Science.gov

Sample records for minor structures

  1. Structure-preserving desynchronization of minority games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosetti, G.; Challet, D.; Solomon, S.

    2009-10-01

    Perfect synchronicity in N-player games is a useful theoretical dream, but communication delays are inevitable and may result in asynchronous interactions. Some systems such as financial markets are asynchronous by design, and yet most theoretical models assume perfectly synchronized actions. We propose a general method to transform standard models of adaptive agents into asynchronous systems while preserving their global structure under some conditions. Using the minority game as an example, we find that the phase and fluctuations structure of the standard game subsists even in maximally asynchronous deterministic case, but that it disappears if too much stochasticity is added to the temporal structure of interaction. Allowing for heterogeneous communication speeds and activity patterns gives rise to a new information ecology that we study in details. in here

  2. Structure Dependent Binding of Arylimidamides to the DNA Minor Groove

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yun; Munde, Manoj; Kumar, Arvind; Mickelson, Leah; Lin, Sen; Campbell, Nancy H.; Banerjee, Moloy; Akay, Senol; Liu, Zongying; Farahat, Abdelbasset A.; Nhili, Raja; Depauw, Sabine; David-Cordonnier, Marie-Hélène; Neidle, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Heterocyclic diamidines are strong DNA minor groove binders and have excellent antiparasitic activity. To extend the biological activity of these compounds, a series of arylimidamides (AIAs) analogs, which have better uptake properties in Leishmania and T. cruizi than diamidines, was prepared. The binding of the AIAs to DNA was investigated by Tm, fluorescence displacement titration, circular dichroism, DNase I footprinting, biosensor surface plasmon resonance, X-ray Crystallography and molecular modeling. These compounds form 1:1 complexes with AT sequences in the DNA minor groove and the binding strength varies with substituent size, charge and polarity. This substituent dependent structure and properties provide a SAR that can be used to estimate K values for binding to DNA in this series. The structural results and molecular modeling studies provide an explanation for the differences in binding affinities for AIAs. PMID:24323836

  3. Some anther structures in Sanguisorba minor Scop. (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Aybeke, Mehmet

    2011-01-15

    In this study, investigation of some anther structures in Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. muricata was aimed. Therefore, anthers were squashed by modified glycerine-gelatine method and additionally different histochemical stainings also were tested. The result illustrated that in different parts of anther, such as marginal, connection tissue, starch and protein granules accumulated. Furthermore, during maturation these deposits were detected in pollen grains also. In addition, a very interesting feature, balloon-like structures filled by proteins, were observed in anther cavity. In the light of these findings, their importance on pollen development was discussed.

  4. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sclerotinia minor from peanut research plots in Oklahoma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sclerotinia minor is the causal agent of Sclerotinia blight, a disease that significantly reduces peanut (Arachis hypogea) productivity. This study analyzed the diversity and population structure of 164 S. minor isolates from Oklahoma. Isolates were obtained from infected stems of peanut plants fr...

  5. The structure of adaptive competition in minority games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuca, Radu; Li, Yi; Riolo, Rick; Savit, Robert

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we present results and analyses of a class of games in which heterogeneous agents are rewarded for being in a minority group. Each agent possesses a number of fixed strategies each of which are predictors of the next minority group. The strategies use a set of aggregate, publicly available information (reflecting the agents’ collective previous decisions) to make their predictions. An agent chooses which group to join at a given moment by using one of his strategies. These games are adaptive in that agents can choose, at different points of the game, to exercise different strategies in making their choice of which group to join. The games are not evolutionary in that the agents’ strategies are fixed at the beginning of the game. We find, rather generally, that such systems evidence a phase change from a maladaptive, informationally efficient phase in which the system performs poorly at generating resources, to an inefficient phase in which there is an emergent cooperation among the agents, and the system more effectively generates resources. The best emergent coordination is achieved in a transition region between these two phases. This transition occurs when the dimension of the strategy space is of the order of the number of agents playing the game. We present explanations for this general behavior, based in part on an information theoretic analysis of the system and its publicly available information. We also propose a mean-field-like model of the game which is most accurate in the maladaptive, efficient phase. In addition, we show that the best individual agent performance in the two different phases is achieved by sets of strategies with markedly different characteristics. We discuss implications of our results for various aspects of the study of complex adaptive systems.

  6. Structural Stigma and Cigarette Smoking in a Prospective Cohort Study of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexual minority youth are more likely to smoke cigarettes than heterosexuals but research into the determinants of these disparities is lacking. Purpose To examine whether exposure to structural stigma predicts cigarette smoking in sexual minority youth. Methods Prospective data from adolescents participating in the Growing Up Today Study (2000–2005). Results Among sexual minority youth, living in low structural stigma states (e.g., states with non-discrimination policies inclusive of sexual orientation) was associated with a lower risk of cigarette smoking after adjustment for individual-level risk factors (Relative Risk[RR]=0.97, 95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 0.96, 0.99, p=0.02). This association remained marginally significant after additional controls for potential state-level confounders (RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.00, p=0.06). In contrast, among heterosexual youth, structural stigma was not associated with past-year smoking rates, documenting specificity of these effects to sexual minority youth. Conclusions Structural stigma represents a potential risk factor for cigarette smoking among sexual minority adolescents. PMID:24136092

  7. Minor withanolides of Physalis longifolia: structure and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaping; Motiwala, Hashim; Samadi, Abbas; Day, Victor; Aubé, Jeffrey; Cohen, Mark; Kindscher, Kelly; Gollapudi, Rao; Timmermann, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In our recent publication on bioactive guided isolation of compounds from Physalis longifolia (Solanaceae) novel anti-proliferative agents withalongolides A (4) and B (5), and their highly cytotoxic analogues, withalongolide A 4,19,27-triacetate (4a) and withalongolide B 4,19-diacetate (5a) were elucidated. In this study, the two lead compounds (4, 5) were re-isolated in gram quantities for the purpose of further analogue preparation and in vivo testing that would continue to probe structure-activity relationships. During this process, two additional withanolides, named withalongolides O (1) and P (2), were elucidated. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques with 1 being subsequently confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Utilizing a MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] viability assay, withalongolide O (1) and its 4,7-diaceatate (1a), both containing the functionalities of Δ(2)-1-oxo- in A ring, a 5β,6β-epoxy in B ring, and a lactone ring in the nine-carbon side chain, exhibited potent cytotoxicity against human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (JMAR and MDA-1986), melanoma (B16F10 and SKMEL-28), and normal fetal lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cells with IC(50) values in the range between 0.15 and 2.95 µM. In addition, the previously reported α orientation of 7-acetate group in acnistins C and D should be revised to the β orientation on the basis of NMR data comparison.

  8. Perceived Discrimination and Social Relationship Functioning among Sexual Minorities: Structural Stigma as a Moderating Factor.

    PubMed

    Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    Work on structural stigma shows how public policy affects health outcomes for members of devalued groups, including sexual minorities. In the current research, structural stigma is proposed as a moderating variable that strengthens deleterious associations between perceived discrimination and social relationship functioning. Hypotheses were tested in two cross-sectional studies, including both online (N = 214; Study 1) and community (N = 94; Study 2) samples of sexual minority men and women residing throughout the United States. Structural stigma was coded from policy related to sexual minority rights within each state. Confirming hypotheses, support for the moderating role of structural stigma was found via multilevel models across studies. Specifically, associations between perceived discrimination and friendship strain, loneliness (Study 1) and familial strain (Study 2) were increased for those who resided in states with greater levels of structural stigma and attenuated for those who resided in states with lesser levels. In Study 1, these results were robust to state-level covariates (conservatism and religiosity), but conservatism emerged as a significant moderator in lieu of structural stigma in Study 2. Results are discussed in the context of the shifting landscape of public policy related to sexual minority rights within the United States.

