov., which is described from American mink Neovison vison on Navarino Island (Region of Magallanes and Antártica Chilena), is the most southerly chigger species, found at the distance of about 1000 km from the continent of Antarctica. Whartonacarus chaetosus (Brennan and Jones, 1961) comb. nov., which was described from Peru, is for the first time recorded in Chile (Atacama Region) and on Microlophus atacamensis. A new combination Proschoengastia macrochaeta (Brennan and Jones, 1961) comb. nov. is established. The genus Morelacarus Vercammen-Grandjean, 1973 previously known from Mexico and southwestern USA is for the first time recorded in Chile. A review of all previously described Chilean chiggers and a key to Eutrombicula species from Chile are provided. In all, 22 species from 13 genera were recorded in Chile, of which only one species (Whartonacarus chaetosus) is known outside the country.

  13. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids.

  14. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter

    PubMed Central

    MORI, Kent; SUZUKI, Satoshi; KOYABU, Daisuke; KIMURA, Junpei; HAN, Sung-Yong; ENDO, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids. PMID:25715875

  15. West Foster Creek Expansion Project 2007 HEP Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-02-01

    During April and May 2007, the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980, 1980a) analyses on five parcels collectively designated the West Foster Creek Expansion Project (3,756.48 acres). The purpose of the HEP analyses was to document extant habitat conditions and to determine how many baseline/protection habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding maintenance and enhancement activities on project lands as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. HEP evaluation models included mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sharp-tailed grouse, (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), mink (Neovison vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Combined 2007 baseline HEP results show that 4,946.44 habitat units were generated on 3,756.48 acres (1.32 HUs per acre). HEP results/habitat conditions were generally similar for like cover types at all sites. Unlike crediting of habitat units (HUs) on other WDFW owned lands, Bonneville Power Administration received full credit for HUs generated on these sites.

  16. Species identification of North American guinea worms (Nematoda: Dracunculus) with DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Elsasser, Sarah C; Floyd, Robin; Hebert, Paul D N; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2009-05-01

    Dracunculus insignis is a nematode parasite that infects the subcutaneous tissues of mammals such as raccoon (Procyon lotor), mink (Neovison vison) and fisher (Martes pennanti). D. lutrae, a morphologically similar species, has only been recovered from the otter (Lontra canadensis). Species identification of these two North American guinea worms has only been achieved by morphology of males and host identity. As a result, where only female specimens are present, accurate identifications are not possible. To date, specimens recovered from otter have been assumed to be D. lutrae, while those from all other hosts are assumed to be D. insignis. This study uses DNA barcoding to differentiate between these two North American dracunculoids. Our results show that D. insignis is a 'true' generalist, showing little sequence divergence regardless of host association, although our studies did validate its occurrence in a new host - the otter. Interestingly, specimens of the host specialist, D. lutrae, showed some sequence divergence, although it was low. The finding of D. insignis in otter substantiates the need to supplement morphology-based methods in providing species identifications for certain dracunculoids. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Circadian photosensitive phase and photoperiodic control of testis activity in the mink, a short-day mammal

    SciTech Connect

    Boissin-Agasse, L.; Boissin, J.; Ortavant, R.

    1982-02-01

    Evidence of a circadian photosensitive phase in male mink, whose annual reproductive cycle is characterized by the recrudescence of testicular development in autumn, was based on the study of testicular response after interrupting the dark period by light breaks offered at various times. In this mammal, the experimental short days 4L:20D and 8L:16D stimulated testicular growth. Short photoperiods, including a main light period of 3.5 h and an additional 0.5 h light break 7.5 h after the beginning of the main photoperiod, were as effective as 8L:16D in stimulating testicular development. On the other hand, when a 0.5 h light break occurred 11.5 or 15.5 h after the beginning of the main photoperiod, the same inhibiting effect on testicular activity was obtained as for long photoperiods. However, when 0.5 h light breaks were given 19.5 after the beginning of the main light period, some minks recognized, as, the onset of the shorter of the two light periods offered. Thus our results proved the existence of a special phase in the day cycle in which light inhibited testicular development in the mink which appears to be a short-day animal. One explanation of the difference between long-day and short-day animals would be the following: if for long-day animals exposure to light during the photosensitive phase led to gonadostimulation, in short-day mammals, like mink, it exerted an inhibiting influence on testicular growth.

  18. Dietary exposure of mink to carp from Saginaw Bay. 3. Characterization of dietary exposure to planar halogenated hydrocarbons, dioxin equivalents, and biomagnification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Gale, Robert W.; Meadows, John C.; Zajicek, James L.; Peterman, Paul H.; Heaton, Silvia N.; Jones, Paul D.; Bursian, Steven J.; Kubiak, Timothy J.; Giesy, John P.; Aulerich, Richard J.

    1995-01-01

    Mink are known to be very sensitive to the toxic effects of planar polychlorinated biphenyls (pPCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), collectively known as planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs). Previously, we reported the reproductive effects in mink fed a diet containing 10, 20, or 40% fish taken from Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. The present study reports the chemical characterization of the diets and the adult mink livers, along with a comparison of an additive model of toxicity with the results of the H4IIE bioassay on these samples. The assessment of dietary or tissue-based exposure of the mink to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds revealed that TCDD equivalents of the PHH mixtures largely followed an additive model of toxicity as compared with the H4IIE bioassay. Consistent dietary and liver tissue-based threshold concentrations for reproductive toxicity in mink were determined regardless of whether PHHs were quantified as TEQs (additive toxicity) or TCDD-EQs (H4IIE bioassay). Significant reproductive effects were observed in the lowest treatment group (10% fish or 19.4 pg of H4IIE bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs/g). Consumption-normalized mink liver biomagnification factors (BMFs) were 6.4−74.2 for PCDDs, <1−75.8 for PCDFs, <1−15.9 for PCBs, and in general, increased with degree of chlorination within each class. Based on TEQs or TCDD-EQ, this study confirms that mink are among the most, if not the most, sensitive mammalian species to the reproductive toxicity of TCDD and related compounds.

  19. A Simultaneous Test of Synchrony Causal Factors in Muskrat and Mink Fur Returns at Different Scales across Canada

    PubMed Central

    Estay, Sergio A.; Albornoz, Abraham A.; Lima, Mauricio; Boyce, Mark S.; Stenseth, Nils C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Synchrony among populations has been attributed to three major hypotheses: dispersal, the Moran effect, and trophic-level interactions. Unfortunately, simultaneous testing of these hypotheses demands complete and detailed data, which are scarce for ecological systems. Methodology/Principal Findings Hudson's Bay Company data on mink and muskrat fur returns in Canada represent an excellent opportunity to test these hypotheses because of the detailed spatial and temporal data from this predator-prey system. Using structural equation modelling, support for each hypothesis was evaluated at two spatial scales: across Canada and dividing the country into three regions longitudinally. Our results showed that at both scales mink synchrony is a major factor determining muskrat synchrony, supporting the hypothesis of trophic-level interactions, but the influence of winter precipitation synchrony is also important in eastern Canada. Moreover, mink synchrony is influenced principally by winter precipitation synchrony at the level of all Canada (Moran effect), but by distance at regional level, which might suggest some influence of dispersal at this level. Discussion/Significance Our result is one of the few reports of synchrony mediated by trophic-level interactions, highlighting the importance of evaluation of scale effects in population synchrony studies. PMID:22102919

  20. Studies on the sequential development of acute interstitial pneumonia caused by Aleutian disease virus in mink kits.

    PubMed Central

    Alexandersen, S; Bloom, M E

    1987-01-01

    We studied different parameters during the development of acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits caused by neonatal infection with Aleutian disease virus (ADV). When histological lesions, presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies, and intranuclearly localized ADV antigen were correlated with levels of single-stranded virion and duplex replicative forms of ADV DNA in the different tissues, it was concluded that the lung, probably alveolar type II cells, is the major primary target for viral replication and cytopathology. The presence of the duplex dimeric replicative-form DNA, a strong marker of parvovirus replication, was also observed in low amount in the mesenteric lymph node, suggesting replication of ADV in this organ, although no viral cytopathology could be demonstrated. Moreover, a few intranuclear inclusion bodies were demonstrated in kidney and liver from affected kits, but intranuclearly localized ADV antigen could not be demonstrated in liver sections, and neither could duplex dimer replicative-form DNA, suggesting that these organs are nevertheless not a major site of ADV replication. When the data were compared with results previously reported for ADV-infected adult mink and ADV-infected permissive cell cultures, the data suggested that the pattern of ADV replication in alveolar type II cells is similar to that seen in infected cell cultures but that the replication in the other kit organs resembles the restricted pattern seen in adult mink. Images PMID:3023709

  1. Longitudinal analysis of residual feed intake and BW in mink using random regression with heterogeneous residual variance.

    PubMed

    Shirali, M; Nielsen, V H; Møller, S H; Jensen, J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genetic background of longitudinal residual feed intake (RFI) and BW gain in farmed mink using random regression methods considering heterogeneous residual variances. The individual BW was measured every 3 weeks from 63 to 210 days of age for 2139 male+female pairs of juvenile mink during the growing-furring period. Cumulative feed intake was calculated six times with 3-week intervals based on daily feed consumption between weighing's from 105 to 210 days of age. Genetic parameters for RFI and BW gain in males and females were obtained using univariate random regression with Legendre polynomials containing an animal genetic effect and permanent environmental effect of litter along with heterogeneous residual variances. Heritability estimates for RFI increased with age from 0.18 (0.03, posterior standard deviation (PSD)) at 105 days of age to 0.49 (0.03, PSD) and 0.46 (0.03, PSD) at 210 days of age in male and female mink, respectively. The heritability estimates for BW gain increased with age and had moderate to high range for males (0.33 (0.02, PSD) to 0.84 (0.02, PSD)) and females (0.35 (0.03, PSD) to 0.85 (0.02, PSD)). RFI estimates during the growing period (105 to 126 days of age) showed high positive genetic correlations with the pelting RFI (210 days of age) in male (0.86 to 0.97) and female (0.92 to 0.98). However, phenotypic correlations were lower from 0.47 to 0.76 in males and 0.61 to 0.75 in females. Furthermore, BW records in the growing period (63 to 126 days of age) had moderate (male: 0.39, female: 0.53) to high (male: 0.87, female: 0.94) genetic correlations with pelting BW (210 days of age). The result of current study showed that RFI and BW in mink are highly heritable, especially at the late furring period, suggesting potential for large genetic gains for these traits. The genetic correlations suggested that substantial genetic gain can be obtained by only considering the RFI estimate and BW at pelting

  2. Development and use of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay to quantify cytochrome P4501A1 expression in American mink.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nirmal K; Bursian, Steve; Mayack, David T; Wirgin, Isaac

    2009-10-01

    The distribution of natural populations of American mink is restricted to locales that are in proximity to aquatic ecosystems. Because of the lipophilicity and persistence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and reliance of mink on aquatic-based diets, mink at contaminated locales often bioacccumulate high levels of PCBs. In addition, in controlled laboratory studies, mink are highly sensitive at reproductive and developmental end points to the toxic effects of environmental PCB mixtures. It is believed that most, if not all, toxic effects of PCBs occur through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway. Transcription of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) by PCBs is also mediated through activation of AHR. Thus, levels of CYP1A1 mRNA provide a quantitative assay of exposure to and early biologic effect of PCBs on mink and may be predictive of toxicity at higher levels of biologic organization. We developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers to amplify CYP1A1 as well as identified a housekeeping gene from mink cDNA. We used real-time reverse transcription-PCR to quantify and compare levels of hepatic CYP1A mRNA among groups of ranched mink kits and juveniles, which were fed diets or exposed in utero to fish that were low in PCBs (Atlantic herring) or to diets that were contaminated with three different levels of PCBs (carp) from Saginaw Bay, Lake Michigan. We found significant differences in CYP1A1 mRNA expression between mink fed the control diet and those fed a PCB-contaminated carp diet at all three treatment levels and exposure times. CYP1A1 mRNA was significantly induced 5.3- to 6.6-fold and 3.7- to 4.7-fold at 6 and 27 weeks, respectively. In previous studies, dietary exposures to PCB-contaminated carp were shown to cause mild to moderate lesions in the mandible and maxilla of these animals. This study demonstrates that hepatic CYP1A1 mRNA may be a sensitive biomarker of exposure of mink to environmentally relevant levels of PCBs and may be

  3. Development and Evaluation of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on Recombinant VP2 Capsids for the Detection of Antibodies to Aleutian Mink Disease Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    Knuuttila, Anna; Aronen, Pirjo; Saarinen, Auli; Vapalahti, Olli

    2009-01-01

    Aleutian disease (AD), a common infectious disease in farmed minks worldwide, is caused by Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). Serodiagnosis of AD in minks has been based on detection of AMDV antibodies by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) since the 1980s. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) for identifying AMDV antibodies from mink sera. AMDV capsid protein (VP2) of a Finnish wild-type strain was expressed by the baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 insect cells and was shown to self-assemble to VLPs (with an ultrastructure similar to that of the actual virion). A direct immunoglobulin G ELISA was established using purified recombinant AMDV VP2 VLPs as an antigen. Sera from farmed minks were collected to evaluate the AMDV VP2 ELISA (n = 316) and CIE (n = 209) based on AMDV VP2 recombinant antigen in parallel with CIE performed using a commercially available traditional antigen. CIE performed with the recombinant antigen had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and ELISA a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 97%, with reference to CIE performed with the commercial antigen. The results show that the recombinant AMDV VP2 VLPs are antigenic and that AMDV VP2 ELISA is sensitive and specific and encourage further development of the method for high-throughput diagnostics, involving hundreds of thousands of samples in Finland annually. PMID:19641102

  4. Expression of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins in a baculovirus vector system.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, J; Storgaard, T; Bloch, B; Alexandersen, S; Aasted, B

    1993-01-01

    We have previously published a detailed transcription map of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) and proposed a model for the translation of the two virion structural proteins (VP1 and VP2) and three nonstructural proteins (NS-1, NS-2, and NS-3) (S. Alexandersen, M. E. Bloom, and S. Perryman, J. Virol. 62:3684-3994, 1988). To verify and further characterize this model, we cloned the predicted open reading frames for NS-1, NS-2, NS-3, VP1-VP2, and VP2 alone into a recombinant baculovirus and expressed them in Sf9 insect cells. Expression of VP1-VP2 or VP2 alone in cDNA and in the genomic form was achieved. The expressed proteins had molecular weights similar to those of the corresponding proteins of wild-type ADV-G, although the ratio of VP1 to VP2 was altered. The recombinant baculovirus-expressed ADV VP1 and VP2 showed nuclear localization in Sf9 cells and were able to form particles indistinguishable, by electron microscopy, from wild-type virus. The large nonstructural protein, NS-1, showed predominantly nuclear localization in Sf9 cells when analyzed by immunofluorescence and had a molecular weight similar to that of wild-type ADV NS-1. Moreover, expression of NS-1 in Sf9 cells caused a change in morphology of the cells and resulted in 10-times-lower titers of recombinant baculovirus during infection, suggesting a cytostatic or cytotoxic action of this protein. The smaller NS-2 gene product seems to be located in the cytoplasm. When analyzed by Western immunoblotting, NS-2 comigrated with an approximately 16-kDa band seen in lysates of ADV-infected feline kidney cells. The putative NS-3 gene product exhibited a diffuse distribution in Sf9 cells and had a molecular weight of approximately 10,000. All of the expressed ADV-encoded proteins were recognized by sera from ADV-infected mink. Thus, expression of ADV cDNAs allowed assignment of the different mRNAs to the viral proteins observed during ADV infection in cell culture and supported our previously proposed

  5. Identification of a nonvirion protein of Aleutian disease virus: mink with Aleutian disease have antibody to both virion and nonvirion proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1982-01-01

    We studied Aleutian disease virus polypeptides in Crandall feline kidney (CRFK) cells. When CRFK cells labeled with [35S]methionine at 60 h postinfection were studied by immunoprecipitation with sera from infected mink, the major Aleutian disease virus virion polypeptides (p85 and p75) were consistently identified, as was a 71,000-dalton nonvirion protein (p71). The peptide maps of p85 and p75 were similar, but the map of p71 was different. p85, p75, and p71 were all precipitated by sera from Aleutian disease virus-infected mink, including those with signs of progressive disease, but heterologous sera raised against purified Aleutian disease virus did not precipitate the nonvirion p71. These results indicated that the nonvirion p71 was unrelated to p85 and p75 and further suggested that mink infected with Aleutian disease virus develop antibody to nonvirion, as well as structural, viral proteins. Images PMID:6287034

  6. Source of the North Pacific ``boing'' sound attributed to minke whales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Shannon; Barlow, Jay

    2005-11-01

    During a recent cetacean survey of the U.S. waters surrounding the Hawaiian Islands, the probable source of the mysterious ``boing'' sound of the North Pacific Ocean was identified as a minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Examination of boing vocalizations from three research surveys confirms previous work that identified two distinct boing vocalization types in the North Pacific. The eastern boing (n=22) has a pulse repetition rate of 92 s-1 and a duration of 3.6 s and was found only east of 138°W. The central boing (n=106) has a pulse repetition rate of 115 s-1 and a duration of approximately 2.6 s and was found only west of 135°W. Central boing vocalizations produced by a single source (n=84) indicate that variation in repetition rate and duration of the calls of the individual were not significantly different than the variation among individuals of the same boing type. Despite a slight latitudinal overlap in the vocalizations, pulse repetition rates of the eastern and central boings were distinct.

