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Sample records for minor oral surgery

  1. Complications associated with intravenous midazolam and fentanyl sedation in patients undergoing minor oral surgery

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Anxiety control remains an important concern in dental practice. We evaluated the incidence, nature, and sequelae of complications during and after minor oral surgeries performed under intravenous midazolam and fentanyl sedation using the titration technique. Methods The medical records of patients who had undergone minor oral surgeries under moderate intravenous midazolam and fentanyl sedation at our institution between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. Age, sex, body mass index, medical history, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, indications for sedation, amount of sedative used, surgical duration, and recovery time were evaluated for all patients. Results In total, 107 patients aged 9–84 years were included. ASA class I and class II were observed for 56.1% and 43.9% patients, respectively. Complications associated with sedation occurred in 11 (10.2%) patients. There were no serious adverse events. Oxygen saturation reached 95% during the procedure in six patients; this was successfully managed by stimulating the patients to take a deep breath. Two patients exhibited deep sedation and one exhibited paradoxical excitement. After the procedure, one patient experienced nausea without vomiting and one exhibited a prolonged recovery time. The surgical procedures were completed in all patients. Obesity was found to be significantly associated with sedation-related complications. Conclusions Our results suggest that complications associated with intravenous midazolam and fentanyl sedation using the titration technique for minor oral surgeries are mostly minor and can be successfully managed with no prolonged sequelae. PMID:29090250

  2. Minor oral surgery without stopping daily low-dose aspirin therapy: a study of 51 patients.

    PubMed

    Madan, Gautam A; Madan, Sonal G; Madan, Gauri; Madan, A D

    2005-09-01

    The risk of excessive bleeding prompts physicians to stop low-dose long-term aspirin regimens before surgery, which puts the patient at risk from adverse thrombotic events. We hypothesize that most minor oral surgical procedures can be carried out safely without stopping low-dose aspirin. All minor oral surgery patients at our hospital (Madan Dental Hospital, Ahmedabad, India) from May 2002 to May 2003, who were also on long-term low-dose aspirin therapy regimens (acetylsalicylic acid 75 mg to 100 mg/day), were included. Investigation of bleeding time and platelet count was performed. If within normal limits, aspirin was not stopped before surgery. Patients were operated under local anesthesia on an outpatient basis. All wounds were sutured and followed up at 24, 48, and 72 hours, 1 week, and 2 weeks after the procedure. The study included 51 patients (32 males, 19 females), ranging in age from 45 to 70 years. Preoperative values were within normal limits for all patients. Aspirin was not stopped for a single patient. There was no excessive intraoperative bleeding in all cases except 1; there was no postoperative bleeding in all cases. We conclude that most minor oral surgery procedures can be carried out safely without stopping long-term low-dose aspirin regimen.

  3. Minor surgery in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Krupa, Debra T.; Stonestreet, Robert; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate and demonstrate equipment and techniques proposed for minor surgery on Space Station Freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to test and evaluate methods of surgical instrument packaging and deployment; (2) to test and evaluate methods of surgical site preparation and draping; (3) to evaluate techniques of sterile procedure and maintaining sterile field; (4) to evaluate methods of trash management during medical/surgical procedures; and (4) to gain experience in techniques for performing surgery in microgravity. A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed on March 30, 1990 with the goal of investigating and demonstrating surgical equipment and techniques under consideration for use on SSF. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola.

  4. Application of Laser in Oral Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Asnaashari, Mohammad; Zadsirjan, Saeede

    2014-01-01

    In this review collected from the literature on usage of laser in oral minor surgery based on a Medline search in the time period between the years: 2008 and 2013, the most current evidence on laser-assisted oral minor surgery is going to be surveyed. PMID:25653807

  5. Antifibrinolytic therapy for preventing oral bleeding in patients with haemophilia or Von Willebrand disease undergoing minor oral surgery or dental extractions.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Karin P M; Engelen, Eveline T; Mauser-Bunschoten, Evelien P; van Es, Robert J J; Schutgens, Roger E G

    2015-12-24

    Minor oral surgery or dental extractions (oral or dental procedures) are widely performed and can be complicated by hazardous oral bleeding, especially in people with an inherited bleeding disorder such as haemophilia or Von Willebrand disease. The amount and severity of singular bleedings depend on disease-related factors, such as the severity of the haemophilia, both local and systemic patient factors (such as periodontal inflammation, vasculopathy or platelet dysfunction) and intervention-related factors (such as the type and number of teeth extracted or the dimension of the wound surface). Similar to local haemostatic measures and suturing, antifibrinolytic therapy is a cheap, safe and potentially effective treatment to prevent bleeding complications in individuals with bleeding disorders undergoing oral or dental procedures. However, a systematic review of trials reporting outcomes after oral surgery or a dental procedure in people with an inherited bleeding disorder, with or without, the use of antifibrinolytic agents has not been performed to date. The primary objective was to assess the efficacy of local or systemic use of antifibrinolytic agents to prevent bleeding complications in people with haemophilia or Von Willebrand disease undergoing oral or dental procedures. Secondary objectives were to assess if antifibrinolytic agents can replace or reduce the need for clotting factor concentrate therapy in people with haemophilia or Von Willebrand disease and to further establish the effects of these agents on bleeding in oral or dental procedures for each of these populations. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Coagulopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), of MEDLINE and from handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We additionally searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. We searched Pub

  6. The Assessment of Oral Microflora Exposed to 3% Ethanolic Extract of Brazilian Green Propolis Preparation Used for Hygiene Maintenance following Minor Oral Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Morawiec, Tadeusz; Wojtyczka, Robert D.; Niedzielska, Iwona; Bubiłek-Bogacz, Anna; Wróbel, Jacek; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Wesołowski, Piotr; Król, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a topically administered hygienic preparation containing a 3% ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEP-B) on oral microflora spectrum changes in a group of patients who underwent common oral surgery procedures. Two gel samples were compared: the tested gel containing an active ingredient, that is, a 3% EEP-B (gel GA), and a placebo as the negative control (gel GC). The collection of microbiological material included 14 patients requiring surgical extraction of wisdom molars and short endosseous implant installation. Clinical examinations were carried out as follow-up, that is, baseline and after 5-6 weeks' time. During the first and subsequent assessment, swabs were taken from the mucosal surface. The number of microorganism species was found to have increased following the application of GC gel over the period of 5-6 weeks. This mainly affected Gram-positive rods and bacilli as well as Gram-negative rods. Application of the GA gel enriched with 3% EEP-B caused a profound reduction in the amount of Neisseria spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. strains. Elimination of seven species of microorganisms was observed: Streptococcus acidominimus, Streptococcus oralis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Veillonella parvula, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:26380300

  7. Nitrousoxide as a conscious sedative in minor oral surgical procedure.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Rakesh; Asir, Vigil Dev; Shanmugapriyan; Ebenezr, Vijay; Dakir, Abu; Balakrishnan; Jacob, Jeffin

    2015-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic in dentistry and is commonly used in emergency centers and ambulatory surgery centers as well. When used alone, it is incapable of producing general anesthesia reliably. However, as a single agent, it has an impressive safety and is excellent for providing minimal and moderate sedation for apprehensive minor oral surgical procedure. In this article, action of N2O in overcoming the anxiety and pain of the patient during the minor oral surgery and its advantages and disadvantages, have been reviewed.

  8. Nitrousoxide as a conscious sedative in minor oral surgical procedure

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Rakesh; Asir, Vigil Dev; Shanmugapriyan; Ebenezr, Vijay; Dakir, Abu; Balakrishnan; Jacob, Jeffin

    2015-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic in dentistry and is commonly used in emergency centers and ambulatory surgery centers as well. When used alone, it is incapable of producing general anesthesia reliably. However, as a single agent, it has an impressive safety and is excellent for providing minimal and moderate sedation for apprehensive minor oral surgical procedure. In this article, action of N2O in overcoming the anxiety and pain of the patient during the minor oral surgery and its advantages and disadvantages, have been reviewed. PMID:26015724

  9. [Histological investigations in ambulatory oral surgery practice].

    PubMed

    Kivovics, Márton; Mihályi, Szilvia; Suba, Zsuzsanna; Gyulai-Gaál, Szabolcs

    2012-03-01

    In the practice of oral surgery correspondence with the pathologist is required in order to identify the lesions in question by histologic examination. By current legal regulations the histological evaluation of removed tissues is mandatory. In the presentation the authors process the data obtained in their Department since 2008. Coincidence of the clinical and histological diagnosis is analysed statistically such is the occurrence of various types of oral mucosa lesions and cysts. In cases of presumed malignancy the biopsies were carried out in a department with adequate oncological background. In indications of autoimmun deseases mainly in cases of Sjögren's syndrome the Department has been requested to carry out minor salivary gland biopsies. Statistical analysis of the findings of the minor salivary gland biopsies will also be discussed. The histological diagnoses have been provided by Prof. Zsuzsanna Suba MD, DMD, PhD of the Semmelweis University, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral Pathology Unit. In order of prevalence the most common histologically verified lesions were: radicular cyst, fibromas and granulation tissue. In 84.5% of the cases the histological findings confirmed the clinical diagnoses. In 44,5% of the cases Sjögren's syndrome was verified by the minor salivary gland biopsy. Although in most cases the histological examination supported the clinical diagnoses, close cooperation of the oral surgeon and pathologist is essential.

  10. Presumed minor salivary gland secretion in a patient with a history of oral mucous membrane graft.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Kiyotaka; Hayasaka, Seiji; Matsunou, Hisao; Nagaki, Yasunori

    2003-08-01

    To describe presumed minor salivary gland secretion in a patient with a history of oral mucous membrane graft in conjunctival plastic surgery. Interventional case report. A 74-year-old woman who had had an oral mucous membrane graft in the left eye complained of mucous discharge. Slit-lamp examination revealed a yellowish-red mass lesion in the superior bulbar conjunctiva. The lesion was excised. Histopathologic examination of the excised tissue revealed lobules and a duct of minor salivary glands. After removal of the mass, mucous discharge decreased. Minor salivary glands within a mucous membrane graft may cause mucous discharge in the eye.

  11. The successful oral and maxillofacial surgery practice.

    PubMed

    Bell, Colin S

    2008-02-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgery has been and will continue to be one of the premiere health care specialties in the United States. Incomes of oral and maxillofacial surgeons are among the highest of any profession in the country. With efficient scheduling, organized business systems, efficient fee schedules, and appropriate use of consultants, oral and maxillofacial surgery can lead to a lifestyle that is relatively stress free, allows a direct route to financial independence, and provides a great public service.

  12. Fecal incontinence after minor anorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Zbar, A P; Beer-Gabel, M; Chiappa, A C; Aslam, M

    2001-11-01

    case had evidence of sphincteric damage. There are complex significant differences in the postoperative physiology of patients undergoing lateral internal sphincterotomy who become incontinent when compared with those who maintain continence. These physiologic changes are not reflected in detectable morphologic sphincteric differences. It is unknown whether these changes predict for long-term incontinence, and it is suggested that postoperative incontinence after minor anorectal surgery is not necessarily related either to a preexisting sphincter defect or inadvertent intraoperative sphincter injury.

  13. New horizons in anticoagulation: Direct oral anticoagulants and their implications in oral surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ripollés-de Ramón, Jorge; Collado-Yurrita, Luis; Vaello-Checa, Iris; Colmenero-Ruiz, Constantino; Helm, Alexandra; Ciudad-Cabañas, Maria-José; Serrano-Cuenca, Victoriano

    2017-01-01

    Background Thrombotic disorders remain a leading cause of death in the Western World. For decades, vitamin K antagonists used in the prevention of this pathology, such as warfarin or sintrom, were the only oral agents available for long-term anticoagulation, in spite of their disadvantages. Material and Methods An electronic database search was carried out on MedLine and The Cochrane Library Plus, without restrictions on the type of study nor dates, in English and Spanish. Abstracts were reviewed, and complete articles if necessary, considering all articles that included recommendations on DOACs and oral surgery. Results In recent years, the so-called “new oral anticoagulants” have been introduced in clinical practice to treat those patients whose medical conditions require long-term anticoagulant treatment, replacing traditional oral anticoagulants. Conclusions The new oral anticoagulants represent new therapeutic options, with a number of advantages such as poor interaction with food, minor drug interactions, and do not require periodic dose adjustments or routine controls. The purpose of this review is to establish an update on the new oral anticoagulants: Dabigatran, Rivarozaban, Apixaban and Edoxaban. Key words:Novel oral anticoagulants, Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban, Apixaban, Edoxaban, bleeding management, oral surgery, Anti-IIa, Anti Xa. PMID:28809374

  14. Smartphone photography in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Jamil, F

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of staff in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) departments take clinical photographs with their personal phones. We report the results of a survey on the use of smartphone photography in OMFS departments in the United Kingdom, and highlight the guidelines that govern their use and the associated ethical and medicolegal implications. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Obtaining consent to oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Poswillo, D

    1989-09-01

    The question of whether or not a patient has consented to treatment has recently become significant to all who practise oral and maxillofacial surgery. It is often linked to professional negligence when the outcome differs from the patient's perception or expectation of the operation. Consent may be oral or written, applies to referred patients and all those with physical and mental handicap and religious restrictions. Examples of procedure in discussing consent assist the surgeon to inform without creating fear. Knowledge of the benefits of informed consent and current legal opinion assist the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to avoid the pitfalls of failure to inform.

  16. Neuroinflammation and cognitive function in aged mice following minor surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rosczyk, H.A.; Sparkman, N. L.; Johnson, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Following surgery, elderly patients often suffer from postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) which can persist long after physical recovery. It is known that surgery-induced tissue damage activates the peripheral innate immune system resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators. Compared to adults, aged animals demonstrate increased neuroinflammation and microglial priming that leads to an exaggerated proinflammatory cytokine response following activation of the peripheral immune system. Therefore, we sought to determine if the immune response to surgical trauma results in increased neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in aged mice. Adult and aged mice underwent minor abdominal surgery and 24 h later hippocampal cytokines were measured and working memory was assessed in a reversal learning version of the Morris water maze. While adult mice showed no signs of neuroinflammation following surgery, aged mice had significantly increased levels of IL-1β mRNA in the hippocampus. Minor surgery did not result in severe cognitive impairment although aged mice that underwent surgery did tend to perseverate in the old target during reversal testing suggesting reduced cognitive flexibility. Overall these results suggest that minor surgery leads to an exaggerated neuroinflammatory response in aged mice but does not result in significantly impaired performance in the Morris water maze. PMID:18602982

  17. Human Cadaver Material in Preclinical Oral Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, H. Dexter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A University of Michigan dental school curriculum for oral surgery that uses human cadaver heads is described. Selection, preparation, and laboratory use of the materials are outlined. Faculty and students have received the sequence well and found it prepared them for clinical rotation. (MSE)

  18. Algodystrophy (CRPS) in minor orthopedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Corradini, Costantino; Bosizio, Claudia; Moretti, Antimo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Algodystrophy or Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a painful disorder that develops especially at upper or lower extremities of the limbs after a fracture. This syndrome is probably due to bone microvascular changes with subsequent sympathetic nervous system involvement. The pain that characterizes CRPS is spontaneous, disproportionate to the traumatic event and is associated with hyperalgesia, and a variety of autonomic and trophic disorders. This condition has a variable incidence up to 37% of the cases, increasing along with the severity of the fracture. CRPS has a higher chance of developing in women, in older individuals, in smokers, and in patients with reduced bone strength. Early diagnosis is associated with remission in 80–90% of cases. Since the typical onset of the disease is insidious over 2 weeks after surgery, a diagnostic and therapeutic delay may occur. These are the major causes of a high percentage of chronic and disabling complications leading to impaired functional outcomes. In the acute or subacute phase, infusion of bisphosphonates has proven to be the first-choice of treatment with a high percentage of remissions. Moreover, it has been suggested the utility of vitamin C in prevention of CRPS. Furthermore, in the chronic phase electroanalgesia seems to provide promising results. PMID:27134628

  19. Algodystrophy (CRPS) in minor orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Costantino; Bosizio, Claudia; Moretti, Antimo

    2015-01-01

    Algodystrophy or Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a painful disorder that develops especially at upper or lower extremities of the limbs after a fracture. This syndrome is probably due to bone microvascular changes with subsequent sympathetic nervous system involvement. The pain that characterizes CRPS is spontaneous, disproportionate to the traumatic event and is associated with hyperalgesia, and a variety of autonomic and trophic disorders. This condition has a variable incidence up to 37% of the cases, increasing along with the severity of the fracture. CRPS has a higher chance of developing in women, in older individuals, in smokers, and in patients with reduced bone strength. Early diagnosis is associated with remission in 80-90% of cases. Since the typical onset of the disease is insidious over 2 weeks after surgery, a diagnostic and therapeutic delay may occur. These are the major causes of a high percentage of chronic and disabling complications leading to impaired functional outcomes. In the acute or subacute phase, infusion of bisphosphonates has proven to be the first-choice of treatment with a high percentage of remissions. Moreover, it has been suggested the utility of vitamin C in prevention of CRPS. Furthermore, in the chronic phase electroanalgesia seems to provide promising results.

  20. Regenerative nanotechnology in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Shakib, Kaveh; Tan, Aaron; Soskic, Vukic; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-12-01

    Regenerative nanotechnology is at the forefront of medical research, and translational medicine is a challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Although there has been an exponential rise in the volume of research generated about it for both medical and surgical uses, key questions remain about its actual benefits. Nevertheless, some people think that therapeutics based on its principles may form the core of applied research for the future. Here we give an account of its current use in oral and maxillofacial surgery, and implications and challenges for the future. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lasers in oral surgery and implantology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vescovi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    The usefulness of laser for oral hard tissue procedure such as caries treatment, impacted teeth extraction, periodontal therapy, peri-implantitis management, sinus lifting is reported by several Authors [1]. Conventionally, mechanical rotary instruments and hand instruments are employed for bone surgery. Rotary instruments have better accessibility and cutting efficiency, but there is a risk of excessive heating of bone tissue and caution must be exercised to avoid the bur becoming entangled with surrounding soft tissues and the reflected flap. The main clinical advantages of the lasers are represented by minimal patient discomfort, good recovery with decreased or absent post-operative pain. In the last ten years are described in the international literature great advantages of Laser Surgery and Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) performed with different wavelength in addition to traditional surgical techniques to improve bone and soft tissue healing and for pain and infection control.

  2. Intravenous Narcotic Antagonists in Ambulatory Oral Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, William; Granada, Margarito G.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a study indicate that significant respiratory depression can be produced by the intravenous administration of narcotics in the anesthetic management of oral surgery patients. Naloxone hydrochloride reversed this reaction in all instances. Naloxone is a unique narcotic antagonist in that it does not possess agonistic properties of its own, it is effective in reversing respiratory depression resulting from all commonly used narcotics and narcotic antagonists, it causes no undesirable side effects, and it acts as a placebo when administered to a patient who has not had a narcotic. The use of naloxone should be considered when a potent narcotic is administered to an ambulatory patient. PMID:19598479

  3. Do patients fear undergoing general anesthesia for oral surgery?

    PubMed

    Elmore, Jasmine R; Priest, James H; Laskin, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Many patients undergoing major surgery have more fear of the general anesthesia than the procedure. This appears to be reversed with oral surgery. Therefore, patients need to be as well informed about this aspect as the surgical operation.

  4. Ambulatory laparoscopic minor hepatic surgery: Retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, M; Tranchart, H; Lainas, P; Tzanis, D; Franco, D; Dagher, I

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade, laparoscopic hepatic surgery (LHS) has been increasingly performed throughout the world. Meanwhile, ambulatory surgery has been developed and implemented with the aims of improving patient satisfaction and reducing health care costs. The objective of this study was to report our preliminary experience with ambulatory minimally invasive LHS. Between 1999 and 2014, 172 patients underwent LHS at our institution, including 151 liver resections and 21 fenestrations of hepatic cysts. The consecutive series of highly selected patients who underwent ambulatory LHS were included in this study. Twenty patients underwent ambulatory LHS. Indications were liver cysts in 10 cases, liver angioma in 3 cases, focal nodular hyperplasia in 3 cases, and colorectal hepatic metastasis in 4 cases. The median operative time was 92 minutes (range: 50-240 minutes). The median blood loss was 35 mL (range: 20-150 mL). There were no postoperative complications or re-hospitalizations. All patients were hospitalized after surgery in our ambulatory surgery unit, and were discharged 5-7 hours after surgery. The median postoperative pain score at the time of discharge was 3 (visual analogue scale: 0-10; range: 0-4). The median quality-of-life score at the first postoperative visit was 8 (range: 6-10) and the median cosmetic satisfaction score was 8 (range: 7-10). This series shows that, in selected patients, ambulatory LHS is feasible and safe for minor hepatic procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcultural oral health care: 6. The oral health of minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom--a review.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, N; Bedi, R

    2001-01-01

    The 1991 census of England and Wales estimated that the minority ethnic population was almost 2.95 million, or 6% of the total population of the UK. The aim of this paper is broadly to describe the oral health status and trends among minority ethnic groups to enable a clearer formulation of strategies to improve their oral health.

  6. Risk of surgical glove perforation in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Kuroyanagi, N; Nagao, T; Sakuma, H; Miyachi, H; Ochiai, S; Kimura, Y; Fukano, H; Shimozato, K

    2012-08-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgery, which involves several sharp instruments and fixation materials, is consistently at a high risk for cross-contamination due to perforated gloves, but it is unclear how often such perforations occur. This study aimed to address this issue. The frequency of the perforation of surgical gloves (n=1436) in 150 oral and maxillofacial surgeries including orthognathic surgery (n=45) was assessed by the hydroinsufflation technique. Orthognathic surgery had the highest perforation rate in at least 1 glove in 1 operation (91.1%), followed by cleft lip and palate surgery (55.0%), excision of oral soft tumour (54.5%) and dental implantation (50.0%). The perforation rate in scrub nurses was 63.4%, followed by 44.4% in surgeons and first assistants, and 16.3% in second assistants. The odds ratio for the perforation rate in orthognathic surgery versus other surgeries was 16.0 (95% confidence interval: 5.3-48.0). The protection rate offered by double gloving in orthognathic surgery was 95.2%. These results suggest that, regardless of the surgical duration and blood loss in all fields of surgery, orthognathic surgery must be categorized in the highest risk group for glove perforation, following gynaecological and open lung surgery, due to the involvement of sharp objects. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diode laser application in soft tissue oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Azma, Ehsan; Safavi, Nassimeh

    2013-01-01

    Diode laser with wavelengths ranging from 810 to 980 nm in a continuous or pulsed mode was used as a possible instrument for soft tissue surgery in the oral cavity. Diode laser is one of laser systems in which photons are produced by electric current with wavelengths of 810, 940 and 980nm. The application of diode laser in soft tissue oral surgery has been evaluated from a safety point of view, for facial pigmentation and vascular lesions and in oral surgery excision; for example frenectomy, epulis fissuratum and fibroma. The advantages of laser application are that it provides relatively bloodless surgical and post surgical courses with minimal swelling and scarring. We used diode laser for excisional biopsy of pyogenic granuloma and gingival pigmentation. The diode laser can be used as a modality for oral soft tissue surgery.

  8. Diode Laser Application in Soft Tissue Oral Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Azma, Ehsan; Safavi, Nassimeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Diode laser with wavelengths ranging from 810 to 980 nm in a continuous or pulsed mode was used as a possible instrument for soft tissue surgery in the oral cavity. Discussion: Diode laser is one of laser systems in which photons are produced by electric current with wavelengths of 810, 940 and 980nm. The application of diode laser in soft tissue oral surgery has been evaluated from a safety point of view, for facial pigmentation and vascular lesions and in oral surgery excision; for example frenectomy, epulis fissuratum and fibroma. The advantages of laser application are that it provides relatively bloodless surgical and post surgical courses with minimal swelling and scarring. We used diode laser for excisional biopsy of pyogenic granuloma and gingival pigmentation. Conclusion: The diode laser can be used as a modality for oral soft tissue surgery PMID:25606331

  9. [Cataract surgery under topical anesthesia with oral anticoagulants].

    PubMed

    Wirbelauer, C; Weller, A; Häberle, H; Pham, D T

    2004-09-01

    Approximately 14 % of cataract surgery patients receive blood-thinning agents. In a prospective study, the influence of oral anticoagulants on intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhages in patients undergoing cataract surgery in topical anesthesia was investigated. 128 patients presenting for cataract surgery under oral anticoagulation were included. The mean preoperative prothrombin time was 39 +/- 18 %. Most patients (81 %) continued their oral anticoagulation (prothrombin time 34 +/- 13 %). All surgeries were performed in topical anesthesia. In 9 patients (7 %) an ocular hemorrhagic event was observed. These were not sight-threatening and resorbed spontaneously within a few days. Only one patient (0.8 %) had a slight hemorrhage in the anterior chamber. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between patients with or without hemorrhagic complications in the postoperative visual acuity, the intraocular pressure, the prothrombin time or the discontinuation of oral anticoagulants. Cataract surgery in topical anesthesia under oral anticoagulation did not increase the risk of sight-threatening hemorrhages. The continuation of oral anticoagulation seems particularly indicated for ambulatory cataract surgery.

  10. Laser tumor treatment in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukam, F. W.; Stelzle, F.

    Cancer treatment is an integral part of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Oral cancer in particular is a highly prevalent neoplasm. Standard treatment for most of the tumors is radical surgery combined with stage-based neo-/adjuvant therapy. Laser surgery has become a reliable treatment option for oral cancer as well as for precancerous lesions. Widely used lasers in oral and maxillofacial tumor surgery are the CO2 laser, the Er:YAG laser, the Nd:YAG laser and the KTM laser. The use of lasers in tumor surgery has several advantages: remote application, precise cutting, hemostasis, low cicatrization, reduced postoperative pain and swelling, can be combined with endoscopic, microscopic and robotic surgery. However, laser surgery has some major drawbacks: In contrast to conventional incisions with scalpels, the surgeon gets no feedback during laser ablation. There is no depth sensation and no tissue specificity with a laser incision, increasing the risk of iatrogenic damage to nerves and major blood vessels. Future prospects may solve these problems by means of an optical feedback mechanism that provides a tissue-specific laser ablation. First attempts have been made to perform remote optical tissue differentiation. Additionally, real time optical tumor detection during laser surgery would allow for a very precise and straight forward cancer resection, enhancing organ preservation and hence the quality of life for patients with cancer in the head and neck region.

  11. Challenging oral contraception after weight loss by bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Merhi, Zaher O

    2007-01-01

    As surgical weight loss becomes more commonly performed in fertile women, adequate contraception is more frequently becoming an issue. The purpose of this article is to appraise the literature to ascertain whether the use of oral contraception is effective and adequate after bariatric surgery. The literature search revealed that the combination of lower oral contraception dosages and surgical gastrointestinal disturbances might place patients at higher risks of unintended pregnancy. Until clinical trials show its efficacy, physicians should use oral contraception with prudence after bariatric surgery. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. [A survey of oral and maxillofacial surgery in China].

    PubMed

    2011-08-01

    To understand the current status of the discipline and work out the developmental tactics of oral and maxillofacial surgery in China. A questionnaire on the status of oral and maxillofacial surgery was designed and dispatched to the departments of stomatology in general hospitals at the level of prefecture or higher, stomatological hospitals and schools of stomatology. The contents of the questionnaire included the scale, manpower, professional extent, amount of clinical work and professional training of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The current status was compared with the previous status 5 and 10 years ago. In the most institutions which were surveyed, the number of oral and maxillofacial surgeons, beds and out-patients increased, the professional extent enlarged, and the clinical level improved. However, the above-mentioned clinical parameters decreased in some basic level institutions. The number of graduate students and trainees of oral and maxillofacial surgery decreased in one-third of institutions. The discipline of oral and maxillofacial surgery is continuously developing, but it is weakened in some basic level institutions. An effective developmental tactics should be carried on to improve the competition capability of the discipline.

  13. Risk factors for postoperative complications following oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Shigeishi, Hideo; Ohta, Kouji; Takechi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify significant risk factors for postoperative complications in the oral cavity in patients who underwent oral surgery, excluding those with oral cancer. This study reviewed the records of 324 patients who underwent mildly to moderately invasive oral surgery (e.g., impacted tooth extraction, cyst excision, fixation of mandibular and maxillary fractures, osteotomy, resection of a benign tumor, sinus lifting, bone grafting, removal of a sialolith, among others) under general anesthesia or intravenous sedation from 2012 to 2014 at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery, Hiroshima University Hospital. Univariate analysis showed a statistical relationship between postoperative complications (i.e., surgical site infection, anastomotic leak) and diabetes (p=0.033), preoperative serum albumin level (p=0.009), and operation duration (p=0.0093). Furthermore, preoperative serum albumin level (<4.0 g/dL) and operation time (≥120 minutes) were found to be independent factors affecting postoperative complications in multiple logistic regression analysis results (odds ratio 3.82, p=0.0074; odds ratio 2.83, p=0.0086, respectively). Our results indicate that a low level of albumin in serum and prolonged operation duration are important risk factors for postoperative complications occurring in the oral cavity following oral surgery.

  14. Optimal dose of combined rocuronium and cisatracurium during minor surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woo Young; Choi, Jae Chan; Yun, Hey Jeong; Jeon, Yeong Gwan; Park, Gisoon; Choi, Jong Bum

    2018-01-01

    relaxation during minor surgery. PMID:29517695

  15. Oral and cranio-maxillofacial surgery in Byzantium.

    PubMed

    Mylonas, Anastassios I; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Eleftheria-Fotini; Androutsos, Georgios I; Seggas, Ioannis; Skouteris, Christos A; Papadopoulou, Evangelia Chr

    2014-03-01

    Byzantine physicians (4th-7th and 8th-12th centuries A.D.), especially those interested in Surgery, developed a number of interesting concepts, views and opinions referring to the field now recognized as Oral and Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery and Pathology. The original texts of Byzantine physicians, written in ancient Greek, and now preserved in the electronic platform Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, at the University of California, Irvine, CA, USA, were investigated in relation to Oral and Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery and Pathology. The most eminent physicians of the Early (4th-7th century A.D.) and Middle (8th-12th century A.D.) Byzantine Period, in particular Oribasius Pergamenus, Aëtius Amidenus, Alexander Trallianus, Theophilus Protospatharius, Paulus Aegineta, Meletius Monachos, and Leo Medicus, in their works deal with topographic and surgical anatomy of the head and neck, and a large list of related topics, including dentoalveolar surgery, oral and cervicofacial infections, trauma of viscerocranium and neurocranium as well as the biomechanics of traumatic brain injuries, temporomandibular joints dysfunction as a consequence of mandibular dislocation, surgical oncology and reconstructive surgery of the head and neck, oral pathology, surgical pathology of salivary glands, therapeutic management of facial nerve dysfunction, preprosthetic surgery, craniofacial surgery, and deformities of the facial skeleton involving anthropologic and craniometric observations. Clinical examination of patients presenting corresponding functional and esthetic problems is considered, using recognizable orthodontic and orthognathic surgical approaches. Finally, specific bandages of the head and neck are described, for treating traumatic injuries of the viscerocranium and neurocranium, diastasis of the cranial sutures, dislocations of the mandible (unilateral and bilateral), as well as inflammatory diseases of the parotids and the neck. Byzantine physicians had been particularly

  16. Major and Minor Classifications for Surgery in People With Hemophilia: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Solimeno, Luigi Piero; Escobar, Miguel A; Krassova, Snejana; Seremetis, Stephanie

    2018-05-01

    Agents that control bleeding and the usage of bypassing agents have made surgery an option to consider in people with hemophilia. However, the lack of consistent definitions for major or minor surgery may lead to inconsistencies in patient management. This literature review has evaluated how surgical procedures in people with hemophilia were categorized as major or minor surgery and assessed the consistency across publications. After screening 926 potentially relevant articles, 547 were excluded and 379 full-text articles were reviewed. Ninety-five articles categorized major or minor surgical procedures; of these, 35 publications categorized three or more major or minor surgical procedures and were included for analysis. Seven (20%) publications provided varying criteria for defining major or minor surgery, five of which defined surgery according to the level of surgical invasiveness. Across all 35 publications, there was considerable variance in the categorization of major and minor surgical procedures and some overlap in surgical nomenclature (eg, type of synovectomy, arthroscopy, and central venous access device insertion/removals). The lack of consistent guidance when referring to major or minor surgery in people with hemophilia needs to be addressed. Clear and consistent definitions, achieved by consensus and promoted by relevant international hemophilia committees, are desirable, to provide guidance on appropriate treatment, to increase the accuracy of trial data and may confound the interpretation of surgical outcomes.

  17. Oral and maxillofacial surgery: what are the French specificities?

    PubMed

    Herlin, Christian; Goudot, Patrick; Jammet, Patrick; Delaval, Christophe; Yachouh, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgery has expanded rapidly over the past century. Recognition in France has grown since the first face transplantation in the world performed by Professor Bernard Devauchelle. This speciality, which seems to correspond to a narrow scope of services, actually involves oral, plastic, reconstructive, and cosmetic surgeries of the face. French training for maxillofacial surgeons differs from the Anglo-Saxon course of study. After examining surveys carried out in Great Britain, the United States, and Brazil, the perception of this speciality in the general public and among regular correspondents (general practitioners and dental practitioners) was ascertained. More than 4,000 questionnaires were sent to health care workers and patients attending dental practices. The returned questionnaires concerning recognition of this profession in France were analyzed. Evaluating awareness of maxillofacial surgery among practitioners and the public was of particular interest because it can overlap with several other specialities (ear, nose, and throat; plastic surgery; odontology). The questionnaire included the 20 items used in other similar studies so the results could be compared. Several fields of expertise were identified in maxillofacial surgery, in particular traumatology, surgery for facial birth defects, and orthognathic surgery. Moreover, dental practitioners were found to be the most regular correspondents of maxillofacial surgeons compared with general practitioners. Compared with Anglo-Saxon and Brazilian peers, French recognition of maxillofacial surgery was better. Despite encouraging results, maxillofacial surgery remains a somewhat obscure speciality for health care workers and the general public. Better awareness is necessary for this speciality to become the reference in facial surgery. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. African Americans in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: Factors Affecting Career Choice, Satisfaction, and Practice Patterns.

    PubMed

    Criddle, Thalia-Rae; Gordon, Newton C; Blakey, George; Bell, R Bryan

    2017-12-01

    There are few data available on the experience of minority surgeons in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to 1) explore factors that contribute to African Americans choosing OMS as a career, 2) examine satisfaction among minority oral and maxillofacial surgeons with the residency application and training process, 3) report on practice patterns among minority oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and 4) identify perceived bias for or against minority oral and maxillofacial surgeons in an attempt to aid the efforts of OMS residency organizations to foster diversity. A 19-item survey was sent to 80 OMS practitioners by use of information from the mailing list of the National Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, an American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons-affiliated organization. All surveys were sent by mail and were followed by a reminder mailing after 8 weeks. Responses returned within 16 weeks were accepted for analysis. Of the 80 mailed surveys, 41 were returned within the 16-week parameter, representing a return rate of 51%. Most of the minority surgeon respondents were married men with a mean age of 60 years who worked as private practitioners. Most respondents practiced on the eastern and western coasts of the United States. Exposure in dental school was the most important factor in selecting OMS as a specialty. Location and prestige were the most important factors in selecting a residency program. Most respondents reported that race did not affect the success of their application to a residency program and did not currently affect the success of their practice. However, 25 to 46% of participants experienced race-related harassment, and 48 to 55% of participants believed there was a bias against African Americans in OMS. Our data suggest that a substantial number of minority oral and maxillofacial surgeons subjectively perceive race-based bias in their career, although it does not

  19. Singly-qualified medical senior house officer in oral and maxillofacial surgery: perspectives from a unit.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Kohmal; Bhatti, Nabeel; Bridle, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    Despite constituting a minority of senior house officers (SHO) in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS), the number of singly-qualified medical trainees is growing. We describe the experience of a singly qualified medical trainee in OMFS and the unique benefits and opportunities for potential trainees and the department. Overall, the advantages of synergistic training outweigh any deficiencies in knowledge, and in our experience, having both medical and dental trainees in our unit has maximised training opportunities and provided a more holistic approach to patient care. Increased exposure to conditions in the head and neck also benefits trainees who wish to pursue careers in other specialties such as ear, nose, and throat (ENT), neurosurgery, ophthalmology, and plastic surgery. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Ergonomics in oral surgery and dental implantology].

    PubMed

    Badalian, V A; Kulakov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to reveal incidence, location and intensity of musculoskeletal pain in 88 dentists working in various units of Central Research Institute of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery, as well as to identify pain predisposing factors and preventive measures. High rate (95.9 ± 5.03%) of musculoskeletal pain was revealed, mostly located in cervical region. The pain occurred more often in younger dentists. High incidence of musculoskeletal pain proves the necessity for preventive measures including optical magnification devices.

  1. Prior oral conditions in patients undergoing heart valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Raga, Irene; Martinez-Herrera, Mayte; Lauritano, Dorina; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be free of any oral infectious disorders that might pose a risk in the postoperative period. Few studies have been made on the dental conditions of such patients prior to surgery. The present study describes the most frequent prior oral diseases in this population group. Material and Methods A prospective, observational case-control study was designed involving 60 patients (30 with heart valve disease and 30 controls, with a mean age of 71 years in both groups). A dental exploration was carried out, with calculation of the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth) index and recording of the periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival bleeding index, periodontal pocket depth, and attachment loss). The oral mucosa was also examined, and panoramic X-rays were used to identify possible intrabony lesions. Results Significant differences in bacterial plaque index were observed between the two groups (p<0.05), with higher scores in the patients with valve disease. Probing depth and the presence of moderate pockets were also greater in the patients with valve disease than among the controls (p<0.01). Sixty percent of the patients with valve disease presented periodontitis. Conclusions Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be examined for possible active periodontitis before the operation. Those individuals found to have periodontal disease should receive adequate periodontal treatment before heart surgery. Key words:Valve disease, aortic, mitral, heart surgery, periodontitis. PMID:29302279

  2. Prior oral conditions in patients undergoing heart valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Francisco-Javier; Gil-Raga, Irene; Martinez-Herrera, Mayte; Lauritano, Dorina; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2017-11-01

    Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be free of any oral infectious disorders that might pose a risk in the postoperative period. Few studies have been made on the dental conditions of such patients prior to surgery. The present study describes the most frequent prior oral diseases in this population group. A prospective, observational case-control study was designed involving 60 patients (30 with heart valve disease and 30 controls, with a mean age of 71 years in both groups). A dental exploration was carried out, with calculation of the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth) index and recording of the periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival bleeding index, periodontal pocket depth, and attachment loss). The oral mucosa was also examined, and panoramic X-rays were used to identify possible intrabony lesions. Significant differences in bacterial plaque index were observed between the two groups ( p <0.05), with higher scores in the patients with valve disease. Probing depth and the presence of moderate pockets were also greater in the patients with valve disease than among the controls ( p <0.01). Sixty percent of the patients with valve disease presented periodontitis. Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be examined for possible active periodontitis before the operation. Those individuals found to have periodontal disease should receive adequate periodontal treatment before heart surgery. Key words: Valve disease, aortic, mitral, heart surgery, periodontitis.

  3. Racial diversity in American oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Shahid R

    2010-08-01

    Health care disparity in the United States is a significant problem. Part of the solution is to improve the diversity of health care providers. The purpose of this study is to review the racial demographic of American oral and maxillofacial surgery as it compares with the racial demographic of the United States. Additionally, the racial demographic of the American dental and medical professions are reviewed. Databases from the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, American Dental Association, and Association of American Medical Colleges were analyzed, specifically reviewing racial demographic data of academic oral and maxillofacial surgery, dentistry, and medicine. Of the 349 full-time faculty, 248 were white (71.1%), 24 black (6.9%), 18 Hispanic (5.1%), 30 Asian (8.6%), and 29 other/unknown (8.3%); there were no full-time faculty of American Indian or Alaska Native descent. Of the 991 oral and maxillofacial surgery residents, whites comprised 701 (70.7%), blacks 43 (4.3%), Hispanics 42 (4.2%), Asians 197 (19.9%), and unknown 8 (0.8%). There are currently no residents of American Indian/Alaska Native origin. A 2006 American Dental Association survey of the distribution of race among the 179,594 professionally active dentists in the United States revealed 86.2% white, 3.4% black, 3.4% Hispanic, 6.9% Asian, and 0.12% American Indian. In 2004, whites comprised 36.7% (344,821) of US physicians, blacks 3.3% (30,598), Hispanics 2.8% (26,094), and Asians 5.7% (53,799); 27.6% (258,950) of US physicians were listed as unknown, and 23.6% (221,633) were listed as international medical graduates without demographic information. American oral and maxillofacial surgery's racial demographic (just as dentistry and medicine) does not remotely resemble the racial demographic of the United States. To improve health care disparity in this nation, diversifying the health care professional workforce is essential. Oral and maxillofacial surgery, a unique surgical

  4. Risk of Hemorrhage Attributed to Underlying Chronic Diseases and Uninterrupted Aspirin Therapy of Patients Undergoing Minor Oral Surgical Procedures: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rojanaworarit, Chanapong; Limsawan, Soontaree

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the risk of bleeding following minor oral surgical procedures and uninterrupted aspirin therapy in high-risk patients or patients with existing chronic diseases compared to patients who did not use aspirin during minor oral surgery at a public hospital. This retrospective cohort study analyzed the data of 2912 patients, aged 20 years or older, who underwent 5251 minor oral surgical procedures at a district hospital in Thailand. The aspirin group was comprised of patients continuing aspirin therapy during oral surgery. The non-aspirin group (reference) included all those who did not use aspirin during surgery. Immediate and late-onset bleeding was evaluated in each procedure. The risk ratio of bleeding was estimated using a multilevel Poisson regression. The overall cumulative incidence of immediate bleeding was 1.3% of total procedures. No late-onset bleeding was found. A significantly greater incidence of bleeding was found in the aspirin group (5.8% of procedures, p<0.001). After adjusting for covariates, a multilevel Poisson regression model estimated that the bleeding risk in the aspirin group was 4.5 times higher than that of the non-aspirin group (95% confidence interval, 2.0 to 10.0; p<0.001). However, all bleeding events were controlled by simple hemostatic measures. High-risk patients or patients with existing chronic diseases who continued aspirin therapy following minor oral surgery were at a higher risk of hemorrhage than general patients who had not used aspirin. Nonetheless, bleeding complications were not life-threatening and could be promptly managed by simple hemostatic measures. The procedures could therefore be provided with an awareness of increased bleeding risk, prepared hemostatic measures, and postoperative monitoring, without the need for discontinuing aspirin, which could lead to more serious complications.

  5. Pioneering efforts for minority appointments and academic surgery. A narrative.

    PubMed

    Southwick, W O

    1999-05-01

    The author gives a narrative chronologic explanation for the early inclusion of African Americans and other minorities into the Yale University Orthopaedic Surgical Residency Training Program. The author's early isolation from racial problems living in rural Nebraska and the paucity of racial friction at the University of Nebraska gave him a more neutral or positive view of other cultures. Sudden exposure to the racial tension and police brutality toward African Americans in Boston followed by the well defined racial bias in the Southern city of Baltimore showed the plight of minorities. At that same time the author encountered many gentle and extremely intelligent African Americans who performed outstanding medical tasks for the Johns Hopkins Hospital hospital with little educational background. The author's experience with Shirley Moore and Augustus White at Yale made it possible to recruit a diverse group of gifted and loyal resident staff. The high number of academic appointments in minority and majority residents has evolved from the Academic Training and Research Program and a special selection process for choosing residents.

  6. Perception of oral maxillofacial surgery by health-care professionals.

    PubMed

    Rocha, N S; Laureano Filho, J R; Silva, E D O; Almeida, R C A

    2008-01-01

    Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS), a dentistry specialty recognized by the Federal Dentistry Board in the mid-1960s, is responsible for the diagnosis, and clinical and surgical treatment of traumatic, congenital, developmental and iatrogenic lesions in the maxillofacial complex. Even today, difficulties are experienced owing to the lack of knowledge of the general public and health professionals concerning the scope of OMFS. To investigate recognition of the scope of OMFS, 400 questionnaires were sent to dentistry students, medical students, dentists and doctors, in 4 equal groups. The questionnaire covered 26 clinical situations in four different specialties (OMFS, Plastic Surgery, Ear Nose and Throat Surgery, Head and Neck Surgery) and an option with no specialty specified. Each interviewee had to correlate the clinical situation with the respective specialist. For facial trauma, dento-facial deformities, mandibular reconstruction and temporomandibular joint surgery, most respondents would consult the OMF surgeon for treatment (mean, 90%). In cases of oral biopsy and treatment of benign mandibular tumours the mean referral rate to OMFS was low (48%). On the basis of the questionnaire responses, a good level of knowledge of the scope of OMFS was found. In order to ensure the correct referral of all patients, the specialty needs to broaden its horizons.

  7. The Australian litigation landscape - oral and maxillofacial surgery and general dentistry (oral surgery procedures): an analysis of litigation cases.

    PubMed

    Badenoch-Jones, E K; White, B P; Lynham, A J

    2016-09-01

    There are persistent concerns about litigation in the dental and medical professions. These concerns arise in a setting where general dentists are more frequently undertaking a wider range of oral surgery procedures, potentially increasing legal risk. Judicial cases dealing with medical negligence in the fields of general dentistry (oral surgery procedure) and oral and maxillofacial surgery were located using the three main legal databases. Relevant cases were analysed to determine the procedures involved, the patients' claims of injury, findings of negligence and damages awarded. A thematic analysis of the cases was undertaken to determine trends. Fifteen cases over a 20-year period were located across almost all Australian jurisdictions (eight cases involved general dentists; seven cases involved oral and maxillofacial surgeons). Eleven of the 15 cases involved determinations of whether or not the practitioner had failed in their duty of care; negligence was found in six cases. Eleven of the 15 cases related to molar extractions (eight specifically to third molar). Dental and medical practitioners wanting to manage legal risk should have regard to circumstances arising in judicial cases. Adequate warning of risks is critical, as is offering referral in appropriate cases. Preoperative radiographs, good medical records and processes to ensure appropriate follow-up are also important. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  8. The path of least resistance in oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Fee, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an imminent threat to worldwide public health. Dental professionals must demonstrate judicious use of antibiotics and educate their patients about the risks associated with their overuse. PURPOSE OF THE PAPER: To encourage the dental profession to prescribe responsibly in order to optimise the use of antibiotics in oral surgery. Antibiotic stewardship programmes are recommended to help reduce the emergence of infections that are multidrug-resistant. Clinical practice audits are encouraged to help dentists ensure conservative prescribing patterns. The dental profession has a duty of care to prescribe antibiotics in adherence with current best practice oral surgery guidelines. The dental profession must show leadership in slowing antibiotic resistance by pledgina to safeguard their appropriate use.

  9. Laser for bone healing after oral surgery: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Noba, Claudio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Gimenez, Thais; Tedesco, Tamara Kerber; Moura-Netto, Cacio

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a systematic review on the use of lasers in oral surgery for bone healing. Selection of articles was carried out by two evaluators in Pubmed and Web of Science databases for published articles and OpenGray for gray literature. Search strategy was developed based on the PICO Question "Does the use of lasers after oral surgery improve bone healing?". Eligibility criteria were: being on laser; evaluate bone healing; involve oral surgery; do not be about implant, periodontics, orthodontics, osteonecrosis or radiotherapy, nor revisions, clinical cases, etc. Data were collected from each article in a structured spreadsheet and a descriptive analysis was performed. Risk assessment of bias of the articles was carried out through the tool elaborated by the Cochrane collaboration. A total of 827 potentially relevant references were identified. No articles were found in OpenGray. Eleven articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. Most of studies were in vivo and in jaw, being conducted with low-power lasers which were applied immediately after the surgical procedure of extraction. Neoformation and bone density were the outcomes of choice and there was a tendency of increase in bone density, neoformation, regeneration, mineralization, or bone condensation when laser was applied. Regarding the bias risk assessment, studies were not clear in reporting most of the parameters. Low-power laser therapy seems to reduce time of bone healing in oral surgery, although there are no defined protocols and the level of evidence is still considered weak.

  10. Subsequent publication of oral and maxillofacial surgery meeting abstracts.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Joseph L; Laskin, Daniel M

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies in various medical specialties have shown that fewer than 50% of abstracts presented at meetings are subsequently published. The purpose of the present study was to determine the publication rate of abstracts presented at the annual meetings of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. The titles and authors of the abstracts from all oral abstract session presentations and posters by American contributors were collected from the Final Programs of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons annual meetings for 2006 to 2009. A PubMed search for published articles through December 2010 was then performed using the authors' names, abstract titles, and key words. A total of 311 abstract presentations were done at the 4 annual meetings. Of these, only 85 (24%) were subsequently published. No difference was found between abstracts from oral or poster presentations. Most of the articles were published in the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Because of deficiencies that can occur in abstracts and the need to disseminate the information they contain, it is important to take the appropriate measures to ensure that full articles are subsequently published. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Audit of accuracy of clinical coding in oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Naran, S; Hudovsky, A; Antscherl, J; Howells, S; Nouraei, S A R

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to study the accuracy of clinical coding within oral surgery and to identify ways in which it can be improved. We undertook did a multidisciplinary audit of a sample of 646 day case patients who had had oral surgery procedures between 2011 and 2012. We compared the codes given with their case notes and amended any discrepancies. The accuracy of coding was assessed for primary and secondary diagnoses and procedures, and for health resource groupings (HRGs). The financial impact of coding Subjectivity, Variability and Error (SVE) was assessed by reference to national tariffs. The audit resulted in 122 (19%) changes to primary diagnoses. The codes for primary procedures changed in 224 (35%) cases; 310 (48%) morbidities and complications had been missed, and 266 (41%) secondary procedures had been missed or were incorrect. This led to at least one change of coding in 496 (77%) patients, and to the HRG changes in 348 (54%) patients. The financial impact of this was £114 in lost revenue per patient. There is a high incidence of coding errors in oral surgery because of the large number of day cases, a lack of awareness by clinicians of coding issues, and because clinical coders are not always familiar with the large number of highly specialised abbreviations used. Accuracy of coding can be improved through the use of a well-designed proforma, and standards can be maintained by the use of an ongoing data quality assurance programme. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Micropunctures of rubber gloves used in oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Skaug, N

    1976-10-01

    In 720 operations in ambulatory oral surgery, the 2,880 surgical rubber gloves used were tested at the end of operation for perforations not earlier detected (microperforations). Gloves of ordinary thickness (type A) and of a thicker quality (type B) were examined. Perforations were found in 1495% and 22.0% of type A gloves and in 3.2% and 2.0% of type B gloves when oral surgeons and dental students, respectively, were operators. Gloves worn by operation assistants showed a lower incidence of perforation. Before operation, 50 gloves of type A were punctured at the tip of right index finger by a sterile dental probe. Results of bacteriologic examinations of the right index and middle fingers strongly indicated that a high number of bacteria passed through pinholes in the gloves. The intact surgical glove represents an impermeable barrier, protecting not only the operation wound against skin bacteria from the hands of the oral surgeon, but also the oral surgeon against pathogenic microorganisms, in particular hepatitis virus type B, escaping from the oral cavity of the patient.

  13. The Resident-Run Minor Surgery Clinic: A Pilot Study to Safely Increase Operative Autonomy.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Brandon M; Fong, Zhi Ven; Patel, Madhukar S; Chang, David C; Petrusa, Emil; Mullen, John T; Phitayakorn, Roy

    General surgery training has evolved to align with changes in work hour restrictions, supervision regulations, and reimbursement practices. This has culminated in a lack of operative autonomy, leaving residents feeling inadequately prepared to perform surgery independently when beginning fellowship or practice. A resident-run minor surgery clinic increases junior resident autonomy, but its effects on patient outcomes have not been formally established. This pilot study evaluated the safety of implementing a resident-run minor surgery clinic within a university-based general surgery training program. Single institution case-control pilot study of a resident-run minor surgery clinic from 9/2014 to 6/2015. Rotating third-year residents staffed the clinic once weekly. Residents performed operations independently in their own procedure room. A supervising attending surgeon staffed each case prior to residents performing the procedure and viewed the surgical site before wound closure. Postprocedure patient complications and admissions to the hospital because of a complication were analyzed and compared with an attending control cohort. Massachusetts General Hospital General in Boston, MA; an academic tertiary care general surgery residency program. Ten third-year general surgery residents. Overall, 341 patients underwent a total of 399 procedures (110 in the resident clinic vs. 289 in the attending clinic). Minor surgeries included soft tissue mass excision (n = 275), abscess incision and drainage (n = 66), skin lesion excision (n = 37), skin tag removal (n = 15), and lymph node excision (n = 6). There was no significant difference in the overall rate of patients developing a postprocedure complication within 30 days (3.6% resident vs. 2.8% attending; p = 0.65); which persisted on multivariate analysis. Similar findings were observed for the rate of hospital admission resulting from a complication. Resident evaluations overwhelmingly supported the rotation, citing

  14. Application of Additive Manufacturing in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Farré-Guasch, Elisabet; Wolff, Jan; Helder, Marco N; Schulten, Engelbert A J M; Forouzanfar, Tim; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2015-12-01

    Additive manufacturing is the process of joining materials to create objects from digital 3-dimensional (3D) model data, which is a promising technology in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The management of lost craniofacial tissues owing to congenital abnormalities, trauma, or cancer treatment poses a challenge to oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Many strategies have been proposed for the management of such defects, but autogenous bone grafts remain the gold standard for reconstructive bone surgery. Nevertheless, cell-based treatments using adipose stem cells combined with osteoconductive biomaterials or scaffolds have become a promising alternative to autogenous bone grafts. Such treatment protocols often require customized 3D scaffolds that fulfill functional and esthetic requirements, provide adequate blood supply, and meet the load-bearing requirements of the head. Currently, such customized 3D scaffolds are being manufactured using additive manufacturing technology. In this review, 2 of the current and emerging modalities for reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial bone defects are highlighted and discussed, namely human maxillary sinus floor elevation as a valid model to test bone tissue-engineering approaches enabling the application of 1-step surgical procedures and seeding of Good Manufacturing Practice-level adipose stem cells on computer-aided manufactured scaffolds to reconstruct large bone defects in a 2-step surgical procedure, in which cells are expanded ex vivo and seeded on resorbable scaffolds before implantation. Furthermore, imaging-guided tissue-engineering technologies to predetermine the surgical location and to facilitate the manufacturing of custom-made implants that meet the specific patient's demands are discussed. The potential of tissue-engineered constructs designed for the repair of large oral and maxillofacial bone defects in load-bearing situations in a 1-step surgical procedure combining these 2 innovative approaches is

  15. Can a Strategic Pipeline Initiative Increase the Number of Women and Underrepresented Minorities in Orthopaedic Surgery?

    PubMed

    Mason, Bonnie S; Ross, William; Ortega, Gezzer; Chambers, Monique C; Parks, Michael L

    2016-09-01

    Women and minorities remain underrepresented in orthopaedic surgery. In an attempt to increase the diversity of those entering the physician workforce, Nth Dimensions implemented a targeted pipeline curriculum that includes the Orthopaedic Summer Internship Program. The program exposes medical students to the specialty of orthopaedic surgery and equips students to be competitive applicants to orthopaedic surgery residency programs. The effect of this program on women and underrepresented minority applicants to orthopaedic residencies is highlighted in this article. (1) For women we asked: is completing the Orthopaedic Summer Internship Program associated with higher odds of applying to orthopaedic surgery residency? (2) For underrepresented minorities, is completing the Orthopaedic Summer Internship Program associated with higher odds of applying to orthopaedic residency? Between 2005 and 2012, 118 students completed the Nth Dimensions/American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Orthopaedic Summer Internship Program. The summer internship consisted of an 8-week clinical and research program between the first and second years of medical school and included a series of musculoskeletal lectures, hands-on, practical workshops, presentation of a completed research project, ongoing mentoring, professional development, and counselling through each participant's subsequent years of medical school. In correlation with available national application data, residency application data were obtained for those Orthopaedic Summer Internship Program participants who applied to the match between 2011 through 2014. For these 4 cohort years, we evaluated whether this program was associated with increased odds of applying to orthopaedic surgery residency compared with national controls. For the same four cohorts, we evaluated whether underrepresented minority students who completed the program had increased odds of applying to an orthopaedic surgery residency compared with national

  16. Mandibular Reconstruction with Lateral Tibial Bone Graft: An Excellent Option for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Ana Lucia Carpi; Pereira, Livia Costa; Torres, Thiago da Silva; Calasans-Maia, Mônica Diuana; Louro, Rafael Seabra

    2017-12-01

    Autogenous bone grafts are the gold standard for reconstruction of atrophic jaws, pseudoarthroses, alveolar clefts, orthognathic surgery, mandibular discontinuity, and augmentation of sinus maxillary. Bone graft can be harvested from iliac bone, calvarium, tibial bone, rib, and intraoral bone. Proximal tibia is a common donor site with few reported problems compared with other sites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of proximal tibia as a donor area for maxillofacial reconstructions, focusing on quantifying the volume of cancellous graft harvested by a lateral approach and to assess the complications of this technique. In a retrospective study, we collected data from 31 patients, 18 women and 13 men (mean age: 36 years, range: 19-64), who were referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Servidores do Estado Federal Hospital. Patients were treated for sequelae of orthognathic surgery, jaw fracture, nonunion, malunion, pathology, and augmentation of bone volume to oral implant. The technique of choice was lateral access of proximal tibia metaphysis for graft removal from Gerdy tubercle under general anesthesia. The mean volume of bone harvested was 13.0 ± 3.7 mL (ranged: 8-23 mL). Only five patients (16%) had minor complications, which included superficial infection, pain, suture dehiscence, and unwanted scar. However, none of these complications decreases the result and resolved completely. We conclude that proximal tibia metaphysis for harvesting cancellous bone graft provides sufficient volume for procedures in oral and maxillofacial surgery with minimal postoperative morbidity.

  17. Effects of a minor surgery on health related quality of life in children from different perspectives

    PubMed

    Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Parejo-Cabezas, Inés M; Gusi, Narcís; Olivares, Pedro R

    2018-01-01

    To compare the health related quality of life (HRQoL) perceptions in parents and physician regarding the patient undergoing ambulatory surgery, and to analyse the evolution of HRQoL before and after the ambulatory surgery. 36 patients underwent ambulatory surgical interventions taken part in this study. The questionnaires EQ-5D-Y were administered to the patients and questionnaires EQ-5D-Y proxy to parents and physicians. Variable TTO was used. Statistical differences were found at baseline between answers of patients and physicians (p < 0.05). However, after surgery, answers of patients and proxies were similar. Paediatric patients undergone to a minor surgery improve HRQoL after the operation and this improvement goes on a month after the surgery. Copyright: © 2018 SecretarÍa de Salud

  18. 450 nm diode laser: A new help in oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Fornaini, Carlo; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Merigo, Elisabetta

    2016-09-16

    To describe the performance of 450 nm diode laser in oral surgery procedures. The case described consisted of the removal of a lower lip fibroma through a blue diode laser (λ = 450 nm). The efficacy of this device, even at very low power (1W, CW), allows us to obtain very high intra and postoperative comfort for the patient, even with just topical anaesthesia and without needing suture. The healing process was completed in one week and, during the follow-up, the patient did not report any problems, pain or discomfort even without the consumption of any kind of drugs, such as painkillers and antibiotics. The histological examination performed by the pathologist showed a large area of fibrous connective tissue with some portions of epithelium-connective detachments and a regular incision with very scanty areas of carbonization. The 450 nm diode laser proved of being very efficient in the oral soft tissue surgical procedures, with no side effects for the patients.

  19. Bispectral analysis during deep sedation of pediatric oral surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Overly, Frank L; Wright, Robert O; Connor, Francis A; Jay, Gregory D; Linakis, James G

    2005-02-01

    Bispectral (BIS) analysis uses electroencephalogram information from a forehead electrode to calculate an index score (0 to 100; 0 = coma; 90 to 100 = awake). This index score correlates with the level of alertness in anesthetized patients. Classically, sedation has been monitored with clinical sedation scales such as the Observers Assessment of Alertness Sedation Scale (OAA/S), Modified Ramsey Scale, or a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Our objective was to determine the correlation between clinical sedation scales and BIS index in pediatric patients undergoing sedation in an outpatient oral surgery setting. Prospective cohort study of patients aged 2 to 17 years undergoing sedation in an outpatient oral surgery office. Sedation was performed in the customary manner with the addition of BIS monitoring. Three clinical sedation scores (OAA/S: 5 to 1; 5 = awake, 1 = unresponsive; Modified Ramsey: 1 to 6; 1-2 = awake, 6 = unresponsive; VAS: 0 to 10; 0 = awake, 10 = unresponsive) were assigned every 5 minutes by an investigator blinded to the BIS index. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures linear regression model. Sixteen subjects undergoing oral surgery, ages 4.5 years to 17 years, were enrolled, mean age 12.6 years +/- 4.3 years (standard deviation). Patients received methohexital in addition to 1 or more of the following: nitrous oxide, fentanyl, or midazolam. The results of the longitudinal regression analysis showed a highly significant association between the sedation scales and the BIS index. The BIS monitor may be a useful adjunct in monitoring pediatric patients receiving sedation in the outpatient setting.

  20. Integrating Oral and General Health Screening at Senior Centers for Minority Elders

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bin; Northridge, Mary E.; Kunzel, Carol; Huang, Catherine; Lamster, Ira B.

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities regarding untreated oral disease exist for older adults, and poor oral health diminishes quality of life. The ElderSmile program integrated screening for diabetes and hypertension into its community-based oral health activities at senior centers in northern Manhattan. The program found a willingness among minority seniors (aged ≥ 50 years) to be screened for primary care sensitive conditions by dental professionals and a high level of unrecognized disease (7.8% and 24.6% of ElderSmile participants had positive screening results for previously undiagnosed diabetes and hypertension, respectively). Dental professionals may screen for primary care–sensitive conditions and refer patients to health care providers for definitive diagnosis and treatment. The ElderSmile program is a replicable model for community-based oral and general health screening. PMID:23597378

  1. Use of 0.5% bupivacaine with buprenorphine in minor oral surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Varun; Kaur, Tejinder; Kapila, Sarika; Bhullar, Ramandeep Singh; Dhawan, Amit; Kaur, Yashmeet

    2017-01-01

    Minor oral surgical procedures are the most commonly performed procedures by oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Performance of painless surgical procedure is highly appreciated by the patients and is possible through the use of local anesthesia, conscious sedation or general anesthesia. Postoperative pain can also be controlled by the use of opioids, as opioid receptors exist in the peripheral nervous system and offers the possibility of providing postoperative analgesia in the surgical patient. The present study compares the efficacy of 0.5% bupivacaine versus 0.5% bupivacaine with 0.3 mg buprenorphine in minor oral surgical procedures. The present study was conducted in 50 patients who required minor oral surgical procedures under local anesthesia. Two types of local anesthetic solutions were used- 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200000 epinephrine in group I and a mixture of 39 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine with epinephrine 1:200000 and 1 ml of 300 μg buprenorphine (3 μg/kg)in group II. Intraoperative and postoperative evaluation was carried out for both the anesthetic solutions. The mean duration of postoperative analgesia in bupivacaine group (508.92 ± 63.30 minutes) was quite less than the buprenorphine combination group (1840.84 ± 819.51 minutes). The mean dose of postoperative analgesic medication in bupivacaine group (1.64 ± 0.99 tablets) was higher than buprenorphine combination group (0.80 ± 1.08 tablets). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the onset of action of the anesthetic effect and duration of anesthesia. Buprenorphine can be used in combination with bupivacaine for patients undergoing minor oral surgical procedures to provide postoperative analgesia for a longer duration.

  2. Oral and maxillofacial surgery with computer-assisted navigation system.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Homare; Kawachi, Yasuyuki; Ikeda, Chihaya; Takagi, Ryo; Katakura, Akira; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2010-01-01

    Intraoperative computer-assisted navigation has gained acceptance in maxillofacial surgery with applications in an increasing number of indications. We adapted a commercially available wireless passive marker system which allows calibration and tracking of virtually every instrument in maxillofacial surgery. Virtual computer-generated anatomical structures are displayed intraoperatively in a semi-immersive head-up display. Continuous observation of the operating field facilitated by computer assistance enables surgical navigation in accordance with the physician's preoperative plans. This case report documents the potential for augmented visualization concepts in surgical resection of tumors in the oral and maxillofacial region. We report a case of T3N2bM0 carcinoma of the maxillary gingival which was surgically resected with the assistance of the Stryker Navigation Cart System. This system was found to be useful in assisting preoperative planning and intraoperative monitoring.

  3. Bioactive-glass in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Profeta, Andrea Corrado; Huppa, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The use of synthetic materials to repair craniofacial defects is increasing today and will increase further in the future. Because of the complexity of the anatomy in the head and neck region, reconstruction and augmentation of this area pose a challenge to the surgeon. This review discusses key facts and applications of traditional reconstruction bone substitutes, also offering comparative information. It then describes the properties and clinical applications of bioactive-glass (B-G) and its variants in oral and maxillofacial surgery, and provides clinical findings. The discussion of each compound includes a description of its composition and structure, the advantages and shortcomings of the material, and its current uses in the field of osteoplastic and reconstructive surgery. With a better understanding of the available alloplastic implants, the surgeon can make a more informed decision as to which implant would be most suitable in a particular patient. PMID:26889342

  4. [Orthodontic and oral surgery therapy in cleidocranial dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Balaton, Gergely; Tarján, Ildikó; Balaton, Péter; Barabási, Zoltán; Gyulai Gál, Szabolcs; Nagy, Katalin; Vajó, Zoltán

    2007-02-01

    A cleidocranial dysplasia is an autosomal dominant inherited condition consisting of generalized skeletal disorder. Associated dental signs are present in 93,5%; failure of tooth eruption with multiple supernumerary teeth, dilaceration of roots, crown germination, microdontia, high arched palate, midface hypoplasia, high gonion angle. The molecular- genetic analysis revealed a missense mutation in the CBFA1 gene located on chromosome 6p21, which is considered to be etiological factor for CCD. Orthodontic and oral surgery therapy of a 13 year-old child with CCD was performed due to aesthetic and functional problems. The supernumerary germs were removed and the teeth were aligned with orthodontic appliances. Temporary functional rehabilitation was solved with partial denture. The presented case and the literature data support the importance of early diagnosis of CCD. The good collaboration of the orthodontic and maxillo-facial surgery specialists help achieve the correct rehabilitation of the patient.