  9. Perceived Discrimination and Social Relationship Functioning among Sexual Minorities: Structural Stigma as a Moderating Factor

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Work on structural stigma shows how public policy affects health outcomes for members of devalued groups, including sexual minorities. In the current research, structural stigma is proposed as a moderating variable that strengthens deleterious associations between perceived discrimination and social relationship functioning. Hypotheses were tested in two cross-sectional studies, including both online (N = 214; Study 1) and community (N = 94; Study 2) samples of sexual minority men and women residing throughout the United States. Structural stigma was coded from policy related to sexual minority rights within each state. Confirming hypotheses, support for the moderating role of structural stigma was found via multilevel models across studies. Specifically, associations between perceived discrimination and friendship strain, loneliness (Study 1) and familial strain (Study 2) were increased for those who resided in states with greater levels of structural stigma and attenuated for those who resided in states with lesser levels. In Study 1, these results were robust to state-level covariates (conservatism and religiosity), but conservatism emerged as a significant moderator in lieu of structural stigma in Study 2. Results are discussed in the context of the shifting landscape of public policy related to sexual minority rights within the United States. PMID:26807046

  10. Minor Withanolides of Physalis longifolia: Structure and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huaping; Motiwala, Hashim; Samadi, Abbas; Day, Victor; Aubé, Jeffrey; Cohen, Mark; Kindscher, Kelly; Gollapudi, Rao; Timmermann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In our recent publication on bioactive guided isolation of compounds from Physalis longifolia (Solanaceae) novel anti-proliferative agents withalongolides A (4) and B (5), and their highly cytotoxic analogues, withalongolide A 4,19,27-triacetate (4a) and withalongolide B 4,19-diacetate (5a) were elucidated. In this study, the two lead compounds (4, 5) were re-isolated in gram quantities for the purpose of further analogue preparation and in vivo testing that would continue to probe structure–activity relationships. During this process, two additional withanolides, named withalongolides O (1) and P (2), were elucidated. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques with 1 being subsequently confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Utilizing a MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] viability assay, withalongolide O (1) and its 4,7-diaceatate (1a), both containing the functionalities of Δ2-1-oxo- in A ring, a 5β,6β-epoxy in B ring, and a lactone ring in the nine-carbon side chain, exhibited potent cytotoxicity against human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (JMAR and MDA-1986), melanoma (B16F10 and SKMEL-28), and normal fetal lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cells with IC50 values in the range between 0.15 and 2.95 μM. In addition, the previously reported α orientation of 7-acetate group in acnistins C and D should be revised to the β orientation on the basis of NMR data comparison. PMID:23036966

  11. Structural Stigma and All-Cause Mortality in Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Bellatorre, Anna; Lee, Yeonjin; Finch, Brian; Muennig, Peter; Fiscella, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Stigma operates at multiple levels, including intrapersonal appraisals (e.g., self-stigma), interpersonal events (e.g., hate crimes), and structural conditions (e.g., community norms, institutional policies). Although prior research has indicated that intrapersonal and interpersonal forms of stigma negatively affect the health of the stigmatized, few studies have addressed the health consequences of exposure to structural forms of stigma. To address this gap, we investigated whether structural stigma—operationalized as living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice—increases risk of premature mortality for sexual minorities. We constructed a measure capturing the average level of anti-gay prejudice at the community level, using data from the General Social Survey, which was then prospectively linked to all-cause mortality data via the National Death Index. Sexual minorities living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice experienced a higher hazard of mortality than those living in low-prejudice communities (Hazard Ratio [HR] =3.03, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.50, 6.13), controlling for individual and community-level covariates. This result translates into a shorter life expectancy of approximately 12 years (95% C.I.: 4-20 years) for sexual minorities living in high-prejudice communities. Analysis of specific causes of death revealed that suicide, homicide/violence, and cardiovascular diseases were substantially elevated among sexual minorities in high-prejudice communities. Strikingly, there was an 18-year difference in average age of completed suicide between sexual minorities in the high-prejudice (age 37.5) and low-prejudice (age 55.7) communities. These results highlight the importance of examining structural forms of stigma and prejudice as social determinants of health and longevity among minority populations. PMID:23830012

  12. Structural stigma and all-cause mortality in sexual minority populations.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Bellatorre, Anna; Lee, Yeonjin; Finch, Brian K; Muennig, Peter; Fiscella, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    Stigma operates at multiple levels, including intrapersonal appraisals (e.g., self-stigma), interpersonal events (e.g., hate crimes), and structural conditions (e.g., community norms, institutional policies). Although prior research has indicated that intrapersonal and interpersonal forms of stigma negatively affect the health of the stigmatized, few studies have addressed the health consequences of exposure to structural forms of stigma. To address this gap, we investigated whether structural stigma-operationalized as living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice-increases risk of premature mortality for sexual minorities. We constructed a measure capturing the average level of anti-gay prejudice at the community level, using data from the General Social Survey, which was then prospectively linked to all-cause mortality data via the National Death Index. Sexual minorities living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice experienced a higher hazard of mortality than those living in low-prejudice communities (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 3.03, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.50, 6.13), controlling for individual and community-level covariates. This result translates into a shorter life expectancy of approximately 12 years (95% C.I.: 4-20 years) for sexual minorities living in high-prejudice communities. Analysis of specific causes of death revealed that suicide, homicide/violence, and cardiovascular diseases were substantially elevated among sexual minorities in high-prejudice communities. Strikingly, there was an 18-year difference in average age of completed suicide between sexual minorities in the high-prejudice (age 37.5) and low-prejudice (age 55.7) communities. These results highlight the importance of examining structural forms of stigma and prejudice as social determinants of health and longevity among minority populations.

  13. The Influence of Family Structure on Sexual Activity in a Randomized Effectiveness Trial for Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherr, Michael E.; Crow, Janet; Stamey, James; Jones, Johnny; Dyer, Preston

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of family structure on the outcomes of a sex education program in Miami, Florida. Using an experimental design, data collection occurred at pretest, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up with a sample of teenagers from high schools with a large majority of minority youth, assigned into treatment (n = 549) and control (n…

  14. The Influence of Family Structure on Sexual Activity in a Randomized Effectiveness Trial for Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherr, Michael E.; Crow, Janet; Stamey, James; Jones, Johnny; Dyer, Preston

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of family structure on the outcomes of a sex education program in Miami, Florida. Using an experimental design, data collection occurred at pretest, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up with a sample of teenagers from high schools with a large majority of minority youth, assigned into treatment (n = 549) and control (n…

  15. Solution structure of a highly stable DNA duplex conjugated to a minor groove binder.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S; Reed, M W; Gamper, H B; Gorn, V V; Lukhtanov, E A; Foti, M; West, J; Meyer, R B; Schweitzer, B I

    1998-01-01

    The tripeptide 1,2-dihydro-(3 H )-pyrrolo[3,2- e ]indole-7-carboxylate (CDPI3) binds to the minor groove of DNA with high affinity. When this minor groove binder is conjugated to the 5'-end of short oligonucleotides the conjugates form unusually stable hybrids with complementary DNA and thus may have useful diagnostic and/or therapeutic applications. In order to gain an understanding of the structural interactions between the CDPI3minor groove binding moiety and the DNA, we have determined and compared the solution structure of a duplex consisting of oligodeoxyribonucleotide 5'-TGATTATCTG-3' conjugated at the 5'-end to CDPI3 and its complementary strand to an unmodified control duplex of the same sequence using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Thermal denaturation studies indicated that the hybrid of this conjugate with its complementary strand had a melting temperature that was 30 degrees C higher compared with the unmodified control duplex. Following restrained molecular dynamics and relaxation matrix refinement, the solution structure of the CDPI3-conjugated DNA duplex demonstrated that the overall shape of the duplex was that of a straight B-type helix and that the CDPI3moiety was bound snugly in the minor groove, where it was stabilized by extensive van der Waal's interactions. PMID:9443977

  16. Solution structure of a highly stable DNA duplex conjugated to a minor groove binder.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Reed, M W; Gamper, H B; Gorn, V V; Lukhtanov, E A; Foti, M; West, J; Meyer, R B; Schweitzer, B I

    1998-02-01

    The tripeptide 1,2-dihydro-(3 H )-pyrrolo[3,2- e ]indole-7-carboxylate (CDPI3) binds to the minor groove of DNA with high affinity. When this minor groove binder is conjugated to the 5'-end of short oligonucleotides the conjugates form unusually stable hybrids with complementary DNA and thus may have useful diagnostic and/or therapeutic applications. In order to gain an understanding of the structural interactions between the CDPI3minor groove binding moiety and the DNA, we have determined and compared the solution structure of a duplex consisting of oligodeoxyribonucleotide 5'-TGATTATCTG-3' conjugated at the 5'-end to CDPI3 and its complementary strand to an unmodified control duplex of the same sequence using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Thermal denaturation studies indicated that the hybrid of this conjugate with its complementary strand had a melting temperature that was 30 degrees C higher compared with the unmodified control duplex. Following restrained molecular dynamics and relaxation matrix refinement, the solution structure of the CDPI3-conjugated DNA duplex demonstrated that the overall shape of the duplex was that of a straight B-type helix and that the CDPI3moiety was bound snugly in the minor groove, where it was stabilized by extensive van der Waal's interactions.