  7. Areolae of the Placenta in the Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Motoki; AMANO, Yoko; HAYAKAWA, Daisuke; TSUBOTA, Toshio; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; TETSUKA, Masafumi; MIYAMOTO, Akio; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we examined the existence and structure of areolae and the steroidogenesis of areolar trophoblast cells in the Antarctic minke whale placenta morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. The opening and cavity of fetal areolae formed by taller columnar trophoblast cells (areolar trophoblast cells) with long microvilli and a bright cytoplasm, as compared with the trophoblast cells of the chorionic villi interdigitating with the endometrial crypts, were recognized in observations of serial sections. The opening of the areolar cavity was hidden by chorionic villi with areolar trophoblast cells. Furthermore, a closed pouch-like structure lined by tall columnar cells similar to areolar trophoblast cells within the stroma of chorionic villi was noticed and continued to the areolar cavity, with the opening seen on serial sections. In a surface investigation of the chorion and endometrium by SEM, maternal (endometrial) areolae irregularly surrounded by endometrial folds were obvious. Moreover, we distinguished areolar trophoblast cells with long microvilli attached with many blebs from trophoblast cells. In our immunohistochemical observations, a steroidogenic enzyme, cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), was detected with strong immunoreactivity in trophoblast cells. However, areolar trophoblast cells showed weak or no immunoreactivity for P450scc. PMID:24351524

  8. Experimental inoculation of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with Spiroplasma mirum and transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME).

    PubMed

    Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Stanton, Thad B; Smith, Jodi D; Doucette, Stephanie; Kunkle, Robert A; Stasko, Judith A; Richt, Juergen A; Kehrli, Marcus E

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether or not Spiroplasma mirum would be capable of producing lesions of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) when inoculated in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and, if that was possible, to compare the clinicopathological findings with those of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) in the same experimental model. For this purpose, 5 groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either S. mirum and/or TME. Two other groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits served as sham-inoculated controls. All animals inoculated with TME, either alone or in combination, showed clinical signs of neurologic disorder and were euthanized within 6 mo post-inoculation (MPI). None of the carcasses revealed gross lesions. Spongiform encephalopathy was observed by light microscopy and the presence of abnormal disease-causing prion protein (PrP(d)) was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB) techniques in only the raccoons administered TME. Raccoons inoculated with Spiroplasma, but not administered TME agent, were euthanized at 30 MPI. They did not show clinical neurologic signs, their brains did not have lesions of spongiform encephalopathy, and their tissues were negative for S. mirum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for PrP(d) by IHC and WB techniques. The results of this study indicate that Spiroplasma mirum does not induce TSE-like disease in raccoons.

  9. Developmental changes in the skull morphology of common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Gen; Kato, Hidehiro

    2014-10-01

    We investigated growth-related and sex-related morphological changes in the skulls of 144 North Pacific common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Measurement was conducted at 39 points on the skull and mandible to extract individual allometric equations relating the length and zygomatic width of the skull. The results revealed no significant differences in skull morphology by sex except for width of occipital bone. The size relative to the skull of the anatomical parts involved in feeding, such as the rostrum and mandible, increased after birth. In contrast, the sensory organs and the anatomical regions involved in neurological function, such as the orbit, tympanic bullae, and foramen magnum, were fully developed at birth, and their relative size reduced over the course of development. This is the first study to investigate developmental changes in the skull morphology using more than 100 baleen whale specimens, and we believe the results of this study will contribute greatly to multiple areas of baleen whale research, including taxonomy and paleontology.

  10. Complex cytokine modulation of a continuous line of mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu).

    PubMed

    Kelley, J; Baldor, L; Absher, M

    1992-01-01

    The continuous mink lung epithelial cell line Mv1Lu has proven to be a sensitive reporter line in the bioassay for purified TGF-beta, exhibiting a sigmoid-shaped concentration-response relationship with an EC50 of 12 pM (0.3 ng/mL). Maximal inhibition of Mv1Lu cells generates a 75-95% decrement in the number of adherent cells. However, this bioassay is not specific for TGF-beta as originally claimed. Mv1Lu cells are sensitive to other cytokines and substances found in complex biological fluids. In this study the effects of other biological response modifiers in this assay were tested and several were found to have important growth modulatory capacities that confound the quantitation of TGF-beta. EGF, TGF-alpha, fibronectin, and IGF-I all induce Mv1Lu cell proliferation. In contrast, neither PDGF (-AA, -AB, -BB) nor endotoxin (< or = 10 micrograms/mL) affect Mv1Lu cell number. TGF-beta and TNF-alpha at high concentrations (> or = 10 ng/mL) are the only cytokines examined that inhibit Mv1Lu proliferation. TGF-beta decreases final cell number both by preventing mitosis and by inhibition of adherence of cells to the uncoated dish. Several strategies are suggested to assure the specificity of this otherwise convenient bioassay for TGF-beta.

  11. Microbial enhanced waterflooding pilot project, Mink Unit, Delaware-Childers (OK) field

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R.S.; Burchfield, T.E.; Dennis, D.M.; Hitzman, D.O.

    1991-08-01

    The first microbial-enhanced waterflood field project was initiated in October of 1986. The site selected for the project is in the Mink Unit of Delaware-Childers field in Nowata County, Oklahoma. The pilot area consists of four adjacent inverted five-spot patterns drilled on 5-acre spacing. There are 21 injection and 15 production wells on this pilot. Four of the 21 injection wells were treated with microbial formulation. Laboratory screening criteria were developed to evaluate microorganisms for this project. Several different microbial formulations were tested. Injectivity and microbial field survivability tests were conducted during the baseline period on two off-pattern wells, and a chemical tracer, fluorescein, was injected into the four injection wells during the baseline period. Methodologies for field applications of microorganisms in ongoing waterfloods were developed as a result of this project. Results from the field pilot showed that microorganisms could be injected into an ongoing waterflood without causing any problems in injectivity. Microbial treatment did improve oil production rate, and water/oil ratios for producing wells nearest the microbially treated injection wells continue to be more favorable than baseline values. 23 refs., 30 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. A prediction of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) middle-ear transfer functiona)

    PubMed Central

    Tubelli, Andrew A.; Zosuls, Aleks; Ketten, Darlene R.; Yamato, Maya; Mountain, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The lack of baleen whale (Cetacea Mysticeti) audiograms impedes the assessment of the impacts of anthropogenic noise on these animals. Estimates of audiograms, which are difficult to obtain behaviorally or electrophysiologically for baleen whales, can be made by simulating the audiogram as a series of components representing the outer, middle, and inner ear (Rosowski, 1991; Ruggero and Temchin, 2002). The middle-ear portion of the system can be represented by the middle-ear transfer function (METF), a measure of the transmission of acoustic energy from the external ear to the cochlea. An anatomically accurate finite element model of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) middle ear was developed to predict the METF for a mysticete species. The elastic moduli of the auditory ossicles were measured by using nanoindentation. Other mechanical properties were estimated from experimental stiffness measurements or from published values. The METF predicted a best frequency range between approximately 30 Hz and 7.5 kHz or between 100 Hz and 25 kHz depending on stimulation location. Parametric analysis found that the most sensitive parameters are the elastic moduli of the glove finger and joints and the Rayleigh damping stiffness coefficient β. The predicted hearing range matches well with the vocalization range. PMID:23145610

  13. Experimental inoculation of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with Spiroplasma mirum and transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME)

    PubMed Central

    Hamir, Amir N.; Greenlee, Justin J.; Stanton, Thad B.; Smith, Jodi D.; Doucette, Stephanie; Kunkle, Robert A.; Stasko, Judith A.; Richt, Juergen A.; Kehrli, Marcus E.

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether or not Spiroplasma mirum would be capable of producing lesions of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) when inoculated in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and, if that was possible, to compare the clinicopathological findings with those of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) in the same experimental model. For this purpose, 5 groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either S. mirum and/or TME. Two other groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits served as sham-inoculated controls. All animals inoculated with TME, either alone or in combination, showed clinical signs of neurologic disorder and were euthanized within 6 mo post-inoculation (MPI). None of the carcasses revealed gross lesions. Spongiform encephalopathy was observed by light microscopy and the presence of abnormal disease-causing prion protein (PrPd) was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB) techniques in only the raccoons administered TME. Raccoons inoculated with Spiroplasma, but not administered TME agent, were euthanized at 30 MPI. They did not show clinical neurologic signs, their brains did not have lesions of spongiform encephalopathy, and their tissues were negative for S. mirum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for PrPd by IHC and WB techniques. The results of this study indicate that Spiroplasma mirum does not induce TSE-like disease in raccoons. PMID:21461191

  14. Areolae of the placenta in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Motoki; Amano, Yoko; Hayakawa, Daisuke; Tsubota, Toshio; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Tetsuka, Masafumi; Miyamoto, Akio; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2014-03-07

    In this study, we examined the existence and structure of areolae and the steroidogenesis of areolar trophoblast cells in the Antarctic minke whale placenta morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. The opening and cavity of fetal areolae formed by taller columnar trophoblast cells (areolar trophoblast cells) with long microvilli and a bright cytoplasm, as compared with the trophoblast cells of the chorionic villi interdigitating with the endometrial crypts, were recognized in observations of serial sections. The opening of the areolar cavity was hidden by chorionic villi with areolar trophoblast cells. Furthermore, a closed pouch-like structure lined by tall columnar cells similar to areolar trophoblast cells within the stroma of chorionic villi was noticed and continued to the areolar cavity, with the opening seen on serial sections. In a surface investigation of the chorion and endometrium by SEM, maternal (endometrial) areolae irregularly surrounded by endometrial folds were obvious. Moreover, we distinguished areolar trophoblast cells with long microvilli attached with many blebs from trophoblast cells. In our immunohistochemical observations, a steroidogenic enzyme, cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), was detected with strong immunoreactivity in trophoblast cells. However, areolar trophoblast cells showed weak or no immunoreactivity for P450scc.

  15. Contribution of spermatozoal centrosomes to the microtubule-organizing centre in Antarctic minke whale ( Balaenoptera bonaerensis ).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Amemiya, Kazue; Takeuchi, Kana; Tsujioka, Tomomi; Tominaga, Keiichiro; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Ishikawa, Hajime; Fukui, Yutaka; Hochi, Shinichi

    2006-02-01

    Using an interspecies microinsemination assay with bovine oocytes, it was examined whether centrosomes of Antarctic minke whale spermatozoa function as the microtubule-organizing centre (MTOC). Bull and rat spermatozoa were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Vitrified-warmed bovine mature oocytes were subjected to immunostaining against alpha-tubulin 4-6 h after intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) of 5 mM dithiothreitol-treated spermatozoa. Aster formation occurred from whale spermatozoa (33%) and bull spermatozoa (33%), but very little from rat spermatozoa (3%). Activation treatment for the microinseminated oocytes with 7% ethanol + 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine resulted in a similar proportion of oocytes forming a whale sperm aster (35% vs 27% in the non-treated group; 4 h after ICSI) but a significantly larger aster (ratio of aster diameter to oocyte diameter, 0.57 vs 0.30 in the non-treated group). These results indicate that the centrosome introduced into bovine oocytes by whale spermatozoa contributes to the MTOC and that assembly of the microtubule network is promoted by oocyte activation.

  16. Play in juvenile mink: litter effects, stability over time, and motivational heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Mason, Georgia J

    2016-12-01

    Mink are potentially ideal for investigating the functions of play: deleterious effects of early social isolation suggest a crucial developmental role for play; and huge numbers of highly playful juvenile subjects can be studied on farms. We collected descriptive data on 186 pairs from 93 litters, half provided with play-eliciting environmental enrichment objects in their home cages, to test three hypotheses: (1) play frequency is subject to litter effects; (2) relative playfulness is stable over time; (3) play sub-types share a single, common motivational basis. We found weak litter effects that were driven by stronger litter effects on general activity, and weakly stable individual differences in both total and rough-and-tumble play. Experimentally increasing object play did not inhibit rough-and-tumble play, showing these sub-types are not motivational substitutes. Frequencies of these sub-types were also uncorrelated, and changed differently with time of day and age, further supporting this conclusion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The feasibility of assessing the diets of minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the East Sea through fatty acid composition in blubber and stable isotopic ratio of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Ah-Ra; Ju, Se-Jong; Choi, Seok-Gwan; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-09-01

    To track the diet of minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the East Sea (Japan Sea), a conjoint analysis of fatty acids and C and N stable isotopes was performed on blubber and skin from the whale and its potential prey. The total lipid content in the blubber of minke whales ranged from 37.9% to 82.7% of wet mass (mean ± SD, 63.1 ± 17.2%), with triacylglycerols being the dominant lipids (96.9%-99.2% of total lipids). The lipid and fatty acid (FA) contents were systematically stratified throughout the depth of the blubber layers; contents of the dominant monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), including 18:1ω9 and 16:1ω7, increased from the innermost layer to the outermost layer, whereas contents of saturated FAs (SFAs) and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) were higher in the innermost layer than in the outermost layer. This stratification is related to the different physiological roles of the blubber layers; e.g., thermoregulation, streaming, and buoyancy. A comparison of the FA compositions of the innermost layer of minke whales with those of potential prey indicates that FA compositions in the whales are similar to those of Pacific herring. In addition, stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) suggest that minke whale and Pacific herring have the same or similar diets. Therefore, the diets of minke whale from the East Sea (Japan Sea) could be inferred from information on the diet of the Pacific herring, although FA compositions and stable isotope ratios for Pacific herring would not exactly reflect the whale's diet. Although the very limited number of samples was used in this study, our preliminary findings are very promising to help understand the feeding ecology of minke whales in the East Sea (Japan Sea).

  18. Differential gene expression induced by exposure of captive mink to fuel oil: A model for the sea otter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, L.; Riva, F.; Mohr, C.; Aldridge, B.; Schwartz, J.; Miles, A.K.; Stott, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Free-ranging sea otters are subject to hydrocarbon exposure from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Effects of direct exposure to unrefined crude oil, such as that associated with the Exxon Valdez oil spill, are readily apparent. However, the impact of subtle but pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of crude oil on sea otters is difficult to assess. The present study was directed at developing a model for assessing the impact of low concentrations of fuel oil on sea otters. Quantitative PCR was used to identify differential gene expression in American mink that were exposed to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil. A total of 23 genes, representing 10 different physiological systems, were analyzed for perturbation. Six genes with immunological relevance were differentially expressed in oil-fed mink. Interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and complement cytolysis inhibitor (CLI) were down-regulated while IL-2 was up-regulated. Expression of two additional genes was affected; heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was up-regulated and thyroid hormone receptor (THR) was down-regulated. While the significance of each perturbation is not immediately evident, we identified differential expression of genes that would be consistent with the presence of immune system-modifying and endocrine-disrupting compounds in fuel oil. Application of this approach to identify effects of petroleum contamination on sea otters should be possible following expansion of this mink model to identify a greater number of affected genes in peripheral blood leukocytes. ?? 2007 Ecohealth Journal Consortium.