  5. The Use of Telemedicine in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eric W; Strauss, Robert A; Janus, Charles; Carrico, Caroline K

    2016-04-01

    To determine the perceived utility and demand for the application of telemedicine for improved patient care between nonsurgical dental practitioners (GPs) and oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMS). Two distinct questionnaires were made, one for GPs and one for OMSs. The GP questionnaire was sent to practicing Virginia Dental Association members on an e-mail list (approximately 2,200). The OMS questionnaire was sent by the Virginia Society of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery to members on an e-mail list (approximately 213). Questionnaires included questions about access to care, benefits of telemedicine consultations, reliability of telemedicine consultations, and perceived barriers against and opportunities for the implementation of telemedicine. The questionnaire was completed by 226 GP and 41 OMS respondents. There was a significant difference among responses of GPs based on practice location: rural patients had a longer average time from referral to OMS consultation (P = .003), rural patients traveled longer distances (P < .0001), rural practitioners referred more patients (P = .0038), and rural GPs referred more single-tooth implant cases (P = .0039). GP respondents moderately agreed to statements about the benefits of telemedicine, whereas OMS respondents were more neutral. GPs responded they would refer more patients (4.4) if consultations could be performed by telemedicine. OMSs agreed that more referrals would influence their decision to provide telemedicine consultations (51%). Practitioners had neutral perceptions about the reliability of telemedicine. OMS respondents agreed they would implement telemedicine in their practice if it provided equally good consultations as in-office visits. According to the present findings, telemedicine could be an important step in the right direction for overcoming current issues with patient access to care and increasing health care costs. The benefits of telemedicine technology have been documented and will continue to be

  6. Primary Surgery vs Radiotherapy for Early Stage Oral Cavity Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Mark A; Graboyes, Evan M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Neskey, David M; Kaczmar, John M; Schopper, Heather K; Sharma, Anand K; Morgan, Patrick F; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A

    2018-04-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to determine the effect of primary surgery vs radiotherapy (RT) on overall survival (OS) in patients with early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). In addition, this study attempts to identify factors associated with receiving primary RT. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National Cancer Database (NCDB, 2004-2013). Subjects and Methods Reviewing the NCDB from 2004 to 2013, patients with early stage I to II OCSCC were identified. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival, Cox regression analysis, and propensity score matching were used to examine differences in OS between primary surgery and primary RT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with primary RT. Results Of the 20,779 patients included in the study, 95.4% (19,823 patients) underwent primary surgery and 4.6% (956 patients) underwent primary RT. After adjusting for covariates, primary RT was associated with an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.97; 99% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-2.22). On multivariable analysis, factors associated with primary RT included age ≥70 years, black race, Medicaid or Medicare insurance, no insurance, oral cavity subsite other than tongue, clinical stage II disease, low-volume treatment facilities, and earlier treatment year. Conclusion Primary RT for early stage OCSCC is associated with increased mortality. Approximately 5% of patients receive primary RT; however, this percentage is decreasing. Patients at highest risk for receiving primary RT include those who are elderly, black, with public insurance, and treated at low-volume facilities.

  7. Minor laparoscopic liver resection as day-case surgery (without overnight hospitalisation): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rebibo, Lionel; Leourier, Pauline; Badaoui, Rachid; Le Roux, Fabien; Lorne, Emmanuel; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2018-06-25

    Day-case surgery (DCS) has become increasingly popular over recent years, as has laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) for the treatment of benign or malignant liver tumours. The purpose of this prospective study was to demonstrate the feasibility of minor LLR as DCS. Prospective, intention-to-treat, non-randomised study of patients undergoing minor LLR between July 2015 and December 2017. Exclusion criteria were resection by laparotomy, major LLR, difficult locations for minor LLR, history of major abdominal surgery, hepatobiliary procedures without liver parenchyma resection, cirrhosis with Child > A and/or portal hypertension, significant medical history and exclusion criteria for DCS. The primary endpoint was the unplanned overnight admission rate. Secondary endpoints were the reason for exclusion, complication data, criteria for DCS evaluation, satisfaction and compliance with the protocol. One hundred sixty-seven patients underwent liver resection during the study period. LLR was performed in 92 patients (55%), as DCS in 23 patients (25%). Reasons for minor LLR were liver metastasis (n = 9), hepatic adenoma (n = 5), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 4), ciliated hepatic foregut cyst (n = 2) and other benign tumours (n = 3). All day-case minor LLR, except two patients, consisted of single wedge resection, while one patient underwent left lateral sectionectomy. There were four unplanned overnight admissions (17.4%), one unscheduled consultation (4.3%), two hospital readmissions (8.6%) and no major complications/mortality. Compliance with the protocol was 69.5%. Satisfaction rate was 91%. In selected patients, day-case minor LLR is feasible with acceptable complication and readmission rates. Day-case minor LLR can therefore be legitimately proposed in selected patients.

  8. Medicare's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program in Surgery May Disproportionately Affect Minority-serving Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Shih, Terry; Ryan, Andrew M; Gonzalez, Andrew A; Dimick, Justin B

    2015-06-01

    To project readmission penalties for hospitals performing cardiac surgery and examine how these penalties will affect minority-serving hospitals. The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program will potentially expand penalties for higher-than-predicted readmission rates to cardiac procedures in the near future. The impact of these penalties on minority-serving hospitals is unknown. We examined national Medicare beneficiaries undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in 2008 to 2010 (N = 255,250 patients, 1186 hospitals). Using hierarchical logistic regression, we calculated hospital observed-to-expected readmission ratios. Hospital penalties were projected according to the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program formula using only coronary artery bypass grafting readmissions with a 3% maximum penalty of total Medicare revenue. Hospitals were classified into quintiles according to proportion of black patients treated. Minority-serving hospitals were defined as hospitals in the top quintile whereas non-minority-serving hospitals were those in the bottom quintile. Projected readmission penalties were compared across quintiles. Forty-seven percent of hospitals (559 of 1186) were projected to be assessed a penalty. Twenty-eight percent of hospitals (330 of 1186) would be penalized less than 1% of total Medicare revenue whereas 5% of hospitals (55 of 1186) would receive the maximum 3% penalty. Minority-serving hospitals were almost twice as likely to be penalized than non-minority-serving hospitals (61% vs 32%) and were projected almost triple the reductions in reimbursement ($112 million vs $41 million). Minority-serving hospitals would disproportionately bear the burden of readmission penalties if expanded to include cardiac surgery. Given these hospitals' narrow profit margins, readmission penalties may have a profound impact on these hospitals' ability to care for disadvantaged patients.

  9. Oral and maxillofacial surgery - a case of mistaken identity?

    PubMed

    van Gijn, D R

    2011-01-08

    There are international grumbles from those perturbed by an impending identity crisis within oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). This unrest is further compounded by scattered suggestions that a name change may prove beneficial in raising the profile of OMFS. The purpose of this paper is to consider novel methods of increasing awareness of the specialty amongst the public, primary and secondary care colleagues by collecting a consensus of thoughts and opinions regarding the specialty's identity and the appropriate and holistic nomenclature of OMFS. Approximately 300 eight-point questionnaires were distributed internationally with a response rate, via both email and post, of approximately 25% (72). Thirty-two percent of respondents considered there to be an identity crisis within OMFS although just 18% felt that a specialty name change would be beneficial. The results suggest that the problem with identity relates more to incapacity to convey the message of OMFS rather than nomenclature.

  10. Curriculum Planning for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Assistant Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mary Ann

    This project was conducted to develop a curriculum for dental auxiliary training in the dental specialty field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Research was conducted to identify the major functions performed by an oral surgery assistant and then to organize these functions into an educational program that would provide adequate didactic and…

  11. Paediatric minor oral surgical procedures under inhalation sedation and general anaesthetic: a comparison of variety and duration of treatment.

    PubMed

    Foley, J

    2008-03-01

    To develop baseline data in relation to paediatric minor oral surgical procedures undertaken with both general anaesthesia and nitrous oxide inhalation sedation within a Hospital Dental Service. Data were collected prospectively over a three-year period from May 2003 to June 2006 for patients attending the Departments of Paediatric Dentistry, Dundee Dental Hospital and Ninewells Hospital, NHS Tayside, Great Britain, for all surgical procedures undertaken with either inhalation sedation or general anaesthetic. Both operator status and the procedure being undertaken were noted. In addition, the operating time was recorded. Data for 166 patients (F: 102; M: 64) with a median age of 12.50 (inter-quartile range 10.00, 14.20) years showed that 195 surgical procedures were undertaken. Of these 160 and 35 were with general anaesthetic and sedation respectively. The surgical removal of impacted, carious and supernumerary unit(s) accounted for 53.8% of all procedures, whilst the exposure of impacted teeth and soft tissue surgery represented 34.9% and 11.3% of procedures respectively. The median surgical time for techniques undertaken with sedation was 30.00 (inter-quartile range 25.00, 43.50) minutes whilst that for general anaesthetic was similar at 30.00 (inter-quartile range 15.25, 40.00) minutes (not statistically significant, (Mann Whitney U, W = 3081.5, P = 0.331). The majority of paediatric minor oral surgical procedures entail surgical exposure or removal of impacted teeth. The median treatment time for most procedures undertaken with either general anaesthetic or nitrous oxide sedation was 30 minutes.

  12. The role of diagnostic ultrasound as a new diagnostic aid in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Siva Subramaniyam; Aravind, Ramraj Jayabalan; Kavin, Thangavelu

    2012-01-01

    Only very few studies have been done in the past to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of ultrasonography in oral and maxillofacial surgery. This study, though in an embryonic stage, has been done to bring this technique to limelight and to put forth the importance of its use and limitations in the branch of oral surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate and study the characteristic pattern of the oral tissues on gray scale ultrasonography and to assess the practical applicability of this new diagnostic technique in diagnosing various tissue pathologies in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. PMID:23066231

  13. Oral Anticoagulant Use After Bariatric Surgery: A Literature Review and Clinical Guidance.

    PubMed

    Martin, Karlyn A; Lee, Craig R; Farrell, Timothy M; Moll, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    Bariatric surgery may alter the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or elimination (disposition) of orally administered drugs via changes to the gastrointestinal tract anatomy, body weight, and adipose tissue composition. As some patients who have undergone bariatric surgery will need therapeutic anticoagulation for various indications, appropriate knowledge is needed regarding anticoagulant drug disposition and resulting efficacy and safety in this population. We review general considerations about oral drug disposition in patients after bariatric surgery, as well as existing literature on oral anticoagulation after bariatric surgery. Overall, available evidence on therapeutic anticoagulation is very limited, and individual drug studies are necessary to learn how to safely and effectively use the direct oral anticoagulants. Given the sparsity of currently available data, it appears most prudent to use warfarin with international normalized ratio monitoring, and not direct oral anticoagulants, when full-dose anticoagulation is needed after bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Management of novel oral anticoagulants in emergency and trauma surgery.

    PubMed

    Pinho-Gomes, Ana-Catarina; Hague, Adam; Ghosh, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    The compelling safety, efficacy and predictable effect of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is driving a rapid expansion in their therapeutic indications. Management of the increasing number of patients on those new agents in the setting of emergency or trauma surgery can be challenging and the absence of specific reversal agents has been a matter of concern. This review summarises the key principles that underpin the management of those patients with a particular emphasis on the recent development of specific antidotes. As of 2015, a new line of antidotes, specific for these drugs, are at different stages of their development with their release imminent. However, as NOACs are innately reversible due to their short half-life, the use of reversal agents will probably be restricted to a few exceptional cases. Post-marketing surveillance will be paramount to better clarify the role of these promising drugs. Management of patients on NOACs in the context of emergency or trauma surgery relies on best supportive care in combination with the blood products and/or specific antidotes as required. Familiarity with the new reversal agents is essential but further evidence on their indications, safety and efficacy as well as consensus guidelines are warranted prior to widespread adoption. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of Oral Candidiasis After Free Flap Surgery: Role of 3% Sodium Bicarbonate Saline in Oral Care.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Zhang, Fang; Lyu, Xin; Yan, Zhimin; Hua, Hong; Peng, Xin

    2017-03-01

    Relevant reports about oral candidiasis status and prevention measures after free flap surgery for the oral and maxillofacial region are limited. The present study explored oral candidiasis status after free flap surgery and its prevention through a prospective comparative study. One hundred four patients were randomized to a control group (n = 54) and an experimental group (n = 50). Compared with the control group, the experimental group was provided an additional 3% sodium bicarbonate saline solution for oral care after free flap surgery. The incidence of oral candidiasis was evaluated by objective examination (saliva culture and salivary pH measurement) and subjective evaluation (clinical signs of oral candidiasis) at admission and from postoperative days 1 to 14. The salivary pH values of the 2 groups were lower than the normal salivary pH, and postoperative salivary pH values were always lower than the active range of oral lysozymes in the control group. The salivary pH values of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group from postoperative days 6 to 14 (P < .05). The incidence of oral candidiasis was 13.0% in the control group, which was higher than that in the experimental group (2.0%; P < .05). In addition, advanced age, use of a free flap for the simultaneous repair of intraoral and paraoral defects, and a combination of 2 antibiotic types were risk factors for oral candidiasis. Oral candidiasis was common in patients after free flap reconstruction surgery, and the use of 3% sodium bicarbonate saline solution for oral care effectively prevented it. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral and maxillofacial surgery residents have poor understanding of biostatistics.

    PubMed

    Best, Al M; Laskin, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate residents' understanding of biostatistics and interpretation of research results. A questionnaire previously used in internal medicine residents was modified to include oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) examples. The survey included sections to identify demographic and educational characteristics of residents, attitudes and confidence, and the primary outcome-knowledge of biostatistics. In 2009 an invitation to the Internet survey was sent to all 106 program directors in the United States, who were requested to forward it to their residents. One hundred twelve residents responded. The percentage of residents who had taken a course in epidemiology was 53%; biostatistics, 49%; and evidence-based dentistry, 65%. Conversely, 10% of OMS residents had taken none of these classes. Across the 6-item test of knowledge of statistical methods, the mean percentage of correct answers was 38% (SD, 22%). Nearly half of the residents (42%) could not correctly identify continuous, ordinal, or nominal variables. Only 21% correctly identified a case-control study, but 79% correctly identified that the purpose of blinding was to reduce bias. Only 46% correctly interpreted a clinically unimportant and statistically nonsignificant result. None of the demographic or experience factors of OMS residents were related to statistical knowledge. Overall, OMS resident knowledge was below that of internal medicine residents (P<.0001). However, OMS residents were overconfident in their claim to understand most statistical terms. OMS residents lack knowledge in biostatistics and the interpretation of research and are thus unprepared to interpret the results of published clinical research. Residency programs should include effective biostatistical training in their curricula to prepare residents in evidence-based dentistry. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of oral antibiotics prophylaxis in prevention of surgical site infection in colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Koullouros, Michalis; Khan, Nadir; Aly, Emad H

    2017-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) continues to be a challenge in colorectal surgery. Over the years, various modalities have been used in an attempt to reduce SSI risk in elective colorectal surgery, which include mechanical bowel preparation before surgery, oral antibiotics and intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis at induction of surgery. Even though IV antibiotics have become standard practice, there has been a debate on the exact role of oral antibiotics. The primary aim was to identify the role of oral antibiotics in reduction of SSI in elective colorectal surgery. The secondary aim was to explore any potential benefit in the use of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) in relation to SSI in elective colorectal surgery. Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched. Any randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or cohort studies after 1980, which investigated the effectiveness of oral antibiotic prophylaxis and/or MBP in preventing SSIs in elective colorectal surgery were included. Twenty-three RCTs and eight cohorts were included. The results indicate a statistically significant advantage in preventing SSIs with the combined usage of oral and systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. Furthermore, our analysis of the cohort studies shows no benefits in the use of MBP in prevention of SSIs. The addition of oral antibiotics to systemic antibiotics could potentially reduce the risk of SSIs in elective colorectal surgery. Additionally, MBP does not seem to provide a clear benefit with regard to SSI prevention.

  18. Effects of preoperative oral carbohydrates and peptides on postoperative endocrine response, mobilization, nutrition and muscle function in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, M G; Hessov, I; Dela, F; Hansen, H Vind; Haraldsted, V; Rodt, S A

    2003-02-01

    Surgery is succeeded by long-lasting state of relative peripheral insulin resistance, which is reduced by giving glucose infusion or oral carbohydrate-rich drinks immediate before operating instead of fasting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether oral carbohydrate or carbohydrate with peptide drinks preoperatively instead of fasting would improve postoperative voluntary muscle strength, nutritional intake and ambulation, decrease postoperative fatigue, anxiety and discomfort, and reduce the endocrine response to surgery. Forty-eight patients were included and randomized into three groups to receive 2 x 400 ml of carbohydrate-rich drinks or to fast overnight and allowed only water. Voluntary grip and quadriceps strength, body composition, pulmonary function, VAS-score of eight parameters of wellbeing, muscle biopsies and insulin, glucagon, IGF-1 and free fatty acids were measured before and after the operation. The basic postoperative regimen for all groups were immediate oral nutrition and early enforced mobilization. Significant postoperative decrease in glycogen synthase activity in the muscle biopsies was reduced in the intervention groups, and in combination, the intervention groups had a less reduced quadriceps strength after one week (-10% vs. -16%, NS) and one month (-5% vs. -13%, P < 0.05). Minor changes in the endocrine response to surgery were found without differences between the groups, and there were no differences between the groups in ambulation time, nutritional intake or subjective measures of wellbeing. Copyright Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 47 (2003)

  19. [Contribution of Perioperative Oral Health Care and Management for Patients who Underwent General Thoracic Surgery].

    PubMed

    Saito, Hajime; Minamiya, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Due to the recent advances in radiological diagnostic technology, the role of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in thoracic disease has expanded, surgical indication extended to the elderly patients. Cancer patients receiving surgery, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy may encounter complications in conjunction with the oral cavity such as aspiration pneumonia, surgical site infection and various type of infection. Recently, it is recognized that oral health care management is effective to prevent the postoperative infectious complications, especially pneumonia. Therefore, oral management should be scheduled before start of therapy to prevent these complications as supportive therapy of the cancer treatment. In this background, perioperative oral function management is highlighted in the remuneration for dental treatment revision of 2012,and the importance of oral care has been recognized in generally. In this manuscript, we introduce the several opinions and evidence based on the recent previous reports about the perioperative oral health care and management on thoracic surgery.

  20. General practitioners' competence and confidentiality determinations with a minor who requests the oral contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Terence P; Carvalho, Tatiana

    2005-11-01

    The right of minors to make medical treatment decisions is an issue that is not explicitly addressed in the legislation of most Australian jurisdictions. While recent common law decisions allow competent minors to consent to treatment, current legislation in Victoria does not provide adequate guidelines on how competence is to be measured. It is also unclear whether the duty of confidentiality is extended to competent minors. The current study explored general practitioners' competence and confidentiality decisions with a hypothetical 14-year-old patient who requests the oral contraceptive pill (OCP). Questionnaires were sent to 1,000 Victorian general practitioners, 305 of whom responded. General practitioners were asked to determine whether "Liz" was competent to request the OCP, and whether they would maintain her confidentiality. A total of 81% of respondents found the patient competent, while 91% would have maintained her confidentiality. Results indicate that the majority of general practitioners used rationales that generally did not conform to current legal principles when making competence and confidentiality determinations regarding this patient.

  1. Trans-oral robotic surgery in oropharyngeal carcinoma - A guide for general practitioners and patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wendy Sijia; Limmer, Alex; Jabbour, Joe; Clark, Jonathan

    Trans-oral robotic surgery (TORS) is emerging as a minimally invasive alternative to open surgery, or trans-oral laser surgery, for the treatment of some head and neck pathologies, particularly oropharyngeal carcinoma, which is rapidly increasing in incidence. In this article we review current evidence regarding the use of TORS in head and neck surgery in a manner relevant to general practice. This information may be used to facilitate discussion with patients. Compared with open surgery or trans-oral laser surgery, TORS has numerous advantages, including no scarring, less blood loss, fewer complications, lower rates of admission to the intensive care unit, and reduced length of hospitalisation. The availability of TORS in Australia is currently limited and, therefore, public awareness about TORS is lacking. Details regarding the role of TORS and reliable, up-to-date, patient-friendly information sources are discussed in this article.

  2. Are You Ready for Emergency Medical Services in Your Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Office?

    PubMed

    Rayner, Clive; Ragan, Michael R

    2018-05-01

    Efficient responses to emergencies in the oral and maxillofacial surgery office require preparation, communication, and thorough documentation of the event and response. The concept of team anesthesia is showcased with these efforts. Emergency medical services training and response times vary greatly. The oral and maxillofacial surgery office should be prepared to manage the patient for at least 15 minutes after making the call to 911. Patient outcomes are optimized when providers work together to manage and transport the patient. Oral and maxillofacial surgery offices should develop and rehearse emergency plans and coordinate these protocols with local Emergency medical services teams. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Blue diode laser: a new approach in oral surgery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Selleri, Stefano; Cucinotta, Annamaria

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of diode lasers in dentistry had several advantages, principally consisting on the reduced size, reduced cost and possibility to beam delivering by optical fibbers. Up today two diode wavelengths, 810 and 980 nm, were the most utilized in oral surgery but recently a new wavelength emitting in the blue had been proposed. The aim of this ex vivo study was to compare the efficacy of five laser wavelengths (450, 532, 808, 1064 and 1340 nm) for the ablation of soft tissues. Specimens were surgically collected from the dorsal surface of four bovine tongues and irradiated by the five different wavelengths. Thermal increase was measured by two thermocouples, the first at a depth of 0.5 mm, and the second at a depth of 2 mm while initial and final surface temperatures were recorded by IR thermometer. The quality of the incision was histologically evaluated by a pathologist by giving a score from 0 to 5. The time necessary to perform the excision varied between 215 seconds (1340 nm, 5W) and 292 seconds (808 nm, 3W). Surface temperature increase was highest for 1340 nm, 5W and lowest for 405 nm, 4 W. The most significant deep temperature increase was recorded by 1340 nm, 5 W and the lowest by 450 nm, 2 W. The quality of incision was better and the thermal elevation lower in the specimens obtained with shortest laser wavelength (450 nm).

  4. Advances in bone surgery: the Er:YAG laser in oral surgery and implant dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Stübinger, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser has emerged as a possible alternative to conventional methods of bone ablation because of its wavelength of 2.94 μm, which coincides with the absorption peak of water. Over the last decades in several experimental and clinical studies, the widespread initial assumption that light amplification for stimulated emission of radiation (laser) osteotomy inevitably provokes profound tissue damage and delayed wound healing has been refuted. In addition, the supposed disadvantage of prolonged osteotomy times could be overcome by modern short-pulsed Er:YAG laser systems. Currently, the limiting factors for a routine application of lasers for bone ablation are mainly technical drawbacks such as missing depth control and a difficult and safe guidance of the laser beam. This article gives a short overview of the development process and current possibilities of noncontact Er:YAG laser osteotomy in oral and implant surgery. PMID:23662082

  5. Surreptitious surgery on Long Island Sound: The oral cancer surgeries of President Grover Cleveland.

    PubMed

    Maloney, William

    2010-01-01

    Grover Cleveland rose from being the mayor of Buffalo to the governor of New York to the president of the United States. At the start of Cleveland's second term as president, the nation was involved in a severe financial crisis, the extent of which was not known by the general public. President Cleveland was to make a strong appeal to Congress in the coming months to repeal the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890. He thought this would set the nation on the road to fiscal recovery. However, his vice president, Adlai Stevenson, strongly opposed repeal of the Sherman Act. Prior to scheduling his appearance before Congress, President Cleveland noticed a rough spot on his palate. A biopsy confirmed that it was cancer, and it was determined that surgery was needed. Cleveland and his advisors thought the nation would be thrown into a panic if the President's health did not remain a secret. A surgical team, which included a dentist, performed the surgery in secrecy while traveling aboard a yacht. A prosthetic obturator was fabricated by a New York prosthodontist to close the surgical defect. Cleveland recovered well, made a forceful speech before Congress, had the Sherman Act repealed and lived without a recurrence of his oral cancer for the rest of his life. The public remained unaware, for the most part, of the gravity of President Cleveland's health for decades.

  6. [Description of clinical pathological concordance and patient satisfaction in minor surgery in a Primary Care centre].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Arriola, María Gabriela; Hamido Mohamed, Naima; Abad Vivás-Pérez, Juan José; Bretones Alcaráz, Juan José; García Torrecillas, Juan Manuel; Huber, Evelyn

    2017-02-01

    To describe the minor surgery (MS) characteristics in a Primary Care (PC) centre, and to evaluate the clinical pathological concordance and patient satisfaction. Descriptive and retrospective study. Primary Care, urban health care centre, Almería, Spain. The population were the patients belonging to urban Primary Health Care centre, referred by their family physicians or paediatricians for the performing of MS during year 2013, and who consented to the intervention. A sample of 223 patients was obtained. Variables analysed were: sex, age, locations of the lesions, type of intervention, clinical diagnosis, histopathology diagnosis, complications, and patient satisfaction. The data were extracted from the medical history, the histopathology reports, and by using a satisfaction questionnaire completed by post or telephone by the patients. The population consisted of 53.8% males, and had a mean age of 51.12 years (SD 19.02). The location of the most intervened lesions was in the head (35.4%). Electro-surgery was the most used procedure (62.8%), with only 16.9% of the lesions being biopsied, of which the most frequent was fibroids (32.3%). The clinical pathological concordance was >80% and the Kappa index was 0.783 (P<.001). The complications presented were low. The patient's satisfaction was high. Although a simple MS technique like electro-surgery has become more extensive, MS in PC remains safe and satisfactory for the user. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. A systematic approach to improve oral and maxillofacial surgery education.

    PubMed

    Rosén, A; Fors, U; Zary, N; Sejersen, R; Lund, B

    2011-11-01

    To improve teaching quality and student satisfaction, a new curriculum in Oral Surgery was implemented at Karolinska Institutet in 2007. This paper describes the curriculum change as well as the results regarding quality, satisfaction, cost-effectiveness and workload for teachers and staff. To design the new curriculum, all members of the teaching staff participated in a series of group discussions where problems with the previous curriculum were identified and ideas on how to improve the curriculum were discussed. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by comparing the number of teaching sessions between the new and the old curriculum. A questionnaire was used to investigate the staffs' perceived change in workload and teaching quality. The students' satisfaction and attitudes to learning was screened for by on-line questionnaires. The large amount of passive observational teaching was considered as the main problem with the old curriculum. Half of these sessions were replaced by either clinical seminars or demonstrations performed in an interactive form. Students rated the new curriculum as a clear improvement. Analyses of time and cost-effectiveness showed a decrease in teaching sessions by almost 50%. Generally, the teachers were more positive towards the changes compared to the non-teaching staff. The students rated the new type of learning activities relatively high, whilst the traditional observational teaching was seen as less satisfactory. They preferred to learn in a practical way and few indicated analytic or emotional preferences. The majority of the students reported a good alignment between the new course curriculum and the final exam. 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotic prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: Analysis of evidence and narrative review.

    PubMed

    Badia, Josep M; Arroyo-García, Nares

    2018-05-14

    The role of oral antibiotic prophylaxis and mechanical bowel preparation in colorectal surgery remains controversial. The lack of efficacy of mechanical preparation to improve infection rates, its adverse effects, and multimodal rehabilitation programs have led to a decline in its use. This review aims to evaluate current evidence on antegrade colonic cleansing combined with oral antibiotics for the prevention of surgical site infections. In experimental studies, oral antibiotics decrease the bacterial inoculum, both in the bowel lumen and surgical field. Clinical studies have shown a reduction in infection rates when oral antibiotic prophylaxis is combined with mechanical preparation. Oral antibiotics alone seem to be effective in reducing infection in observational studies, but their effect is inferior to the combined preparation. In conclusion, the combination of oral antibiotics and mechanical preparation should be considered the gold standard for the prophylaxis of postoperative infections in colorectal surgery. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of Effective Communication by Surgery Students on Their Oral Examination Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland-Morin, Pamela A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Clinical surgery faculty (n=78) evaluated videotaped simulated surgery student oral examinations. Results showed that regardless of the content of students' responses, evaluators were strongly influenced by how well students communicated. Evaluators preferred a moderate response rate and direct eye contact over a slower response rate and indirect…

  10. [The effect of "hospital clowns" on distress and maladaptive behaviours of children who are undergoing minor surgery].

    PubMed

    Meisel, Victoria; Chellew, Karin; Ponsell, Esperança; Ferreira, Ana; Bordas, Leonor; García-Banda, Gloria

    2009-11-01

    The presence of clowns in health care settings is a program used in many countries to reduce distress in children who are undergoing surgery. The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of the presence of clowns on children's distress and maladaptive behaviours while in hospital for minor surgery. The sample consisted of 61 pediatric patients (aged 3-12 years) undergoing general anesthesia for minor surgery. Participants were assigned to two groups: experimental and control group. The child's distress was assessed using FAS (Facial Affective Scale). Postoperative maladaptive behaviors were evaluated one week after surgery, using the PHBQ (Post-Hospital Behavior Questionnaire). Our results suggest that clowns are not able to reduce the child's level of distress. However, postoperative maladaptive behaviours in the experimental group decreased, but the decrease was not statistically significant. Further research is needed to determine the effects of clowns in hospitals, taking into account age, sex, parents' presence, and diverse hospital settings.

  11. Current Trend of Antimicrobial Prescription for Oral Implant Surgery Among Dentists in India.

    PubMed

    Datta, Rahul; Grewal, Yasmin; Batth, J S; Singh, Amandeep

    2014-12-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate antimicrobial prescription behaviour amongst dentists performing oral implant surgery in India. Dentists performing oral implant surgery from different parts of India were personally approached during various national events such as conferences and academic meetings and information regarding their prescription habits for antimicrobial agents in routine oral implant surgery was collected using a structured questionnaire. Out of a total sample of 332 dentists, 85.5 % prescribed 17 different groups or combinations of antibiotics routinely for oral implant surgery in the normal healthy patient. Majority preferred the peri-operative protocol of drug therapy (72.2 %) with variable and prolonged duration of therapy after surgery, ranging from 3 to 10 days. An antimicrobial mouthwash was routinely prescribed by all the doctors (14.5 %) not in favour of prescribing antimicrobials in a normal healthy patient. Our findings suggest that there is a trend of antimicrobial agent misuse by dentists performing oral implant surgery in India, both in terms of drugs used and the protocols prescribed. The majority of these dentists prescribed a variety of antimicrobial agents for prolonged durations routinely even in the normal, healthy patients.

  12. Periodontal surgery improves oral health-related quality of life in chronic periodontitis patients in Asian population.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Kuo, Hsiao-Ching; Ho, Kun-Yen; Wang, Wen-Chen; Hu, Kai-Fang

    2017-10-01

    The effect of periodontal surgery on patients' quality of life was investigated. Sixty patients received regenerative surgery or resective osseous surgery. Oral health-related quality of life and health-related quality of life instruments were used to assess the participants' quality of life before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Periodontal surgery can improve patients' quality of life by alleviating the physical pain and psychological discomfort. The scores were lower (more favorable) in the regenerative surgery group, and the functional limitations of the regenerative surgery group improved substantially compared with those of the resective osseous surgery group (P = 0.0421). The patients' oral health-related quality of life scores improved significantly after periodontal surgery. Clinicians can take advantage of the positive functional oral health-related quality of life impacts of regenerative surgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  13. Ambulatory oral surgery: 1-year experience with 11 680 patients from Zagreb district, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Jokić, Dražen; Macan, Darko; Perić, Berislav; Tadić, Marinka; Biočić, Josip; Đanić, Petar; Brajdić, Davor

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine the types and frequencies of oral surgery diagnoses and ambulatory oral surgical treatments during one year period at the Department of Oral Surgery, University Hospital Dubrava in Zagreb, Croatia. Methods Sociodemographic and clinical data on 11 680 ambulatory patients, treated between January 1 and of December 31, 2011 were retrieved from the hospital database using a specific protocol. The obtained data were subsequently analyzed in order to assess the frequency of diagnoses and differences in sex and age. Results The most common ambulatory procedure was tooth extraction (37.67%) and the most common procedure in ambulatory operating room was alveolectomy (57.25%). The test of proportions showed that significantly more extractions (P < 0.001) and intraoral incisions (P < 0.001) were performed among male patients, whereas significantly more alveolectomies and apicoectomies were performed among female patients (P < 0.001). A greater prevalence of periodontal disease was found in patients residing in Zagreb than in patients residing in rural areas. Conclusion The data from this study may be useful for planning of ambulatory oral surgery services, budgeting, and sustaining quality improvement, enhancing oral surgical curricula, training and education of primary health care doctors and oral surgery specialists, and promoting patients’ awareness of the importance of oral health. PMID:23444246

  14. Ambulatory oral surgery: 1-year experience with 11680 patients from Zagreb district, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jokić, Dražen; Macan, Darko; Perić, Berislav; Tadić, Marinka; Biočić, Josip; Đanić, Petar; Brajdić, Davor

    2013-02-01

    To examine the types and frequencies of oral surgery diagnoses and ambulatory oral surgical treatments during one year period at the Department of Oral Surgery, University Hospital Dubrava in Zagreb, Croatia. Sociodemographic and clinical data on 11680 ambulatory patients, treated between January 1 and of December 31, 2011 were retrieved from the hospital database using a specific protocol. The obtained data were subsequently analyzed in order to assess the frequency of diagnoses and differences in sex and age. The most common ambulatory procedure was tooth extraction (37.67%) and the most common procedure in ambulatory operating room was alveolectomy (57.25%). The test of proportions showed that significantly more extractions (P<0.001) and intraoral incisions (P<0.001) were performed among male patients, whereas significantly more alveolectomies and apicoectomies were performed among female patients (P<0.001). A greater prevalence of periodontal disease was found in patients residing in Zagreb than in patients residing in rural areas. The data from this study may be useful for planning of ambulatory oral surgery services, budgeting, and sustaining quality improvement, enhancing oral surgical curricula, training and education of primary health care doctors and oral surgery specialists, and promoting patients' awareness of the importance of oral health.

  15. Compliance with the guide for commissioning oral surgery: an audit and discussion.

    PubMed

    Modgill, O; Shah, A

    2017-10-13

    Introduction The Guide for commissioning oral surgery and oral medicine published by NHS England (2015) prescribes the level of complexity of oral surgery and oral medicine investigations and procedures to be carried out within NHS services. These are categorised as Level 1, Level 2, Level 3A and Level 3B. An audit was designed to ascertain the level of oral surgery procedures performed by clinicians of varying experience and qualification working in a large oral surgery department within a major teaching hospital.Materials and methods Two audit cycles were conducted on retrospective case notes and radiographic review of 100 patient records undergoing dental extractions within the Department of Oral Surgery at King's College Dental Hospital. The set gold standard was: '100% of Level 1 procedures should be performed by dental undergraduates or discharged back to the referring general dental practitioner'. Data were collected and analysed on a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The results of the first audit cycle were presented to all clinicians within the department in a formal meeting, recommendations were made and an action plan implemented prior to undertaking a second cycle.Results The first cycle revealed that 25% of Level 1 procedures met the set gold standard, with Level 2 practitioners performing the majority of Level 1 and Level 2 procedures. The second cycle showed a marked improvement, with 66% of Level 1 procedures meeting the set gold standard.Conclusion Our audit demonstrates that whilst we were able to achieve an improvement with the set gold standard, several barriers still remain to ensure that patients are treated by the appropriate level of clinician in a secondary care setting. We have used this audit as a foundation upon which to discuss the challenges faced in implementation of the commissioning framework within both primary and secondary dental care and strategies to overcome these challenges, which are likely to be encountered in any NHS care

  16. Validation of Universal Scale in Oral Surgery (USOS) for Patient's Psycho-emotional Status Rating.

    PubMed

    Astramskaite, Inesa; Pinchasov, Ginnady; Gervickas, Albinas; Sakavicius, Dalius; Juodzbalys, Gintaras

    2017-01-01

    There aren't any objective methods that may help in standard evaluation of oral surgery patient's psycho-emotional status. Without any standardized evaluation, two main problems appear: heterogeneity between studies and ineffective patient's evaluation. Therefore, Universal Scale in Oral Surgery (USOS) for patient's psycho-emotional status rating has previously been proposed by authors. The aim of present study is to assess the clinical effectivity and validate the Universal Scale in Oral Surgery in case of outpatient tooth extraction for adult healthy patients. Clinical trial to validate the USOS for patient's psycho-emotional status rating was performed. In total 90 patients, that came for outpatient dental extraction to Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department ambulatory, were enrolled in clinical trial. Patients filled self-reported questionnaires before the procedure. Operating surgeon rated USOS for patient's psycho-emotional status rating doctor's part questionnaire after the procedure. 4 - 6 weeks later all patients were asked to fill USOS for patient's psycho-emotional status rating questionnaire retrospectively. According to the statistical analysis, the final composition of USOS for patient's psycho-emotional status rating that would fit to reliability coefficient should be composed from 6 patient part questions and 3 general doctor part questions. Universal Scale in Oral Surgery for patient's psycho-emotional status rating is a novel, doctor and patient rated scale which is suitable for clinical and scientific usage.

  17. Duplicate publications and related problems in published papers on oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Le, A; Moran, C M P; Bezuhly, M; Hong, P

    2015-07-01

    As duplicate publication is unethical, our aim was to find out how common it is among published papers on oral and maxillofacial surgery. We used PubMed to identify index articles published in 2010 in the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and the European Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, and searched for possible duplicate publications from 2008 to 2012 using the first or second and last authors' names. Suspected duplicates were categorised into "non-duplicate" (no overlap), "duplicate" (identical results and conclusions), or "salami-sliced" publications (part of the index article repeated or continued). Of the 589 index articles, 17 (3%) had some form of duplication, but specifically, we found 3 duplicate, and 15 salami-sliced publications. Most redundant articles originated from China (n=4), followed by Italy, Japan, and Germany (3 from each) and the United States and Denmark (2 each). Of the 18 redundant publications, 9 did not reference the related index article. Duplicate material is still being published, and salami-slicing is relatively common among publications on oral and maxillofacial surgery. Further research is required into the extent and impact of this finding. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thiel embalming technique: a valuable method for teaching oral surgery and implantology.

    PubMed

    Hölzle, Frank; Franz, Eric-Peter; Lehmbrock, Jutta; Weihe, Stephan; Teistra, Christian; Deppe, Herbert; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich

    2012-03-01

    Because of its high requirements on surgical experience and the need of complete understanding of the anatomy, oral surgery and especially implantology belong to the most demanding procedures in dentistry. Therefore, hands-on courses for oral surgery and implantology are considered a prerequisite to prepare for clinical practice. To achieve teaching conditions as realistic as possible, we used a novel human cadaver embalming method enabling tissue dissection comparable with the living body. Thirty cadavers which were offered by the Institute of Anatomy for the purpose of running oral surgery and implantology courses were embalmed in the technique described by Thiel. On each cadaver, dissection of soft and hard tissue and implantological procedures were performed according to a structured protocol by each course participant. The conservation of fine anatomical structures and the suitability of the embalmed tissue for dissecting, drilling, and suturing were observed and photographically documented. By means of the Thiel embalming technique, oral surgery and implantological procedures could be performed under realistic conditions similar to the living body. Due to the conservation procedure, preparations could be carried out without any time limit, always maintaining the same high quality of the tissue. The maxillary sinus membrane, mucosa, bone, and nerves could be exposed and allowed dissecting, drilling, and suturing even after weeks like fresh specimens. The Thiel embalming method is a unique technique which is ideally suited to practice and teach oral surgery and implantology on human material. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Video capsule endoscopy after bariatric and gastric surgery: oral ingestion is associated with satisfactory completion rate.

    PubMed

    Stanich, Peter P; Kleinman, Bryan; Porter, Kyle M; Meyer, Marty M

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the outcomes of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) performed on patients after bariatric and gastric surgery with a focus on delivery method (oral ingestion or endoscopic placement). There is minimal published data regarding the use of VCE in patients after bariatric and gastric surgery and the optimal delivery method is unknown. Retrospective case series of patients with bariatric or gastric surgery undergoing VCE in a tertiary care center over 3 years. Outcomes of interest were completion of the procedure and bowel transit times. Twenty-three patients met study criteria. They underwent 24 VCE in the study period, with 13/16 (81.3%; 95% CI, 54%-96%) completed to the colon after oral ingestion and 5/8 (62.5%; 95% CI, 24%-91%) completed after endoscopic deployment. The median gastric transit time after oral ingestion was <1 minute (IQR, <1 to 99). Median total transit time after oral ingestion was 291 minutes (IQR, 213 to 434) and after endoscopic deployment was 364 minutes (IQR, 233 to >440) (P=0.48). There were no instances of capsule retention. Oral ingestion of VCE resulted in a satisfactory completion rate with rapid gastric transit after bariatric and gastric surgery. There were no capsule retention events. Given this and the favorable risk and cost profile, oral ingestion should be favored over endoscopic placement in this patient population.

  20. Overview of surgery for oral cavity cancer in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Eskander, Antoine; Irish, Jonathan; Gullane, Patrick; Gilbert, Ralph; de Almeida, John R; Freeman, Jeremy; Giuliani, Meredith; Urbach, David R; Goldstein, David P

    2016-07-01

    The pupose of this study was to describe variations in incidence and resection rates of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in Ontario. All oral cavity SCCs in Ontario between 2003 and 2010 were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry. Incidence and resection rates along with variations in care were compared by sociodemographic factors and Ontario health regions. The 8-year incidence rates for oral cavity SCC was 21.3 per 100,000 with variations by sex, age group, neighborhood income, and community size. Seventy-four percent of patients underwent an oral cavity cancer resection, of which 91% were at a regional head and neck cancer center. Variations in resection rates existed by region of residence and treatment. Oral cavity cancer incidence rates vary by sex, age, neighborhood income, community size, and health region. Resection rates vary by age and health region. Oral cavity cancer care is highly regionalized in Ontario. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1113-1118, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Quality perceived by users of minor surgery according to care level and the professionals that carried it out].

    PubMed

    Oltra Rodríguez, Enrique; Fernández García, Benjamín; Cabiedes Miragaya, Laura; Riestra Rodríguez, Rosario; González Aller, Cristina; Osorio Álvarez, Sofía

    2018-04-26

    Nowadays minor surgery is performed by di- fferent professionals at primary as well as specialized care. Being a healthcare technology, minor surgery must be assessed in order to achieve an organizational efficiency. User's satisfaction must be one of the quality criteria. That is why an analysis of the quality perceived by users according to where minor surgery takes place and who carries it out is made. This study explores, conducting telephone surveys, the satisfaction of a sample of 275 minor surgery patients of two hospitals and three primary healthcare areas of Asturias. The survey is based on the SERVQUAL model adapting the one used by the Spanish Ministry of Health in 1977. A behavior pattern of satisfaction was established in terms of the variables that increase or diminish it. In every item, satisfaction was perceived as good or very good at least in 84% of the survey users and in the majority was over 95%. There was a significant difference in favour of primary care with respect to waiting time (p less than 0,001), explanations received (p=0,002) and security perceived (p=0,015). The more explanatory variables of excellent satisfaction were the sense of security and the staff attention. The kind of professional did not represent a conditioning factor and the level of healthcare only appeared to be so among those who did not feel safe showing to be less satisfied those treated in primary care. Good quality perceived by users does not seem to be penalized by the fact that minor surgery can be carried out at different healthcare levels or which specialist performs it.

  2. [Oral and maxillofacial surgery residency training in the United States: what can we learn].

    PubMed

    Ren, Y F

    2017-04-09

    China is currently in the process of establishing formal residency training programs in oral and maxillofacial surgery and other medical and dental specialties. Regulatory agencies, and educational and academic institutions in China are exploring mechanisms, goals and standards of residency training that meet the needs of the Chinese healthcare system. This article provides an introduction of residency training in oral and maxillofacial surgery in the United States, with emphasis on the accreditation standard by the Commission on Dental Accreditation. As there are fundamental differences in the medical and dental education systems between China and United States, the training standards in the United States may not be entirely applicable in China. A competency-based training model that focus on overall competencies in medical knowledge, clinical skills and values at the time of graduation should be taken into consideration in a Chinese residency training program in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  3. Home therapy with continuous infusion of factor VIII after minor surgery or serious haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Varon, D; Schulman, S; Bashari, D; Martinowitz, U

    1996-10-01

    Administration of factor VIII (F VIII) concentrates by continuous infusion is now routinely used at several haemophilia centers but almost exclusively for hospitalized patients. We evaluated various aspects of home therapy with continuous infusion of an immunoaffinity purified F VIII concentrate (Monoclate P®, Armour) in patients who would normally have been treated with high doses in bolus injections or with continuous infusion as in-patients. Twenty haemophilia A patients, eight after minor surgery and 12 for serious haemorrhage, received continuous infusion with undiluted F VIII by a minipump for a mean of 0.9 days in the hospital, followed by 3.3 days at home. Infusion bags were exchanged every 2.5 days. No haemorrhagic complications occurred, and five haemorrhages that had been resistant to treatment with bolus injections responded promptly to the continuous infusion. There were no technical problems and patient compliance and acceptance was good. We find this mode of therapy safe, efficacious and convenient for the patients as well as for the staff.

  4. Use of piezosurgery device in management of oral surgery complications: clincal case and clinical experience report.

    PubMed

    Sammartino, G; Riccitiello, F; Trosino, O; Marenzi, G; Cioffi, A; Mortellaro, C

    2012-05-01

    The root displacement into the maxillary sinus could be a complication of oral surgery in the upper jaw. In these cases, the root removal is needed in order to avoid the occurrence of sinus pathologies. Piezosurgery techniques could assure a safer management of such complications, because of the clear surgical visibility and the selective ability of cut. The aim of this article is to present a case of oral surgery complication (root displacement in the right maxillary sinus), in which piezosurgery technique helped for a correct and safe clinical management, allowing to reduce the soft tissue damage.

  5. Public and professional perception of oral and maxillofacial surgery (a pilot study).

    PubMed

    Adewole, R A; Akinwande, J A

    2007-01-01

    In the advanced countries, the awareness of Oral and maxillofacial surgery by both the public and medical specialties has led to rapid development and expansion of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery specialty with management of diverse and complex problems within a well defined anatomical region. In the developing countries like Nigeria, the trends are slow and this explains why majority of our patients present at very late stage when only palliative measures are the option. The study aims to assess the level of public and professional (GMP and GDP) knowledge and awareness of oral and Maxillofacial surgery specialty. A questionnaire was devised to assess the knowledge and awareness about the specialty of oral and maxillofacial surgery . Ninety one members of the public who were office workers, civil servants, hospital worker in Yaba local government area of Lagos state were the public respondents. The inclusion criteria was that all respondents had attained at least secondary school educational level. They were randomly chosen and had the questionnaires applied to them. Additionally, 40 General medical practitioners and 40 General dental practitioners were picked randomly from 7 local government areas of Lagos state (Yaba, Ebutte Meta, Surulere, Lagos Island, Shomolu, Kosofe and Ikeja) and the questionnaire was applied to them. Only 5.4% of the public had heard of oral and maxillofacial surgeon before. By comparison, the corresponding figures for ENT and plastic surgeons were 40.0% and 23.1% respectively. Only 4.4% of the public had a prior treatment by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon while 86.2% did not know what a maxillofacial surgeon does. The professionals (GMP and GDP) are quite aware of who a maxillofacial surgeon is, but are less knowledgeable of new areas/subspecialties of maxillofacial surgery such as cleft lip and palate surgery, cosmetic and orthognathic surgery, implantology, craniofacial surgery. Also general Medical Practitioners (60%) views of

  6. Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis surgery: a combined ocular-oral procedure for ocular blindness.

    PubMed

    Tay, A B G; Tan, D T H; Lye, K W; Theng, J; Parthasarathy, A; Por, Y-M

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the oral procedures used in osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) surgery, and the demographics and oral findings of candidate patients in Singapore. The OOKP procedure utilizes an autologous tooth-bone complex to mount a poly-methylmethacrylate optical cylinder, as an artificial cornea, stabilized by an overlying autologous buccal mucosal graft. Consecutive patients referred over 3 years for dental evaluation prior to OOKP surgery were included. A total of 21 patients underwent oral clinical and radiographic evaluation. The aetiology of blindness included Stevens-Johnson's syndrome (11 cases), chemical burns (9 cases) and multiple failed corneal grafts (1 case). Evaluation revealed that 12 patients were suitable for OOKP surgery, 8 were at risk of complication or failure and 1 had no usable teeth. Fourteen patients have undergone unilateral OOKP Stage 1 surgery successfully. Complications included fracture of a tooth from its lingual bone necessitating the harvesting of a second tooth (1 case), oronasal perforation (1 case), exposure of adjacent roots (5 teeth), lower lip paresthesia (2 cases) and submucosal scar band formation in the buccal mucosal graft donor site (10 cases). Thirteen patients have completed Stage 2 surgery, with attainment of their best possible visual potential following OOKP surgery.

  7. Surgical management in dentistry: the interdisciplinary relationship between periodontology and oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Tong, Darryl C

    2017-06-01

    Surgical procedures of the oral cavity can be performed by a number of dental specialists and clinicians. Because of the limited number of surgical procedures that can be performed inside the oral cavity, the boundaries between specialties may become indistinct and lead to confusion for general dentists in terms of patient referrals. In this article, what the two surgical specialties of dentistry (i.e. periodontology and oral and maxillofacial surgery) have to offer is highlighted, together with clinical examples to illustrate the interdisciplinary relationship between them. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The utility of mock oral examinations in preparation for the American Board of Surgery certifying examination.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Rana M; Deal, Rebecca A; Rinewalt, Daniel; Hollinger, Edward F; Janssen, Imke; Poirier, Jennifer; Austin, Delores; Rendina, Megan; Francescatti, Amanda; Myers, Jonathan A; Millikan, Keith W; Luu, Minh B

    2016-02-01

    Determine the utility of mock oral examinations in preparation for the American Board of Surgery certifying examination (ABS CE). Between 2002 and 2012, blinded data were collected on 63 general surgery residents: 4th and 5th-year mock oral examination scores, first-time pass rates on ABS CE, and an online survey. Fifty-seven residents took the 4th-year mock oral examination: 30 (52.6%) passed and 27 (47.4%) failed, with first-time ABS CE pass rates 93.3% and 81.5% (P = .238). Fifty-nine residents took the 5th-year mock oral examination: 28 (47.5%) passed and 31 (52.5%) failed, with first-time ABS CE pass rates 82.1% and 93.5% (P = .240). Thirty-eight responded to the online survey, 77.1% ranked mock oral examinations as very or extremely helpful with ABS CE preparation. Although mock oral examinations and ABS CE passing rates do not directly correlate, residents perceive the mock oral examinations to be helpful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Student perception of two different simulation techniques in oral and maxillofacial surgery undergraduate training.

    PubMed

    Lund, Bodil; Fors, Uno; Sejersen, Ronny; Sallnäs, Eva-Lotta; Rosén, Annika

    2011-10-12

    Yearly surveys among the undergraduate students in oral and maxillofacial surgery at Karolinska Institutet have conveyed a wish for increased clinical training, and in particular, in surgical removal of mandibular third molars. Due to lack of resources, this kind of clinical supervision has so far not been possible to implement. One possible solution to this problem might be to introduce simulation into the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate students' perception of two different simulation methods for practicing clinical reasoning skills and technical skills in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Forty-seven students participating in the oral and maxillofacial surgery course at Karolinska Institutet during their final year were included. Three different oral surgery patient cases were created in a Virtual Patient (VP) Simulation system (Web-SP) and used for training clinical reasoning. A mandibular third molar surgery simulator with tactile feedback, providing hands on training in the bone removal and tooth sectioning in third molar surgery, was also tested. A seminar was performed using the combination of these two simulators where students' perception of the two different simulation methods was assessed by means of a questionnaire. The response rate was 91.5% (43/47). The students were positive to the VP cases, although they rated their possible improvement of clinical reasoning skills as moderate. The students' perception of improved technical skills after training in the mandibular third molar surgery simulator was rated high. The majority of the students agreed that both simulation techniques should be included in the curriculum and strongly agreed that it was a good idea to use the two simulators in concert. The importance of feedback from the senior experts during simulator training was emphasised. The two tested simulation methods were well accepted and most students agreed that the future curriculum would benefit from

  10. [Evaluation of flipped classroom teaching model in undergraduates education of oral and maxillofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Cai, Ming; Cao, Xia; Fang, Xiao; Wang, Xu-dong; Zhang, Li-li; Zheng, Jia-wei; Shen, Guo-fang

    2015-12-01

    Flipped classroom is a new teaching model which is different from the traditional teaching method. The history and characteristics of flipped classroom teaching model were introduced in this paper. A discussion on how to establish flipped classroom teaching protocol in oral and maxillofacial surgery education was carried out. Curriculum transformation, construction of education model and possible challenges were analyzed and discussed.

  11. Lysine clonixinate in minor dental surgery: double-blind randomized parallel study versus paracetamol.

    PubMed

    Martí, M L; De los Santos, A R; Di Girolamo, G; Gil, M; Manero, E O; Fraga, C

    1993-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC), an effective and well tolerated non-morphinic analgesic whose mechanism of action is basically due to the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase, was assessed with a double-blind randomized dummy design versus paracetamol (P) on 200 patients suffering from pain after minor dental surgery. Patients received according to their needs 1 or 2 tablets of 125 mg lysine clonixinate or 500 mg paracetamol every 8 h during 48 h or until pain relief. Both groups, each composed of 100 patients, were comparable in terms of demographic conditions (t test), initial symptoms (chi-square test), characteristics of the extracted dental pieces, surgical complications and wound treatment (chi-square test). Pain intensity scores and daily average intake of tablets (3.4/day) documented in the patients' diary revealed no statistically significant differences between the two treatments (chi-square test). It was found that spontaneous pain measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) decreased significantly in both treatment groups at the 24-h control examination. The following values were observed in the LC group: baseline 4.38 +/- 1.7; 24-h * 1.20 +/- 1.4; 48-h * 0.36 +/- 1.2. In the P group the values were: baseline 4.28 +/- 1.6; 24-h * 1.11 +/- 1.4; 48-h * 0.30 +/- 0.7 (*p < 0.05). Other variables like facial swelling and night pain, evaluated on a score from 0 to 4 and symptom presence or absence respectively, showed a similar response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Accessibility to editorial information in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery journals: The authors' point of view.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Leira-Feijoo, Yago; Seoane-Romero, Juan Manuel; Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Seoane, Juan

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the accessibility to editorial information in Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery journals. A cross-sectional study using the WOS-Web of Science database in three categories: "Surgery," "Otorhinolaryngology," and "Dentistry, Oral Surgery & Medicine" was designed. Journals were filtered by title and classified under three headings: OMFS specialty; OMFS subspecialty and related sciences; and multidisciplinary journals. Specialty scope (OMFS vs. other); impact factor; path for the manuscript; blinding policy; accessibility to reviewers' criteria; and percentage of acceptance. Only 46 of 330 journals met the inclusion criteria. All OMFS journals provided comprehensive information about the review process, compared to 5 of 27 (18.5%) of Oral Surgery and related sciences periodicals. Most specialty journals do not inform about the blind review mode used (20 of 33; 60.6%). Generally, information about the reviewers' assessment criteria is scarce, but is available from all OMFS journals, which also state the percentage of manuscript acceptance (100% vs. 14.8%). OMFS JCR journals provide adequate information about their editorial process in terms of path for the manuscript, accessibility to reviewers' criteria, and percentage of acceptance. Additional efforts are needed to increase accessibility to information about blinding policy and average time from submission to acceptance. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of intraoperative opioid use on survival after oral cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Patino, Miguel A; Ramirez, Rafael E; Perez, Carlos A; Feng, Lei; Kataria, Pranav; Myers, Jeffrey; Cata, Juan P

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the impact of opioid use on cancer recurrence after oral cancer surgery. We hypothesized that the amount of opioids administered during oral cancer surgery is an independent predictor of recurrence free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). After Institutional Review Board approval, we collected demographic, tumor related, intraoperative and survival data of patients who had oral cancer surgery. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the impact of important covariates on RFS and OS. 268 patients were included. After adjusting for significant covariates, the amount of opioids administered during surgery was not an independent predictor of RFS (HR: 1.27 [CI 95%, 0.838-1.924], p=0.26). However, we observed an association between opioid consumption and shorter OS (HR=1.77, [CI 95%=0.995-3.149]. p=0.05). High requirements of opioids during surgery increase the risk of recurrence and mortality by 27% and 77%, although the association is not statically significant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The case for advanced physics topics in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Rahul; Herford, Alan S

    2014-10-01

    Research in oral and maxillofacial surgery has focused mainly on principles founded in the biological and chemical sciences, which have provided excellent answers to many questions. However, recent technologic advances have begun to gain prominence in many of the medical sciences, providing clinicians with more effective tools for diagnosis and treatment. The era of modern physics has led to the development of diagnostic techniques that could provide information at a more basic level than many of the current biochemical methods used. The goal of this report is to introduce 2 of these methods and describe how they can be applied to oral and maxillofacial surgery. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. History of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad el Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    The formal training of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia started in 1958 at Hospital Sanjos6, thanks to the titanic work of Waldemar Wilhelm, a German-born surgeon who settled in BogotA in 1950. Today there are seven institutions in Colombia that offer residency programs in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this article is to describe the history of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residency Program at Universidad El Bosque in Bogota.

  16. A review of computer-aided oral and maxillofacial surgery: planning, simulation and navigation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Xu, Lu; Sun, Yi; Politis, Constantinus

    2016-11-01

    Currently, oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) still poses a significant challenge for surgeons due to the anatomic complexity and limited field of view of the oral cavity. With the great development of computer technologies, he computer-aided surgery has been widely used for minimizing the risks and improving the precision of surgery. Areas covered: The major goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive reference source of current and future development of computer-aided OMFS including surgical planning, simulation and navigation for relevant researchers. Expert commentary: Compared with the traditional OMFS, computer-aided OMFS overcomes the disadvantage that the treatment on the region of anatomically complex maxillofacial depends almost exclusively on the experience of the surgeon.

  17. Which route of antibiotic administration should be used for third molar surgery? A split-mouth study to compare intramuscular and oral intake.

    PubMed

    Crincoli, V; Di Comite, M; Di Bisceglie, M B; Petruzzi, M; Fatone, L; De Biase, C; Tecco, S; Festa, F

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two different routes of antibiotic administration in preventing septic complications in patients undergoing third molar extraction. Twenty-four healthy patients requiring bilateral surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars were successfully enrolled for this study. Depth of impaction, angulation, and relationship of the lower third molars with the mandibular branch had to be overlapping on both sides. A split-mouth design was chosen, so each patient underwent both the first and second surgeries, having for each extraction a different antibiotic route of administration. The second extraction was carried out 1 month later. To compare the effects of the two routes of antibiotic administration, inflammatory parameters, such as edema, trismus, pain, fever, dysphagia and lymphadenopathy were evaluated 2 and 7 days after surgery. Side effects of each therapy were evaluated 48 h after surgery. Oral and intramuscular antibiotic therapies overlap in preventing post-operative complications in dental surgery (p>0.05), even if the oral intake, seems to promote the onset of significant gastrointestinal disorders (p=0.003). This study could help dentists in their ordinary practice to choose the right route of antibiotic administration in the third molar surgery. At the same effectiveness, the higher cost and the minor compliance of the patient seem not to justify a routine antibiotic intramuscular therapy, reserving it for patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

  18. Providing Anesthesia in the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Office: A Look Back, Where We Are Now and a Look Ahead.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, Stuart

    2018-05-01

    Throughout its development the practice of oral and maxillofacial surgery has been richly associated with the provision of anesthetic services. Dentists and particularly oral and maxillofacial surgeons have advanced the science associated with anesthesia especially in the outpatient setting. This article will look back on the development of anesthesia as it relates to oral and maxillofacial surgery, discuss the current mode of anesthesia in the oral surgeon's practice and look ahead to what innovations are advancing this field. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Managing direct oral anticoagulants in patients undergoing dentoalveolar surgery.

    PubMed

    Patel, J P; Woolcombe, S A; Patel, R K; Obisesan, O; Roberts, L N; Bryant, C; Arya, R

    2017-02-24

    Our objective was to describe our experience of managing a cohort of adult patients prescribed direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) undergoing dentoalveolar procedures between November 2012 and May 2016. Prior to conducting a procedure a formal assessment was made of each patient's anticoagulation treatment. A specific plan was then formulated, balancing the risk of bleeding with the risk of thrombosis. Patients received a telephone consultation one week following treatment to assess any post-operative bleeding. Eighty-two patients underwent 111 oral surgical procedures, the majority of which were dental extractions. In the case of 35 (32%) procedures, advice was given to omit the DOAC, either before or after treatment. There was no bleeding following the majority of procedures. Persistent bleeding followed 15 (13.5%) procedures, of which 7 (6.3%) procedures required specific intervention. The majority of patients prescribed DOACs can undergo dentoalveolar procedures safely. Important considerations when planning treatment are: (i) when the patient usually takes their dose of DOAC, (ii) the time the procedure is performed and, (iii) when the DOAC is taken post-procedure. In our experience, if these factors are considered carefully, omission of DOAC doses is unlikely to be required for most patients.

  20. Preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment attenuates endogenous glucose release 3 days after surgery.

    PubMed

    Soop, Mattias; Nygren, Jonas; Thorell, Anders; Weidenhielm, Lars; Lundberg, Mari; Hammarqvist, Folke; Ljungqvist, Olle

    2004-08-01

    Postoperative metabolism is characterised by insulin resistance and a negative whole-body nitrogen balance. Preoperative carbohydrate treatment reduces insulin resistance in the first day after surgery. We hypothesised that preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment attenuates insulin resistance and improves whole-body nitrogen balance 3 days after surgery. Fourteen patients undergoing total hip replacement were double-blindly randomised to preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment (12.5%, 800 + 400 ml, n = 8) or placebo (n = 6). Glucose kinetics (6,6-D2-glucose), substrate utilisation (indirect calorimetry) and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp) were measured preoperatively and on the third day after surgery. Nitrogen losses were monitored for 3 days after surgery. Values are mean (SEM). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistics were used. Endogenous glucose release during insulin infusion increased after surgery in the placebo group. Preoperative carbohydrate treatment, as compared to placebo, significantly attenuated postoperative endogenous glucose release (0.69 (0.07) vs. 1.21 (0.13)mg kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.01), while whole-body glucose disposal and nitrogen balance were similar between groups. While insulin resistance in the first day after surgery has previously been characterised by reduced glucose disposal, enhanced endogenous glucose release was the main component of postoperative insulin resistance on the third postoperative day. Preoperative carbohydrate treatment attenuated endogenous glucose release on the third postoperative day. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. A randomized trial of preoperative oral carbohydrates in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Sada, Fatos; Krasniqi, Avdyl; Hamza, Astrit; Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta; Bicaj, Besnik; Kavaja, Floren

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrate-rich liquid drinks (CRLDs) have been recommended to attenuate insulin resistance by shortening the preoperative fasting interval. The aim of our study the effect of preoperative oral administration of CRLDs on the well-being and clinical status of patients. A randomized, double blind, prospective study of patients undergoing open colorectal operations (CR) and open cholecyctectomy (CH) was conducted. Patients were divided into three groups: study, placebo, and control. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for seven parameters (thirst, hunger, anxiety, mouth dryness, nausea, weakness and sleep quality) were recorded and compared for two different time periods (up to 24 h postoperatively and from 36 to 48 h postoperatively). The Simplified Acute Physiology Score changes (SAPS)-II between the three groups were also studied. There were 142 patients American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) I or II enrolled in the study (CR = 71 and CH = 71). There were no significant differences in postoperative SAPS-II scores or lengths of hospital stay (LOS) between the groups. However, in CR patients, the degree of thirst was partially improved by drinking CRLDs (P = 0.027). In CH patients, on the other hand, feelings of thirst, hunger, mouth dryness, nausea and weakness showed significant improvement (P < 0.05). Oral administration of carbohydrate-rich liquid drinks (CRLDs) improves the well-being in patients undergoing CH, but the effect is less evident in patients undergoing CR. No significant improvements were seen in clinical status or in length of hospital stay in either group. ANZCTR.org.au: ACTRN12614000995673 (registered on 16/09/2014).

  2. Constraints on the performance of minor surgery by family physicians: study of a 'mock' skin biopsy procedure.

    PubMed

    Rodney, W M; Richards, E; Ounanian, L L; Morrison, J D

    1987-03-01

    Despite the availability of a procedure room equipped for the performance of common surgery procedures, physicians in a family medicine training programme have reported that minor surgery training objectives are not being accomplished. To examine this issue, the frequency of minor surgery procedures was audited among 357 randomly selected medical records. The frequency of documented sigmoidoscopy in this group of active patients over the age of 50 years was 4.8%. A similar low frequency for the performance of skin biopsy was also observed. All 15 senior residents participated in an attitude survey and a timed exercise in which they sought to find the necessary items for performance of a skin biopsy. In a questionnaire the group agreed that sigmoidoscopy and skin biopsies were procedures appropriate for their family practice goals. In their offices, these residents required over nine minutes to partially locate equipment chosen for skin biopsy. The attitude survey revealed few constraints other than insufficient time to perform indicated elective procedures. Further study of procedure room utilization and family physicians' office surgery skills is recommended.