  17. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cognition and brain structure after TIA or minor ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Boss, H Myrthe; Van Schaik, Sander M; Witkamp, Theo D; Geerlings, Mirjam I; Weinstein, Henry C; Van den Berg-Vos, Renske M

    2017-10-01

    Background It is not known whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and brain structure in patients with a TIA or minor ischemic stroke. Aims To examine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, cognition and brain structure in patients with a TIA and minor stroke. Methods The study population consisted of patients with a TIA or minor stroke with a baseline measurement of the peak oxygen consumption, a MRI scan of brain and neuropsychological assessment. Composite z-scores were calculated for the cognitive domains attention, memory and executive functioning. White matter hyperintensities, microbleeds and lacunes were rated visually. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient was measured in regions of interest in frontal and occipital white matter and in the centrum semiovale as a marker of white matter structure. Normalized brain volumes were estimated by use of Statistical Parametric Mapping. Results In 84 included patients, linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and education showed that a higher peak oxygen consumption was associated with higher cognitive z-scores, a larger grey matter volume (B = 0.15 (95% CI 0.05; 0.26)) and a lower mean apparent diffusion coefficient (B = -.004 (95% CI -.007; -.001)). We found no association between the peak oxygen consumption and severe white matter hyperintensities, microbleeds, lacunes and total brain volume. Conclusions These data suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance, greater grey matter volume and greater integrity of the white matter in patients with a TIA or minor ischemic stroke. Further prospective trials are necessary to define the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on cognition and brain structure in patients with TIA or minor stroke.

  18. Structure of the minor pseudopilin XcpW from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type II secretion system.

    PubMed

    Franz, Laura P; Douzi, Badreddine; Durand, Eric; Dyer, David H; Voulhoux, Romé; Forest, Katrina T

    2011-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes the type II secretion machinery to transport virulence factors through the outer membrane into the extracellular space. Five proteins in the type II secretion system share sequence homology with pilin subunits of type IV pili and are called the pseudopilins. The major pseudopilin XcpT(G) assembles into an intraperiplasmic pilus and is thought to act in a piston-like manner to push substrates through an outer membrane secretin. The other four minor pseudopilins, XcpU(H), XcpV(I), XcpW(J) and XcpX(K), play less well defined roles in pseudopilus formation. It was recently discovered that these four minor pseudopilins form a quaternary complex that is presumed to initiate the formation of the pseudopilus and to localize to its tip. Here, the structure of XcpW(J) was refined to 1.85 Å resolution. The structure revealed the type IVa pilin fold with an embellished variable antiparallel β-sheet as also found in the XcpW(J) homologue enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli GspJ(W) and the XcpU(H) homologue Vibrio cholerae EpsU(H). It is proposed that the exposed surface of this sheet may cradle the long N-terminal α1 helix of another pseudopilin. The final 31 amino acids of the XcpW(J) structure are instrinsically disordered. Deletion of this unstructured region of XcpW(J) did not prevent type II secretion in vivo.

  19. Analyses of Lettuce Drop Incidence and Population Structure of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and S. minor.

    PubMed

    Wu, B M; Subbarao, K V

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT To understand the geographical distribution of lettuce drop incidence and the structure of Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum populations, commercial lettuce fields were surveyed in the Salinas, San Joaquin, and Santa Maria Valleys in California. Lettuce drop incidence, pathogen species, and mycelial compatibility groups (MCGs) were determined and analyzed using geostatistic and geographical information system tools. Lettuce drop incidence was lowest in the San Joaquin Valley, and not significantly different between the other two valleys. Semivariogram analysis revealed that lettuce drop incidence was not spatially correlated between different fields in the Salinas Valley, suggesting negligible field-to-field spread or influence of inoculum in one field on other fields. Lettuce drop incidence was significantly lower in fields with a surface drip system than in fields with furrow or sprinkler irrigation systems, suggesting that the surface drip system can be a potential management measure for reducing lettuce drop. In the San Joaquin Valley, S. sclerotiorum was the prevalent species, causing drop in 63.5% of the fields, whereas S. minor also was identified in 25.4% of the fields. In contrast, in the Salinas Valley, S. minor was the dominant species (76.1%) whereas S sclerotiorum only observed in only 13.6% fields, in which only a few plants were infected by S. sclerotiorum. In the Santa Maria Valley, both species frequently were identified, with S. minor being slightly more common. Although many MCGs were identified in S. minor, most of them consisted of only one or two isolates. In all, approximately 91.4% of the isolates belonged to four MCGs. Among them, MCG-1 was the most prevalent group in all three valleys, accounting for 49.8% of total isolates. It was distributed all over the surveyed areas, whereas other MCGs were distributed more or less locally. Populations of S. sclerotiorum exhibited greater diversity, with 89 isolates collected from the

  20. Nonequilibrium Conditions Explain Spatial Variability in Genetic Structuring of Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor).

    PubMed

    Burridge, Christopher P; Peucker, Amanda J; Valautham, Sureen K; Styan, Craig A; Dann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Factors responsible for spatial structuring of population genetic variation are varied, and in many instances there may be no obvious explanations for genetic structuring observed, or those invoked may reflect spurious correlations. A study of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) in southeast Australia documented low spatial structuring of genetic variation with the exception of colonies at the western limit of sampling, and this distinction was attributed to an intervening oceanographic feature (Bonney Upwelling), differences in breeding phenology, or sea level change. Here, we conducted sampling across the entire Australian range, employing additional markers (12 microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA, 697 individuals, 17 colonies). The zone of elevated genetic structuring previously observed actually represents the eastern half of a genetic cline, within which structuring exists over much shorter spatial scales than elsewhere. Colonies separated by as little as 27 km in the zone are genetically distinguishable, while outside the zone, homogeneity cannot be rejected at scales of up to 1400 km. Given a lack of additional physical or environmental barriers to gene flow, the zone of elevated genetic structuring may reflect secondary contact of lineages (with or without selection against interbreeding), or recent colonization and expansion from this region. This study highlights the importance of sampling scale to reveal the cause of genetic structuring. © The American Genetic Association 2015.

  1. Nonequilibrium Conditions Explain Spatial Variability in Genetic Structuring of Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor)

    PubMed Central

    Peucker, Amanda J.; Valautham, Sureen K.; Styan, Craig A.; Dann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Factors responsible for spatial structuring of population genetic variation are varied, and in many instances there may be no obvious explanations for genetic structuring observed, or those invoked may reflect spurious correlations. A study of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) in southeast Australia documented low spatial structuring of genetic variation with the exception of colonies at the western limit of sampling, and this distinction was attributed to an intervening oceanographic feature (Bonney Upwelling), differences in breeding phenology, or sea level change. Here, we conducted sampling across the entire Australian range, employing additional markers (12 microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA, 697 individuals, 17 colonies). The zone of elevated genetic structuring previously observed actually represents the eastern half of a genetic cline, within which structuring exists over much shorter spatial scales than elsewhere. Colonies separated by as little as 27 km in the zone are genetically distinguishable, while outside the zone, homogeneity cannot be rejected at scales of up to 1400 km. Given a lack of additional physical or environmental barriers to gene flow, the zone of elevated genetic structuring may reflect secondary contact of lineages (with or without selection against interbreeding), or recent colonization and expansion from this region. This study highlights the importance of sampling scale to reveal the cause of genetic structuring. PMID:25833231

  2. The efficient structure elucidation of minor components in heparin digests using microcoil NMR.

    PubMed

    Limtiaco, John F K; Beni, Szabolcs; Jones, Christopher J; Langeslay, Derek J; Larive, Cynthia K

    2011-10-18

    The structural complexity and microheterogeneity of the glycosaminoglycans heparin and heparan sulfate make their characterization a daunting task. The methodology described herein utilizes a combination of enzymatic digestion, size-exclusion chromatography, strong anion-exchange HPLC, reverse-phase ion-pair ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and microcoil NMR for the efficient sequencing of heparin-derived tetrasaccharides. The high mass sensitivity of microcoil NMR makes this technique well suited for the characterization of mass-limited samples removing a bottleneck in the analysis workflow and permitting structural characterization of minor components isolated from a heparin enzymatic digestion. Complete characterization of one tetrasulfonated, five pentasulfonated isomers and two hexasulfonated tetrasaccharide sequences is described. To our knowledge, two of the identified minor tetrasaccharides are unique, and have not been previously reported: IdoA(2S)-GlcNS(6S)-IdoA(2S)-GlcNS(6S) and ΔUA(2S)-GlcNS(6S)-IdoA-GlcNS(6S).