  19. Driving forces behind the evolution of the Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in the context of intensive farming

    PubMed Central

    Canuti, Marta; O’Leary, Kimberly E.; Hunter, Bruce D.; Spearman, Grant; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh G.; Lang, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes plasmacytosis, an immune complex-associated syndrome that affects wild and farmed mink. The virus can also infect other small mammals (e.g., ferrets, skunks, ermines, and raccoons), but the disease in these hosts has been studied less. In 2007, a mink plasmacytosis outbreak began on the Island of Newfoundland, and the virus has been endemic in farms since then. In this study, we evaluated the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in farmed and wild animals of Newfoundland since before the beginning of the outbreak and investigated the epidemic in a global context by studying AMDV worldwide, thereby examining its diffusion and phylogeography. Furthermore, AMDV evolution was examined in the context of intensive farming, where host population dynamics strongly influence viral evolution. Partial NS1 sequences and several complete genomes were obtained from Newfoundland viruses and analyzed along with numerous sequences from other locations worldwide that were either obtained as part of this study or from public databases. We observed very high viral diversity within Newfoundland and within single farms, where high rates of co-infection, recombinant viruses and polymorphisms were observed within single infected individuals. Worldwide, we documented a partial geographic distribution of strains, where viruses from different countries co-exist within clades but form country-specific subclades. Finally, we observed the occurrence of recombination and the predominance of negative selection pressure on AMDV proteins. A surprisingly low number of immunoepitopic sites were under diversifying pressure, possibly because AMDV gains no benefit by escaping the immune response as viral entry into target cells is mediated through interactions with antibodies, which therefore contribute to cell infection. In conclusion, the high prevalence of AMDV in farms facilitates the establishment of co-infections that can favor the occurrence of recombination

  20. Effects of persistent organochlorine exposure on the liver transcriptome of the common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Satoko; Imoto, Mai; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Michio X; Kim, Eun-Young; Nakayama, Kei; Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Iwata, Hisato

    2014-10-01

    Hepatic concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) were determined in the common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Pacific. To investigate the effects of OCs on the transcriptome in the minke whale, the present study constructed a hepatic oligo array of this species where 985 unique oligonucleotides were spotted and further analyzed the relationship between the OC levels and gene expression profiles of liver tissues. The stepwise multiple linear regression analysis identified 32 genes that correlated with hepatic OC levels. The mRNA expression levels of seven cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, CYP1A1, 1A2, 2C78, 2E1, 3A72, 4A35, and 4V6 showed no clear correlations with the concentration of each OC, suggesting that the accumulated OCs in the liver did not reach levels that could alter CYP expression. Among the genes screened by the custom oligo array analysis, hepatic mRNA expression levels of 16 genes were further measured using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA levels of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) were negatively correlated with non-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels. Androgen receptor-associated coregulator 70 (ARA70) expression levels showed a significant positive correlation with concentrations of non-ortho coplanar PCB169. These correlations suggest that coplanar PCB-reduced DBP expression could suppress vitamin D receptor-mediated signaling cascades in peripheral tissues. Alternatively, the suppression of vitamin D receptor signaling cascade could be enhanced through competition with the androgen receptor signaling pathway for ARA70. In addition, a negative correlation between kynureninase and PCB169 levels was also observed, which suggest an enhanced accumulation of an endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist, kynurenine in the minke whale population. Further studies are necessary to translate the changes in the transcriptome to toxicological outcomes including

  1. Epibiotic macrofauna on common minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804, in Icelandic waters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Whilst there is a body of scientific literature relating to the epibiotic macrofauna on large whales, there is little information on the cetaceans in Icelandic waters. Common minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804, are a common sighting between the months of April to November, however, the migration and distribution of the population in winter requires establishing. The present study provides baseline information on the species composition, geographic distribution and abundance of the epibiotic macrofauna on minke whales landed in Icelandic waters and comments on their acquisition. Methods The epibiotic macrofauna and skin lesions on 185 and 188 common minke whales respectively, landed in Icelandic waters between April to September 2003-2007 were determined. For each whale, the fluke and one lateral side was examined. Results A total of seven epibiotic species were found: the caligid copepod Caligus elongatus (prevalence (P) = 11.9%, mean intensity (M.I) = 95.5); the pennellid copepod Pennella balaenopterae (P = 10.3%, M.I = 1.6); the cyamid amphipod Cyamus balaenopterae (P = 6.5%, M.I = 37.0); the lepadid cirripedes Conchoderma virgatum (P = 0.5%, M.I = 4.0) and Conchoderma auritum (P = 0.5%, M.I = 1.0), the balanid cirriped Xenobalanus globicipitis (P = 1.6%, M.I = 5.3) and the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (P = 2.7%, M.I = 1.0). In addition, the hyperparasitic monogenean Udonella caligorum was found on C. elongatus (P = 6.6%) on 8 of the 22 whales infected with the copepod. No significant relationship was observed between parasite intensity and host body length for either C. balaenopterae or C. elongatus, while the proportion of infected hosts was higher in August-September than earlier in the summer for C. balaenopterae (χ2 = 13.69; p<0.01: d.f.=1) and C. elongatus (χ2 = 28.88; p<0.01: d.f.=1). Conclusions The higher prevalence of C. balaenopterae on male whales (χ2 = 5.08; p<0.05: d.f.=1), suggests possible different migration

  2. Influence of enhancer sequences on thymotropism and leukemogenicity of mink cell focus-forming viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, C A; Thomas, C Y; Chattopadhyay, S K; Koehne, C; O'Donnell, P V

    1989-01-01

    Oncogenic mink cell focus-forming (MCF) viruses, such as MCF 247, show a positive correlation between the ability to replicate efficiently in the thymus and a leukemogenic phenotype. Other MCF viruses, such as MCF 30-2, replicate to high titers in thymocytes and do not accelerate the onset of leukemia. We used these two MCF viruses with different biological phenotypes to distinguish the effect of specific viral genes and genetic determinants on thymotropism and leukemogenicity. Our goal was to identify the viral sequences that distinguish thymotropic, nonleukemogenic viruses such as MCF 30-2 from thymotropic, leukemogenic viruses such as MCF 247. We cloned MCF 30-2, compared the genetic hallmarks of MCF 30-2 with those of MCF 247, constructed a series of recombinants, and tested the ability of recombinant viruses to replicate in the thymus and to induce leukemia. The results established that (i) MCF 30-2 and MCF 247 differ in the numbers of copies of the enhancer sequences in the long terminal repeats. (ii) The thymotropic phenotype of both viruses is independent of the number of copies of the enhancer sequences. (iii) The oncogenic phenotype of MCF 247 is correlated with the presence in the virus of duplicated enhancer sequences or with the presence of an enhancer with a specific sequence. These results show that the pathogenic phenotypes of MCF viruses are dissociable from the thymotropic phenotype and depend, at least in part, upon the enhancer sequences. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the molecular mechanisms by which the enhancer sequences determine thymotropism are different from those that determine oncogenicity. Images PMID:2536834

  3. Uterine glycogen metabolism in mink during estrus, embryonic diapause and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    DEAN, Matthew; HUNT, Jason; MCDOUGALL, Lisa; ROSE, Jack

    2014-01-01

    We have determined uterine glycogen content, metabolizing enzyme expression and activity in the mink, a species that exhibits obligatory embryonic diapause, resulting in delayed implantation. Gross uterine glycogen concentrations were highest in estrus, decreased 50% by diapause and 90% in pregnancy (P ≤ 0.05). Endometrial glycogen deposits, which localized primarily to glandular and luminal epithelia, decreased 99% between estrus and diapause (P ≤ 0.05) and were nearly undetectable in pregnancy. Glycogen synthase and phosphorylase proteins were most abundant in the glandular epithelia. Glycogen phosphorylase activity (total) in uterine homogenates was higher during estrus and diapause, than pregnancy. While glycogen phosphorylase protein was detected during estrus and diapause, glycogen synthase was almost undetectable after estrus, which probably contributed to a higher glycogenolysis / glycogenesis ratio during diapause. Uterine glucose-6-phosphatase 3 gene expression was greater during diapause, when compared to estrus (P ≤ 0.05) and supports the hypothesis that glucose-6-phosphate resulting from phosphorylase activity was dephosphorylated in preparation for export into the uterine lumen. The relatively high amount of hexokinase-1 protein detected in the luminal epithelia during estrus and diapause may have contributed to glucose trapping after endometrial glycogen reserves were depleted. Collectively, our findings suggest to us that endometrial glycogen reserves may be an important source of energy, supporting uterine and conceptus metabolism up to the diapausing blastocyst stage. As a result, the size of uterine glycogen reserves accumulated prior to mating may in part, determine the number of embryos that survive to the blastocyst stage, and ultimately litter size. PMID:25225159

  4. The failure of an inactivated mink enteritis virus vaccine in four preparations to provide protection to dogs against challenge with canine parvovirus-2.

    PubMed Central

    Carman, S; Povey, C

    1982-01-01

    Four experimental vaccine preparations comprising a strain of mink enteritis virus inactivated by either formalin or beta-propiolactone, and either adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted, failed to stimulate a consistent serum antibody response in 20 vaccinated dogs and failed to protect all but one of these dogs against oral challenge with canine parvovirus-2. PMID:6280820

  5. Chlorinated and brominated contaminants including PCBs and PBDEs in minke whales and common dolphins from Korean coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Choi, Minkyu; Yu, Jun; Choi, Hee-Gu; An, Yong-Rock; Choi, Seok-Gwan; Park, Jung-Youn; Kim, Zang-Geun

    2010-07-15

    Information on the occurrence and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals from Korean coastal waters is not available to date. This is the first study to investigate concentrations and accumulation of PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs in liver and blubber of minke whales and common dolphins from Korean coastal waters. The concentrations of organochlorines and PBDEs in blubber were several times higher than in liver. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were generally low, but the concentrations of PBDEs were similar to those reported for cetaceans elsewhere. The accumulation profiles of OCPs differed between liver and blubber, while the profiles of PCBs and PBDEs were relatively similar in both tissues. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, CHLs and PBDEs in common dolphins were significantly higher than those in minke whales, while there were no inter-species differences for HCHs and HCB. The predominant OCP, PCB and PBDE congeners in cetaceans were p,p'-DDE, PCB 153 and BDE 47, respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in Korean cetaceans were close to the threshold for adverse health effects.

  6. Processes for Identifying Regional Influences of and Responses to Increasing Atmospheric CO sub 2 and Climate Change --- The MINK Project

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, W.E. III; McKenney, M.S.; Rosenberg, N.J.; Lemon, K.M.

    1991-08-01

    The second report of a series Processes for Identifying Regional Influences of and Responses to Increasing Atmospheric CO{sub 2} and Climate Change -- The MINK Project is composed of two parts. This Report (IIB) deals with agriculture at the level of farms and Major Land Resource Areas (MLRAs). The Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC), a crop growth simulation model developed by scientists at the US Department of Agriculture, is used to study the impacts of the analog climate on yields of main crops in both the 1984/87 and the 2030 baselines. The results of this work with EPIC are the basis for the analysis of the climate change impacts on agriculture at the region-wide level undertaken in this report. Report IIA treats agriculture in MINK in terms of state and region-wide production and resource use for the main crops and animals in the baseline periods of 1984/87 and 2030. The effects of the analog climate on the industry at this level of aggregation are considered in both baseline periods. 41 refs., 40 figs., 46 tabs.

  7. Effects of cryodevice type and donors' sexual maturity on vitrification of minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) oocytes at germinal vesicle stage.

    PubMed

    Iwayama, Hiroshi; Hochi, Shinichi; Kato, Megumi; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Kuwayama, Masashige; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka

    2004-11-01

    Germinal-vesicle-stage oocytes enclosed with compact cumulus cell layers (COCs) were recovered from adult or prepubertal minke whale ovaries, and were vitrified in a solution containing 15% ethylene glycol, 15% DMSO and 0.5 M sucrose using either a Cryotop or an open-pulled straw (OPS) as the cryodevice. The post-warm COCs with normal morphology were cultured for 40 h in a 390 mosmol in vitro maturation medium, and oocytes extruding the first polar body were considered to be matured. The proportion of morphologically normal COCs after vitrification and warming was higher when the COCs were cryopreserved by Cryotop (adult origin, 88.4%; prepubertal origin, 80.8%) compared with the OPS (adult origin, 67.7%; prepubertal origin, 64.2%). The oocyte maturation rate was higher in the adult/Cryotop group (29.1%) compared with those of the prepubertal/Cryotop group (14.4%), the adult/OPS group (14.3%) and the prepubertal/OPS group (10.6%). These results indicate that the Cryotop is a better device than the OPS for vitrification of immature oocytes from adult minke whales.

  8. The Auditory Anatomy of the Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata): A Potential Fatty Sound Reception Pathway in a Baleen Whale

    PubMed Central

    Yamato, Maya; Ketten, Darlene R; Arruda, Julie; Cramer, Scott; Moore, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Cetaceans possess highly derived auditory systems adapted for underwater hearing. Odontoceti (toothed whales) are thought to receive sound through specialized fat bodies that contact the tympanoperiotic complex, the bones housing the middle and inner ears. However, sound reception pathways remain unknown in Mysticeti (baleen whales), which have very different cranial anatomies compared to odontocetes. Here, we report a potential fatty sound reception pathway in the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), a mysticete of the balaenopterid family. The cephalic anatomy of seven minke whales was investigated using computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, verified through dissections. Findings include a large, well-formed fat body lateral, dorsal, and posterior to the mandibular ramus and lateral to the tympanoperiotic complex. This fat body inserts into the tympanoperiotic complex at the lateral aperture between the tympanic and periotic bones and is in contact with the ossicles. There is also a second, smaller body of fat found within the tympanic bone, which contacts the ossicles as well. This is the first analysis of these fatty tissues' association with the auditory structures in a mysticete, providing anatomical evidence that fatty sound reception pathways may not be a unique feature of odontocete cetaceans. Anat Rec, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22488847

  9. Phenotypic Similarity of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy in Cattle and L-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Bencsik, Anna; Biacabe, Anne-Gaëlle; Morignat, Eric; Bessen, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Transmissible mink encepholapathy (TME) is a foodborne transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of ranch-raised mink; infection with a ruminant TSE has been proposed as the cause, but the precise origin of TME is unknown. To compare the phenotypes of each TSE, bovine-passaged TME isolate and 3 distinct natural bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agents (typical BSE, H-type BSE, and L-type BSE) were inoculated into an ovine transgenic mouse line (TgOvPrP4). Transgenic mice were susceptible to infection with bovine-passaged TME, typical BSE, and L-type BSE but not to H-type BSE. Based on survival periods, brain lesions profiles, disease-associated prion protein brain distribution, and biochemical properties of protease-resistant prion protein, typical BSE had a distint phenotype in ovine transgenic mice compared to L-type BSE and bovine TME. The similar phenotypic properties of L-type BSE and bovine TME in TgOvPrP4 mice suggest that L-type BSE is a much more likely candidate for the origin of TME than is typical BSE. PMID:18258040

  10. Phenotypic similarity of transmissible mink encephalopathy in cattle and L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Baron, Thierry; Bencsik, Anna; Biacabe, Anne-Gaëlle; Morignat, Eric; Bessen, Richard A

    2007-12-01

    Transmissible mink encepholapathy (TME) is a foodborne transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of ranch-raised mink; infection with a ruminant TSE has been proposed as the cause, but the precise origin of TME is unknown. To compare the phenotypes of each TSE, bovine-passaged TME isolate and 3 distinct natural bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agents (typical BSE, H-type BSE, and L-type BSE) were inoculated into an ovine transgenic mouse line (TgOvPrP4). Transgenic mice were susceptible to infection with bovine-passaged TME, typical BSE, and L-type BSE but not to H-type BSE. Based on survival periods, brain lesions profiles, disease-associated prion protein brain distribution, and biochemical properties of protease-resistant prion protein, typical BSE had a distint phenotype in ovine transgenic mice compared to L-type BSE and bovine TME. The similar phenotypic properties of L-type BSE and bovine TME in TgOvPrP4 mice suggest that L-type BSE is a much more likely candidate for the origin of TME than is typical BSE.

  11. A large insertion in intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene associated with American Palomino phenotype in American mink.

    PubMed

    Cirera, Susanna; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Kristiansen, Thea; Vissenberg, Kris; Fredholm, Merete; Christensen, Knud; Anistoroaei, Razvan

    2016-04-01

    A number of American mink phenotypes display a range of brownish colours. One of these phenotypes, namely American Palomino (b (P) b (P) ) (AP) has been found to be associated with the tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene by genotyping microsatellite markers in one sire family. Trials for amplifying the genomic DNA and cDNA at the beginning of intron 2 of AP TYRP1 revealed the presence of a large insertion of approximately eight kb. The insertion most likely disrupts different elements necessary for the splicing of intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene. In AP RNAseq data indicate, however, the presence of the wild-type (wt) transcript at very low levels and Western blot reveals three products when using an antibody raised against middle part of the TYRP1 protein. One individual from another brown mink phenotype-commercially named Dawn-was also investigated at the molecular level by long-range PCR and the same size insertion appears to be present. By this we suggest that certain modifiers of TYRP1 would induce different brown colour degradation, which results in at least two different phases of brown.

  12. Pathogenesis of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus infection: effects of suppression of antibody response on viral mRNA levels and on development of acute disease.