  3. Randomized controlled trial of preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment in major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Plank, L D; McCall, J L; Shapkov, P; McIlroy, K; Gillanders, L K; Merrie, A E H; Torrie, J J; Pugh, F; Koea, J B; Bissett, I P; Parry, B R

    2010-04-01

    Major surgery is associated with postoperative insulin resistance which is attenuated by preoperative carbohydrate (CHO) treatment. The effect of this treatment on clinical outcome after major abdominal surgery has not been assessed in a double-blind randomized trial. Patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery or liver resection were randomized to oral CHO or placebo drinks to be taken on the evening before surgery and 2 h before induction of anaesthesia. Primary outcomes were postoperative length of hospital stay and fatigue measured by visual analogue scale. Sixty-nine and 73 patients were evaluated in the CHO and placebo groups respectively. The groups were well matched with respect to surgical procedure, epidural analgesia, laparoscopic procedures, fasting period before induction and duration of surgery. Postoperative changes in fatigue score from baseline did not differ between the groups. Median (range) hospital stay was 7 (2-35) days in the CHO group and 8 (2-92) days in the placebo group (P = 0.344). For patients not receiving epidural blockade or laparoscopic surgery (20 CHO, 19 placebo), values were 7 (3-11) and 9 (2-48) days respectively (P = 0.054). Preoperative CHO treatment did not improve postoperative fatigue or length of hospital stay after major abdominal surgery. A benefit is not ruled out when epidural blockade or laparoscopic procedures are not used. ACTRN012605000456651 (http://www.anzctr.org.au). Copyright (c) 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. An analysis of oral biopsies extracted from 1995 to 2009, in an oral medicine and surgery unit in Galicia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Sixto-Requeijo, Raquel; Diniz-Freitas, Marco; Torreira-Lorenzo, Juan-Carlos; García-García, Abel; Gándara-Rey, José M

    2012-01-01

    To conduct an analysis of the frequency of oral lesions in biopsies over a 14-year period in the Oral Medicine, Oral Surgery and Implantology Unit. We conducted a retrospective study of biopsies removed from 1995-2009, recording data regarding age, sex, location of the lesions, biopsy types, anatomical and pathological diagnosis and definitive diagnosis. Of the 562 patients studied, the average age was 51.8 years, with a standard deviation of 18.5 (range 5-96). The distribution by sex was 318 (56.6%) women and 244 (43.4%) men. The most common diagnostic category was mucosal pathologies in 37.9% of cases, followed by odontogenic cysts in 27.8%. Malignant tumors accounted for 3.9% of cases, oral squamous cell carcinomas were the most frequent malignancy, appearing in 22 cases. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws was the most common injury within the bone lesions group. Following the performance of 647 biopsies on 562 patients, we can say that the most common injury was radicular cysts (appearing in 108 cases), having found statistical differences in relation to the patients' sex and age.

  5. Evaluation of scientific production in oral surgery in Italy from 1998 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Zizzari, V L; De Carlo, A; Lorusso, F; Tetè, S; Piattelli, A

    2014-05-01

    Dental research, especially in the field of oral surgery, showed a strong and significant increase during the last years. This was probably determined by the introduction among the clinicians of different therapeutic protocols through biomaterials engineering, and by the large broadcasting of scientific knowledge due to new media such as the internet. The aim of this work was to analyze the scientific production of a sample of Italian Oral Surgeons from 1998 to 2012. The scientific production of 252 Active Members belonging to three Italian associations of Oral Surgery (SIdCO, SIO, SICOI) was examined. The number of authors, the number of publications and the number of citation were quantified for three periods of 5 years each from the first year considered along 15 years. The overall sample was then divided into two groups, academics and not academics, in order to differently assess the scientific production conducted inside or outside the University. Over the years, scientific production increased considerably, with a progression not strictly proportional if compared to the number of authors, especially in the last 5 years. By spearately considering the academics and the not academics authors, the biggest contribution to the scientific production increasingly came from the last 5 years, both in terms of authors' and published papers number. The results reported in this bibliometric analysis show how scientific research increasingly pursued by clinicians in oral surgery in the last 15 years.

  6. Evaluation of scientific production in Oral Surgery in Italy from 1998 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Zizzari, V L; De Carlo, A; Lorusso, F; Tetè, S; Piattelli, A

    2014-06-20

    Dental research, especially in the field of oral surgery, showed a strong and significant increase during the last years. This was probably determined by the introduction among the clinicians of different therapeutic protocols through biomaterials engineering, and by the large broadcasting of scientific knowledge due to new media such as the internet. The aim of this work was to analyze the scientific production of a sample of Italian Oral Surgeons from 1998 to 2012. The scientific production of 252 Active Members belonging to three associations of Italian Oral Surgery (SIdCO, SIO, SICOI) was examined. The number of authors, the number of publications and the number of citation were quantified for three periods of 5 years each from the first year considered along 15 years. The overall sample was then divided into two groups, Academics and Not Academics, in order to differently assess the scientific production conducted inside or outside the University. Over the years, scientific production increased considerably, with a progression not strictly proportional if compared to the number of authors, especially in the last 5 years. By spearately considering the Academics and the Not Academics authors, the biggest contribution to the scientific production increasingly came from the last 5 years, both in terms of authors' and published papers number. The results reported in this bibliometric analysis show how scientific research increasingly pursued by clinicians in Oral Surgery in the last 15 years.

  7. [Role of surgery in multimodal treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancer].

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, M O; Riechelmann, H

    2009-02-01

    The value of surgery in multimodal treatment concepts of oral and oropharyngeal cancer, respecting quality of life and survival rates, should be evaluated. Patients with oral or oropharyngeal cancer were grouped, if tumor-targeted surgery was part of a multimodal treatment concept or if the patients received radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy only. Surgical versus non-surgical therapy, age, disease extent, tumor site and comorbidity as measured by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status score were included in a Cox proportional hazard analysis. Quality of life was assessed 3 years following treatment employing the EORTC-C30 and H&N35 questionnaires. Patients treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy only (63/140) had a worse survival (hazard ratio 1.7037, 95 % CI 0.9981 to 2.9080, p = 0.0508) than patients treated with surgery (77/140) as a part of a multimodal treatment concept. Disease extent (p < 0.01) and ASA score (p < 0.01) had a significant impact on survival. Quality of life scores were remarkably similar in surgically and non-surgically treated patients. The results of this study indicate that surgery remains a core modality of oral and oropharyngeal cancer treatment. External beam radiotherapy only, also if applied in current fractionation techniques, may not be sufficient to achieve adequate results.

  8. A review of haptic simulator for oral and maxillofacial surgery based on virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Hu, Junlei

    2018-06-01

    Traditional medical training in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) may be limited by its low efficiency and high price due to the shortage of cadaver resources. With the combination of visual rendering and feedback force, surgery simulators become increasingly popular in hospitals and medical schools as an alternative to the traditional training. Areas covered: The major goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive reference source of current and future developments of haptic OMFS simulators based on virtual reality (VR) for relevant researchers. Expert commentary: Visual rendering, haptic rendering, tissue deformation, and evaluation are key components of haptic surgery simulator based on VR. Compared with traditional medical training, virtual and tactical fusion of virtual environment in surgery simulator enables considerably vivid sensation, and the operators have more opportunities to practice surgical skills and receive objective evaluation as reference.

  9. Oral surgery in the European Union: challenges of diversity in training and practice.

    PubMed

    Nasseripour, M N; Hervé, C; Meningaud, J-P

    2017-02-01

    At the crossroads of medicine and dentistry, oral surgery with orthodontics are the only recognised dental specialties by the European Union. The goal of our study is to evaluate the current state of oral surgery in Europe from its teaching to its practice, the hypothesis being that a notable diversity persists despite European Union harmonisation process. To understand the impact of this diversity applied to European Union freedom of movement and its ethical implications for the practice of oral surgery, English and French questionnaires were sent by email to universities and organisations delivering authorisation to practise in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom chosen based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. An analysis of documents on these organisations' official websites was also conducted. Demographic information was obtained from the aforementioned organisations. The profile of practising oral surgeons is different dependent on the country. The university and hospital trainings conform to European recommendations and span 3-4 years. European Board certification is not required. Continuing education is mandatory only in France, Germany and United Kingdom. As for curricula and scope of practice, no consensus can be derived. There is potential conflict of interest between European Union principles of freedom of movement and protection of all citizens, as member countries do not uniformly apply Directives and recommendations. A new survey of all European Union oral surgery programmes as well as organisations delivering authorisation to practise is necessary to implement across the board harmonisation of training and practice to insure patient safety in light of the migration of European Union practitioners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An investigation into the variability of primary care oral surgery contracts and tariffs in England and Wales (2014/2015).

    PubMed

    Hierons, R J; Gerrard, G; Jones, R

    2017-06-09

    Primary care oral surgery services vary markedly throughout the country but until now there has been a paucity of data on these services. The British Association of Oral Surgeons (BAOS) primary care group (the authors) were tasked to gather data around primary care oral surgery contracts and tariffs and provide evidence-based recommendations on the commissioning of these services. Following a freedom of information (FOI) request, data were obtained for 27 English local area teams and seven Welsh local health boards. The data demonstrated both regional and national variability with respect to primary care oral surgery contracts, concerning both contract type and level of remuneration. These differences are discussed and the authors make recommendations for standardising oral surgery contracts and tariffs.

  11. Physician Assistants Improve Efficiency and Decrease Costs in Outpatient Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Cory M; Daniels, Kimberly M; Flath-Sporn, Susan J; Doyle, Michael; Heald, Ronald; Padwa, Bonnie L

    2016-11-01

    To determine the effects on time, cost, and complication rates of integrating physician assistants (PAs) into the procedural components of an outpatient oral and maxillofacial surgery practice. This is a prospective cohort study of patients from the Department of Plastic and Oral Surgery at Boston Children's Hospital who underwent removal of 4 impacted third molars with intravenous sedation in our outpatient facility. Patients were separated into the "no PA group" and PA group. Process maps were created to capture all activities from room preparation to patient discharge, and all activities were timed for each case. A time-driven activity-based costing method was used to calculate the average times and costs from the provider's perspective for each group. Complication rates were calculated during the periods for both groups. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and significance was set at P < .05. The total process time did not differ significantly between groups, but the average total procedure cost decreased by $75.08 after the introduction of PAs (P < .001). The time that the oral and maxillofacial surgeon was directly involved in the procedure decreased by an average of 19.2 minutes after the introduction of PAs (P < .001). No significant differences in postoperative complications were found. The addition of PAs into the procedural components of an outpatient oral and maxillofacial surgery practice resulted in decreased costs whereas complication rates remained constant. The increased availability of the oral and maxillofacial surgeon after the incorporation of PAs allows for more patients to be seen during a clinic session, which has the potential to further increase efficiency and revenue. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A liberal preoperative fasting regimen improves patient comfort and satisfaction with anesthesia care in day-stay minor surgery.

    PubMed

    Bopp, C; Hofer, S; Klein, A; Weigand, M A; Martin, E; Gust, R

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a single preoperative limited oral intake of a carbohydrate drink could improve perioperative patient comfort and satisfaction with anesthesia care in elective day-stay ophthalmologic surgery. A single-center, prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted in a university hospital. The study included ASA I-III patients undergoing ophthalmologic surgery. Patients undergoing both general anesthesia and local anesthesia were included in the study. The control group fasted in accordance to nil per os after midnight, while patients in the experimental group received 200 mL of a carbohydrate drink 2 h before the operation. Both groups were allowed to drink and eat until midnight ad libitum. Patient characteristics, subjective perceptions, taste of the drink, and satisfaction with anesthesia care were ascertained using a questionnaire administered three times: after the anesthesiologist's visit, before surgery and before discharge from the ward to assess patient comfort. An analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used for statistical analysis. A total of 123 patients were included and 109 patients were randomly assigned to one of two preoperative fasting regimens. Patients drinking 200 mL 2 h before surgery were not as hungry (P<0.05), not as thirsty preoperatively (P<0.001) and not as thirsty after surgery (P<0.05), resulting in increased postoperative satisfaction with anesthesia care (P<0.05). Standardized limited oral preoperative fluid intake increases patient comfort and satisfaction with anesthesia care and should be a part of modern day-stay ophthalmologic surgery.

  13. Addressing Gender Discrimination in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery via the Social Norms Approach.

    PubMed

    Uppgaard, Rachel

    2018-03-28

    Gender discrimination continues to be a challenge faced by women in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The discrimination itself is perpetrated by a small number of individuals, but it is lack of support and intervention by other surgeons that allows this to continue. The social norms approach is one means to break this cycle: first by identifying misperceptions and then by encouraging individuals to intervene instead of remaining bystanders. To move forward as a specialty, we must actively intervene when discrimination and harassment occur. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Minority and Public Insurance Status: Is There a Delay to Alveolar Bone Grafting Surgery?

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Jason; Basta, Marten N; Fischer, John P; Lowe, Kristen M; Mayro, Rosario; Jackson, Oksana

    2017-01-01

      This study sought to determine the timing of alveolar bone grafting (ABG) surgery among children with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) with regard to race and insurance status.   A retrospective chart review of consecutive patients receiving ABG surgery was conducted. A multivariate regression model was constructed using predetermined clinical and demographic variables.   A large, urban cleft referral center.   Nonsyndromic patients with CL±P were eligible for study inclusion.   ABG surgery using autogenous bone harvested from the anterior iliac crest.   The primary outcome of interest was age at ABG surgery.   A total of 233 patients underwent ABG surgery at 8.1 ± 2.3 years of age. African American and Hispanic patients received delayed ABG surgery compared with Caucasian patients by approximately 1 year (P < .05). There was no difference in ABG surgery timing by insurance status (P > .05).   The timing of ABG surgery varied by race but not by insurance status. Greater resources may be needed to ensure timely delivery of cleft care to African American and Hispanic children.

  15. Surgical Navigation: A Systematic Review of Indications, Treatments, and Outcomes in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Azarmehr, Iman; Stokbro, Kasper; Bell, R Bryan; Thygesen, Torben

    2017-09-01

    This systematic review investigates the most common indications, treatments, and outcomes of surgical navigation (SN) published from 2010 to 2015. The evolution of SN and its application in oral and maxillofacial surgery have rapidly developed over recent years, and therapeutic indications are discussed. A systematic search in relevant electronic databases, journals, and bibliographies of the included articles was carried out. Clinical studies with 5 or more patients published between 2010 and 2015 were included. Traumatology, orthognathic surgery, cancer and reconstruction surgery, skull-base surgery, and foreign body removal were the areas of interests. The search generated 13 articles dealing with traumatology; 5, 6, 2, and 0 studies were found that dealt with the topics of orthognathic surgery, cancer and reconstruction surgery, skull-base surgery, and foreign body removal, respectively. The average technical system accuracy and intraoperative precision reported were less than 1 mm and 1 to 2 mm, respectively. In general, SN is reported to be a useful tool for surgical planning, execution, evaluation, and research. The largest numbers of studies and patients were identified in the field of traumatology. Treatment of complex orbital fractures was considerably improved by the use of SN compared with traditionally treated control groups. SN seems to be a very promising addition to the surgical toolkit. Planning details of the surgical procedure in a 3-dimensional virtual environment and execution with real-time guidance can significantly improve precision. Among factors to be considered are the financial investments necessary and the learning curve. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  16. Increasing the Capabilities of the Oral Surgery Team With a RN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    deep sedation and general anesthesia in dentistry . Retrieved October 10, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ada.org/prof/resources/positions... General Dentistry , 2005). Increasing the capabilities 7 However, this is only part of the story. Oral surgery procedures range from the relatively...aid in the management of sedation and/or general anesthesia administration in the office. Five modules are covered in the course, each with its own

  17. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative anesthesia assessment and monitoring in oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Sims, Paul G

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the general methods used to assess patients before, during, and after operative procedures, sedation, or general anesthesia by the oral and maxillofacial surgery team. The details about specific disease processes will be discussed in other articles. These methods and modalities are not standards, but are commonly used in offices and clinics in the United States where sedation and anesthesia are provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender trends in authorship in oral and maxillofacial surgery literature: A 30-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Nkenke, Emeka; Seemann, Rudolf; Vairaktaris, Elefterios; Schaller, Hans-Günter; Rohde, Maximilian; Stelzle, Florian; Knipfer, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the gender distribution of first and senior authorships in important oral and maxillofacial journals over the 30-year period from 1980 to 2010. Articles published in three representative oral and maxillofacial surgery journals were selected. The years 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 were chosen as representative points in time for article selection. Original research, case reports, technical notes, and reviews were included in the analysis. Case reports and technical notes were pooled in one group. For each article, the gender of the first author as well as that of the senior author was determined, based on the inspection of their first name. The type of article was determined and the country of origin of the article was documented. A total 1412 articles were subjected to the data analysis. A significant increase in female authorship in oral and maxillofacial surgery could be identified over the chosen 30-year period. However, the number of publications by male authors was still significantly higher at all points of time, exceeding those of female authors by at least 3.8 fold in 2010. As there is a trend towards feminization of medicine and dentistry, the results of the present study may serve as the basis for further analysis of the current situation, and the identification of necessary actions to accelerate the closure of the gender gap in publishing in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of pre and postoperative anxiety in patients undergoing ambulatory oral surgery in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Gilabert, Eva; Luque-Romero, Luis-Gabriel; Bejarano-Avila, Gracia; Garcia-Palma, Alfonso; Rollon-Mayordomo, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Background To analyze the pre- and postoperative anxiety level in patients undergoing ambulatory oral surgery (AOS) in a primary healthcare center (PHC). Material and Methods Prospective and descriptive clinical study on 45 patients who underwent AOS procedures in the dental clinic of a public PHC of Spain between April and September 2015. Anxiety analysis was carried out with pre- and postoperative anxiety-state (STAI-S), anxiety-trait (STAI-T) and dental anxiety (MDAS) questionnaires. A descriptive, inferential and binary logistic regression analysis were performed for the variables age, sex, educational level, previous experience of oral treatment, type of oral surgery, degree of third molar impaction, surgical time, intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, and pain score with a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results The majority were female (57.8%) with a mean age of 33.5+9.6 years. The most frequent procedure was the lower third molar removal (82.2%). The mean pain score on the VAS was 1.6+1.8. The incidence of complications was low (7.8%). There was a statistically significant association between post- and preoperative anxiety (r=0.56, p<0.001) and a correlation between pain score and postoperative anxiety (Rho= -0.35, p=0.02). The likelihood of postoperative anxiety was related to preoperative anxiety (OR=1.3, p=0.03). Conclusions AOS in a HPC is safe and should be more encouraged in the public primary care. The emotional impact on users was relatively low, highlighting that the preoperative anxiety levels were higher than the postoperative ones. Psychological factors related to pre- and postoperative anxiety should be considered in the AOS carried out in PC. Key words:Anxiety, oral surgery, ambulatory surgery, primary care, STAI scale, postoperative pain. PMID:29053655

  20. Perceptions of Teaching Methods for Preclinical Oral Surgery: A Comparison with Learning Styles

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Esam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Dental extraction is a routine part of clinical dental practice. For this reason, understanding the way how students’ extraction knowledge and skills development are important. Problem Statement and Objectives: To date, there is no accredited statement about the most effective method for the teaching of exodontia to dental students. Students have different abilities and preferences regarding how they learn and process information. This is defined as learning style. In this study, the effectiveness of active learning in the teaching of preclinical oral surgery was examined. The personality type of the groups involved in this study was determined, and the possible effect of personality type on learning style was investigated. Method: This study was undertaken over five years from 2011 to 2015. The sample consisted of 115 students and eight staff members. Questionnaires were submitted by 68 students and all eight staff members involved. Three measures were used in the study: The Index of Learning Styles (Felder and Soloman, 1991), the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), and the styles of learning typology (Grasha and Hruska-Riechmann). Results and Discussion: Findings indicated that demonstration and minimal clinical exposure give students personal validation. Frequent feedback on their work is strongly indicated to build the cognitive, psychomotor, and interpersonal skills needed from preclinical oral surgery courses. Conclusion: Small group cooperative active learning in the form of demonstration and minimal clinical exposure that gives frequent feedback and students’ personal validation on their work is strongly indicated to build the skills needed for preclinical oral surgery courses. PMID:28357004

  1. Management of adult recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with oral acyclovir following micro laryngeal surgery: a case series.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Jagdish; Sreenivas, V; Hemanth, V; Nandakumar, R

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the role of oral acyclovir in monthly regimes after microdebrider assisted excision in 3 patients with adult recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (ARRP). Three patients with ARRP who presented to a tertiary referral hospital in stridor were initially treated with a tracheostomy in order to secure airway. On further evaluation by videolaryngoscopy extensive bilateral laryngeal papillomatosis was noted with history of similar conditions in the past for which they were repeatedly operated. They were admitted and underwent Microlaryngeal surgery and laryngeal microdebrider assisted surgery under general anesthesia. Post operatively a course of oral acyclovir at 800 mg/5 times/day for 5 days was administered. On repeat assessment with videolaryngoscopy at monthly intervals a complete remission of the disease was noted with no residual disease at the end of 1 year in 2 cases. One case had a recurrence. Renal parameters were monitored periodically. It may be concluded that the action of anti viral drugs at regular intervals in addition to a short course of oral steroids lead to rapid recovery and prevented latent virus activation within the laryngo tracheal system hence maintaining long term improvement. This can avoid multiple laryngeal surgeries, repeated respiratory emergencies and risk for malignant transformation in the future thereby reducing morbidity and effect on quality of life.

  2. An audit of the use of the CO2 laser in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Santos de Almeida, Darcy

    2004-09-01

    The use of the Carbon dioxide Laser to perform surgical procedures in the oral cavity has been described as a successful method for the treatment of several conditions affecting the maxillofacial region. Several benefits of the use of the CO2 Laser have been reported and includes reduction of postoperative pain and edema, local hemosthasis, reduction of scaring and wound contraction and infection. The aim of this work is to present our clinical experience in performing several surgical procedures using the CO2 Laser to treat soft tissue pathologies of both benign and malign origin as well as on performing pre-prosthetic surgery, apical surgery and on the treatment of pre-malignancies. Our experience demonstrate that the use of the Carbon dioxide Laser in treating oral soft-tissue pathology presents advantages over conventional techniques and local discomfort and pain are the most common complaints after Laser surgery. The Carbon dioxide Laser does not offer any enhanced cure-rate for oral pathology, but rather it is a precise means of removing soft tissue lesions with little upset afterwards.

  3. Effect of Oral Lactoferrin on Cataract Surgery Induced Dry Eye: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Devendra, Jaya; Singh, Sneha

    2015-10-01

    Cataract surgery is one of the most frequently performed intra-ocular surgeries, of these manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS) is a time tested technique of cataract removal. Any corneal incisional surgery, including cataract surgery, can induce dry eye postoperatively. Various factors have been implicated, of which oneis the inflammation induced by the surgery. Lactoferrin, a glycoprotein present in tears is said to have anti-inflammatory effects, and promotes cell growth. It has been used orally in patients of immune mediated dry eye to alleviate symptoms. This study was aimed to evaluate the dry eyes induced by manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery, and the effect if any, of oral lactoferrin on the dry eyes. A single centre, prospective randomised controlled trial with a concurrent parallel design. The study was carried out on patients presenting in the OPD of Rohilkhand Medical College hospital for cataract surgery. Sixty four patients of cataract surgery were included in the study. Patients with pre-existing dry eyes, ocular disease or systemic disease predisposing to dry eyes were excluded from the study. The selected patients were assigned into two groups by simple randomisation-Control Group A-32 patients that did not receive oral lactoferrin postoperatively. Group B-32 patients that received oral lactoferrin 350 gm postoperatively from day 1 after SICS. All patients were operated for cataract and their pre and postoperative (on days 7, 14, 30 and 60) dry eye status was assessed using the mean tear film break-up time (tBUT) and Schirmer test 1 (ST 1) as the evaluating parameters. Subjective evaluation of dry eye was done using Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scoring. Data was analysed for 58 patients, as 6 did not complete the follow up. Unpaired t-test was used to calculate the p-values. There was a statistically significant difference between the tBUT values of the Control and Lactoferrin group from day 14 onwards. The tBUT of control group

  4. Magnitude of Myocutaneous Flaps and Factors Associated With Loss of Volume in Oral Cancer Reconstructive Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuki; Yanamoto, Souichi; Ota, Yoshihide; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide; Umeda, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Myocutaneous flaps are often used to repair oral and maxillofacial defects after surgery for oral cancer; however, their volume decreases during the postoperative period. To facilitate treatment planning, the authors measured the extent of such postoperative flap volume loss and identified associated factors in patients who underwent oral reconstruction with myocutaneous flaps. The authors designed and performed a retrospective observational study of patients who underwent reconstructive procedures involving rectus abdominal myocutaneous (RAM) or pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flaps at Tokai University Hospital, Kobe University Hospital, or Nagasaki University Hospital from April 2009 through March 2013. Flap type and other clinical variables were examined as potential predictors of flap loss. The primary outcome was flap loss at 6 months postoperatively. Correlations between each potential predictor and the primary outcome were examined using multiple regression analysis. The subjects were 75 patients whose oral defects were reconstructed with RAM flaps (n = 57) or PMMC flaps (n = 18). RAM flaps exhibited a mean volume shrinkage of 22% at 6 months postoperatively, which was less than the 27.5% displayed by the PMMC flaps, but the difference was not important. Renal failure, previous surgery of the oral region, postoperative radiotherapy, and postoperative serum albumin level were found to be meaningful risk factors for postoperative flap volume loss. The results of this study suggest that larger flaps should be used in patients who possess these risk factors or are scheduled to undergo postoperative radiotherapy. Future studies should examine the utility of postoperative nutritional management for preventing flap volume loss. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An evaluation of the retromolar space for oral tracheal tube placement for maxillofacial surgery in children.

    PubMed

    Arora, Suman; Rattan, Vidya; Bhardwaj, Neerja

    2006-11-01

    The eruption of the first and second permanent molar teeth may influence the size of the retromolar space. In this study we evaluated the adequacy of the retromolar space for retromolar intubation and any effect of eruption of the first and second permanent molar teeth on this space in children. Children 3-15 yr of age, undergoing surgery other than facial surgery were included for evaluation of the retromolar space. After standard oral tracheal intubation, the endotracheal tube was shifted to the retromolar space and the mandible was slowly closed to achieve centric occlusion. At the same time, any increase in airway resistance or decrease in oxygen saturation was noted. In the second part of the study, the feasibility of retromolar intubation in pediatric patients undergoing maxillofacial surgery with intraoperative maxillomandibular fixation was assessed. There was enough space for endotracheal tube placement in the retromolar region. The eruption of the first and second permanent molar teeth did not affect intubation. It was possible to achieve centric occlusion in 79 of 80 children with the endotracheal tube positioned in the retromolar space. Retromolar intubation was successfully accomplished in six pediatric patients undergoing maxillomandibular fixation and maxillofacial surgery. The retromolar space can be safely used for intubation in children when intraoperative maxillomandibular fixation, and simultaneous access to the nose and oral cavity are needed.

  6. Midazolam intravenous conscious sedation in oral surgery. A retrospective study of 372 cases.

    PubMed

    Runes, J; Ström, C

    1996-01-01

    In 1987 the Swedish Dental Act was amended to allow Swedish dentists who have undergone a specific accreditation course to administer intra-venous sedation. Midazolam is a benzodiazepin derivate with express sedative and hypnotic qualities, powerful amnesia, a short half-life time and few secondary effects. From 1989-1994 midazolam intravenous conscious sedation (ICS) was administered in 372 cases in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, County Hospital, Falun. This study presents data on the 298 patients. Although surgical removal of impacted wisdom teeth predominated, implant surgery, reduction of fractures and correction of anomalies were also carried out. Supplementary sedative premedication was rarely used. Most patients were treated under local anaesthesia. The mean dosage was 10.45 mg (range 1.25-40 mg). Mean dosage/kg was 0.15 mg (range 0.03-0.50 mg). The average duration of anaesthesia was 50 minutes. The average recovery time was 94 minutes. Three hundred and sixty-nine of 372 planned treatments were completed. No serious complications occurred. The patients were co-operative during surgery and were satisfied with the treatment. Compared with full anaesthesia this method required less resources and is a valuable complement in management of anxious patients undergoing oral surgery.

  7. Bilingualism/Second-Language Research and the Assessment of Oral Proficiency in Minority Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Liliana

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses some of the challenges that researchers working in the fields of bilingualism and second-language acquisition (SLA) and in the field of language testing face in developing comparable and culturally and cognitively appropriate data collection and language assessment tools for bilingual children from rural minority-language…

  8. Oral nutrition or water loading before hip replacement surgery; a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ljunggren, Stefan; Hahn, Robert G

    2012-07-02

    Surgery induces insulin resistance that might be alleviated by a nutritional drink given preoperatively. The authors hypothesized that some of the beneficial effects of the drink could be attributed to the volume component (approximately 1 L) rather than to the nutrients. Sixty patients scheduled for elective total hip replacement under spinal anesthesia were recruited to a clinical trial, and randomly allocated to preoperative fasting, to oral ingestion of tap water, or to oral ingestion of a carbohydrate drink. An intravenous glucose tolerance test calculated glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity on the day before surgery, in the postoperative ward, and on the day after surgery. Other parameters were stress (cortisol in plasma and urine), muscle catabolism (urinary 3-methylhistidine), and wellbeing. Fifty-seven patients completed the study. In the postoperative ward, the glucose clearance and the insulin response had decreased from the previous day by 23% and 36%, respectively. Insulin sensitivity did not decrease until the next morning (-48%) and was due to an increased insulin response (+51%). Cortisol excretion was highest on the day of surgery, while 3-methylhistidine increased 1 day later. Follow-up on the third postoperative day showed an average of 1.5 complications per patient. Wellbeing was better 2 weeks after than before the surgery. None of the measured parameters differed significantly between the study groups. Preoperative ingestion of tap water or a nutritional drink had no statistically significant effect on glucose clearance, insulin sensitivity, postoperative complications, or wellbeing in patients undergoing elective hip surgery.

  9. The advantages of carbon dioxide laser applications in paediatric oral surgery. A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hanna, R; Parker, S

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate and demonstrate the advantages of the carbon dioxide laser in paediatric oral surgery patients in terms of less post-operative complications, healing without scaring, functional benefits, positive patient perception and acceptance of the treatment. One hundred fit and healthy paediatric patients (aged 4-15 years) were recruited to undergo laser surgery for different soft tissue conditions. The outcome of these laser treatments was examined. The Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale was employed to evaluate the pain before, immediately after laser treatment in the clinic and 1 day after post-operatively at home. Post-operative complications and patients' perception and satisfaction were self-reported during a review telephone call the day after treatment. The patients were reviewed 2 weeks after surgery. Laser parameter was 1.62 W, measured by power meter, continuous wave mode with 50 % emission cycle. The beam spot size at the target tissue was 0.8 mm. The pain score pre-operative, during and immediately after laser treatment was rated 0. Whilst the pain score 1 day after surgery was rated between 0 and 2, the healing time was measured over 2 weeks. None of the patients reported post-operative complications after surgery. Patients' perception and acceptance were rated very good. Laser dentistry is a promising field in modern minimally invasive dentistry, which enables provision of better care for children and adolescents. In this cohort study, the use of the carbon dioxide laser therapy offers a desirable, acceptable and minimally invasive technique in the surgical management of soft tissues in paediatric oral surgery with minimal post-operative complications.

  10. Presurgical motivations, self-esteem, and oral health of orthognathic surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dedong; Wang, Fang; Wang, Xudong; Fang, Bing; Shen, Steve Guofang

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate motivations, self-esteem, and oral health for undergoing orthognathic patients by gender in China before orthognathic surgery. Using a prospective and control study design, 429 subjects in China were collected from December 2010 to May 2011. The patient group consisted of 210 consecutive healthy patients, and 219 young individuals comprised the control group. All the subjects filled out a questionnaire and were assessed by Self-esteem Scale and Oral Health Impact Profile validated for Chinese patients before surgery. To measure the discrepancy, the Student t test was computed. P <0.05 was considered significant. In China, major motivations for orthognathic surgery are to improve facial appearance (83.33%), occlusion (50%), and self-confidence (48.1%). Females expect to improve facial appearance (83.87%), self-confidence (43.55%), and occlusion (41.94%). Males are for the improvement of facial appearance (82.56%), occlusion (63.95%), and self-confidence (54.65%). Self-esteem in the patient group is obviously lower (P < 0.01). There is a significant difference of self-esteem in female groups (P < 0.01), but none in male groups. Statistically significant differences were observed on oral health between both sexes. (1) Special attention should be paid on patients' ethnic, economic, cultural, and social aspects. In Chinese orthognathic patients, improving facial appearance is the primary motivation. Self-confidence has been more frequently mentioned, while headache far less than other countries. (2) Female patients have less self-esteem than females in the control group. (3) Patients' oral health are worse than those in the control group.

  11. Understanding information synthesis in oral surgery for the design of systems for clinical information technology.

    PubMed

    Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Chanakarn, Piyawadee; Phisutphatthana, Sirada; Pongpatarat, Kanchala; Wongwaithongdee, Udom; Oupadissakoon, Chanekrid

    2015-12-01

    An understanding of the processes of clinical decision-making is essential for the development of health information technology. In this study we have analysed the acquisition of information during decision-making in oral surgery, and analysed cognitive tasks using a "think-aloud" protocol. We studied the techniques of processing information that were used by novices and experts as they completed 4 oral surgical cases modelled from data obtained from electronic hospital records. We studied 2 phases of an oral surgeon's preoperative practice including the "diagnosis and planning of treatment" and "preparing for a procedure". A framework analysis approach was used to analyse the qualitative data, and a descriptive statistical analysis was made of the quantitative data. The results showed that novice surgeons used hypotheticodeductive reasoning, whereas experts recognised patterns to diagnose and manage patients. Novices provided less detail when they prepared for a procedure. Concepts regarding "signs", "importance", "decisions", and "process" occurred most often during acquisition of information by both novices and experts. Based on these results, we formulated recommendations for the design of clinical information technology that would help to improve the acquisition of clinical information required by oral surgeons at all levels of expertise in their clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effects of preoperative oral glucose on perioperative insulin resistance and plasma proteins of intestinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Feng, Xia; Niu, Li-jun; Yang, Dong-jie; Huang, Wen-qi; Huang, Xiong-qing

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effects of oral intake of glucose solution before surgery on the pH at the lower esophagus, perioperative blood glucose level, and plasmic protein in patients undergoing radical resection for colorectal cancer. Between January 2008 and December 2008, 60 patients undergoing radical surgery for colorectal cancer were enrolled and randomized into three groups using the table of random digits. Four patients were withdrawn from the study. Patients in group A (n=19) were given 800 ml of 12.5% glucose solution for oral intake the night before surgery, and 200 ml two hours before surgery. Patients in group B (n=19) were given distilled water instead of glucose. Patients in group C (n=18) were asked to fast for 8-12 hours before operation. Combined general and epidural anesthesia was used. pH at the lower esophagus was monitored during intubation and extubation. Albumin, transferrin, prealbumin, insulin, and fasting blood glucose were measured before surgery and at postoperative day 1, 3, and 7. pH at the lower esophagus was 8.05±0.43 in group A, 7.98±0.41 in group B, and 7.94±0.41 in group C. There were no perioperative acid regurgitations (P>0.05). Serum insulin in group A at postoperative day 1 was (16.32±16.11) μU/L, which was significantly lower than that in group B (30.65±41.74) μU/L and group C (34.01±52.91) μU/L. Log HOMA-IR in group A at postoperative day 1 was significantly lower than that in group B and group C (0.49±0.35 vs. 0.59±0.56 and 0.60±0.63, P<0.05). Transferrin in group C at postoperative day 3 and 7 was significantly lower than that in the other two groups, as was albumin at postoperative day 3 (P<0.05). Oral liquid intake 2 hours before surgery is not associated with increased risk of regurgitation or aspiration during intubation and extubation, and may glucose solution intake reduce insulin resistance and protein degradation after colorectal surgery.

  13. Oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) following third molar surgery in Sub-Saharan Africans: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Braimah, Ramat Oyebunmi; Ndukwe, Kizito Chioma; Owotade, Foluso John; Aregbesola, Stephen Babatunde

    2016-01-01

    Surgical extraction of the impacted third molar is one of the commonest minor oral surgical procedures carried out in oral surgery. Problems created by the disturbances in post-extraction wound healing and physiologic sequelae of third molar surgery can significantly affect the patient's quality of life. The study population consisted of 135 subjects that required surgical extraction of mandibular third molar under local anesthesia and met the inclusion criteria. Patients were assessed pre-operatively and post-operatively on days 1,3,5,7, and 14 using the United Kingdom Oral Health related Quality of Life questionnaire (UK-OHRQoL). This study also showed that surgical removal of impacted teeth exerted a negative influence on patient's Quality of life (QoL) across various physical, social, psychological aspects of life. UK-OHRQoL-16 mean scores showed that severe difficulty in eating was experienced by 106 (78%) patients on postoperative day (POD) 1. The symptom however improved within the first week with only 16 (11.9%) experiencing this symptom by POD 7 and none by POD 14. There was a deterioration in oral health related quality of life in the immediate postoperative period particularly POD 1 and 3 following third molar surgery, which slowly returned to preoperative level by 7th day. Routines such as eating, laughing and smiling, work and speech were also affected. Patients need to be informed of these symptoms after third molar removal so as to enable them prepare very well for the procedure and its sequelae.

  14. Oral triiodothyronine normalizes triiodothyronine levels after surgery for pediatric congenital heart disease*.

    PubMed

    Marwali, Eva M; Boom, Cindy E; Sakidjan, Indriwanto; Santoso, Anwar; Fakhri, Dicky; Kartini, Ay; Kekalih, Aria; Schwartz, Steven M; Haas, Nikolaus A

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine if oral triiodothyronine supplementation could prevent the decrease of serum triiodothyronine levels that commonly occurs after cardiopulmonary bypass for pediatric congenital heart surgery. Secondary objectives included identifying any significant adverse effects of oral triiodothyronine supplementation, including any effects on the thyroid/pituitary axis. Randomized, placebo-controlled, doubleblind clinical trial Operating room and ICU. Infants and children younger than 2 years of age undergoing congenital heart surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 43). Subjects were assigned to placebo (n = 15, group A) or one of two treatment groups: a low-dose group (group B, n = 14, 0.5 mcg/kg triiodothyronine orally every 24 hr for 3 d) or a high-dose group (group C, n = 14, 0.5 mcg/kg triiodothyronine orally every 12 hr for 3 d). Thyroid hormone, including total and free triiodothyronine levels at predetermined time points, potential side effects indicating hyperthyroidism, indicators of the thyroid-pituitary axis, and clinical endpoints. Oral triiodothyronine supplementation twice-daily maintained serum triiodothyronine levels within normal limits in group C, whereas serum levels progressively declined in groups A and B. A statistically significant difference in triiodothyronine levels between the treatment groups occurred between 18 and 36 hours post cross-clamp release, with the largest difference in serum levels between group C and group A noted at 36 hours post cross-clamp release (total triiodothyronine, 0.71 ± 0.15 [0.34-1.08] ng/mL [p < 0.01]; free triiodothyronine, 2.56 ± 0.49 [1.33-3.79] pg/mL [p < 0.01]). There was no evidence of hyperthyroidism or suppression of the pituitary-thyroid axis in either treatment group Oral triiodothyronine supplementation at a dose of 0.5 mcg/kg every 12 hours for 3 days can maintain total and free triiodothyronine levels within normal limits after open-heart surgery using cardiopulmonary

  15. Swallowing Disorders after Oral Cavity and Pharyngolaryngeal Surgery and Role of Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zurlo, Valeria; Ansarin, Mohssen; Di Pietro, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer diagnosed worldwide and the eighth most common cause of cancer death. Malignant tumors of the oral cavity, oropharynx, and larynx can be treated by surgical resection or radiotheraphy with or without chemotheraphy and have a profound impact on quality of life functions, including swallowing. When surgery is the chosen treatment modality, the patient may experience swallowing impairment in the oral and pharyngeal phases of deglutition. A videofluoroscopic study of swallow enables the morphodynamics of the pharyngeal-esophageal tract to be accurately examined in patients with prior surgery. These features allow an accurate tracking of the various phases of swallowing in real time, identifying the presence of functional disorders and of complications during the short- and long-term postoperative recovery. The role of imaging is fundamental for the therapist to plan rehabilitation. In this paper, the authors aim to describe the videofluoroscopic study of swallow protocol and related swallowing impairment findings in consideration of different types of surgery. PMID:28496456

  16. Knowledge, attitude and awareness of speciality of oral and maxillofacial surgery amongst medical consultants of vadodara district in gujarat state.

    PubMed

    Shah, Navin; Patel, Nameeta; Mahajan, Amit; Shah, Rishabh

    2015-03-01

    Aim of this study was to survey the knowledge, attitude and awareness of the subject of oral and maxillofacial surgery speciality amongst the consultants and practitioners of medicine in district of Vadodara. List of members of various specialities in medical faculty were obtained from Indian Medical Association, Baroda branch and staff members of medical colleges of Vadodara district. A questionnaire survey was made which was distributed and their options were noted. Surgical removal of third molar, oral submucous fibrosis and implants were the problems where oral surgeons were preferred. For maxillofacial trauma plastic surgeons and orthopaedic surgeons were preferred than oral surgeons. For maxillofacial pathology E.N.T surgeons were mostly preferred. There is low awareness regarding oral and maxillofacial surgery amongst the general practitioners and medical consultants in Vadodara district. Survey shows that our training needs to be upgraded and revamped so that our trainees (post graduates in oral surgery) and have a greater "hands-on" exposure during their postgraduate training. They will then be able to handle increasingly complex cases in a multispecialty setup when they graduate and earn the mutual respect of the medical and dental fraternity and also the general public. MBBS students during their dental postings should be made aware of the depth and scope of oral surgery branch.

  17. What is the benefit of using amniotic membrane in oral surgery? A comprehensive review of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Fénelon, M; Catros, S; Fricain, J C

    2018-06-01

    Since its first use for the reconstruction of tissue defects in the oral cavity in 1985, human amniotic membrane (hAM) has been widely studied in the field of oral surgery. Despite the growing number of publications in this field, there is no systematic review or meta-analysis concerning its clinical applications, outcome assessments, and relevance in oral surgery. The aim of this review is to provide a thorough understanding of the potential use of hAM for soft and hard tissue reconstruction in the oral cavity. A systematic electronic and a manual literature search of the MEDLINE-PubMed database and Scopus database was completed. Patient, Intervention, Comparison and Outcomes (PICO) technique was used to select the relevant articles to meet the objective. Studies using hAM for oral reconstruction, and conducted on human subjects, were included in this survey. A total of 17 articles were analyzed. Five areas of interest were identified as potential clinical application: periodontal surgery, cleft palate and tumor reconstruction, prosthodontics and peri-implant surgery. Overall, periodontal surgery was the only discipline to assess the efficacy of hAM with randomized clinical trials. The wide variability of preservation methods of hAM and the lack of objective measurements were observed in this study. hAM is already used in the field of oral surgery. Despite this, there is weak clinical evidence demonstrating convincingly the benefit of hAM in this area compared to standard surgery. Several studies now suggest the interest of hAM for periodontal tissue repair. Due to its biological and mechanical properties, hAM seems to be a promising treatment for wound healing in various areas of oral reconstruction. However, further randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these preliminary results.

  18. Building the Minority Faculty Development Pipeline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Paul E.; Ganey, James H.; Brown, Marc D.

    2003-01-01

    Describes efforts toward minority faculty development in dentistry, including those of Harlem Hospital-Columbia University School of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, the National Dental Association Foundation, and Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center. Explains that critical elements in the success of these programs are environment, selection criteria,…

  19. Knowledge and Awareness of Medical Practitioners of Jazan City towards Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery as a Specialty.

    PubMed

    Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Al-Iryani, Ghassan M; Namis, Sultan Mohammed; Hezam, Asma Ali; Swaid, Salma Abdu; Alomar, Anas Esam

    2018-03-15

    In many health services communities the scope of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) as a discipline is frequently not probably understood. Good awareness towards OMFS among different branches of health services providers is essential for better referral strategies and will be for the benefit of the patient. The cross-sectional study was done using a specially prepared questionnaire distributed randomly to 125 general medical practitioners working in Jazan province. In this questionnaire, there were also some close-ended questions to evaluate awareness regarding a variety of conditions treated by the oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Out of 125 participants, 105 (84%) were aware of the oral and maxillofacial surgery as a speciality branch of dentistry. Only 52 (41.6%) participants were aware of the different treatment modalities coming under the scope of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Also in the referral of cases to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon, 50 (40%) participants referred their oral and maxillofacial region cases to OMS. Tooth removal was the only procedure where most of the medical practitioners knew it is a speciality procedure of the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. For facial fractures, 76 medical practitioners believe it comes under the scope of the orthopaedic surgeon. Similarly, for facial abscesses, 81 and 36 practitioners responded that it is a job of a general surgeon and OMS respectively. There is low awareness toward the scope of oral and maxillofacial surgery in the medical community. Knowledge and awareness of the scope of oral and maxillofacial surgery can improve the success and promptness of delivery of health services.

  20. Applying aviation factors to oral and maxillofacial surgery--the human element.

    PubMed

    Seager, Leonie; Smith, Dave W; Patel, Anish; Brunt, Howard; Brennan, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    There are many similarities between flying commercial aircraft and surgery, particularly in relation to minimising risk, and managing potentially fatal or catastrophic complications, or both. Since 1979, the development of Crew Resource Management (CRM) has improved air safety significantly by reducing human factors that are responsible for error. Similar developments in the operating theatre have, to a certain extent, lagged behind aviation, and it is well recognised that we can learn much from the industry. An increasing number of publications on aviation factors relate to surgery but to our knowledge there is a lack of research in our own specialty. We discuss how aviation principles related to human factors can be translated to the operating theatre to improve teamwork and safety for patients. Clinical research is clearly needed to develop this fascinating area more fully. Copyright © 2011 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-ionizing real-time ultrasonography in implant and oral surgery: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hsun-Liang; Wang, Hom-Lay; Fowlkes, Jeffery Brian; Giannobile, William V; Kripfgans, Oliver D

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging has potential to complement radiographic imaging modalities in implant and oral surgery given that it is non-ionizing and provides instantaneous images of anatomical structures. For application in oral and dental imaging, its qualities are dependent on its ability to accurately capture these complex structures. Therefore, the aim of this feasibility study was to investigate ultrasound to image soft tissue, hard tissue surface topography and specific vital structures. A clinical ultrasound scanner, paired with two 14-MHz transducers of different sizes (one for extraoral and the other for intraoral scans), was used to scan the following structures on a fresh cadaver: (i) the facial bone surface and soft tissue of maxillary anterior teeth, (ii) the greater palatine foramen; (iii) the mental foramen and (iv) the lingual nerve. Multiple measurements relevant to these structures were made on the ultrasound images and compared to those on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and/or direct measurements. Ultrasound imaging could delineate hard tissue surfaces, including enamel, root dentin and bone as well as soft tissue with high resolution (110 μm wavelength). The greater palatine foramen, mental foramen and lingual nerve were clearly shown in ultrasound images. Merging ultrasound and CBCT images demonstrated overall spatial accuracy of ultrasound images, which was corroborated by data gathered from direct measurements. For the first time, this study provides proof-of-concept evidence that ultrasound can be a real-time and non-invasive alternative for the evaluation of oral and dental anatomical structures relevant for implant and oral surgery. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Combination of Oral Antibiotics and Mechanical Bowel Preparation Reduces Surgical Site Infection in Colorectal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ohman, Kerri A; Wan, Leping; Guthrie, Tracey; Johnston, Bonnie; Leinicke, Jennifer A; Glasgow, Sean C; Hunt, Steven R; Mutch, Matthew G; Wise, Paul E; Silviera, Matthew L

    2017-10-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are a common complication after colorectal surgery. An infection prevention bundle (IPB) was implemented to improve outcomes. A standardized IPB that included the administration of oral antibiotics with a mechanical bowel preparation, preoperative shower with chlorhexidine, hair removal and skin preparation in holding, antibiotic wound irrigation, and a "clean-closure" protocol was implemented in January 2013. Data from the American College of Surgeons NSQIP were analyzed at a single academic institution to compare pre-IPB and post-IPB SSI rates. In January 2014, a prospective database was implemented to determine compliance with individual IPB elements and their effect on outcomes. For the 24 months pre-IPB, the overall SSI rate was 19.7%. During the 30 months after IPB implementation, the SSI rate decreased to 8.2% (p < 0.0001). A subset of 307 patients was identified in both NSQIP and our prospective compliance databases. Elements of IPB associated with decreased SSI rates included preoperative shower with chlorhexidine (4.6% vs 16.2%; p = 0.005), oral antibiotics (3.4% vs 15.4%; p < 0.001), and mechanical bowel preparation (4.4% vs 14.3%; p = 0.008). Patients who received a full bowel preparation of both oral antibiotics and a mechanical bowel preparation had a 2.7% SSI rate compared with 15.8% for all others (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, full bowel preparation was independently associated with significantly fewer SSI (adjusted odds ratio 0.2; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.9; p = 0.006). Implementation of an IPB was successful in decreasing SSI rates in colorectal surgery patients. The combination of oral antibiotics with a mechanical bowel preparation was the strongest predictor of decreased SSI. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  3. Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis prior to gastrointestinal surgery - is oral administration of doxycycline and metronidazole adequate?

    PubMed

    Giske, Anneli; Nymo, Linn Såve; Fuskevåg, Ole-Martin; Amundsen, Siri; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov; Lassen, Kristoffer

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended prior to a wide range of gastrointestinal operations to reduce the rate of surgical site infections (SSIs). Traditional intravenous (IV) drugs are costly and their preparation strains nursing resources at the wards. While oral administration may attenuate these limitations, its use remains limited. We aimed to assess whether a dual oral antibiotic prophylaxis regimen provides adequate serum concentrations throughout the surgical procedure. We measured serum concentrations of doxycycline and metronidazole following single oral doses of 400 mg doxycycline and 1200 mg metronidazole at first incision and repeated at wound closure in a cohort of patients undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery. Both drugs were dispensed at least two hours before skin incision. Serum concentrations were compared to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) for relevant pathogens. Mean serum concentrations of doxycycline at first incision and at wound closure were 5.75 mg/L and 4.66 mg/L and of metronidazole 18.88 mg/L and 15.56 mg/L, respectively. Metronidazole concentrations were above ECOFF (2 mg/L) for relevant anaerobic species in 103/104 of patients in both samples. Doxycycline serum concentrations were above the ECOFF for common Enterobacteriaceae species (4 mg/L) in both samples in 58/104 patients (55.8%). A single dose of orally administered metronidazole provides adequate concentrations throughout surgery in a heterogeneous cohort of patients. Uncertainty persists regarding the adequacy of doxycycline concentrations, as the optimal serum level of doxycycline in a prophylactic setting has not been established.

  4. 3D printed optical phantoms and deep tissue imaging for in vivo applications including oral surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentz, Brian Z.; Costas, Alfonso; Gaind, Vaibhav; Garcia, Jose M.; Webb, Kevin J.

    2017-03-01

    Progress in developing optical imaging for biomedical applications requires customizable and often complex objects known as "phantoms" for testing, evaluation, and calibration. This work demonstrates that 3D printing is an ideal method for fabricating such objects, allowing intricate inhomogeneities to be placed at exact locations in complex or anatomically realistic geometries, a process that is difficult or impossible using molds. We show printed mouse phantoms we have fabricated for developing deep tissue fluorescence imaging methods, and measurements of both their optical and mechanical properties. Additionally, we present a printed phantom of the human mouth that we use to develop an artery localization method to assist in oral surgery.

  5. The role of perioperative oral nutritional supplementation in elderly patients after hip surgery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Yang, Jing; Yu, Xi; Huang, Xiao; Vaidya, Sushan; Huang, Fuguo; Xiang, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The effect of perioperative oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) on elderly patients after hip surgery remains controversial. This study intended to ascertain whether perioperative ONS is beneficial for the rehabilitation of elderly patients after hip surgery. We searched databases including PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published up to May 2014. Randomized controlled trials of ONS for elderly patients after hip surgery were included. The combined trials showed that ONS had a positive effect on the serum total protein (P<0.00001) and led to a significantly decreased number of complications (P=0.0005). Furthermore, data from the infection subgroups showed significant decreases in wound infection (P=0.02), respiratory infection (P=0.04), and urinary tract infection (P=0.03). Clinical observation suggests that the intervention may improve the level of serum albumin, although the data did not reach statistical significance (P=0.48). Regarding mortality, there was no significant statistical difference between the intervention group and the control (P=0.93). Based on the evidence available, this meta-analysis is consistent with the hypothesis that perioperative ONS can help elderly patients recover after hip surgery and reduce complications.

  6. The role of perioperative oral nutritional supplementation in elderly patients after hip surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Yang, Jing; Yu, Xi; Huang, Xiao; Vaidya, Sushan; Huang, Fuguo; Xiang, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of perioperative oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) on elderly patients after hip surgery remains controversial. This study intended to ascertain whether perioperative ONS is beneficial for the rehabilitation of elderly patients after hip surgery. Materials and methods We searched databases including PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published up to May 2014. Randomized controlled trials of ONS for elderly patients after hip surgery were included. Results The combined trials showed that ONS had a positive effect on the serum total protein (P<0.00001) and led to a significantly decreased number of complications (P=0.0005). Furthermore, data from the infection subgroups showed significant decreases in wound infection (P=0.02), respiratory infection (P=0.04), and urinary tract infection (P=0.03). Clinical observation suggests that the intervention may improve the level of serum albumin, although the data did not reach statistical significance (P=0.48). Regarding mortality, there was no significant statistical difference between the intervention group and the control (P=0.93). Conclusion Based on the evidence available, this meta-analysis is consistent with the hypothesis that perioperative ONS can help elderly patients recover after hip surgery and reduce complications. PMID:26005339

  7. Management of minor head injury in patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy: a prospective study of a 24-hour observation protocol.

    PubMed

    Menditto, Vincenzo G; Lucci, Moira; Polonara, Stefano; Pomponio, Giovanni; Gabrielli, Armando

    2012-06-01

    Patients receiving warfarin who experience minor head injury are at risk of intracranial hemorrhage, and optimal management after a single head computed tomography (CT) scan is unclear. We evaluate a protocol of 24-hour observation followed by a second head CT scan. In this prospective case series, we enrolled consecutive patients receiving warfarin and showing no intracranial lesions on a first CT scan after minor head injury treated at a Level II trauma center. We implemented a structured clinical pathway, including 24-hour observation and a CT scan performed before discharge. We then evaluated the frequency of death, admission, neurosurgery, and delayed intracranial hemorrhage. We enrolled and observed 97 consecutive patients. Ten refused the second CT scan and were well during 30-day follow-up. Repeated CT scanning in the remaining 87 patients revealed a new hemorrhage lesion in 5 (6%), with 3 subsequently hospitalized and 1 receiving craniotomy. Two patients discharged after completing the study protocol with 2 negative CT scan results were admitted 2 and 8 days later with symptomatic subdural hematomas; neither received surgery. Two of the 5 patients with delayed bleeding at 24 hours had an initial international normalized ratio greater than 3.0, as did both patients with delayed bleeding beyond 24 hours. The relative risk of delayed hemorrhage with an initial international normalized ratio greater than 3.0 was 14 (95% confidence interval 4 to 49). For patients receiving warfarin who experience minor head injury and have a negative initial head CT scan result, a protocol of 24-hour observation followed by a second CT scan will identify most occurrences of delayed bleeding. An initial international normalized ratio greater than 3 suggests higher risk. Copyright © 2011 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A comprehensive multi-institutional study on postoperative adjuvant immunotherapy with oral streptococcal preparation OK-432 for patients after gastric cancer surgery. Kyoto Research Group for Digestive Organ Surgery.

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The current study was designed to compare the effects of oral administration of the streptococcal preparation, OK-432, as an adjuvant immunotherapy versus those of intradermal administration of OK-432 on the survival of patients after surgery for gastric cancer. The patients were stratified into two groups after surgery: a curative surgery stratum and a palliative surgery stratum. Then the patients in each stratum were randomly assigned into three groups: an oral placebo group, an oral OK-432 group, and an intradermal OK-432 group. All of the patients were given fluoropyrimidines orally in combination with OK-432 or placebo for 2 years after surgery. A total of 1011 patients were registered between 1982 and 1985, and 970 patients were eligible for statistical analysis. The survival rate of the oral OK-432 group was significantly higher than those of the other two groups after curative surgery. There were no significant difference in the survival rates between the three groups after palliative surgery, however. The effect of oral OK-432 was quite pronounced in patients after curative surgery for stage II to IV gastric cancer, especially in those patients with regional node involvement. Furthermore, it was found that the spleen is necessary for effective immunotherapy with oral OK-432, because the survival rate of the oral OK-432 group was significantly improved in patients whose spleens were preserved, when compared with splenectomized patients. These results demonstrate that oral adjuvant immunotherapy with OK-432 is beneficial after curative surgery for gastric cancer. PMID:1632701

  9. COMPLICATIONS OF ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY UNDER GENERAL ANESTHESIA IN TUBE-FED CHILDREN: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang D; Freilich, Marshall M; Macpherson, Bruce A

    2016-06-01

    To assess morbidity and mortality associated with oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures requiring general anesthesia among children with aspiration tendency requiring enteral feeding. A retrospective chart review was conducted of children surgically treated under general anesthesia by the oral and maxillofacial surgery service at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada. Medical and dental records over a 9-year period (January 1, 2000 to January 1, 2010) were reviewed. Data were collected on demographics, primary illness, coexisting medical conditions, procedures performed, medications administered, type of airway management used, duration of general anesthesia, American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical status classification and adverse events. During the period reviewed, 28 children underwent 35 oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures under general anesthesia. The mean patient age was 12 years (range 4-17 years). No deaths occurred. Of the 35 surgeries, 10 (29%) were associated with at least 1adverse event. Adverse events included 1incident of respiratory distress, 2incidents of fever, 5incidents of bleeding, 1incident of seizure and 4incidents of oxygen saturation below 90% for more than 30s. Children with a history of aspiration tendency that necessitates enteral feeding, who undergo oral and maxillofacial surgery under general anesthesia, are at increased risk of morbidity. Before initiating treatment, the surgeon and parents or guardians of such children should carefully consider these risks compared with the anticipated benefit of surgery.

  10. Impact of a mentored student clerkship on underrepresented minority diversity in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery.

    PubMed

    Nellis, Jason C; Eisele, David W; Francis, Howard W; Hillel, Alexander T; Lin, Sandra Y

    2016-12-01

    To describe the impact of a mentored clerkship initiative on underrepresented minority medical students interested in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS). Prospective observational study. An outreach effort to recruit underrepresented minority students was initiated in 2008, consisting of either a 3-month research clerkship or a 1-month clinical rotation. Financial assistance and faculty mentorship was provided for students. Upon conclusion of the clerkship, students completed a post-clerkship evaluation form. Students were followed regarding residency applications, match status, and publications. Evaluations were compiled and analyzed. The number of publications resulting from interaction with faculty mentors was calculated. Fifteen students participated in the clerkship from 11 medical schools. Of those, 10 students participated in the clinical clerkship, four in the research clerkship, and one in both clerkships. Evaluation (5-point Likert scale) average scores and comments revealed high student satisfaction with the rotations (4.85), provided individual mentorship (4.85), and provided exposure to academic medicine (4.92). Participants indicated the rotation favorably impacted their decision to apply for OHNS residency training and increased their interest in academic medicine. The participants had an average number of 1.7 publications, with 1.18 publications in OHNS journals. Six publications resulted from direct interaction between students and faculty during the clerkship. Seven students applied for OHNS residency programs, and six matched successfully. Mentored clerkships for underrepresented minority medical students increases interest in applying to OHNS residency training programs and is a successful approach to increasing physician diversity. It provides a pathway to expand research opportunities and increase student interest in academic medicine. NA Laryngoscope, 126:2684-2688, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and

  11. A national follow-up survey of UK graduates opinion of undergraduate oral surgery teaching.

    PubMed

    Macluskey, M; Shepherd, S; Carter, E; Bulsara, Y; Durham, J A; Bell, A; Dargue, A; Emanuel, C; Freeman, C; Jones, J; Khawaja, N; Leeson, R; Marley, J; Andiappan, M; Millsopp, L; Nayyer, N; Renton, T; Taylor, K; Thomson, P; Toedtling, V

    2016-08-01

    A national follow-up survey was undertaken to determine whether dental graduates from 2009 perceived that their undergraduate oral surgery education had equipped them for general dental practice 4 years after graduating. Graduates from the same 13 United Kingdom dental schools who had taken part in the original survey were invited to take part in this follow-up online survey. Their contact details were identified via the general dental council register, social media and alumni groups. In total, 161 responded (2009b) which represents 16% of the graduates of the original survey in 2009a. A similar percentage of these respondents perceived that the teaching in oral surgery had given them sufficient knowledge to undertake independent practice (83% and 79% in 2009a and 2009b, respectively). Most respondents (99% in both years) reported confidence in undertaking simple forceps exodontia. Confidence in surgical exodontia was poor in both surveys, but one area that appeared improved in the follow-up related to the sectioning of teeth (84% in 2009b compared with 49% in 2009a). Areas of weakness identified in 2009 were reported to be improved in the follow-up. This follow-up survey supports the findings of the original survey. Future longitudinal studies would allow institutions to identify possible weaknesses in their curriculum and to track the career development of their graduates and facilitate robust data collection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Recovery of dynamic balance after general anesthesia with sevoflurane in short-duration oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Toshiaki; Miyamoto, Eriko; Takuma, Shigeru; Shibuya, Makiko; Kurozumi, Akihiro; Kimura, Yukifumi; Kamekura, Nobuhito; Fukushima, Kazuaki

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of dynamic balance, involving adjustment of the center of gravity, is essential for safe discharge on foot after ambulatory anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to assess the recovery of dynamic balance after general anesthesia with sevoflurane, using two computerized dynamic posturographies. Nine hospitalized patients undergoing oral surgery of less than 2 h duration under general anesthesia (air-oxygensevoflurane) were studied. A dynamic balance test, assessing the ability of postural control against unpredictable perturbation stimuli (Stability System; Biodex Medical), a walking analysis test using sheets with foot pressure sensors (Walk Way-MG1000; Anima), and two simple psychomotor function tests were performed before anesthesia (baseline), and 150 and 210 min after the emergence from anesthesia. Only the double-stance phase in the walking analysis test showed a significant difference between baseline and results at 150 min. None of the other variables showed any differences among results at baseline and at 150 and 210 min. The recovery times for dynamic balance and psychomotor function seem to be within 150 min after emergence from general anesthesia with sevoflurane in patients undergoing oral surgery of less than 2-h duration.

  13. Attitudes to cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority groups in Britain: cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, and ethnic identity salience as protective factors.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Hendrikse, Sinead

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that ethnic minority women have more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery than British Whites, but reasons for this are not fully understood. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study asked 250 British Asian and 250 African Caribbean university students to complete measures of attitudes to cosmetic surgery, cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, ethnic identity salience, self-esteem, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that there were significant between-group differences only on cultural mistrust and self-esteem, although effect sizes were small (d values = .21-.37). Further analyses showed that more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery were associated with greater cultural mistrust, stronger adherence to traditional values, and stronger ethnic identity salience, although these relationships were weaker for African Caribbean women than for British Asians. These results are discussed in relation to perceptions of cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority women.