  3. Dark influences. III. Structural characterization of minor mergers of dwarf galaxies with dark satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkenburg, T. K.; Helmi, A.; Sales, L. V.

    2016-10-01

    Context. In the current concordance cosmology small halos are expected to be completely dark and can significantly perturb low-mass galaxies during minor merger interactions. These interactions may well contribute to the diversity of the dwarf galaxy population. Dwarf galaxies in the field are often observed to have peculiarities in their structure, morphology, and kinematics, as well as strong bursts of star formation without apparent cause. Aims: We aim to characterise the signatures of minor mergers of dwarf galaxies with dark satellites to aid their observational identification. Methods: We explored and quantified a variety of structural, morphological, and kinematic indicators of merging dwarf galaxies and their remnants using a suite of hydrodynamical simulations. Results: The most sensitive indicators of mergers with dark satellites are large asymmetries in the gaseous and stellar distributions, enhanced central surface brightness and starbursts, and velocity offsets and misalignments between the gas and stellar components. In general, merging systems span a wide range of values of the most commonly used indicators, while isolated objects tend to have more confined values. Interestingly, we find in our simulations that a significantly off-centred burst of star formation can pinpoint the location of the dark satellite. Observational systems with such characteristics are perhaps the most promising for unveiling the presence of the hitherto missing satellites.

  4. Functional Specificity of a Hox Protein Mediated by the Recognition of Minor Groove Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi,R.; Passner, J.; Rohs, R.; Jain, R.; Sosinksy, A.; Crickmore, M.; Jacob, V.; Aggarwal, A.; Honig, B.; et. al

    2007-01-01

    The recognition of specific DNA-binding sites by transcription factors is a critical yet poorly understood step in the control of gene expression. Members of the Hox family of transcription factors bind DNA by making nearly identical major groove contacts via the recognition helices of their homeodomains. In vivo specificity, however, often depends on extended and unstructured regions that link Hox homeodomains to a DNA-bound cofactor, Extradenticle (Exd). Using a combination of structure determination, computational analysis, and in vitro and in vivo assays, we show that Hox proteins recognize specific Hox-Exd binding sites via residues located in these extended regions that insert into the minor groove but only when presented with the correct DNA sequence. Our results suggest that these residues, which are conserved in a paralog-specific manner, confer specificity by recognizing a sequence-dependent DNA structure instead of directly reading a specific DNA sequence.

  5. Minor groove RNA triplex in the crystal structure of a ribosomal frameshifting viral pseudoknot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, L.; Chen, L.; Egli, M.; Berger, J. M.; Rich, A.

    1999-01-01

    Many viruses regulate translation of polycistronic mRNA using a -1 ribosomal frameshift induced by an RNA pseudoknot. A pseudoknot has two stems that form a quasi-continuous helix and two connecting loops. A 1.6 A crystal structure of the beet western yellow virus (BWYV) pseudoknot reveals rotation and a bend at the junction of the two stems. A loop base is inserted in the major groove of one stem with quadruple-base interactions. The second loop forms a new minor-groove triplex motif with the other stem, involving 2'-OH and triple-base interactions, as well as sodium ion coordination. Overall, the number of hydrogen bonds stabilizing the tertiary interactions exceeds the number involved in Watson-Crick base pairs. This structure will aid mechanistic analyses of ribosomal frameshifting.

  6. Minor groove RNA triplex in the crystal structure of a ribosomal frameshifting viral pseudoknot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, L.; Chen, L.; Egli, M.; Berger, J. M.; Rich, A.

    1999-01-01

    Many viruses regulate translation of polycistronic mRNA using a -1 ribosomal frameshift induced by an RNA pseudoknot. A pseudoknot has two stems that form a quasi-continuous helix and two connecting loops. A 1.6 A crystal structure of the beet western yellow virus (BWYV) pseudoknot reveals rotation and a bend at the junction of the two stems. A loop base is inserted in the major groove of one stem with quadruple-base interactions. The second loop forms a new minor-groove triplex motif with the other stem, involving 2'-OH and triple-base interactions, as well as sodium ion coordination. Overall, the number of hydrogen bonds stabilizing the tertiary interactions exceeds the number involved in Watson-Crick base pairs. This structure will aid mechanistic analyses of ribosomal frameshifting.

  7. Structure of the minor pseudopilin XcpW from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type II secretion system

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, Laura P.; Douzi, Badreddine; Durand, Eric; Dyer, David H.; Voulhouxd, Romé; Forest, Katrina T.

    2012-01-13

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes the type II secretion machinery to transport virulence factors through the outer membrane into the extracellular space. Five proteins in the type II secretion system share sequence homology with pilin subunits of type IV pili and are called the pseudopilins. The major pseudopilin X{sub cp}T{sub G} assembles into an intraperiplasmic pilus and is thought to act in a piston-like manner to push substrates through an outer membrane secretin. The other four minor pseudopilins, X{sub cp}U{sub H}, X{sub cp}V{sub I}, X{sub cp}W{sub J} and X{sub cp}X{sub K}, play less well defined roles in pseudopilus formation. It was recently discovered that these four minor pseudopilins form a quaternary complex that is presumed to initiate the formation of the pseudopilus and to localize to its tip. Here, the structure of X{sub cp}W{sub J} was refined to 1.85 {angstrom} resolution. The structure revealed the type IVa pilin fold with an embellished variable antiparallel {beta}-sheet as also found in the X{sub cp}W{sub J} homologue enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli G{sub sp}J{sub W} and the X{sub cp}U{sub H} homologue Vibrio cholerae E{sub ps}U{sub H}. It is proposed that the exposed surface of this sheet may cradle the long N-terminal 1 helix of another pseudopilin. The final 31 amino acids of the X{sub cp}W{sub J} structure are instrinsically disordered. Deletion of this unstructured region of X{sub cp}W{sub J} did not prevent type II secretion in vivo.

  8. Factors influencing subcellular localization of the human papillomavirus L2 minor structural protein

    SciTech Connect

    Kieback, Elisa; Mueller, Martin . E-mail: Martin.Mueller@dkfz.de

    2006-02-05

    Two structural proteins form the capsids of papillomaviruses. The major structural protein L1 is the structural determinant of the capsids and is present in 360 copies arranged in 72 pentamers. The minor structural protein L2 is estimated to be present in twelve copies per capsid. Possible roles for L2 in interaction with cell surface receptors and in virion uptake have been suggested. As previously reported, L2 localizes in subnuclear domains identified as nuclear domain 10 (ND10). As it was demonstrated that L2 is able to recruit viral and cellular proteins to ND10, a possible role for L2 as a mediator in viral assembly has been proposed. In this study, we determined factors influencing the localization of L2 at ND10. Under conditions of moderate L2 expression level and in the absence of heterologous viral components, we observed that, in contrast to previous reports, L2 is mainly distributed homogeneously throughout the nucleus. L2, however, is recruited to ND10 at a higher expression level or in the presence of viral components derived from vaccinia virus or from Semliki Forest virus. We observed that translocation of L2 to ND10 is not a concentration-dependent accumulation but rather seems to be triggered by yet unidentified cellular factors. In contrast to HPV 11 and 16 L2, the HPV 18 L2 protein seems to require L1 for efficient nuclear accumulation.

  9. Core-hole effect on XANES and electronic structure of minor actinide dioxides with fluorite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Chikashi; Nishi, Tsuyoshi; Nakada, Masami; Akabori, Mitsuo; Hirata, Masaru; Kaji, Yoshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    The authors investigated theoretically core-hole effects on X-ray absorption near-edge structures (XANES) of Np and Am LIII in neptunium dioxide (NpO2) and americium dioxide (AmO2) with CaF2-type crystal lattices using the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FP-LAPW) method. The peak creation mechanism of XANES was shown by examining the electronic structures of these oxides, which indicated that core-hole screening was more marked for AmO2 than for NpO2 because of the difference in the charge transfer between these oxides. Furthermore, the results of charge density analysis suggested that the white line was assigned to the quasi-bound state composed of the localized Np d or Am d components and O components, and that the tail structure was created as a result of delocalized standing waves between the Np or Am atoms.