    PubMed Central

    Alexandersen, S; Storgaard, T; Kamstrup, N; Aasted, B; Porter, D D

    1994-01-01

    We suppressed the B-cell development and antibody response in mink by using treatment with polyclonal anti-immunoglobulin M (anti-IgM) to study the effects of antiviral antibodies on development of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV)-induced disease in more detail. Newborn mink kits were injected intraperitoneally with 1 mg of either anti-IgM or a control preparation three times a week for 30 to 34 days. At 21 days after birth, groups of mink kits were infected with the highly virulent United isolate of ADV. At selected time points, i.e., postinfection days 9, 13, 29, and 200, randomly chosen mink kits were sacrificed, and blood and tissues were collected for analyses. The efficacy of immunosuppressive treatment was monitored by electrophoretic techniques and flow cytometry. Effects of treatment on viral replication, on viral mRNA levels, and on development of acute or chronic disease were determined by histopathological, immunoelectrophoretic, and molecular hybridization techniques. Several interesting findings emerged from these studies. First, antiviral antibodies decreased ADV mRNA levels more than DNA replication. Second, suppression of B-cell development and antibody response in mink kits infected at 21 days of age resulted in production of viral inclusion bodies in alveolar type II cells. Some of these kits showed mild clinical signs of respiratory disease, and one kit died of respiratory distress; however, clinical signs were seen only after release of immunosuppression, suggesting that the production of antiviral antibodies, in combination with the massive amounts of free viral antigen present, somehow is involved in the induction of respiratory distress. It is suggested that the antiviral antibody response observed in mink older than approximately 14 days primarily, by a yet unknown mechanism, decreases ADV mRNA levels which, if severe enough, results in restricted levels of DNA replication and virion production. Furthermore, such a restricted ADV

  13. Complementary expression and phosphorylation of Cx46 and Cx50 during development and following gene deletion in mouse and in normal and orchitic mink testes.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, R-Marc; Akpovi, Casimir D; Chen, Li; Kumar, Nalin M; Vitale, María L

    2015-08-01

    Gap junction-mediated communication helps synchronize interconnected Sertoli cell activities. Besides, coordination of germ cell and Sertoli cell activities depends on gap junction-mediated Sertoli cell-germ cell communication. This report assesses mechanisms underlying the regulation of connexin 46 (Cx46) and Cx50 in mouse testis and those accompanying a "natural" seasonal and a pathological arrest of spermatogenesis, resulting from autoimmune orchitis (AIO) in mink. Furthermore, the impact of deleting Cx46 or Cx50 on the expression, phosphorylation of junction proteins, and spermatogenesis is evaluated. Cx46 mRNA and protein expression increased, whereas Cx50 decreased with adulthood in normal mice and mink. Cx46 mRNA and protein expression increased, whereas Cx50 decreased with adulthood in normal mice and mink. During the mink active spermatogenic phase, Cx50 became phosphorylated and localized to the site of the blood-testis barrier. By contrast, Cx46 was dephosphorylated and associated with annular junctions, suggesting phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of Cx46 and Cx50 involvement in the barrier dynamics. Cx46-positive annular junctions in contact with lipid droplets were found. Cx46 and Cx50 expression and localization were altered in mink with AIO. The deletion of Cx46 or Cx50 impacted on other connexin expression and phosphorylation and differently affected tight and adhering junction protein expression. The level of apoptosis, determined by ELISA, and a number of Apostain-labeled spermatocytes and spermatids/tubules were higher in mice lacking Cx46 (Cx46-/-) than wild-type and Cx50-/- mice, arguing for life-sustaining Cx46 gap junction-mediated exchanges in late-stage germ cells secluded from the blood by the barrier. The data show that expression and phosphorylation of Cx46 and Cx50 are complementary in seminiferous tubules.

  14. Complementary expression and phosphorylation of Cx46 and Cx50 during development and following gene deletion in mouse and in normal and orchitic mink testes

    PubMed Central

    Akpovi, Casimir D.; Chen, Li; Kumar, Nalin M.; Vitale, María L.

    2015-01-01

    Gap junction-mediated communication helps synchronize interconnected Sertoli cell activities. Besides, coordination of germ cell and Sertoli cell activities depends on gap junction-mediated Sertoli cell–germ cell communication. This report assesses mechanisms underlying the regulation of connexin 46 (Cx46) and Cx50 in mouse testis and those accompanying a “natural” seasonal and a pathological arrest of spermatogenesis, resulting from autoimmune orchitis (AIO) in mink. Furthermore, the impact of deleting Cx46 or Cx50 on the expression, phosphorylation of junction proteins, and spermatogenesis is evaluated. Cx46 mRNA and protein expression increased, whereas Cx50 decreased with adulthood in normal mice and mink. Cx46 mRNA and protein expression increased, whereas Cx50 decreased with adulthood in normal mice and mink. During the mink active spermatogenic phase, Cx50 became phosphorylated and localized to the site of the blood-testis barrier. By contrast, Cx46 was dephosphorylated and associated with annular junctions, suggesting phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of Cx46 and Cx50 involvement in the barrier dynamics. Cx46-positive annular junctions in contact with lipid droplets were found. Cx46 and Cx50 expression and localization were altered in mink with AIO. The deletion of Cx46 or Cx50 impacted on other connexin expression and phosphorylation and differently affected tight and adhering junction protein expression. The level of apoptosis, determined by ELISA, and a number of Apostain-labeled spermatocytes and spermatids/tubules were higher in mice lacking Cx46 (Cx46−/−) than wild-type and Cx50−/− mice, arguing for life-sustaining Cx46 gap junction-mediated exchanges in late-stage germ cells secluded from the blood by the barrier. The data show that expression and phosphorylation of Cx46 and Cx50 are complementary in seminiferous tubules. PMID:26017495

  15. Type C Botulism Due to Toxic Feed Affecting 52,000 Farmed Foxes and Minks in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Miia; Nevas, Mari; Kurki, Joanna; Sauna-aho, Raija; Latvala-Kiesilä, Annikki; Pölönen, Ilpo; Korkeala, Hannu

    2004-01-01

    The largest reported outbreak of type C botulism in fur production animals is described. Epidemiological investigation of 117 out of 157 (response rate, 74.5%) farms revealed that 44,130 animals died or were euthanized, while 8,033 animals with milder symptoms recovered. The overall death rate in all animals at risk was 21.7%. The death rates were significantly higher in blue and shadow foxes (24.2 and 27.8%, respectively) than in silver and blue silver foxes and minks (below 4%). All minks had been immunized against botulinum toxin type C. Deaths were associated with feed manufactured by a local processor, 83 of whose customer farms (70.9%) reported dead or sick animals. Five feedlots out of 19 delivered to the farms on the day preceding the onset of the outbreak (day 2) were associated with a death rate higher than 40%. These feedlots consisted of fresh feed processed on day 2 and feed processed 1 day earlier (day 1). In laboratory analysis, the day 2 feed contained botulinum toxin type C (>600 minimum lethal doses/g), while the day 1 feed did not contain toxin. Toxin was not detected in feed raw-material samples. Clostridium botulinum type C was detected by PCR in some feed components and in feed. However, as the feed temperature was continuously 8°C or below and the pH was continuously 5.6 or below according to the manufacturer, it seems unlikely that spore germination and toxin formation occurred during overnight storage. Hence, the events leading to toxin formation were not determined. PMID:15472332

  16. Type C botulism due to toxic feed affecting 52,000 farmed foxes and minks in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Miia; Nevas, Mari; Kurki, Joanna; Sauna-aho, Raija; Latvala-Kiesilä, Annikki; Pölönen, Ilpo; Korkeala, Hannu

    2004-10-01

    The largest reported outbreak of type C botulism in fur production animals is described. Epidemiological investigation of 117 out of 157 (response rate, 74.5%) farms revealed that 44,130 animals died or were euthanized, while 8,033 animals with milder symptoms recovered. The overall death rate in all animals at risk was 21.7%. The death rates were significantly higher in blue and shadow foxes (24.2 and 27.8%, respectively) than in silver and blue silver foxes and minks (below 4%). All minks had been immunized against botulinum toxin type C. Deaths were associated with feed manufactured by a local processor, 83 of whose customer farms (70.9%) reported dead or sick animals. Five feedlots out of 19 delivered to the farms on the day preceding the onset of the outbreak (day 2) were associated with a death rate higher than 40%. These feedlots consisted of fresh feed processed on day 2 and feed processed 1 day earlier (day 1). In laboratory analysis, the day 2 feed contained botulinum toxin type C (>600 minimum lethal doses/g), while the day 1 feed did not contain toxin. Toxin was not detected in feed raw-material samples. Clostridium botulinum type C was detected by PCR in some feed components and in feed. However, as the feed temperature was continuously 8 degrees C or below and the pH was continuously 5.6 or below according to the manufacturer, it seems unlikely that spore germination and toxin formation occurred during overnight storage. Hence, the events leading to toxin formation were not determined.

  17. Radiation and speciation of pelagic organisms during periods of global warming: the case of the common minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata.

    PubMed

    Pastene, Luis A; Goto, Mutsuo; Kanda, Naohisa; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Kerem, Dan; Watanabe, Kazuo; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Hasegawa, Masami; Nielsen, Rasmus; Larsen, Finn; Palsbøll, Per J

    2007-04-01

    How do populations of highly mobile species inhabiting open environments become reproductively isolated and evolve into new species? We test the hypothesis that elevated ocean-surface temperatures can facilitate allopatry among pelagic populations and thus promote speciation. Oceanographic modelling has shown that increasing surface temperatures cause localization and reduction of upwelling, leading to fragmentation of feeding areas critical to pelagic species. We test our hypothesis by genetic analyses of populations of two closely related baleen whales, the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) and common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) whose current distributions and migration patterns extent are largely determined by areas of consistent upwelling with high primary production. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA control-region nucleotide sequences collected from 467 whales sampled in four different ocean basins were employed to infer the evolutionary relationship among populations of B. acutorostrata by rooting an intraspecific phylogeny with a population of B. bonaerensis. Our findings suggest that the two species diverged in the Southern Hemisphere less than 5 million years ago (Ma). This estimate places the speciation event during a period of extended global warming in the Pliocene. We propose that elevated ocean temperatures in the period facilitated allopatric speciation by disrupting the continuous belt of upwelling maintained by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Our analyses revealed that the current populations of B. acutorostrata likely diverged after the Pliocene some 1.5 Ma when global temperatures had decreased and presumably coinciding with the re-establishment of the polar-equatorial temperature gradient that ultimately drives upwelling. In most population samples, we detected genetic signatures of exponential population expansions, consistent with the notion of increasing carrying capacity

  18. The relationship between capsid protein (VP2) sequence and pathogenicity of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV): a possible role for raccoons in the transmission of ADV infections.

    PubMed Central

    Oie, K L; Durrant, G; Wolfinbarger, J B; Martin, D; Costello, F; Perryman, S; Hogan, D; Hadlow, W J; Bloom, M E

    1996-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) DNA was identified by PCR in samples from mink and raccoons on commercial ranches during an outbreak of Aleutian disease (AD). Comparison of DNA sequences of the hypervariable portion of VP2, the major capsid protein of ADV, indicated that both mink and raccoons were infected by a new isolate of ADV, designated ADV-TR. Because the capsid proteins of other parvoviruses play a prominent role in the determination of viral pathogenicity and host range, we decided to examine the relationship between the capsid protein sequences and pathogenicity of ADV. Comparison of the ADV-TR hypervariable region sequence with sequences of other isolates of ADV revealed that ADV-TR was 94 to 100% related to the nonpathogenic type 1 ADV-G at both the DNA and amino acid levels but less than 90% related to other pathogenic ADVs like the type 2 ADV-Utah, the type 3 ADV-ZK8, or ADV-Pullman. This finding indicated that a virus with a type 1 hypervariable region could be pathogenic. To perform a more comprehensive analysis, the complete VP2 sequence of ADV-TR was obtained and compared with that of the 647-amino-acid VP2 of ADV-G and the corresponding VP2 sequences of the pathogenic ADV-Utah, ADV-Pullman, and ADV-ZK8. Although the hypervariable region amino acid sequence of ADV-TR was identical to that of ADV-G, there were 12 amino acid differences between ADV-G and ADV-TR. Each of these differences was at a position where other pathogenic isolates also differed from ADV-G. Thus, although ADV-TR had the hypervariable sequence of the nonpathogenic type 1 ADV-G, the remainder of the VP2 sequence resembled sequences of other pathogenic ADVs. Under experimental conditions, ADV-TR and ADV-Utah were highly pathogenic and induced typical AD in trios of both Aleutian and non-Aleutian mink, whereas ADV-Pullman was pathogenic only for Aleutian mink and ADV-G was noninfectious. Trios of raccoons experimentally inoculated with ADV-TR and ADV-Utah all became infected

  19. Cellular microRNA miR-181b inhibits replication of mink enteritis virus by repression of non-structural protein 1 translation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia-zeng; Wang, Jigui; Yuan, Daoli; Wang, Shuang; Li, Zhili; Yi, Bao; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Liu, Weiquan

    2013-01-01

    Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in the mink industry. Recent studies have showed that microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs of length ranging from 18-23 nucleotides (nt) participate in host-pathogen interaction networks; however, whether or not miRNAs are involved in MEV infection has not been reported. Our study revealed that miRNA miR-181b inhibited replication of MEV in the feline kidney (F81) cell line by targeting the MEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) messenger RNA (mRNA) coding region, resulting in NS1 translational repression, while MEV infection reduced miR-181b expression. This is the first description of cellular miRNAs modulating MEV infection in F81 cells, providing further insight into the mechanisms of viral infection, and may be useful in development of naturally-occurring miRNAs antiviral strategies.

  20. Cellular microRNA miR-181b Inhibits Replication of Mink Enteritis Virus by Repression of Non-Structural Protein 1 Translation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia-zeng; Wang, Jigui; Yuan, Daoli; Wang, Shuang; Li, Zhili; Yi, Bao; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Liu, Weiquan

    2013-01-01

    Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in the mink industry. Recent studies have showed that microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs of length ranging from 18–23 nucleotides (nt) participate in host-pathogen interaction networks; however, whether or not miRNAs are involved in MEV infection has not been reported. Our study revealed that miRNA miR-181b inhibited replication of MEV in the feline kidney (F81) cell line by targeting the MEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) messenger RNA (mRNA) coding region, resulting in NS1 translational repression, while MEV infection reduced miR-181b expression. This is the first description of cellular miRNAs modulating MEV infection in F81 cells, providing further insight into the mechanisms of viral infection, and may be useful in development of naturally-occurring miRNAs antiviral strategies. PMID:24349084

  1. Population substructure of North Atlantic minke whales ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) inferred from regional variation of elemental and stable isotopic signatures in tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, E. W.; Outridge, P.; Riget, F. F.; Hobson, K. A.; Dietz, R.; Øien, N.; Haug, T.

    2003-09-01

    Information on population structure is essential for estimating population demographics and managing the impacts of exploitation of North Atlantic minke whales ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata). New approaches including assessment of geochemical signatures in tissues can assist in defining such structure. This study determined regional variations in long-term elemental diagnostics of stock differences among 159 minke whales harvested in West Greenland, the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea in 1998. The diagnostics tested included mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and cadmium (Cd) in various tissues, and the trace and major element composition of baleen. Supporting data was also gathered on δ15N and δ13C and stable lead isotope ratios. For female whales, significant differences in at least one long-term diagnostic element occurred between several areas. Existence of the following population substructure was inferred: (a) West Greenland, (b) a central group represented by whales from Jan Mayen, (c) a northeastern stock encompassing the Barents Sea, Svalbard and coastal Norway, and (d) the North Sea. These groups were consistent with those defined genetically by Andersen et al. [Mar. Ecol., Prog. Ser. 247 (2003) 263]. Males appeared to fall into similar groupings to females but because of smaller sample sizes fewer significant differences occurred between areas. Stable-isotopic values in minke whales suggested lower trophic-level feeding in this species than hitherto suspected, with significant dietary differences between areas. Variations in feeding habits appeared to explain part of the geographical variation in tissue Cd, but not tissue Hg or Se. Differences among elements with a relatively long biological half-life in specific tissues suggested that groups of minke whales have fidelity to certain summer feeding areas at least for several years.

  2. Attempt at intracytoplasmic sperm injection of in vitro matured oocytes in common minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) captured during the Kushiro Coast Survey.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yutaka; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Taiki; Nagai, Hiroki; Koma, Noriko; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Hajime; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Hochi, Shinichi; Kato, Hidehiro; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2007-08-01

    The present study was conducted during the Kushiro Coast Survey in an attempt to produce common minke whale embryos. In Experiment 1, we attempted to determine the appropriate culture duration (30 or 40 h) for in vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes using the Well of the Well method. In Experiment 2, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was applied to matured oocytes from prepubertal and adult common minke whales after IVM culture (40 or 48 h), and then their embryonic development was assessed. In Experiment 1, the maturation rate of oocytes cultured for 40 h (30.4%) was significantly higher than that of oocytes cultured for 30 h (6.8%; P<0.01). In Experiment 2, a total of 35 and 46 immature oocytes derived from adult (n=2) and prepubertal (n=6) minke whales, respectively, were cultured for 40 or 48 h. The maturation rate in the oocytes from the adult whales (34.2%) tended to be higher than that of the oocytes from the prepubertal whales (19.6%), but there was no significant difference. Following ICSI, 3 out of the 10 inseminated and cultured oocytes from the adult whales cleaved (2-, 8-, and 16-cell stages); all of these oocytes had been matured for 40 in culture. However, these oocytes did not develop to further stages. Only one of the 6 oocytes derived from the prepubertal whales, IVM cultured for 40 h and inseminated, developed to the 4-cell stage. The present results indicate that a 40 h IVM culture produces significantly higher rates of in vitro maturation than a 30 h IVM culture for common minke whale oocytes. Following ICSI, some oocytes cleaved to the 16-cell stage, but no further development was observed.

  3. Thermal adaptation of the crucian carp (Carassius carassius) cardiac delayed rectifier current, IKs, by homomeric assembly of Kv7.1 subunits without MinK.