  14. Oral preoperative antioxidants in pancreatic surgery: a double-blind, randomized, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Braga, Marco; Bissolati, Massimiliano; Rocchetti, Simona; Beneduce, Aldo; Pecorelli, Nicolò; Di Carlo, Valerio

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative stress due to ischemia/reperfusion injury increases systemic inflammation and impairs immune defenses. Much interest has developed for the administration of antioxidant substrates in surgical patients. The purpose of this study was to perform a pilot evaluation of the impact of a carbohydrate- containing preconditioning oral nutritional supplement (pONS) enriched with glutamine, antioxidants, and green tea extract on postoperative oxidative stress. We performed a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, involving 36 cancer patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. Patients were randomized to receive either pONS or placebo twice the day before surgery and once 3 hours before surgery. Total endogenous antioxidant capacity (TEAC), plasma levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, zinc, F2-isoprostanes, and C-reactive protein were measured at baseline and on postoperative day (POD) 1, 3, and 7. At surgery, the mean gastric residual volume (mL) was 54.2 in the pONS group versus 51.3 in the placebo group (P = NS). On POD 1 plasma levels of vitamin C (P = 0.001), selenium (P = 0.07), and zinc (P = 0.06) were higher in the pONS group compared to placebo. TEAC was improved on POD 1, 3, and 7 in the pONS group compared to placebo (P = 0.01). No difference was found in plasma C-reactive protein levels after surgery in both groups. Perioperative pONS administration positively affected plasma vitamin C levels and improved TEAC shortly after surgery, but did not reduce oxidative stress and systemic inflammation markers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of multi-modal early oral nutrition for the tolerance of oral nutrition with conventional care after major abdominal surgery: a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Da-Li; Li, Wei-Ming; Li, Shu-Min; Cen, Yun-Yun; Xu, Qing-Wen; Li, Yi-Jun; Sun, Yan-Bo; Qi, Yu-Xing; Lin, Yue-Ying; Yang, Ting; Lu, Qi-Ping; Xu, Peng-Yuan

    2017-02-10

    Early oral nutrition (EON) has been shown to improve recovery of gastrointestinal function, length of stay and mortality after abdominal surgery; however, early oral nutrition often fails during the first week after surgery. Here, a multi-modal early oral nutrition program is introduced to promote recovery of gastrointestinal function and tolerance of oral nutrition. Consecutive patients scheduled for abdominal surgery were randomized to the multimodal EON group or a group receiving conventional care. The primary endpoint was the time of first defecation. The secondary endpoints were outcomes and the cost-effectiveness ratio in treating infectious complications. The rate of infectious-free patients was regarded as the index of effectiveness. One hundred seven patients were randomly assigned to groups. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. In intention-to-treat analysis, the success rate of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery in the multimodal EON group was 44 (83.0%) versus 31 (57.4%) in the conventional care group (P = 0.004). Time to first defecation, time to flatus, recovery time of bowel sounds, and prolonged postoperative ileus were all less in the multimodal EON group (P < 0.05). The median postoperative length of stay in the multimodal EON group was 8 days (6, 12) versus 10 days (7, 18) in the conventional care group (P < 0.001). The total cost of treatment and nutritional support were also less in the multi-modal early oral nutrition group (P < 0.001). The effectiveness was 84.9 and 79.9% in the multimodal EON and conventional care group, respectively (P = 0.475). However, the cost-effectiveness ratio was USD 537.6 (506.1, 589.3) and USD 637.8 (593.9, 710.3), respectively (P < 0.001). The multi-modal early oral nutrition program was an effective way to improve tolerance of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery, decrease the length of stay and improve cost-effectiveness after abdominal

  16. Dental student perceptions of oral and maxillofacial surgery as a specialty.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Krystian F; Ziccardi, Vincent B; Aziz, Shahid R; Sue-Jiang, Shuying

    2013-05-01

    The specialty of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) encompasses the diagnosis and surgical management of a variety of pathologic, functional, and esthetic conditions of the oral and maxillofacial region. Despite the specialty's prominent role in the field of dentistry, a lack of complete understanding still remains among dental and medical health professionals as to the exact scope and expertise of the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. The present study aimed to analyze a population of dental students' perceptions of OMS as a specialty with respect to treatment rendered, referral patterns, and a general opinion of the specialty as a whole. A survey consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions was compiled and distributed to dental students through an on-line polling service (SurveyMonkey). A total of 5 dental student classes at a single dental school were polled using school-based electronic mail, including the graduating seniors. All answers were kept confidential, and no individual students were identified. The students were not able to retake the survey once completed. The final tallies of the survey results were compiled and submitted for statistical analysis. Statistically significant associations between the year of dental education and student perceptions of OMS were determined. As dental students progress through their undergraduate studies, their perceptions change with regard to the referral of dental implants. Periodontists were found to have statistically significantly greater rates of referral than oral and maxillofacial surgeons from dental students in the fourth year and recent graduates compared with younger dental students from the first, second, and third years for placement of dental implants. Statistically insignificant in terms of a changing dental student perception was the finding that third molar removal was within the domain of the oral and maxillofacial surgeon, as well as the management of cleft lip and palate deformities and mandibular

  17. Optimal degree of mouth opening for laryngeal mask airway function during oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Sanuki, Takuro; Sugioka, Shingo; Hirokane, Motoko; Son, Hiroki; Uda, Rumiko; Akatsuka, Masafumi; Kotani, Junichiro

    2011-04-01

    This study was performed to determine the optimal degree of mouth opening in anesthetized patients requiring laryngeal mask airway (LMA) during oral surgery. A single, experienced LMA user inserted the LMA in 15 patients who were scheduled for elective oral surgery. Oropharyngeal leak pressure, intracuff pressure, and fiberoptic assessment of the LMA position were sequentially documented in 5 mouth conditions-opening of 1.4 (neutral position), 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm-and any resulting ventilatory difficulties were recorded. Oropharyngeal leak pressure with the mouth open 4 cm (21.8 ± 3.2 cm H(2)O, P = .025) and 5 cm (27.3 ± 7.2 cm H(2)O, P < .001) was significantly higher than in the neutral position (18.1 ± 1.5 cm H(2)O), as was intracuff pressure (neutral position, 60.0 ± 0 cm H(2)O; 4 cm, 72.6 ± 5.1 cm H(2)O [P < .001]; and 5 cm, 86.9 ± 14.4 cm H(2)O [P < .001]). LMA position, observed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy, was unchanged by mouth opening, being similar in the 5 mouth conditions (P = .999). In addition, ventilation difficulties (abnormal capnograph curves or inadequate tidal volume) occurred in 2 of 15 patients (13%) and 7 of 15 patients (53%) (P < .001) with the mouth opening of 4 and 5 cm, respectively. This study showed that a mouth opening over 4 cm led to substantial increases in oropharyngeal leak pressure and intracuff pressure of the LMA, warranting caution, because gastric insufflation, sore throat, and ventilation difficulties may occur. A mouth opening of 3 cm achieves acceptable airway conditions for anesthetized patients requiring LMA. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Portfolio: a comprehensive method of assessment for postgraduates in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Kadagad, Poornima; Kotrashetti, S M

    2013-03-01

    Post graduate learning and assessment is an important responsibility of an academic oral and maxillofacial surgeon. The current method of assessment for post graduate training include formative evaluation in the form of seminars, case presentations, log books and infrequently conducted end of year theory exams. End of the course theory and practical examination is a summative evaluation which awards the degree to the student based on grades obtained. Oral and maxillofacial surgery is mainly a skill based specialty and deliberate practice enhances skill. But the traditional system of assessment of post graduates emphasizes their performance on the summative exam which fails to evaluate the integral picture of the student throughout the course. Emphasis on competency and holistic growth of the post graduate student during training in recent years has lead to research and evaluation of assessment methods to quantify students' progress during training. Portfolio method of assessment has been proposed as a potentially functional method for post graduate evaluation. It is defined as a collection of papers and other forms of evidence that learning has taken place. It allows the collation and integration of evidence on competence and performance from different sources to gain a comprehensive picture of everyday practice. The benefits of portfolio assessment in health professions education are twofold: it's potential to assess performance and its potential to assess outcomes, such as attitudes and professionalism that are difficult to assess using traditional instruments. This paper is an endeavor for the development of portfolio method of assessment for post graduate student in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  19. Ipsilateral Irradiation for Oral and Oropharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Primary Surgery and Postoperative Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vergeer, Marije R., E-mail: mr.vergeer@vumc.n; Doornaert, Patricia; Jonkman, Anja

    Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate the contralateral nodal control (CLNC) in postoperative patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer treated with ipsilateral irradiation of the neck and primary site. Late radiation-induced morbidity was also evaluated. Methods and Materials: The study included 123 patients with well-lateralized squamous cell carcinomas treated with surgery and unilateral postoperative irradiation. Most patients had tumors of the gingiva (41%) or buccal mucosa (21%). The majority of patients underwent surgery of the ipsilateral neck (n = 102 [83%]). The N classification was N0 in 73 cases (59%), N1 or N2a in 23 (19%), and N2b in 27more » cases (22%). Results: Contralateral metastases developed in 7 patients (6%). The 5-year actuarial CLNC was 92%. The number of lymph node metastases was the only significant prognostic factor with regard to CLNC. The 5-year CLNC was 99% in N0 cases, 88% in N1 or N2a cases, and 73% in N2b cases (p = 0.008). Borderline significance (p = 0.06) was found for extranodal spread. Successful salvage could be performed in 71% of patients with contralateral metastases. The prevalence of Grade 2 or higher xerostomia was 2.6% at 5 years. Conclusions: Selected patients with oral or oropharyngeal carcinoma treated with primary surgery and postoperative ipsilateral radiotherapy have a very high CLNC with a high probability of successful salvage in case of contralateral metastases. However, bilateral irradiation should be applied in case of multiple lymph node metastases in the ipsilateral neck, particularly in the presence of extranodal spread. The incidence of radiation-induced morbidity is considerably lower as observed after bilateral irradiation.« less

  20. Chilean patients’ perception of oral health-related quality of life after third molar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Aravena, Pedro Christian; Delgado, Felipe; Olave, Hugo; Ulloa-Marin, Carolina; Perez-Rojas, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the perception of the quality of life in oral health based on the Health-Related Quality of Life instrument in its Spanish version (HRQOL-sp) in Chilean patients with third molar extraction surgery. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study. The HRQOL-sp was administered to dental patients at the Public Hospital in Rio Bueno in southern Chile treated for unilateral third molar extraction between March and June 2014. The instrument was applied by phone survey on the first, third, fifth, and seventh days after surgery. For the ordinal scale, the response was considered interference in the quality of life when patients selected the options “quite a bit of trouble” or “lots of trouble” for oral function and general activity; and selected complications-related signs and symptoms, a pain level score with a Verbal Rating Scale (range 0 to 7), and worst pain perceived. The patient’s sociodemographic data, type of surgery, and the quality of life level were analyzed according to the domains of the HRQOL-sp instrument. Results A total of 106 patients were selected (age: 20.4±7.39 years; 71.7% women) and a total of 127 extracted third molars. On the first day of follow-up, most patients reported interference in their quality of life. The main problems were difficulty opening the mouth (50.94%) and swelling (83.02%). The worst symptom perceived was “bad breath” (>31%) and the worst pain felt was a mean of 4.31±1.62 on the Verbal Rating Scale. All items gradually reduced until the seventh day. Conclusion The HRQOL-sp revealed substantial interference in the quality of life on the first postoperative day. It is suggested that the risk factors associated with quality of life be analyzed and the instrument in Spanish be validated. PMID:27660421

  1. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment in elective surgery.

    PubMed

    Awad, Sherif; Varadhan, Krishna K; Ljungqvist, Olle; Lobo, Dileep N

    2013-02-01

    Whilst preoperative carbohydrate treatment (PCT) results in beneficial physiological effects, the effects on postoperative clinical outcomes remain unclear and were studied in this meta-analysis. Prospective studies that randomised adult non-diabetic patients to either PCT (≥50 g oral carbohydrates 2-4 h pre-anaesthesia) or control (fasted/placebo) were included. The primary outcome was length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes included development of postoperative insulin resistance, complications, nausea and vomiting. Methodological quality was assessed using GRADEpro® software. Twenty-one randomised studies of 1685 patients (733 PCT: 952 control) were included. No overall difference in length of stay was noted for analysis of all studies or subgroups of patients undergoing surgery with an expected hospital stay ≤2 days or orthopaedic procedures. However, patients undergoing major abdominal surgery following PCT had reduced length of stay [mean difference, 95% confidence interval: -1.08 (-1.87 to -0.29); I² = 60%, p = 0.007]. PCT reduced postoperative insulin resistance with no effects on in-hospital complications over control (risk ratio, 95% confidence interval, 0.88 (0.50-1.53), I² = 41%; p = 0.640). There was significant heterogeneity amongst studies and, therefore, quality of evidence was low to moderate. PCT may be associated with reduced length of stay in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, however, the included studies were of low to moderate quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Faces scales for the measurement of postoperative pain intensity in children following minor surgery.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Christine T; Hardial, Janine; Craig, Kenneth D; Court, Colleen; Montgomery, Carolyne

    2005-01-01

    Faces scales are commonly used to obtain self-reports of pain intensity from children. Previous research using hypothetical vignettes and pain following venepuncture has found differences in children's pain ratings as a function of the type of faces scale used. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether scales beginning with a smiling rather than neutral "no pain" face would produce higher ratings in the assessment of postoperative pain intensity in children and to compare ratings using different faces scales to those reported with an additional independent measure of pain intensity. Participants were 78 children between the ages of 5 and 13 years undergoing surgery, one of their parents, and their postoperative care nurse. Following surgery, children were asked to provide a rating of their current pain intensity using a set of 5 successively administered faces scales and the Colored Analog Scale (CAS). Parents and nurses provided independent ratings using the same measures. Results showed that parents and nurses rated significantly more pain when using scales with a smiling rather than a neutral "no pain" face. This pattern was not as clear for the children's ratings, although their highest ratings were provided when using a smiling "no pain" faces scale. Children's and nurses' ratings on the CAS were generally more similar to their ratings using scales with neutral "no pain" faces, whereas parents' CAS ratings tended to fall in between ratings provided on the smiling and neutral "no pain" faces scales. Scale preference, age and sex differences in pain ratings, and child-parent-nurse agreement in pain ratings are also examined. Children's and parents' ratings of postoperative pain intensity are influenced by the presence of a smiling "no pain" face at the beginning of faces scales, with such scales producing significantly higher ratings than scales with neutral "no pain" faces. Ratings on the independent CAS measure were more comparable to those

  3. Can oral vitamin K before elective surgery substitute for preoperative heparin bridging in patients on vitamin K antagonists?

    PubMed

    Steib, A; Barre, J; Mertes, M; Morel, M H; Nathan, N; Ozier, Y; Treger, M; Samama, C M

    2010-03-01

    After a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) overdose, 1-2 mg of oral vitamin K can lower the International Normalized Ratio (INR) to the therapeutic range. To establish whether oral vitamin K can substitute for heparin bridging and decrease the INR to < or = 1.5 before elective surgery. Patients on long-term VKAs were randomized either to heparin bridging after the last VKA dose on day -5 before surgery (group H) or to VKA treatment until day -2, followed by 1 mg of oral vitamin K on the day before surgery (group K). Blood clotting variables were assessed on days -5/-2, 1 and 0, and postoperatively. If the target INR was not achieved 2 h before incision, surgery was deferred or performed after injection of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC). In 30 of 94 included patients, baseline INR was outside the chosen range (18, INR < 2; 12, INR > 3.5), leaving 34 eligible patients in group H and 30 in group K. The groups were balanced in terms of body mass index, VKA treatment duration and indication, scheduled surgery, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin, and blood loss. The INR was significantly higher in group K on days -1 and 0 than in group H. An INR < or = 1.5 was not achieved in 20 group K patients (66%). Surgery was postponed or performed after PCC injection in 12 of these 20 patients. Oral vitamin K (1 mg) cannot substitute for heparin bridging before surgery. In addition, one-third of patients on VKAs were exposed to a risk of bleeding (overdose) or thrombosis (underdose), thus highlighting the need for new oral anticoagulants.

  4. Trends in oral drug bioavailability following bariatric surgery: examining the variable extent of impact on exposure of different drug classes.

    PubMed

    Darwich, Adam S; Henderson, Kathryn; Burgin, Angela; Ward, Nicola; Whittam, Janet; Ammori, Basil J; Ashcroft, Darren M; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2012-11-01

    Changes to oral drug bioavailability have been observed post bariatric surgery. However, the magnitude and the direction of changes have not been assessed systematically to provide insights into the parameters governing the observed trends. Understanding these can help with dose adjustments. Analysis of drug characteristics based on a biopharmaceutical classification system is not adequate to explain observed trends in altered oral drug bioavailability following bariatric surgery, although the findings suggest solubility to play an important role. To identify the most commonly prescribed drugs in a bariatric surgery population and to assess existing evidence regarding trends in oral drug bioavailability post bariatric surgery. A retrospective audit was undertaken to document commonly prescribed drugs amongst patients undergoing bariatric surgery in an NHS hospital in the UK and to assess practice for drug administration following bariatric surgery. The available literature was examined for trends relating to drug permeability and solubility with regards to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) and main route of elimination. No significant difference in the 'post/pre surgery oral drug exposure ratio' (ppR) was apparent between BCS class I to IV drugs, with regards to dose number (Do) or main route of elimination. Drugs classified as 'solubility limited' displayed an overall reduction as compared with 'freely soluble' compounds, as well as an unaltered and increased ppR. Clinical studies establishing guidelines for commonly prescribed drugs, and the monitoring of drugs exhibiting a narrow therapeutic window or without a readily assessed clinical endpoint, are warranted. Using mechanistically based pharmacokinetic modelling for simulating the multivariate nature of changes in drug exposure may serve as a useful tool in the further understanding of postoperative trends in oral drug exposure and in developing practical clinical guidance. © 2012 The Authors

  5. Do Quantitative Measures of Research Productivity Correlate with Academic Rank in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery?

    PubMed

    Susarla, Srinivas M; Dodson, Thomas B; Lopez, Joseph; Swanson, Edward W; Calotta, Nicholas; Peacock, Zachary S

    2015-08-01

    Academic promotion is linked to research productivity. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between quantitative measures of academic productivity and academic rank among academic oral and maxillofacial surgeons. This was a cross-sectional study of full-time academic oral and maxillofacial surgeons in the United States. The predictor variables were categorized as demographic (gender, medical degree, research doctorate, other advanced degree) and quantitative measures of academic productivity (total number of publications, total number of citations, maximum number of citations for a single article, I-10 index [number of publications with ≥ 10 citations], and h-index [number of publications h with ≥ h citations each]). The outcome variable was current academic rank (instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, professor, or endowed professor). Descriptive, bivariate, and multiple regression statistics were computed to evaluate associations between the predictors and academic rank. Receiver-operator characteristic curves were computed to identify thresholds for academic promotion. The sample consisted of 324 academic oral and maxillofacial surgeons, of whom 11.7% were female, 40% had medical degrees, and 8% had research doctorates. The h-index was the most strongly correlated with academic rank (ρ = 0.62, p < 0.001). H-indexes of ≥ 4, ≥ 8, and ≥ 13 were identified as thresholds for promotion to associate professor, professor, and endowed professor, respectively (p < 0.001). This study found that the h-index was strongly correlated with academic rank among oral and maxillofacial surgery faculty members and thus suggests that promotions committees should consider using the h-index as an additional method to assess research activity.

  6. Surgery-first orthognathic approach vs traditional orthognathic approach: Oral health-related quality of life assessed with 2 questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Pelo, Sandro; Gasparini, Giulio; Garagiola, Umberto; Cordaro, Massimo; Di Nardo, Francesco; Staderini, Edoardo; Patini, Romeo; de Angelis, Paolo; D'Amato, Giuseppe; Saponaro, Gianmarco; Moro, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    The purposes of the study were to investigate and evaluate the differences detected by the patients between the traditional orthognathic approach and the surgery-first one in terms of level of satisfaction and quality of life. A total of 30 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery for correction of malocclusions were selected and included in this study. Fifteen patients were treated with the conventional orthognathic surgery approach, and 15 patients with the surgery-first approach. Variables were assessed through the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire and analyzed with 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. The results showed significant differences in terms of the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (P <0.001) and the Oral Health Impact Profile (P <0.001) scores within groups between the first and last administrations of both questionnaires. Differences in the control group between first and second administrations were also significant. Questionnaire scores showed an immediate increase of quality of life after surgery in the surgery-first group and an initial worsening during orthodontic treatment in the traditional approach group followed by postoperative improvement. This study showed that the worsening of the facial profile during the traditional orthognathic surgery approach decompensation phase has a negative impact on the perception of patients' quality of life. Surgeons should consider the possibility of a surgery-first approach to prevent this occurrence. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Usefulness of peristalsis, flatulence and evacuation for predicting oral route tolerance in patients subjected to major abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Betsabé; Figueroa-Gallaga, Luis; Sánchez-Castrillo, Christian; Belmonte-Montes, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    to evaluate the usefulness of bowel sounds, flatus and bowel movement presence to predict tolerance of oral intake in patients following major abdominal surgery. nutrition is one of the most important factors in the management of postoperative care. The early oral intake has shown to contribute to a faster recovery. Traditionally the beginning of postoperative feeding after major abdominal surgery is delayed until bowel sounds, flatus and/or bowel movement are present although there is no enough medical evidence for their usefulness. We studied 88 patients following major abdominal surgery. We registered the presence of bowel sounds, flatus and bowel movement each 24 hours in the postoperative period. We analized the relationship between the presence of these signs and the ability to tolerate oral intake. Predictive values, sensitivity, specificity and ROC curves were calculated. results shown that bowel sounds have an acCeptable sensibility but a very low specificity to predict the ability to tolerate oral intake. Unlike bowel sounds, bowel movements shown a low sensibility and a high specificity. Flatus turned out to have and intermediate sensitivity and specificity in the prediction of tolerance of oral feeding. in this study any of these signs were shown as a reliable indicator for beginning oral feeding because they have a moderate to low usefulness.

  8. Markerless laser registration in image-guided oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Marmulla, Rüdiger; Lüth, Tim; Mühling, Joachim; Hassfeld, Stefan

    2004-07-01

    The use of registration markers in computer-assisted surgery is combined with high logistic costs and efforts. Markerless patient registration using laser scan surface registration techniques is a new challenging method. The present study was performed to evaluate the clinical accuracy in finding defined target points within the surgical site after markerless patient registration in image-guided oral and maxillofacial surgery. Twenty consecutive patients with different cranial diseases were scheduled for computer-assisted surgery. Data set alignment between the surgical site and the computed tomography (CT) data set was performed by markerless laser scan surface registration of the patient's face. Intraoral rigidly attached registration markers were used as target points, which had to be detected by an infrared pointer. The Surgical Segment Navigator SSN++ has been used for all procedures. SSN++ is an investigative product based on the SSN system that had previously been developed by the presenting authors with the support of Carl Zeiss (Oberkochen, Germany). SSN++ is connected to a Polaris infrared camera (Northern Digital, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada) and to a Minolta VI 900 3D digitizer (Tokyo, Japan) for high-resolution laser scanning. Minimal differences in shape between the laser scan surface and the surface generated from the CT data set could be detected. Nevertheless, high-resolution laser scan of the skin surface allows for a precise patient registration (mean deviation 1.1 mm, maximum deviation 1.8 mm). Radiation load, logistic costs, and efforts arising from the planning of computer-assisted surgery of the head can be reduced because native (markerless) CT data sets can be used for laser scan-based surface registration.

  9. Preoperative oral carbohydrate administration to ASA III-IV patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Jan-P; von Dossow, Vera; von Heymann, Christian; Griesbach, Markus; von Schickfus, Michael; Mackh, Elise; Hacker, Cornelia; Elgeti, Ulrike; Konertz, Wolfgang; Wernecke, Klaus-D; Spies, Claudia D

    2006-11-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of preoperative oral carbohydrate administration on postoperative insulin resistance (PIR), gastric fluid volume, preoperative discomfort, and variables of organ dysfunction in ASA physical status III-IV patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery, including those with noninsulin-dependent Type-2 diabetes mellitus. Before surgery, 188 patients were randomized to receive a clear 12.5% carbohydrate drink (CHO), flavored water (placebo), or to fast overnight (control). CHO and placebo were treated in double-blind format and received 800 mL of the corresponding beverage in the evening and 400 mL 2 h before surgery. Patients were monitored from induction of general anesthesia until 24 h postoperatively. Exogenous insulin requirements to control blood glucose levels surgery does not affect PIR. Clear fluids reduce thirst and may be recommended as a safe procedure in ASA III-IV patients. Further research is indicated to investigate possible cardioprotective effects of preoperative CHO intake.

  10. Early versus delayed oral fluids and food for reducing complications after major abdominal gynaecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Matovinovic, Elizabeth

    2014-12-12

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2007. Traditionally, after major abdominal gynaecologic surgery postoperative oral intake is withheld until the return of bowel function. There has been concern that early oral intake would result in vomiting and severe paralytic ileus with subsequent aspiration pneumonia, wound dehiscence, and anastomotic leakage. However, evidence-based clinical studies suggest that there may be benefits from early postoperative oral intake. To assess the effects of early versus delayed (traditional) initiation of oral intake of food and fluids after major abdominal gynaecologic surgery. We searched the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group's Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL), and the citation lists of relevant publications. The most recent search was conducted 1 April 2014. We also searched a registry for ongoing trials (www.clinicaltrials.gov) on 13 May 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible that compared the effect of early versus delayed initiation of oral intake of food and fluids after major abdominal gynaecologic surgery. Early feeding was defined as oral intake of fluids or food within 24 hours post-surgery regardless of the return of bowel function. Delayed feeding was defined as oral intake after 24 hours post-surgery and only after signs of postoperative ileus resolution. Two review authors selected studies, assessed study quality and extracted the data. For dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We examined continuous data using the mean difference (MD) and a 95% CI. We tested for heterogeneity between the results of different studies using a forest plot of the meta-analysis, the statistical tests of homogeneity of 2 x 2 tables and the I² value. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE methods. Rates of developing

  11. Per-oral endoscopic myotomy: Major advance in achalasia treatment and in endoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Friedel, David; Modayil, Rani; Stavropoulos, Stavros N

    2014-01-01

    Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) represents a natural orifice endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to laparoscopy Heller myotomy (LHM). POEM is arguably the most successful clinical application of NOTES. The growth of POEM from a single center in 2008 to approximately 60 centers worldwide in 2014 with several thousand procedures having been performed attests to the success of POEM. Initial efficacy, safety and acid reflux data suggest at least equivalence of POEM to LHM, the previous gold standard for achalasia therapy. Adjunctive techniques used in the West include impedance planimetry for real-time intraprocedural luminal assessment and endoscopic suturing for challenging mucosal defect closures during POEM. The impact of POEM extends beyond the realm of esophageal motility disorders as it is rapidly popularizing endoscopic submucosal dissection in the West and spawning offshoots that use the submucosal tunnel technique for a host of new indications ranging from resection of tumors to pyloromyotomy for gastroparesis. PMID:25548473

  12. Clinical applications of the Er:YAG laser in cariology and oral surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Ulrich; Hibst, Raimund

    1995-04-01

    For the treatment of carious decays of enamel and dentin the Er:YAG laser is preferred in comparison to other laser systems, because of the thermomechanical process. Cavity preparation as well as removal of secondary carious lesions without thermal damage to the tooth hard substances and the pulp is possible. Clinical studies have shown that the pain perception is less than by drilling with the mechanical burr. From experimental studies it can be concluded, that the Er:YAG laser can possibly substitute the acid etching technique in conditioning the tooth surface. Further indications can be given in oral surgery for incision or excision of benign mucosal diseases and for cutting bone. As an advantage, opposite to other thermal laser systems, the wound healing process is very similar to the wound healing after mechanical cutting by the scalpel or by the burr.

  13. Analysis of Survival Rates Following Primary Surgery of 178 Consecutive Patients with Oral Cancer in a Large District General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Smith, William P

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present the survival rates in patients treated for oral cancer with primary surgery in a large district general hospital. We discuss the influence of the most significant prognostic factors on survival and compare our results with larger centres specializing in the management of oral cancer. All patients diagnosed with oral cancer from 1995 to 2006 and were treated in the Department had their details entered prospectively onto a computerized database. Demographic details of patients, type of treatment, pathological stage of tumor (TNM), local and regional recurrence rate, overall survival, disease specific survival and incidence of involved margins were recorded and calculated. Of the 178 patients, 96 (54 %) were alive and free of oral cancer 5 years after surgery. Forty-four patients died of oral cancer (24.7 %) but 38 (21.3 %) died of other causes. The overall survival rate after primary surgery in relation to stage was: I 84 %, II 71 %, III 36 % and IV 28 %. As almost half of our patients presented with advanced cancer and had discouraging survival rates, we emphasize the need for early recognition of the disease. Advanced disease signifies difficulty in obtaining clear margins which actually indicates a higher recurrence rate. 25 % of our patients died of oral cancer within 5 years of surgery which highlights the poor prognosis that recurrence carries after treatment. Effective educational campaign with purpose to raise oral cancer awareness and earlier referral may result in improvement of survival.

  14. Characterizing scientific production of Italian Oral Surgery professionals through evaluation of bibliometric indices.

    PubMed

    Tetè, Stefano; Zizzari, Vincenzo Luca; De Carlo, Alessandro; Lorusso, Felice; Di Nicola, Marta; Piattelli, Adriano; Gherlone, Enrico; Polimeni, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the scientific production of Italian Oral Surgery professionals by evaluating different bibliometric indices. The bibliometric evaluation was conducted on the Scopus Database upon all the Active Members joining three important Italian scientific societies in Oral Surgery (SIdCO, SIO, and SICOI). The scientific production was analysed by considering the number of total publications, number of total citations, h-index, and hc-index. Moreover, the overall sample was divided into two groups (Academics and Not Academics), according to the fact the professionals had or not a university position, and then into sub-groups according to the different career lengths. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the scientific productivity amongst groups. For all the considered parameters a lack of homogeneity between groups was reported, and significantly greater mean values were recorded for the Academics compared to the Not Academics Group. Moreover, the h-index values increased more regularly as the career length progressed than the hc-index values, even if the last seemed to be less variable. h- and hc-indices are both stable bibliometric parameters, but as the hc-index values are related not only to the number of citation but also to their age, it seems to be less influenced by the authors' career length. Bibliometric analysis of the scientific production in dentistry may facilitate the recognition of factors that may further enhance research activity and clinical performance and be useful for a comparative assessment of authors or research groups in terms of quality and quantity of the scientific production.

  15. Does preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment reduce the postoperative surgical stress response in lumbar disc surgery?

    PubMed

    Dilmen, Ozlem Korkmaz; Yentur, Ercument; Tunali, Yusuf; Balci, Huriye; Bahar, Mois

    2017-02-01

    Surgical trauma produces metabolic and hormonal responses, which are characterized by insulin resistance. Due to extension of the preoperative fasting period, which increases the magnitude of postoperative insulin resistance, preoperative oral carbohydrates (POC) have been developed. This prospective, randomized, controlled study was performed on 43 ASA I-II patients undergoing elective microsurgical lumbar discectomy. The intervention group received oral carbohydrate solution 800mL the night before and 400mL 2h prior to operation. The other group fasted for 8h prior to operation. Blood samples were obtained the day before the operation, before induction of anesthesia, after skin incision, 1h, 2h, 6h and 24h following skin incision. Blood glucose, plasma insulin, cortisol and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were determined. The primary endpoint was to assess the effect of POC treatment on insulin resistance and surgical stress response following lumbar disc surgery. The secondary endpoint was to assess POC's effects on postoperative nausea and vomiting. The serum insulin levels were higher before induction of anesthesia in the study group and returned to fasted group levels by 2h after skin incision. The plasma IL-6 levels were higher in the intervention group at 6h after the skin incision. There were no differences between the two groups with respect to blood glucose, plasma cortisol levels and the incidence of nausea and vomiting. This study suggests that use of POC treatment does not attenuate development of insulin resistance in patients undergoing lumbar disc surgery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems ameliorate the oral delivery of silymarin in rats with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Han; Chang, Cheng-Chih; Shih, Tsung-Hsien; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a popular surgery to reduce the body weight of obese patients. Although food intake is restricted by RYGB, drug absorption is also decreased. The purpose of this study was to develop novel self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) for enhancing the oral delivery of silymarin, which has poor water solubility. The SNEDDS were characterized by size, zeta potential, droplet number, and morphology. A technique of RYGB was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. SNEDDS were administered at a silymarin dose of 600 mg/kg in normal and RYGB rats for comparison with silymarin aqueous suspension and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 solution. Plasma silibinin, the main active ingredient in silymarin, was chosen for estimating the pharmacokinetic parameters. SNEDDS diluted in simulated gastric fluid exhibited a droplet size of 190 nm with a spherical shape. The nanocarriers promoted silibinin availability via oral ingestion in RYGB rats by 2.5-fold and 1.5-fold compared to the suspension and PEG 400 solution, respectively. A significant double-peak concentration of silibinin was detected for RYGB rats receiving SNEDDS. Fluorescence imaging showed a deeper and broader penetration of Nile red, the fluorescence dye, into the gastrointestinal mucosa from SNEDDS than from PEG 400 solution. Histological examination showed that SNEDDS caused more minor inflammation at the gastrointestinal membrane as compared with that caused by PEG 400 solution, indicating a shielding of direct silymarin contact with the mucosa by the nanodroplets. SNEDDS generally showed low-level or negligible irritation in the gastrointestinal tract. Silymarin-loaded SNEDDS were successfully developed to improve the dissolution, permeability, and oral bioavailability of silymarin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation reporting the usefulness of SNEDDS for improving drug malabsorption elicited by gastric bypass surgery. PMID:25848259

  17. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems ameliorate the oral delivery of silymarin in rats with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Han; Chang, Cheng-Chih; Shih, Tsung-Hsien; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a popular surgery to reduce the body weight of obese patients. Although food intake is restricted by RYGB, drug absorption is also decreased. The purpose of this study was to develop novel self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) for enhancing the oral delivery of silymarin, which has poor water solubility. The SNEDDS were characterized by size, zeta potential, droplet number, and morphology. A technique of RYGB was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. SNEDDS were administered at a silymarin dose of 600 mg/kg in normal and RYGB rats for comparison with silymarin aqueous suspension and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 solution. Plasma silibinin, the main active ingredient in silymarin, was chosen for estimating the pharmacokinetic parameters. SNEDDS diluted in simulated gastric fluid exhibited a droplet size of 190 nm with a spherical shape. The nanocarriers promoted silibinin availability via oral ingestion in RYGB rats by 2.5-fold and 1.5-fold compared to the suspension and PEG 400 solution, respectively. A significant double-peak concentration of silibinin was detected for RYGB rats receiving SNEDDS. Fluorescence imaging showed a deeper and broader penetration of Nile red, the fluorescence dye, into the gastrointestinal mucosa from SNEDDS than from PEG 400 solution. Histological examination showed that SNEDDS caused more minor inflammation at the gastrointestinal membrane as compared with that caused by PEG 400 solution, indicating a shielding of direct silymarin contact with the mucosa by the nanodroplets. SNEDDS generally showed low-level or negligible irritation in the gastrointestinal tract. Silymarin-loaded SNEDDS were successfully developed to improve the dissolution, permeability, and oral bioavailability of silymarin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation reporting the usefulness of SNEDDS for improving drug malabsorption elicited by gastric bypass surgery.

  18. Myocardial protection with prophylactic oral metoprolol during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: evaluation by troponin I

    PubMed Central

    Rossi Neto, João Manoel; Gun, Carlos; Ramos, Rui Fernando; de Almeida, Antonio Flavio Sanchez; Issa, Mario; Amato, Vivian Lener; Dinkhuysen, Jarbas J.; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Biochemical markers of myocardial injury are frequently altered after cardiac surgery. So far there is no evidence whether oral beta-blockers may reduce myocardial injury after coronary artery bypass grafting. Objective To determine if oral administration of prophylactic metoprolol reduces the release of cardiac troponin I in isolated coronary artery bypass grafting, not complicated by new Q waves. Methods A prospective randomized study, including 68 patients, divided in 2 groups: Group A (n=33, control) and B (n=35, beta-blockers). In group B, metoprolol tartrate was administered 200 mg/day. The myocardial injury was assessed by troponin I with 1 hour and 12 hours after coronary artery bypass grafting. Results No significant difference between groups regarding pre-surgical, surgical, complication in intensive care (15% versus 14%, P=0.92) and the total number of hospital events (21% versus 14%, P=0.45) was observed. The median value of troponin I with 12 hours in the study population was 3.3 ng/ml and was lower in group B than in group A (2.5 ng/ml versus 3.7 ng/ml, P<0,05). In the multivariate analysis, the variables that have shown to be independent predictors of troponin I release after 12 hours were: no beta-blockers administration and number of vessels treated. Conclusion The results of this study in uncomplicated coronary artery bypass grafting, comparing the postoperative release of troponin I at 12 hours between the control group and who used oral prophylactic metoprolol for at least 72 hours, allow to conclude that there was less myocardial injury in the betablocker group, giving some degree of myocardial protection. PMID:24598948

  19. A Clinical Audit of Escorts' Awareness And Patients' Safety Following Intravenous Sedation In Adult Oral Surgery.

    PubMed

    Licheri, Luca; Erriu, Matteo; Bryant, Vincenzo; Piras, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate current level of safety under the care of an escort following intravenous sedation, post-sedation arrangements and to identify potential risk levels. Information and post-sedation arrangements are important to patients'safety following surgery but although there is a general consensus over what is recommended for patients and their escorts, there is little, if any, literature on the escorts' awareness of sedation and accordance to post-sedation arrangement and recommendations. Escorts of 113 consecutive patients treated in oral surgery under sedation (midazolam) completed a questionnaire composed of 27 questions divided into seven sections including demographics, awareness of sedation, source of information and post-operative arrangement. From the data collected, two scores were calculated representative of the escorts' Safety and Reliability. Data were then analysed by ANOVA. Safety scores were statistically correlated with instruction source while Reliability correlated to a wider variety of parameters including gender, age as well as information source. Provision of clear written information to escorts is recommended as likely to improve patients' safety. Assessment of escorts' Safety and Reliability could provide a means for improving quality and safety of sedation service.

  20. Association of Time between Surgery and Adjuvant Therapy with Survival in Oral Cavity Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Michelle M; Harris, Jeremy P; Orosco, Ryan K; Sirjani, Davud; Hara, Wendy; Divi, Vasu

    2018-06-01

    Objective The National Cancer Center Network recommends starting radiation therapy within 6 weeks after surgery for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC), but there is limited evidence of the importance of the total time from surgery to completion of radiation therapy (package time). We set out to determine if there was an association between package time and survival in OCSCC and to evaluate the impact of treatment location on outcomes. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Subjects and Methods We reviewed the records of patients with OCSCC who completed postoperative radiation therapy at an academic medical center from 2008 to 2016. The primary endpoints were overall survival and recurrence-free survival. Statistical analysis included χ 2 tests and Cox proportional hazards regressions. Results We identified 132 patients with an average package time of 12.6 weeks. On multivariate analysis, package time >11 weeks was independently associated with decreased overall survival (hazard ratio, 6.68; 95% CI, 1.42-31.44) and recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.20-7.18). Patients who received radiation therapy at outside facilities were more likely to have treatment delays (90.2% vs 62.9%, P = .001). Conclusions Prolonged package times are associated with decreased overall and recurrence-free survival among patients with OCSCC. Patients who received radiation therapy at outside facilities are more likely to have prolonged package times.

  1. Rapid prototyping modelling in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A two year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Suomalainen, Anni; Stoor, Patricia; Mesimäki, Karri; Kontio, Risto K

    2015-12-01

    The use of rapid prototyping (RP) models in medicine to construct bony models is increasing. The aim of the study was to evaluate retrospectively the indication for the use of RP models in oral and maxillofacial surgery at Helsinki University Central Hospital during 2009-2010. Also, the used computed tomography (CT) examination - multislice CT (MSCT) or cone beam CT (CBCT) - method was evaluated. In total 114 RP models were fabricated for 102 patients. The mean age of the patients at the time of the production of the model was 50.4 years. The indications for the modelling included malignant lesions (29%), secondary reconstruction (25%), prosthodontic treatment (22%), orthognathic surgery or asymmetry (13%), benign lesions (8%), and TMJ disorders (4%). MSCT examination was used in 92 and CBCT examination in 22 cases. Most of the models (75%) were conventional hard tissue models. Models with colored tumour or other structure(s) of interest were ordered in 24%. Two out of the 114 models were soft tissue models. The main benefit of the models was in treatment planning and in connection with the production of pre-bent plates or custom made implants. The RP models both facilitate and improve treatment planning and intraoperative efficiency. Rapid prototyping, radiology, computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography.

  2. Rapid prototyping modelling in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A two year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Stoor, Patricia; Mesimäki, Karri; Kontio, Risto K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of rapid prototyping (RP) models in medicine to construct bony models is increasing. Material and Methods The aim of the study was to evaluate retrospectively the indication for the use of RP models in oral and maxillofacial surgery at Helsinki University Central Hospital during 2009-2010. Also, the used computed tomography (CT) examination – multislice CT (MSCT) or cone beam CT (CBCT) - method was evaluated. Results In total 114 RP models were fabricated for 102 patients. The mean age of the patients at the time of the production of the model was 50.4 years. The indications for the modelling included malignant lesions (29%), secondary reconstruction (25%), prosthodontic treatment (22%), orthognathic surgery or asymmetry (13%), benign lesions (8%), and TMJ disorders (4%). MSCT examination was used in 92 and CBCT examination in 22 cases. Most of the models (75%) were conventional hard tissue models. Models with colored tumour or other structure(s) of interest were ordered in 24%. Two out of the 114 models were soft tissue models. Conclusions The main benefit of the models was in treatment planning and in connection with the production of pre-bent plates or custom made implants. The RP models both facilitate and improve treatment planning and intraoperative efficiency. Key words:Rapid prototyping, radiology, computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography. PMID:26644837

  3. Perioperative stroke in a patient undergoing surgery for oral cancer: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sukegawa, Shintaro; Kanno, Takahiro; Kanai, Kengo; Mandai, Toshiko; Shibata, Akane; Takahashi, Yuka; Hirata, Yuji; Furuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Carotid artery stenosis is a significant risk factor for stroke. In elderly patients with carotid atherosclerosis and stenosis, it is not unusual for oral, head and neck cancer surgery to be performed. The present study describes a case of stroke that occurred during a neck dissection for the treatment of cervical lymph node metastasis of a left maxillary gingival carcinoma. The patient was an 84-year-old female who was considered to be at high risk of a stroke based on pre-operative head and neck computed tomography scans, which detected severe carotid atherosclerosis and stenosis. There was no possible stroke prophylaxis available during the performance of the neck dissection in the present case. However, if patients are evaluated to be high-risk pre-operatively, statin agents should be administered, the surgery should be carefully performed, adequate sedation should be maintained post-operatively and the patient should be followed up, aiming to achieve the early detection of a possible stroke. PMID:27698839

  4. Outcomes of oral cavity cancer patients treated with surgery followed by postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Quinlan-Davidson, Sean R; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Myers, Jeffrey N; Gunn, Gary B; Johnson, Faye M; Skinner, Heath; Beadle, Beth M; Gillenwater, Ann M; Phan, Jack; Frank, Steven J; William, William N; Wong, Andrew J; Lai, Stephen Y; Fuller, Clifton D; Morrison, William H; Rosenthal, David I; Garden, Adam S

    2017-09-01

    Although treatment paradigms have not changed significantly, radiotherapy, surgery, and imaging techniques have improved, leading us to investigate oncologic and survival outcomes for oral cavity squamous cell cancer (OCSCC) patients treated with surgery followed by postoperative IMRT. Records of patients with pathological diagnosis of OCSCC treated between 2000 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' demographic, disease, and treatment criteria were extracted. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival curves. Two hundred eighty-nine patients were analyzed. Median follow-up was 35months. Two hundred sixty-eight had neck dissections (93%), of which 66% had nodal involvement, and 51% of those positive dissections had extracapsular extension. Forty patients received induction chemotherapy and 107 received concurrent chemotherapy. Median dose to high risk clinical target volume was 60Gy/30 fractions. The 5-year locoregional control and overall survival rates were 76% and 57%, respectively. Tumors with >1.5cm depth of invasion had significantly higher risk of local failure compared with ≤1.5cm (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, positive and no neck dissection (p=0.01), positive lymphovascular invasion (p=0.006) and >1.5cm depth of invasion (p=0.003) were independent predictors of poorer survival. Disease outcomes were consistent with historical data and did not appear compromised by the use of IMRT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Outcomes of oral cavity cancer patients treated with surgery followed by postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan-Davidson, Sean R.; Mohamed, Abdallah S. R.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Gunn, Gary B.; Johnson, Faye M.; Skinner, Heath; Beadle, Beth M; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Phan, Jack; Frank, Steven J.; William, William N.; Wong, Andrew J.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Fuller, Clifton D.; Morrison, William H.; Rosenthal, David I.; Garden, Adam S.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Although treatment paradigms have not changed significantly, radiotherapy, surgery, and imaging techniques have improved, leading us to investigate oncologic and survival outcomes for oral cavity squamous cell cancer (OCSCC) patients treated with surgery followed by postoperative IMRT. Material and Methods Records of patients with pathological diagnosis of OCSCC treated between 2000–2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients’ demographic, disease, and treatment criteria were extracted. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival curves. Results Two hundred eighty-nine patients were analyzed. Median follow-up was 35 months. Two hundred sixty-eight had neck dissections (93%), of which 66% had nodal involvement, and 51% of those positive dissections had extracapsular extension. Forty patients received induction chemotherapy and 107 received concurrent chemotherapy. Median dose to high risk clinical target volume was 60 Gy/30 fractions. The 5-year locoregional control and overall survival rates were 76% and 57%, respectively. Tumors with >1.5 cm depth of invasion had significantly higher risk of local failure compared with ≤1.5 cm (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, positive and no neck dissection (p=0.01), positive lymphovascular invasion (p=0.006) and >1.5 cm depth of invasion (p=0.003) were independent predictors of poorer survival. Conclusions Disease outcomes were consistent with historical data and did not appear compromised by the use of IMRT. PMID:28797467

  6. The effect of bariatric surgery on direct-acting oral anticoagulant drug levels.

    PubMed

    Rottenstreich, Amihai; Barkai, Aviv; Arad, Ariela; Raccah, Bruria Hirsh; Kalish, Yosef

    2018-03-01

    To determine direct-acting oral anticoagulant (DOAC) blood levels in post-bariatric surgery (BS) patients treated with long-term anticoagulation therapy. We identified from medical records patients who underwent BS during 2005-2016 and who were treated with DOACs. We offered testing DOAC blood levels to these patients and to age, sex, body mass index, and serum creatinine-matched individuals treated by DOACs who did not undergo BS. Overall, 36 individuals were enrolled, 18 post-BS patients and 18 control subjects. Of the post-BS patients, 12 underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, 4 laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and 2 laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Median time lapsed from surgery until study inclusion was 4.9years. Five post-BS patients had peak drug levels below expected levels compared to none of the control subjects (P=0.05). For patients who used apixaban (n=9) and dabigatran (n=2), peak drug levels were within the expected range. In contrast, for the 7 patients who used rivaroxaban, levels were below the expected range in 5, including all four who underwent sleeve gastrectomy and one following adjustable gastric banding. Peak rivaroxaban levels were significantly lower in the post-BS than the control group (P=0.02). This preliminary study suggests that all DOACs, particularly rivaroxaban, be cautiously used following BS, if used at all. Given that vitamin-K antagonists can be easily monitored, they may be a better choice, until more data on DOAC use in this patient population are available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in dental and oral surgery: from the wound healing to bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a new approach to tissue regeneration and it is becoming a valuable adjunct to promote healing in many procedures in dental and oral surgery, especially in aging patients. PRP derives from the centrifugation of the patient's own blood and it contains growth factors that influence wound healing, thereby playing an important role in tissue repairing mechanisms. The use of PRP in surgical practice could have beneficial outcomes, reducing bleeding and enhancing soft tissue healing and bone regeneration. Studies conducted on humans have yielded promising results regarding the application of PRP to many dental and oral surgical procedures (i.e. tooth extractions, periodontal surgery, implant surgery). The use of PRP has also been proposed in the management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) with the aim of enhancing wound healing and bone maturation. The aims of this narrative review are: i) to describe the different uses of PRP in dental surgery (tooth extractions and periodontal surgery) and oral surgery (soft tissues and bone tissue surgery, implant surgery and BRONJ surgery); and ii) to discuss its efficacy, efficiency and risk/benefit ratio. This review suggests that the use of PRP in the alveolar socket after tooth extractions is certainly capable of improving soft tissue healing and positively influencing bone regeneration but the latter effect seems to decrease a few days after the extraction. PRP has produced better results in periodontal therapy in association with other materials than when it is used alone. Promising results have also been obtained in implant surgery, when PRP was used in isolation as a coating material. The combination of necrotic bone curettage and PRP application seem to be encouraging for the treatment of refractory BRONJ, as it has proven successful outcomes with minimal invasivity. Since PRP is free from potential risks for patients, not difficult to obtain and use, it can be employed

  8. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in dental and oral surgery: from the wound healing to bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Antonino; Licata, Maria E; Polizzi, Bianca; Campisi, Giuseppina

    2013-06-13

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a new approach to tissue regeneration and it is becoming a valuable adjunct to promote healing in many procedures in dental and oral surgery, especially in aging patients. PRP derives from the centrifugation of the patient's own blood and it contains growth factors that influence wound healing, thereby playing an important role in tissue repairing mechanisms. The use of PRP in surgical practice could have beneficial outcomes, reducing bleeding and enhancing soft tissue healing and bone regeneration. Studies conducted on humans have yielded promising results regarding the application of PRP to many dental and oral surgical procedures (i.e. tooth extractions, periodontal surgery, implant surgery). The use of PRP has also been proposed in the management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) with the aim of enhancing wound healing and bone maturation. The aims of this narrative review are: i) to describe the different uses of PRP in dental surgery (tooth extractions and periodontal surgery) and oral surgery (soft tissues and bone tissue surgery, implant surgery and BRONJ surgery); and ii) to discuss its efficacy, efficiency and risk/benefit ratio. This review suggests that the use of PRP in the alveolar socket after tooth extractions is certainly capable of improving soft tissue healing and positively influencing bone regeneration but the latter effect seems to decrease a few days after the extraction. PRP has produced better results in periodontal therapy in association with other materials than when it is used alone. Promising results have also been obtained in implant surgery, when PRP was used in isolation as a coating material. The combination of necrotic bone curettage and PRP application seem to be encouraging for the treatment of refractory BRONJ, as it has proven successful outcomes with minimal invasivity. Since PRP is free from potential risks for patients, not difficult to obtain and use, it can be employed

  9. Perioperative risk factors for postoperative pneumonia after major oral cancer surgery: A retrospective analysis of 331 cases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jieyun; Hu, Jing; Yu, Pei; Wang, Weiwang; Hu, Xingxue; Hou, Jinsong; Fang, Silian; Liu, Xiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative pneumonia (POP) is common and results in prolonged hospital stays, higher costs, increased morbidity and mortality. However, data on the incidence and risk factors of POP after oral and maxillofacial surgery are rare. This study aims to identify perioperative risk factors for POP after major oral cancer (OC) surgery. Perioperative data and patient records of 331 consecutive subjects were analyzed in the period of April 2014 to March 2016. We individually traced each OC patient for a period to discharge from the hospital or 45 days after surgery, whichever occur later. The incidence of POP after major OC surgery with free flap construction or major OC surgery was 11.6% or 4.5%, respectively. Patient-related risk factors for POP were male sex, T stage, N stage, clinical stage and preoperative serum albumin level. Among the investigated procedure-related variables, incision grade, mandibulectomy, free flap reconstruction, tracheotomy, intraoperative blood loss, and the length of the operation were shown to be associated with the development of POP. Postoperative hospital stay was also significantly related to increased incidence of POP. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, we identified male sex, preoperative serum albumin level, operation time and postoperative hospital stay as independent risk factors for POP. Several perioperative risk factors can be identified that are associated with POP. At-risk oral cancer patients should be subjected to intensified postoperative pulmonary care.

  10. Trends in oral drug bioavailability following bariatric surgery: examining the variable extent of impact on exposure of different drug classes

    PubMed Central

    Darwich, Adam S; Henderson, Kathryn; Burgin, Angela; Ward, Nicola; Whittam, Janet; Ammori, Basil J; Ashcroft, Darren M; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To identify the most commonly prescribed drugs in a bariatric surgery population and to assess existing evidence regarding trends in oral drug bioavailability post bariatric surgery. METHODS A retrospective audit was undertaken to document commonly prescribed drugs amongst patients undergoing bariatric surgery in an NHS hospital in the UK and to assess practice for drug administration following bariatric surgery. The available literature was examined for trends relating to drug permeability and solubility with regards to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) and main route of elimination. RESULTS No significant difference in the ‘post/pre surgery oral drug exposure ratio’ (ppR) was apparent between BCS class I to IV drugs, with regards to dose number (Do) or main route of elimination. Drugs classified as ‘solubility limited’ displayed an overall reduction as compared with ‘freely soluble’ compounds, as well as an unaltered and increased ppR. CONCLUSION Clinical studies establishing guidelines for commonly prescribed drugs, and the monitoring of drugs exhibiting a narrow therapeutic window or without a readily assessed clinical endpoint, are warranted. Using mechanistically based pharmacokinetic modelling for simulating the multivariate nature of changes in drug exposure may serve as a useful tool in the further understanding of postoperative trends in oral drug exposure and in developing practical clinical guidance. PMID:22463107

  11. Early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Annelise; Jarden, Mary

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to explore early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and to investigate the factors that influence these effects. PubMed, Cinahl, and PsycInfo were searched for studies concerning patients diagnosed with oral and oropharyngeal cancers and treated with primary surgery and which followed the treatment trajectory from time of diagnosis to 10 years after surgery; these studies reported the quantitative assessments and qualitative experiences of the patient's physical and psychosocial well-being. Of the 438 articles accessed, 20 qualified for inclusion, of which 16 and 4 were quantitative and qualitative articles, respectively, and mainly quality-of-life assessments. Time of measurement ranged from time of diagnosis to 9 years after the surgical procedure. The total number of patients included in this review was 3386; of these, 1996 were treated by surgery alone and 1390 with combined surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. The studies showed that because of the nature of their disease, patients are negatively affected by the different types of surgical treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancers, with both early and late interrelated effects, and by the side effects of adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors associated to post-operative nausea and vomiting following oral and maxillofacial surgery: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Assis Filipe Medeiros; Queiroz, Salomão Israel Monteiro Lourenço; Germano, Adriano Rocha; da Silva, José Sandro Pereira

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to address and assess possible factors associated with nausea and vomiting (NV) following oral and maxillofacial surgery. A prospective study was carried out in the period from December 2013 to January 2016 targeting all attended cases in that period. For statistical analysis, Pearson chi-square and Fisher tests were used to verify association and ANOVA and Student's t tests to test for significant difference, p was defined as ≤0.05. The sample group consisted of 207 patients with an average age of 33.56 years (±13.23), and 70.5% of subjects were male. Calculations based on the predictive model showed that a female patient with prior history of nausea and vomiting who used opioids and had intra-oral surgical access would have a 96% chance of experiencing a nausea and vomiting episode. Other factors like age, being overweight, anesthesia, surgery duration, and duration of hospital stay also contribute so that these aspects must be paid careful attention prior to surgery to ensure a suitably orientated treatment that will avoid disturbances caused by post-operative nausea and vomiting. The occurrence of post-operative nausea and vomiting after oral and maxillofacial surgery was found to be more higher incidence associated to female patients who used opioids, who had a prior history of NV, whose surgery involved intra-oral access, who were in the second or third decades of their lives, who have above average weight, and who have long anesthesia when undergoing surgery, resulting in a long hospital stays.

  13. Long-term effect of periodontal surgery on oral health and metabolic control of diabetics.

    PubMed

    Pranckeviciene, Alma; Siudikiene, Jolanta; Ostrauskas, Rytas; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate impact of periodontal surgery on periodontal health and on glycaemia control of type 1 and type 2 (T1DM; T2DM) diabetics with severe periodontitis, during 12 months follow-up, in comparison with non-diabetic controls. A total of 23 T1DM and 10 T2DM patients with respective number of matched non-diabetics were examined prior to, and 3, 6 and 12 months after periodontal surgery. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reflected control of DM. Periodontal parameters were oral debris (DI-S), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP). Periodontal status in all diabetics improved after 3 months and remained so during follow-up: mean (SD) DI-S > 1 (T1DM 1.1(0.5)/0.9(0.7); T2DM 1.2(0.4)/0.8(0.4)), PPD >5 mm (T1DM 35.1(32.2)/5.1(7.8); T2DM 46.3(24.2)/13.0(10.9)), CAL ≥6 mm (T1DM 44.4(37.0)/24.52(27.2)); mean % BOP >50 % (T1DM 57.1(25.1)/22.8(20.8)), T2DM 59.4(20.8)/18.9(15.7)), p < 0.05. Mean HbA1c values decreased in T2DM patients after 3 months and remained stable during follow-up. No improvement of glycaemia control was observed in T1DM patients. Positive correlation between mean HbA1c and CAL changes was observed (r = 0.842, p < 0.05). Mean changes of periodontal parameters did not differ between diabetics and controls. Periodontal surgery improved significantly periodontal status of all patients and metabolic control of T2DM patients. Research findings concerning long-term effect of periodontal surgery among patients with diabetes mellitus are scarce. We found that surgical periodontal treatment positively affects periodontal health of all diabetics and improves metabolic control of type 2 DM. There is a positive correlation between clinical attachment loss and glycosylated haemoglobin levels.

  14. The effects of clopidogrel (Plavix) and other oral anticoagulants on early hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Collinge, Cory A; Kelly, Kevin C; Little, Bert; Weaver, Tara; Schuster, Richard D

    2012-10-01

    Risk for bleeding complications during and after early hip fracture surgery for patients taking clopidogrel and other anticoagulants have not been defined. The purpose of this study is to assess the perioperative bleeding risks and clinical outcome after early hip fracture surgery performed on patients taking clopidogrel (Plavix) and other oral anticoagulants. Study design is a retrospective cohort analysis using data extracted from hospital records and state death records. Regional medical center (level II trauma). Data for 1118 patients ≥60 years of age who had surgical treatment for a hip fracture between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed. Eighty-two patients undergoing late surgery (>3 days after admission) were excluded. Patients taking clopidogrel were compared against those not taking clopidogrel. In addition, patients taking clopidogrel only were compared against cohorts of patients taking both clopidogrel and aspirin, aspirin only, warfarin only, or no anticoagulant. Seventy-four of 1036 patients (7%) were taking clopidogrel, although control groups included 253 patients on aspirin alone, 90 patients on warfarin, and 619 taking no anticoagulants. No significant differences were noted between patients taking clopidogrel and those not taking clopidogrel in estimated blood loss, transfusion requirement, final blood count, hematoma evacuation, hospital length of stay (LOS), or mortality while in hospital or at 1 year. A higher American Society of Anesthesiologists score was seen in the clopidogrel and warfarin groups (P = 0.05 each), increased LOS in the clopidogrel group (P = 0.05), and higher rate of deep vein thrombosis seen in those patients taking warfarin (P = 0.05). Clopidogrel only versus aspirin versus both aspirin and clopidogrel, versus no anticoagulant versus warfarin showed no significant differences in estimated blood loss, transfusion requirement, final blood count, bleeding or perioperative complications, or mortality. Patients undergoing early hip

  15. Photodynamic Therapy Using Temoporfin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Oral Cavity or Oropharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-02

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  16. A randomized prospective study of oral levofloxacin vs intravenous flomoxef prophylaxis in postoperative infection after endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Inoshita, Ayako; Yokoi, Hidenori; Matsumoto, Fumihiko; Yao, Toru; Kawano, Kenji; Furukawa, Masayuki; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2010-01-01

    The clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of oral antimicrobial prophylaxis with levofloxacin (LVFX) on endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) was evaluated. Ninety-three patients undergoing ESS were prospectively enrolled in the present study. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups, LVFX and flomoxef (FMOX). Two hundred milligrams of LVFX was orally given 2 hours before the start of surgery and 6 hours after the end of surgery, which was followed by the administration of 200 mg every 12 hours for 2 days. One gram of FMOX was dissolved in 100 ml of physiological saline and given intravenously at the induction of anesthesia and 6 hours after the end of surgery, followed by infusion twice daily for 2 days. There were no statistically significant differences between 2 groups in terms of age, sex, systemic complications, surgical procedures, the duration of the operation, the length of hospitalization, the amount of blood loss, body temperature, or the number of white blood cells or C-reactive protein. Although no statistical significance was observed in the bacterial resistance between the two antibiotics, LVFX seems to show a low rate of resistance pattern change as compared to FMOX. The present study demonstrated that no patients treated with LVFX or FMOX were afflicted with postsurgical infection. Oral administration of LVFX is a simple, cost-effective and safe alternative to intravenous prophylaxis in ESS based on clinical efficacy and bacteriological study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Choosing academia versus private practice: factors affecting oral maxillofacial surgery residents' career choices.

    PubMed

    Lanzon, Jesse; Edwards, Sean P; Inglehart, Marita R

    2012-07-01

    This study explored how residents who intend to enter private practice versus academic careers differ in their background and educational characteristics, engagement in different professional activities, professional values, and satisfaction. Survey data were collected from 257 residents in oral and maxillofacial surgery programs in the United States. The responses of the respondents who planned a career in private practice (65%) and who considered academia (35%) were compared with χ(2) and independent-sample t tests. Residents who considered academia were more likely to be women (29% vs 8%; P < .001), from non-European American backgrounds (37% vs 20%; P = .006), were less likely to be married (43% vs 71%; P < .001), and were less likely to have children (17% vs 40%; P < .001) than residents who planned to become private practitioners. A larger percentage of residents with interest in private practice reported having debts of $301,000 to $400,000 compared with the percentage of residents interested in academia. No differences were found in the way they financed their education or in their financial considerations. However, the 2 groups differed in the importance they placed on different characteristics of their professional lives and in their job-related satisfaction. Residents interested in academia responded less positively to the statement that they are extremely satisfied with their career compared with residents interested in private practice. Future clinicians placed a higher value on having manageable hours and more time performing outpatient procedures than future educators. These findings showed, first, that the characteristics at the beginning of residency programs that are likely to indicate an increased interest in academic careers are being a woman, from a non-European American background, and having an interest in research. Second, once residents are admitted, different types of surgeries and different types of professional activities tend to appeal

  18. Oral mask ventilation is more effective than face mask ventilation after nasal surgery.

    PubMed

    Yazicioğlu, Dilek; Baran, Ilkay; Uzumcugil, Filiz; Ozturk, Ibrahim; Utebey, Gulten; Sayın, M Murat

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate and compare the face mask (FM) and oral mask (OM) ventilation techniques during anesthesia emergence regarding tidal volume, leak volume, and difficult mask ventilation (DMV) incidence. Prospective, randomized, crossover study. Operating room, training and research hospital. American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II adult patients scheduled for nasal surgery. Patients in group FM-OM received FM ventilation first, followed by OM ventilation, and patients in group OM-FM received OM ventilation first, followed by FM ventilation, with spontaneous ventilation after deep extubation. The FM ventilation was applied with the 1-handed EC-clamp technique. The OM was placed only over the mouth, and the 1-handed EC-clamp technique was used again. A child's size FM was used for the OM ventilation technique, the mask was rotated, and the inferior part of the mask was placed toward the nose. The leak volume (MVleak), mean airway pressure (Pmean), and expired tidal volume (TVe) were assessed with each mask technique for 3 consecutive breaths. A mask ventilation grade ≥3 was considered DMV. DMV occurred more frequently during FM ventilation (75% with FM vs 8% with OM). In the FM-first sequence, the mean TVe was 249±61mL with the FM and 455±35mL with the OM (P=.0001), whereas in the OM-first sequence, it was 276±81mL with the FM and 409±37mL with the OM (P=.0001). Regardless of the order used, the OM technique significantly decreased the MVleak and increased the TVe when compared to the FM technique. During anesthesia emergence after nasal surgery the OM may offer an effective ventilation method as it decreases the incidence of DMV and the gas leak around the mask and provides higher tidal volume delivery compared with FM ventilation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Religious Belief on Selecting of Graft Materials Used in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Güngörmüş, Zeynep; Güngörmüş, Metin

    2017-11-01

    Various graft materials, such as synthetic and biological products, are used routinely in maxillofacial surgery. These materials are usually derived from porcine, bovine, and human tissues; some religious beliefs forbid the dietary use of substances from certain animal sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of religious belief on selecting different graft types used in maxillofacial surgery. In total, 203 participants were included in this survey. Data were collected using a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and different graft types and the Revised Religious Fundamentalism Scale for religious belief levels of participants. The purpose of the study and the origins of different graft types were explained to participants, and their opinions for the acceptance or rejection of each type were recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY). The most preferred grafts were autologous grafts (88.7%), followed by alloplastic grafts (65%), bovine-derived xenografts (60.1%), allografts (53.2%), and porcine-derived xenografts (7.4%). One hundred fifty-nine participants (84.6%) rejected the porcine-derived xenografts for religious reasons, and there was a statistical difference in religious belief levels between participants who accepted and those who rejected porcine-derived xenografts. Autogenous grafts were the most preferred grafts and porcine-derived xenografts were the least preferred grafts. Porcine-derived xenografts were refused specifically for religious reasons, and religious belief and dietary restrictions affected graft selection. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Are oral and maxillofacial surgery residents being adequately trained to care for pediatric patients?

    PubMed

    Abramowicz, Shelly; Kaban, Leonard B; Wurtzel, Andrew S; Roser, Steven M

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate whether current oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) residents are receiving adequate training and experience to perform specific surgical procedures and anesthesia for pediatric patients. A 17-question survey was sent electronically to fellows of the American Academy of Craniomaxillofacial Surgeons. Descriptive data for individual surgeons, their associated residency programs, and the quantity of specific pediatric procedures they performed were collected. Resident case load for inpatient and outpatient procedures and overall experience in medical, surgical, and anesthetic management of pediatric OMS patients were explored. Surveys were sent to 110 active fellows; 64 completed the questionnaire (58%). There were 59 male fellows and 5 female fellows, with a mean age of 50.4 years. Of those, 68.8% practice in an academic setting. Specifically, 93.8% take after-hours emergency calls covering adult and pediatric patients and 98.4% have admitting privileges at a children's hospital or a pediatric unit in an adult hospital. Their affiliated residency programs include required rotations in pediatrics or pediatric subspecialties. In their opinion, >90% of graduating OMS residents have the appropriate skill set to perform dentoalveolar procedures, outpatient anesthesia, orthognathic procedures, and alveolar bone grafts. However, residents have limited ability to reconstruct pediatric ramus-condyle unit with a costochondral graft. Results of this study indicate that, in the opinion of the respondents, graduates of OMS residency programs have adequate training to perform dentoalveolar procedures, outpatient anesthesia, orthognathic surgery, and alveolar bone grafts in pediatric procedures, but have limited experience with reconstruction of pediatric ramus-condyle unit via costochondral graft. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Oral Administration of Bromelain on Postoperative Discomfort After Third Molar Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ghensi, Paolo; Cucchi, Alessandro; Creminelli, Luca; Tomasi, Cristiano; Zavan, Barbara; Maiorana, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of bromelain on discomfort after mandibular third molar surgery. Eighty-four consecutive patients requiring surgical removal of a single mandibular impacted third molar under local anesthesia were randomly assigned to receiving no drug (control group, Group A), postoperative 40 mg bromelain every 6 hours for 6 days (Group B), preoperative 4 mg dexamethasone sodium phosphate as a submucosal injection (Group C), and preoperative 4 mg dexamethasone sodium phosphate as a submucosal injection plus postoperative 40 mg bromelain every 6 hours for 6 days (Group D). Standardized surgical and analgesic protocols were adopted. Maximum interincisal distance and facial contours were measured at baseline and on postoperative days 2 and 7. Pain was measured objectively by counting the number of analgesic tablets required. Patient perception of the severity of symptoms was assessed with a follow-up questionnaire (PoSSe scale). On postoperative day 2, there was a statistically significant reduction in facial edema in both Groups C and D compared with the control group, but no statistically significant differences were observed between Group B and the control group. At evaluation on postoperative day 7, Group D showed a statistically significant reduction in postoperative swelling compared with the control group. The combined use of bromelain and dexamethasone (Group D) induced a statistically significant reduction in the total number of analgesic tablets taken after surgery compared with the control group. The treatment groups had a limited, nonsignificant effect on trismus when compared with the control group. Bromelain used singly showed moderate anti-inflammatory efficacy, reducing postoperative swelling, albeit not to any significant extent compared with no drug administration. The combined use of bromelain and dexamethasone sodium phosphate yielded

  2. [Palatograms and linguograms for studying misarticulation following surgery for tumors of the tongue and oral cavity floor].