  10. Working in a Majority Context: A Structural Model of Heterosexism as Minority Stress in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldo, Craig R.

    1999-01-01

    Study uses the minority-stress theory to develop models of antecedents and outcomes of heterosexism in the workplace. Experiencing heterosexism was associated with adverse psychological, health, and job-related outcomes, thus supporting the minority-stress theory. This theory is further discussed in light of the mental-health history of…

  11. Structural waters in the minor and major grooves of DNA--a major factor governing structural adjustments of the A-T mini-helix.

    PubMed

    Zubatiuk, Tetiana; Shishkin, Oleg; Gorb, Leonid; Hovorun, Dmytro; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2015-01-15

    The role of microhydration in structural adjustments of the AT-tract in B-DNA was studied at the B97-D/def2-SV(P) level. The (dA:dT)5 complexes with 10 water molecules in minor and 15 water molecules in major grooves were studied. The obtained network of hydrogen bonds revealed the dependence between the groove width and the types of water patterns. In the minor groove, the following patterns were observed: interstrand one-water bridges similar to that of the Dickerson "water spine" and interstrand two-water bridges. The network of structural waters in the major groove is more diverse than that in the minor groove, which agrees with crystallographic data. As the major groove is wider, it is enriched by water molecules forming two- and three-water bridges. Results suggest the nucleobase-water interactions in both grooves prevent AT-tract twisting and its "collapse" along the minor groove. Whereby, a helix structure with narrow minor and wide major grooves is formed. The structural waters affect the polynucleotide conformation so that it becomes similar to poly(dA)·poly(dT) in fibers and acquires features of the A-tracts in DNA in solution. We suggest that formation of specific water patterns in both grooves is the factor responsible for stabilization of A-tracts with a narrowed minor groove, leading in turn to their strong intrinsic bending in DNA.

  12. Structural Characterization of the Degradation Products of a Minor Natural Sweet Diterpene Glycoside Rebaudioside M under Acidic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Markosyan, Avetik

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of rebaudioside M, a minor sweet component of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, under conditions that simulated extreme pH and temperature conditions has been studied. Thus, rebaudioside M was treated with 0.1 M phosphoric acid solution (pH 2.0) and 80 °C temperature for 24 h. Experimental results indicated that rebaudioside M under low pH and higher temperature yielded three minor degradation compounds, whose structural characterization was performed on the basis of 1D (1H-, 13C-) & 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC) NMR, HRMS, MS/MS spectral data as well as enzymatic and acid hydrolysis studies. PMID:24424316

  13. Structural characterization of the degradation products of a minor natural sweet diterpene glycoside Rebaudioside M under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Markosyan, Avetik

    2014-01-14

    Degradation of rebaudioside M, a minor sweet component of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, under conditions that simulated extreme pH and temperature conditions has been studied. Thus, rebaudioside M was treated with 0.1 M phosphoric acid solution (pH 2.0) and 80 °C temperature for 24 h. Experimental results indicated that rebaudioside M under low pH and higher temperature yielded three minor degradation compounds, whose structural characterization was performed on the basis of 1D (1H-, 13C-) & 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC) NMR, HRMS, MS/MS spectral data as well as enzymatic and acid hydrolysis studies.

  14. Structural Basis of Chaperone Recognition of Type III Secretion System Minor Translocator Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Job, Viviana; Matteï, Pierre-Jean; Lemaire, David; Attree, Ina; Dessen, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a complex nanomachine employed by many Gram-negative pathogens, including the nosocomial agent Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to inject toxins directly into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. A key component of all T3SS is the translocon, a proteinaceous channel that is inserted into the target membrane, which allows passage of toxins into target cells. In most bacterial species, two distinct membrane proteins (the “translocators”) are involved in translocon formation, whereas in the bacterial cytoplasm, however, they remain associated to a common chaperone. To date, the strategy employed by a single chaperone to recognize two distinct translocators is unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex between the Pseudomonas translocator chaperone PcrH and a short region from the minor translocator PopD. PcrH displays a 7-helical tetratricopeptide repeat fold that harbors the PopD peptide within its concave region, originally believed to be involved in recognition of the major translocator, PopB. Point mutations introduced into the PcrH-interacting region of PopD impede translocator-chaperone recognition in vitro and lead to impairment of bacterial cytotoxicity toward macrophages in vivo. These results indicate that T3SS translocator chaperones form binary complexes with their partner molecules, and the stability of their interaction regions must be strictly maintained to guarantee bacterial infectivity. The PcrH-PopD complex displays homologs among a number of pathogenic strains and could represent a novel, potential target for antibiotic development. PMID:20385547

  15. Structural basis of chaperone recognition of type III secretion system minor translocator proteins.

    PubMed

    Job, Viviana; Matteï, Pierre-Jean; Lemaire, David; Attree, Ina; Dessen, Andréa

    2010-07-23

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a complex nanomachine employed by many Gram-negative pathogens, including the nosocomial agent Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to inject toxins directly into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. A key component of all T3SS is the translocon, a proteinaceous channel that is inserted into the target membrane, which allows passage of toxins into target cells. In most bacterial species, two distinct membrane proteins (the "translocators") are involved in translocon formation, whereas in the bacterial cytoplasm, however, they remain associated to a common chaperone. To date, the strategy employed by a single chaperone to recognize two distinct translocators is unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex between the Pseudomonas translocator chaperone PcrH and a short region from the minor translocator PopD. PcrH displays a 7-helical tetratricopeptide repeat fold that harbors the PopD peptide within its concave region, originally believed to be involved in recognition of the major translocator, PopB. Point mutations introduced into the PcrH-interacting region of PopD impede translocator-chaperone recognition in vitro and lead to impairment of bacterial cytotoxicity toward macrophages in vivo. These results indicate that T3SS translocator chaperones form binary complexes with their partner molecules, and the stability of their interaction regions must be strictly maintained to guarantee bacterial infectivity. The PcrH-PopD complex displays homologs among a number of pathogenic strains and could represent a novel, potential target for antibiotic development.

  16. Monitoring the thermal structure and minor species of Venus mesosphere with ALMA submm observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccialli, Arianna; Moreno, Raphael; Encrenaz, Therese A.; Fouchet, Thierry; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Moullet, Arielle; Widemann, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Submillimeter observations obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) allowed to monitoring the temporal evolution of temperature, sulfur species and water in the upper atmosphere of Venus. We observed the upper atmosphere of Venus with ALMA on November 14, 15, 26 and 27, 2011 during the first ALMA Early Science observation cycle. These observations targeted CO, SO, HDO and SO2 transitions around 345 GHz during four sequences of 30 minutes each. The disk of Venus was about 11" with an illumination factor of 90%, so that mostly the dayside of the planet was mapped.Thanks to the imaging capabilities of ALMA, we could obtain instantaneous maps of temperature, SO and HDO for the four days of observations. Assuming a nominal dayside CO abundance profile adapted from Clancy et al. 2012, we retrieved vertical temperature profiles between 60-100 km of altitude over the entire disk as a function of latitude and local time for the four days of observation. Temperature profiles were later used to derive the abundances of minor species (SO and HDO) in each pixel of the disk in order to study their spatial and temporal variability. Moreover, we plan to analyze the SO2 disk-averaged spectra to study its temporal variability.Temperature profiles show at all latitudes and local times a similar behavior with a constant decrease of temperature up to an altitude of about 80-100 km, depending on the local time, followed by a constant increase of temperature. Up to about 90 km temperatures increase from the morning side towards the evening terminator, this trend is inverted above 90 km. The thermal structure does not show strong temporal variations from one day to another. An exception is the thermal structure of the November 27: compared to the first day of observation, temperatures change of more than 15 K.SO exhibits a strong spatial and temporal variability with a mixing ratio ranging from 0 to 15 ppb. It presents also a clear cutoff around 89 km. HDO is detected