    PubMed

    Hassinen, Minna; Laulaja, Salla; Paajanen, Vesa; Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2011-07-01

    Ectothermic vertebrates experience acute and chronic temperature changes which affect cardiac excitability and may threaten electrical stability of the heart. Nevertheless, ectothermic hearts function over wide range of temperatures without cardiac arrhythmias, probably due to special molecular adaptations. We examine function and molecular basis of the slow delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Ks)) in cardiac myocytes of a eurythermic fish (Carassius carassius L.). I(Ks) is an important repolarizing current that prevents excessive prolongation of cardiac action potential, but it is extremely slowly activating when expressed in typical molecular composition of the endothermic animals. Comparison of the I(Ks) of the crucian carp atrial myocytes with the currents produced by homomeric K(v)7.1 and heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels in Chinese hamster ovary cells indicates that activation kinetics and pharmacological properties of the I(Ks) are similar to those of the homomeric K(v)7.1 channels. Consistently with electrophysiological properties and homomeric K(v)7.1 channel composition, atrial transcript expression of the MinK subunit is only 1.6-1.9% of the expression level of the K(v)7.1 subunit. Since activation kinetics of the homomeric K(v)7.1 channels is much faster than activation of the heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels, the homomeric K(v)7.1 composition of the crucian carp cardiac I(Ks) is thermally adaptive: the slow delayed rectifier channels can open despite low body temperatures and curtail the duration of cardiac action potential in ectothermic crucian carp. We suggest that the homomeric K(v)7.1 channel assembly is an evolutionary thermal adaptation of ectothermic hearts and the heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels evolved later to adapt I(Ks) to high body temperature of endotherms.

  4. Validation of the sperm quality analyzer and the hypo-osmotic swelling test for frozen-thawed ram and minke whale (Balaenoptera bonarensis) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yutaka; Togawa, Morihiko; Abe, Norihito; Takano, Yuuki; Asada, Masatsugu; Okada, Aki; Iida, Kenji; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2004-02-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the validation of the sperm quality analyzer (SQA) and the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test with standard sperm analysis methods in frozen-thawed ram and minke whale spermatozoa. In rams, highly significant correlations were observed in the percentage of motile spermatozoa (P<0.01) and sperm concentration (P<0.01) between the standard and SQA methods. But, the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa did not significantly correlate between the standard and SQA methods. The percentages of swollen spermatozoa at 15 minutes by the HOS test were significantly correlated with the motility by the standard (P<0.05) and by the SQA (P<0.05) methods. For minke whale spermatozoa, the SVI (sperm viability index) values by the standard method were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the sperm motility index (SMI) values by SQA. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was also significantly correlated (P<0.01) with the motility measured by SQA. Using different hypo-osmotic solutions and incubation times, the HOS test with 25, 100 and 150 mOsM did not show significant variations. Motility observed by the standard method and the percentage of swollen spermatozoa were significantly correlated (P<0.05). These results indicate that the SQA and HOS test can be utilized to assess the post-thawing motility of ram and minke whale spermatozoa, and that the SQA and HOS test values are significantly correlated in ram spermatozoa. However, sperm concentration and morphologically normal spermatozoa are not assessed accurately by SQA in minke whales.

  5. Assessment of experimental data on PCB-induced reproduction inhibition in mink, based on an isomer- and congener-specific approach using 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalency

    SciTech Connect

    Leonards, P.E.G.; Vries, T.H. de; Minnaard, W.; Stuijfzand, S.; Cofino, W.P.; Straalen, N.M. van; Hattum, B. van; Voogt, P. de

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes an attempt to derive a median effect level (EC50) of PCBs for reproduction of mink based on experimental literature data. Unfortunately, the conditions of the mink studies carried out during the last two decades vary widely, which makes it difficult to establish unequivocal dose-effect relationships. This study describes an attempt to correct for the differences in exposure time using a one-compartment bioaccumulation model. This model estimates the whole-body concentration of PCBs in mink. Two approaches are tested. First, the whole-body concentration of 10 isomer groups of PCBs in mink were estimated and compared with reproduction data to calculate an EC50 value. Alternatively, estimates for the whole-body concentration in mink of 11 individual biologically active PCB congeners were made. With these, the toxic equivalent concentration (TEC) in mink was estimated using the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalent factor (TEF) approach. Whole-body dose-effect relationships were estimated and EC50 values for litter size and kit survival were calculated. The application of the one-compartment bioaccumulation model of the first approach resulted in a significant improvement in the dose-effect relationship in comparison to the raw data set. A further improvement in this relationship was achieved using the congener-specific bioaccumulation model in combination with the TEF approach. This study proposes a critical body residue (EC50) for mink litter size of 1.2 {mu}g/g (total PCBs/wet weight). From the second approach a critical body residue (EC50) expressed in TCDD equivalency for litter size of 160 pg/g (TCDD equivalence/wet weight) and 200 ng/g (TCDD equivalence/wet weight) for kit survival is proposed.

  6. Melatonin and the circadian clock in mink: effects of daily injections of melatonin on circadian rhythm of locomotor activity and autoradiographic localization of melatonin binding sites.

    PubMed

    Bonnefond, C; Monnerie, R; Richard, J P; Martinet, L

    1993-06-01

    The present study examines a putative effect of exogenous melatonin on the circadian organization of the mink. Two approaches were used to determine first whether entrainment of free-running rhythms of locomotor activity in constant darkness can be obtained by daily melatonin injections, thus demonstrating a control of melatonin on the clock generating circadian rhythms, the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. Entrainment was never obtained in the 8 vehicle-injected females and 7 out of the 8 melatonin injected-ones. In 3 females free-running in constant darkness, a phase advance followed by a few days of transient effect was observed when melatonin injections coincided with the onset of activity. However, the comparison of the regression of the daily activity onset related to successive days by covariance analysis revealed that true entrainment was effective in only 1 female. Second, we examined the distribution of melatonin binding sites within the brain of juvenile and adult mink using an in vitro autoradiographic procedure with [125I]2-iodomelatonin. No binding sites were observed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of any of the animals. However, all animals displayed a high density of melatonin binding sites in the pars tuberalis of the pituitary. The relation between a modulatory control of melatonin on the circadian clock and the presence and density of melatonin binding sites in the clock is discussed. In mink, melatonin does not seem to act as an internal Zeitgeber.

  7. The effect of H-ras oncogene transfection on response of mink lung epithelial cells to growth factors and cytotoxic drugs.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D I; Plumb, J A; Freshney, R I; Khan, M Z; Spandidos, D A

    1991-01-01

    Mink lung epithelial cells were transfected with c-myc and activated H-ras genes. The transfected sublines formed colonies in soft agar and were tumorigenic when injected subcutaneously into athymic nude mice. DNA synthesis was measured in each of the cell lines by 3H-thymidine incorporation and in the parent line there was dose related stimulation of DNA synthesis by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and inhibition by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). The c-myc transfected line had a reduced inhibitory response to TGF-beta and an exaggerated stimulatory response to EGF whereas the activated H-ras1 transfected line did not respond to TGF-beta or EGF. The activated H-ras1 transfected line was significantly more resistant to doxorubicin (ID50, 4.4 nM) and vincristine (ID50, 4.9 nM) than the parent mink lung epithelial cell line (ID50, 2.7 nM and 2.4 nM respectively). It would appear that oncogene transfection can alter the sensitivity of mink lung epithelial cells to both exogenous growth factors and cytotoxic drugs.

  8. A probabilistic risk assessment of the effects of methylmercury and PCBs on mink and kingfishers along East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.R.J.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W.; Parkhurst, B.R.; Teed, R.S.

    1999-12-01

    Over fifty years of operations, storage, and disposal of wastes from the US Department of Energy (US DOE) Y-12 nuclear weapons facility at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, has resulted in the contamination of water, sediment, biota, and floodplain soils of East Fork Poplar Creek. A preliminary assessment revealed that methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the contaminants of most concern. Because these contaminants are persistent, accumulate in tissues, and biomagnify up the food chain, piscivorous wildlife are the biota at greatest risk of exposure. The objective of this study was to estimate the risks posed by methylmercury and PCBs to two piscivorous species: mink and belted kingfishers. The authors conducted Monte Carlo simulations to estimate total daily intakes of each contaminant by each species and then integrated the resulting distributions with their respective dose-response curves to estimate risks. The results indicate that methylmercury poses a moderate risk to female mink (24% probability of at least 15% mortality) and kingfishers (50% probability of at least a 12--28% decline in fecundity depending on location). The PCBs pose a very serious risk to mink (52% probability of at least a 50% decline in reproductive fecundity), a species known to be especially sensitive to the effects of organochlorine substances, but little risk to kingfishers (<5% probability of a decline in reproductive fecundity greater than 10% at any location).

  9. Characterization of a New Epidemic Necrotic Pyoderma in Fur Animals and Its Association with Arcanobacterium phocae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Heli; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Sironen, Tarja; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Kivistö, Ilkka; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Moisander-Jylhä, Anna-Maria; Korpela, Johanna; Kokkonen, Ulla-Maija; Hetzel, Udo; Sukura, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-01-01

    A new type of pyoderma was detected in Finnish fur animals in 2007. The disease continues to spread within and between farms, with severe and potentially fatal symptoms. It compromises animal welfare and causes considerable economic losses to farmers. A case-control study was performed in 2010–2011 to describe the entity and to identify the causative agent. Altogether 99 fur animals were necropsied followed by pathological and microbiological examination. The data indicated that the disease clinically manifests in mink (Neovison vison) by necrotic dermatitis of the feet and facial skin. In finnraccoons (Nyctereutes procyonoides), it causes painful abscesses in the paws. Foxes (Vulpes lagopus) are affected by severe conjunctivitis and the infection rapidly spreads to the eyelids and facial skin. A common finding at necropsy was necrotic pyoderma. Microbiological analysis revealed the presence of a number of potential causative agents, including a novel Streptococcus sp. The common finding from all diseased animals of all species was Arcanobacterium phocae. This bacterium has previously been isolated from marine mammals with skin lesions but this is the first report of A. phocae isolated in fur animals with pyoderma. The results obtained from this study implicate A. phocae as a potential causative pathogen of fur animal epidemic necrotic pyoderma (FENP) and support observations that the epidemic may have originated in a species -shift of the causative agent from marine mammals. The variable disease pattern and the presence of other infectious agents (in particular the novel Streptococcus sp.) suggest a multifactorial etiology for FENP, and further studies are needed to determine the environmental, immunological and infectious factors contributing to the disease. PMID:25302603

  10. Peptide YY3–36 and 5-Hydroxytryptamine Mediate Emesis Induction by Trichothecene Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin)

    PubMed Central

    Pestka, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp. that frequently occurs in cereal grains, has been associated with human and animal food poisoning. Although a common hallmark of DON-induced toxicity is the rapid onset of emesis, the mechanisms for this adverse effect are not fully understood. Recently, our laboratory has demonstrated that the mink (Neovison vison) is a suitable small animal model for investigating trichothecene-induced emesis. The goal of this study was to use this model to determine the roles of two gut satiety hormones, peptide YY3–36 (PYY3–36) and cholecystokinin (CCK), and the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in DON-induced emesis. Following ip exposure to DON at 0.1 and 0.25mg/kg bw, emesis induction ensued within 15–30min and then persisted up to 120min. Plasma DON measurement revealed that this emesis period correlated with the rapid distribution and clearance of the toxin. Significant elevations in both plasma PYY3–36 (30–60min) and 5-HT (60min) but not CCK were observed during emesis. Pretreatment with the neuropeptide Y2 receptor antagonist JNJ-31020028 attenuated DON- and PYY-induced emesis, whereas the CCK1 receptor antagonist devezapide did not alter DON’s emetic effects. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron completely suppressed induction of vomiting by DON and the 5-HT inducer cisplatin. Granisetron pretreatment also partially blocked PYY3–36-induced emesis, suggesting a potential upstream role for this gut satiety hormone in 5-HT release. Taken together, the results suggest that both PYY3–36 and 5-HT play contributory roles in DON-induced emesis. PMID:23457120

  11. Re-evaluation of the species composition of Bashkirovitrema Skrjabin, 1944 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), with the description of two new species of this genus and the proposal of Kostadinovatrema novaeguiniense n. g., n. sp.

    PubMed

    Dronen, Norman O

    2009-11-01

    A comparison of specimens previously identified as Bashkirovitrema incrassatum (Diesing, 1850) from the African or cape clawless otter Aonyx capensis, and the speckle-throated or spotted-throated otter Hydrictis maculicollis from the Old World with specimens and descriptions of B. incrassatum from the New World showed that those from Africa (Bashkirovitrema africanum n. sp.) had a more extensive distribution of the vitelline fields than either B. canadense n. sp. from the northern river otter Lontra canadensis and the American mink Neovison vison (North America) and B. incrassatum from the Neotropical river otter Lontra longicaudis (South America). B. africanum n. sp. further differs from B. canadense n. sp. by having a smaller body, shorter forebody, smaller oral sucker, longer cirrus, shorter intertesticular space, shorter post-testicular space and longer eggs. B. canadense n. sp. can be distinguished from B. incrassatum by having a longer body, longer forebody, smaller sucker ratio, smaller testes, greater distance between the ventral sucker and the ovary, shorter cirrus-sac, longer post-testicular space and narrower eggs. B. africanum n. sp. differs from B. incrassatum by having a smaller ventral sucker, larger ovary, shorter cirrus-sac, smaller intertesticular space, larger post-testicular space and longer eggs that are not as wide. Kostadinovatrema n. g., as represented by K. novaeguiniense n. sp., can be separated from species of Bashkirovitrema Skrjabin, 1944 by having a wider body width to length profile, a head collar that is narrower than the forebody and armed with 33 rather than 27 collar spines, an ovary that is further removed anteriorly from the testes, and a dorso-ventrally flattened hindbody that is nearly as broad as the forebody. The new genus differs from Hypoderaeum Dietz, 1909 and Moliniella Hübner, 1939 by having 33 head collar spines.

  12. Annotated checklist and fisheries interactions of cetaceans in Togo, with evidence of Antarctic minke whale in the Gulf of Guinea.

    PubMed

    Segniagbeto, Gabriel H; VAN Waerebeek, Koen; Bowessidjaou, Joseph E; Ketoh, Koffivi; Kpatcha, Takouda K; Okoumassou, Kotchikpa; Ahoedo, Kossi

    2014-01-01

    Based on strandings and captures, 9 cetacean species, including 6 odontocetes and 3 mysticetes, are documented (photos and specimens) in Togo's coastal waters (newly-recorded species marked with an asterisk): Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis*), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera brydei or B. edeni), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps*), short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus*), pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata*), common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and common dolphin Delphinus sp. An anecdotal sighting record for killer whale (Orcinus orca) is considered reliable. The lack of Sousa teuszii records in Togo is consistent with its apparent contemporaneous absence in Ghana. The B. bonaerensis specimen, entangled in a purse seine set on small pelagics, is a first record for the Gulf of Guinea. The occurrence of this Southern Ocean species north of the equator underscores the severe gaps in our understanding of cetacean distribution off western Africa. The majority of artisanal fishermen operating in Togolese coastal waters are of Ghanaian origin and are thought to promote trade and consumption of cetacean bushmeat. Because captures are illegal, enforced with some success in the main fishing centers, covert landings of cetaceans are exceedingly difficult to monitor, quantify or sample. Concern is expressed about pollution of Togo's coastal waters with heavy metals due to phosphorite mining and export from the coastal basin near Hahotoé and Kpogamé. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  13. MHC class II variation in the endangered European mink Mustela lutreola (L. 1761)--consequences for species conservation.

    PubMed

    Becker, L; Nieberg, C; Jahreis, K; Peters, E

    2009-04-01

    The polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has gained a specific relevance in pathogen resistance and mate choice. Particularly the antigen-binding site (ABS), encoded by exon 2 of the DRB class II gene, exhibits numerous alleles and extensive sequence variations between alleles. A lack of MHC variability has attributed to instances such as bottleneck effects or relaxed selection pressure and has a certain impact on the long-term viability of the species concerned. As a result of seriously decreased population density during the last century, the current population of the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola, L. 1761) has suffered from geographic isolation. In this study, we amplified a partial sequence of the MHC class II DRB exon 2 (229 bp), assessed the degree of genetic variation and compared the variability with those of other Mustelidae. As a result, nine alleles were detected in 20 investigated individuals, which differ from each other by four to 25 nucleotide substitutions (two to 11 amino acid substitutions). Whilst an equal ratio for synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions was found inside the ABS, synonymous substitutions were significantly higher than non-synonymous substitutions in the non-ABS region. Results might indicate that no positive selection exists within the ex situ population of M. lutreola, at least in the analysed fragment. In addition, phylogenetic analyses support the trans-species model of evolution.

  14. On the olfactory anatomy in an archaic whale (Protocetidae, Cetacea) and the minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Balaenopteridae, Cetacea).

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Stephen J; Geisler, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G

    2013-02-01

    The structure of the olfactory apparatus is not well known in both archaic and extant whales; the result of poor preservation in most fossils and locational isolation deep within the skulls in both fossil and Recent taxa. Several specimens now shed additional light on the subject. A partial skull of an archaic cetacean is reported from the Pamunkey River, Virginia, USA. The specimen probably derives from the upper middle Eocene (Piney Point Formation) and is tentatively assigned to the Protocetidae. Uncrushed cranial cavities associated with the olfactory apparatus were devoid of sediment. CT scans clearly reveal the dorsal nasal meatus, ethmoturbinates within the olfactory recess, the cribriform plate, the area occupied by the olfactory bulbs, and the olfactory nerve tract. Several sectioned skulls of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were also examined, and olfactory structures are remarkably similar to those observed in the fossil skull from the Pamunkey River. One important difference between the two is that the fossil specimen has an elongate olfactory nerve tract. The more forward position of the external nares in extant balaenopterids when compared with those of extant odontocetes is interpreted to be the result of the need to retain a functional olfactory apparatus and the forward position of the supraoccipital/cranial vertex. An increase in the distance between the occipital condyles and the vertex in balaenopterids enhances the mechanical advantage of the epaxial musculature that inserts on the occiput, a specialization that likely stabilizes the head of these enormous mammals during lunge feeding.