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Leszek

    2006-01-01

    This work deals with the mechanism of misarticulation following surgery for malignancies in the oral cavity. The underlying cause was dysfunction of the tongue due to partial or total resection, consequences of the resection of the mandible together with the oral cavity floor, or dysfunkction of the lower lip failing to seal the space of Donders. Anatomic alternations reveal themselves as shifts in the points of contact between structures of the articulation system noticeable on palatograms or linguograms. Limited mobility of tongue tip may affect speech, particularly in the case of sounds of the first and second articulation zone.

  3. Recognition of the scope of oral and maxillofacial surgery by the public and health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Hunter, M J; Rubeiz, T; Rose, L

    1996-10-01

    A recent British study has reported a lack of awareness among the general public as to the benefits provided by the specialty of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). Medical and dental practitioners surveyed had a greater awareness of OMFS than the general public, yet were deficient in knowledge of the wide range of services provided by them. Therefore, a similar survey was conducted in the Boston area to determine the awareness among the general public and health professionals of the proper providers of treatment for the maxillofacial region and the level of knowledge of the specialty of OMFS. The study incorporated five groups of respondents: dental students, dental practitioners, medical students, medical practitioners, and the general public. The survey was mailed, or distributed, randomly to persons representing each group in the Boston area. Between 200 and 300 surveys were sent to each group, and data collection was stopped at 100 responses per group. Surveys from the general public were screened to eliminate responders involved in health professions. For each of 20 specific situations or treatments, respondents were asked to choose a source of treatment from among four categories of specialists: ear nose and throat surgery (ENT), plastic surgery, OMFS, and periodontology. A chi-square analysis was performed for each question to compare the pattern of responses among categories of respondents. The data showed that most of the health professionals, 90% of students, and 98% of practitioners had heard of OMFS, whereas only 62% of the public have heard of this specialty. Furthermore, only 22% of the lay responders had ever been treated by an OMFS. The results also suggested that many health professionals had a lack of understanding about the wide scope of surgical procedures that OMFSs offer. Despite all the progress that has occurred in OMFS, a large portion of the American population is still unaware of the specialty. If patients are to receive the best

  4. Durvalumab Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Oral Cavity or Oropharynx Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-20

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  5. Comparing disciplines: outcomes of non melanoma cutaneous malignant lesions in oral and maxillofacial surgery and dermatology.

    PubMed

    Thavarajah, M; Szamocki, S; Komath, D; Cascarini, L; Heliotis, M

    2015-01-01

    300 cases of non-melanoma cutaneous lesion procedures carried out by the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Dermatology departments in a North West London hospital over a 6 month period between September 2011 and February 2012 were included in a retrospective case control study. The results from each speciality were compared. The mean age of the OMFS group was 75.8 years compared to 69.9 years in the dermatology group. There was no statistically significant difference in gender between the 2 groups. The OMFS group treated a higher proportion of atypical (17%) and malignant (64.9%) cases compared to the dermatology group (11.3% and 50.5% respectively). This could also account for the fact that the OMFS group carried out a higher number of full excisions compared to dermatology. Both groups had a similar number of false positives (a benign lesion initially diagnosed as malignant) and a similar proportion of false negatives (a malignant lesion initially diagnosed as benign). Overall, the results show that both specialities had similar outcomes when managing non-melanoma cutaneous lesions. Both groups adhere to the guidelines set out by the British Association of Dermatologists and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence when managing such lesions. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oral surgery in a patient with cirrhosis and thrombocytopenia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seena; Perry, Maureen Munnelly; Spolarich, Ann Eshenaur

    2016-01-01

    While most oral surgical procedures can be safely performed in an outpatient setting, certain medical conditions may present a higher chance of postoperative complications. In particular, those predisposing the patient to bleeding abnormalities pose a potential risk when performing such treatments. The authors report a case involving full-mouth extractions in a patient with cirrhosis and thrombocytopenia after obtaining a platelet transfusion. A 62-year-old Caucasian female presented to a university special care dental clinic requiring extractions. Her pertinent medical history was remarkable for cirrhosis and thrombocytopenia, with a platelet count of 32,000/uL. Upon medical consultation, the patient was appointed for a prophylactic platelet transfusion. The surgery was rendered uneventfully, and the patient achieved adequate hemostasis without hospitalization. Patients with cirrhosis pose a potential bleeding risk with dental surgical procedures. Pre-operative medical consultation, review of pertinent laboratory values, and prophylactic platelet transfusion allow these patients to be managed safely in an outpatient setting. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The use of novel oral anticoagulants for thromboprophylaxis after elective major orthopedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rachidi, Saleh; Aldin, Ehab Saad; Greenberg, Charles; Sachs, Barton; Streiff, Michael; Zeidan, Amer M

    2014-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. Due to the high incidence of venous thromboembolism in this setting, perioperative anticoagulation is the recommended approach for thromboprophylaxis. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux and warfarin are the agents commonly used for thromboprophylaxis. The well-recognized limitations of warfarin and the inconvenience and discomfort associated with the subcutaneous administration of low molecular weight heparin and fondaparinux inspired intense investigation to develop novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) with more predictable pharmacokinetics, fewer drug interactions and no need for regular laboratory monitoring. Three NOACs have been demonstrated to be effective for thromboprophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in large randomized controlled trials. Here we review the pharmacology of rivaroxaban, dabigatran, and apixaban, summarize the major clinical trials of these agents in thromboprophylaxis after THA and TKA, and discuss the clinical factors to be considered by providers when selecting a NOAC for their patients. PMID:24219550

  8. Pattern of online communication in teaching a blended oral surgery course.

    PubMed

    Marei, H F; Al-Khalifa, K S

    2016-11-01

    To explore the factors that might affect the patterns of interaction amongst dental students that can be found in asynchronous online discussion fora. It is a qualitative study that involved the participation of 71 dental students (42 male and 29 female) who belong to one academic year. Students were participated in asynchronous online discussion fora as a part of a blended oral surgery course that involved both face-to-face lecture and an online learning environment using the Blackboard learning management system. Qualitative analysis of students' pattern of discussion was performed using Transcript Analysis Tool. The total number of postings was 410. Sixty-seven of 71 students participated in the discussion by writing posts, whereas all of the students had accessed all of the postings. A positive correlation between imposing vertical questions and the number of non-referential and referential statements was observed. Regarding horizontal questions, a positive correlation was observed with the number of referential statements, whilst there was a negative correlation with the number of non-referential statements. Asynchronous online discussion fora that are integrated as a part of a whole pedagogical practice may provide an opportunity for promoting learning, especially when consideration is given to the structure of problems, timely feedback by tutors and supportive strategies within the discussion threads. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Video see-through augmented reality for oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junchen; Suenaga, Hideyuki; Yang, Liangjing; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgery has not been benefitting from image guidance techniques owing to the limitations in image registration. A real-time markerless image registration method is proposed by integrating a shape matching method into a 2D tracking framework. The image registration is performed by matching the patient's teeth model with intraoperative video to obtain its pose. The resulting pose is used to overlay relevant models from the same CT space on the camera video for augmented reality. The proposed system was evaluated on mandible/maxilla phantoms, a volunteer and clinical data. Experimental results show that the target overlay error is about 1 mm, and the frame rate of registration update yields 3-5 frames per second with a 4 K camera. The significance of this work lies in its simplicity in clinical setting and the seamless integration into the current medical procedure with satisfactory response time and overlay accuracy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Reducing oral and maxillofacial surgery resident risk exposure: lessons from graduate medical education reform.

    PubMed

    Buhrow, Suzanne Morse; Buhrow, Jack A

    2013-12-01

    It is estimated that, in the United States, more than 40,000 patients are injured each day because of preventable medical errors. Although numerous studies examine the causes of medical trainee errors and efforts to mitigate patient injuries in this population, little research exists on adverse events experienced by oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) residents or strategies to improve patient safety awareness in OMFS residency programs. The authors conducted a retrospective literature review of contemporary studies on medical trainees' reported risk exposure and the impact of integrating evidence-based patient safety training into residency curricula. A review of the literature suggests that OMFS residents face similar risks as medical trainees in medical, surgical, and anesthesia residency programs and may benefit from integrating competency-based safety training in the OMFS residency curriculum. OMFS trainees face particular challenges when transitioning from dental student to surgical resident, particularly related to their limited clinical exposure to high-reliability organizations, which may place them at higher risk than other medical trainees. OMFS educators should establish resident competence in patient safety principles and system improvement strategies throughout the training period.

  11. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of hilotherapy following oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Bates, A S; Knepil, G J

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial surgery causes immediate postoperative pain, oedema, and functional limitations. Hilotherapy delivers cooled water to the face at 15°C and may reduce the postoperative recovery time. This work presents a meta-analysis of short-term postoperative outcomes after hilotherapy. Following a systematic literature search, comparative trials of patients undergoing surgical interventions in the maxillofacial region and receiving either hilotherapy or ice-cooling therapy were included for meta-analysis. Demographics and surgical outcomes were extracted. Data were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Mean (SEM) data were calculated for demographic variables and standardized mean differences with the 95% confidence interval for surgical outcomes. Five trials were analysed, providing 206 patients for evaluation; mean patient age was 29.4 (9.4) years. Hilotherapy reduced pain (10-point visual analogue scale) at 48 h (P<0.010) and 72 h (P<0.050), as well as postoperative facial oedema (P<0.010), compared to ice-cooling treatment. Trismus and facial neurological scores were also improved (P=0.08). Patients preferred hilotherapy to other cooling methods (P<0.010). Hilotherapy appears to be effective in reducing postoperative facial pain, oedema, and trismus, and in improving patient-reported outcomes. Well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials are required to clarify the procedure-specific efficacy of postoperative hilotherapy and optimal durations of treatment. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of surgical conditions following premedication with oral clonidine versus oral diazepam for endoscopic sinus surgery: A randomized, double-blinded study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat Pai, Rohini V; Badiger, Santhoshi; Sachidananda, Roopa; Basappaji, Santhosh Mysore Chandramouli; Shanbhag, Raghunath; Rao, Raghavendra

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) provides a challenge and an opportunity to the anesthesiologists to prove their mettle and give the surgeons a surgical field which can make their delicate surgery safer,more precise and faster. The aim of the study was to evaluate the surgical field and the rate of blood loss in patients premedicated with oral clonidine versus oral diazepam for endoscopic sinus surgery. Material and Methods: ASA I or II patients who were scheduled to undergo ESS were randomly allocated to group D (n = 30) or group C (n = 30). The patients' vital parameters, propofol infusion rate, and rate of blood loss were observed and calculated. The surgeon, who was blinded, rated the visibility of the surgical field from grade 0-5. Results: In the clonidine group, the rate of blood loss, the surgical time, propofol infusion rate was found to be statistically lower as compared to the diazepam group. Also a higher number of patients in the clonidine group had a better surgical score (better surgical field) than the diazepam group and vice versa. Conclusions: Premedication with clonidine as compared to diazepam, provides a better surgical field with less blood loss in patients undergoing ESS. PMID:27275059

  13. Oral Nutrition as a Form of Pre-Operative Enhancement in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Emma R J; Argillander, Tanja E; Van Den Heuvel, Baukje; Buskens, Christianne J; Van Duijvendijk, Peter; Winkels, Renate M; Kalf, Annette; Van Der Zaag, Edwin S; Wassenaar, Eelco B; Bemelman, Willem A; Van Munster, Barbara C

    2018-01-01

    Nutritional status has major impacts on the outcome of surgery, in particular in patients with cancer. The aim of this review was to assess the merit of oral pre-operative nutritional support as a part of prehabilitation in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer. A systematic literature search and meta-analysis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations in order to review all trials investigating the effect of oral pre-operative nutritional support in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. The primary outcome was overall complication rate. Secondary outcomes were incision infection rate, anastomotic leakage rate, and length of hospital stay. Five randomized controlled trials and one controlled trial were included. The studies contained a total of 583 patients with an average age of 63 y (range 23-88 y), of whom 87% had colorectal cancer. Malnourishment rates ranged from 8%-68%. All investigators provided an oral protein supplement. Overall patient compliance rates ranged from 72%-100%. There was no significant reduction in the overall complication rate in the interventional groups (odds ratio 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.52 - 1.25). Current studies are too heterogeneous to conclude that pre-operative oral nutritional support could enhance the condition of patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Patients at risk have a relatively lean body mass deficit (sarcopenia) rather than an absolute malnourished status. Compliance is an important element of prehabilitation. Targeting patients at risk, combining protein supplements with strength training, and defining standardized patient-related outcomes will be essential to obtain satisfactory results.

  14. Benefits of mock oral examinations in a multi-institutional consortium for board certification in general surgery training.

    PubMed

    Subhas, Gokulakkrishna; Yoo, Stephen; Chang, Yeon-Jeen; Peiper, David; Frikker, Mark J; Bouwman, David L; Silbergleit, Allen; Lloyd, Larry R; Mittal, Vijay K

    2009-09-01

    The Southeast Michigan Center for Medical Education (SEMCME) is a consortium of teaching hospitals in the Greater Detroit metropolitan area. SEMCME pools its resources for several educational means, including mock oral board examinations. The educational and cost benefits to mock oral examinations on a multi-institutional basis in preparation for the American Board of Surgery (ABS) certifying examination were analyzed. Ten-year multi-institution data from the mock oral examinations were correlated with ABS certifying examination pass rates. Mock oral examination scores were available for 107 of 147 graduates, which included 12 candidates who failed their certifying examination on the first attempt (pass rate = 89%). Four of 31 examinees who had a low score (4.9 or less) in their mock oral exams failed their certifying examination in their first attempt. The cost of running the mock examination was low (approximately $35/resident for 50 residents). When graduates from the last 10 years were surveyed, the majority of respondents believed that the mock oral examination helped in their success and with their preparation for the certifying examination. Thus, the many benefits of administering the examination with the resources of a consortium of hospitals result in the accurate reproduction of real-life testing conditions with reasonable overall costs per resident.

  15. The regenerative medicine in oral and maxillofacial surgery: the most important innovations in the clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tatullo, Marco; Marrelli, Massimo; Paduano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is an emerging field of biotechnology that combines various aspects of medicine, cell and molecular biology, materials science and bioengineering in order to regenerate, repair or replace tissues. The oral surgery and maxillofacial surgery have a role in the treatment of traumatic or degenerative diseases that lead to a tissue loss: frequently, to rehabilitate these minuses, you should use techniques that have been improved over time. Since 1990, we started with the use of growth factors and platelet concentrates in oral and maxillofacial surgery; in the following period we start to use biomaterials, as well as several type of scaffolds and autologous tissues. The frontier of regenerative medicine nowadays is represented by the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs): overcoming the ethical problems thanks to the use of mesenchymal stem cells from adult patient, and with the increasingly sophisticated technology to support their manipulation, MSCs are undoubtedly the future of medicine regenerative and they are showing perspectives unimaginable just a few years ago. Most recent studies are aimed to tissues regeneration using MSCs taken from sites that are even more accessible and rich in stem cells: the oral cavity turned out to be an important source of MSCs with the advantage to be easily accessible to the surgeon, thus avoiding to increase the morbidity of the patient. The future is the regeneration of whole organs or biological systems consisting of many different tissues, starting from an initial stem cell line, perhaps using innovative scaffolds together with the nano-engineering of biological tissues.

  16. Midline submental intubation might be the preferred alternative to oral and nasal intubation in elective oral and craniomaxillofacial surgery when indicated.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huijun; Patil, Pavan Manohar

    2015-01-01

    No consensus exists to date regarding the best method of controlling the airway for oral or craniomaxillofacial surgery when orotracheal and nasotracheal intubations are unsuccessful or contraindicated. The most commonly used method of tracheostomy has been associated with a high degree of morbidity. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the indications, safety, efficacy, time required, drawbacks, complications, and costs of the midline submental intubation (SMI) approach in elective oral and craniomaxillofacial surgical procedures. A retrospective case series study was used to evaluate the surgical, financial, and photographic records of all patients who had undergone oral or craniomaxillofacial operations at Sharda University School of Dental Sciences, Greater Noida, from April 2006 to March 2014. The indications, drawbacks, time required for the procedure, ability to provide a secure airway, intra- and postoperative complications, and additional costs associated with SMI were analyzed. Of the 2,823 patients treated, the present study included 120 patients (97 men and 23 women, aged 19 to 60 years). The average time required for SMI was 10 ± 2 minutes. No episode of intraoperative oxygen desaturation was noted. One intraoperative complication, an injury to the ventral surface of the tongue, was encountered. Two patients developed infection at the skin incision site. No significant additional cost was incurred with the use of SMI. SMI has been successfully used in elective oral and craniomaxillofacial surgical procedures for which oral and nasal intubations were either not indicated or not possible. The advantages include a quick procedure, insignificant complications, the ability to provide a stable airway, and no added costs, making SMI a quick, safe, efficient, and cost-effective alternative in such cases. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Influence of Oral Carbohydrate Solution Intake on Stress Response before Total Hip Replacement Surgery during Epidural and General Anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Çeliksular, M Cem; Saraçoğlu, Ayten; Yentür, Ercüment

    2016-06-01

    The effects of oral carbohydrate solutions, ingested 2 h prior to operation, on stress response were studied in patients undergoing general or epidural anaesthesia. The study was performed on 80 ASA I-II adult patients undergoing elective total hip replacement, which were randomized to four groups (n=20). Group G patients undergoing general anaesthesia fasted for 8 h preoperatively; Group GN patients undergoing general anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively; Group E patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia fasted for 8 h and Group EN patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively. Groups GN and EN drank 800 mL of 12.5% oral carbohydrate solution at 24:00 preoperatively and 400 mL 2 h before the operation. Blood samples were taken for measurements of glucose, insulin, cortisol and IL-6 levels. The effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate ingestion on blood glucose levels was not significant. Insulin levels 24 h prior to surgery were similar; however, insulin levels measured just before surgery were 2-3 times higher in groups GN and EN than in groups G and E. Insulin levels at the 24(th) postoperative hour in epidural groups were increased compared to those at basal levels, although general anaesthesia groups showed a decrease. From these measurements, only the change in Group EN was statistically significant (p<0.05). Plasma cortisol levels at the 2(nd) peroperative hour were higher in epidural groups than in general anaesthesia groups. Both anaesthesia techniques did not have an effect on IL-6 levels. We concluded that epidural anaesthesia suppressed stress response, although preoperative oral carbohydrate nutrition did not reveal a significant effect on surgical stress response.

  18. Oral surgery in patients under antithrombotic therapy: perioperative bleeding as a significant risk factor for postoperative hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Amanda L; Souza, Alessandra F; Martins, Maria A P; Fraga, Marina G; Travassos, Denise V; Oliveira, Ana C B; Ribeiro, Daniel D; Silva, Tarcília A

    2018-01-01

    : To investigate perioperative and postoperative bleeding, complications in patients under therapy with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs submitted to oral surgery. To evaluate the risk of bleeding and safety for dental surgery, a retrospective chart review was performed. Medical and dental records of patients taking oral antithrombotic drugs undergoing dental surgery between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Results were statistically analyzed using Fisher's exact test, t test or the χ test. One hundred and seventy-nine patients underwent 293 surgical procedures. A total of eight cases of perioperative and 12 episodes of postoperative bleeding were documented. The complications were generally managed with local measures and did not require hospitalization. We found significant association of postoperative hemorrhage with increased perioperative bleeding (P = 0.043) and combination of anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy (P < 0.001). The chance of postoperative hemorrhage for procedures with increased perioperative bleeding is 8.8 times bigger than procedures without perioperative bleeding. Dental surgery in patients under antithrombotic therapy might be carried out without altering the regimen because of low risk of perioperative and postoperative bleeding. However, patients with increased perioperative bleeding should be closely followed up because of postoperative complications risk.

  19. Decision making in third molar surgery: a survey of Brazilian oral and maxillofacial surgeons.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Igor Batista; Melo, Auremir Rocha; Fernandes, André Vajgel; Cunningham, Larry L; Laureano Filho, José R; Van Sickels, Joseph E

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the variations in decision making among Brazilian oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMFS) and trainees in relation to third molar surgery. A survey on 18 diverse clinical situations related to the assessment and treatment of the third molar surgeries was conducted during the 20th Brazilian National OMFS meeting. Participants were divided into three groups according to their level of training. Another variable studied was length of experience. Correlation between the question answers and the variables was analysed using the chi-square test and the f test. The mean age of participants was 32.68 years, and their mean length of experience was 5.24 years. There were no statistical differences between the level of training and number of years of experience and the responses to 15 of the 18 questions on clinical situations. However, differences were found in responses to prophylactic extraction of asymptomatic third molars, use of non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) during the preoperative surgical period and the use of additional imaging to plan extractions. The group with shorter time of experience (3.8 ± 3.94 years) tended to recommend extractions of asymptomatic third molars more frequently compared with the more experienced surgeons (P = 0.041). More experienced surgeons used NSAIDs in the preoperative surgical period, whereas the majority of the youngest surgeons (4.1 ± 5.96 years of experience) did not (P = 0.0042). The certificated trained and in practice group tended to treat deep lower third molar impactions based on the findings of a panoramic radiograph, without obtaining additional imaging [cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)] before treatment (P = 0.0132). Decision making regarding third molar treatment differs according to the level of training and is influenced by the number of years of experience. Therefore, further continuous education programmes in this area are warranted to make recommendations regarding

  20. Tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for automated oral and maxillofacial laser surgery: ex vivo pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zam, Azhar; Stelzle, Florian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Nkenke, Emeka; Schmidt, Michael; Douplik, Alexandre

    2010-02-01

    Remote laser surgery lacks of haptic feedback during the laser ablation of tissue. Hence, there is a risk of iatrogenic damage or destruction of anatomical structures like nerves or salivary glands. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy provides a straightforward and simple approach for optical tissue differentiation. We measured diffuse reflectance from seven various tissue types ex vivo. We applied Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to differentiate the seven tissue types and computed the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Special emphasis was taken on the identification of nerves and salivary glands as the most crucial tissue for maxillofacial surgery. The results show a promise for differentiating tissues as guidance for oral and maxillofacial laser surgery by means of diffuse reflectance.

  1. Telemedicine Consultations in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: A Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eric W; Strauss, Robert A; Janus, Charles; Carrico, Caroline K

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to follow up on the previous study in evaluating the efficiency and reliability of telemedicine consultations for preoperative assessment of patients. A retrospective study of 335 patients over a 6-year period was performed to evaluate success rates of telemedicine consultations in adequately assessing patients for surgical treatment under anesthesia. Success or failure of the telemedicine consultation was measured by the ability to triage patients appropriately for the hospital operating room versus the clinic, to provide an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan, and to provide a sufficient medical and physical assessment for planned anesthesia. Data gathered from the average distance traveled and data from a previous telemedicine study performed by the National Institute of Justice were used to estimate the cost savings of using telemedicine consultations over the 6-year period. Practitioners performing the consultation were successful 92.2% of the time in using the data collected to make a diagnosis and treatment plan. Patients were triaged correctly 99.6% of the time for the clinic or hospital operating room. Most patients (98.0%) were given sufficient medical and physical assessment and were able to undergo surgery with anesthesia as planned at the clinic appointment immediately after telemedicine consultation. Most patients (95.9%) were given an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. The estimated amount saved by providing consultation by telemedicine and eliminating in-office consultation was substantial at $134,640. This study confirms the findings from previous studies that telemedicine consultations are as reliable as those performed by traditional methods. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Benefit of the Smartphone in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: Smartphone Use Among Maxillofacial Surgery Trainees and iPhone Apps for the Maxillofacial Surgeon.

    PubMed

    Carey, Elinor; Payne, Karl Frederick Braekkan; Ahmed, Nabeela; Goodson, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    The use of smartphones has soared among healthcare professionals in recent years, with estimated figures reporting that the majority of clinicians own and use smartphones in the workplace. Smartphones allow the clinician to carry textbooks in their pocket, write documents on the move and use email and internet to enhance productivity and clinical decision making. These advances in smartphone technology have enabled access to healthcare information for the clinician and transfer of data between team members, giving rise to the phenomenon of telemedicine. With the ability to instantly transfer clinical data to the off-site surgeon, combined with purpose-built medical apps, the smartphone is rapidly becoming an invaluable tool for the modern surgeon. Many studies have linked the benefits of smartphones and apps in other surgical specialities, but no article to date has highlighted the merits and full scope of this technology to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon. We report that 94 % of British maxillofacial surgery trainees own a smartphone, with 61 % owning an iPhone. 89 % of trainees questioned had downloaded medical apps and used them regularly during clinical activities. We discuss the clinical application of the smartphone in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery and review a list of useful and relevant apps for the modern maxillofacial surgeon using the iPhone as an example platform.

  3. Investigations on the potential of a low power diode pumped Er:YAG laser system for oral surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Karl; Wurm, Holger; Hausladen, Florian; Wagner, Sophia; Hibst, Raimund

    2015-02-01

    Flash lamp pumped Er:YAG-lasers are used in clinical practice for dental applications successfully. As an alternative, several diode pumped Er:YAG laser systems (Pantec Engineering AG) become available, with mean laser power of 2W, 15W, and 30W. The aim of the presented study is to investigate the potential of the 2W Er:YAG laser system for oral surgery. At first an appropriate experimental set-up was realized with a beam delivery and both, a focusing unit for non-contact tissue cutting and a fiber tip for tissue cutting in contact mode. In order to produce reproducible cuts, the samples (porcine gingiva) were moved by a computer controlled translation stage. On the fresh samples cutting depth and quality were determined by light microscopy. Afterwards histological sections were prepared and microscopically analyzed regarding cutting depth and thermal damage zone. The experiments show that low laser power ≤ 2W is sufficient to perform efficient oral soft tissue cutting with cut depth up to 2mm (sample movement 2mm/s). The width of the thermal damage zone can be controlled by the irradiation parameters within a range of about 50μm to 110μm. In general, thermal injury is more pronounced using fiber tips in contact mode compared to the focused laser beam. In conclusion the results reveal that even the low power diode pumped Er:YAG laser is an appropriate tool for oral surgery.

  4. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical nerve identification. Preliminary ex vivo results for feedback controlled oral and maxillofacial laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzle, Florian; Zam, Azhar; Adler, Werner; Douplik, Alexandre; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Schmidt, Michael

    Objective: Laser surgery has many advantages. However, due to a lack of haptic feedback it is accompanied by the risk of iatrogenic nerve damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of optical nerve identification by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to set the base for a feedback control system to enhance nerve preservation in oral and maxillofacial laser surgery. Materials and Methods: Diffuse reflectance spectra of nerve tissue, skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone (15120 spectra) of ex vivo pig heads were acquired in the wavelength range of 350-650 nm. Tissue differentiation was performed by principal components analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Specificity and sensitivity were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Results: Nerve tissue could correctly be identified and differed from skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone in more than 90% of the cases (AUC results) with a specificity of over 78% and a sensitivity of more than 86%. Conclusion: Nerve tissue can be identified by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with high precision and reliability. The results may set the base for a feedback system to prevent iatrogenic nerve damage performing oral and maxillofacial laser surgery.

  5. Preoperative oral Passiflora incarnata reduces anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Movafegh, Ali; Alizadeh, Reza; Hajimohamadi, Fatimah; Esfehani, Fatimah; Nejatfar, Mohmad

    2008-06-01

    Many patients have preoperative anxiety; therefore, the development of a strong anxiolytic with minimal psychomotor impairment for premedication may be desirable. In this study, 60 patients were randomized into two groups to receive either oral Passiflora incarnata (500 mg, Passipy IranDarouk) (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) as premedication, 90 min before surgery. A numerical rating scale (NRS) was used for each patient to assess anxiety and sedation before, and 10, 30, 60, and 90 min after premedication. Psychomotor function was assessed with the Trieger Dot Test and the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test at arrival in the operating room, 30 and 90 min after tracheal extubation. The time interval between arrival in the postanesthesia care unit and discharge to home (discharge time) was recorded for each patient. The demographic characteristics of patients, ASA physical status, duration of surgery, basal NRS score, sedation at the preset time intervals, and discharge time were similar in the two groups. The NRS anxiety scores were significantly lower in the passiflora group than in the control group (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in psychological variables in the postanesthesia care unit and recovery of psychomotor function was comparable in both groups. In outpatient surgery, administration of oral Passiflora incarnata as a premedication reduces anxiety without inducing sedation.

  6. Evaluation of modified nasal to oral endotracheal tube switch-For modified alar base cinching after maxillary orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Taj Nizam Shakeel; Meka, Sridhar; Ch, Pavan Kumar; Kolli, Naga Neelima Devi; Chakravarthi, P Srinivas; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; L, Krishna Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue changes secondary to Maxillary orthognathic surgery are many fold. The alar flare is one among them, which affects the appearance of the patient. Cinch suture has been used to prevent alar flare; but the presence of anaesthetic tube hinders cinching. So, the study was aimed to assess an efficacy of modified nasal to oral tube switch technique for modified alar cinching to prevent alar flare after orthognathic and nasal corrective surgeries. Patients were randomly allocated in each group, who underwent modified alar base cinching with and without nasal to oral tube switch. Changes in alar base width, upper lip length was measured with Digital Vernier Caliper and nasolabial angle (Cotg-Sn-Ls) on lateral cephalogram at 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months after surgery. The time taken and ease of tube switch were noted. The data obtained were tabulated and interpreted using a test of significance. Study results showed no statistical significant difference in perinasal soft changes among both groups. But tube switch appears to be beneficial to prevent alar flare. Modified alar base cinching was performed effectively in patients with a modified tube switch technique. It increased positive results in comparison with non-shift. The technique of tube switch used is effective in prevention of alar flare. Because of small sample size and limited period of follow up, our study suggests multi centre, randomized studies to know the technical difficulties of tube switch for cinching and aesthetic results with varying anaesthetist and the surgeon's experience.

  7. Why Do Women Choose to Enter Academic Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery?

    PubMed

    Kolokythas, Antonia; Miloro, Michael

    2016-05-01

    To determine why women choose to enter an academic career in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS). An online questionnaire was developed and e-mailed to female OMS surgeons to assess the reasons women choose to pursue an academic career, the perceived positive and negative features of academia for women, and proposed measures to increase the percentage of women choosing to specialize in OMS and pursue an academic career. Thirty-one female OMS surgeons completed the questionnaire; 1 additional participant accessed the survey but did not respond to any of the questions. There were 25 full-time academics and 6 part-time academics (≥50% time commitment). Of the responders, 72% were married, and of these, 72% were married before entering academics. Forty-seven percent of the women had children, all during their academic tenure. Among the full-time academicians with children, only 2 (7.7%) reported moderate difficulty finding the time for childbirth and maternity leave, whereas 3 of the 5 part-time academics with children reported moderate or significant difficulty with childbirth and maternity leave. Factors associated with choosing and enjoying an academic career are involvement in resident-student teaching (78%), followed by colleague camaraderie and collaboration (65.6%), research potential (50%), time flexibility, and not having to deal with excessive "business" practice issues (33%). The main reason for considering leaving an academic OMS career and/or among the least enjoyable aspects of being in academics was the potential for a higher income in private practice (56%). Less significant reasons for considering leaving an academic OMS career were a more flexible work schedule in the private sector and less institutional red tape (37.5%), as well as independence/being in control and more family time (22%). Engaging residents and students by female OMS surgeons, better mentorship from academic OMS surgeons, and increasing the number of women serving in leadership

  8. Comparison of different focusing fiber tips for improved oral diode laser surgery.

    PubMed

    Stock, Karl; Stegmayer, Thomas; Graser, Rainer; Förster, Wolfram; Hibst, Raimund

    2012-12-01

    State of the art for use of the fiber guided diode laser in dental therapy is the application of bare fibers. A novel concept with delivery fiber and exchangeable fiber tips enables the use of tips with special and optimized geometries for various applications. The aim of this study is the comparison of different focusing fiber tips for enhanced cutting efficacy in oral surgery. For this purpose various designs of tip geometry were investigated and optimized by ray tracing simulations. Two applicators, one with a sphere, and another one with a taper, were realized and tested on porcine gingiva (diode laser, 940 nm, 5 W/cw; 7 W/modulated). The cutting depth and quality were determined by light microscope. Histological sections of the cuts were prepared by a cryo-microtome and microscopically analyzed to determine the cut depths and thermal damage zones. The simulations show that, using a sphere as fiber tip, an intensity increase of up to a factor of 16.2 in air, and 13.2 in water compared to a bare 200 µm fiber can be achieved. Although offering high focusing factor in water, the cutting quality of the sphere was rather poor. This is probably caused by a derogation of the focusing quality due to contamination during cutting and light scattering. Much better results were achieved with conically shaped fiber tips. Compared to bare fibers they exhibit improved handling properties with no hooking, more regular and deeper cuts (5 W/cw: 2,393 ± 468 µm, compared to the cleaved bare fiber 5 W/cw: 711 ± 268 µm). The thermal damage zones of the cuts are comparable for the various tips and fibers. In conclusion the results of our study show that cutting quality and efficiency of diode laser on soft tissue can be significantly improved using conically shaped fiber tips. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Quality management and work environment in Swedish oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Pilgård, Göran

    2009-01-01

    This thesis attempts to describe the opinion of the work with quality, quality management, and work environment among the employees at Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) clinics in Sweden. Analyse if the OMFS clinics in Sweden actively work with quality development and if so which systems they use. Explore the opinion of the employees about quality work. Describe how the employees of OMFS clinics in Sweden perceive good work, i.e., their image of the dimensions that the profession should contain to be really good work. Investigate whether there is a discrepancy between ideal and reality for this group. Describe how the employees of OMFS clinics in Sweden perceive their health. Analyse how work environment influenced attitudes to and knowledge of quality among employees of OMFS clinics in Sweden. The study was based on self-report questionnaires which in 2003 were sent to all OMFS clinics in Sweden. The response rate was 86%. Only at two clinics did all the respondents agree on their system. Surgeons rated intellectually stimulating work as most important, and the hazard-free work environment as least important. The nurses rated stimulating fellowship as most important, and the opportunity for career advancement as least important. The percentage unit differences between the ideal and the reality were largest for the item the work provides opportunities to have an influence on important decisions. There were significant differences between maxillofacial. surgeons and dental nurses and assistant nurses as to muscle- and joint trouble. The differences were also significant between men and women both as to muscle- and joint troubles and somatic trouble. Only work environment was significant for attitude towards quality work. Profession, gender, clinic size, and a factor for hard demand had significant associations to quality management system used or not. More than half of the respondents stated that they worked with a quality system. The dental nurses and assistant

  10. [A randomized controlled trial of preoperative oral immunonutrition in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer: hospital stay and health care costs].

    PubMed

    Manzanares Campillo, María Del Carmen; Martín Fernández, Jesús; Amo Salas, Mariano; Casanova Rituerto, Daniel

    The use of enteral formulas with immunonutrients in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies susceptible to surgery can reduce postoperative morbidity, at the expense of reduced infectious complications, with the consequent reduction in hospital stay and health care costs. Prospective randomized study. 84 patients operated on a scheduled basis for resectable colorectal cancer were recruited. In the group YES IN Impact © Oral was administered for 8 days (3 sachets a day), compared with the NOT IN group who did not receive it. 40.5% (17) patients without immunonutrition suffered infectious complications vs. 33.3% (14) of YES IN. In patients with rectal cancer NOT IN, 50% (8) suffered minor infectious complications (p=.028). In each group (YES IN, NOT IN, colon and rectal cancer) when infectious complications were observed, the variables total hospital stay and costs doubled, with significant differences. These variables showed higher values in the group NOT IN compared with those who received immunonutrition, although these differences were not statistically significant. NOT IN patients suffered infectious complications more frequently than YES IN, with significant results in the subgroup of patients with rectal cancer. The total hospital stay and costs were slightly higher in the group not supplemented, doubling in each category significantly (YES IN, NOT IN, colon and rectal cancer), when infectious complications were observed. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Intraocular pressure elevation after cataract surgery and its prevention by oral acetazolamide in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ken; Yoshida, Motoaki; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Manabe, Shin-Ichi; Yoshimura, Koichi

    2018-02-01

    To examine whether intraocular pressure (IOP) increases immediately after cataract surgery in eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PXF) syndrome and to assess whether orally administered acetazolamide can prevent the IOP elevation. Hayashi Eye Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan. Prospective case series. Patients with PXF syndrome scheduled for phacoemulsification were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) oral acetazolamide administered 1 hour preoperatively (preoperative administration group), (2) administered 3 hours postoperatively (postoperative administration group), and (3) not administered (no administration group). The IOP was measured using a rebound tonometer 1 hour preoperatively, upon completion of surgery, and at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 24 hours postoperatively. The study comprised 96 patients (96 eyes). The mean IOP increased at 3, 5, and 7 hours postoperatively in all groups. At 1 hour and 3 hours postoperatively, the IOP was significantly lower in the preoperative administration group than in the postoperative group and no administration group (P ≤ .001). At 5, 7, and 24 hours postoperatively, the IOP was significantly lower in the preoperative group and postoperative administration group than in the no administration group (P ≤. 045). An IOP spike higher than 25 mm Hg occurred less frequently in the preoperative administration group than in the postoperative administration group and the no administration group (P = .038). Intraocular pressure increased at 3, 5, and 7 hours after cataract surgery in eyes with PXF syndrome. Oral acetazolamide administered 1 hour preoperatively reduced the IOP elevation throughout the 24-hour follow-up; acetazolamide administered 3 hours postoperatively reduced the elevation at 5 hours postoperatively and thereafter. Copyright © 2018 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral health-related quality of life in youth receiving cleft-related surgery: self-report and proxy ratings.

    PubMed

    Broder, Hillary L; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Sischo, Lacey

    2017-04-01

    This paper evaluated the impact of cleft-related surgery on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of youth with cleft over time. Data were derived from a 5-year, multi-center, prospective, longitudinal study of 1196 youth with cleft lip and/or palate and their caregivers. Eligible youth were between 7.5 and 18.5 years old, spoke English or Spanish, and were non-syndromic. During each observational period, which included baseline, and 1- and 2-year post-baseline follow-up visits, youths and their caregivers completed the Child Oral Health Impact Profile, a validated measure of OHRQoL. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to analyze the effects of receipt of craniofacial surgery on OHRQoL over time. During the course of this study a total of 516 patients (43 %) received at least one surgery. Youth in the surgery recommendation group had lower self- (β = -2.18, p < 0.05) and proxy-rated (β = -2.92, p < 0.02) OHRQoL when compared to non-surgical self- and proxy-rated OHRQoL at baseline. Both surgical and non-surgical youth (β = 3.73, p < 0.001) and caregiver (β = 1.91, p < 0.05) ratings of OHRQoL improved over time. There was significant incremental improvement (time × surgery interaction) in self-reported OHRQoL for youth postsurgery (β = 1.04, p < 0.05), but this postsurgery increment was not seen in the caregiver proxy ratings. Surgical intervention impacts OHRQoL among youth with cleft. Youth who were surgical candidates had lower baseline self- and caregiver-rated OHRQoL when compared to non-surgical youth. Youth who underwent cleft-related surgery had significant incremental improvements in self-rated but not caregiver (proxy)-rated OHRQoL after surgery.

  13. Effect of perioperative oral carprofen on postoperative pain in dogs undergoing surgery for stabilization of ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, James S; Brevard, Sean; Mallinckrodt, Craig; Baker, Geri; Wander, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    A randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of oral carprofen for the control of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing knee surgery for stabilization of ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments. Dogs were randomly assigned to treatment with carprofen (n = 10) or placebo (n = 9). Pain was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 24, and 48 hours and 10 and 21 days postoperatively. Eight of 10 dogs treated with carprofen and five of nine dogs treated with placebo were given at least one dose of morphine as rescue therapy. The mean relative dose of morphine given at 1 hour (P =.01) and 24 hours (P =.02) after surgery was greater for dogs treated with carprofen than for dogs given a placebo. There were no significant postoperative differences in cortisol levels or any measured variable. It appears that the scoring system used was not sensitive enough to detect differences in pain between a known analgesic and a placebo.

  14. Prosthetic Rehabilitation After Fibular Free Flap Surgery of Mandibular Defects in a Patient With Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-In

    2016-10-01

    This report is to present the treatment procedure and clinical considerations of prosthodontic management of a patient who had undergone a partial mandibulectomy and fibular free flap surgery. A 59-year-old man with a squamous cell carcinoma received a partial mandibular resection. Microsurgical reconstruction with a fibular free flap surgery and implant-supported zirconia-fixed prosthesis produced by computer-aided manufacturing led to successful results for the oral rehabilitation of mandibular defects. The implant-supported zirconia-fixed prosthesis can be recommended for use in patients with mandibulectomy and fibular free flaps. Close cooperation between the surgeon and the prosthodontist is mandatory for the satisfaction of the patient.

  15. H-classic: a new method to identify classic articles in Implant Dentistry, Periodontics, and Oral Surgery.

    PubMed

    De la Flor-Martínez, Maria; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Sánchez-Fernández, Elena; Piattelli, Adriano; Cobo, Manuel Jesus; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    The study of classic papers permits analysis of the past, present, and future of a specific area of knowledge. This type of analysis is becoming more frequent and more sophisticated. Our objective was to use the H-classics method, based on the h-index, to analyze classic papers in Implant Dentistry, Periodontics, and Oral Surgery (ID, P, and OS). First, an electronic search of documents related to ID, P, and OS was conducted in journals indexed in Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2014 within the category 'Dentistry, Oral Surgery & Medicine'. Second, Web of Knowledge databases were searched using Mesh terms related to ID, P, and OS. Finally, the H-classics method was applied to select the classic articles in these disciplines, collecting data on associated research areas, document type, country, institutions, and authors. Of 267,611 documents related to ID, P, and OS retrieved from JCR journals (2014), 248 were selected as H-classics. They were published in 35 journals between 1953 and 2009, most frequently in the Journal of Clinical Periodontology (18.95%), the Journal of Periodontology (18.54%), International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants (9.27%), and Clinical Oral Implant Research (6.04%). These classic articles derived from the USA in 49.59% of cases and from Europe in 47.58%, while the most frequent host institution was the University of Gothenburg (17.74%) and the most frequent authors were J. Lindhe (10.48%) and S. Socransky (8.06%). The H-classics approach offers an objective method to identify core knowledge in clinical disciplines such as ID, P, and OS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of preoperative oral carbohydrate supplementation on postoperative metabolic stress response of patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Viganò, Jacopo; Cereda, Emanuele; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Carini, Roberta; Cameletti, Barbara; Spampinato, Marcello; Dionigi, Paolo

    2012-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of preoperative oral carbohydrate supplementation (OCH) on the postoperative metabolic stress response of patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery. The study was designed as a controlled, prospective, cohort study including 38 patients treated with OCH (800 mL the day before surgery and 400 mL within 3 h before the induction of anesthesia) and 38 controls matched for surgical procedure. Fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index), cortisol, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were assessed before and after surgery (postoperative day (POD) 1, 2, and 3). The administration of OCH resulted in lower fasting glucose, HOMA-IR index, cortisol, and IL-6 on both POD 1 and POD 2. At multivariable regression analyses, the reduction of these parameters was independent of sex, age, body mass index, and major abdominal surgery. Particularly, models including OCH treatment explained 70, 63, and 66 % of the variance of the increase in IL-6 levels at POD 1, POD 2, and POD 3, respectively. The effect of OCH on changes in glucose, insulin resistance, and cortisol on POD 1 and POD 2 disappeared after the inclusion of IL-6 in the models. Treatment with OCH was associated with attenuation of the postoperative metabolic stress response. We hypothesize that modulation of the inflammatory response is one of the mechanisms involved.

  17. Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after third molar surgery: A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario-Alberto; Martinez-Rider, Ricardo; Perez-Urizar, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Background Preemptive analgesia is considered an alternative for treating the postsurgical pain of third molar removal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preemptive analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after a mandibular third molar surgery. Material and Methods A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out. Thirty patients were randomized into two treatment groups using a series of random numbers: Group A, oral ketorolac 10 mg plus intramuscular placebo (1 mL saline solution); or Group B, oral placebo (similar tablet to oral ketorolac) plus intramuscular tramadol 50 mg diluted in 1 mL saline solution. These treatments were given 30 min before the surgery. We evaluated the time of first analgesic rescue medication, pain intensity, total analgesic consumption and adverse effects. Results Patients taking oral ketorolac had longer time of analgesic covering and less postoperative pain when compared with patients receiving intramuscular tramadol. Conclusions According to the VAS and AUC results, this study suggests that 10 mg of oral ketorolac had superior analgesic effect than 50 mg of tramadol when administered before a mandibular third molar surgery. Key words:Ketorolac, tramadol, third molar surgery, pain, preemptive analgesia. PMID:27475688

  18. Effect of perioperative oral care on prevention of postoperative pneumonia associated with esophageal cancer surgery: A multicenter case-control study with propensity score matching analysis.

    PubMed

    Soutome, Sakiko; Yanamoto, Souichi; Funahara, Madoka; Hasegawa, Takumi; Komori, Takahide; Yamada, Shin-Ichi; Kurita, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Chika; Shibuya, Yasuyuki; Kojima, Yuka; Nakahara, Hirokazu; Oho, Takahiko; Umeda, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of oral care in prevention of postoperative pneumonia associated with esophageal cancer surgery.Postoperative pneumonia is a severe adverse event associated with esophageal cancer surgery. It is thought to be caused by aspiration of oropharyngeal fluid containing pathogens. However, the relationship between oral health status and postoperative pneumonia has not been well investigated.This study included 539 patients with esophageal cancer undergoing surgery at 1 of 7 university hospitals. While 306 patients received perioperative oral care, 233 did not. Various clinical factors as well as occurrence of postoperative pneumonia were retrospectively evaluated. Propensity-score matching was performed to minimize selection biases associated with comparison of retrospective data between the oral care and control groups. Factors related to postoperative pneumonia were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.Of the original 539 patients, 103 (19.1%) experienced postoperative pneumonia. The results of multivariate analysis of the 420 propensity score-matched patients revealed longer operation time, postoperative dysphagia, and lack of oral care intervention to be significantly correlated with postoperative pneumonia.The present findings demonstrate that perioperative oral care can reduce the risk of postoperative pneumonia in patients undergoing esophageal cancer surgery.

  19. Assessing the efficacy of perioperative oral carprofen after cranial cruciate surgery using noninvasive, objective pressure platform gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Horstman, Christopher L; Conzemius, Michael G; Evans, Richard; Gordon, Wanda J

    2004-01-01

    To document, using pressure platform gait analysis, the effect of perioperative oral carprofen on limb function and pain after cranial cruciate ligament surgery in dogs. Blinded, prospective clinical investigation. Twenty dogs with naturally occurring unilateral cranial cruciate disease. Physiologic indices, subjective pain scoring, and pressure platform gait analyses were performed before and 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery. Correlations were assessed between methods of evaluation and the data was compared across treatment groups. No strong correlations were noted between physiologic data, subjective scoring systems, or gait analysis data at a walk or stance. Although average measures of limb function were nearly twice as large in dogs treated with carprofen, no significant differences between groups over time were identified. No significant differences were noted in any other measure of pain or limb function. Power analysis of peak vertical force at a walk indicated that significant difference would have been detected had the number of dogs in each group been increased to 35. When limb function was assessed with pressure platform gait analysis no statistical difference was noted between groups with respect to PVF and VI at a walk or stance, although average ground reaction forces for dogs in the carprofen group were greater than the traditional pain management group at all time points. Oral carprofen appears to provide some benefit for the treatment of postoperative orthopedic pain.

  20. Surgical Treatment, Oral Rehabilitation, and Orthognathic Surgery After Failure of Pharmacologic Treatment of Central Giant Cell Lesion: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Maia Nogueira, Renato Luiz; Osterne, Rafael Lima Verde; Cavalcante, Roberta Barroso; Abreu, Ricardo Teixeira

    2016-12-01

    Although pharmacologic treatments for central giant cell lesions have gained much emphasis, these treatment modalities do not always have successful outcomes, and surgical treatment may be necessary. The purpose of the present study was to report a case of aggressive central giant cell lesion initially treated by nonsurgical methods without satisfactory results, necessitating segmental mandibular resection for definitive treatment and oral rehabilitation. A 20-year-old woman was diagnosed with an aggressive central giant cell lesion in the mandible. The patient was first treated with intralesional corticosteroid injections. Subsequently, the lesion increased in size. Therefore, a second pharmacologic treatment was proposed with salmon calcitonin nasal spray, but no signs of a treatment response were noted. Because of the lack of response, surgical excision was performed, and a mandibular reconstruction plate was installed. At 12 months after surgical resection, the patient underwent mandibular reconstruction with bone grafts. After 6 months, 7 dental implants were installed, and fixed prostheses were made. After installation of the prostheses, the patient experienced persistent mandibular laterognathism, and a mandibular orthognathic surgery was performed to correct the laterognathia. The follow-up examination 4 years after orthognathic surgery showed no signs of recurrence and good facial symmetry. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of preoperative oral carbohydrates and trace elements on perioperative nutritional status in elective surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Yoshimasa; Iwasaka, Hideo; Shiihara, Keisuke; Hagiwara, Satoshi; Kubo, Nobuhiro; Fujitomi, Yutaka; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2011-10-01

    In order to enhance postoperative recovery, preoperative consumption of carbohydrate (CHO) drinks has been used to suppress metabolic fluctuations. Trace elements such as zinc and copper are known to play an important role in postoperative recovery. Here, we examined the effects of preoperatively consuming a CHO drink containing zinc and copper. Subjects were 122 elective surgery patients divided into two groups (overnight fasting and CHO groups); each group was further divided into morning or afternoon surgery groups. Subjects in the CHO group consumed 300 mL of a CHO drink the night before surgery, followed by 200 ml before morning surgery or 700 ml before afternoon surgery (> or =2 hours before anesthesia induction). Blood levels of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), retinol-binding protein, zinc, and copper were determined. One subject in the CHO group was excluded after refusing the drink. There were no adverse effects from the CHO drink. NEFA levels increased in the fasting groups. Although zinc levels increased in the CHO group immediately after anesthesia induction, no group differences were observed the day after surgery. Preoperative consumption of a CHO drink containing trace elements suppressed preoperative metabolic fluctuations without complications and prevented trace element deficiency. Further beneficial effects during the perioperative period can be expected by adding trace elements to CHO supplements.

  2. Oral health-related quality of life following third molar surgery with or without application of ice pack therapy.

    PubMed

    Ibikunle, Adebayo A; Adeyemo, Wasiu L

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of ice pack therapy on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) following third molar surgery. All consecutive subjects who required surgical extraction of lower third molars and satisfied the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated into two groups. Subjects in group A were instructed to apply ice packs directly over the masseteric region on the operated side intermittently after third molar surgery. This first application was supervised in the clinic and was repeated at the 24-h postoperative review. Subjects in group A were further instructed to apply the ice pack when at home every one and a half hours on postoperative days 0 and 1 while he/she was awake as described. Group B subjects did not apply ice pack therapy. Facial swelling, pain, trismus, and quality of life (using Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) instrument) were evaluated both preoperatively and postoperatively. Postoperative scores in both groups were compared. A significant increase in the mean total and subscale scores of OHIP-14 was found in both groups postoperatively when compared with preoperative value. Subjects who received ice pack therapy had a better quality of life than those who did not. Subjects whose postoperative QoL were affected were statistically significantly higher in group B than in group A at all postoperative evaluation points (P < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were also observed between the groups in the various subscales analyzed, with better quality of life seen among subjects in group A. Quality of life after third molar surgery was significantly better in subjects who had cryotherapy after third molar than those who did not have cryotherapy. Cryotherapy is a viable alternative or adjunct to other established modes of improving the quality of life of patients following surgical extraction of third molars.

  3. Randomized clinical trial to compare the effects of preoperative oral carbohydrate versus placebo on insulin resistance after colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z G; Wang, Q; Wang, W J; Qin, H L

    2010-03-01

    Preoperative oral carbohydrate (OCH) reduces postoperative insulin resistance (PIR). This randomized trial investigated whether this effect is related to insulin-induced activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB) signalling pathway. Patients with colorectal cancer scheduled for elective open resection were randomly assigned to preoperative OCH, fasting or placebo. Preoperative general well-being, insulin resistance before and immediately after surgery, and postoperative expression of PI3K, PKB, protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in rectus abdominis muscle were evaluated. Patient and operative characteristics did not differ between groups. Subjective well-being was significantly better in OCH and placebo groups than in the fasting group, primarily because of reduced thirst (P = 0.005) and hunger (P = 0.041). PIR was significantly greater in fasting and placebo groups (P < 0.010). By the end of surgery, muscle PTK activity as well as PI3K and PKB levels were significantly increased in the OCH group compared with values in fasting and placebo groups (P < 0.050), but GLUT4 expression was unaffected. PIR involves the PI3K/PKB signalling pathway. Preoperative OCH intake improves preoperative subjective feelings of hunger and thirst compared with fasting, while attenuating PIR by stimulation of the PI3K/PKB pathway. (c) 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Use of an operating microscope during spine surgery is associated with minor increases in operating room times and no increased risk of infection

    PubMed Central

    Basques, Bryce A.; Golinvaux, Nicholas S.; Bohl, Daniel D.; Yacob, Alem; Toy, Jason O.; Varthi, Arya G.; Grauer, Jonathan N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective database review. Objective To evaluate whether microscope use during spine procedures is associated with increased operating room times or increased risk of infection. Summary of Background Data Operating microscopes are commonly used in spine procedures. It is debated whether the use of an operating microscope increases operating room time or confers increased risk of infection. Methods The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database, which includes data from over 370 participating hospitals, was used to identify patients undergoing elective spinal procedures with and without an operating microscope for the years 2011 and 2012. Bivariate and multivariate linear regressions were used to test the association between microscope use and operating room times. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were similarly conducted to test the association between microscope use and infection occurrence within 30 days of surgery. Results A total of 23,670 elective spine procedures were identified, of which 2,226 (9.4%) used an operating microscope. The average patient age was 55.1 ± 14.4 years. The average operative time (incision to closure) was 125.7 ± 82.0 minutes. Microscope use was associated with minor increases in preoperative room time (+2.9 minutes, p=0.013), operative time (+13.2 minutes, p<0.001), and total room time (+18.6 minutes, p<0.001) on multivariate analysis. A total of 328 (1.4%) patients had an infection within 30 days of surgery. Multivariate analysis revealed no significant difference between the microscope and non-microscope groups for occurrence of any infection, superficial surgical site infection (SSI), deep SSI, organ space infection, or sepsis/septic shock, regardless of surgery type. Conclusions We did not find operating room times or infection risk to be significant deterrents for use of an operating microscope during spine surgery. PMID:25188600

  5. Use of an operating microscope during spine surgery is associated with minor increases in operating room times and no increased risk of infection.

    PubMed

    Basques, Bryce A; Golinvaux, Nicholas S; Bohl, Daniel D; Yacob, Alem; Toy, Jason O; Varthi, Arya G; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-10-15

    Retrospective database review. To evaluate whether microscope use during spine procedures is associated with increased operating room times or increased risk of infection. Operating microscopes are commonly used in spine procedures. It is debated whether the use of an operating microscope increases operating room time or confers increased risk of infection. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, which includes data from more than 370 participating hospitals, was used to identify patients undergoing elective spinal procedures with and without the use of an operating microscope for the years 2011 and 2012. Bivariate and multivariate linear regressions were used to test the association between microscope use and operating room times. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were similarly conducted to test the association between microscope use and infection occurrence within 30 days of surgery. A total of 23,670 elective spine procedures were identified, of which 2226 (9.4%) used an operating microscope. The average patient age was 55.1±14.4 years. The average operative time (incision to closure) was 125.7±82.0 minutes.Microscope use was associated with minor increases in preoperative room time (+2.9 min, P=0.013), operative time (+13.2 min, P<0.001), and total room time (+18.6 min, P<0.001) on multivariate analysis.A total of 328 (1.4%) patients had an infection within 30 days of surgery. Multivariate analysis revealed no significant difference between the microscope and nonmicroscope groups for occurrence of any infection, superficial surgical site infection, deep surgical site infection, organ space infection, or sepsis/septic shock, regardless of surgery type. We did not find operating room times or infection risk to be significant deterrents for use of an operating microscope during spine surgery. 3.

  6. New orally active DNA minor groove binding small molecule CT-1 acts against breast cancer by targeting tumor DNA damage leading to p53-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Saini, Karan Singh; Hamidullah; Ashraf, Raghib; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Das, Sharmistha; Siddiqui, Mohd Quadir; Dwivedi, Sonam; Sarkar, Jayanta; Sharma, Vishnu Lal; Konwar, Rituraj

    2017-04-01

    Targeting tumor DNA damage and p53 pathway is a clinically established strategy in the development of cancer chemotherapeutics. Majority of anti-cancer drugs are delivered through parenteral route for reasons like severe toxicity, lack of stability, and poor enteral absorption. Current DNA targeting drugs in clinical like anthracycline suffers from major drawbacks like cardiotoxicity. Here, we report identification of a new orally active small molecule curcumin-triazole conjugate (CT-1) with significant anti-breast cancer activity in vitro and in vivo. CT-1 selectively and significantly inhibits viability of breast cancer cell lines; retards cells cycle progression at S phase and induce mitochondrial-mediated cell apoptosis. CT-1 selectively binds to minor groove of DNA and induces DNA damage leading to increase in p53 along with decrease in its ubiquitination. Inhibition of p53 with pharmacological inhibitor as well as siRNA revealed the necessity of p53 in CT-1-mediated anti-cancer effects in breast cancer cells. Studies using several other intact p53 and deficient p53 cancer cell lines further confirmed necessity of p53 in CT-1-mediated anti-cancer response. Pharmacological inhibition of pan-caspase showed CT-1 induces caspase-dependent cell death in breast cancer cells. Most interestingly, oral administration of CT-1 induces significant inhibition of tumor growth in LA-7 syngeneic orthotropic rat mammary tumor model. CT-1 treated mammary tumor shows enhancement in DNA damage, p53 upregulation, and apoptosis. Collectively, CT-1 exhibits potent anti-cancer effect both in vitro and in vivo and could serve as a safe orally active lead for anti-cancer drug development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Partnership of Medical Genetics and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery When Evaluating Craniofacial Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela E

    2015-12-01

    A medical geneticist who has an interest in craniofacial anomalies forms a natural partnership with an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, which facilitates patient care. Using complementary diagnostic and therapeutic skills, the search for a recognizable pattern can lead to a syndrome diagnosis. After the initial examination, there is usually genetic testing to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Once established, care coordination and genetic counseling can be provided for the parents and the patient. Enrolling the patient into a research study could be helpful to understand the diagnosis but, in some circumstances, might not have immediate clinical relevance. A multidisciplinary craniofacial team is generally necessary for long-term management. This article discusses illustrative patients evaluated from 2007 through 2011 with the senior oral and maxillofacial surgeon at the Massachusetts General Hospital (Leonard B. Kaban, DMD, MD). These include single patients with the Nablus mask-like facies syndrome and auriculo-condylar syndrome and a series of 20 patients with Gorlin syndrome followed by a multispecialty team. A successful collaboration between a medical geneticist and an oral and maxillofacial surgeon optimizes the treatment of patients with craniofacial anomalies. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Correlations of plasma concentrations of β-amyloid peptide and S-100β with postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients undergoing oral and maxillofacial cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Liang, Bing; Sun, Yuan-Qing; Jiang, Jue; Xu, Hui

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the changes of perioperative plasma concentrations of Aβ 1-40 and S-100β to determine the relationship with postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing oral and maxillofacial cancer surgeries. One hundred and fifteen patients aged at least 60 years undergoing oral and maxillofacial tumor resection were investigated between May 2014 to December 2014.Neuropsychological tests for detecting postoperative cognitive dysfunction(POCD) were performed one day before surgery and 7 days postoperatively. According to the results of neuropsychological tests on day 7, patients were divided into POCD group and non-POCD group.Plasma values of Aβ 1-40 and S-100β were determined with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before anesthesia induction, 24 h and 7 days after surgery. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0 software package. According to the definition, POCD was present in 37 of 115 (32.3%) patients 1 week after surgery. Compared with pre-anesthesia, S-100β levels in POCD group were significantly increased (P<0.05); the level of Aβ 1-40 was significantly higher 24 h after surgery (P<0.05). Compared with non-POCD group, S-100β levels were significantly increased 24 h postoperatively (P<0.05); Aβ1-40 levels were significantly higher 24 h and 7 days postoperatively (P<0.05). POCD was present in 32.2% of patients on day 7 after oral and maxillofacial surgeries with general anesthesia. The increasing levels of Aβ 1-40 , S-100β may be associated with the occurence of POCD. Patients with long-lasting operation and high concentrations of Aβ 1-40 and S-100β after surgeries were at a higher risk of POCD. The clinical values of Aβ 1-40 and S-100 as predictive measurements of POCD after oral and maxillofacial cancer surgery appear to be reasonable.

  9. Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after third molar surgery: A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Isiordia-Espinoza, M-A; Pozos-Guillen, A; Martinez-Rider, R; Perez-Urizar, J

    2016-09-01

    Preemptive analgesia is considered an alternative for treating the postsurgical pain of third molar removal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preemptive analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after a mandibular third molar surgery. A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out. Thirty patients were randomized into two treatment groups using a series of random numbers: Group A, oral ketorolac 10 mg plus intramuscular placebo (1 mL saline solution); or Group B, oral placebo (similar tablet to oral ketorolac) plus intramuscular tramadol 50 mg diluted in 1 mL saline solution. These treatments were given 30 min before the surgery. We evaluated the time of first analgesic rescue medication, pain intensity, total analgesic consumption and adverse effects. Patients taking oral ketorolac had longer time of analgesic covering and less postoperative pain when compared with patients receiving intramuscular tramadol. According to the VAS and UAC results, this study suggests that 10 mg of oral ketorolac had superior analgesic effect than 50 mg of tramadol when administered before a mandibular third molar surgery.

  10. A Surgery Oral Examination: Interrater Agreement and the Influence of Rater Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchard, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A study measured interrater reliability among 140 United States and Canadian surgery exam raters and the influences of age, years in practice, and experience as an examiner on individual scores. Results indicate three aspects of examinee performance influenced scores: verbal style, dress, and content of answers. No rater characteristic…

  11. Sequential Participation in a Multi-Institutional Mock Oral Examination Is Associated With Improved American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination First-Time Pass Rate.

    PubMed

    Fingeret, Abbey L; Arnell, Tracey; McNelis, John; Statter, Mindy; Dresner, Lisa; Widmann, Warren

    We sought to determine whether sequential participation in a multi-institutional mock oral examination affected the likelihood of passing the American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination (ABSCE) in first attempt. Residents from 3 academic medical centers were able to participate in a regional mock oral examination in the fall and spring of their fourth and fifth postgraduate year from 2011 to 2014. Candidate׳s highest composite score of all mock orals attempts was classified as risk for failure, intermediate, or likely to pass. Factors including United States Medical Licensing Examination steps 1, 2, and 3, number of cases logged, American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination performance, American Board of Surgery Qualifying Examination (ABSQE) performance, number of attempts, and performance in the mock orals were assessed to determine factors predictive of passing the ABSCE. A total of 128 mock oral examinations were administered to 88 (71%) of 124 eligible residents. The overall first-time pass rate for the ABSCE was 82%. There was no difference in pass rates between participants and nonparticipants. Of them, 16 (18%) residents were classified as at risk, 47 (53%) as intermediate, and 25 (29%) as likely to pass. ABSCE pass rate for each group was as follows: 36% for at risk, 84% for intermediate, and 96% for likely pass. The following 4 factors were associated with first-time passing of ABSCE on bivariate analysis: mock orals participation in postgraduate year 4 (p = 0.05), sequential participation in mock orals (p = 0.03), ABSQE performance (p = 0.01), and best performance on mock orals (p = 0.001). In multivariable logistic regression, the following 3 factors remained associated with ABSCE passing: ABSQE performance, odds ratio (OR) = 2.9 (95% CI: 1.3-6.1); mock orals best performance, OR = 1.7 (1.2-2.4); and participation in multiple mock oral examinations, OR = 1.4 (1.1-2.7). Performance on a multi-institutional mock oral examination can identify

  12. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-11-15

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  13. Comparison of oral surgery task performance in a virtual reality surgical simulator and an animal model using objective measures.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Ioanna; Kazmierczak, Edmund; Stern, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The use of virtual reality (VR) simulation for surgical training has gathered much interest in recent years. Despite increasing popularity and usage, limited work has been carried out in the use of automated objective measures to quantify the extent to which performance in a simulator resembles performance in the operating theatre, and the effects of simulator training on real world performance. To this end, we present a study exploring the effects of VR training on the performance of dentistry students learning a novel oral surgery task. We compare the performance of trainees in a VR simulator and in a physical setting involving ovine jaws, using a range of automated metrics derived by motion analysis. Our results suggest that simulator training improved the motion economy of trainees without adverse effects on task outcome. Comparison of surgical technique on the simulator with the ovine setting indicates that simulator technique is similar, but not identical to real world technique.

  14. Preoperative Evaluation and Patient Selection for Office-Based Oral Surgery Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, Stuart

    2018-05-01

    Provision of an outpatient anesthetic requires careful review of the patient's medical history along with salient aspects of the physical examination. The oral and maxillofacial surgeon may need to consult with the patient's medical providers to gain an understanding of the patient's potential risks for an adverse event. This article reviews key aspects of the patient evaluation so that an informed determination of suitability for an office anesthetic can be made. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Marketing the oral and maxillofacial surgery practice through positive employee relations.

    PubMed

    Niamtu, Joe

    2008-02-01

    This article is about marketing. Having superlative acumen on employee relations is much more important to all oral and maxillofacial surgeons than "how to take a referring doc to lunch." Keep a copy of this article handy and distribute it to all new employees. Review the hiring and firing tenets and "Rules of the Game" each time you hire a new employee, fire an established one, or face trying times with staff or partners.