  17. A last stand in the Po valley: genetic structure and gene flow patterns in Ulmus minor and U. pumila

    PubMed Central

    Bertolasi, B.; Leonarduzzi, C.; Piotti, A.; Leonardi, S.; Zago, L.; Gui, L.; Gorian, F.; Vanetti, I.; Binelli, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Ulmus minor has been severely affected by Dutch elm disease (DED). The introduction into Europe of the exotic Ulmus pumila, highly tolerant to DED, has resulted in it widely replacing native U. minor populations. Morphological and genetic evidence of hybridization has been reported, and thus there is a need for assessment of interspecific gene flow patterns in natural populations. This work therefore aimed at studying pollen gene flow in a remnant U. minor stand surrounded by trees of both species scattered across an agricultural landscape. Methods All trees from a small natural stand (350 in number) and the surrounding agricultural area within a 5-km radius (89) were genotyped at six microsatellite loci. Trees were morphologically characterized as U. minor, U. pumila or intermediate phenotypes, and morphological identification was compared with Bayesian clustering of genotypes. For paternity analysis, seeds were collected in two consecutive years from 20 and 28 mother trees. Maximum likelihood paternity assignment was used to elucidate intra- and interspecific gene flow patterns. Key Results Genetic structure analyses indicated the presence of two genetic clusters only partially matching the morphological identification. The paternity analysis results were consistent between the two consecutive years of sampling and showed high pollen immigration rates (∼0·80) and mean pollination distances (∼3 km), and a skewed distribution of reproductive success. Few intercluster pollinations and putative hybrid individuals were found. Conclusions Pollen gene flow is not impeded in the fragmented agricultural landscape investigated. High pollen immigration and extensive pollen dispersal distances are probably counteracting the potential loss of genetic variation caused by isolation. Some evidence was also found that U. minor and U. pumila can hybridize when in sympatry. Although hybridization might have beneficial effects on both species, remnant U

  18. New Structural Insights into the Genome and Minor Capsid Proteins of BK Polyomavirus using Cryo-Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hurdiss, Daniel L.; Morgan, Ethan L.; Thompson, Rebecca F.; Prescott, Emma L.; Panou, Margarita M.; Macdonald, Andrew; Ranson, Neil A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary BK polyomavirus is the causative agent of several diseases in transplant patients and the immunosuppressed. In order to better understand the structure and life cycle of BK, we produced infectious virions and VP1-only virus-like particles in cell culture, and determined their three-dimensional structures using cryo-electron microscopy (EM) and single-particle image processing. The resulting 7.6-Å resolution structure of BK and 9.1-Å resolution of the virus-like particles are the highest-resolution cryo-EM structures of any polyomavirus. These structures confirm that the architecture of the major structural protein components of these human polyomaviruses are similar to previous structures from other hosts, but give new insight into the location and role of the enigmatic minor structural proteins, VP2 and VP3. We also observe two shells of electron density, which we attribute to a structurally ordered part of the viral genome, and discrete contacts between this density and both VP1 and the minor capsid proteins. PMID:26996963

  19. [Comparing ethnic structures and government policies affecting minorities in South Tyrol (Alto Adige) and Burgenland].

    PubMed

    Munz, R

    1991-01-01

    The ethnic minorities of lands that became parts of Italy, Germany, Hungary, and Austria after World War I are discussed in terms of their assimilation and legal and political rights in the various countries. Particular attention is given to South Tyrol and Burgenland. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  20. Against the Tide: Household Structure, Opportunities, and Outcomes among White and Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carolyn J.; Holzer, Harry J.; Chen, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Gaps in educational and employment outcomes persist (and in some cases are growing) among various groups of young adults in the United States. Particularly notable are the gaps that exist between minority young adults--especially black young adults--and their white counterparts. One oft-cited reason for this trend is the growing number of youth…

  1. Against the Tide: Household Structure, Opportunities, and Outcomes among White and Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carolyn J.; Holzer, Harry J.; Chen, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Gaps in educational and employment outcomes persist (and in some cases are growing) among various groups of young adults in the United States. Particularly notable are the gaps that exist between minority young adults--especially black young adults--and their white counterparts. One oft-cited reason for this trend is the growing number of youth…

  2. Copper(II)-substituted horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase: structure of the minor species.

    PubMed

    Formicka, G; Zeppezauer, M; Fey, F; Hüttermann, J

    1992-08-31

    Oxygen treatment of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase EE isozyme substituted with Cu(II) at the catalytic site leads to bleaching with concomitant reduction to Cu(I) of approximately 90% of total Cu(II). The Cu(II) of the remaining 'minor species' cannot be reduced nor does it interact with exogenous ligands, e.g. 2-mercaptoethanol, imidazole, pyrazole, or azide ions. The EPR spectrum is axial with a super-hyperfine splitting of 15.6 G indicating binding of one nitrogen atom to Cu(II). These data as well as the energies and intensities of the absorption and CD spectra suggest the Cu(II) ion of the minor species to be located in the catalytic site of HLADH in a position and geometry different from that of the major species.

  3. Similarities in the structural organization of major and minor ampullate spider silk.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Periklis; Ene, Roxana; Weidner, Immanuel; Kremer, Friedrich

    2009-05-19

    Minor and major ampullate spider silks are studied under varying mechanical stress by static and time-resolved FT-IR spectroscopy. This enables one to trace the external mechanical excitation on a microscopic level and to determine for the different moieties the time dependence of the molecular order parameters and corresponding band shifts. It is concluded that the hierarchical nanostructure of both types of silk is similar, being composed of highly oriented nanocrystals, which are interconnected by amorphous chains that obey the worm-like chain model and have a Gaussian distribution of pre-strain. By that it is possible to describe the mechanical properties of both silks by two adjustable parameters only, the center and width of the distribution. For major ampullate silk, the observed variability is small in pronounced contrast to the findings for minor ampullate.

  4. Value of the small cohort study including a physical examination for minor structural defects in identifying new human teratogens.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Christina D

    2011-03-01

    Most known human teratogens are associated with a unique or characteristic pattern of major and minor malformations and this pattern helps to establish the causal link between the teratogenic exposure and the outcome. Although traditional case-control and cohort study designs can help identify potential teratogens, there is an important role for small cohort studies that include a dysmorphological examination of exposed and unexposed infants for minor structural defects. In combination with other study design approaches, the small cohort study with a specialized physical examination fulfills a necessary function in screening for new potential teratogens and can help to better delineate the spectrum and magnitude of risk for known teratogens. © 2011 The Author. Congenital Anomalies © 2011 Japanese Teratology Society.

  5. [Sexual minorities: Concepts, attitudes and structure for an appropriate psychotherapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Igartua, Karine J; Montoro, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective To propose a theoretical model and clinical approach to sexual minority patients who consult mental health professionalsMethods Clinicians at the McGill University Sexual Identity Center (MUSIC) who have been treating patients from various sexual minorities for more than 15 years present useful theoretical constructs of gender and sexuality as well as guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of patients consulting for discomfort or confusion surrounding their sexual orientation, their gender identity or both, based on both the current literature and their clinical experience.Results The notions of non-binary construction of gender, of social determinism of gender roles and expression, and of gender creativity are presented. Sexual orientation is divided into four most commonly used dimensions (emotional attraction, physical attraction, behaviour and identity); the fluidity of these and their potential non-concordance are described. The fact that attraction to one gender is independent of attraction to another gender is highlighted. An attitude of openness to all forms of gender expression and sexual orientation constellations is encouraged to allow the patient free exploration of the several facets of their sexuality.Various domains to explore in evaluating sexual orientation and gender as well as therapeutic avenues are proposed. Areas to enquire about include: mental, physical and social experiences of gender, eroticism and sexual fantasies towards all genders, emotional attraction towards them, sexual and romantic experiences, comfort and certainty about one's identity and about disclosing it.Psychoeducation can be used to teach about sexual diversity and to assess the risks and benefits of coming out to self, family, friends, co-workers or strangers. Cognitive strategies can be undertaken to debunk homophobic and transphobic myths which may fuel poor self-esteem. Psychodynamic approaches can be used to heal the narcissistic wounds of homophobia

  6. Under-representation of minority ethnic groups in cardiovascular research: a semi-structured interview study.

    PubMed

    Gill, Paramjit S; Plumridge, Gill; Khunti, Kamlesh; Greenfield, Sheila

    2013-04-01

    Minority ethnic groups are often excluded from research, and the reasons for this are complex. This study aimed to explore why minority ethnic groups do not participate in research, and how their participation can be increased. Ninety-one interviews were undertaken with people who either had (n = 48) or had not (n = 43) responded to the invitation to take part in a community heart failure screening study. These were split across four ethnic groups (African Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Indian and Pakistani) and between men and women. Participants were interviewed once, face-to-face, either in English or with an interpreter if they wished. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically. The main reason for participating in the screening study was for a health/heart check. Many participants either had not understood that it was research or had not known what this meant. Most people who did not participate had not remembered receiving the invitation or had been unavailable at the time. Few participants, including those who had and those who had not participated in the screening study, had any understanding of the objectives and nature of research. Once this had been briefly explained to them, many described altruistic reasons for why they would participate in research in the future. We have shown that South Asians and Black African-Caribbean communities are willing to take part in research as long as they are approached directly and the reasons for the research and potential benefits are explained clearly to them.