  15. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on Fusion VP2332-452 Antigen for Detecting Antibodies against Aleutian Mink Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaowei; Song, Cailing; Liu, Yun; Qu, Liandong; Liu, Dafei

    2015-01-01

    For detection of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) antibodies, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using the recombinant VP2332-452 protein as an antigen. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) was used as a reference test to compare the results of the ELISA and Western blotting (WB); the specificity and sensitivity of the VP2332-452 ELISA were 97.9% and 97.3%, respectively, which were higher than those of WB. Therefore, this VP2332-452 ELISA may be a preferable method for detecting antibodies against AMDV. PMID:26582828

  16. Nucleotide Sequence of the Envelope Gene of Gardner-Arnstein Feline Leukemia Virus B Reveals Unique Sequence Homologies with a Murine Mink Cell Focus-Forming Virus †

    PubMed Central

    Elder, John H.; Mullins, James I.

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the envelope gene and the adjacent 3′ long terminal repeat (LTR) of Gardner-Arnstein feline leukemia virus of subgroup B (GA-FeLV-B) has been determined. Comparison of the derived amino acid sequence of the gp70-p15E polyprotein to those of several previously reported murine retroviruses revealed striking homologies between GA-FeLV-B gp70 and the gp70 of a Moloney virus-derived mink cell focus-forming virus. These homologies were located within the substituted (presumably xenotropic) portion of the mink cell focus-forming virus envelope gene and comprised amino acid sequences not present in three ecotropic virus gp70s. In addition, areas of insertions and deletions, in general, were the same between GA-FeLV-B and Moloney mink cell focus-forming virus, although the sizes of the insertions and deletions differed. Homologies between GA-FeLV-B and mink cell focus-forming virus gp70s is functionally significant in that they both possess expanded host ranges, a property dictated by gp70. The amino acid sequence of FeLV-B contains 12 Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequences, indicating 12 possible sites of N-linked glycosylation as compared with 7 or 8 for its murine counterparts. Comparison of the 3′ LTR of GA-FeLV-B to AKR and Moloney virus LTRs revealed extensive conservation in several regions including the “CCAAT” and Goldberg-Hogness (TATA) boxes thought to be involved in promotion of transcription and in the repeat region of the LTR. The inverted repeats that flanked the LTR of GA-FeLV-B were identical to the murine inverted repeats, but were one base longer than the latter. The region of U3 corresponding to the approximately 75-nucleotide “enhancer sequence” is present in GA-FeLV-B, but contains deletions relative to AKR and Moloney virus and is not repeated. An interesting pallindrome in the repeat region immediately 3′ to the U3 region was noted in all the LTRs, but was particularly pronounced in GA-FeLV-B. Possible roles for this

  17. First report of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two threatened carnivores: the Marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna and the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Mammalia: Mustelidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is a widespread cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by species belonging to the genus Borrelia. It is transmitted from animal reservoir hosts to humans through hard - ticks of genus Ixodes which are vectors of the disease. Case presentation Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection was identified in a marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna, and two European minks, Mustela lutreola, from Romania, by PCR. RFLP revealed the presence of a single genospecies, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Conclusions This is the first report of the Lyme disease spirochetes in the two mentioned hosts. PMID:22901862

  18. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Chiyo; Sasaki, Motoki; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe(3+)) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time.

  19. A Norwegian penthrite grenade for minke whales: hunting trials with prototypes and results from the hunt in 1984, 1985 and 1986.

    PubMed

    Oen, E O

    1995-01-01

    A penthrite grenade to replace cold harpoons in the Norwegian minke whale hunt was developed in 1983-1985. Data on survival times for 259 minke whales were collected from the trials in the 1984-86 hunting seasons, when 3 different prototypes were used. About 45% of the whales were killed instantaneously. The median survival time was 72 s. A substantially higher percentage of instantaneous deaths was recorded for penthrite grenades than for cold harpoons. The criteria for death were cessation of flipper movement, relaxation of the mandible, or sinking without any active movement. Some animals dived before the criteria could be controlled. If the central nervous system, heart, lungs or main vessels were damaged, a high percentage of the animals died instantaneously. In most cases, hits and detonations outside the thorax and central nervous system resulted in longer survival times than hits in the thorax. Survival time increased with whale size and range for animals not killed instantaneously. Marksmanship, technical and functional reliability of equipment and hunting techniques were all crucial to a good result. Better training of gunners, improved weapons and hunting equipment and more rapid reshooting of wounded animals would reduce the proportion of long survival times.

  20. Description and analysis of the use of cold harpoons in the Norwegian minke whale hunt in the 1981, 1982 and 1983 hunting seasons.

    PubMed

    Oen, E O

    1995-01-01

    Until 1984, cold harpoons, i.e. harpoons with no detonating device, were used to hunt minke whales in Norway. To investigate the effectiveness of such harpoons and compare them with alternatives, data on kills using cold harpoons were collected as part of a project dealing with alternative killing techniques for whales. Data on 353 whale kills were collected in 1981-83. The criteria used to determine the time of death were cessation of flipper movement, that the mandible relaxed, or that the whale hung immobile from the harpoon line. These criteria do not take into account any movements caused by spinal reflexes. About 17% of the animals died instantaneously (< or = 10 s). The median survival time was 570 s. Animals died most rapidly if hit in the brain, heart or major blood vessels. If only the lungs were injured, minke whales died less rapidly than terrestrial mammals. For whales that did not die immediately, shooting range, animal size and the angle of the shot all influenced the time to death. The efficiency of cold harpoons could be improved, but their use was no longer considered acceptable, and they were replaced by harpoons with penthrite grenades in 1984.

  1. Predictive habitat modelling of humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) and Antarctic minke (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) whales in the Southern Ocean as a planning tool for seismic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombosch, Annette; Zitterbart, Daniel P.; Van Opzeeland, Ilse; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Burkhardt, Elke; Wisz, Mary S.; Boebel, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    Seismic surveys are frequently a matter of concern regarding their potentially negative impacts on marine mammals. In the Southern Ocean, which provides a critical habitat for several endangered cetacean species, seismic research activities are undertaken at a circumpolar scale. In order to minimize impacts of these surveys, pre-cruise planning requires detailed, spatio-temporally resolved knowledge on the likelihood of encountering these species in the survey area. In this publication we present predictive habitat modelling as a potential tool to support decisions for survey planning. We associated opportunistic sightings (2005-2011) of humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae, N=93) and Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis, N=139) with a range of static and dynamic environmental variables. A maximum entropy algorithm (Maxent) was used to develop habitat models and to calculate daily basinwide/circumpolar prediction maps to evaluate how species-specific habitat conditions evolved throughout the spring and summer months. For both species, prediction maps revealed considerable changes in habitat suitability throughout the season. Suitable humpback whale habitat occurred predominantly in ice-free areas, expanding southwards with the retreating sea ice edge, whereas suitable Antarctic minke whale habitat was consistently predicted within sea ice covered areas. Daily, large-scale prediction maps provide a valuable tool to design layout and timing of seismic surveys as they allow the identification and consideration of potential spatio-temporal hotspots to minimize potential impacts of seismic surveys on Antarctic cetacean species.

  2. MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 diversify Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium channel gating.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Anthony; McCrossan, Zoe A; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2004-02-27

    High frequency firing in mammalian neurons requires ultra-rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents generated by homomeric or heteromeric assemblies of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium channel alpha subunits. Kv3.1 alpha subunits can also form slower activating channels by coassembling with MinK-related peptide 2 (MiRP2), a single transmembrane domain potassium channel ancillary subunit. Here, using channel subunits cloned from rat and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, we show that modulation by MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 is a general mechanism for slowing of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channel activation and deactivation and acceleration of inactivation, creating a functionally diverse range of channel complexes. MiRP1 also negatively shifts the voltage dependence of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channel activation. Furthermore, MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 each form channels with Kv3.1-Kv3.2 heteromers that are kinetically distinct from one another and from MiRP/homomeric Kv3 channels. The findings illustrate a mechanism for dynamic expansion of the functional repertoire of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium currents and suggest roles for these alpha subunits outside the scope of sustained rapid neuronal firing.

  3. Antigen and Antibody in Aleutian Disease in Mink II. The Reaction of Antibody with the Aleutian Disease Agent Using Immunodiffusion and Immunoelectroosmophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, H. J.; Ingram, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    Aleutian disease viral (ADV) antigen was prepared by fluorocarbon extraction of spleen, liver, and lymph nodes from mink experimentally infected ten days previously. Using a potent ADV antigen, antibody was detected by immunodiffusion (ID) and immunoelectroosmophoresis (IEOP). Utilizing these precipitin tests, antibody was detected in all the mink sera tested as early as seven days after experimental infection. Titer of antibody increased throughout the infection period. Titers of more than 100 were reached by 15 days post infection, titers of 1,000 at one month, and titers of more than 5,000 to 10,000 were achieved at two months post infection and thereafter. The immunodiffusion test gave similar or slightly lower titers than those detected by the IEOP. The IEOP test promises to be a most useful technique for the diagnosis of aleutian disease because it is simple, rapid and specific and is capable of detecting infection early in the course of the disease. It is suggested that this test should be utilized especially for the screening of animals purchased or imported as breeding stock onto ranches. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4270428

  4. Protein and amino acid bioavailability of extruded dog food with protein meals of different quality using growing mink () as a model.

    PubMed

    Tjernsbekk, M T; Tauson, A-H; Matthiesen, C F; Ahlstrøm, Ø

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluated growing mink () as a model for dietary protein quality assessment of protein meals used in extruded dog foods. Three foods with similar CP content but of different protein quality were produced using different protein meals. The protein meals varied with respect to CP digestibility and AA composition and included lamb meal (LBM), poultry meal (PM), and fish meal (FM) with low, intermediate, and high protein quality, respectively. Nitrogen balance, BW gain, protein efficiency ratio (PER), and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were used as measures of protein and AA bioavailability in growing mink. Standardized ileal digestibility (SID) was used to measure protein and AA bioavailability in adult dogs (). The mink study (3 × 3 Latin square design) included 12 kits aged 8 to 11 wk. The dog study included 12 dogs divided in 3 groups allocated to 1 of the experimental diets. The growing mink responded in accordance with the different AA supply between diets, as determined by the first limiting AA. The LBM diet deviated from the other diets with lower ( < 0.001) values for N retention, BW gain, and PER, and the diets differed ( < 0.001) in ATTD of CP and all AA, except for hydroxyproline. Retention of N was 0.66, 1.04, and 1.18 g·kg·d; BW gain was 8.2, 26.8, and 35.3 g/d; PER was 0.38, 1.39, and 1.71; and ATTD of CP was 66.8, 73.8, and 82.1% for the LBM, PM, and FM diets, respectively. In dogs, SID of CP and AA differed ( ≤ 0.017) between diets and was generally lowest for the LBM diet, intermediate for the PM diet, and greatest for the FM diet. For CP, SID was 71.5, 80.2, and 87.0% for the LBM, PM, and FM diets, respectively. The contents of digestible CP and AA (based on SID) covered the minimal requirement for adult dogs set by the NRC for all diets, except for the content of digestible Met + Cys in the LBM diet. Despite this, dietary content of Met + Cys in the LBM diet agreed with the recommended level set by the NRC and the

  5. Interactions of MinK and e-NOS gene polymorphisms appear to be inconsistent predictors of atrial fibrillation propensity, but long alleles of ESR1 promoter TA repeat may be a promising marker.

    PubMed

    Smalcelj, Anton; Sertić, Jadranka; Golubić, Karlo; Jurcić, Ljiljana; Banfić, Ljiljana; Brida, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    Interactions of MinK and e-NOS Gene Polymorphisms Appear to Be Inconsistent Predictors of Atrial Fibrillation Propensity, but Long Alleles of ESR1 Promoter TA Repeat May Be a Promising Marker. We analyzed minK, e-NOS and ESR1 gene polymorphisms in 40 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) without major structural heart disease compared to 35 healthy controls. A missense polymorphism in the minK gene with A/G substitution at nucleotide 112 causing serine (S) to glycine (G) change, 786 T/C polymorphism in the 5' flanking region of e-NOS gene and TA polymorphism in the regulatory region of estrogen receptor ESR1 gene with long (> or = 19 TA repeats) and short alleles were examined. Only a slight increase in minK G allele frequency, but with marked excess in AG/TT combination of minK and e-NOS polymorphisms was found in the AF group. The interpretation remains tentative due to small groups precluding statistical significance of differences, possible lab flaws and inconsistencies with earlier data. However, ESR1 long allele homozygotes were strikingly more frequent in the AF than in control group, reaching statistical significance surprisingly in males (p < 0.02). Functional activity of estrogen receptors may be more critical in males than in females with abundance of circulating estrogen. Contrasting the intricate complexity of genetic polymorphisms influencing cardiac rhythm with our modest research, we would limit the conclusion to the plea for further research of ESR1 role in AF.

  6. Archeological Investigations at the Cow-Killer Site, 140S347, Melvern Lake, Kansas, 1974-1975.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Total 3 Family: Mustelidae Mustela vison mink Left Femur 1 :% [ 9Family: Geomyidae Geomys bursarius Pocket gopher Left Mandible section 3 Right Mandible...8217. . . -8- Narrow strips of vegetation that occur along the Marais des Cygnes river and tributaries are generally of the ash-cottonwood type with...orioidae (shrew) 2 * P4,stelid’ge (skunk, mink, weasel) 5 Cervidae (deer) 1 "ciuridac (squirrels) 6 -Gomyidac ( gophers ) 1 H ’trcm ’Ja, (kangaroo rat, mice

  7. Analysis of Aleutian disease virus infection in vitro and in vivo: demonstration of Aleutian disease virus DNA in tissues of infected mink.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Aasted, B; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1985-01-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV) infection was analyzed in vivo and in vitro to compare virus replication in cell culture and in mink. Initial experiments compared cultures of Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells infected with the avirulent ADV-G strain or the highly virulent Utah I ADV. The number of ADV-infected cells was estimated by calculating the percentage of cells displaying ADV antigen by immunofluorescence (IFA), and several parameters of infection were determined. Infected cells contained large quantities of viral DNA (more than 10(5) genomes per infected cell) as estimated by dot-blot DNA-DNA hybridization, and much of the viral DNA, when analyzed by Southern blot hybridization, was found to be of a 4.8-kilobase-pair duplex monomeric replicative form (DM DNA). Furthermore, the cultures contained 7 to 67 fluorescence-forming units (FFU) per infected cell, and the ADV genome per FFU ratio ranged between 2 X 10(3) and 164 X 10(3). Finally, the pattern of viral antigen detected by IFA was characteristically nuclear, although cytoplasmic fluorescence was often found in the same cells. Because no difference was noted between the two virus strains when cultures containing similar numbers of infected cells were compared, it seemed that both viruses behaved similarly in infected cell culture. These data were used as a basis for the analysis of infection of mink by virulent Utah I ADV. Ten days after infection, the highest levels of viral DNA were detected in spleen (373 genomes per cell), mesenteric lymph node (MLN; 750 genomes per cell), and liver (373 genomes per cell). In marked contrast to infected CRFK cells, the predominant species of ADV DNA in all tissues was single-stranded virion DNA; however, 4.8-kilobase-pair DM DNA was found in MLN and spleen. This observation suggested that MLN and spleen were sites of virus replication, but that the DNA found in liver reflected sequestration of virus produced elsewhere. A final set of experiments examined MLN taken

  8. Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) as an inert marker in digestibility studies with dogs, blue foxes and mink fed diets containing different protein sources.

    PubMed

    Vhile, S G; Skrede, A; Ahlstrøm, O; Hove, K

    2007-10-01

    The study evaluated the use of yttrium oxide (Y(2)O(3)) as an inert marker in studies of apparent total tract digestibility in dogs, blue foxes and mink. Comparison was made with total faecal collection, and use of chromic oxide (Cr(2)O(3)) as marker respectively. Four experimental diets were added 0.1 g/kg yttrium oxide and 10 g/kg chromic oxide and fed to four animals of each species. Faecal recovery of yttrium oxide was 94.4% (SEM +/- 1.0), and of chromic oxide 105.8% (SEM +/- 1.5). The digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, starch and total carbohydrates obtained by total collection and yttrium oxide as marker showed close similarity, and in most cases not significant differences, independent of species and diets. In dogs, overall digestibilities of main nutrients with chromic oxide as marker were not significantly different from overall means obtained with yttrium oxide (p > 0.05). Overall digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and total carbohydrates in blue foxes and mink was significantly higher with chromic oxide than with yttrium oxide (p < 0.05). In dogs and blue foxes, digestibilities of individual amino acids determined by use of yttrium oxide were not different from values obtained using total collection of faeces, both within diets and for overall mean (p > 0.05). Overall amino acid digestibilities in dogs determined with chromic oxide as marker were similar to corresponding figures for yttrium oxide, whereas use of chromic oxide resulted in significantly higher digestibilites for a number of amino acids compared with yttrium oxide in foxes and mink (p < 0.05). The digestibilities of most main nutrients and amino acids revealed no interaction between diet and method (p > 0.05). The study showed that yttrium oxide can be used in low concentration in the feed, and allows high accuracy of analyses and thereby precise digestibility determination. It is concluded that yttrium oxide is an alternative inert marker to chromic oxide in

  9. [Morphology and biochemistry of various Mustelidae. 2. Effect of different blood collection technics on various plasma enzyme activities in Mink (Mustela vision Schreber, 1777)].