  16. Retrospective examination of the healthcare 'journey' of chronic orofacial pain patients referred to oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Beecroft, E V; Durham, J; Thomson, P

    2013-03-01

    To gain a deeper understanding of the clinical journey taken by orofacial pain patients from initial presentation in primary care to treatment by oral and maxillofacial surgery. Retrospective audit. Data were collected from 101 consecutive patients suffering from chronic orofacial pain, attending oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics between 2009 and 2010. Once the patients were identified, information was drawn from their hospital records and referral letters, and a predesigned proforma was completed by a single examiner (EVB). Basic descriptive statistics and non-parametric inferential statistical techniques (Krushal-Wallis) were used to analyse the data. DATA AND DISCUSSION: Six definitive orofacial pain conditions were represented in the data set, 75% of which were temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Individuals within our study were treated in nine different hospital settings and were referred to 15 distinct specialties. The mean number of consultations received by the patients in our study across all care settings is seven (SD 5). The mean number of specialities that the subjects were assessed by was three (SD 1). The sample set had a total of 341 treatment attempts to manage their chronic orofacial pain conditions, of which only 83 (24%) of all the treatments attempted yielded a successful outcome. Improved education and remuneration for primary care practitioners as well as clear care pathways for patients with chronic orofacial pain should be established to reduce multiple re-referrals and improve efficiency of care. The creation of specialist regional centres for chronic orofacial pain may be considered to manage severe cases and drive evidence-based practice.

  17. [Controlled study of oral administration of antibiotics in the preparation of digestive surgery (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mendes da Costa, P; Klastersky, J; Gérard, A

    1977-01-01

    Between November 30, 1971 and March 15, 1976, 46 patients underwent surgery on the colon or rectum. They were randomized into 2 groups, one receiving a mechanical preparation together with lincomycline, neomycine, polymyxine, kanamycine, bacitracine and nystatine, the other a mechanical preparation alone. Analysis of results reveals no statistically significant difference in the frequency of infections, neither local (11/24 with antibiotics vis 13/22 without; chi2 = 0.25) neither general (16/24 and 9/22; chi2 = 0.92). Nor was the postoperative use of antibiotics for local or general infection different in the 2 groups. No influence of age or preoperative radio-therapy could be shown. This randomized trial suggests that there is little advantage in associating antibiotics to mechanical preparation before colorectal surgery. The authors contemplate a new randomized trial in high-risk patients suffering from cancer.

  18. [Guide for the use of jet-ventilation during ENT and oral surgery].

    PubMed

    Bourgain, J-L; Chollet, M; Fischler, M; Gueret, G; Mayne, A

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this synthesis was to give recommendations on the use of jet-ventilation during ENT surgical and endoscopy procedures. Literature was collected from PUBMED and analysed by the members of French association of anaesthesiologists in ENT surgery, all skilled in this field. Presentation of these recommendations was given during the general assembly held in Reims, the 15th May 2009. Jet-ventilation is especially indicated during upper airway endoscopy and laryngeal invasive endoscopic surgery. Furthermore, transtracheal jet ventilation is included on most of difficult oxygenation and difficult intubation algorithm. The main risk of jet-ventilation is pulmonary barotrauma when expiration of injected gas is impeded by an upper airway obstruction. Failure and complications of tracheal puncture are rare when performed by experimented operators. Clinical use of jet ventilation requires a dedicated device. Practice of jet ventilation without intubation may be dangerous when applied without control of driving pressure and end expiratory tracheal pressure. Every anaesthetist should be familiar with transtracheal ventilation since they may face a "cannot ventilate cannot intubate" situation. Upper airway endoscopy and laryngeal surgery are the ideal field for training jet ventilation, even more so as this technique offers perfect operative conditions. To apply this project, jet ventilation should be used more frequently in routine practice. To maintain skill, regular use of these techniques is required. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of 1070 nm fiber lasers in oral surgery: preliminary ex vivo study with FBG temperature monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fornaini, Carlo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Poli, Federica; Cavatorta, Chiara; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Selleri, Stefano; Cucinotta, Annamaria

    2017-12-31

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to demonstrate the performances of 1070 nm fiber lasers for the ablation of oral tissues through the evaluation of the histological modifications made by a blind pathologist and the measurement of the thermal elevation during laser irradiation by a sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating. The source used was a pulsed fiber laser emitting at 1070 nm, with 20 W maximum average output power and 100 ns fixed pulse duration. Different tests were performed by changing the laser parameters, particularly the peak power of the pulses and the repetition rate. The tissue of the measurements demonstrated that the best properties in term of cutting capability and, at the same time, the lower thermal damages to the tissues can be obtained with a peak power of 3 kW, a repetition rate of 50 kHz and a speed of 5 mm/s. This ex vivo study showed that 1070 nm fiber lasers can be very useful in oral surgery, since they provide a reduced thermal elevation in the irradiated tissues, thus consequently respecting their biological structures. Moreover, this work demonstrates that FBG sensors, based on the optical fiber technology as the laser source considered for the tests, may be good instruments to record thermal elevation when applied to the ex vivo studies on animal models.

  20. [Effects of a home-based exercise program for patients with stomach cancer receiving oral chemotherapy after surgery].

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Yi; Kang, Hyun Sook

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a home based exercise program for patients with stomach cancer who were undergoing oral chemotherapy. The home-based exercise program was developed from the study findings of Winningham (1990) and data from the Korea Athletic Promotion Association (2007). The home-based exercise program consisted of 8 weeks of individual exercise education and exercise adherence strategy. Participants were 24 patients with stomach cancer who were undergoing oral chemotherapy following surgery in 2007 or 2008 at a university hospital in Seoul. Patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (11) or control group (13). The effects of the home-based exercise program were measured by level of cancer related fatigue, NK cell ratio, anxiety, and quality of life. Data were analyzed using SPSS/WIN 13.0 version. The degree of cancer related fatigue and anxiety in the experimental group decreased compared to the control group. The NK cell ratio and the degree of quality of life of experimental group increased while that of the control group decreased. This study result indicate the importance of exercise and provide empirical evidence for continuation of safe exercise for patients with cancer during their chemotherapy.

  1. [Development of Chinese oral and maxillofacial surgery reflects the great achievements of China's reform and opening to the world for 30 years].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wei-Liu

    2009-02-01

    China's policy of reform and opening to the world provides unlimited vitality for Chinese oral and maxillofacial surgery. The academic organization is increasingly perfecting, the professional team is expanding, and international exchanges are increasingly active. However, new challenges are emerging accordingly. To overcome the current problems and difficulties, some constructive beneficial recommendations were proposed and discussed in this paper.

  2. Changes in oral trace gas concentrations following orthognathic surgery and intermaxillary fixation: a case study using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    Orthognathic surgery is frequently accompanied by intermaxillary fixation. Intermaxillary fixation impedes the maintenance of effective oral hygiene and prolonged fixation can result in periodontal disease. A potential shorter term effect is the generation of oral malodour. It is unclear, however, as to how the production of malodorous compounds in the oral cavity is altered post-surgery. Oral air concentration of sulphur containing compounds, short chain organic acids, ammonia, isoprene and acetone were measured using selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry in a patient who had undergone orthognathic surgery with subsequent intermaxillary fixation. Total sulphide levels rose approximately 5-fold during fixation with metal ties, with smaller increases recorded for the other compounds measured with the exception of isoprene which remained close to baseline levels. Organic acid levels declined markedly once elastic ties had replaced metal ties, with a lesser reduction being observed in sulphide levels, with both declining further after the commencement of a chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash. These data suggest that bacterial generation of a variety of malodorous compounds increases markedly following intermaxillary fixation. This single case also suggests that the use of elastic ties and effective oral hygiene techniques, including the use of chlorhexidine mouthwash, may help ameliorate such post-surgical effects. PMID:21789965

  3. Pain and efficacy rating of a microprocessor-controlled metered injection system for local anaesthesia in minor hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Nimigan, André S; Gan, Bing Siang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Little attention has been given to syringe design and local anaesthetic administration methods. A microprocessor-controlled anaesthetic delivery device has become available that may minimize discomfort during injection. The purpose of this study was to document the pain experience associated with the use of this system and to compare it with use of a conventional syringe. Methods. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was designed. 40 patients undergoing carpal tunnel release were block randomized according to sex into a two groups: a traditional syringe group and a microprocessor-controlled device group. The primary outcome measure was surgical pain and local anaesthetic administration pain. Secondary outcomes included volume of anaesthetic used and injection time. Results. Analysis showed that equivalent anaesthesia was achieved in the microprocessor-controlled group despite using a significantly lower volume of local anaesthetic (P = .0002). This same group, however, has significantly longer injection times (P < .0001). Pain during the injection process or during surgery was not different between the two groups. Conclusions. This RCT comparing traditional and microprocessor controlled methods of administering local anaesthetic showed similar levels of discomfort in both groups. While the microprocessor-controlled group used less volume, the total time for the administration was significantly greater.

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Transdermal Buprenorphine versus Oral Tramadol/Acetaminophen in Patients with Persistent Postoperative Pain after Spinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hak-Sun; Min, Woo-Kie; Park, Ye-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Yeol; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Control of persistent pain following spinal surgery is an unmet clinical need. This study compared the efficacy and safety of buprenorphine transdermal system (BTDS) to oral tramadol/acetaminophen (TA) in Korean patients with persistent, moderate pain following spinal surgery. Methods Open-label, interventional, randomized multicenter study. Adults with persistent postoperative pain (Numeric Rating Scale [NRS] ≥ 4 at 14–90 days postsurgery) were enrolled. Patients received once-weekly BTDS (n = 47; 5 μg/h titrated to 20 μg/h) or twice-daily TA (n = 40; tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg, one tablet titrated to 4 tablets) for 6 weeks. The study compared pain reduction with BTDS versus TA at week 6. Quality of life (QoL), treatment satisfaction, medication compliance, and adverse events (AEs) were assessed. Findings At week 6, both groups reported significant pain reduction (mean NRS change: BTDS −2.02; TA −2.76, both P < 0.0001) and improved QoL (mean EQ-5D index change: BTDS 0.10; TA 0.19, both P < 0.05). The BTDS group achieved better medication compliance (97.8% versus 91.0%). Incidence of AEs (26.1% versus 20.0%) and adverse drug reactions (20.3% versus 16.9%) were comparable between groups. Implications For patients with persistent pain following spinal surgery, BTDS is an alternative to TA for reducing pain and supports medication compliance. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01983111. PMID:29056859

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Transdermal Buprenorphine versus Oral Tramadol/Acetaminophen in Patients with Persistent Postoperative Pain after Spinal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hak-Sun; Min, Woo-Kie; Park, Ye-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Yeol; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Control of persistent pain following spinal surgery is an unmet clinical need. This study compared the efficacy and safety of buprenorphine transdermal system (BTDS) to oral tramadol/acetaminophen (TA) in Korean patients with persistent, moderate pain following spinal surgery. Open-label, interventional, randomized multicenter study. Adults with persistent postoperative pain (Numeric Rating Scale [NRS] ≥ 4 at 14-90 days postsurgery) were enrolled. Patients received once-weekly BTDS ( n = 47; 5  μ g/h titrated to 20  μ g/h) or twice-daily TA ( n = 40; tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg, one tablet titrated to 4 tablets) for 6 weeks. The study compared pain reduction with BTDS versus TA at week 6. Quality of life (QoL), treatment satisfaction, medication compliance, and adverse events (AEs) were assessed. At week 6, both groups reported significant pain reduction (mean NRS change: BTDS -2.02; TA -2.76, both P < 0.0001) and improved QoL (mean EQ-5D index change: BTDS 0.10; TA 0.19, both P < 0.05). The BTDS group achieved better medication compliance (97.8% versus 91.0%). Incidence of AEs (26.1% versus 20.0%) and adverse drug reactions (20.3% versus 16.9%) were comparable between groups. For patients with persistent pain following spinal surgery, BTDS is an alternative to TA for reducing pain and supports medication compliance. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01983111.

  6. The Effectiveness of Public Simulated Oral Examinations in Preparation for the American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pennell, Christopher; McCulloch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination (CE) performance is improved among residents who prepare using simulated oral examinations (SOEs). EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched using predefined search terms. No language restrictions were imposed and the latest search date was in November 2014. Included studies must have reported on residents training in a general surgery residency in the United States who used SOEs to prepare for the CE and have measured their performance against those without exposure to SOEs. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and a fixed effects meta-analysis was performed to determine the net effect of SOEs on CE performance. Overall, 4 of 25 abstracts reviewed met inclusion criteria and are included in this review. The most common simulation format included public examinations in front of resident peers during scheduled education sessions. All 4 included studies trended toward improved performance with SOEs and in 2 of these studies the improvement was statistically significant. Overall, 3 studies were of adequate quality to perform a meta-analysis and demonstrated a relative risk for first-attempt CE success of 1.22 (95% CI: 1.07-1.39, p = 0.003) for residents preparing with SOEs compared to those without SOEs. The published literature evaluating SOEs is limited and generally of fair quality. A modest improvement in CE performance was identified when public SOEs were used as an educational tool aimed to improve professionalism and communication skills, encourage reading at home, and provide a regular review of clinically relevant topics. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeting the minor pocket of C5aR for the rational design of an oral allosteric inhibitor for inflammatory and neuropathic pain relief.

    PubMed

    Moriconi, Alessio; Cunha, Thiago M; Souza, Guilherme R; Lopes, Alexandre H; Cunha, Fernando Q; Carneiro, Victor L; Pinto, Larissa G; Brandolini, Laura; Aramini, Andrea; Bizzarri, Cinzia; Bianchini, Gianluca; Beccari, Andrea R; Fanton, Marco; Bruno, Agostino; Costantino, Gabriele; Bertini, Riccardo; Galliera, Emanuela; Locati, Massimo; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Teixeira, Mauro M; Allegretti, Marcello

    2014-11-25

    Chronic pain resulting from inflammatory and neuropathic disorders causes considerable economic and social burden. Pharmacological therapies currently available for certain types of pain are only partially effective and may cause severe adverse side effects. The C5a anaphylatoxin acting on its cognate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), C5aR, is a potent pronociceptive mediator in several models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Although there has long been interest in the identification of C5aR inhibitors, their development has been complicated, as for many peptidomimetic drugs, mostly by poor drug-like properties. Herein, we report the de novo design of a potent and selective C5aR noncompetitive allosteric inhibitor, DF2593A, guided by the hypothesis that an allosteric site, the "minor pocket," previously characterized in CXC chemokine receptors-1 and -2, is functionally conserved in the GPCR class. In vitro, DF2593A potently inhibited C5a-induced migration of human and rodent neutrophils. In vivo, oral administration of DF2593A effectively reduced mechanical hyperalgesia in several models of acute and chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain, without any apparent side effects. Mechanical hyperalgesia after spared nerve injury was also reduced in C5aR(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. Furthermore, treatment of C5aR(-/-) mice with DF2593A did not produce any further antinociceptive effect compared with C5aR(-/-) mice treated with vehicle. The successful medicinal chemistry strategy confirms that a conserved minor pocket is amenable for the rational design of selective inhibitors and the pharmacological results support that the allosteric blockade of the C5aR represents a highly promising therapeutic approach to control chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

  8. A molecular survey of S. mutans and P. gingivalis oral microbial burden in human saliva using Relative Endpoint Polymerase Chain Reaction (RE-PCR) within the population of a Nevada dental school revealed disparities among minorities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The University of Nevada, Las Vegas School of Dental Medicine recently opened an orthodontic treatment clinic to address the needs of the racially and ethnically diverse population of Southern Nevada, primarily focusing on the treatment and care of low-income and minority patients. Although orthodontic treatment and therapy has been shown to induce changes in the oral cavity, much of this evidence was collected from traditional White, teenage orthodontic clinic populations. The primary goal of this study was to describe the microbial burden of the cariogenic and periodontal pathogens, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis within the UNLV-SDM patient population. Methods Representative saliva samples were collected from healthy adult patients for DNA isolation. Relative endpoint polymerase chain reaction (RE-PCR) was performed to ascertain the presence and relative microbial burden of these oral pathogens. Results Nearly one quarter (13/56) or 23.3% of these patients had elevated levels of S. mutans, while (10/56) and 17.8% of these samples were found to have elevated levels of P. gingivalis, - with (90%) of P. gingivalis-positive samples from minority patients (X2 = 17.921, d.f. = 1; p < 0.0001). Conclusions These findings of elevated P. gingivalis levels, primarily among minority patients, may suggest underlying oral health practices contributing to adverse oral health conditions within this population. Oral health knowledge and practices among minority patients may be strongly influenced by other factors, including education and socioeconomic status, suggesting additional research may be needed to accurately determine the most appropriate standards for care and oral health education within this patient population. PMID:22925755

  9. Accuracy of clinical coding for procedures in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Khurram, S A; Warner, C; Henry, A M; Kumar, A; Mohammed-Ali, R I

    2016-10-01

    Clinical coding has important financial implications, and discrepancies in the assigned codes can directly affect the funding of a department and hospital. Over the last few years, numerous oversights have been noticed in the coding of oral and maxillofacial (OMF) procedures. To establish the accuracy and completeness of coding, we retrospectively analysed the records of patients during two time periods: March to May 2009 (324 patients), and January to March 2014 (200 patients). Two investigators independently collected and analysed the data to ensure accuracy and remove bias. A large proportion of operations were not assigned all the relevant codes, and only 32% - 33% were correct in both cycles. To our knowledge, this is the first reported audit of clinical coding in OMFS, and it highlights serious shortcomings that have substantial financial implications. Better input by the surgical team and improved communication between the surgical and coding departments will improve accuracy. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of anaesthetic agents to provide anxiolysis and sedation in dentistry and oral surgery.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Michael

    2013-12-31

    Throughout the world there is considerable variation in the techniques used to manage anxious dental patients requiring treatment. Traditionally anxious or phobic dental patients may have been sent for general anaesthesia to allow dental treatment be undertaken. While this is still the case for the more invasive oral surgical procedures, such as wisdom teeth extraction, sedation in general dentistry is becoming more popular. Various sedation techniques using many different anaesthetic agents have gained considerable popularity over the past 30 years. While the practice of sedating patients for dental procedures is invaluable in the management of suitably assessed patients, patient safety must always be the primary concern. Medical, dental and psychosocial considerations must be taken into account when evaluating the patient need and the patient suitability for sedation or general anaesthesia. The regulations that govern the practice of dental sedation vary throughout the world, in particular regarding the techniques used and the training necessary for dental practitioners to sedate patients. It is necessary for medical and dental practitioners to be up to date on current practice to ensure standards of practice, competence and safety throughout our profession. This article, the first in a two-part series, will provide information to practitioners on the practice of sedation in dentistry, the circumstances where it may be appropriate instead of general anaesthesia and the risks involved with sedation. It will also discuss the specific training and qualifications required for dental practitioners to provide sedation. The second article in this series will outline the different techniques used to administer inhalation, oral and intravenous sedation in dentistry and will focus on specific methods that are practiced.

  11. Assessment of the OsteoMark-Navigation System for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Zachary S.; Magill, John C.; Tricomi, Brad J.; Murphy, Brian A.; Nikonovskiy, Vladimir; Hata, Nobuhiko; Chauvin, Laurent; Troulis, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the accuracy of a novel navigation system for maxillofacial surgery using human cadavers and a live minipig model. Methods We describe and test an electromagnetic tracking system (OsteoMark Navigation) that uses simple sensors to determine position and orientation of a hand held pencil-like marking device. The device can translate 3-dimensional computed tomographic data intraoperatively to allow the surgeon to localize and draw a proposed osteotomy or the margins of a tumor on the bone. The accuracy of OsteoMark-Navigation in locating and marking osteotomies and screw positions in human cadaver heads was assessed. In Group 1 (n=3, 6 sides), Osteomark-Navigation marked osteotomies and screw positions were compared to virtual treatment plans In Group 2 (n=3, 6 sides), marked osteotomies and screw positions for distraction osteogenesis devices were compared to those carried out using fabricated guide-stents. Three metrics were used to document precision and accuracy. In Group 3 (n=1), the system was tested in a standard operating room environment. Results For Group 1, the mean error between points was 0.7mm (horizontal) and 1.7mm (vertical). When compared to the posterior and inferior mandibular border the mean error was 1.2 and 1.7mm, respectively. For Group 2, the mean discrepancy between points marked by Osteomark-Navigation and the surgical guides was 1.9 mm (range 0-4.1 mm). The system maintained accuracy on a live minipig in a standard operating room environment. Conclusion Based on this research OsteoMark-Navigation is potentially a powerful tool for clinical use in maxillofacial surgery. It has accuracy and precision comparable to existing clinical applications. PMID:25865717

  12. [Surgical treatment of diseases in the oral cavity and jaws].

    PubMed

    Nordenram, Ake; Astrand, Per; Nord, Per-Gunnar; Paulin, Gunnar; Feldmann, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    Surgical treatment of diseases in the oral cavity and the jaws has been performed since ancient times. However, in the beginning there were mostly simple tooth extractions and treatment of oral infections which could be done. The therapists consisted of a heterogenic group (physicians, barber-surgeons, dental surgeons, smiths, monks etc.). In the beginning of the 20th century great progress was made. Dental surgeons were employed as consultants in hospitals. And when the national dental servIce in Sweden (Folktandvården) was established 1938, departments of oral surgery were built in these hospitals. The department of oral surgery at the University hospital in Linköping started 1947 and is presented in this paper. Dr. Helge Hed, originator of the department, was chief oral surgeon the first 24 years. The surgical activity was gradually increased from 389 operations in 1950 to 1.514 in 1999, and the number of jaw fractures treated in 1948 were 21 and in 1999 73. The treatment panorama has changed during the years. At first the poor dental status of the patients characterized the situation and minor dentoalveolar surgery was usually performed. Later more advanced oral surgery e. g. trauma-surgery, orthognatic surgery and dental implantology has been done - and in addition a lot of scientific research and programmed instructions in oral surgery for dental surgeons and medical students. To sum up, the development of the department of oral surgery at the University hospital in Linköping has been well adjusted to the gradually more demanding treatment and it is representative of the successful development of Swedish oral surgery during the 20th century.

  13. Freeze-Dried Black Raspberries in Preventing Oral Cancer Recurrence in High-Risk Appalachian Patients Previously Treated With Surgery For Oral Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-04

    Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  14. What Surgical Education the Speciality Offers? Perception of Role of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery by 1200 Healthcare Professionals, Students and the General Public in Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Vadepally, Ashwant Kumar; Sinha, Ramen

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the perception of Oral and maxillofacial surgery by healthcare professionals, students and general public. A questionnaire form was created that listed ten clinical situations, and given by hand to 1200 individuals, divided into six groups: group 1, medical professionals; group 2, Specialties of dentistry; group 3, general dentists; group 4, medical students; group 5, dental students; and group 6, general public, each comprising 200 individuals. Respondents were asked to indicate who they would expect to treat them if they had one of the specified conditions listed in the questionnaire. We present the results and current awareness levels of this simple questionnaire. The present study addresses the common issue raised by many authors, 'What surgical education the speciality offers?' especially to medical professionals, medical students and general public to enhance an appropriate referral. Most of the respondents in groups 2, 3 and 5 agreed that specific conditions listed in the questionnaire were within the domain of oral and maxillofacial surgery, but such response was not seen in groups 1, 4 and 6 ( p  < 0.001). An overall awareness level of oral and maxillofacial surgery was found to be 50.2%. The onus of creating and improving the awareness and perception of our specialty lies on oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Unified efforts at individual as well as global level will help achieve this goal.

  15. From implant planning to surgical execution: an integrated approach for surgery in oral implantology.

    PubMed

    Chiarelli, Tommaso; Franchini, Federico; Lamma, Achille; Lamma, Evelina; Sansoni, Tommaso

    2012-03-01

    Using oral implantology software and transferring the preoperative planning into a stereolithographic model, prosthodontists can produce the related surgical guide. This procedure has some disadvantages: bone-supported stent invasiveness, lack of references due to scattering and non-negligible stereolithography cost. An alternative solution is presented that provides an ideal surgical stent (not invasive, precise, and cheap) as a result. This work focuses on the third phase of a fully 3D approach to oral implant planning, that starts by CT scanning a patient who wears a markers-equipped radiological stent, continues exploiting built-on-purpose preoperative planning software, and finishes producing the ideal surgical template. A 5-axes bur-equipped robot has been designed able to reproduce the milling vectors planned by the software. Software-robot interfacing has been achieved properly matching the stent reference frame and the software and robot coordinate systems. Invasiveness has been avoided achieving the surgical stent from the mucosa-supported radiological mask wax-up. Scattering is ignored because of the surgical stent independency from the bone structure radiography. Production cost has been strongly reduced by avoiding the stereolithographic model. Finally, software-robot interfacing precision has been validated comparing digitally a multi-marker base and its planning transfer. Average position and orientation errors (respectively 0.283 mm ± 0.073 mm and 1.798° ± 0.496°) were significantly better than those achieved using methods based on stereolithography (respectively, 1.45 mm ± 1.42 mm and 7.25° ± 2.67°, with a general best maximum translation discrepancy of about 1.1 mm). This paper describes the last step of a fully 3D approach in which implant planning can be done in a 3D environment, and the correct position, orientation and depth of the planned implants are easily computed and transferred to the surgical phase. Copyright

  16. Short communications published online in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery during 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Colbert, S; Southorn, B; Rosenbaum, G; Aldridge, T; Brennan, P A

    2012-09-01

    The British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS) publishes many types of papers including original articles, review articles, and short communications. Many of the latter are isolated case reports of rare or interesting diseases or of difficult or unexpected complications. While case reports are sometimes considered to be of little educational or clinical value, and as such do little to advance medical knowledge, they do have an important role, and many trainees begin their publishing careers writing such papers. There is increasing pressure for space in paper medical journals and, for this reason, some journals either limit or do not publish short publications in print copy but instead put them online. Using established criteria, we previously evaluated all 142 short communications published in the BJOMS during 2008-2009 and found that 48% of them had little or no educational value. As a result, the editorial board of BJOMS took the decision to publish most short communications online only. We have now analysed 48 short communications that were published online only during 2010-2011. Most (80%) were single case reports that covered virtually the whole remit of the specialty, and over half (56%) were published by authors based in the UK. While many of these papers did not add important new information to existing knowledge, these types of article are clearly of value both for trainees and for experienced surgeons. We think that these should continue to be supported as, in addition to their educational value, they are an excellent way for trainees to start to write. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between funding, risk of bias, and outcome of randomised controlled trials in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Oomens, M A E M; Lazzari, S; Heymans, M W; Forouzanfar, T

    2016-01-01

    The influence of funding on the main outcome of a random control trial (RCT) is important, as it could potentially lead to bias towards industry, and results that are too optimistic. We investigated the association between funding, the published outcome, and the risk of bias in trials in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) published from January 2000 to May 2013 listed in PubMed. The methods used were scored using the risk of bias items given in a Delphi List. Sources of funding were recorded and categorised five ways: not funded, funded by industry, not funded by industry, supported by industry, and source of funds not clear. A total of 390 RCT met the inclusion criteria, and there was a correlation between funding and favourable main outcomes, although this was not significant. There was no correlation between the risk of bias and favourable results of the main outcome of a trial, or between the risk of bias and the reported source of funding in post-hoc analysis. We were unable to show a significant correlation between funding and a higher likelihood of a favourable result for the primary outcome in RCT in OMFS. We also failed to show a significant correlation between the risk of bias of a trial and its main outcome. In contrast, the source of funding proved to affect the risk of bias of a trial significantly, although not in post-hoc analysis. Funded trials were better organised, and so had a lower risk of bias. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phase II Trial of Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Surgery for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kies, Merrill S.; Boatright, Dowin H.; Li, Guojun; Blumenschein, George; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Lewin, Jan S.; Steinhaus, Ganene; Sturgis, Erich M.

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted a phase II clinical trial of induction chemotherapy followed by surgery ± radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT) in young adults. Methods From September 2001 to October 2004, 23 patients aged 18–49 years with clinical T2-3N0-2M0 SCCOT and no prior radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or neck dissection underwent induction chemotherapy (paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and carboplatin) followed by glossectomy and neck dissection ± radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Results On final surgical pathology, 9 (39%) patients had a complete/major (2 complete) histologic response at the primary tumor site; 8 (35%) had no response or progression. Similarly, 9 (39%) patients had a complete response in the neck or remained node negative; 6 (26%) had an increase in nodal category. No treatment-associated deaths occurred, and toxicity was modest. At a median follow-up from the end of treatment of 52 months (minimum, 23 months), 10 (43%) patients developed recurrence, and all 10 died of cancer. Crude recurrence/cancer death rates were associated with ≤ a partial response at the tongue (P = .029), poor histologic differentiation (P = .012), and multiple adverse features on final surgical pathology (P = .040). Conclusions Response rates and overall survival with this induction chemotherapy regimen were limited, but complete/major response at the tongue was associated with excellent prognosis. Additionally, improved patient selection and predictive tumor biomarkers will be needed for induction chemotherapy to be routinely incorporated into the treatment of oral tongue cancer in young adults. PMID:22009800

  19. Phase II trial of induction chemotherapy followed by surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kies, Merrill S; Boatright, Dowin H; Li, Guojun; Blumenschein, George; El-Naggar, Adel K; Brandon Gunn, G; Lewin, Jan S; Steinhaus, Ganene D; Sturgis, Erich M

    2012-09-01

    We conducted a phase II clinical trial of induction chemotherapy followed by surgery ± radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT) in young adults. From September 2001 to October 2004, 23 patients aged 18 to 49 years with clinical T2-3 N0-2 M0 SCCOT and no prior radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or neck dissection underwent induction chemotherapy (paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and carboplatin) followed by glossectomy and neck dissection ± radiotherapy and chemotherapy. On final surgical pathology, 9 patients (39%) had a complete/major (2 complete) histologic response at the primary tumor site; 8 patients (35%) had no response or progression. Similarly, 9 patients (39%) had a complete response in the neck or remained node negative; 6 patients (26%) had an increase in nodal category. No treatment-associated deaths occurred, and toxicity was modest. At a median follow-up from the end of treatment of 52 months (minimum, 23 months), 10 patients (43%) developed recurrence, and all 10 died of cancer. Crude recurrence/cancer death rates were associated with ≤ a partial response at the tongue (p = .029), poor histologic differentiation (p = .012), and multiple adverse features on final surgical pathology (p = .040). Response rates and overall survival with this induction chemotherapy regimen were limited, but complete/major response at the tongue was associated with excellent prognosis. Additionally, improved patient selection and predictive tumor biomarkers will be needed for induction chemotherapy to be routinely incorporated into the treatment of oral tongue cancer in young adults. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Pre-emptive oral dextromethorphan reduces both postoperative and packing removal pain in patients undergoing nasal surgery.

    PubMed

    Abu-Samra, Mohamed M; Ismaeil, Wafaa A

    2009-02-01

    To determine whether premedication with 45 mg of oral dextromethorphan (DM) given 90 minutes prior to nasal surgery decreases postoperative pain and consequently reduces opioid administration and also, if it reduces the pain of pack removal. This was a prospective, double blind, randomized, controlled study carried out from January 2007 to March 2008 at Al-Moosa General Hospital, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, in which 38 patients received oral DM (age 28 +/- 11 years), and 38 patients received placebos (age 26 +/- 10 years). Postoperative pain was assessed using a visual analog scale, and a pain score of > or -5 was treated by a rescue bolus dose of morphine sulfate 2 mg every 10 minutes in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and by one gm of paracetamol in the surgical ward until the score became <5. Pain was also assessed during pack removal. The placebo group had a higher pain score in the PACU, and hence a higher morphine consumption than the DM group (7.3 mg +/- 2.6 versus 4.6 mg +/- 1.2, p=0.03). Pain score in the surgical ward was also higher in the placebo group at 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours, but this was insignificant, and was insignificantly lower only at 18 hours (p=0.26). The placebo group had a higher pain score at pack removal than the DM group (7.8 +/- 11 versus 3.5 +/- 15, p=0.004). Preemptive medication with DM reduces opioid administration in the early postoperative period and during pack removal.

  1. The public mock oral: a useful tool for examinees and the audience in preparation for the American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination.

    PubMed

    Aboulian, Armen; Schwartz, Samuel; Kaji, Amy H; de Virgilio, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the value of an educational program instituted in our general surgery residency training in preparation for the American Board of Surgery (ABS) Certifying Examination (CE). From 2006 to 2009, a series of public mock oral examinations were administered by the program director to PGY residents 4 through 6 on a variety of surgery topics in front of all residents, faculty, and medical students. Anonymous surveys (5-point Likert scale) were collected from both the examinees and the audience to determine the perceived utility of the mock oral. Performance on the ABS CE for residents who partook in the program was compared with the five previous years. The study was undertaken at Harbor-University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center, a level I trauma center in Los Angeles County. Overall 201 surveys were collected, 170 from the audience and 31 from examinees. The surveys demonstrated a high and equal level of satisfaction for both examinees (4.8) and the audience (4.6, p = 0.12). First-time pass rates on the ABS CE increased from 88% (38/43) before the public mock oral to 100% (19/19) after the mock oral (p = 0.3). The mock oral examination, which is conducted in a conference format in front of an audience of faculty and trainees, is a valuable educational tool as it helps both the examinee and the audience in preparation for the ABS CE. In addition, it has an educational value for those who are not preparing for the CE as it is perceived to expand surgical knowledge. Copyright 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Evaluation of continuous education: from the satisfaction to the impact. With regard to a formative programme in minor surgery in a health area].

    PubMed

    Martín Fernández, J; Martínez Marcos, M; Ferrándiz Santos, J

    2001-04-30

    To compare the evaluation of reaction of an activity of continuous education (CE) in minor surgery (MS), with the impact in the realization of MS in a health area. Observational cross-sectional study. Setting. 27 centers in a health area that offer MS between their services. The valuation was studied in a scale from 1 to 10, of 9 theoretical-practical activities of CE in MS and the consideration of its utility. The number of activities of MS (NMS) carried out in all the units, was picked up during one year, and a model of lineal regression was built. The independent variable was the NMS, and the explanatory ones the assistance pressure (AP), the postgraduate formation (PF), the staff of the unit, the equipment (E), and the carried out CE. The valuation of the CE had a median of 8 (with interquartile range 1), 85.1% of the people who realized CE in MS said that this would be of utility. However in the explanatory regression model the PF was the only significant variable (beta = 6.7; 95% CI, 0.12-12.22). Neither the CE, nor the AP, nor the E, explained the variability among the NMS. The CE in MS with conventional methodology has a very positive reaction evaluation, but its impact in the later realization of MS is not significant.

  3. What causes trainees to leave oral and maxillofacial surgery? A questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Herbert, C; Kent, S; Magennis, P; Cleland, J

    2017-01-01

    Understanding what causes trainees to leave OMFS is essential if we are to retain them within the specialty. Although these factors have been defined for medicine, we know of no previous study for OMFS. An online survey was distributed to roughly 1500 people who had registered an interest in OMFS during the past seven years. Personal information and details of education and employment were gathered along with personal factors that attracted them to OMFS. Of 251 trainees who responded, 50 (30%) were no longer interested. Factors that significantly correlated with an interest in OMFS included male sex (p=0.020), dual qualification (p=0.024), and (only for women) being single (p=0.024) and having no dependants (p=0.005). We used qualitative analysis to identify work-life balance, duration of training, and financial implications, as significant factors. Identification of key factors that affect OMFS trainees allows us to develop ways to keep them in the specialty. The predominant factor is work-life balance, and for women this included having children and being married. Financial issues related to the junior doctors' contract and competition ratios to second degrees, are also factors for both sexes. Also important are the "sunk costs" fallacy that causes some trainees to stay in training. This information can be used to help develop higher training, in negotiations of contracts, and to attract and retain future OMFS trainees. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Scheduling terminology for oral and maxillofacial surgery. Are we speaking a universal language?

    PubMed

    Howe, T E; Varley, I; Allen, J E; Glossop, A; McKechnie, A

    2017-05-01

    Use of a universal vocabulary to assist with the scheduling of operations has been shown to considerably reduce delays and improve the use of theatre resources. Within the UK the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) has established a classification to assist with the triage of both emergency and non-emergency operating lists. We completed a survey to assess the uptake and understanding of this classification when scheduling maxillofacial operations. From a list of eight scheduling terms, respondents had to choose one each for 20 different clinical situations (that represented equally) immediate, urgent, expedited, and elective operations as defined by them. A total of 50 surveys were collated. Only 65% of answers selected represented NCPOD terms. 25% of answers represented a term higher and 18% a term lower, on the scale of intervention for the same category of situation. Current NCEPOD terms do not seem to be used universally and are poorly understood. Considerable variation in terminology exists when scheduling maxillofacial operations. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does perioperative nutrition and oral carbohydrate load sustainably preserve muscle mass after bariatric surgery? A randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Azagury, D E; Ris, F; Pichard, C; Volonté, F; Karsegard, L; Huber, O

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative nutrition and preoperative oral carbohydrate loading (CHL) have a beneficial impact on the outcomes of gastrointestinal oncological surgery. However no data exists on their effect on morbidly obese patients. Our aim was to establish the short-term and long-term impact of these modalities, notably on metabolically active lean body mass (LBM) - an important factor in maintaining long-term weight loss. Patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were randomized to standard management or intervention: CHL drinks consumed 12 and 2 hours presurgery, and immediate postoperative peripheral parenteral nutrition. The primary outcome measured was LBM, measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA), one and 12 months postsurgery. Secondary outcomes included excess weight loss (EBWL), 30-day complication rate, and length of stay. Of the 203 randomized patients, 198 were included in the analysis. All 101 patients in the control group completed the one-year follow up and 76 completed the BIA. In the intervention group, 93 of 97 patients completed the one-year follow-up and 71 completed the BIA. At one and 12 months follow-up, body composition, LBM, or EBWL were comparable. There was no difference in operative outcomes, complications rates, or length of stay. There was no adverse effect in the intervention group. In a highly homogeneous group of morbidly obese patients with one-year follow-up, CHL and short-term parenteral nutrition did not lead to significant or sustained LBM preservation or modification in EBWL. There was no significant decrease in complications or length of stay. Our study confirms the safety of these interventions, even in previously unstudied Type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A mechanistic pharmacokinetic model to assess modified oral drug bioavailability post bariatric surgery in morbidly obese patients: interplay between CYP3A gut wall metabolism, permeability and dissolution.

    PubMed

    Darwich, Adam S; Pade, Devendra; Ammori, Basil J; Jamei, Masoud; Ashcroft, Darren M; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2012-07-01

    Due to the multi-factorial physiological implications of bariatric surgery, attempts to explain trends in oral bioavailability following bariatric surgery using singular attributes of drugs or simplified categorisations such as the biopharmaceutics classification system have been unsuccessful. So we have attempted to use mechanistic models to assess changes to bioavailability of model drugs. Pharmacokinetic post bariatric surgery models were created for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, sleeve gastrectomy and jejunoileal bypass, through altering the 'Advanced Dissolution Absorption and Metabolism' (ADAM) model incorporated into the Simcyp® Simulator. Post to pre surgical simulations were carried out for five drugs with varying characteristics regarding their gut wall metabolism, dissolution and permeability (simvastatin, omeprazole, diclofenac, fluconazole and ciprofloxacin). The trends in oral bioavailability pre to post surgery were found to be dependent on a combination of drug parameters, including solubility, permeability and gastrointestinal metabolism as well as the surgical procedure carried out. In the absence of clinical studies, the ability to project the direction and the magnitude of changes in bioavailability of drug therapy, using evidence-based mechanistic pharmacokinetic in silico models would be of significant value in guiding prescribers to make the necessary adjustments to dosage regimens for an increasing population of patients who are undergoing bariatric surgery. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. The application of 3-dimensional printing for preoperative planning in oral and maxillofacial surgery in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Winer, Jenna N; Verstraete, Frank J M; Cissell, Derek D; Lucero, Steven; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Arzi, Boaz

    2017-10-01

    To describe the application of 3-dimensional (3D) printing in advanced oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) and to discuss the benefits of this modality in surgical planning, student and resident training, and client education. Retrospective case series. Client-owned dogs (n = 28) and cats (n = 4) with 3D printing models of the skulls. The medical records of 32 cases with 3D printing prior to major OMFS were reviewed. Indications for 3D printing included preoperative planning for mandibular reconstruction after mandibulectomy (n = 12 dogs) or defect nonunion fracture (n = 6 dogs, 2 cats), mapping of ostectomy location for temporomandibular joint ankylosis or pseudoankylosis (n = 4 dogs), assessment of palatal defects (n = 2 dogs, 1 cat), improved understanding of complex anatomy in cases of neoplasia located in challenging locations (n = 2 dogs, 1 cat), and in cases of altered anatomy secondary to trauma (n = 2 dogs). In the authors' experience, 3D printed models serve as excellent tools for OMFS planning and resident training. Furthermore, 3D printed models are a valuable resource to improve clients' understanding of the pet's disorder and the recommended treatment. Three-dimensional printed models should be considered viable tools for surgical planning, resident training, and client education in candidates for complex OMFS. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  8. A novel rotational matrix and translation vector algorithm: geometric accuracy for augmented reality in oral and maxillofacial surgeries.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Yahini Prabha; Alsadoon, Abeer; Manoranjan, Paul; Prasad, P W C

    2018-06-01

    Augmented reality-based surgeries have not been successfully implemented in oral and maxillofacial areas due to limitations in geometric accuracy and image registration. This paper aims to improve the accuracy and depth perception of the augmented video. The proposed system consists of a rotational matrix and translation vector algorithm to reduce the geometric error and improve the depth perception by including 2 stereo cameras and a translucent mirror in the operating room. The results on the mandible/maxilla area show that the new algorithm improves the video accuracy by 0.30-0.40 mm (in terms of overlay error) and the processing rate to 10-13 frames/s compared to 7-10 frames/s in existing systems. The depth perception increased by 90-100 mm. The proposed system concentrates on reducing the geometric error. Thus, this study provides an acceptable range of accuracy with a shorter operating time, which provides surgeons with a smooth surgical flow. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Following Third Molar Surgery in an African Population

    PubMed Central

    Ibikunle, Adebayo Aremu; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars is often associated with sequelae such as postoperative pain, facial edema, and limitation in mouth opening ability. These sequelae may result in changes in the patients’ lifestyle and quality of life (QoL). Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars on patients’ QoL in the immediate postoperative period (7 days). Materials and Methods: Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Health Research and Ethics committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. A total of 124 individuals with impacted mandibular third molars, who satisfied the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in this study, were included. The Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) QoL questionnaire was used to assess QoL. QoL was assessed preoperatively (baseline) and on postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, and 7. Maximal interincisal mouth opening, facial width, and pain were also reviewed at all evaluation points. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows (version 16.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: A total of 124 individuals were included in the final analysis. An age range of 18–51 years with a mean (±standard deviation) of 28.5 (7.4) years was observed. A male to female ratio of 1:1.5 was observed. The most frequently encountered type of impaction was the mesioangular impaction 51 (41.1%) and recurrent pericoronitis was the principal reason for extraction 53 (42.7%). The severity of the sequelae (pain, trismus, and facial edema) was maximal on the first POD. Patients’ overall QoL deteriorated sharply on the first POD and subsequently improved. Conclusion: Surgical extraction of mandibular third molars is associated with worsening of patients’ postoperative QoL in the immediate postoperative period. Prospective patients should be informed about this, and ways of reducing this

  10. Integration of medicine and basic science in dentistry: the role of oral and maxillofacial surgery in the pre-doctoral dental curriculum.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Matthew J

    2010-05-01

    It is the premise of this paper that the need for medical and basic science instruction in dentistry will increase over time. However, student and faculty appreciation of the relevance and significance of medicine and basic science to clinical dentistry has been elusive, largely due to difficulties linking biomedical science instruction and clinical dental instruction. The scope of traditional procedure based oral surgery instruction can be expanded in an attempt to bridge the medical science-clinical gap. Topics such as health status evaluation, medical risk assessment, and a variety of other biomedical issues can be presented to students in a way which imparts specific dental meaning to basic medical science in real-life clinical situations. Using didactic and chair side instruction in an oral surgery clinical environment, students are confronted with the need to understand these issues and how they relate to the patients they encounter who present for dental care.

  11. USAF Minor Surgery Field Assembly,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    Brooks Air Force Base, Texas 78235 rs or 11 s0 036 .; :._,. ,. . . . . ... NOTICES This review was submitted by personnel of the Dental Investigation...Field equipment, dental Disaster-medicine eauipment 20. ABSTRACT (Condihis on revere* side It necessar end identify by block mmbe) -The history of...24 Field Assembly Handpieces ..... . . . . . .. . 24 Other Items of Equipment and Supplies . . . . .... .... 24 B!BLIOGRAPHY

  12. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Ramosetron for Prevention of Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting after Intrathecal Morphine in Patients Undergoing Gynecological Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wangnamthip, Suratsawadee; Chinachoti, Thitima; Amornyotin, Somchai; Wongtangman, Karuna; Sukantarat, Numphung; Noitasaeng, Papiroon

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after intrathecal morphine is high. Ramosetron is a 5-HT₃ antagonist that has been shown to reduce PONV in general anesthesia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Ramosetron in preventing PONV MATERIAL AND METHOD: 165 patients undergoing elective gynecological surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to two groups: the Ramosetron group (0.1 mg orally, n = 82), and the placebo group (oral corn starch, n = 83). The incidence of PONV severity of nausea and use of rescue antiemetic during the first 24 hour after surgery were evaluated. The incidence of PONV was significantly lower in the Ramosetron group compared with the placebo group (24.4% vs. 44.6%, number needed to treat (NNT) = 5.0). The severity of nausea was significantly lower in the Ramosetron group compared with the placebo group (20.7% vs. 39.8%, NNT = 6.0) in the 24 hour period. Oral Ramosetron 0.1 mg was more effective than placebo in PONV prevention and reduced the incidence of moderate to severe nausea after intrathecal morphine in the first 24 hour after gynecological surgery.

  13. Clinical evaluations of complete autologous fibrin glue, produced by the CryoSeal® FS system, and polyglycolic acid sheets as wound coverings after oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Kouketsu, Atsumu; Nogami, Shinnosuke; Yamada-Fujiwara, Minami; Nagai, Hirokazu; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Mori, Shiro; Miyashita, Hitoshi; Kawai, Tadashi; Matsui, Aritsune; Kataoka, Yoshihiro; Satomi, Norihisa; Ezoe, Yushi; Abe, Satoko; Takeda, Yuri; Tone, Takeshi; Hirayama, Bunnichi; Kurobane, Tsuyoshi; Tashiro, Kazuki; Yanagisawa, Yuta; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2017-09-01

    The CryoSeal ® FS System has been recently introduced as an automated device for the production of complete fibrin glue from autologous plasma, rather than from pool allogenic or cattle blood, to prevent viral infection and allergic reaction. We evaluated the effectiveness of complete autologous fibrin glue and polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet wound coverings in mucosa defect oral surgery. Postoperative pain, scar contracture, ingestion, tongue dyskinesia, and postoperative bleeding were evaluated in 12 patients who underwent oral (including the tongue) mucosa excision, and received a PGA sheet and an autologous fibrin glue covering. They were compared with 12 patients who received a PGA sheet and commercial allogenic fibrin glue. All cases in the complete autologous fibrin glue group demonstrated good wound healing without complications such as local infection or incomplete cure. All evaluated clinical measures in this group were similar or superior to the commercial allogenic fibrin glue group. Coagulation and adhesion quality achieved with this method was comparable to that with a PGA sheet and commercial fibrin glue. Covering oral surgery wounds with complete autologous fibrin glue produced by an automated device was convenient, safe, and reduced the risk of viral infection and allergic reaction associated with conventional techniques. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment Results of Postoperative Radiotherapy on Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity: Coexistence of Multiple Minor Risk Factors Results in Higher Recurrence Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Kang-Hsing; Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Taiwan

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment results of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). Materials and Methods: This study included 302 OSCC patients who were treated by radical surgery and PORT. Indications for PORT include Stage III or IV OSCC according to the 2002 criteria of the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the presence of perineural invasion or lymphatic invasion, the depth of tumor invasion, or a close surgical margin. Patients with major risk factors, such as multiple nodal metastases, a positive surgical margin, or extracapsular spreading, were excluded.more » The prescribed dose of PORT ranged from 59.4 to 66.6Gy (median, 63Gy). Results: The 3-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates were 73% and 70%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that differentiation, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, bone invasion, location (hard palate and retromolar trigone), invasion depths {>=}10mm, and margin distances {<=}4mm were significant prognostic factors. The presence of multiple significant factors of univariate analysis correlated with disease recurrence. The 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 82%, 76%, and 45% for patients with no risk factors, one or two risk factors, and three or more risk factors, respectively. After multivariate analysis, the number of risk factors and lymphatic invasion were significant prognostic factors. Conclusion: PORT may be an adequate adjuvant therapy for OSCC patients with one or two risk factors of recurrence. The presence of multiple risk factors and lymphatic invasion correlated with poor prognosis, and more aggressive treatment may need to be considered.« less

  15. Responses of heart rate variability to acute pain after minor spinal surgery: optimal thresholds and correlation with the numeric rating scale.

    PubMed

    Sesay, Musa; Robin, Georges; Tauzin-Fin, Patrick; Sacko, Oumar; Gimbert, Edouard; Vignes, Jean-Rodolphe; Liguoro, Dominique; Nouette-Gaulain, Karine

    2015-04-01

    The autonomic nervous system is influenced by many stimuli including pain. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system. Because of paucity of data, this study sought to determine the optimal thresholds of HRV above which the patients are in pain after minor spinal surgery (MSS). Secondly, we evaluated the correlation between HRV and the numeric rating scale (NRS). Following institutional review board approval, patients who underwent MSS were assessed in the postanesthesia care unit after extubation. A laptop containing the HRV software was connected to the ECG monitor. The low-frequency band (LF: 0.04 to 0.5 Hz) denoted both sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, whereas the high-frequency band (HF: 0.15 to 0.4 Hz) represented parasympathetic activity. LF/HF was the sympathovagal balance. Pain was quantified by the NRS ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst imaginable pain). Simultaneously, HRV parameters were noted. Optimal thresholds were calculated using receiver operating characteristic curves with NRS>3 as cutoff. The correlation between HRV and NRS was assessed using the Spearman rank test. We included 120 patients (64 men and 56 women), mean age 51±14 years. The optimal pain threshold values were 298 ms for LF and 3.12 for LF/HF, with no significant change in HF. NRS was correlated with LF (r=0.29, P<0.005) and LF/HF (r=0.31, P<0.001) but not with HF (r=0.09, NS). This study suggests that, after MSS, values of LF>298 m and LF/HF>3.1 denote acute pain (NRS>3). These HRV parameters are significantly correlated with NRS.

  16. Comparison of Er:YAG laser and surgical drill for osteotomy in oral surgery: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gabrić Pandurić, Dragana; Bago, Ivona; Katanec, Davor; Zabkar, Janez; Miletić, Ivana; Anić, Ivica

    2012-11-01

    High-energy lasers have been proposed as an alternative to the conventional surgical drill in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The aims of this study were to compare thermal changes of the bone surface, procedure time, and volume of the removed bone after drilling with an erbium (Er):yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser versus a low-speed surgical drill. The bone sections were observed under light microscopy and examined histologically. Thirty bone blocks were prepared from porcine ribs. On each block 2 holes (tunnel preparations) were performed using a low-speed, 1.0-mm-wide, surgical pilot drill and an Er:YAG laser (pulse energy, 1,000 mJ; pulse duration, 300 μs; frequency, 20 Hz). The temperature induced by the preparation techniques was measured using an infrared camera. The removed bone volume was calculated by a modified mathematical algorithm. The time required for the preparation was measured with a digital stopwatch and a time-measurement instrument integrated within the computer program. The cortical and spongiose surfaces of the specimens were examined microscopically and histologically under a light microscope with a high-resolution camera. The Er:YAG laser removed significantly more bone tissue than the drill (P < .01) in a significantly shorter time (P < .01). The temperature was statistically lower during the laser preparation (P < .01). Cavities prepared with the laser were regular with clear sharp edges and knifelike cuts. In the drill group, the preparations exhibited irregular edges full of bone fragments and fiberlike debris. Histologic examination of the laser sides showed a 30-μm-thick altered sublayer. The tissue in the drill group was covered with a smear layer without any alterations. The Er:YAG laser produced preparations with regular and sharp edges, without bone fragments and debris, in a shorter time, and with less generated heat. Thermal alterations in the treated surface were minimal. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and

  17. Joint Dictionary Learning-Based Non-Negative Matrix Factorization for Voice Conversion to Improve Speech Intelligibility After Oral Surgery.

    PubMed

    Fu, Szu-Wei; Li, Pei-Chun; Lai, Ying-Hui; Yang, Cheng-Chien; Hsieh, Li-Chun; Tsao, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Objective: This paper focuses on machine learning based voice conversion (VC) techniques for improving the speech intelligibility of surgical patients who have had parts of their articulators removed. Because of the removal of parts of the articulator, a patient's speech may be distorted and difficult to understand. To overcome this problem, VC methods can be applied to convert the distorted speech such that it is clear and more intelligible. To design an effective VC method, two key points must be considered: 1) the amount of training data may be limited (because speaking for a long time is usually difficult for postoperative patients); 2) rapid conversion is desirable (for better communication). Methods: We propose a novel joint dictionary learning based non-negative matrix factorization (JD-NMF) algorithm. Compared to conventional VC techniques, JD-NMF can perform VC efficiently and effectively with only a small amount of training data. Results: The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed JD-NMF method not only achieves notably higher short-time objective intelligibility (STOI) scores (a standardized objective intelligibility evaluation metric) than those obtained using the original unconverted speech but is also significantly more efficient and effective than a conventional exemplar-based NMF VC method. Conclusion: The proposed JD-NMF method may outperform the state-of-the-art exemplar-based NMF VC method in terms of STOI scores under the desired scenario. Significance: We confirmed the advantages of the proposed joint training criterion for the NMF-based VC. Moreover, we verified that the proposed JD-NMF can effectively improve the speech intelligibility scores of oral surgery patients. Objective: This paper focuses on machine learning based voice conversion (VC) techniques for improving the speech intelligibility of surgical patients who have had parts of their articulators removed. Because of the removal of parts of the articulator, a patient

  18. Gene Therapy for Bone Defects in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Fliefel, Riham; Kühnisch, Jan; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Otto, Sven

    2017-02-15

    Craniofacial bone defects are challenging problems for maxillofacial surgeons over the years. With the development of cell and molecular biology, gene therapy is a breaking new technology with the aim of regenerating tissues by acting as a delivery system for therapeutic genes in the craniofacial region rather than treating genetic disorders. A systematic review was conducted summarizing the articles reporting gene therapy in maxillofacial surgery to answer the question: Was gene therapy successfully applied to regenerate bone in the maxillofacial region? Electronic searching of online databases was performed in addition to hand searching of the references of included articles. No language or time restrictions were enforced. Meta-analysis was done to assess significant bone formation after delivery of gene material in the surgically induced maxillofacial defects. The search identified 2081 articles, of which 57 were included with 1726 animals. Bone morphogenetic proteins were commonly used proteins for gene therapy. Viral vectors were the universally used vectors. Sprague-Dawley rats were the frequently used animal model in experimental studies. The quality of the articles ranged from excellent to average. Meta-analysis results performed on 21 articles showed that defects favored bone formation by gene therapy. Funnel plot showed symmetry with the absence of publication bias. Gene therapy is on the top list of innovative strategies that developed in the last 10 years with the hope of developing a simple chair-side protocol in the near future, combining improvement of gene delivery as well as knowledge of the molecular basis of oral and maxillofacial structures.

  19. Surgical site infections among high-risk patients in clean-contaminated head and neck reconstructive surgery: concordance with preoperative oral flora.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ching-Hsiang; Chew, Khong-Yik; Solomkin, Joseph S; Lin, Pao-Yuan; Chiang, Yuan-Cheng; Kuo, Yur-Ren

    2013-12-01

    Salivary contamination of surgical wounds in clean-contaminated head and neck surgery with free flap reconstruction remains a major cause of infection and leads to significant morbidity. This study investigates the correlation between intraoral flora and surgical site infections (SSIs) among high-risk head and neck cancer patients undergoing resection and free flap reconstruction. One hundred twenty-nine patients were identified as being at high risk for infective complications based on cancer stage, tumor size, comorbid factors, and extent of reconstruction. All patients had intraoral swab cultures before surgery. Patients with culture-confirmed SSI after surgery were chosen for analysis, using the κ index and its 95% confidence interval for concordance analysis. All patients received clindamycin and gentamicin for antibiotic prophylaxis for 5 days. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of all isolates was obtained and analyzed. Thirty-seven patients experienced SSI, or an infection rate of 28.3%, occurring at a mean of 9.3 postoperative days. The overall concordance between oral flora and SSI was fair to moderate (κ index of 0.25), but detailed analysis shows a higher concordance for known and opportunistic pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis, compared to typical oral commensals. Antibiotic susceptibility tests show rapid and significant increases in resistance to clindamycin, indicating a need for a more effective alternative. Predicting pathogens in SSI using preoperative oral swabs did not demonstrate a good concordance in general for patients undergoing clean-contaminated head and neck surgery, although concordance for certain pathogenic species seem to be higher than for typical intraoral commensals. The rapid development of resistance to clindamycin precludes its use as a prophylactic agent.

  20. Treatment of naturally occuring hemangiopericytoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma in dogs using surgery and photodynamic therapy with HPPH as a photosensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, John T.; McCaw, Dudley L.; Rogers, Kevin J.; Tompson, Robert V.

    1995-05-01

    Pyropheophorbide-a-hexyl ether (HPPH) is a new photosensitizer for use with photodynamic therapy (PDT) that has shown promise in laboratory animals. PDT, using this drug, is being used to treat canine patients afflicted with hemangiopericytoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at the University of Missouri-Columbia College of Veterinary Medicine. To date, 11 dogs with hemangiopericytoma and 5 dogs with oral SCC have been treated using a combination of surgery and PDT. Thus far, there have been no serious complications attributable to the treatment. Two dogs have had recurrences of the hemangiopericytoma and there have been no recurrences of SCC with a median follow time of 5 months. Both recurrent hemangiopericytomas were in patients with large tumors that had previous surgery. This study is ongoing and no conclusions have been reached; however several observations are noted. It appears that PDT using HPPH is safe is dogs, and may decrease the recurrence rate of Hemangiopericytomas. In dogs with oral SCC, the treatment is effective is causing necrosis and sloughing of the tumor tissue, and recurrences have not been noted on follow-ups up to 6 months.

  1. Managing hip fracture and lower limb surgery in the emergency setting: Potential role of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Fisher, William

    2017-06-01

    Trauma, immobilization, and subsequent surgery of the hip and lower limb are associated with a high risk of developing venous thrombo-embolism (VTE). Individuals undergoing hip fracture surgery (HFS) have the highest rates of VTE among orthopedic surgery and trauma patients. The risk of VTE depends on the type and location of the lower limb injury. Current international guidelines recommend routine pharmacological thromboprophylaxis based on treatment with heparins, fondaparinux, dose-adjusted vitamin K antagonists and acetylsalicylic acid for patients undergoing emergency HFS; however, not all guidelines recommend pharmacological prophylaxis for patients with lower limb injuries. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are indicated for VTE prevention after elective hip or knee replacement surgery, but at present are not widely recommended for other orthopedic indications despite their advantages over conventional anticoagulants and promising real-world evidence. In patients undergoing HFS or lower limb surgery, decisions on whether to anticoagulate and the most appropriate anti-coagulation strategy can be guided by weighing the risk of thromboprophylaxis against the benefit in relation to each patient's medical history and age. In addition, the nature and location of the fracture, operating times and times before fracture fixation should be considered. The current review discusses the need for anticoagulation in patients undergoing emergency HFS or lower limb surgery together with the current guidelines and available evidence on the use of NOACs in this setting. Appropriate thromboprophylactic strategies and practical advice on the peri-operative management of patients who present to the Emergency Department on a NOAC before emergency surgery are further outlined.

  2. Development of the Parental Self-Efficacy Scale for Child Autonomy toward Minor Surgery (PSESCAMS): based on results of questionnaire surveys of parents raising children between 3 and 6 years old.

    PubMed

    Ono, Satomi; Manabe, Yukiko

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare the Parental Self-Efficacy Scale for Child Autonomy toward Minor Surgery (PSESCAMS) and verify its reliability and validity. The PSESCAMS was developed based on the findings of previous qualitative studies on preschool children aged 3-6 years who were undergoing day surgery and their parents. The Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Maternal Self-Accomplishment Scale (MSAS), and Japanese-language version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory A-trait subscale (STAI: A-trait) were used to examine the criterion-related validity of the PSESCAMS. In addition, the test-retest method was utilized for the PSESCAMS. The number of valid responses was 586. A principle component analysis of the PSESCAMS was conducted of 18 items, extracting two factors. As a result of factor analysis that assumed two factors, the two factors were named "self-efficacy for support related to child's emotional control for minor surgery" and "self-efficacy for support related to child's understanding of minor surgery". A structural equation model having high goodness of fit for the PSESCAMS was shown by a covariance structure analysis. The correlations between GSES, MSAS, STAI: A-trait and the PSESCAMS were r = 0.323 (P < 0.001), r = 0.370 (P < 0.001), and r = -0.248 (P < 0.001), respectively. Cronbach's alpha of both the initial test and the test-retest for the PSESCAMS were 0.9 and the correlation between both was significant. The PSESCAMS consists of two categories and includes 18 items. The reliability and validity of the PSESCAMS were proved. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  3. Evaluation of Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging for the Assessment of Oral Mucosal Blood Flow following Periodontal Plastic Surgery: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, Eszter; Molnár, Bálint; Lohinai, Zsolt; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Benyó, Zoltán; Hricisák, Laszló; Windisch, Péter

    2017-01-01

    The laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is proved to be a reliable tool in flap monitoring in general surgery; however, it has not been evaluated in oral surgery yet. We applied the LSCI to compare the effect of a xenogeneic collagen matrix (Geistlich Mucograft®) to connective tissue grafts (CTG) on the microcirculation of the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) for gingival recession coverage. Gingival microcirculation and wound fluid were measured before and after surgery for six months at twenty-seven treated teeth. In males, the flap microcirculation was restored within 3 days for both grafts followed by a hyperemic response. During the first 8 days the blood flow was higher at xenogeneic graft comparing to the CTG. In females, the ischemic period lasted for 7–12 days depending on the graft and no hyperemic response was observed. Females had more intense and prolonged wound fluid production. The LSCI method is suitable to capture the microcirculatory effect of the surgical intervention in human oral mucosa. The application of xenogeneic collagen matrices as a CTG substitute does not seem to restrain the recovery of graft bed circulation. Gender may have an effect on postoperative circulation and inflammation. PMID:28232940

  4. Evaluation of Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging for the Assessment of Oral Mucosal Blood Flow following Periodontal Plastic Surgery: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Eszter; Molnár, Bálint; Lohinai, Zsolt; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Benyó, Zoltán; Hricisák, Laszló; Windisch, Péter; Vág, János

    2017-01-01

    The laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is proved to be a reliable tool in flap monitoring in general surgery; however, it has not been evaluated in oral surgery yet. We applied the LSCI to compare the effect of a xenogeneic collagen matrix (Geistlich Mucograft®) to connective tissue grafts (CTG) on the microcirculation of the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) for gingival recession coverage. Gingival microcirculation and wound fluid were measured before and after surgery for six months at twenty-seven treated teeth. In males, the flap microcirculation was restored within 3 days for both grafts followed by a hyperemic response. During the first 8 days the blood flow was higher at xenogeneic graft comparing to the CTG. In females, the ischemic period lasted for 7-12 days depending on the graft and no hyperemic response was observed. Females had more intense and prolonged wound fluid production. The LSCI method is suitable to capture the microcirculatory effect of the surgical intervention in human oral mucosa. The application of xenogeneic collagen matrices as a CTG substitute does not seem to restrain the recovery of graft bed circulation. Gender may have an effect on postoperative circulation and inflammation.

  5. Peri-operative oral caffeine does not prevent postoperative atrial fibrillation after heart valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: A randomised controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lagier, David; Nee, Laetitia; Guieu, Régis; Kerbaul, François; Fenouillet, Emmanuel; Roux, Nicolas; Giorgi, Roch; Theron, Alexis; Grisoli, Dominique; Gariboldi, Vlad; Collart, Frederic; Bruder, Nicolas; Velly, Lionel; Guidon, Catherine

    2018-04-26

    Raised plasma levels of endogenous adenosine after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have been related to the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). We wished to assess if caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist could have a beneficial effect on the incidence of POAF. A randomised controlled study. Single University Hospital. One hundred and ten patients scheduled for heart valve surgery with CPB. We randomly assigned patients to receive peri-operative oral caffeine (400 mg every 8 h for 2 days) or placebo. Adenosine plasma concentrations and caffeine pharmacokinetic profile were evaluated in a subgroup of 50 patients. The primary endpoint was the rate of atrial fibrillation during postoperative hospital stay. The current study was stopped for futility by the data monitoring board after an interim analysis. The incidence of atrial fibrillation was similar in the caffeine and in the placebo group during hospital stay (33 vs. 29%, P = 0.67) and the first 3 postoperative days (18 vs. 15%; P = 0.60). Basal and postoperative adenosine plasma levels were significantly associated with the primary outcome. Adenosine plasma levels were similar in the two treatment groups. Caffeine administration was associated with a higher incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (27 vs. 7%, P = 0.005). Oral caffeine does not prevent POAF after heart valve surgery with CPB but increased the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. ClinicalTrials.gov, no.: NCT01999829.

  6. Laser ablation in temporomandibular joint disorders and a case report involving an ossifying fibroma: how optics could potentially advance treatments in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, Rahul; Stevens, Timothy W.; Stringer, Dale E.; Dean, Jeff S.; Herford, Alan S.