  7. The solution structure of an HMG-I(Y)-DNA complex defines a new architectural minor groove binding motif.

    PubMed

    Huth, J R; Bewley, C A; Nissen, M S; Evans, J N; Reeves, R; Gronenborn, A M; Clore, G M

    1997-08-01

    The solution structure of a complex between a truncated form of HMG-I(Y), consisting of the second and third DNA binding domains (residues 51-90), and a DNA dodecamer containing the PRDII site of the interferon-beta promoter has been solved by multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The stoichiometry of the complex is one molecule of HMG-I(Y) to two molecules of DNA. The structure reveals a new architectural minor groove binding motif which stabilizes B-DNA, thereby facilitating the binding of other transcription factors in the opposing major groove. The interactions involve a central Arg-Gly-Arg motif together with two other modules that participate in extensive hydrophobic and polar contracts. The absence of one of these modules in the third DNA binding domain accounts for its-100 fold reduced affinity relative to the second one.

  8. Structural and Dynamic Characterization of Polymerase κ’s Minor Groove Lesion Processing Reveals How Adduct Topology Impacts Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA lesion bypass polymerases process different lesions with varying fidelities, but the structural, dynamic, and mechanistic origins of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Human DNA polymerase κ (Polκ), a member of the Y family of lesion bypass polymerases, is specialized to bypass bulky DNA minor groove lesions in a predominantly error-free manner, by housing them in its unique gap. We have investigated the role of the unique Polκ gap and N-clasp structural features in the fidelity of minor groove lesion processing with extensive molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations to pinpoint their functioning in lesion bypass. Here we consider the N2-dG covalent adduct derived from the carcinogenic aromatic amine, 2-acetylaminofluorene (dG-N2-AAF), that is produced via the combustion of kerosene and diesel fuel. Our simulations reveal how the spacious gap directionally accommodates the lesion aromatic ring system as it transits through the stages of incorporation of the predominant correct partner dCTP opposite the damaged guanine, with preservation of local active site organization for nucleotidyl transfer. Furthermore, flexibility in Polκ’s N-clasp facilitates the significant misincorporation of dTTP opposite dG-N2-AAF via wobble pairing. Notably, we show that N-clasp flexibility depends on lesion topology, being markedly reduced in the case of the benzo[a]pyrene-derived major adduct to N2-dG, whose bypass by Polκ is nearly error-free. Thus, our studies reveal how Polκ’s unique structural and dynamic properties can regulate its bypass fidelity of polycyclic aromatic lesions and how the fidelity is impacted by lesion structures. PMID:25148552

  9. Executive Function of Spanish-Speaking Language-Minority Preschoolers: Structure and Relations with Early Literacy Skills and Behavioral Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Lerner, Matthew D.; Goodrich, J. Marc; Farrington, Amber L.; Allan, Darcey M.

    2015-01-01

    Young children’s executive function (EF) is increasingly recognized as an important construct associated with development in cognitive and socio-emotional domains. To date, however, few studies have examined EF in populations of language-minority children. In this study, 241 Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers who ranged in age from 38 - 69 months (M = 54.23, SD = 6.17) completed three tasks designed to measure inhibitory control (IC) and four tasks designed to measure working memory (WM). Children completed assessments of their vocabulary skills, early literacy skills, and behavioral self-regulation in both English and Spanish, and their classroom teachers completed three behavior-rating measures. Children were classified as more proficient in English or Spanish based on their scores on the vocabulary measures, and all IC and WM measures were administered in the children’s more proficient language. Results of confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor model of EF for both groups of children as well as strong measurement and structural invariance across groups. Children’s EF was substantially related to the language, early literacy, and behavioral self-regulation measures, as well as teacher ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. For children with more proficient English, EF was associated with skills in both English and Spanish; however, for children with more proficient Spanish, EF was associated primarily with skills in Spanish. These results provide evidence of strong correspondence for EF measured in Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers and monolingual preschoolers, and they identify a potential key factor that can enhance understanding of development in this population of children. PMID:26704302

  10. Executive function of Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers: Structure and relations with early literacy skills and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Lerner, Matthew D; Goodrich, J Marc; Farrington, Amber L; Allan, Darcey M

    2016-04-01

    Young children's executive function (EF) is increasingly recognized as an important construct associated with development in cognitive and socioemotional domains. To date, however, few studies have examined EF in populations of language-minority children. In this study, 241 Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers who ranged in age from 38 to 69 months (M=54.23 months, SD=6.17) completed three tasks designed to measure inhibitory control (IC) and four tasks designed to measure working memory (WM). Children completed assessments of their vocabulary skills, early literacy skills, and behavioral self-regulation in both English and Spanish, and their classroom teachers completed three behavior rating measures. Children were classified as more proficient in English or Spanish based on their scores on the vocabulary measures, and all IC and WM measures were administered in the children's more proficient language. Results of confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor model of EF for both groups of children as well as strong measurement and structural invariance across groups. Children's EF was substantially related to the language, early literacy, and behavioral self-regulation measures as well as teacher ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. For children with more proficient English, EF was associated with skills in both English and Spanish; however, for children with more proficient Spanish, EF was associated primarily with skills in Spanish. These results provide evidence of strong correspondence for EF measured in Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers and monolingual preschoolers, and they identify a potential key factor that can enhance understanding of development in this population of children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mcl-1-Bim complexes accommodate surprising point mutations via minor structural changes

    SciTech Connect

    Fire, Emiko; Gullá, Stefano V.; Grant, Robert A.; Keating, Amy E.

    2010-06-25

    Mcl-1 is an antiapoptotic Bcl-2-family protein that protects cells against death. Structures of Mcl-1, and of other anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, reveal a surface groove into which the {alpha}-helical BH3 regions of certain proapoptotic proteins can bind. Despite high overall structural conservation, differences in this groove afford binding specificity that is important for the mechanism of Bcl-2 family function. We report the crystal structure of human Mcl-1 bound to a BH3 peptide derived from human Bim and the structures for three complexes that accommodate large physicochemical changes at conserved Bim sites. The mutations had surprisingly modest effects on complex stability, and the structures show that Mcl-1 can undergo small changes to accommodate the mutant ligands. For example, a shift in a leucine side chain fills a hole left by an isoleucine-to-alanine mutation at the first hydrophobic buried position of Bim BH3. Larger changes are also observed, with shifting of helix {alpha}3 accommodating an isoleucine-to-tyrosine mutation at this same position. We surveyed the variation in available Mcl-1 and Bcl-x{sub L} structures and observed moderate flexibility that is likely critical for facilitating interactions of diverse BH3-only proteins with Mcl-1. With the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members attracting significant attention as therapeutic targets, these structures contribute to our growing understanding of how specificity is achieved and can help to guide the design of novel inhibitors that target Mcl-1.