    PubMed

    Zeissler, R; Wenzel, U D

    1978-01-01

    Blood sampling by catheterisation of the abdominal aorta to test plasma haemoglobin and various plasma enzyme activities was compared with two other blood sampling techniques and their application to farm-kept minks under general anaesthesia, cardiac puncture and tail-tip amputation. The plasma haemoglobin values in plasma obtained from the abdominal aorta were significantly lower than those recorded from the two other blood sampling techniques, which applied to plasma enzyme activities, as well. Those findings were equal for males and females. The plasma enzyme activities tested were glutamate oxalo-acetate transaminase, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, and malic dehydrogenase. Some plasma enzyme actvities were tested from a random sample of 164 animals for sex-dependence (88 males and 76 non-pregnant unserved females), with no consideration being given to blood sampling techniques. The standards or physiological indices derived from those tests are reported.

  10. Emergence of a new swine H3N2 and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus reassortant in two Canadian animal populations, mink and swine.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Donald; Allard, Véronique; Doyon, Jean-François; Bellehumeur, Christian; Spearman, J Grant; Harel, Josée; Gagnon, Carl A

    2011-12-01

    A swine H3N2 (swH3N2) and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (pH1N1) influenza A virus reassortant (swH3N2/pH1N1) was detected in Canadian swine at the end of 2010. Simultaneously, a similar virus was also detected in Canadian mink based on partial viral genome sequencing. The origin of the new swH3N2/pH1N1 viral genes was related to the North American swH3N2 triple-reassortant cluster IV (for hemagglutinin [HA] and neuraminidase [NA] genes) and to pH1N1 for all the other genes (M, NP, NS, PB1, PB2, and PA). Data indicate that the swH3N2/pH1N1 virus can be found in several pigs that are housed at different locations.

  11. Investigating Population Genetic Structure in a Highly Mobile Marine Organism: The Minke Whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata acutorostrata in the North East Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Quintela, María; Skaug, Hans J.; Øien, Nils; Haug, Tore; Seliussen, Bjørghild B.; Solvang, Hiroko K.; Pampoulie, Christophe; Kanda, Naohisa; Pastene, Luis A.; Glover, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    Inferring the number of genetically distinct populations and their levels of connectivity is of key importance for the sustainable management and conservation of wildlife. This represents an extra challenge in the marine environment where there are few physical barriers to gene-flow, and populations may overlap in time and space. Several studies have investigated the population genetic structure within the North Atlantic minke whale with contrasting results. In order to address this issue, we analyzed ten microsatellite loci and 331 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop on 2990 whales sampled in the North East Atlantic in the period 2004 and 2007–2011. The primary findings were: (1) No spatial or temporal genetic differentiations were observed for either class of genetic marker. (2) mtDNA identified three distinct mitochondrial lineages without any underlying geographical pattern. (3) Nuclear markers showed evidence of a single panmictic population in the NE Atlantic according STRUCTURE's highest average likelihood found at K = 1. (4) When K = 2 was accepted, based on the Evanno's test, whales were divided into two more or less equally sized groups that showed significant genetic differentiation between them but without any sign of underlying geographic pattern. However, mtDNA for these individuals did not corroborate the differentiation. (5) In order to further evaluate the potential for cryptic structuring, a set of 100 in silico generated panmictic populations was examined using the same procedures as above showing genetic differentiation between two artificially divided groups, similar to the aforementioned observations. This demonstrates that clustering methods may spuriously reveal cryptic genetic structure. Based upon these data, we find no evidence to support the existence of spatial or cryptic population genetic structure of minke whales within the NE Atlantic. However, in order to conclusively evaluate population structure within this highly mobile

  12. A comparative study of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in mink using a modified agglutination test, a Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yi; Wang, Zedong; Cai, Yufeng; Li, Xiaoxing; Wei, Feng; Shang, Limin; Li, Jiping; Liu, Quan

    2015-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, and many serological methods have been developed to detect T. gondii infection in a variety of animal species. In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in farmed mink in northeast China was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT), a Western blot (WB), and 3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with protein A/G conjugate, using either of 2 recombinant dense granule antigens, GRA1 and GRA7, or Toxoplasma soluble antigens (TSA). There was no significant difference between the detection results of the GRA1-, GRA7-, and TSA-ELISAs and WB (McNemar chi-square, P > 0.05), but a significant difference was observed between MAT and WB (P < 0.05). A near perfect agreement (97.0%) was found between the GRA7-ELISA and WB (κ = 0.83), and a substantial agreement (92.4-93.1%) was observed in the TSA- and GRA1-ELISAs (κ = 0.68-0.73). The GRA7-ELISA showed the highest sensitivity and specificity, and the lowest false-positive and negative rates, while the MAT gave both a low sensitivity and frequent false positives in comparison to the WB. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed the largest area under curve of 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.96), and the highest relative sensitivity (72.7%) and specificity (99.0%) for a cutoff value of 0.19 in the GRA7-ELISA. These results indicate that the GRA7-ELISA is suitable for detection of T. gondii infection in mink and that MAT should be used with caution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of canine distemper virus strains detected from breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Jun; Yan, Xi-Jun; Chai, Xiu-Li; Martella, Vito; Luo, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Gao, Han; Liu, Ying-Xue; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Tao; Xu, Lei; Zhao, Chun-Fei; Wang, Feng-Xue; Shao, Xi-Qun; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Shi-Peng

    2010-01-06

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a variety of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae. Genetic/antigenic heterogeneity has been observed among the various CDV strains, notably in the haemagglutinin (H) gene, that appears as a good target to gather epidemiological information. Based on sequence analysis of the H gene, wild-type CDV strains cluster into distinct geographic lineages (genotypes), irrespective of the species of isolation. The sequence of the H gene of 28 CDV strains detected from both vaccinated and non-vaccinated breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks from different geographical areas of China during the years 2004-2008 was determined. All the CDV strains but two (strains HL and HLJ2) were characterized as Asia-1 genotype and were highly similar to each other (96.2-99.7% at the amino acid [aa] level) and to other Asia-1 strains (96.1-99.5% aa) previously detected in China. The CDV strains HL and HLJ2 were both collected from foxes in Heilongjiang province in 2005. Strain HL resembled CDVs of the Arctic genotype (GR88-like) and displayed high aa identity (98.0%) to the Chinese canine strain Liu. By converse, strain HLJ2 was barely related to CDVs of the Asia-2 genotype (88.7-90.3% aa identity), and could represent a novel CDV genotype, tentatively proposed as Asia-3. These results suggest that at least three different CDV genotypes, distantly related (81.8-91.6% aa identity) to the vaccine strains, Onderstepoort-like (America-1 genotype), are currently circulating in breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks in China, and that the genotype Asia-1 is predominant. Whether the diversity between wild-type CDVs and the vaccine strains may affect, to some extent, the efficacy of the vaccines deserves further investigations.

  14. Spatial and temporal variation of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in the Antarctic minke whales, Balaenoptera bonaerensis, in the period 1987-2005.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Zenitani, Ryoko; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kato, Hidehiro

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and chlordane compounds (CHLs) were determined in the blubber of males (20-25 years old) of Antarctic minke whales, Balaenoptera bonaerensis, from the International Whaling Commission (IWC) management Areas IV (70°-130°E) and V (130°E-170°W), south 60°S. The ranges of concentrations (ng g(-1) lipid wt.) for each compound were, PCBs: 7.7-89; DDTs: 29-340; HCHs: 0.20-4.3; HCB: 75-430; CHLs: 10-120, which were much lower than those in common minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, from the northern hemisphere. The levels of PCBs, HCHs, HCB and CHLs in Area IV were significantly higher than those in Area V, while the levels of DDTs in both areas were similar. For comparing the fate among four pesticides in the Antarctic Ocean avoiding the effect of variance due to food intake, the ratios of the pesticides to PCBs, which has an extremely high chemical stability and environmental persistence, were examined. The HCHs/PCBs ratio decreased by a factor of about 20 in a span of 16 years in both Areas IV and V, while temporal trends of DDTs/PCBs, HCB/PCBs and CHLs/PCBs ratios were not observed. These results indicate that PCBs, DDTs, HCB and CHLs levels did not vary or slightly decreased in Areas IV and V during the study period. However HCHs levels clearly decreased. Spatial differences seems to be related to differences in food intake among whales, and temporal differences seems to be related to the length stay of OCs in the Antarctic Ocean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Along the Pawnee Trail: Cultural Resource Survey and Testing at Wilson Lake, Kansas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    lupus Coyote Canis latrans Red fox Vulpes vulpes Mountain lion* Felix concolor Bobcat Lynx rufus Mink Mustela vison Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata...Saline River from the west and devastated the westernmost settlements, then in Lincoln County. The recently established Danish community was especially

  16. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    MacIntosh, D.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  17. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    MacIntosh, D.L. . School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. )

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  18. Genetic identification of mammalian carnivore species in the Kushiro Wetland, eastern Hokkaido, Japan, by analysis of fecal DNA.

    PubMed

    Shimatani, Yukari; Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Tatsuzawa, Shirow; Ikeda, Tohru; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2008-07-01

    To identify mammalian carnivore species distributed in the Kushiro Wetland, eastern Hokkaido, Japan, we developed molecular-genetic methods for identification of the species from fecal samples collected from the field. Species-specific primers and PCR programs were established for five native and six alien species of carnivores: Martes zibellina, Mustela nivalis, Mustela erminea, Vulpes vulpes, and Nyctereutes procyonoides as native species, and Neovison vison, Martes melampus, Mustela itatsi, Canis familiaris, Felis catus, and Procyon lotor as alien species in Hokkaido. Touchdown PCR, in which the annealing temperature is decreased 1 degrees C every cycle, was more effective for some species from which fecal DNA was not amplified species-specifically with standard PCR programs. Of 405 fecal samples collected from the Kushiro Wetland, the species of origin of 246 samples were successfully identified: 88 samples for N. vison, 140 for M. zibellina, 13 for V. vulpes, four for C. familiaris and one for F. catus. The results show the particular applicability of this method to monitoring M. zibellina and N. vison. In addition, methods to PCR-amplify DNA from two crayfish species (Pacifastacus leniusculus and Cambaroides japonicus) were developed to determine whether the carnivore fecal samples contained detectable DNA from the prey crayfishes. DNA from P. leniusculus was amplified from feces of N. vison identified in the present study, but no DNA from C. japonicus was detected. This indicates that N. vison preys on the alien species P. leniusculus.

  19. Accumulation of PAHs and synthetic musk compound in minke whales (Balanoptera acutorostrata) and long-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus capensis) from Korean coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyo-Bang; An, Yong-Rock; Choi, Seok-Gwan; Choi, Minkyu; Choi, Hee-Gu

    2012-03-01

    Information on the occurrence and accumulation profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and synthetic musk compounds (SMCs) in marine mammals is scarce. In the present study, we recorded the concentrations and profiles of PAHs and SMCs in liver tissue and blubber from minke whales and common dolphins from Korean coastal waters. The overall concentrations of PAHs and SMCs in blubber from both cetacean species were approximately three to five times higher than those in liver tissues. Residue levels of PAHs were lower, whereas levels of SMCs were relatively higher than those reported in other studies. Lack of species- and sex-dependent differences in the concentrations of PAHs and SMCs were found. Naphthalene and 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-r-2-benzopyran (HHCB) were predominant compounds in all the samples for PAHs and SMCs, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs and SMCs were significantly correlated with each other, but were not correlated with body size of cetaceans. The present data provide valuable information on the exposure of Korean cetaceans to PAHs and SMCs. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  20. Baleen as a biomonitor of mercury content and dietary history of North Atlantic minke whales (Balaenopetra acutorostrata): combining elemental and stable isotope approaches.

    PubMed

    Hobson, K A; Riget, F F; Outridge, P M; Dietz, R; Born, E

    2004-09-20

    Baleen is an incrementally-growing tissue of balaenopteran whales which preserves relatively well over time in museums and some archeological sites, and, therefore might be useful for studies examining long-term changes of metal levels in whales. This study examined Hg and stable C and N isotopic composition of baleen plates of the North Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), which continues to be a food source for people in Greenland and elsewhere. We compared the Hg levels and stable isotopes of major tissues (kidney, liver and muscle) with those of baleen plates to see whether baleen could be used as a biomonitor of variations of Hg intake and diet both between individuals and within individuals over time. Mercury was significantly correlated with concentrations in all tissues (kidney, liver and muscle). Stable C and N isotopes in baleen were generally similar to those of muscle, which reflects the recent (approximately one month) feeding of the whale, but in some individuals there were significant differences between baleen and muscle. Sectioning of baleen into 1 cm longitudinal increments showed that these differences were due to marked dietary shifts by some individuals over time that had been recorded in the baleen but were lost from the muscle record. Whole baleen C and N isotopes were better correlated with tissue Hg levels, suggesting that baleen may provide a more reliable indicator of long-term average diet, which in turn may be better related to Hg accumulation in tissues than the shorter-term diet record contained in muscle.

  1. Total Mercury, Methylmercury, Inorganic Arsenic and Other Elements in Meat from Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North East Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Maage, Amund; Nilsen, Bente M; Julshamn, Kaare; Frøyland, Livar; Valdersnes, Stig

    2017-08-01

    Meat samples of 84 minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) mainly from the Barents Sea, collected between 1 May and 16 August 2011, were analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, lead, total arsenic, inorganic arsenic and selenium. The average total mercury concentration found was 0.15 ± 0.09 mg/kg, with a range from 0.05 to 0.49 mg/kg. The molar ratio of selenium to mercury varied between 1.0 and 10.3. Cadmium content ranged from 0.002 to 0.036 mg/kg, while the content of lead in whale meat ranged from <0.01 to 0.09 mg/kg. None of the whale samples exceeded established EU maximum levels for metals in fish muscle, but 4.8% and 6.8% of the samples exceeded Japanese maximum levels for total mercury and methylmercury, respectively, in whale meat. There was only minor variations in element concentrations between whales from different geographical areas, and cadmium was the only element were the concentration increased with increasing length.

  2. Sequences responsible for erythroid and lymphoid leukemia in the long terminal repeats of Friend-mink cell focus-forming and Moloney murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, A; Takimoto, M; Adachi, A; Kakuyama, M; Kato, S; Kakimi, K; Fukuoka, K; Ogiu, T; Matsuyama, M

    1987-01-01

    Despite the high degree of homology (91%) between the nucleotide sequences of the Friend-mink cell focus-forming (MCF) and the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) genomic long terminal repeats (LTRs), the pathogenicities determined by the LTR sequences of the two viruses are quite different. Friend-MCF MuLV is an erythroid leukemia virus, and Moloney MuLV is a lymphoid leukemia virus. To map the LTR sequences responsible for the different disease specificities, we constructed nine viruses with LTRs recombinant between the Friend-MCF and Moloney MuLVs. Analysis of the leukemia induced with the recombinant viruses showed that a 195-base-pair nucleotide sequence, including a 75-base-pair nucleotide Moloney enhancer, is responsible for the tissue-specific leukemogenicity of Moloney MuLV. However, not only the enhancer but also its downstream sequences appear to be necessary. The Moloney virus enhancer and its downstream sequence exerted a dominant effect over that of the Friend-MCF virus, but the enhancer sequence alone did not. The results that three of the nine recombinant viruses induced both erythroid and lymphoid leukemias supported the hypothesis that multiple viral genetic determinants control both the ability to cause leukemia and the type of leukemia induced. PMID:3033317

  3. Human beta(3)-adrenoreceptors couple to KvLQT1/MinK potassium channels in Xenopus oocytes via protein kinase C phosphorylation of the KvLQT1 protein.