    2013-03-01

    Introduction: In the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery, there are many applications for lasers and optics. The first part of this manuscript is to discuss laser therapy and garner suggestions on how it can be improved. The second part is to present a case in which complications of a bone graft delayed healing and a return to normalcy for the patient. It is the goal of this paper to utilize the new advancements in optics so that patient care can be improved. Laser Therapy: Laser ablation and low-level laser therapy have been used in a variety of joint adhesion cases, including arthritis of the hand and foot. In the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery, this method has been used to treat pain and mobility dysfunction in patients with temporomandibular joint disease. While the outcomes have been promising, lack of familiarity with the device or doubt about its effects have reduced its use. This reduction in use has left the actual process of laser therapy relatively unchanged. Case Presentation: A 28 year-old female presented for a mandibular resection due to an ossifying fibroma. In the next several months her reconstructed area displayed significant signs of infection, as well as graft failure. X-rays, unfortunately, did not display the actual metabolic activity. Although the patient was reconstructed successfully thereafter, with more advanced technology available the patient could have endured a more comfortable treatment. Conclusion: While there are many more areas of oral and maxillofacial surgery that could potentially benefit from advances in optical technology, we have chosen to highlight these two areas due to their prevalence within our community.

  7. Future of bone pathology, bone grafting, and osseointegration in oral and maxillofacial surgery: how applying optical advancements can help both fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, Rahul; Herford, Alan S.

    2013-03-01

    Introduction: In recent years, advances in technology are propelling the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery into new realms. With a relatively thin alveolar mucosa overlying the underlying bone, significant diagnostic and therapeutic advantages are present. However, there remains an enormous gap between advancements in physics, in particular optics, and oral and maxillofacial surgery. Bone Pathology: Improvements in diagnosis, classification, and treatment of the various bone pathologies are still being sought after as advancements in technology continue to progress. Combining the clinical, histological, and pathological characteristics with these advancements, patients with debilitating pathologies may have more promising treatment options and prognosis. Bone Grafting: Defects in the facial bones, in particular the jaws, may be due to a number of reasons: pathology, trauma, infections, congenital deformities, or simply due to atrophy. Bone grafting is commonly employed to correct such defects, and allows new bone formation through tissue regeneration. Osseointegration: Growing use of dental implants has focused attention on osseointegration and its process. Osseointegration refers to the actual process of the direct contact between bone and implant, without an intervening soft tissue layer. The theories proposed regarding this process are many, yet there lacks a clear, unified stance on the actual process and its mechanisms. Further investigation using optical probes could provide that unifying answer. Conclusion: The primary goal of this lecture is to introduce pioneers in the field of optics to the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. With a brief introduction into the procedures and techniques, we are hopeful to bridge the ever-widening gap between the clinical science and the basic sciences.

  8. Water swallow screening test for patients after surgery for head and neck cancer: early identification of dysphagia, aspiration and limitations of oral intake.

    PubMed

    Hey, Christiane; Lange, Benjamin P; Eberle, Silvia; Zaretsky, Yevgen; Sader, Robert; Stöver, Timo; Wagenblast, Jens

    2013-09-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) are at high risk for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) following surgical therapy. Early identification of OD can improve outcomes and reduce economic burden. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of a water screening test using increasing volumes postsurgically for patients with HNC (N=80) regarding the early identification of OD in general, and whether there is a need for further instrumental diagnostics to investigate the presence of aspiration as well as to determine the limitations of oral intake as defined by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. OD in general was identified in 65%, with aspiration in 49%, silent aspiration in 21% and limitations of oral intake in 56%. Despite a good sensitivity, for aspiration of 100% and for limitations of oral intake of 97.8%, the presented water screening test did not satisfactorily predict either of these reference criteria due to its low positive likelihood ratio (aspiration=2.6; limitations of oral intake=3.1). However, it is an accurate tool for the early identification of OD in general, with a sensitivity of 96.2% and a positive likelihood ratio of 5.4 in patients after surgery for HNC.

  9. Insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function after carbohydrate oral loading in hip replacement surgery: a double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ljunggren, Stefan; Hahn, Robert G; Nyström, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Surgery initiates a series of physiological stress processes in the body, inducing transient insulin resistance. Preoperative carbohydrate treatment can reduce the latter phenomenon. We investigated the effects of carbohydrate loading on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function after elective hip replacement. Twenty-three nondiabetic patients (mean age of 68 years) who underwent elective hip replacement surgery participated in this double-blind controlled study. The patients were randomised to a nutrition group, which ingested a carbohydrate-rich fluid (50 kcal/100 ml) (Preop(®)), or a control group (tap water flavoured with lemon) 800 ml + 400 ml before the surgery. The insulin response (beta-cell function) and the insulin sensitivity were measured with an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic glucose clamp, respectively, one day before and two days after the surgery. Insulin sensitivity decreased by 51% (median; 25-75th percentiles 35-61) after ingesting Preop(®) and by 39% (21-51) after ingesting in the control group (n.s.). The postoperative IVGTT in the nutrition group was followed by a significantly larger area under the curve (AUC) for plasma insulin (+54% versus the preoperative IVGTT) compared to the control group (+7%). This difference was already apparent during the first phase (0-10 min) of insulin secretion (+20 and -21%, respectively; P < 0.05). The patients randomised to the carbohydrate oral fluid or the water prior to the surgery demonstrated a significant but similar decrease in insulin sensitivity. The carbohydrates increased the beta-cell function as a compensatory response to the disposition index, resulting in a smaller reduction in surgery-induced insulin resistance compared to the tap water. The study was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01774084). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of intraoperative administration of carbohydrates during long-duration oral and maxillofacial surgery on the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toru; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Watanabe, Seiji; Kawahara, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance in patients undergoing invasive surgery impairs glucose and lipid metabolism and increases muscle protein catabolism, which may result in delayed recovery and prolonged hospital stay. We examined whether intraoperative administration of carbohydrates during long-duration oral and maxillofacial surgery under general anesthesia affects carbohydrate, proteins, and lipid metabolism and the length of hospital stay. We studied 16 patients with normal liver, kidney, and endocrine functions, and ASA physical status I or II, but without diabetes. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 0.1 g/kg/h of (n = 8) or lactated Ringer's solution (n = 8). Blood was collected before (T0) and 4 h after (T1) the start of surgery. We analyzed the plasma levels of glucose, ketone bodies, 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), and the length of hospital stay. At T0, no statistically significant differences were observed in the levels of glucose, ketone bodies, and 3-MH between the groups. At T1, no statistically significant difference in glucose levels was found between the groups. However, ketone bodies were significantly lower, and the changes in 3-MH levels were significantly less pronounced in the glucose-treated group compared with controls. No significant differences were observed between the groups in terms of length of hospital stay. The administration of low doses of glucose during surgery was safe, did not cause hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, and inhibited lipid metabolism and protein catabolism. Additional experiments with larger cohorts will be necessary to investigate whether intraoperative management with glucose facilitates postoperative recovery of patients with oral cancer.

  11. Oral soft tissue wound healing after laser surgery with or without a pool of amino acids and sodium hyaluronate: a randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Umberto; Libotte, Fabrizio; Palaia, Gaspare; Galanakis, Alexandros; Gaimari, Gianfranco; Tenore, Gianluca; Del Vecchio, Alessandro; Polimeni, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare secondary intention healing of oral soft tissues after laser surgery with and without the use of a compound containing amino acids and sodium hyaluronate. Sodium hyaluronate has been successfully used in medicine to promote healing. It has not been studied in the healing of laser-produced wounds. Excisional biopsy was performed in oral soft tissues with a potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser (532 nm, SmartLite, DEKA, Florence, Italy) in 49 patients divided into two groups. In the study group (SG), 31 patients received a compound gel containing four amino acids and sodium hyaluronate (Aminogam(®), Errekappa, Italy) after laser surgery; in the control group (CG), 18 subjects received no treatment involving a drug or gel. Numeric rating scale (NRS) was used to evaluate pain experienced after surgery [pain index (PI)]. Using a grid as a benchmark and computer software, the lesion area was measured after surgery (T0) and after 7 days (T1). A percentage healing index (PHI) was calculated indicating healing extension in 7 days. SG cases showed an average PHI of 64.38±26.50, whereas the average PHI in the CG was 47.88%±27.84. Mean PI was 2.67±0.96 for SG and 2.75±0.86 for CG. A statistically significant difference was detected between the groups for PHI (p=0.0447), whereas no difference was detectable for PI (p=0.77). The use of a gel containing amino acids and sodium hyaluronate can promote faster healing via secondary intention in laser-induced wounds, although it does not seem to affect pain perception.

  12. Functional benefits of implants placed during ablative surgery: A 5-year prospective study on the prosthodontic rehabilitation of 56 edentulous oral cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wetzels, Jan Willem; Koole, Ron; Meijer, Gert J; de Haan, Anton F J; Merkx, Matthias A W; Speksnijder, Caroline M

    2016-04-01

    The timing of placement as well as the functional benefit of interforaminal implants in edentulous patients treated for oral cancer is unclear. Fifty-six patients were recruited at 2 institutions. In 1 institution, interforaminal implants were placed during ablative surgery, the other institution used conventional prosthodontics with optional placement of implants postsurgery (postponed-placement). Masticatory performance, bite force, and subjective masticatory function were assessed before and 6 months, 1 year, and 5 years after surgery. Implant-retained overdentures (IODs) demonstrated the highest bite force and the least problems with solid food and food choice. Masticatory performance was equal for IODs and conventional dentures. After 5 years, IODs from patients in the during-ablative-surgery cohort tend to have higher bite force and masticatory performance than those from patients in the postponed-placement cohort. IODs produce the highest overall masticatory function. Implant placement during ablative surgery seems to be functionally beneficial. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2103-E2111, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Oral Rehabilitation With Orthognathic Surgery After Dental Implant Placement for Class III Malocclusion With Skeletal Asymmetry and Posterior Bite Collapse.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Seigo; Nakatani, Yuya; Kawasaki, Takako; Tajima, Nobutaka; Tobita, Takayoshi; Yoshida, Noriaki; Sawase, Takashi; Asahina, Izumi

    2015-08-01

    Increasing numbers of older patients are seeking orthognathic surgery to treat jaw deformity. However, orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment is difficult in cases without occlusal vertical stop. A 55-year-old man presented with Class III malocclusion and mandibular protrusion including esthetic problems and posterior bite collapse. He underwent dental implant treatment to reconstruct an occlusal vertical stop before orthognathic surgery. His occlusal function and esthetic problems improved after surgery, and his skeletal and occlusal stability has been maintained for 6 years. Dental implant placement at appropriate positions could help to determine the position of the proximal segment at orthognathic surgery and could shorten the time required to restore esthetic and occlusal function. This case demonstrates how skeletal and dental stability can be maintained long after surgery in a patient with jaw deformity and posterior bite collapse.

  14. Functional swallowing outcomes following treatment for oropharyngeal carcinoma: a systematic review of the evidence comparing trans-oral surgery versus non-surgical management.

    PubMed

    Dawe, N; Patterson, J; O'Hara, J

    2016-08-01

    Trans-oral surgical and non-surgical management options for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) appear to offer similar survival outcomes. Functional outcomes, in particular swallowing, have become of increasing interest in the debate regarding treatment options. Contemporary reviews on function following treatment frequently include surrogate markers and limit the value of comparative analysis. A systematic review was performed to establish whether direct comparisons of swallowing outcomes could be made between trans-oral surgical approaches (trans-oral laser microsurgery (TLM)/trans-oral robotic surgery (TORS)) and (chemo)radiotherapy ((C)RT). Systematic review. MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane databases were interrogated using the following MeSH terms: antineoplastic protocols, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, deglutition disorders, swallowing, lasers, and trans-oral surgery. Two authors performed independent systematic reviews and consensus was sought if opinions differed. The WHO ICF classification was applied to generate analysis based around body functions and structure, activity limitations and participation restriction. Thirty-seven citations were included in the analysis. Twenty-six papers reported the outcomes for OPSCC treatment following primary (C)RT in 1377 patients, and 15 papers following contemporary trans-oral approaches in 768 patients. Meta-analysis was not feasible due to varying methodology and heterogeneity of outcome measures. Instrumental swallowing assessments were presented in 13/26 (C)RT versus 2/15 TLM/TORS papers. However, reporting methods of these studies were not standardised. This variety of outcome measures and the wide-ranging intentions of authors applying the measures in individual studies limit any practical direct comparisons of the effects of treatment on swallowing outcomes between interventions. From the current evidence, no direct comparisons could be made of swallowing outcomes between the surgical and non

  15. Gum chewing combined with oral intake of a semi-liquid diet in the postoperative care of patients after gynaecologic laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuping; Chen, Li; Zhong, Xiaorong; Feng, Suwen

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of gum chewing combined with a semi-liquid diet on patients after gynaecologic laparoscopic surgery. Previous studies suggested that chewing gum before traditional postoperative care promotes the postoperative recovery of bowel motility and function after open and laparoscopic surgery. However, gum chewing combined with a semi-liquid diet has not been reported in postoperative care of patients following gynaecologic laparoscopic surgery. A prospective randomised study. Total 234 patients were randomly assigned after elective gynaecologic laparoscopic surgery to a gum chewing and semi-liquid diet group, a semi-liquid only diet group or a liquid diet group. The gum chewing and semi-liquid diet group chewed sugar-free gum with an oral intake of a semi-liquid diet six hours postoperatively. The semi-liquid only diet and liquid diet groups received a semi-liquid diet or a liquid diet, respectively. The time to first bowel sounds, time to first regular postoperative bowel sounds, time to first passage of flatus, time to first defecation, serum gastrin and incidences of hunger, nausea, vomiting and abdominal distension were recorded. Hunger and gastrointestinal sensations were assessed using a four-point scale. Serum gastrin was assayed pre- and postoperatively using a gastrin radioimmunoassay kit. The gum chewing and semi-liquid diet group had first bowel sounds, first regular bowel sounds, first passage of flatus and first defecation earlier than the semi-liquid only and liquid groups. Increased serum gastrin was observed in the gum chewing and semi-liquid diet group. Incidences of nausea, vomiting and abdominal distention were not significantly different between these groups. Chewing gum combined with an oral intake of a semi-liquid diet is safe and accelerates the postoperative recovery of bowel function. It might be recommended as a better postoperative care regimen for patients after gynaecologic laparoscopic surgery. This study developed a

  16. A Retrospective Radiographic Survey of Pathology Associated with Impacted Third Molars among Patients Seen in Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of College of Dentistry, Riyadh.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Naveed Ahmad; Khalil, Hesham; Parveen, Kauser; Al-Mutiri, Abdulmajeed; Al-Mutiri, Saif; Al-Saawi, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the type and frequency of pathological conditions around third molar teeth among randomly selected patient's records in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh. Totally, 281 patient panoramic radiographs were selected with detectable pathology among 570 files of patients seen in oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics 2 years retrospectively. Almost 17-55 years age (mean age 25.43) was selected. The following radiographs were analyzed for all pathology associated impacted teeth; dental caries, bone resorption, periodontitis, and apical pathology. The study found caries, external bone resorption and periodontitis are highly frequent to mesioangular and horizontal in mandibular impacted third molar compared to maxillary impacted third molar. Overall result evaluated that tooth #28 related periodontitis is significant (P = 0.021), and tooth #38 related bone resorption, tooth #48 related root caries, bone resorption and apical pathology are highly significant (P = 0.000) comparing to others. This study also concluded the high frequency of root caries, bone resorption and apical pathology reported in relation to mandibular impacted third teeth. Significant results were also achieved with periodontitis in relation to mesiangular and vertical angulation of left impacted maxillary third molars. Prophylactic removal of impacted third molars is recommended in many studies to avoid future risk of associated pathology. Retained asymptomatic impacted third molars imply pathology that could be difficult in later ages as less morbidity in younger ages.

  17. An audit into the reasons why treatment was not completed as planned under intravenous sedation in an adult oral surgery department, and the cost implications.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kate; Patel, Jashme; Eghtessad, Mehri

    2015-01-01

    This audit aimed to identify the prevalence of, and reasons for failed intravenous conscious sedation in an adult oral surgery department, to develop recommendations to reduce such failures and to identify any cost implications. Data were collected prospectively for three months for all intravenous sedation appointments in the Oral Surgery department. Data were collected for 109 sedation appointments of which 83 were successful (76%). The failure rate (24%) was higher than the acceptable departmental failure rate (10%), and included reasons for failure that should have been avoided by a thorough patient assessment prior to treatment. Of the 26 failures, the most common reasons for failure were: cancellation: 8 patients (30.8%), failure to attend: 6 patients (23.1%), excessively late arrival of patient: 4 patients (15.4%) and failure to cannulate: 3 patients (11.6%). When sedation was unsuccessful, 13 of the 26 patients (50%) had their treatment successfully completed under local anaesthesia alone, 10 patients (38%) were rebooked for sedation and 3 patient. (12%) were rebooked for a general anaesthetic. Identifying and correcting the reasons for failure can result in vast savings in appointment time, clinical resources and cost. That 13 patients subsequently had their treatment completed under local anaesthesia alone opens the debate on how rigorous the patient assessment and allocation of sedation appointments was, and the potential to achieve savings.

  18. Additive Effect of Oral Steroid with Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug for Preventing Cystoid Macular Edema after Cataract Surgery in Patients with Epiretinal Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seonghwan; Wee, Won Ryang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the additive effect of oral steroid with topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) on cystoid macular edema (CME) in patients with epiretinal membrane (ERM) after cataract surgery. Methods Medical records of subjects who underwent uneventful cataract surgery (n = 1,349) were retrospectively reviewed; among these patients, those with pre-existing ERM (n = 81) were included. Patients were divided into two groups: one group had postoperative administration of oral steroid for 1 week (n = 45) and the other group did not have oral steroid administration (n = 36). Changes in macular thickness and incidence of CME were compared in both groups. Topical NSAIDs were administered in both groups for 1 month postoperatively. Definite CME and probable CME were defined by changes in retinal contour with or without cystoid changes. Change in central macular thickness of more than three standard deviations (≥90.17 µm) was defined as possible CME. Macular thickness was measured at 1 month after the operation by optical coherence tomography. Results The incidence of definite, probable, and possible CME were 2.22%, 4.44%, and 8.89% with the use of steroid and 2.78%, 5.56%, and 8.33% without steroid, respectively (p = 0.694, p = 0.603, and p = 0.625), and regardless of treatment group, the incidences in these patients were higher compared to incidences in whole subjects (1.26%, 2.30%, and 4.32%; p = 0.048, p = 0.032, and p = 0.038, respectively). The differences in macular thickness were not statistically different between the two groups. Average changes of central foveal thickness in 3 mm and 6 mm zone were 29.29 µm, 35.93 µm, and 38.02 µm with the use of steroid and 32.25 µm, 44.08 µm, and 45.39 µm without steroid (p = 0.747, p = 0.148, and p = 0.077, respectively). Conclusions This study suggests that administration of oral steroid may not have a synergistic effect in reduction of CME and retinal thickness in patients with pre-existing ERM

  19. The effectiveness of systematic perioperative oral hygiene in reduction of postoperative respiratory tract infections after elective thoracic surgery in adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Preben U; Larsen, Palle; Håkonsen, Sasja Jul

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are a significant contributor to patient morbidity and mortality. Nosocomial infections significantly increase hospital length of stay and total hospital costs. Thoracic surgery, mechanical ventilation and/or admission to an intensive care unit are known to increase patients' risk for nosocomial respiratory tract infection. To identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of systematic perioperative oral hygiene in the reduction of postoperative respiratory airway infections in adult patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery. Patients over the age of 18 years who had been admitted for elective thoracic surgery, regardless of gender, ethnicity, diagnosis severity, co-morbidity or previous treatment.Perioperative systematic oral hygiene (such as mechanical removal of dental biofilm or plaques and/or systematic use of mouth rinse) performed by patients themselves or by healthcare staff (such as nurses).Randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies.Nosocomial infections, specifically respiratory tracts infections, and surgical site infections Multiple databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, Swemed+, Health Technology Assessment Database and Turning Research Into Practice [TRIP] database) were searched from 1980 to December 2014. Studies published in English, German, Danish, Swedish and Norwegian were considered for inclusion in this review. Two independent reviewers used the standard critical appraisal tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute to assess the methodological quality of studies. The process of data extraction was undertaken independently by two reviewers using tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Quantitative results were synthesized in meta-analysis. This review includes six studies: three randomized controlled trials and three quasi-experimental studies.The absolute magnitude of the summary effect sizes were: for nosocomial infections relative risk (RR) 0.65 (95% confidence

  20. Efficacy and safety of oral robenacoxib (tablet) for the treatment of pain associated with soft tissue surgery in client-owned dogs.

    PubMed

    Friton, Gabriele; Thompson, Caryn Marie; Karadzovska, Daniela; King, Stephen; King, Jonathan N

    2017-06-26

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been proven to be effective in controlling peri-operative pain in dogs. Robenacoxib is an NSAID with high selectivity for the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 isoform. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of an oral tablet formulation of robenacoxib in client-owned dogs undergoing soft tissue surgery. The study was a prospective, multi-center, randomized, masked, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial. A total of 239 dogs were included and randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive either robenacoxib or placebo. Each dog received an oral tablet administration of either robenacoxib, at a target dose of 2 mg/kg, or placebo once prior to surgery and for two additional days post-operatively. All dogs also received a pre-anesthetic dose of 0.2 mg/kg butorphanol (intravenous or intramuscular). Pain assessments were performed using the short form of the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale. Robenacoxib was compared to the placebo group on a success/failure basis. Treatment failure was defined as the need for rescue therapy to control post-operative pain. Significantly (P = 0.019) more dogs administered robenacoxib were considered treatment successes (89 of 116, 76.72%) compared to dogs given placebo (74 of 115, 64.35%). The percentage of treatment failure was therefore 23.28% in the robenacoxib and 35.65% in the placebo group. The least squares mean total pain scores were significantly different between groups and in favor of robenacoxib at 3 and 5 hours (P < 0.05) and 8 hours post-extubation (P < 0.01). Pain at the surgery sites (response to touch) was also significantly improved at 3, 5 and 8 hours post-extubation in dogs receiving robenacoxib versus placebo (P < 0.01). In addition, a significant overall improvement in posture/activity was revealed with robenacoxib having lower scores versus placebo (P < 0.01). No significant differences between the robenacoxib and placebo groups in the

  1. What are we reading? A study of downloaded and cited articles from the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in 2010.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Peter A; Habib, Ahmed

    2011-10-01

    A large number of papers related to oral and maxillofacial surgery are published in many specialist journals. With the ever-increasing use of the internet it is easy to download them as part of a journal subscription on a fee per paper basis, or in some cases for free. Online access to the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS) is free to British Association (BAOMS) members with a $30 fee per paper download for non-members. Many colleagues use the online version of the journal, and this provides valuable information about downloading trends. Other data on articles that have been cited in subsequent publications are also readily available, and they form the basis for the calculation of a journal's impact factor. We evaluated the top 50 downloaded papers from the BJOMS website in 2010 to ascertain which articles were being read online. We also obtained data on the number of citations for papers published in 2009-2010 to see whether these papers were similar to the articles being downloaded. In 2010 there were over 360000 downloaded articles. The most popular papers were leading articles, reviews, and full length articles; only one short communication featured in the top 50 downloads. The papers most cited in subsequent publications were full length articles and leading articles or reviews, which represent 80% of the total citations of the 50 papers. Ten papers were in both the top 50 downloaded and most cited lists. We discuss the implications of this study for the journal and our readers. Copyright © 2011 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of oral anticoagulants in epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Buchberger, A M S; Baumann, A; Johnson, F; Peters, N; Piontek, G; Storck, K; Pickhard, A

    2018-06-23

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify the impact of oral anticoagulants on epistaxis with the focus on new oral anticoagulants. The study was conducted at the Department  for Ear- Nose- and Throat (ENT), Head and Neck Surgery, Technical University Munich, Germany. All patients presenting in 2014 with the diagnosis of epistaxis to a specialized ENT accident and emergency department were identified and analyzed in clinical data and medication. 600 adult cases, with a median age of 66.6 years were identified with active bleeding. 66.8% of all cases were anticoagulated. Classic oral anticoagulants (COAC) were three times more common in patients than new-generation oral anticoagulants (NOAC). Recurrent bleeding was significantly associated with oral anticoagulants (OAC) (p = 0.014) and bleeding location was most often anterior (p = 0.006). In contrast, severe cases, which required surgery or embolization were significantly more likely in non-anticoagulated middle-aged patients with posterior bleedings (p < 0.05). In our epistaxis cohort, OAC were highly overrepresented (40%) when compared to the general German population (1%) but COAC as well as NOAC played only a minor role in severe courses of epistaxis. Oral anticoagulation, especially with new-generation drugs, is not associated with more complicated and severe courses of epistaxis, but rather with recurrent bleeding. One should keep this information in mind when triaging the patient in the emergency room and when planning further procedures.

  3. Quantitative assessment of oral mucosa and labial minor salivary glands in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome using swept source OCT

    PubMed Central

    Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Nowak, Jan K.; Karnowski, Karol; Zebryk, Paweł; Puszczewicz, Mariusz; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional imaging of the mucosa of the lower lip and labial minor salivary glands is demonstrated in vivo using swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system at 1310 nm with modified interface. Volumetric data sets of the inner surface of the lower lip covering ~230 mm2 field are obtained from patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and a control group. OCT enables high-resolution visualization of mucosal architecture using cross-sectional images as well as en-face projection images. Comprehensive morphometry of the labial minor salivary glands is performed, and statistical significance is assessed. Statistically significant differences in morphometric parameters are found when subgroups of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome are analyzed. PMID:24466492

  4. Quantitative assessment of oral mucosa and labial minor salivary glands in patients with Sjögren's syndrome using swept source OCT.

    PubMed

    Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Nowak, Jan K; Karnowski, Karol; Zebryk, Paweł; Puszczewicz, Mariusz; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2013-12-16

    Three-dimensional imaging of the mucosa of the lower lip and labial minor salivary glands is demonstrated in vivo using swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system at 1310 nm with modified interface. Volumetric data sets of the inner surface of the lower lip covering ~230 mm(2) field are obtained from patients with Sjögren's syndrome and a control group. OCT enables high-resolution visualization of mucosal architecture using cross-sectional images as well as en-face projection images. Comprehensive morphometry of the labial minor salivary glands is performed, and statistical significance is assessed. Statistically significant differences in morphometric parameters are found when subgroups of patients with Sjögren's syndrome are analyzed.

  5. Comparison between oral antibiotics and probiotics as bowel preparation for elective colon cancer surgery to prevent infection: prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sadahiro, Sotaro; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Akira; Okada, Kazutake; Kamata, Hiroko; Ozaki, Toru; Koga, Yasuhiro

    2014-03-01

    We have already reported that, for patients undergoing elective colon cancer operations, perioperative infection can be prevented by a single intravenous dose of an antibiotic given immediately beforehand if mechanical bowel preparation and the administration of oral antibiotics are implemented. Synbiotics has been reported to reduce the rate of infection in patients after pancreatic cancer operations. The effectiveness of oral antibiotics and probiotics in preventing postoperative infection in elective colon cancer procedures was examined in a randomized controlled trial. Three hundred ten patients with colon cancer randomly were assigned to one of three groups. All patients underwent mechanical bowel preparation and received a single intravenous dose of flomoxef immediately before operation. Probiotics were administered in Group A; oral antibiotics were administered in Group B; and neither probiotics nor oral antibiotics were administered in Group C. Stool samples were collected 9 and 2 days before and 7 and 14 days after the procedure. Clostridium difficile toxin and the number of bacteria in the intestine were determined. The rates of incisional surgical-site infection were 18.0%, 6.1%, and 17.9% in Groups A, B, and C, and the rates of leakage were 12.0%, 1.0%, and 7.4% in Groups A, B, and C, respectively, indicating that both rates were lesser in Group B than in Groups A and C (P = .014 and P = .004, respectively). The detection rates of C. difficile toxin were not changed among the three groups. We recommend oral antibiotics, rather than probiotics, as bowel preparation for elective colon cancer procedures to prevent surgical-site infections. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact and safety of preoperative oral or intravenous carbohydrate administration versus fasting in colorectal surgery--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kaska, Milan; Grosmanová, Tat'ána; Havel, Eduard; Hyspler, Radomír; Petrová, Zbynka; Brtko, Miroslav; Bares, Pavel; Bares, David; Schusterová, Bronislava; Pyszková, Lucie; Tosnerová, Vlasta; Sluka, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that preoperative fasting, as was the clinical practice for many decades, might be associated with untoward consequences and that a standardized preoperative intake of nutrients might be advantageous; this is a component of the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) concept. Thus, in a randomized controlled trial we compared preoperative fasting with preoperative preparation with either oral or intravenous intake of carbohydrates, minerals and water. Biochemical, psychosomatic, echocardiographic and muscle-power parameters were assessed in surgical patients with colorectal diseases during the short-term perioperative period. We also assessed the safety of peroral intake shortly before surgery. A total of 221 elective colorectal surgery patients in this bicentric, randomized, prospective and blinded clinical trial were divided into three groups: A - patients fasting from midnight (control group); B - patients supported preoperatively by glucose, magnesium and potassium administered intravenously; C - patients supported preoperatively by oral consumption of a specifically composed solution (potion). The general perioperative clinical status of patients in groups C and B was significantly better than those in group A. Psychosomatic conditions postoperatively were found to be best in group C (P < 0.029). The rise in the index of insulin resistance (QUICKI) from the preoperative to the postoperative state was significant in group A (P < 0.05). The systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle improved postoperatively in group C vs. group A (P < 0.04), and the ejection fraction was also significantly higher postoperatively in group C vs. group A (P < 0.03). The gastric residual volume was 5 ml and the pH of stomach juice was 3.5-5 in all groups without statistically significant difference. No difference was found in the length of hospital stay or the rate of complications. Preoperative fasting does not confer any benefit or advantage

  7. The 100 Most-Cited Human Cleft Lip and Palate-Related Articles Published in Dentistry, Oral Surgery, and Medicine Journals.

    PubMed

    Christou, Panagiotis; Antonarakis, Gregory S

    2015-07-01

    To identify the 100 most-cited articles pertaining to human cleft lip and palate research published in dentistry, oral surgery, and medicine journals and to identify their principal bibliometric characteristics. Web-based bibliometric analysis. The Web of Science was searched to identify the 100 most-cited clinical articles related to cleft lip and/or palate. Information was extracted with regard to total number of citations, number of authors, affiliations, year, and journal of publication, Medical Subject Headings, type of study, specific area of study. Trends in citations were assessed. The 100 most-cited articles identified received between 437 and 58 citations. The oldest was published in 1954 and the most recent in 2008. The number of authors ranged from 1 to 12, with an average of three authors per article. Most of the first authors were affiliated with institutions in the United States, with the most prolific institution being the University of Iowa. More than 70% of the studies appeared in The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. There was a significant negative correlation between average citations per year and time since publication (P < .001); whereas, a significant positive correlation was observed between average citations per year and number of total citations (P < .001). The 100 most-cited articles in human cleft lip and palate research published in dentistry, oral surgery, and medicine journals are listed and characterized. This can be used as a potential knowledge base for specialists in training or to produce relevant knowledge defining the direction of future research.

  8. [Nurse delivery of oral contraception following an initial prescription for minors and uninsured patients in family planning centers of the Val-de-Marne].

    PubMed

    Menard, J-P; Hennequin, F; Buresi, I

    2016-09-01

    Since 2012 in France, nurses are allowed to renew the medical prescription of oral contraceptives (OC). To support this plan, a service protocol in family planning centers allows nurse delivery of OC. This is a pilot feasibility study. After a medical prescription of OC, the nurse is authorized to deliver OC for 3months after a nursing interview. The duration of the nursing follow-up is determined by the physician. A total of 244 nurses interviews of 170 women were conducted between January 2012 and July 2013. All women have benefited from a delivery of contraceptives by the nurse. Analysis shows that 40 interviews (16%) had one or more abnormal criteria. Of these, more than a quarter found poor tolerance of contraception and/or the appearance of gynecological symptoms (27%) or unprotected sex with a new partner (25%). In these cases, an orientation to the physician was more frequent (85% versus 62%, P=0.005) and faster (median 33days versus 90days, P<0.001) than if the nurse interview was normal. Our study shows the feasibility of delivery protocol of oral contraception by nurses following an initial prescription by the physician. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  10. An Analysis of the Incidence and Outcomes of Major vs. Minor Neurological Decline after Complex Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: A Sub-analysis of Scoli-RISK-1 Study.

    PubMed

    Kato, So; Fehlings, Michael G; Lewis, Stephen J; Lenke, Lawrence G; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Carreon, Leah; Dekutoski, Mark B; Schwab, Frank J; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba; Kebaish, Khaled M; Ames, Christopher P; Qiu, Yong; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Dahl, Benny T; Mehdian, Hossein; Pellisé, Ferran; Berven, Sigurd H

    2017-11-10

    A sub-analysis from a prospective, multicenter, international cohort study in 15 sites (Scoli-RISK-1). To report detailed information regarding the severity of neurological decline related to complex adult spine deformity (ASD) surgery and to examine outcomes based on severity. The basis of post-operative neurological decline after ASD surgeries can occur due to nerve root(s) or spinal cord dysfunction. The impact of decline and the pattern of recovery may be related to the anatomic location and the severity of the injury. An investigation of 272 prospectively enrolled complex ASD surgical patients with neurological status measured by American Spinal Injury Association Lower Extremity Motor Scores (LEMS) was undertaken. Post-operative neurological decline was categorized into "major" (≥5 points loss) vs. "minor" (<5 points loss) deficits. Timing and extent of recovery in LEMS were investigated for each group. Among the 265 patients with LEMS available at discharge, 61 patients (23%) had neurological decline, with 20 (33%) experiencing major decline. Of note, 90% of the patients with major decline had deficits in 3 or more myotomes. Full recovery was seen in 24% at 6 weeks and increased to 65% at 6 months. However, 34% continued to experience some neurological decline at 24 months, with 6% demonstrating no improvement. Of 41 patients (67%) with minor decline, 73% had deficits in 1 or 2 myotomes. Full recovery was seen in 49% at 6 weeks and increased to 70% at 6 months. Of note, 26% had persistence of some neurological deficit at 24 months, with 18% demonstrating no recovery. In patients undergoing complex ASD correction, a rate of post-operative neurological decline of 23% was noted with 33% of these being "major". While most patients showed substantial recovery by 6 months, approximately one-third continued to experience neurological dysfunction. 2.

  11. Efficacy of chlorhexidine, dexpanthenol, allantoin and chitosan gel in comparison with bicarbonate oral rinse in controlling post-interventional inflammation, pain and cicatrization in subjects undergoing dental surgery.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Lopez, Jose; Lope-Lopez, Jose; Jan-Pallí, Enric; lez-Navarro, Beatriz Gonzá; González-Navarro, Beatriz; Jané-Salas, Enric; Estrugo-Devesa, Albert; Milani, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    Reducing post-interventional inflammation and pain in odontostomatological surgery procedures, such as tooth extractions, implants or oral biopsies is a relevant clinical goal. Chlorhexidine oral rinse is commonly used with this aim. Recently a new product containing chlorhexidine, dexpanthenol, allantoin and chitosan (Bexident Post [BP]) in a gel formulation has been developed. We evaluated the efficacy of BP in controlling postsurgical inflammation and pain and in promoting cicatrization in subjects undergoing molar extractions. We conducted a prospective sequential cross-over, randomized controlled study in patients undergoing surgical removal of at least two impacted mandibular third molars (teeth numbers 38 and 48) (numbers 17 and 32 in the Universal Tooth Numbering System), in two separate sessions, to determine the effect of BP in comparison with bicarbonate (BC) oral rinse (one spoonful in 200 ml of water), both used three times daily. Each subject utilized both products in a randomized sequential manner after each tooth extraction. Primary outcomes of the study were post-procedure pain and inflammation. Secondary outcomes were analgesic pill rescue use (metamizole 1 cap every 8 hours if needed) and an assessor-blinded evaluation of cicatrization with a semi-quantitative scale (good, satisfactory and insufficient). Post-procedure pain was assessed 6 hours after tooth extraction and for seven consecutive days by means of a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) (from 0: no pain to 10: extreme pain). The extent of inflammation was evaluated through metric measurements of facial perimeter using standardized anatomical reference points. A total of 47 patients (22 men and 25 women; mean age 34 years) were enrolled with a total of 94 molars extracted. Nineteen subjects applied BC as the first sequential treatment and 28 BP as the first. Before surgery no mean differences in the two treatments in inflammation measurements were observed. After surgery mean VAS pain

  12. The differentiation of oral soft- and hard tissues using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy - a prospect for tissue specific laser surgery.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Maximilian; Mehari, Fanuel; Klämpfl, Florian; Adler, Werner; Neukam, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Schmidt, Michael; Stelzle, Florian

    2017-10-01

    Compared to conventional techniques, Laser surgery procedures provide a number of advantages, but may be associated with an increased risk of iatrogenic damage to important anatomical structures. The type of tissue ablated in the focus spot is unknown. Laser-Induced Breakdown-Spectroscopy (LIBS) has the potential to gain information about the type of material that is being ablated by the laser beam. This may form the basis for tissue selective laser surgery. In the present study, 7 different porcine tissues (cortical and cancellous bone, nerve, mucosa, enamel, dentine and pulp) from 6 animals were analyzed for their qualitative and semiquantitative molecular composition using LIBS. The so gathered data was used to first differentiate between the soft- and hard-tissues using a Calcium-Carbon emission based classifier. The tissues were then further classified using emission-ratio based analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The relatively higher concentration of Calcium in the hard tissues allows for an accurate first differentiation of soft- and hard tissues (100% sensitivity and specificity). The ratio based statistical differentiation approach yields results in the range from 65% (enamel-dentine pair) to 100% (nerve-pulp, cancellous bone-dentine, cancellous bone-enamel pairs) sensitivity and specificity. Experimental LIBS measuring setup. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Dentoalveolar oral surgery in children and adolescents: organization and surgical treatment in a large, Danish municipal dental service.

    PubMed

    Grønbæk, Anni Birgitte; Petersen, Flemming; Haubek, Dorte; Poulsen, Sven

    2017-11-01

    To describe a population-based organization of dentoalveolar surgical service for 0 to 18-year old subjects in a Danish municipal dental service, and analyze the type of dentoalveolar surgical interventions needed. The study was conducted in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark during five consecutive school-years. An internal referral system was established within the municipality where patients could be referred to colleagues with a higher level of competencies and more experiences with paediatric dentoalveolar surgery. The analysis includes a total of 1812 children and a total of 2854 surgical interventions. Almost 80% of the patients, representing more than 80% of the dentoalveolar surgical interventions needed, were referred internally. Denudations were the most frequent treatment type (40.3%) carried out, followed by removal of third molars (18.0%). Furthermore, 22 odontomas and 100 supernumerary teeth were removed. The need of dentoalveolar surgery in children and adolescents is relatively low, but includes a wide range of interventions. An organizational system, where dentists can refer to colleagues who have developed special competencies in this field, results in most of these surgical patients being referred and treated internally.

  14. Ketoprofen is more effective than diclofenac after oral surgery when used as a preemptive analgesic: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Grace Carolaine Esquivel; Santa Cruz, Luis A German; Espinoza, Mario Alberto Isiordia

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the preemptive analgesia of ketoprofen in comparison with diclofenac after mandibular third molar surgery. This study was a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Forty patients were randomized into two treatment groups (each with 20 patients) by using a series of random numbers: group A received ketoprofen 100 mg and group B received diclofenac 75 mg, all intramuscularly. Surgery was done 30 minutes after analgesic treatments. The durations of analgesia, pain intensity, analgesic consumption, and side effects were evaluated. The statistical analysis was done using the chi-square, Student t, Mann-Whitney U, and Log-Rank tests. The duration of analgesia was longer in the ketoprofen group when compared with the diclofenac group. The number of patients taking the first rescue analgesic at 6 hours was lower in the ketoprofen group in comparison with the diclofenac group. Patients who received ketoprofen had lower pain intensity compared with patients who received diclofenac. Intramuscular ketoprofen 100 mg is more effective than intramuscular diclofenac 75 mg after mandibular third molar extraction when used as a preemptive analgesic.

  15. Anatomical features of skull base and oral cavity: a pilot study to determine the accessibility of the sella by transoral robotic-assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Amelot, Aymeric; Trunet, Stephanie; Degos, Vincent; André, Olivier; Dionnet, Aurore; Cornu, Philippe; Hans, Stéphane; Chauvet, Dorian

    2015-10-01

    The role of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in the skull base emerges and represents the natural progression toward miniinvasive resections in confined spaces. The accessibility of the sella via TORS has been recently described on fresh human cadavers. An anatomic study is mandatory to know if this approach would be feasible in the majority of patients regardless of their oral morphological features. From 30 skull base CT scans from patients who were asked to open their mouth as wide as they can, we measured specific dimensions of the oral cavity and the skull base, such as length of the palate, mouth opening and distance from the sella to the palate. All data were acquired on a sagittal midline plane and on a 25° rotation plane, which simulated the axis of the robotic instruments. Looking at the projection of the dental palatine line on the sella, we studied possible predictive factors of sellar accessibility and tried to bring objective data for surgical feasibility. We also proposed an angle α to study the working angle at the skull base. We observed that the maximal mouth opening was a good predictive factor of sellar accessibility by TORS (p < 0.05). The mouth aperture threshold value for a good sensitivity, over 80 %, was comparable to the mean value of mouth opening in our series, 38.9 and 39.4 mm respectively. Moreover, we showed a statistically significant increase of the working angle α at the skull base comparing the lateral access to the midline one (p < 0.05). This seemed to quantitatively demonstrate that the robotic arms placed at the labial commissure of the mouth can reach the sella. From these anatomical features and previous cadaveric dissections, we assume that TORS may be feasible on a majority of patients to remove pituitary adenomas.

  16. The importance of immunohistochemical expression of EGFr in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Smid, Ernst J.; Stoter, T. Rianne; Bloemena, Elisabeth

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor (EGFr) expression in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) treated with curative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included 165 OCSCC patients. The expression of EGFr was assessed on paraffin-embedded tissue of the primary tumor by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody directed against EGFr. Intensity of the EGFr expression was scored by two authors blinded for the clinical outcome. Results: In the univariate analysis, locoregional control at 3 years (LRC) in the EGFr-negative cases was 69% compared with 77% inmore » the EGFr-positive cases (p 0.22). In the multivariate analysis for local control, a significant interaction was found between EGFr and overall treatment time of radiation (OTT). After stratification for EGFr expression, the OTT was of no importance in the EGFr-negative cases, whereas a significant difference in LRC was found in the EGFr-positive cases, in which the LRC after 3 years was 69% and 94% in case of an OTT of 0-42 days and >42 days, respectively (p = 0.009; hazard ratio = 3.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-8.96). No significant association was found between EGFr expression and overall survival. Conclusions: In the present study, no association was found between EGFr expression and outcome regarding locoregional control and overall survival. However, the results of the present study suggest that patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity with high EGFr expression benefit more from a reduction of the overall treatment time of postoperative radiation than those with low EGFr expression.« less

  17. Molecular, Cellular and Pharmaceutical Aspects of Biomaterials in Dentistry and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. An Internationalization of Higher Education and Research Perspective.

    PubMed

    Wisniewska, Lidia M; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Segovia, Jesus D; Inchingolo, Francesco; Wang, Hom-Lay; Fernandes-Cruz, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In dentistry and oral and maxillofacial surgery, the development of implantable biomaterials and the understanding of their molecular, cellular and pharmaceutical aspects are currently major fields of research and education, with a considerable impact on the daily clinical practice and the evolution of therapeutic strategies. In the era of globalized economy of knowledge and science, this scientific domain needs the development of global cooperation and a paradigm evolution in the organizational culture of the dental sciences and related dental industry. Despite political pressure and theoretical efforts, the internationalization of higher education and research today in dentistry and biomaterials remains in general quite superficial and mostly dependent on the efforts of a few leaders of internationalization working through their personal networks, as it was assessed through the FAST scores (Fast Assessment Screening Test) calculated in various dental schools and groups worldwide through the ISAIAS program (Intercultural Sensitivity Academic Index &Advanced Standards). Cooperation in a multipolar multicultural community requires the development of strong intercultural competences, and this process remains limited in most institutions. These limits of international scientific cooperation can be observed through different markers, particularly the difficult and limited production of ISO standards (International Organization for Standardization) and the relatively low SCIENTI scores (Scientific Cooperation Internationalization Effort &Network Test &Index) of the specialized dental literature, particularly in comparison to the most significant medical literature. However, as an analytical tool to assess the scientific international cooperation effort between fields and periods, the SCIENTI screening system also highlighted a significant increase of the internationalization effort in the last years in the best dental biomaterials publications. Finally, an

  18. II Italian intersociety consensus statement on antithrombotic prophylaxis in orthopaedics and traumatology: arthroscopy, traumatology, leg immobilization, minor orthopaedic procedures and spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Randelli, F; Romanini, E; Biggi, F; Danelli, G; Della Rocca, G; Laurora, N R; Imberti, D; Palareti, G; Prisco, D

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacological prophylaxis for preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a worldwide established procedure in hip and knee replacement surgery, as well as in the treatment of femoral neck fractures, but few data exist in other fields of orthopaedics and traumatology. Thus, no guidelines or recommendations are available in the literature except for a limited number of weak statements about knee arthroscopy and lower limb fractures. In any case, none of them are a multidisciplinary effort as the one here presented. The Italian Society for Studies on Haemostasis and Thrombosis (SISET), the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (SIOT), the Association of Orthopaedic Traumatology of Italian Hospitals (OTODI), together with the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI) and the Italian Society of General Medicine (SIMG) have set down easy and quick suggestions for VTE prophylaxis in a number of surgical conditions for which only scarce evidence is available. This inter-society consensus statement aims at simplifying the approach to VTE prophylaxis in the single patient with the goal to improve its clinical application.

  19. Professional dental and oral surgery liability in Italy: a comparative analysis of the insurance products offered to health workers.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Pierpaolo; Paternoster, Mariano; Nugnes, Mariarosaria; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Graziano, Vincenzo; Niola, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In Italy there has been an increase in claims for damages for alleged medical malpractice. A study was therefore conducted that aimed at assessing the content of the coverage of insurance policy contracts offered to oral health professionals by the insurance market. The sample analysed composed of 11 insurance policy contracts for professional dental liability offered from 2010 to 2015 by leading insurance companies operating in the Italian market. The insurance products analysed are structured on the "claims made" clause. No policy contract examined covers the damage due to the failure to acquire consent for dental treatment and, in most cases, damage due to unsatisfactory outcomes of treatment of an aesthetic nature and the failure to respect regulatory obligations on privacy. On entering into a professional liability insurance policy contract, the dentist should pay particular attention to the period covered by the guarantee, the risks both covered and excluded, as well as the extent of the limit of liability and any possible fixed/percentage excess. When choosing a professional liability contract, a dentist should examine the risks in relation to the professional activity carried out before signing.

  20. Professional dental and oral surgery liability in Italy: a comparative analysis of the insurance products offered to health workers

    PubMed Central

    Paternoster, Mariano; Nugnes, Mariarosaria; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Graziano, Vincenzo; Niola, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction In Italy there has been an increase in claims for damages for alleged medical malpractice. A study was therefore conducted that aimed at assessing the content of the coverage of insurance policy contracts offered to oral health professionals by the insurance market. Material and methods The sample analysed composed of 11 insurance policy contracts for professional dental liability offered from 2010 to 2015 by leading insurance companies operating in the Italian market. Results The insurance products analysed are structured on the “claims made” clause. No policy contract examined covers the damage due to the failure to acquire consent for dental treatment and, in most cases, damage due to unsatisfactory outcomes of treatment of an aesthetic nature and the failure to respect regulatory obligations on privacy. Discussion On entering into a professional liability insurance policy contract, the dentist should pay particular attention to the period covered by the guarantee, the risks both covered and excluded, as well as the extent of the limit of liability and any possible fixed/percentage excess. Conclusions When choosing a professional liability contract, a dentist should examine the risks in relation to the professional activity carried out before signing. PMID:28352805

  1. The use of a computed tomographic application for mobile devices in the diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Eduardo Massaharu; Cortes, Arthur Rodriguez Gonzalez; Arita, Emiko Saito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current technical report was to introduce a computed tomographic (CT) application for mobile devices as a diagnostic tool for analyzing CT images. An iPad and an iPhone (Apple, Cuppertino, CA) were used to navigate through multiplanar reconstructions of cone beam CT scans, using an application derived from the OsiriX CT software. Tools and advantages of this method were recorded. In addition, images rendered in the iPad were manipulated during dental implant placement and grafting procedures to follow up and confirm the implant digital planning in real time. The study population consisted of 10 patients. In all cases, it was possible to use image manipulation tools, such as changing contrast and brightness, zooming, rotating, panning, performing both linear and area measurements, and analyzing gray-scale values of a region of interest. Furthermore, it was possible to use the OsiriX application in the dental clinic where the study was conducted, to follow-up the analyzed implant placement and grafting procedures at the chairside. The current findings suggest that technological and practical methods to visualize radiographic images are invaluable resources to improve training, teaching, networking, and the performance of real-time follow-up of oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of introducing this new technology in the clinical routine.

  2. Assessment of the financial implications for laparoscopic liver surgery: a single-centre UK cost analysis for minor and major hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Abu Hilal, Mohammed; Di Fabio, Francesco; Syed, Shareef; Wiltshire, Robert; Dimovska, Eleonora; Turner, David; Primrose, John N; Pearce, Neil W

    2013-07-01

    Laparoscopic hepatectomy is progressively gaining popularity. However, it is still unclear whether the laparoscopic approach offers cost advantages compared with the open approach, especially when major hepatectomies are required. Data providing useful insights into the costs of the laparoscopic approach for clinicians and hospitals are needed. The aim of this study is to assess the financial implications of the laparoscopic approach for two standardized minor and major hepatectomies: left lateral sectionectomy and right hepatectomy. A cost comparison analysis of patients undergoing laparoscopic right hepatectomy (LRH) and laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (LLLS) versus the open counterparts was performed. Data considered for the comparison analysis were operative costs (theatre cost, consumables and surgeon/anaesthetic labour cost), postoperative costs (hospital stay, complication management and readmissions) and overall costs. A total of 149 patients were included: 38 patients underwent LRH and 46 open right hepatectomy (ORH); 46 patients underwent LLLS and 19 open left lateral sectionectomy (OLLS). For LRH the mean operative, postoperative and overall costs were £10,181, £4,037 and £14,218; for ORH the mean operative, postoperative and overall costs were £6,483 (p < 0.0001), £10,304 (p < 0.0001) and £16,787 (p = 0.886). Regarding LLLS, the mean operative, postoperative and overall costs were £5,460, £2,599 and £8,059; for OLLS the mean operative, postoperative and overall costs were £5,841 (p = 0.874), £5,796 (p < 0.0001) and £11,637 (p = 0.0001). Our data support the cost advantage of the laparoscopic approach for left lateral sectionectomy and the cost neutrality for right hepatectomy.

  3. Self-perception versus professional assessment of functional outcome after ablative surgery in patients with oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta E; Huck, Jörn; Küchler, Thomas; Hauke, Daniela; Hedderich, Jürgen; Wiltfang, Jörg; Becker, Stephan T

    2017-02-01

    The extent of functional impairment after ablative surgery in the orofacial region may be directly reflected in a reduction in Quality of Life. This study intended to compare the patients' perception with an objective functional evaluation of the orofacial system in order to bilaterally distinguish direct influence factors. A total of 45 patients were included in this study and were asked to complete the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-30) and the Head and Neck 35 Module (H&N 35). Afterward one independent speech therapist evaluated the patients applying the Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment regarding four main categories: mouth opening, tongue motility, swallowing and intelligibility. Comparisons between groups were performed using Whitney-Mann U-Wilcoxon test and calculating Spearman's rho. Overall the professional assessments by the speech therapists revealed significantly higher scores regarding intelligibility, swallowing and mouth opening when compared to the patients' self-perception. Smaller tumor sizes, no bone resection and local reconstruction techniques led to significantly better functional outcomes, when assessed by speech therapists. Swallowing was perceived significantly better by patients in cases of local reconstruction. From the professionals' point of view differences were perceived in more items compared to the patients' self-assessments, who widely experienced a more severe functional impairment. Physicians should take this into account when discussing adverse therapy effects with the patients.

  4. A randomized controlled trial comparing a standard postoperative diet with low-volume high-calorie oral supplements following colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Wahed, S; O'Dair, G; Gemmell, L; Hainsworth, P; Horgan, A F

    2013-07-01

    Postoperative oral nutritional supplementation is becoming a part of most patient care pathways. This study examined the effects of low-volume high-calorie prescribed supplemental nutrition on patient outcome following elective colorectal surgery. Patients undergoing elective colorectal resections were randomized to a prescribed nutritional supplementation group (SG) [standard diet + 6 × 60 ml/day of Pro-Cal (60 ml = 200 kcal + 4 g protein)] or conventional postoperative diet group (CG) (standard diet alone). Preoperative and daily postoperative hand-grip strengths were measured using a grip dynamometer after randomization. Daily food intake, return of bowel activity, nausea score for the first 3 days and postoperative length of hospital stay (LOS) were prospectively recorded. Micro-diet standardized software was used to analyse food diaries. Nonparametric tests were used to analyse the data. Fifty-five patients were analysed (SG 28, CG 27). There was no difference in median preoperative and postoperative handgrip strengths at discharge within each group (SG 31.7 vs 31.7 kPa, P = 0.932; CG 28 vs 28.1 kPa, P = 0.374). The total median daily calorie intake was higher in SG than CG (SG 818.5 kcal vs CG 528 kcal; P = 0.002). There was no difference in median number of days to first bowel movement (SG 3 days vs CG 4 days, P = 0.096). The median LOS was significantly shorter in SG than CG (6.5 vs 9 days; P = 0.037). Prescribed postoperative high-calorie, low-volume oral supplements in addition to the normal dietary intake are associated with significantly better total daily oral calorie intake and may contribute to a reduced postoperative hospital stay. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Clinical efficacy of new aloe vera- and myrrh-based oral mucoadhesive gels in the management of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Ghada; Ouda, Soliman; Shaker, Ahmed; Abdallah, Hossam M

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy, and safety of newly customized natural oral mucoadhesive gels, containing either aloe vera or myrrh as active ingredients, in the management of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis (MiRAS). Ninety subjects with MiRAS were recruited from Oral Medicine Clinic, at Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia, for this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Two new natural gels, containing aloe vera and myrrh, were prepared in a concentration of (0.5% w/w), in addition to a plain mucoadhesive gel used as a placebo. Patients with fresh ulcers (<48-h duration) were instructed to apply either one of the three gels four times a day for a period of 5 days. Clinical efficacy was investigated in the form of changes in ulcer size, pain intensity, erythema, and exudation at days 4 and 6 of study entry. Participants were interviewed for the emergence of any side effects. 76.6% of patients using aloe gel showed complete ulcer healing, 86.7%, and 80% of them revealed subsidence of erythema and exudation, respectively, especially at day 6 visit, whereas 76.7% of myrrh-treated patients revealed almost absence of pain at day 6. No side effects were encountered with the use of any of the three gels. The new formulated aloe- and myrrh-based gels proved to be effective in topical management of MiRAS. Aloe was superior in decreasing ulcer size, erythema, and exudation; whereas myrrh resulted in more pain reduction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparison of intravenous versus combined oral and intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis (COMBINE) for the prevention of surgical site infection in elective colorectal surgery: study protocol for a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Vignaud, Marie; Paugam-Burtz, Catherine; Garot, Matthias; Jaber, Samir; Slim, Karem; Panis, Yves; Lucet, Jean-Christophe; Bourdier, Justine; Morand, Dominique; Pereira, Bruno; Futier, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Surgical site infections (SSIs) account for 30% of all healthcare-associated infections, with reported rates ranging from 8% and 30% after colorectal surgery and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates, length of hospital stay and costs in healthcare. Administration of systemic antimicrobial prophylaxis before surgery is recommended to reduce the risk of SSI, but the optimal regimen remains unclear. We aim to evaluate whether a combined oral and intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis could be more effective to reduce the incidence of SSI after colorectal surgery, as compared with the standard practice of intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis alone. Methods and analysis Comparison of intravenous versus combined oral and intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis (COMBINE) trial is a randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel, double-blind, multicentre study of 960 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. Patients will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive either combined oral and intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis or intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis alone, stratified by centre, the surgical procedure (laparoscopic or open surgery) and according to the surgical skin antisepsis (chlorexidine–alcohol or povidione-iodine alcoholic solution). The primary endpoint is the rate of SSI by day 30 following surgery, with SSI defined by the criteria developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data will be analysed on the intention-to-treat principle and a per-protocol basis. Ethics and dissemination COMBINE trial has been approved by an independent ethics committee for all study centres. Participant recruitment began in May 2016. Results will be published in international peer-reviewed medical journals. Trial registration number EudraCT 2015-002559-84; NCT02618720. PMID:29654027

  7. Patterns of nodal relapse after surgery and postoperative radiation therapy for carcinomas of the major and minor salivary glands: What is the role of elective neck irradiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Garcia, Joaquin; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of nodal relapses from carcinomas of the salivary glands among patients with clinically negative necks in an attempt to determine the potential utility of elective neck irradiation (ENI). Methods and Materials: Between 1960 and 2004, 251 patients with clinically N0 carcinomas of the salivary glands were treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. None of the patients had undergone previous neck dissection. Histology was: adenoid cystic (84 patients), mucoepidermoid (60 patients), adenocarcinoma (58 patients), acinic cell (21 patients), undifferentiated (11 patients), carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (7 patients), squamous cell (7 patients), and salivary duct carcinomamore » (3 patients); 131 patients (52%) had ENI. Median follow-up was 62 months (range, 3-267 months). Results: The 5- and 10-year actuarial estimates of nodal relapse were 11% and 13%, respectively. The 10-year actuarial rates of nodal failure were 7%, 5%, 12%, and 16%, for patients with T1, T2, T3, and T4 disease, respectively (p = 0.11). The use of ENI reduced the 10-year nodal failure rate from 26% to 0% (p = 0.0001). The highest crude rates of nodal relapse among those treated without ENI were found in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (67%), undifferentiated carcinoma (50%), adenocarcinoma (34%), and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (29%). There were no nodal failures observed among patients with adenoid cystic or acinic cell histology. Conclusion: ENI effectively prevents nodal relapses and should be used for select patients at high risk for regional failure.« less

  8. Evaluation of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residents' Operative Skills: Feasibility and Engagement Study Using SIMPL Software for a Mobile Phone.

    PubMed

    Kaban, Leonard B; Cappetta, Alyssa; George, Brian C; Lahey, Edward T; Bohnen, Jordan D; Troulis, Maria J

    2017-10-01

    data. Additional prospective trials to assess this tool further are planned. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Surgical management of minor salivary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Weiting; Li, Kelan; Zhang, Xiaotong; Wang, Wei

    2007-11-01

    To study the clinical features of minor salivary gland tumors and to discuss the treatment modalities for these tumors. Retrospective analysis of 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumor operated in our hospital from 1997 to 2004. Among 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumors in this series, 16 patients lost of follow up. Among the remaining 38 patients, 2 patients with nasal cavity adenoid cystic carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 2 and 3 years after the surgery respectively, one patient with laryngeal myoepithelial carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 3 years after the surgery and one patient with paranasal sinus mucoepidermoid carcinoma died of recurrence 17 months after the surgery. Two patients with paranasal sinus adenoid cystic carcinoma recurred after the primary surgery and were survived without tumor after salvage surgery. The other patients survived with no tumor recurrence. While different histopathology of minor salivary gland tumors were found in this group, malignant tumors were predominant, accounting for 81.4%. The choice of treatment for minor salivary gland tumors depends upon the location and the histopathology of the tumors. The treatment policy for benign tumors is simple tumor excision, while that for malignant tumors is surgery combined with pre- or post-operative radiation therapy. Complete surgical resection of tumor masses and tumor free margin is essential for successful treatment of malignant minor salivary gland tumors.

  10. Mucoceles of minor salivary glands in children. Own clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Bogumił; Brodowski, Robert; Pakla, Paweł; Makara, Aleksander; Stopyra, Wojciech; Startek, Bartek

    Mucoceles are benign lesions associated with the pathology of the oral mucosa of minor salivary glands. Two types of cysts are distinguished depending on their pathogenesis. Most often they occur as a result of mechanical trauma and mucus extravasation into tissues or obstruction of the gland ducts. The aim of the study was to present our own experiences regarding mucoceles of minor salivary glands in the oral cavity taking into account how frequently the individual types of cysts occur in children. The research was carried out based on medical files from the years 2005-2015. These were: medical case records, operating books and the medical registry of patients treated at the Clinic of Maxillofacial Surgery, Frederic Chopin Clinical Regional Hospital in Rzeszow. In that period 64 children and teenagers, 28 girls and 36 boys were treated. What was considered was the age and gender of the patients, the reason for their appointment with a doctor, the location, size and histopathological type of the cysts, as well as the course and results of the diagnostic and therapeutic process. In the group analyzed, the reasons for referral to the Clinic were: in 25 patients accidental ascertainment of a non-symptomatic tumor in the oral cavity during examination by a dentist, pediatrician or laryngologist which had not caused any discomfort to the children; in 13 patients concern had been raised by a gradually increasing tumor; in 18 cases there was an increased tissue tension surrounding the tumor, while in 3 children red oedema was observed in the oral cavity (suspicion of abscess). The most frequent mucocele location was the lower lip (34 children). The most frequent size was 2.1-3 cm (28 children). The most frequent histological type was MEP. All the patients were treated at the Clinic in the one-day surgery mode, with good outcome. Mucocele ascertainment in children's oral cavity could be made accidentally in routine pediatric examination, therefore it is necessary to extend

  11. [Problems in the admission to in-hospital oral surgical care from the patient's viewpoint--results of patient interviews in the hospital for dental and maxillo-facial surgery of the Karl Marx University, Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Erpenbeck, F; Birnbaum, K; Langanke, B; Niemand, B; Thomzyk, I

    1979-06-01

    The author deals with the results from the interviewing of oral surgery patients on their problems concerning the sending and the admission to the hospital, with special attention to the problems of waiting for admission, the familiarization with the clinical environment and the improvement suggestions of the patients. The conclusions concern tasks arising from the medical and dental care for inpatients as well as for outpatients.

  12. A Randomized Control Trial of Preoperative Oral Antibiotics as Adjunct Therapy to Systemic Antibiotics for Preventing Surgical Site Infection in Clean Contaminated, Contaminated, and Dirty Type of Colorectal Surgeries.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Nadeem; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Li, Guanwei; Wu, Xiuwen; Dong, Hu; Wu, Qin; Li, Jieshou

    2017-12-01

    Preoperative bowel preparation with or without oral antibiotics is controversial in terms of postoperative surgical site infections. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral antibiotics as adjunct therapy to systemic antibiotics with mechanical bowel preparation for preventing surgical site infections in clean contaminated, contaminated, and dirty colorectal procedures. This was a single-center, prospective randomized study. This study was conducted at the General Surgery Department at Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University, China, from July 15, 2014 to January 20, 2016. Patients aged ≥18 years scheduled for abdominal surgery with clean-contaminated, contaminated, and dirty wounds were selected. Patients were randomly assigned to receive preoperative mechanical bowel preparation or mechanical bowel preparation with oral antibiotics. The primary outcome was the rate of surgical site infections. The secondary outcomes were extra-abdominal complications, duration of postoperative ileus, and readmission rate. Ninety-five patients were allocated to each group. Eight and 26 surgical site infections (8.42% vs 27.3 %, p = 0.004) occurred in the mechanical bowel preparation with oral antibiotics and mechanical bowel preparation groups. Thirteen extra-abdominal complications were reported: 6 in the mechanical bowel preparation with oral antibiotics group and 7 in the mechanical bowel preparation group (6.3% vs 7.3%, p = 0.77). Postoperative ileus duration did not differ between groups (p = 0.23). There were 4 readmissions in the mechanical bowel preparation group and none in the mechanical bowel preparation with oral antibiotics group (p = 0.04). On multivariable analysis, blood loss ≥500 mL (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.27-20.4; p = 0.02), ASA score ≥3 (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12.5; p = 0.01), contaminated types (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.5-8.6; p = 0.01), and administration of preoperative oral antibiotics (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.06-0.60; p = 0.005) independently affected the

  13. "Run-through" training at specialist training year 1 and uncoupled core surgical training for oral and maxillofacial surgery in the United Kingdom: a snapshot survey.

    PubMed

    Garg, M; Collyer, J; Dhariwal, D

    2018-05-01

    Training in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) in the UK has undergone considerable changes during the last 10years, and "core" surgical training has replaced "basic" surgical training. In 2014 a pilot "run-through" training programme from specialist training year one (ST1)-ST7 was introduced to facilitate early entry into the speciality. Run-through training guarantees that a trainee, after a single competitive selection process and satisfactory progress, will be given training that covers the entire curriculum of the speciality, whereas uncoupled training requires a second stage of competitive recruitment after the first one (for OMFS only) or two years of "core" training to progress to higher specialty training. The first two years of run-through training (ST1-ST2) are the same as for core surgical training. Dual-qualified maxillofacial aspirants and those in their second degree course are curious to know whether they should go for the uncoupled core surgical training or the run-through programme in OMFS. The General Medical Council (GMC) has now agreed that run-through training can be rolled out nationally in OMFS. To assess the two pathways we used an online questionnaire to gain feedback about the experience from all OMFS ST3 and run-through trainees (ST3/ST4) in 2016-2017. We identified and contacted 21 trainees, and 17 responded, including seven run-through trainees. Eleven, including five of the run-through trainees, recommended the run-through training programme in OMFS. Six of the seven run-through trainees had studied dentistry first. The overall mean quality of training was rated as 5.5 on a scale 0-10 by the 17 respondents. This survey gives valuable feedback from the current higher surgical trainees in OMFS, which will be useful to the GMC, Health Education England, OMFS Specialist Advisory Committee, and those seeking to enter higher surgical training in OMFS. Copyright © 2018 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published

  14. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Foundation Research and Fellowship Awards: A 26-Year Review at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard School of Dental Medicine.

    PubMed

    Inverso, Gino; Chuang, Sung-Kiang; Kaban, Leonard B

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to review outcomes of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMS) Foundation's funding awards to members of the OMS department at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in terms of projects completed, abstracts presented, peer-reviewed publications, and career trajectories of recipients. Data were collected from MGH and OMS Foundation records and interviews with award recipients. Primary outcome variables included 1) number of awards and award types, 2) funding amount, 3) project completion, 4) number of presented abstracts, 5) conversion from abstracts to publications, 6) number of peer-reviewed publications, 7) career trajectories of awardees, and 8) additional extramural funding. Eleven Student Research Training Awards provided $135,000 for 39 projects conducted by 37 students. Of these, 34 (87.2%) were completed. There were 30 student abstracts presented, 21 peer-reviewed publications, and a publication conversion rate of 58.8%. Faculty research awards comprised $1,510,970 for 22 research projects by 12 faculty members and two research fellows. Of the 22 funded projects, 21 (95.5%) were completed. There were 110 faculty and research fellow abstracts presented and 113 peer-reviewed publications, for a publication conversion rate of 93.8%. In the student group, 17 of 37 (45.9%) are enrolled in or are applying for OMS residencies. Of the 10 students who have completed OMS training, 3 (30%) are in full-time academic positions. Of the 12 faculty recipients, 9 (75%) remain in OMS academic practice. During this time period, the department received $9.9 million of extramural foundation or National Institutes of Health funding directly or indirectly related to the OMS Foundation grants. The results of this study indicate that 90.2% of projects funded by the OMS Foundation have been completed. Most projects resulted in abstracts and publications in peer-reviewed journals. These grants encouraged students to pursue OMS careers and aided OMS

  15. Effect size comparison of ketorolac nasal spray and commonly prescribed oral combination opioids for pain relief after third molar extraction surgery.

    PubMed

    Niebler, Gwendolyn; Dayno, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are frequently used for treatment of moderate to severe short-term pain, but concerns exist about this treatment approach. Ketorolac tromethamine nasal spray, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, is indicated for the short-term management of moderate to moderately severe pain requiring analgesia at the opioid level. However, there are no direct comparison studies between ketorolac nasal spray and opioids. The objective of this study was to use an effect size analysis to compare the effectiveness of ketorolac nasal spray with oral combination opioid formulations in treating moderate to severe short-term pain. An effect size analysis of three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of third molar extraction surgery compared pain relief with ketorolac nasal spray and commonly prescribed combination opioids including hydrocodone/acetaminophen (APAP), oxycodone/APAP, oxycodone/ibuprofen and tramadol HCl/APAP. Effect size comparisons were made using total pain relief scores (TOTPAR6 or TOTPAR8; the weighted sum of pain relief scores through 6 or 8 h). Pain relief was measured using a five-point categorical rating scale (0 = none; 4 = complete). The effect size equivalent correlation, r, was determined using an online effect size calculator. The treatment effect size r compared with placebo was classified using established criteria (small = 0.20-0.49, moderate = 0.50-0.79 and large = ≥ 0.80). TOTPAR6 data indicated a moderate effect size for ketorolac nasal spray 31.5 mg (0.51) and oxycodone/ibuprofen 5/400 mg (0.64) and a small effect size for hydrocodone/APAP 7.5/500 mg (0.24) and oxycodone/APAP 5/325 mg (0.32). TOTPAR8 data indicated small effect sizes for ketorolac nasal spray (0.48), hydrocodone/APAP 10/650 mg (0.43), tramadol HCl/APAP 75/650 mg (0.35) and tramadol HCl/APAP 37.5/325 mg (0.17). The treatment effect sizes of ketorolac nasal spray were similar to or higher than the opioid comparators after third molar surgery, a well-accepted pain

  16. Prevalence of neuropathic pain and sensory alterations after dental implant placement in a university-based oral surgery department: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Delgado, Eduardo; Viaplana-Gutiérrez, Marta; Figueiredo, Rui; Renton, Tara; Gay-Escoda, Cosme; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard

    2018-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and the clinical features of patients with neuropathic pain and sensory alterations after dental implant placement. Literature is very scarce concerning the prevalence of neuropathic pain after dental implant placement. A retrospective cohort study was made in patients submitted to dental implant placement in the Dental Hospital of the University of Barcelona. A descriptive analysis of the data was made, and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for the prevalences. The study sample was composed of 1156 subjects of whom, 1012 patients (3743 dental implants) met the study inclusion criteria. Four hundred and seventeen patients (41.2%) were male and 595 (58.8%) were female, with a mean age of 60.7 years (range 16-90 years). Three patients were diagnosed as having painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PPTN), which corresponds to a prevalence of 0.3% (95% CI: 0%-0.6%). Additionally, 5 patients (0.5%; 95% CI: 0%-1.07%) presented trigeminal neuropathy without pain (TNWP). The combined prevalence of both disorders was 0.8% (95% CI: 0.02%-1.3%). All patients with PPTN and TNWP were 60 years old or older, with a total combined prevalence of 1.48% (95% CI: 0.46%-2.5%) in this age group. Additionally, the prevalence in this age group for women was 1.85% (95%CI: 0.38%-3.31%). Neuropathic pain after dental implant placement is very infrequent (0.3%) in a University Oral Surgery department. However, the presence of trigeminal neuropathies can be slightly higher and can affect up to 0.5% of patients. Older female patients seem to be more prone to this rare and disabling complication. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Can I be a student again? How medical graduates make the decision to return to dental school prior to a career in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Tahim, A S; Payne, K F B; Goodson, A M C; Cabot, L B; Fan, K

    2014-05-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) trainees in the UK have traditionally completed their dental undergraduate studies prior to returning to medical school. Recently, there have been increasing numbers of medical graduates who return to dental school before embarking on OMFS specialist training. There is limited research into the career motivation within this group and little guidance on how they may integrate the dental undergraduate course into their postgraduate training path. This study aims to evaluate these factors in more detail. Questionnaires and focus groups were used to evaluate prior surgical experience of qualified medics who return to dental school with the intention of pursuing a career in OMFS, along with the factors that affect the timing of their return to dental school. The average age of medical graduates entering dental school decreased during the study period. The average number of months each cohort of students spent as a practicing doctor prior to starting dentistry also reduced. Postgraduate experience in OMFS was highly variable, but the numbers of students who received alternative exposure to OMFS, such as undergraduate special study modules, medical school elective or taster weeks, increased. The key barriers that were carefully considered by these trainees before returning to university included the perceived increase in the length of training, trainees' prior surgical experience, financial implications and the impact on quality of life. A trainee's decision to return to study dentistry is a multifactorial process. Understanding when trainees decide to return to sit their dental degree is vital not only to provide guidance for future trainees but also to assist future workforce planning, thus aiding training, education and development within OMFS. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Minority Language Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  19. Differences in Survival With Surgery and Postoperative Radiotherapy Compared With Definitive Chemoradiotherapy for Oral Cavity Cancer: A National Cancer Database Analysis.

    PubMed

    Spiotto, Michael T; Jefferson, Gina; Wenig, Barry; Markiewicz, Michael; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Koshy, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    Because locally advanced oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) is often treated with surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy (S+PORT), the effectiveness of organ preservation with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) remains unclear. To compare the differences in survival between patients with locally advanced OCSCC treated with S+PORT or CRT. Using the National Cancer Database, this study compared 6900 patients with stage III to IVA OCSCC treated with S+PORT and CRT from 2004 through 2012 at academic and community-based cancer clinics. Comparisons were made using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression models using the entire cohort and a propensity score-matched cohort of 2286 patients. Overall survival (OS). Of the 6900 study patients, 4809 received S+PORT (3080 male [64.0%] and 1792 [36.0%] female) and 2091 received CRT (1453 male [69.5%] and 638 [30.5%] female). Median follow-up for the entire group was 23.0 months overall but was shorter for patients receiving CRT (17.3-month) vs S+PORT (25.6 months). Patients receiving CRT were more likely to be older than 60 years, treated before 2007, live within 10 miles of the treating facility, treated at nonacademic centers, have more comorbidities, have T3 to T4a tumors, and have N2a to N2c nodal disease. Propensity score matching identified cohorts of patients with similar clinical variables. S+PORT was associated with improved survival among all patients (3-year OS: 53.9% for S+PORT vs 37.8% for CRT; difference = 16.1%; 95% CI, 13.6%-18.6%) and in the propensity score-matched cohort (3-year OS: 51.8% for S+PORT vs 39.3% for CRT; difference = 11.9%; 95% CI, 7.8%-16.0%). S+PORT was associated with improved survival among patients with T3 to T4a tumors (3-year OS: 49.7% for S+PORT vs 36.0% for CRT; difference = 16.1%; 95% CI, 13.6%-18.6%) but was not associated with improved survival among patients with T1 to T2 tumors (3-year OS: 59.1% for S+PORT vs 53.5% for CRT

  20. Fluoride-containing nanoporous calcium-silicate MTA cements for endodontics and oral surgery: early fluorapatite formation in a phosphate-containing solution.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, M G; Taddei, P; Siboni, F; Modena, E; Ginebra, M P; Prati, C

    2011-10-01

    To test the chemical-physical properties and apatite-forming ability of experimental fluoride-doped calcium silicate cements designed to create novel bioactive materials for use in endodontics and oral surgery. A thermally treated calcium silicate cement (wTC) containing CaCl(2) 5%wt was modified by adding NaF 1%wt (FTC) or 10%wt (F10TC). Cements were analysed by environmental scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, IR and micro-Raman spectroscopy in wet conditions immediately after preparation or after ageing in a phosphate-containing solution (Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline). Calcium and fluoride release and pH of the storage solution were measured. The results obtained were analysed statistically (Tukey's HSD test and two-way anova). The formation of calcium phosphate precipitates (spherulites) was observed on the surface of 24 h-aged cements and the formation of a thick bone-like B-type carbonated apatite layer (biocoating) on 28 day-aged cements. The rate of apatite formation was FTC>F10TC>wTC. Fluorapatite was detected on FTC and F10TC after 1 day of ageing, with a higher fluoride content on F10TC. All the cements released calcium ions. At 5 and 24 h, the wTC had the significantly highest calcium release (P<0.001) that decreased significantly over the storage time. At 3-28 days, FTC and F10TC had significantly higher calcium release than wTC (P<0.05). The F10TC had the significantly highest fluoride release at all times (P<0.01) that decreased significantly over storage time. No significant differences were observed between FTC and wTC. All the cements had a strong alkalinizing activity (OH(-) release) that remained after 28 days of storage. The addition of sodium fluoride accelerated apatite formation on calcium silicate cements. Fluoride-doped calcium silicate cements had higher bioactivity and earlier formation of fluorapatite. Sodium fluoride may be introduced in the formulation of mineral trioxide aggregate cements to

  1. Safety and efficacy of transdermal buprenorphine versus oral tramadol for the treatment of post-operative pain following surgery for fracture neck of femur: A prospective, randomised clinical study.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sameer N; Badiger, Santhoshi V; Tokur, Shreesha B; Naik, Prashanth A

    2017-03-01

    Transdermal buprenorphine, which is used in chronic pain management, has rarely been studied for use in acute pain management. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of transdermal buprenorphine patch to oral tramadol for post-operative analgesia, following proximal femur surgeries. Fifty adult patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture under spinal anaesthesia were included in this study. One group (Group TDB) received transdermal buprenorphine 10 mcg/h patch applied a day before the surgery and other group received oral tramadol 50 mg three times a day for analgesia (Group OT). They were allowed to take diclofenac and paracetamol tablets for rescue analgesia. Pain scores at rest, on movement, rescue analgesic requirement and side effects were compared between the groups over 7 days. Chi-square and independent sample t -test were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Resting pain scores and pain on movement were significantly lower in TDB Group on all 7 days starting from 24 h post-operatively. Rescue analgesic requirement was significantly lower in TDB Group compared to OT Group. All the patients needed rescue analgesic in OT Group whereas 68% of the patients needed the same in TDB Group. Incidence of vomiting was less and satisfaction scores were much higher in TDB Group as compared to OT Group (79% vs. 66%, P < 0.001). Transdermal buprenorphine can be safely used for post-operative analgesia and is more efficacious in reducing post-operative pain after 24 hours, with fewer side effects when compared to oral tramadol.

  2. Minority engineering scholarships, 2012.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-02-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science: Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri S...

  3. Functional results in endoscopic Zenker's diverticulum surgery.

    PubMed

    Dissard, A; Gilain, L; Pastourel, R; Mom, T; Saroul, N

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this retrospective study was to assess functional results in endoscopic Zenker's diverticulum surgery. The secondary objectives were to assess safety, identify recurrence risk factors, and determine optimal management of recurrence. From 2000 to 2014, 50 patients underwent endoscopic surgery for marsupialization of Zenker's diverticulum. Regurgitation and dysphagia were assessed on the FOIS scale, pre- and post-operatively. Recurrences and complications rates were determined retrospectively at a minimum 18 months' follow-up. Regurgitation and dysphagia improved in respectively 96% and 86% of patients. There was a 12% rate of complications, mostly minor. Mean hospital stay and time to return to oral feeding were 2.0 and 1.3 days respectively. Nine patients (18%) showed recurrence of symptoms, requiring revision surgery at a mean 2.7 years, performed endoscopically in the majority of cases. Only one recurrence risk factor was identified: small diverticulum size. Endoscopic Zenker's diverticulum surgery provided functional improvement in most cases. Safe and effective, it is currently the treatment of choice for Zenker's diverticulum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Full-mouth rehabilitation with immediate loading of implants inserted with computer-guided flap-less surgery: a 3-year multicenter clinical evaluation with oral health impact profile.

    PubMed

    Marra, Roberto; Acocella, Alessandro; Rispoli, Alessandra; Sacco, Roberto; Ganz, Scott D; Blasi, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the clinical outcomes and patients' satisfaction of full-mouth rehabilitation using computer-aided flapless implant placement and immediate loading of a prefabricated prosthesis. The study included 30 consecutive fully edentulous patients who received 312 implants. Mandible and maxilla were treated in the same surgical session with computer-guided flapless approach using the NobelGuide protocol. Prefabricated screw-retained fixed prostheses were inserted at the end of surgery. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were assessed at 6, 12, and 36 months. At baseline and 6 months after surgery, patients answered Oral Health Impact Profile in Edentulous Adults questionnaire to assess satisfaction. The implant survival rate was 97.9%, whereas the average marginal bone loss was 1.9 ± 1.3 mm after 3 years. At 6 months, patients showed significantly greater satisfaction with their fixed rehabilitation when compared with conventional dentures. The results of this study confirm that rehabilitation with a prefabricated fixed prosthesis supported by implants placed with NobelGuide protocol is a viable and predictable treatment and increases patients' satisfaction and improves oral health-related quality of life.

  5. Accidental displacement of a high-speed handpiece bur during mandibular third molar surgery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Serhat; Aktas, Irem; Emes, Yusuf; Atalay, Belir

    2008-03-01

    Removal of third molars is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in oral and maxillofacial surgery. This procedure may result in a number of major and minor complications. Accidental displacement of impacted third molars is a complication that occasionally occurs during these operations, but accidental displacement of a high-speed handpiece bur has never been reported in literature before. The aim of this article is to present a rare and previously unreported case of a foreign body in the submandibular space and to review the possible complications seen after third molar surgery.

  6. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Cosmetic surgery Cosmetic surgery Teens might have cosmetic surgery for a number ... about my body? What are the risks of cosmetic surgery? top People who have cosmetic surgery face many ...

  7. The Economics of Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Flournoy A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    This article discusses some of the more important economic problems of minorities in the United States, identifying the economics of minorities with the economics of poverty, discrimination, exploitation, urban life, and alienation. (JM)

  8. Minorities and Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Lawrence; Petty, Reginald

    This publication explores needed changes in the career preparation and education for minorities and examines the implications of career education emphases for minorities in the U.S. Contents include: (1) "An Overview of Minorities and Career Education" by L. Davenport and R. Petty, (2) "Public Schools, Public Policy, and Public Problems: Some…

  9. Hemostasis and Post-operative Care of Oral Surgical Wounds by Hemcon Dental Dressing in Patients on Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: A Split Mouth Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K R Ashok; Kumar, Jambukeshwar; Sarvagna, Jagadesh; Gadde, Praveen; Chikkaboriah, Shwetha

    2016-09-01

    Hemostasis is a fundamental management issue post-operatively in minor oral surgical procedures. To ensure safety and therapeutic efficacy in patients, under oral anti coagulant therapy, is complicated by necessity for frequent determination of prothrombin time or international normalised ratio. The aim of the study was to determine whether early hemostasis achieved by using Hemcon Dental Dressing (HDD) will affect post-operative care and surgical healing outcome in minor oral surgical procedures. A total of 30 patients, aged 18 years to 90 years, except those allergic to seafood, who consented to participate, were enrolled into this study. Patients were required to have two or more surgical sites so that they would have both surgical and control sites. All patients taking Oral Anticoagulation Therapy (OAT) were included for treatment in the study without altering the anticoagulant regimens. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for the same. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired t-test. All HDD surgically treated sites achieved hemostasis in 1.49 minutes and control wounds in 4.06 minutes (p < 0.001). Post-operative pain at HDD treated sites (1.87,1.27 on 1 st and 3 rd day respectively) was significantly lower than the control sites (4.0,1.87 on 1 st and 3 rd day respectively) p-value (0.001, 0.001 respectively). HDD treated oral surgery wounds achieved statistically significant improved healing both at 1 st and 3 rd post-operative days (p <0.0001). The HDD has been proven to be a clinically effective hemostatic dressing material that significantly shortens bleeding time following minor oral surgical procedures under local anaesthesia, including those patients taking OAT. Patients receiving the HDD had improved surgical wound healing as compared to controls.

  10. Primary radical ablative surgery and fibula free-flap reconstruction for T4 oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with mandibular invasion: oncologic and functional results and their predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Camuzard, Olivier; Dassonville, Olivier; Ettaiche, Marc; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Poissonnet, Gilles; Berguiga, Riadh; Leysalle, Axel; Benezery, Karen; Peyrade, Frédéric; Saada, Esma; Hechema, Raphael; Sudaka, Anne; Haudebourg, Juliette; Demard, François; Santini, José; Bozec, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical outcomes and to determine their predictive factors in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) invading the mandibular bone (T4) who underwent primary radical surgery and fibula free-flap reconstruction. Between 2001 and 2013, all patients who underwent primary surgery and mandibular fibula free-flap reconstruction for OCSCC were enrolled in this retrospective study. Predictive factors of oncologic and functional outcomes were assessed in univariate and multivariate analysis. 77 patients (55 men and 22 women, mean age 62 ± 10.6 years) were enrolled in this study. Free-flap failure and local and general complication rates were 9, 31, and 22 %, respectively. In multivariate analysis, ASA score (p = 0.002), pathologic N-stage (p = 0.01), and close surgical margins (p = 0.03) were independent predictors of overall survival. Six months after therapy, oral diet, speech intelligibility, and mouth opening functions were normal or slightly impaired in, respectively, 79, 88, and 83 % of patients. 6.5 % of patients remaining dependent on enteral nutrition 6 months after therapy. With acceptable postoperative outcomes and satisfactory oncologic and functional results, segmental mandibulectomy with fibula free-flap reconstruction should be considered the gold standard primary treatment for patients with OCSCC invading mandible bone. Oncologic outcomes are dependent on three main factors: ASA score, pathologic N-stage, and surgical margin status.

  11. Transoral robotic thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Clark, James H.; Kim, Hoon Yub

    2015-01-01

    There is currently significant demand for minimally invasive thyroid surgery; however the majority of proposed surgical approaches necessitate a compromise between minimal tissue dissection with a visible cervical scar or extensive tissue dissection with a remote, hidden scar. The development of transoral endoscopic thyroid surgery however provides an approach which is truly minimally invasive, as it conceals the incision within the oral cavity without significantly increasing the amount of required dissection. The transoral endoscopic approach however presents multiple technical challenges, which could be overcome with the incorporation of a robotic operating system. This manuscript summarizes the literature on the feasibility and current clinical experience with transoral robotic thyroid surgery. PMID:26425456

  12. Bariatric Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Loss Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Bariatric Surgery Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Durga Singer, MD, ... for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery MedlinePlus What is bariatric surgery? Bariatric surgery helps people who are very obese ...

  13. Cataract Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ...

  14. Lung surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lung tissue removal; Pneumonectomy; Lobectomy; Lung biopsy; Thoracoscopy; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery; VATS ... do surgery on your lungs are thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Robotic surgery may also ...

  15. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  16. Principles of management in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Swinson, B D; Witherow, H; Amin, M; Kalavrezos, N; Newman, L

    2003-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral malignancy, with a relatively poor prognosis. Treatment of oral cancer has a major impact on afflicted patients because it affects speech, swallowing and mastication. Surgery is the main treatment of oral cancer, as a single modality or combined with radiotherapy. Vigilance is vital for early diagnosis and better overall prognosis.

  17. [Medical confidentiality for minors].

    PubMed

    Peyrebrune, Cécile; Génot-Pok, Isabelle

    2009-12-20

    The new statutory provisions on the care of minors have given a legal framework for primary healthcare professionals. They clarify the rights of minors and their general application to improve the quality of the healthcare system. They are valuable and relevant tools for general practitioners in their day to day practice, and they help improve the medical care of minors, currently considered as a real public health problem.

  18. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer - oral; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  19. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  20. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... items such as towels and linens in boiling hot water after each use. Do not share utensils, straws, glasses, or other items if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...

  1. The Trojan minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, Christopher E.

    1988-08-01

    There are (March, 1988) 3774 minor planets which have received a permanent number. Of these, there are some whose mean distance to the sun is very nearly equal to that of Jupiter, and whose heliocentric longitudes from that planet are about 60°, so that the three bodies concerned (sun, Jupiter, minor planet) make an approximate equilateral triangle. These minor planets, which occur in two distinct groups, one preceding Jupiter and one following, have received the names of the heroes of the Trojan war. This paper concerns the 49 numbered minor planets of this group.

  2. Trans-oral resection of large parapharyngeal space tumours.

    PubMed

    Hussain, A; Ah-See, K W; Shakeel, M

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to describe minimally invasive trans-oral approach for resection of parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumours and to demonstrate surgical technique, resection, repair and outcomes. Five cases were prospectively included in the study. The data collected include age, sex, site, size, pathology, radiological investigations, surgical excision, complications and outcomes. Three females and two male patients underwent trans-oral resection of PPS tumours sized 4-8 cm. The pathology included two deep lobe parotid tumours, one schwannoma, one hibernoma and one primary adenocarcinoma arising form the minor salivary gland. All tumours were resected completely without any technical difficulty. The healing was quick and by primary intention. Patients resumed oral feeding on recovery from general anaesthesia and did not require any significant analgesia beyond the first 2 days. Patient with adenocarcinoma received postoperative radiotherapy and remained disease-free during 4 years post-treatment. No recurrences were observed in patients with benign tumours. No neurovascular injury occurred during surgery and no secondary bleeding was observed. We have demonstrated successful and safe execution of trans-oral resection of large PPS tumours. There were no intra and post-operative complications and there has been no recurrence during the follow-up period. In our experience, it appears to be efficient, safe and minimally invasive compared to the established techniques.

  3. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial comparing aqueous with alcoholic chlorhexidine antisepsis for the prevention of superficial surgical site infection after minor surgery in general practice: the AVALANCHE trial.

    PubMed

    Heal, C F; Charles, D; Hardy, A; Delpachitra, M; Banks, J; Wohlfahrt, M; Saednia, Sabine; Buettner, P

    2016-07-07

    Surgical site infection (SSI) after minor skin excisions has a significant impact on patient morbidity and healthcare resources. Skin antisepsis prior to surgical incision is used to prevent SSI, and is performed routinely worldwide. However, in spite of the routine use of skin antisepsis, there is no consensus regarding which antiseptic agents are most effective. The AVALANCHE trial will compare Aqueous Versus Alcoholic Antisepsis with Chlorhexidine for Skin Excisions. The study design is a prospective, randomised controlled trial (RCT) with the aim of investigating the impact of two different antiseptic preparations on the incidence of superficial SSI in patients undergoing minor skin excisions. The intervention of 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) in 70% alcohol will be compared with that of 0.5% CHG in aqueous solution. The trial will be conducted in four Australian general practices over a 9-month period, with 920 participants to be recruited. Consecutive patients presenting for minor skin excisions will be eligible to participate. Randomisation will be on the level of the patient. The primary outcome is superficial SSI in the first 30 days following the excision. Secondary outcomes will be adverse effects, including anaphylaxis, skin irritation, contact dermatitis and rash and patterns of antibiotic resistance. The study has been approved by the James Cook University Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC). Findings will be disseminated in conference presentations and journals and through online electronic media. RCTs conducted in general practice differ from hospital-based projects in terms of feasibility, pragmatism and funding. The success of this trial will be cemented in the fact that the research question was established by a group of general practitioners who identified an interesting question which is relevant to their clinical practice and not answered by current evidence. ACTRN12615001045505; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  4. FIESTA; Minority Television Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Wes; And Others

    The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…

  5. Women and Minority Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Betty M.

    1975-01-01

    Offers statistics on the numbers of women and members of minority groups in the sciences. Suggests if women and members of minority groups are to be encouraged to prepare for scientific careers, they must be given the same incentives as offered to men. (CP)

  6. Minority Record Reported

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Louise; Pakiser, L. C.

    1978-01-01

    Forty-two minority students receiving American Geological Institute (AGI) scholarships are discussed in this article. The value of the AGI scholarship program is examined with regard to student academic success, future professional success, and minority representation. Most faculty members and employers involved in the program were favorably…

  7. Mental Health and Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Michelle, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This newsletter includes 12 brief articles or news items concerning mental health among minority groups. These address: (1) cultural considerations in treating Asians (reasons why Asians tend not to use mental health services); (2) coping with racial stress (responses to a questionnaire on dealing with racial stress); (3) minority health…

  8. Minorities and Malnutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornegay, Francis A.

    Various aspects of the relationship between minorities and malnutrition are discussed in this brief paper. Malnutrition, one of the byproducts of low economic status, is creating a crisis-proportion health problem affecting minority citizens. Malnutrition seriously affects children, older people in poverty, and chronically unemployed or…

  9. [Present situation and prospect of enhanced recovery after surgery in pancreatic surgery].

    PubMed

    Feng, Mengyu; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

    2017-05-25

    Enhanced recovery after surgery is a multimodal perioperative strategy according to the evidence-based medicine and multidisciplinary collaboration, aiming to improve the restoration of functional capacity after surgery by reducing surgical stress, optimal control of pain, early oral diet and early mobilization. Compared with other sub-specialty in general surgery, pancreatic surgery is characterized by complex disease, highly difficult procedure and more postoperative complications. Accordingly, pancreatic surgery shares a slow development in enhanced recovery after surgery. In this review, the feasibility, safety, application progress, prospect and controversy of enhanced recovery after surgery in pancreatic surgery are discussed.

  10. Capnocytophaga canimorsus Sepsis Following a Minor Dog Bite to the Finger: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dedy, Nicolas J; Coghill, Sarah; Chandrashekar, Nanda Kumar S; Bindra, Randy R

    2016-01-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a gram-negative bacillus present in the oral cavities of 22% to 74% of healthy dogs. Capnocytophaga canimorsus has unique virulence factors that enable it to evade the human immune system and cause life-threatening sepsis following a dog bite. We report a previously well 68-year-old woman who presented with septic shock and multiorgan failure following a seemingly minor dog bite to the finger. The patient required intensive care treatment, intravenous antibiotic therapy, and multiple surgical procedures including amputation of the affected finger. The septicemia and coagulopathy that ensued resulted in gangrene and amputation of additional fingers and toes. The purpose of this report is to raise awareness of this organism among hand surgeons when faced with a patient presenting in septic shock and minimal signs at the site of a dog bite. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Childhood oral cavity cancer (usually lymphoma or sarcoma) treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Learn more about the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent oral cavity cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  12. High-dose oral colecalciferol loading in obesity: impact of body mass index and its utility prior to bariatric surgery to treat vitamin D deficiency.

    PubMed

    King, R J; Chandrajay, D; Abbas, A; Orme, S M; Barth, J H

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is associated with lower vitamin D levels compared with normal weight subjects, and if levels are not replaced prior to bariatric surgery, this can increase fracture risk as bone density typically falls post-operatively. We analysed the effect of body mass index (BMI) on vitamin D levels in response to 300 000 IU of colecalciferol in patients with vitamin D deficiency (<30 nmol L -1 ). Patients were grouped according to their BMI as normal weight (20-24.9 kg m -2 ), overweight (25-29.9 kg m -2 ), obese class I (30-34.9 kg m -2 ) and obese class II and above (>35 kg m -2 ). The records were retrospectively analysed to investigate the effects of BMI on vitamin D (total 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D]), serum Ca 2+ and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels at 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks compared with baseline. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight and obese patients achieved lower mean peak total 25(OH)D levels (6 weeks post-loading), which was most significant in the class II and above group (mean total 25(OH)D levels 96.5 ± 24.2 nmol L -1 and 72.42 ± 24.9 nmol L -1 , respectively; P = 0.003). By 26 weeks, total 25(OH)D levels fell in all groups; however, there was now a significant difference between the normal weight subjects and all other groups (mean total 25(OH)D levels 84.1 ± 23.7 nmol L -1 ; 58 ± 20 nmol L -1 , P = 0.0002; 62.65 ± 19.2 nmol L -1 , P = 0.005; 59.2 ± 21 nmol L -1 , P = 0.005, respectively). Far fewer patients in the overweight and obese groups maintained levels above the recommended level of 75 nmol L -1 52 weeks post-loading (93%; 20%, P = 0.0003; 23%, P = 0.01; and 14%, P = 0.001, respectively). Alternative regimes for the treatment of vitamin D deficiency are needed in overweight and obese patients, especially those in whom bariatric surgery is planned. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  13. Risk Factors Associated with Disease Recurrence in Patients with Stage III/IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Treated with Surgery and Postoperative Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Noble, Anisha R; Greskovich, John F; Han, Jaehong; Reddy, Chandana A; Nwizu, Tobenna I; Khan, Mumtaz F; Scharpf, Joseph; Adelstein, David J; Burkey, Brian B; Koyfman, Shlomo A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify variables associated with high risk of failure in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (SCC-OC). This retrospective study included 191 patients with stage III-IVb SCC-OC treated with post-operative radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) between 1995 and 2013. Disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed; variables associated with inferior DFS were identified. Seventy-five patients (39%) recurred. DFS and five-year OS were 52% and 54%, respectively. Poorly differentiated tumors (p=0.03), recurrent tumors (p=0.02) and high nodal ratio (p=0.02) were associated with an increased risk of recurrence. CRT was associated with improved DFS in patients with positive margins and/or extracapsular extension (p=0.021). Tumors that are recurrent, high grade, or have high nodal ratio are at risk of recurrence. Presence of these disease features should be taken into consideration for better risk stratification. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Variable Operative Experience in Hand Surgery for Plastic Surgery Residents.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Jason; Lin, Ines C; Levin, Lawrence Scott; Chang, Benjamin

    Efforts to standardize hand surgery training during plastic surgery residency remain challenging. We analyze the variability of operative hand experience at U.S. plastic surgery residency programs. Operative case logs of chief residents in accredited U.S. plastic surgery residency programs were analyzed (2011-2015). Trends in fold differences of hand surgery case volume between the 10th and 90th percentiles of residents were assessed graphically. Percentile data were used to calculate the number of residents achieving case minimums in hand surgery for 2015. Case logs from 818 plastic surgery residents were analyzed of which a minority were from integrated (35.7%) versus independent/combined (64.3%) residents. Trend analysis of fold differences in case volume demonstrated decreasing variability among procedure categories over time. By 2015, fold differences for hand reconstruction, tendon cases, nerve cases, arthroplasty/arthrodesis, amputation, arterial repair, Dupuytren release, and neoplasm cases were below 10-fold. Congenital deformity cases among independent/combined residents was the sole category that exceeded 10-fold by 2015. Percentile data suggested that approximately 10% of independent/combined residents did not meet case minimums for arterial repair and congenital deformity in 2015. Variable operative experience during plastic surgery residency may limit adequate exposure to hand surgery for certain residents. Future studies should establish empiric case minimums for plastic surgery residents to ensure hand surgery competency upon graduation. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiological study of facial fractures at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Service, Santa Casa de Misericordia Hospital Complex, Porto Alegre - RS - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, Rodrigo Andrighetti; Wagner, João Carlos Birnfeld; Volkweis, Maurício Roth; Gerhardt, Eduardo Luis; Buchmann, Elissa Muller; Bavaresco, Caren Serra

    2017-01-01

    to investigate the incidence and etiology of face trauma with diagnosis of facial fracture treated at the Buccomaxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology Service of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital Complex in Porto Alegre. we conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective epidemiological study of 134 trauma victims with 153 facial fractures. the male gender was the most affected (86.6%) and the incidence was higher in the age group from 21 to 30 years. The main etiology was assault (38.8%), followed by motor vehicle accidents (14.2%), motorcycle accidents (13.4%), falls (9%), road accidents (6.7%), sports accidents (5.2%), work accidents (5.2%), firearm injuries (4.5%) and cycling accidents (3%). The most frequent fractures were those of the zygomatic complex (44.5%), followed by fractures of the mandible (42.5%), maxillary bone (5.2%), nasal bones (4.5%) and zygomatic arch (3.3%). the fractures of the zygomatic complex and the mandible were the ones with the highest incidence in the facial traumas, having physical assaults as their main cause.

  16. [Pregnancy after bariatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Pepe, Franco; DE Luca, Francesco; Stracquadanio, Mariagrazia; Garraffo, Claudia; Santonocito, Veronica C; Privitera, Agata

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy after bariatric surgery has some peculiarities related to obesity, type of surgery, amount of weight loss, time elapsed from the surgery and adherence to medical prescriptions. Pregnant woman is at risk of nutritional deficiencies and it is unclear whether there is an increased incidence of intestinal complications during pregnancy after bariatric surgery and whether this kind of complications are more frequent during cesarean section. The fetus is at high risk of prematurity and fetal growth restriction, but they seem not at increased risk of birth defects (DTN) except in individual cases of folic acid deficiency (DTN) or vitamin K defect (similar abnormalities in patients receiving oral anticoagulants). In addition, the incidence of gestational diabetes and hypertension results to be decreased. Other postnatal outcomes from possible epigenetic modifications need to be evaluated in the long-term postnatal follow-up.

  17. Outpatient Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to content Menu Anesthesia 101 Pain Management Preparing for Surgery Stories Resources About Policymakers Media ASA Member Toolkit Preparation Outpatient Surgery Explore this page: Outpatient Surgery What types of anesthesia are available? How ...

  18. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... computer station and directs the movements of a robot. Small surgical tools are attached to the robot's ...

  19. Teaching and Evaluating Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snead, Louise Burkett

    1983-01-01

    Examines conflicts that may arise between instructors and students of different races. Suggests ways to lessen alienation between students and instructors. Looks at myths associated with teaching and evaluating minorities and at origins of racial conflict. (JOW)

  20. NIH Minority Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This publication contains brief descriptions of National Institutes of Health programs for underrepresented minorities, including fellowships, programs for high school students, graduate research assistantships, postdoctoral training, and programs for college students. The publication provides a description of each program, eligibility…

  1. Multichoice minority game.

    PubMed

    Ein-Dor, L; Metzler, R; Kanter, I; Kinzel, W

    2001-06-01

    The generalization of the problem of adaptive competition, known as the minority game, to the case of K possible choices for each player, is addressed, and applied to a system of interacting perceptrons with input and output units of a type of K-state Potts spins. An optimal solution of this minority game, as well as the dynamic evolution of the adaptive strategies of the players, are solved analytically for a general K and compared with numerical simulations.

  2. The CoCoS trial: Caloric Control in Cardiac Surgery patients promotes survival, an interventional trial with retrospective control.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Elisabeth; Nguyen, Ducnam; De Bondt, Karlien; La Meir, Mark; Diltoer, Marc; Honoré, Patrick M; Spapen, Herbert; Pen, Joeri J

    2018-06-01

    Malnutrition is widespread among cardiac surgery patients and is independently related to an adverse postoperative evolution or outcome. We aimed to assess whether nutrition therapy (NT) could alter caloric deficit, morbidity, and mortality in patients scheduled for non-emergency coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or aortic valve surgery. 351 patients undergoing either elective CABG or aortic valve surgery were studied. Patients receiving NT were enrolled from January 2013 until December 2014. A retrospective control group (CT) consisted of 142 matched patients. The primary endpoint was to evaluate whether NT could limit caloric deficit (Intake to Need Deviation). Secondary endpoints addressed the potential effect of NT on morbidity and mortality. Patients were followed for one year after surgery. There was no significant difference in patient, laboratory or mortality profile between the groups. Caloric deficit could be limited in the intervention group, essentially by providing oral feeding and oral supplements. A minority of patients required enteral or parenteral nutrition during their hospital stay. Caloric deficit increased after the second postoperative day because more patients were switched to oral feeding and intravenous infusions were omitted. Combining CABG and aortic valve surgery, male patients in the NT group had significantly less arrhythmia than in the CT group (7% versus 31%; P = 0.0056), while females in the NT group had significantly less pneumonia than in the CT group (7% versus 22%; P = 0.0183). Survival was significantly higher in female NT patients compared to CT patients, both for CABG (100% versus 83%; P = 0.0015) and aortic valve surgery (97% versus 78%; P = 0.0337). The results suggest that NT beneficially affects morbidity and mortality in elective cardiac surgery patients. The impact of NT seems more pronounced in women than in men. Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02902341. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European

  3. Development of the foremost light-curable calcium-silicate MTA cement as root-end in oral surgery. Chemical-physical properties, bioactivity and biological behavior.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Taddei, Paola; Siboni, Francesco; Modena, Enrico; Ciapetti, Gabriela; Prati, Carlo

    2011-07-01

    An innovative light-curable calcium-silicate cement containing a HEMA-TEGDMA-based resin (lc-MTA) was designed to obtain a bioactive fast setting root-end filling and root repair material. lc-MTA was tested for setting time, solubility, water absorption, calcium release, alkalinizing activity (pH of soaking water), bioactivity (apatite-forming ability) and cell growth-proliferation. The apatite-forming ability was investigated by micro-Raman, ATR-FTIR and ESEM/EDX after immersion at 37°C for 1-28 days in DPBS or DMEM+FBS. The marginal adaptation of cement in root-end cavities of extracted teeth was assessed by ESEM/EDX, and the viability of Saos-2 cell on cements was evaluated. lc-MTA demonstrated a rapid setting time (2min), low solubility, high calcium release (150-200ppm) and alkalinizing power (pH 10-12). lc-MTA proved the formation of bone-like apatite spherulites just after 1 day. Apatite precipitates completely filled the interface porosities and created a perfect marginal adaptation. lc-MTA allowed Saos-2 cell viability and growth and no compromising toxicity was exerted. HEMA-TEGDMA creates a polymeric network able to stabilize the outer surface of the cement and a hydrophilic matrix permeable enough to allow water absorption. SiO(-)/Si-OH groups from the mineral particles induce heterogeneous nucleation of apatite by sorption of calcium and phosphate ions. Oxygen-containing groups from poly-HEMA-TEGDMA provide additional apatite nucleating sites through the formation of calcium chelates. The strong novelty was that the combination of a hydraulic calcium-silicate powder and a poly-HEMA-TEGDMA hydrophilic resin creates the conditions (calcium release and functional groups able to chelate Ca ions) for a bioactive fast setting light-curable material for clinical applications in dental and maxillofacial surgery. The first and unique/exclusive light-curable calcium-silicate MTA cement for endodontics and root-end application was created, with a potential

  4. In Vivo Optical Imaging for Targeted Drug Kinetics and Localization for Oral Surgery and Super-Resolution, Facilitated by Printed Phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentz, Brian Z.

    Many human cancer cell types over-express folate receptors, and this provides an opportunity to develop targeted anti-cancer drugs. For these drugs to be effective, their kinetics must be well understood in vivo and in deep tissue where tumors occur. We demonstrate a method for imaging these parameters by incorporating a kinetic compartment model and fluorescence into optical diffusion tomography (ODT). The kinetics were imaged in a live mouse, and found to be in agreement with previous in vitro studies, demonstrating the validity of the method and its feasibility as an effective tool in preclinical drug development studies. Progress in developing optical imaging for biomedical applications requires customizable and often complex objects known as "phantoms" for testing and evaluation. We present new optical phantoms fabricated using inexpensive 3D printing methods with multiple materials, allowing for the placement of complex inhomogeneities in heterogeneous or anatomically realistic geometries, as opposed to previous phantoms which were limited to simple shapes formed by molds or machining. Furthermore, we show that Mie theory can be used to design the optical properties to match a target tissue. The phantom fabrication methods are versatile, can be applied to optical imaging methods besides diffusive imaging, and can be used in the calibration of live animal imaging data. Applications of diffuse optical imaging in the operating theater have been limited in part due to computational burden. We present an approach for the fast localization of arteries in the roof of the mouth that has the potential to reduce complications. Furthermore, we use the extracted position information to fabricate a custom surgical guide using 3D printing that could protect the arteries during surgery. The resolution of ODT is severely limited by the attenuation of high spatial frequencies. We present a super-resolution method achieved through the point localization of fluorescent

  5. Minority engineering scholarships renewal, 2011.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science : Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri ...

  6. Minority Health and Health Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Minority Health and Health Disparities In this Section Underage Drinking College Drinking Women Older Adults Minority Health & Health Disparities Other Psychiatric ...

  7. Laparoscopic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main ACG Site ACG Patients Home / Digestive Health Topic / Laparoscopic Surgery Laparoscopic Surgery Basics Overview What is laparoscopic surgery? ... with your doctor whether some type of laparoscopic surgery is most suitable for your ... Topics Abdominal Pain Syndrome Belching, Bloating, and Flatulence Common ...

  8. Defining minors' abortion rights.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, A M

    1988-01-01

    The right to abortion is confirmed in the Roe versus Wade case, by the US Supreme Court. It is a fundamental right of privacy but not an absolute right, and must consider state interests. During the first trimester of pregnancy abortion is a decision of the woman and her doctor. During the second trimester of pregnancy the state may control the abortion practice to protect the mothers health, and in the last trimester, it may prohibit abortion, except in cases where the mother's life or health are in danger. The states enacted laws, including one that required parents to give written consent for a unmarried minor's abortion. This law was struck down by the US Court, but laws on notification were upheld as long as there was alternative procedures where the minor's interests are upheld. Many of these law have been challenged successfully, where the minor was judged mature and where it served her best interests. The state must enact laws on parental notification that take into consideration basic rights of the minor woman. Health professionals and workers should be aware of these laws and should encourage the minor to let parents in on the decision making process where possible.

  9. Disproportionate Minority Contact.

    PubMed

    Fix, Rebecca L; Cyperski, Melissa A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-04-01

    The overrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities within the criminal justice system relative to their population percentage, a phenomenon termed disproportionate minority contact, has been examined within general adult and adolescent offender populations; yet few studies have tested whether this phenomenon extends to juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). In addition, few studies have examined whether offender race/ethnicity influences registration and notification requirements, which JSOs are subject to in some U.S. states. The present study assessed for disproportionate minority contact among general delinquent offenders and JSOs, meaning it aimed to test whether the criminal justice system treats those accused of sexual and non-sexual offenses differently by racial/ethnic group. Furthermore, racial/ethnic group differences in risk, legal classification, and sexual offending were examined for JSOs. Results indicated disproportionate minority contact was present among juveniles with non-sexual offenses and JSOs in Alabama. In addition, offense category and risk scores differed between African American and European American JSOs. Finally, registration classifications were predicted by offending characteristics, but not race/ethnicity. Implications and future directions regarding disproportionate minority contact among JSOs and social and legal policy affecting JSOs are discussed.

  10. Quality of Life and Self-Esteem of Female Orthognathic Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Jung, Min-Ho

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of severe malocclusion requiring orthognathic surgery on the self-esteem (SE) and quality of life (QOL) of female adult patients undergoing orthognathic surgery compared with a group with minor malocclusions seeking only orthodontic treatment. Female patients, aged 18 to 30 years, who had presented for an orthodontic consultation for correction of a malocclusion were enrolled during an 18-month period. In group 1, all the patients required 2-jaw surgery, and they were subdivided into those with a Class II or Class III malocclusion. This group was further subdivided into those with and without clinically significant asymmetry. A second comparison group was selected. These patients had minor malocclusion. Group 2 (the minor malocclusion group; MMG) included patients with a Class I molar relationship with less than 5 mm on the irregularity index in the upper anterior teeth. Each participant completed the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale (RSE) and the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ) before starting treatment. The RSE and OQLQ measurements were compared using 1-way analysis of variance and Scheffe's multiple comparison. The level of statistical significance was set at P < .05. The MMG group (n = 52) showed significantly better RSE and OQOL values compared with those with Class II (n = 37) and Class III (n = 47) malocclusion (P < .01). In the OQLQ measurements, the social aspects, aesthetics, and oral function scores were also better in the MMG group (P < .01). Only the awareness component did not reveal a significant difference. No significant differences were found in QOL or SE between those with Class II and Class III malocclusion. The influence of asymmetry on the RSE and OQLQ results was not significant in the Class II and III patients. Female adult orthognathic patients showed significant impairments in QOL and SE compared with those with mild malocclusion. Copyright © 2016 The American Association of Oral and

  11. Sex Trafficking of Minors.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jessica L; Kaplan, Dana M; Barron, Christine E

    2017-04-01

    Sex trafficking is an increasingly recognized global health crisis affecting every country and region in the world. Domestic minor sex trafficking is a subset of commercial sexual exploitation of children, defined as engagement of minors (<18 years of age) in sexual acts for items of value (eg, food, shelter, drugs, money) involving children victimized within US borders. These involved youth are at risk for serious immediate and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Continued efforts are needed to improve preventive efforts, identification, screening, appropriate interventions, and subsequent resource provision for victimized and high-risk youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Minority Group Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Patricia Cayo

    Four minority groups are identified in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Employer Information Report: (1) Negro; (2) Oriental; (3) American Indian; and (4) Spanish Surnamed Americans. Together, these groups in 1970 numbered about 34.5 million people, or about 17 percent of the population. This paper reports on the status of…

  13. The Emerging Minority Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baccus, R. Eileen

    The United States is experiencing a major demographic transformation. Some studies have projected that by the year 2020, whites will be in the minority as their number is surpassed by those of Indian, Asian, African, and Spanish descent, to name a few. Educators must make a major commitment to see that all students have the opportunity to perform…

  14. Focus on Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort Bragg (Army), NC. Libraries.

    This document is a union catalog of materials available in the Library Branch, Special Services Division, Headquarters of the Eighteenth Airborne Corps and Fort Bragg, N.C., pertaining to minority group life. Each item cited has a call number and a location symbol directing the user to one or more of the five libraries shelving the item. The…

  15. Housing Problems of Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Robert

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, reviews the status of minority group housing and the effects of federal programs upon it, advocating an approach which recognizes the intrinsic locational and real estate value of many black ghettos. (Author/JM)

  16. Minority Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the community college's role in Native American education. Describes recruitment, counseling, assessment, remedial, and outreach programs developed by San Juan College to help minority students succeed, and specifically help Native Americans bridge the worlds of public school, reservation, and university. Identifies keys to the programs'…

  17. Assessing Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.

    Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…

  18. Minor burns - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... Larger than 2 inches (5 cm) On the hand, foot, face, groin, buttocks, hip, knee, ankle, shoulder, elbow, or wrist First aid for Minor Burns First, calm and reassure the person who is burned. If clothing is not stuck to the burn, remove it. ...

  19. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  20. Model Minority Stereotype Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    This paper explores the origin and historical background of the "model minority" stereotype. It includes evidence illustrating problems resulting from the artificial grouping of Asian Americans as one ethnic group and the stereotype's influence on young Asian Americans. In the 1960s, the U.S. media began to portray the model minority…

  1. Britain's Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Office of Information, London (England).

    This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

  2. After Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... side effects. There is usually some pain with surgery. There may also be swelling and soreness around ... the first few days, weeks, or months after surgery. Some other questions to ask are How long ...

  3. Increasing minority enrollment utilizing dental admissions workshop strategies.

    PubMed

    Price, Shelia S; Crout, Richard J; Mitchell, Dennis A; Brunson, W David; Wearden, Stanley

    2008-11-01

    Oral Health in America, the landmark U.S. surgeon general's report, inextricably connects oral health disparities with poor access to oral care by vulnerable populations. Furthermore, the report associates an insufficiently diverse dental workforce with oral health disparities among some minority groups. Successful strategies to curtail oral health disparities and remedy work-force issues require collaboration among all involved in dental education. As gatekeepers to dental programs, admissions committees are significant stakeholders in diversifying the dental workforce. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a workshop on diversity in admissions can modify the perceptions of individuals involved in the student recruitment and admissions processes and lead to increased matriculation of underrepresented minority students. Emerging from the workshop were key concepts and action steps for promoting a holistic review of dental applicants. Results since implementing the workshop recommendations have been positive, with underrepresented minority dental student acceptances increasing sixfold. The workshop was cosponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and facilitated by two nationally recognized dental educators.

  4. Multicultural Issues in Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Raul I.; Cadoret, Cindy; Henshaw, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Demographic changes over the coming decades will heighten the challenges to the dental profession and to the nation. The expected growth in the numbers of racial and ethnic minorities, and the concomitant growth of immigrant populations are likely to lead to worsening of oral health disparities. Their consequences are becoming increasingly evident as the profession strives to improve the oral health of all Americans. The increasing diversity of the population, together with the importance of cultural beliefs and behaviors that affect health outcomes, will require ways to enhance provider-patient communications and oral health literacy. We discuss the nature and challenges presented by multicultural patient populations. One important means by which to promote oral health in diverse populations is to develop a dental workforce that is both culturally and linguistically competent, as well as one that is as culturally diverse as the American population. PMID:18329446

  5. Minority attitudes toward contraception.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J O

    1974-12-01

    The training division of the Los Angeles Regional Family Planning Council conducted a seminar for minority members to discover attitudes toward birth control. Indian-Americans, Mexican-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Black-Americans participated. Some fears and misunderstandings relative to birth control were voiced. The timidity of recent Chinese immigrants was mentioned. Male reluctance to use birth control out of a sense of machismo was mentioned in relation to Black- and Mexican-Americans. The conclusion was that, when birth control methods are adequately explained, women of all ethnic groups are willing to use them. To allay fears, suspicions, and concerns, family planning should be presented to minority communities as a health service and not a social service. Family planning clinics would be more accepted in these communities if they expanded their work into other health areas.

  6. Dracunculiasis in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soung Min

    2016-04-01

    Dracunculiasis, otherwise known as guinea worm disease (GWD), is caused by infection with the nematode Dracunculus medinensis. This nematode is transmitted to humans exclusively via contaminated drinking water. The transmitting vectors are Cyclops copepods (water fleas), which are tiny free-swimming crustaceans usually found abundantly in freshwater ponds. Humans can acquire GWD by drinking water that contains vectors infected with guinea worm larvae. This disease is prevalent in some of the most deprived areas of the world, and no vaccine or medicine is currently available. International efforts to eradicate dracunculiasis began in the early 1980s. Most dentists and maxillofacial surgeons have neglected this kind of parasite infection. However, when performing charitable work in developing countries near the tropic lines or other regions where GWD is endemic, it is important to consider GWD in cases of swelling or tumors of unknown origin. This paper reviews the pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical criteria, diagnostic criteria, treatment, and prevention of dracunculiasis. It also summarizes important factors for maxillofacial surgeons to consider.

  7. Dracunculiasis in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dracunculiasis, otherwise known as guinea worm disease (GWD), is caused by infection with the nematode Dracunculus medinensis. This nematode is transmitted to humans exclusively via contaminated drinking water. The transmitting vectors are Cyclops copepods (water fleas), which are tiny free-swimming crustaceans usually found abundantly in freshwater ponds. Humans can acquire GWD by drinking water that contains vectors infected with guinea worm larvae. This disease is prevalent in some of the most deprived areas of the world, and no vaccine or medicine is currently available. International efforts to eradicate dracunculiasis began in the early 1980s. Most dentists and maxillofacial surgeons have neglected this kind of parasite infection. However, when performing charitable work in developing countries near the tropic lines or other regions where GWD is endemic, it is important to consider GWD in cases of swelling or tumors of unknown origin. This paper reviews the pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical criteria, diagnostic criteria, treatment, and prevention of dracunculiasis. It also summarizes important factors for maxillofacial surgeons to consider. PMID:27162746

  8. Applications of piezoelectric surgery in endodontic surgery: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Abella, Francesc; de Ribot, Joan; Doria, Guillermo; Duran-Sindreu, Fernando; Roig, Miguel

    2014-03-01

    Piezosurgery (piezoelectric bone surgery) devices were developed to cut bone atraumatically using ultrasonic vibrations and to provide an alternative to the mechanical and electrical instruments used in conventional oral surgery. Indications for piezosurgery are increasing in oral and maxillofacial surgery, as in other disciplines, such as endodontic surgery. Key features of piezosurgery instruments include their ability to selectively cut bone without damaging adjacent soft tissue, to provide a clear operative field, and to cut without generating heat. Although piezosurgery instruments can be used at most stages of endodontic surgery (osteotomy, root-end resection, and root-end preparation), no published data are available on the effect of piezosurgery on the outcomes of endodontic surgery. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the effect of piezosurgery on root-end resection, and only 1 has investigated root-end morphology after retrograde cavity preparation using piezosurgery. We conducted a search of the PubMed and Cochrane databases using appropriate terms and keywords related to the use and applications of piezoelectric surgery in endodontic surgery. A hand search also was conducted of issues published in the preceding 2 years of several journals. Two independent reviewers obtained and analyzed the full texts of the selected articles. A total of 121 articles published between January 2000 and December 2013 were identified. This review summarizes the operating principles of piezoelectric devices and outlines the applications of piezosurgery in endodontic surgery using clinical examples. Piezosurgery is a promising technical modality with applications in several aspects of endodontic surgery, but further studies are necessary to determine the influence of piezosurgery on root-end resection and root-end preparation. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 75 FR 1289 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... ensure the inclusion of minorities, women, and individuals with disabilities, and businesses owned by... inclusion and utilization of minorities, women, individuals with disabilities, and minority-, women-, and... the inclusion and utilization of minorities, women, individuals with disabilities, and minority...

  10. Disproportionate minority contact.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R

    2008-01-01

    For many years, notes Alex Piquero, youth of color have been overrepresented at every stage of the U.S. juvenile justice system. As with racial disparities in a wide variety of social indicators, the causes of these disparities are not immediately apparent. Some analysts attribute the disparities to "differential involvement"--that is, to differences in offending by minorities and whites. Others attribute them to "differential selection"--that is, to the fact that the justice system treats minority and white offenders in different ways. Still others believe the explanation lies in a combination of the two. Differential involvement may be important earlier in the judicial process, especially in youths' contacts with police, and may influence differential selection later as individuals make their way through the juvenile justice system. Adjudicating between these options, says Piquero, is difficult and may even be impossible. Asking how much minority overrepresentation is due to differences in offending and how much to differences in processing no longer seems a helpful way to frame the discussion. Piquero urges future research to move beyond the debate over "which one matters more" and seek to understand how each of the two hypotheses can explain both the fact of minority overrepresentation in the juvenile justice system and how best to address it. Piquero cites many sizable gaps in the research and policy-relevant literature. Work is needed especially, he says, in analyzing the first stage of the justice system that juveniles confront: police contacts. The police are a critical part of the juvenile justice decision-making system and are afforded far more discretion than any other formal agent of social control, but researchers have paid surprisingly little attention to contacts between police and citizens, especially juveniles. Piquero notes that some states and localities are undertaking initiatives to reduce racial and ethnic disparities. He urges researchers and

  11. ORAL INTERPRETATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAMPBELL, PAUL N.

    THE BASIC PREMISE OF THIS BOOK IS THAT LEARNING TO READ ORALLY IS OF FUNDAMENTAL IMPORTANCE TO THOSE WHO WOULD FULLY APPRECIATE OR RESPOND TO LITERATURE. BECAUSE READERS MUST INTERPRET LITERATURE ALWAYS FOR THEMSELVES AND OFTEN FOR AN AUDIENCE, THREE ASPECTS OF ORAL INTERPRETATION ARE EXPLORED--(1) THE CHOICE OF MATERIALS, WHICH REQUIRES AN…

  12. The Establishment of Minority Affairs Offices in Schools of Dentistry: Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Billy R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the establishment of Minority Affairs Offices in dental schools, which follow the American Association of Medical Colleges' model as one method of addressing the declining enrollment and compounding oral health disparities of underrepresented minorities--African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. (EV)

  13. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100213.htm Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... out of 2 Overview To treat a minor burn, run cool water over the area of the ...

  14. Counseling Minors Without Parental Consent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croxton, Tom A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examines from legal and psychological perspectives counseling services that are provided to minors without parental knowledge or consent. Explores current mental health agency policies and practices, and makes recommendations regarding the counseling needs and rights of minors. (SKC)

  15. Preoperative oral carbohydrate therapy.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Jonas; Thorell, Anders; Ljungqvist, Olle

    2015-06-01

    Management of the postoperative response to surgical stress is an important issue in major surgery. Avoiding preoperative fasting using preoperative oral carbohydrates (POC) has been suggested as a measure to prevent and reduce the extent to which such derangements occur. This review summarizes the current evidence and rationale for this treatment. A recent review from the Cochrane Collaboration reports enhanced gastrointestinal recovery and shorter hospital stay with the use of POC with no effect on postoperative complication rates. Multiple randomized controlled trials demonstrate improved postoperative metabolic response after POC administration, including reduced insulin resistance, protein sparing, improved muscle function and preserved immune response. Cohort studies in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery have shown that the use of POC as part of an enhanced recovery after surgery protocol is a significant predictor for improved clinical outcomes. Avoiding preoperative fasting with POC is associated with attenuated postoperative insulin resistance, improved metabolic response, enhanced perioperative well-being, and better clinical outcomes. The impact is greatest for patients undergoing major surgeries.

  16. Orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Gehrig, Laura M B

    2011-09-01

    Orthopedic surgery is a specialty of surgery dedicated to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases and injuries of the musculoskeletal system in all age groups. Careers in orthopedic surgery span the spectrum from general orthopedics to those of subspecialty expertise in orthopedic trauma, hand, pediatrics, total joint, foot and ankle, sports medicine, and oncology to name a few. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Minority Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, R.

    2005-02-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players—Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang—have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the `physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the `stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG

  18. A successful Minority Retention Project.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Janelle D

    2005-12-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented in the nursing profession. The high attrition rate of minority students from nursing schools contributes to this problem. Academic leaders are calling for change in nursing education and asking educators to work diligently to retain minority students. This article describes a Minority Retention Project that included interventions designed to enhance the integration of minority students into a supportive learning environment, assist them in using the available resources, and help them feel connected and supported by their peers and faculty. At the end of the first year of the project, the nursing school experienced 100% retention of minority nursing students. Increasing the retention and graduation of minority nursing students supports the continued effort to provide culturally competent health care.

  19. Oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Gerson, S J

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.

  20. [Phacoemulsification: advantages of a consultation the day after surgery?].

    PubMed

    Pajot, O; Mazit, C; Jallet, G; Ebran, J-M; Cochereau, I

    2010-03-01

    Cataract surgery is the most frequent surgery in France. The D1 consultation limits the extension of ambulatory care to patients who can return on their own the day after sugery. We assessed the usefulness of this systematic D1 consultation in terms of therapeutic modifications. MATERIAL AND MéTHODE: Retrospective study of patients who underwent cataract surgery in a teaching hospital from february to july 2006. The major parameter was the modification of postsurgical treatment after the D1 consultation. Of the 380 operated eyes studied, the patients included 145 men and 235 women, the mean age was 73.8 years (range, 43-92), 86% underwent conventional hospitalization, 70% had been operated by a senior surgeon, and 66% had no suture. At the D1 visit, 11 modifications (2.9%) were recorded: one case of athalamia, one Seidel-positive test, four cases of high IOP (>30mmHg), and five severe inflammations of the anterior segment. All the treatment changes were reported in the group of hospitalized patients, none were reported in the ambulatory patients. Of the 380 eyes studied, only one required sutures at D1, the other treatment changes were minor. The low output of the D1 visit raises the problem of its relevance in terms of public health. In most of the English-speaking and Scandinavian countries, patients have only one postoperative visit at 1 month. Patients could receive written and oral recommendations and a hotline number to contact the surgical team, which could allow the D1 visit to be discontinued for standard patients with uncomplicated surgery.

  1. Oral sex.

    PubMed

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  2. Minor head trauma.

    PubMed

    Weight, D G

    1998-09-01

    This article reviews the persisting difficulty and the importance of the diagnosis of minor head trauma. The diagnosis has been complicated by pervasive disagreement regarding diagnostic criteria. This is primarily a result of the fact that evidence for actual injury is hard to obtain in minor cases because most symptoms tend to be subjective and have high base rates in the normal, uninjured population. At the same time, the diagnostic decision has important implications for patients in terms of treatment, expectancy for future function and lifestyle, and compensation for injuries. Decision theory leads us to the awareness of diagnostic errors. In addition to correct determination, the clinician can make an error of not diagnosing an injury when it has in fact occurred or making a positive diagnosis where there is no injury. The optimal strategy is to set the cutoff at the midpoint of these two error probabilities. The clinician may be willing to make one error rather than the other depending on the cost and bias involved. The second error is more likely to be made when the clinician stands as a strong advocate for the patient and willing to provide any help necessary to encourage treatment, give patients a rationale for understanding their symptoms, and help them obtain compensation for injuries. This can also lead to significant overdiagnosis of injury. The first error is more likely to be made when the clinician recognizes the potential for increasing costs to the health-care industry, the court system, and increasing personal injury claims. He or she may also recognize the vulnerability to the risk for symptom invalidity, the perpetuation of patient symptoms through suggestion, and the need for a biologic explanation for life stressors and preexisting emotional and personality constraints. It can be argued that the most objective diagnostic opinion, uninfluenced by the above biases, should ultimately be in the best interest of the patient, the clinician, legal

  3. Minor shoulder instability.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Alessandro; Nordenson, Ulf; Garofalo, Raffaele; Karlsson, Jon

    2007-02-01

    The wide spectrum of shoulder instability is difficult to include in 1 classification. The distinction between traumatic, unidirectional, and atraumatic multidirectional instability is still widely used, even though this classification is not sufficiently precise to include all the different pathological findings of shoulder instability. We present "minor instability," which is a pathological condition causing a dysfunction of the glenohumeral articulation, especially in combination with microtrauma, repetitive or not, or after a period of immobilization or inactivity. When "minor shoulder instability" is suspected, the patient's history and detailed clinical examination represent the most important factors when establishing the diagnosis. In particular, the apprehension test stressing the middle glenohumeral ligament (MGHL)/labral complex in the position of midabduction and external rotation may be painful and may even reveal anterior instability or subluxation. Conventional radiographs are negative in most cases, as is magnetic resonance imaging arthrography. It is only after an accurate arthroscopic assessment that the pathological lesion can be found. The major pathological process can be identified at the level of the anterior superior labrum, in particular the MGHL complex, and appears as hyperemia, fraying, stretching, loosening, thinning, hypoplasia, or even absence. It may, however, be difficult to distinguish between a normal variant and a pathological lesion. Clinical symptoms and examination should always be correlated with arthroscopic findings. Recommended treatment is to restore shoulder stability and thereby prevent shoulder pain secondary to the increase in laxity. A reduction in range of motion should be expected during the postoperative phase, at least up to six to nine months. External rotation is usually permanently reduced by a few degrees.

  4. Unnecessary surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Leape, L L

    1989-01-01

    The extent of unnecessary surgery has been the object of considerable speculation and occasional wild accusation in recent years. Most evidence of the existence of unnecessary surgery, such as information from studies of geographic variations and the results of second surgical opinion programs, is circumstantial. However, results from the few studies that have measured unnecessary surgery directly indicate that for some highly controversial operations the fraction that are unwarranted could be as high as 30 percent. Most unnecessary surgery results from physician uncertainty about the effectiveness of an operation. Elimination of this uncertainty requires more efficient production and dissemination of scientific information about clinical effectiveness. In the absence of adequate data from scientific studies, the use of a consensus of expert opinion, disseminated by means of comprehensive practice guidelines, offers the best opportunity to identify and eliminate unnecessary surgery. PMID:2668237

  5. Mucoadhesive Oral Wound Rinse in Preventing and Treating Stomatitis in Patients With ER- or PR-Positive Metastatic or Locally Recurrent Breast Cancer That Cannot be Removed by Surgery Receiving Everolimus

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-26

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Oral Complications; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  6. Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  7. [Development of the Oral Assessment Scale for Post-Operational Patients With Oral Cancer].

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Ya-Chuan; Chiang, Hui-Ying

    2017-04-01

    Current oral assessment scales are designed to assess the severity of oral health in cancer patients who have undergone radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Currently, no scale is available that assesses the overall oral health situation of patients. However, this type of scale is critical for guiding nursing staff to understand the oral status of postoperative patients and for facilitating the development of patient-centered oral nursing treatments. To develop the oral assessment scale for post-operational patients with oral cancer (OASPOCa) and establish its psychometric properties. The ten associated items of the OASPOCa were determined using a series of five professional council meetings and two verifications of content validity by 5 experts in the field of oral cancer care. A pilot study was conducted on 30 participants and a formal study was conducted on 100 participants at the ICU and the oral and maxillofacial surgery ward at a medical center in southern Taiwan. All of the participants were oral cancer patients who had been admitted to excise tumors of oral cancer. None of the participants had been treated previously for oral cancer using chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), internal consistency reliability, and concurrent validity of the OASPOCa were evaluated. A content validity of 1.0 was obtained. The inter-rater reliability assessment in the pilot study yielded ICCs of .97 for two assessment items ("lips" and "tongue") and 1.0 for the remaining eight items. The Cronbach's α coefficient was .72 for the OASPOCa. Further, a statistically significant negative relationship was found between overall oral status and oral comfort level (r