    PubMed

    Kathöfer, Sven; Röckl, Katja; Zhang, Wei; Thomas, Dierk; Katus, Hugo; Kiehn, Johann; Kreye, Volker; Schoels, Wolfgang; Karle, Christoph

    2003-08-01

    Modulation of the slow component of the delayed rectifier potassium current (IKs) in heart critically affects cardiac arrhythmogenesis. Its current amplitude is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system. However, the signal transduction from the beta-adrenergic system to the KvLQT1/MinK (KCNQ1/KCNE1) potassium channel, which is the molecular correlate of the IKs current in human cardiomyocytes, is not sufficiently understood. In the human heart, three subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors (beta(1-3)-ARs) have been identified. Only beta(1)- and beta(3)-ARs have been shown so far to be involved in the regulation of IKs. Special interest has been paid to the regulation of IKs by the beta(3)-AR because of its potential importance in congestive heart failure. In heart failure beta(1)-ARs are known to be down regulated while the density of beta(3)-ARs is increased. Unfortunately, studies on the modulation of IKs by beta(3)-AR revealed conflicting results. We investigated the functional role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the signal transduction cascade between beta3-adrenergic receptors and IKs by expressing heterologously its molecular components, the KvLQT1/MinK potassium channel, together with human beta(3)-AR in Xenopus oocytes. Membrane currents were measured with the double electrode voltage-clamp technique. Using activators and inhibitors of PKC we demonstrated that PKC is involved in this regulatory process. Experiments in which the putative C-terminal PKC-phosphorylation sites in the KvLQT1 protein were destroyed by site directed mutagenesis reduced the isoproterenol-induced current to 27+/-3,5% compared to control. These results indicate that the amplitude of KvLQT1/MinK current is mainly increased by PKC activation. Our results suggest that the regulation of the KvLQT1/MinK potassium channel via beta(3)-AR is substantially mediated by PKC phosphorylation of the KvLQT1 protein at its four C-terminal PKC phosphorylation sites.

  4. The concept of superfetation: a critical review on a 'myth' in mammalian reproduction.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Kathleen; Menzies, Brandon R; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Goeritz, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Superfetation is understood as another conception during an already ongoing pregnancy. This implies the existence of young of different developmental stages within the female reproductive tract during certain periods of pregnancy. Nevertheless, a clear definition of the term as well as distinct criteria to identify the occurrence of superfetation in a species is missing. The variable anatomy of mammalian reproductive tracts seems to make the occurrence of superfetation more or less likely but impedes the simple evaluation of whether it is present or not. Additionally, adequate determination methods are missing or are difficult to apply at the right time. Superfetation or rather superfetation-like pregnancies are reported for numerous species including humans, livestock and rodents. The usual criteria to assume a case of superfetation include the finding of discordantly developed young within the uterus during post mortem or parturition of young after a birth interval shorter than the assumed pregnancy length. Often the occurrence of superfetation is concluded because other explanations of reproductive artifacts are missing. Even severe reproductive pathologies are often confused with superfetation. True superfetation or superfetation as a reproductive strategy may exist in some mammals. In the American mink (Neovison (Mustela) vison) and the European badger (Meles meles) superfetation occurs in combination with embryonic diapause. In the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus), superfetation has long been assumed to exist but evidence is still controversial. Superfetation definitely occurs in certain species of poeciliid and zenarchopterid fish, some of which also exhibit viviparity and maternal care. In mammals, the evolution of such a reproductive mechanism poses many interesting evolutionary, endocrine, microbial and immunological questions that require further investigation. Here we review the scant and at times ancient literature on this poorly understood topic

  5. Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja; Jakobsen, Jette; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Letcher, Robert J; Dietz, Rune

    2014-06-01

    This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six exposed and six control sister bitches (maternal generation) and their three exposed and four control pups, respectively, were daily fed 112g whale blubber (193µg ∑PCB/day) or porcine fat (0.17µg ∑PCB/day). Mean level of ∑PCB in adipose tissue of exposed bitches and their pups was 3106 and 2670ng/g lw, respectively, which was significantly higher than the mean concentration of 53ng/g lw for all controls (p<0.001). The vitamin analyses showed that 25OHD3 in liver of maternal exposed bitches were significantly lower than in controls (p=0.004) while vitD3 was significantly highest in liver of exposed pups (p<0.003). Regarding blood plasma concentrations, exposed F generation pups had significantly higher concentrations of 25OHD3 than controls (p=0.009). Correlation analyses showed that blood 25OHD3 decreased significantly with increased adipose tissue concentrations of ∑PCB in exposed dogs (R(2)=0.64, p=0.005) and a similar trend was found for liver 25OHD3 (R(2)=0.32, p=0.08). The results indicate that the homeostasis and metabolism of vitamin D compounds may respond differently to the dietary composition of fatty acids and OHC exposure. It is unknown if the lower level of 25OHD3 in the liver of exposed dogs would have any negative effects on immunity and reproduction and more focus should be conducted on this compound in Arctic wildlife.

  6. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales

    PubMed Central

    KITAYAMA, Chiyo; SASAKI, Motoki; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KONDOH, Daisuke; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe3+) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  7. Temporal trends of PBDEs and emerging flame retardants in belugas from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada) and comparisons with minke whales and Canadian Arctic belugas.

    PubMed

    Simond, Antoine E; Houde, Magali; Lesage, Véronique; Verreault, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    An exponential level increase of the ubiquitous halogenated flame retardant (HFR) class polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) has been documented during the 1990s in endangered belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE), Eastern Canada. The recent worldwide bans and regulations of PBDE mixtures led to their replacement by alternative HFRs (so-called emerging HFRs) that are increasingly being reported in various environmental compartments. There are, however, limited knowledge on the spatial and temporal trends of PBDEs and emerging HFRs in cetaceans, especially after restrictions on PBDE usage. The first objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of HFRs (35 PBDE congeners and 13 emerging compounds) in the blubber of belugas and minke whales (Balænoptera acutorostrata) found dead in the Estuary or Gulf of St. Lawrence as well as belugas from Nunavik (Canadian Arctic) collected as part of the Inuit subsistence hunt. A second objective was to investigate the trends of HFR concentrations in SLE beluga males between 1997 and 2013. PBDEs were the most abundant HFRs in all three whale populations, while hexabromobenzene (HBB), Chlordene Plus (CPlus), Dechlorane Plus (DP), and Dechlorane 604 Component B (Dec-604 CB) were quantified in the majority of blubber samples. Overall, concentrations of emerging HFRs were notably greater in SLE belugas compared to the two other whale populations, with the exception of DP and Dec-604 CB that were found in greater concentrations in Canadian Arctic belugas. No significant trend in blubber PBDE concentrations was found in SLE belugas during this 17-year period. This suggests that global PBDE regulations are too recent to observe changes in PBDE concentrations in belugas from this highly HFR-exposed environment. In contrast, concentrations of HBB and CPlus in SLE belugas decreased slightly from 1997 to 2013, while DP increased up until 2000 and decreased slightly thereafter. The occurrence and

  8. The neocortex of cetartiodactyls: I. A comparative Golgi analysis of neuronal morphology in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Butti, Camilla; Janeway, Caroline M; Townshend, Courtney; Wicinski, Bridget A; Reidenberg, Joy S; Ridgway, Sam H; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Jacobs, Bob

    2015-11-01

    The present study documents the morphology of neurons in several regions of the neocortex from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the North Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Golgi-stained neurons (n = 210) were analyzed in the frontal and temporal neocortex as well as in the primary visual and primary motor areas. Qualitatively, all three species exhibited a diversity of neuronal morphologies, with spiny neurons including typical pyramidal types, similar to those observed in primates and rodents, as well as other spiny neuron types that had more variable morphology and/or orientation. Five neuron types, with a vertical apical dendrite, approximated the general pyramidal neuron morphology (i.e., typical pyramidal, extraverted, magnopyramidal, multiapical, and bitufted neurons), with a predominance of typical and extraverted pyramidal neurons. In what may represent a cetacean morphological apomorphy, both typical pyramidal and magnopyramidal neurons frequently exhibited a tri-tufted variant. In the humpback whale, there were also large, star-like neurons with no discernable apical dendrite. Aspiny bipolar and multipolar interneurons were morphologically consistent with those reported previously in other mammals. Quantitative analyses showed that neuronal size and dendritic extent increased in association with body size and brain mass (bottlenose dolphin < minke whale < humpback whale). The present data thus suggest that certain spiny neuron morphologies may be apomorphies in the neocortex of cetaceans as compared to other mammals and that neuronal dendritic extent covaries with brain and body size.

  9. Disposal and Reuse of Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan. Environmental Impact Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    House mouse Mus musculus Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata Mink Mustela vison Little brown bat Myotis lucifugus White-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus...use and employment due to redevelopment, and anticipated phasing of the various elements of each reuse plan (as measured at the closure baseline, and...Proposed Action Acres Disturbed (by phase ) Land Use 1993-1998 1998-2003 2003-2013 Total Airfield 50 0 0 50 Aviation support 15 8 6 29 Industrial 55

  10. MINK Workshop Presentations for SERVIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, David

    2012-01-01

    Topics include: MINX Document 1 MISR : The instrument, its orbit and data products. MINX Document 2 MISR : Tools for ordering and viewing data. MINX Document 3 : MINX : Overview and plume case studies. MINX Document 4 : MINX basic features. MINX Document 5 : Measuring aerosol height and motion with MINX. MINX Document 5 : Handling complexities in height retrievals. Plume boundaries, Wind direction, Low Optical Thickness, Other complexities. Digitizing options. Managing plume projects.

  11. Use of bovine recombinant prion protein and real-time quaking-induced conversion to detect cattle transmissible mink encephalopathy prions and discriminate classical and atypical L- and H-Type bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Soyoun; Greenlee, Justin J.

    2017-01-01

    Prions are amyloid-forming proteins that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies through a process involving conversion from the normal cellular prion protein to the pathogenic misfolded conformation (PrPSc). This conversion has been used for in vitro assays including serial protein misfolding amplification and real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC). RT-QuIC can be used for the detection of prions in a variety of biological tissues from humans and animals. Extensive work has been done to demonstrate that RT-QuIC is a rapid, specific, and highly sensitive prion detection assay. RT-QuIC uses recombinant prion protein to detect minute amounts of PrPSc. RT-QuIC has been successfully used to detect PrPSc from different prion diseases with a variety of substrates including hamster, human, sheep, bank vole, bovine and chimeric forms of prion protein. However, recombinant bovine prion protein has not been used to detect transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) or to differentiate types of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in samples from cattle. We evaluated whether PrPSc from TME and BSE infected cattle can be detected with RT-QuIC using recombinant bovine prion proteins, and optimized the reaction conditions to specifically detect cattle TME and to discriminate between classical and atypical BSE by conversion efficiency. We also found that substrate composed of the disease associated E211K mutant protein can be effective for the detection of TME in cattle and that wild type prion protein appears to be a practical substrate to discriminate between the different types of BSEs. PMID:28225797

  12. Use of bovine recombinant prion protein and real-time quaking-induced conversion to detect cattle transmissible mink encephalopathy prions and discriminate classical and atypical L- and H-Type bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Soyoun; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    Prions are amyloid-forming proteins that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies through a process involving conversion from the normal cellular prion protein to the pathogenic misfolded conformation (PrPSc). This conversion has been used for in vitro assays including serial protein misfolding amplification and real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC). RT-QuIC can be used for the detection of prions in a variety of biological tissues from humans and animals. Extensive work has been done to demonstrate that RT-QuIC is a rapid, specific, and highly sensitive prion detection assay. RT-QuIC uses recombinant prion protein to detect minute amounts of PrPSc. RT-QuIC has been successfully used to detect PrPSc from different prion diseases with a variety of substrates including hamster, human, sheep, bank vole, bovine and chimeric forms of prion protein. However, recombinant bovine prion protein has not been used to detect transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) or to differentiate types of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in samples from cattle. We evaluated whether PrPSc from TME and BSE infected cattle can be detected with RT-QuIC using recombinant bovine prion proteins, and optimized the reaction conditions to specifically detect cattle TME and to discriminate between classical and atypical BSE by conversion efficiency. We also found that substrate composed of the disease associated E211K mutant protein can be effective for the detection of TME in cattle and that wild type prion protein appears to be a practical substrate to discriminate between the different types of BSEs.

  13. Generation of an Archaean H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ fluid enriched in Au, W and Mo by fractional crystallization in the Mink Lake intrusion, NW Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, D.R.; Spooner, E.T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Fractional crystallization (FC) of the post-tectonic trondhjemitic Mink Lake intrusion in NW Ontario resulted in a residual H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ low salinity fluid with an isotopic composition (delta /sup 13/C/sub cc/ x = -3.3 per thousand +/- 0.4 per thousand (1s), delta/sup 18/O/sub cc/ + 10.7 to 15.9 per thousand, deltaD/sub FI/ -70 +/- 9 per thousand (1s) and delta /sup 34/S/sub py/ +0.4 to +2.90 per thousand) compatible with magmatic derivation and extremely similar to that in vein quartz-carbonate-pyrite +/- scheelite, +/- tourmaline, +/- MoS/sub 2/ +/- telluride systems characteristic of major Archaean lode gold deposits. Inward FC of the granodiorite magma (69-71% SiO/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/O/K/sub 2/O = 1.6-3.9), as indicated by trace and REE data, produced a sequence of microgranites and aplitic dykes with mean values by INNA (n=10) for Au of 2.3ppb, Mo = 22ppm and W = 7.3ppm as compared to mean background values in the granodiorite of Au <1ppb, Mo less than or equal to 1ppm with W less than or equal to 3.7ppm (n=4). The latest aplites are observed to coexist with a H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ mixture and are characterized by carbonate alteration selvages and minor MoS/sub 2/. Subsequent separation of the H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ fluid and interaction with an otherwise fresh granodiorite within the already solidified southern margin, produced MoS/sub 2/ mineralized sub-horizontal quartz veins and larger tabular lenses of carbonate alteration without internal veining. Such zones are anomalously enriched (n=10) in Au (anti x = 153 pbb, range 2-570ppb) Mo (anti x 660ppm, range 1-2500ppm and W (anti x = 61 ppm, range 23-95 ppm).

  14. Alien species of mammals and their impact on natural ecosystems in the biosphere reserves of Russia.

    PubMed

    Neronov, Valery M; Khlyap, Ludmila A; Bobrov, Vladimir V; Warshavsky, Andrey A

    2008-06-01

    The paper analyses the results of a survey of 37 Russian biosphere reserves using questionnaires concerning the presence of alien species of mammals, their pathways of penetration, and their impacts on protected ecosystems. The penetration of alien mammals into terrestrial ecosystems of Russia is extensive, both in places with maximum human environmental impact (inhabited areas and agricultural lands) and in biosphere reserves with minimal human impact. There are 62 mammal species registered as alien in Russian ecosystems and they account for 22% of the terrestrial mammal fauna of Russia. The percentage of alien species in biosphere reserves is 32.6% at most. In most regions, Castor fiber, Ondatra zibethicus, Nyctereutes procyonoides, Canis familiaris, Neovison vison and Sus scrofa are very dangerous, and both Castor fiber and Sus scrofa can have environment-forming impacts. © 2008 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  15. Color vison deficiency among medical students: an unnoticed problem.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, T; Sherpa, M T; Shrestha, R

    2010-06-01

    Color vision deficiency, most of the time remains an unnoticed problem; although it is not very rare. The faculty of appreciation of color is essential for our smooth daily activities. Unfortunately, even many doctors do not know the severity of their color vision deficiency and tend to assume it as slight, and a few, as in the general population, do not know about their disability. Some common difficulties reported by medical practitioners and medical students were in recognizing- widespread body color changes (pallor, cyanosis, jaundice, rashes, erythema of skin), colorful charts, slides, test-strips for blood and urine, body products: blood or bile in urine, faeces, sputum, vomit, microscopy, mouth and throat conditions, impressions presented in the Ishihara chart, titration end-points, tissue identification (surgery) etc. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the presence of congenital color vision deficiencies among the medical students. The study was carried out among the 1st and 2nd year medical students of Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital (n= 120) with the help of Ishihara chart, that was shown to all participants. They were asked to read the impressions in the color chart. The impression perceived by a person with normal color vision was different from the impression perceived by a person with color vision deficiency. It was noted that, among the study population (n=120) 5.83% of the volunteers were color weak. Amongst the color-deficient volunteers, 57.0% were protanopic while 43.0% were deuteranopic. Medical students must be made aware of their congenital color vision deficiency and its effects on their work. Screening will enable the student and later the doctor to become aware of limitations in their powers of observation and devise ways of overcoming them; the patient will be protected from harm and litigation may be avoided when doctors have adapted their practice to their deficiency. Medical students and physicians must be screened for color vision deficiency and advised about it so they can take special care in clinical practice.

  16. Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Mephitis mephitis Meadow vole Microtus pennsy/vanicus House mouse Mus musculus Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata Mink Mustela vison Little brown bat...FB Disposal and Reuse FEIS S-7 󈧰 *0 0.00 .4- - a a~ SO Sig > U 00 - 00 .C -* LW5 0C~ 7 cca!’ ae- 2 L a a Co’s mU E ’ED IA ~ EU a a c I- .. 9U2= 4 0...and utility effects of each proposal as a function of proposed land use and employment due to redevelopment, and anticipated phasing of the various

  17. Voles on small islands: effects of food limitation and alien predation.

    PubMed

    Fey, Karen; Banks, Peter B; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2008-09-01

    Ecosystems of three trophic levels may be bottom-up (by food-plant availability) and/or top-down (by predators) limited. Top-down control might be of greater consequence when the predation impact comes from an alien predator. We conducted a replicated two-factor experiment with field voles (Microtus agrestis) during 2004-2005 on small islands of the outer archipelago of the Baltic Sea, south-west Finland, manipulating both predation impact by introduced American mink (Mustela vison) and winter food