  12. Mcl-1–Bim complexes accommodate surprising point mutations via minor structural changes

    PubMed Central

    Fire, Emiko; Gullá, Stefano V; Grant, Robert A; Keating, Amy E

    2010-01-01

    Mcl-1 is an antiapoptotic Bcl-2-family protein that protects cells against death. Structures of Mcl-1, and of other anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, reveal a surface groove into which the α-helical BH3 regions of certain proapoptotic proteins can bind. Despite high overall structural conservation, differences in this groove afford binding specificity that is important for the mechanism of Bcl-2 family function. We report the crystal structure of human Mcl-1 bound to a BH3 peptide derived from human Bim and the structures for three complexes that accommodate large physicochemical changes at conserved Bim sites. The mutations had surprisingly modest effects on complex stability, and the structures show that Mcl-1 can undergo small changes to accommodate the mutant ligands. For example, a shift in a leucine side chain fills a hole left by an isoleucine-to-alanine mutation at the first hydrophobic buried position of Bim BH3. Larger changes are also observed, with shifting of helix α3 accommodating an isoleucine-to-tyrosine mutation at this same position. We surveyed the variation in available Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL structures and observed moderate flexibility that is likely critical for facilitating interactions of diverse BH3-only proteins with Mcl-1. With the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members attracting significant attention as therapeutic targets, these structures contribute to our growing understanding of how specificity is achieved and can help to guide the design of novel inhibitors that target Mcl-1. PMID:20066663

  13. Insights into the structural and physicochemical properties of small granular starches from two hydrophyte duckweeds, Spirodela oligorrhiza and Lemna minor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Yu, Changjiang; Ma, Yubin; Xu, Hua; Wang, Shumin; Wang, Yu; Liu, Xingxun; Zhou, Gongke

    2016-11-29

    The structure and physicochemical properties of starches from two hydrophyte duckweeds, Spirodela oligorrhiza and Lemna minor, were investigated and compared in this study. The amylose content and average size of starches were determined to be 20.85%, 4.70 μm and 27.77%, 6.17 μm for Spirodela oligorrhiza and Lemna minor, respectively. The average chain length of two duckweed starches was measured to be around DP 28. The chain length distribution was observed to be greatly different from other reported starches for the high proportion of long chains (DP ≥ 37) over 50%. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction profiles of the two starch samples displayed typical B-type diffraction pattern. The gelatinization enthalpy-changes (ΔHgel) of two starch samples was about 10.40 J/g for two duckweed starches. The present results suggested the potential utilization of small granular starches from duckweed in functional foods and dietary supplement products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Atomic Structures of Minor Proteins VI and VII in the Human Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xinghong; Wu, Lily; Sun, Ren; Zhou, Z Hong

    2017-10-04

    Human adenoviruses (Ad) are dsDNA viruses associated with infectious diseases, yet better known as tools for gene delivery and oncolytic anti-cancer therapy. Atomic structures of Ad provide the basis for the development of antivirals and for engineering efforts towards more effective applications. Since 2010, atomic models of human Ad5 have been independently derived from photographic film cryoEM and X-ray crystallography, but discrepancies exist concerning the assignment of cement proteins IIIa, VIII and IX. To clarify these discrepancies, here we have employed the technology of direct electron-counting to obtain a cryoEM structure of human Ad5 at 3.2 Å resolution. Our improved structure unambiguously confirmed our previous cryoEM models of proteins IIIa, VIII and IX and explained the likely cause of conflict in the crystallography models. The improved structure also allows the identification of three new components in the cavities of hexons - the cleaved N-terminus of precursor protein VI (pVIn), the cleaved N-terminus of precursor protein VII (pVIIn2), and mature protein VI. The binding of pVIIn2--by extension that of genome-condensing pVII--to hexons is consistent with the previously proposed dsDNA genome-capsid co-assembly for adenoviruses, which resembles that of ssRNA viruses but differs from the well-established mechanism of pumping dsDNA into a preformed protein capsid, as exemplified by tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses.IMPORTANCE Adenovirus is a double-edged sword to humans - as a widespread pathogen and a bioengineering tool for anti-cancer and gene therapy. Atomic structure of the virus provides the basis for antiviral and application developments, but conflicting atomic models from conventional/film cryoEM and X-ray crystallography for important cement proteins IIIa, VIII, and IX have caused confusion. Using the cutting-edge cryoEM technology with electron counting, we improved the structure of human adenovirus type 5 and confirmed our previous

  15. The Interaction between Family Structure and Child Gender on Behavior Problems in Urban Ethnic Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokrue, Kathariya; Chen, Yung Y.; Elias, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that children from single-parent households fare worse behaviorally than those from two-parent households. Studies examining single-parent households often fail to distinguish between single-mother and single-father households. Further, there are inconsistent findings regarding the effect of family structure on boys…

  16. The Interaction between Family Structure and Child Gender on Behavior Problems in Urban Ethnic Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokrue, Kathariya; Chen, Yung Y.; Elias, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that children from single-parent households fare worse behaviorally than those from two-parent households. Studies examining single-parent households often fail to distinguish between single-mother and single-father households. Further, there are inconsistent findings regarding the effect of family structure on boys…

  17. Strong-acid, carboxyl-group structures in fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia. 1. Minor structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Wershaw, R. L.; Reddy, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of the strong-acid characteristics (pKa 3.0 or less) of fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia, was conducted. Quantitative determinations were made for amino acid and sulfur-containing acid structures, oxalate half-ester structures, malonic acid structures, keto acid structures, and aromatic carboxyl-group structures. These determinations were made by using a variety of spectrometric (13C-nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, and ultraviolet spectrometry) and titrimetric characterizations on fulvic acid or fulvic acid samples that were chemically derivatized to indicate certain functional groups. Only keto acid and aromatic carboxyl-group structures contributed significantly to the strong-acid characteristics of the fulvic acid; these structures accounted for 43% of the strong-acid acidity. The remaining 57% of the strong acids are aliphatic carboxyl groups in unusual and/or complex configurations for which limited model compound data are available.

  18. Structure of the Minor Pseudopilin EpsH From the Type 2 Secretion System of Vibrio Cholerae

    SciTech Connect

    Yanez, M.E.; Korotkov, K.V.; Abendroth, J.; Hol, W.G.J.

    2009-05-28

    Many Gram-negative bacteria use the multi-protein type II secretion system (T2SS) to selectively translocate virulence factors from the periplasmic space into the extracellular environment. In Vibrio cholerae the T2SS is called the extracellular protein secretion (Eps) system, which translocates cholera toxin and several enzymes in their folded state across the outer membrane. Five proteins of the T2SS, the pseudopilins, are thought to assemble into a pseudopilus, which may control the outer membrane pore EpsD, and participate in the active export of proteins in a 'piston-like' manner. We report here the 2.0 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated variant of EpsH, a minor pseudopilin from Vibrio cholerae. While EpsH maintains an N-terminal {alpha}-helix and C-terminal {beta}-sheet consistent with the type 4a pilin fold, structural comparisons reveal major differences between the minor pseudopilin EpsH and the major pseudopilin GspG from Klebsiella oxytoca: EpsH contains a large {beta}-sheet in the variable domain, where GspG contains an {alpha}-helix. Most importantly, EpsH contains at its surface a hydrophobic crevice between its variable and conserved {beta}-sheets, wherein a majority of the conserved residues within the EpsH family are clustered. In a tentative model of a T2SS pseudopilus with EpsH at its tip, the conserved crevice faces away from the helix axis. This conserved surface region may be critical for interacting with other proteins from the T2SS machinery.

  19. Isonymy and the structure of the Provençal-Italian ethnic minority.

    PubMed

    Biondi, G; Vienna, A; Peña Garcia, J A; Mascie-Taylor, C G N

    2005-03-01

    Surnames were obtained for the second half of the 20th century from civil and religious marriage registers on fifteen Provençal-Italian and five Italian villages of Cuneo Province, Italy. To insert in the analysis an outward comparison, surnames from two Italian villages of Turin Province, one parish of Turin, one village of Alessandria Province and one village of Asti Province were also collected. Ethnicity does not seem to be the main factor affecting the present genetic structure of the Provençal-Italians. They are an open community, and evidence the end of the genetic isolation of the alpine populations.

  20. Interconversion of Functional Activity by Minor Structural Alterations in Nonpeptide AT2 Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Migration of the methylene imidazole side chain in the first reported selective drug-like AT2 receptor agonist C21/M024 (1) delivered the AT2 receptor antagonist C38/M132 (2). We now report that the AT2 receptor antagonist compound 4, a biphenyl derivative that is structurally related to 2, is transformed to the agonist 6 by migration of the isobutyl group. The importance of the relative position of the methylene imidazole and the isobutyl substituent is highlighted herein. PMID:25699147

  1. Isolation and structural characterization of a new minor diterpene glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Zamora, Julian

    2014-12-01

    From the commercial extract of the leaves of the sweet plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni obtained from Sinochem Qingdao Co. Ltd., a new diterpene glycoside having three β-D-glucopyranosyl units of which two of them were connected in a relatively rare linkage of 3-β-D-glucobiosyl substitution at C-19 position of the aglycone steviol. The structure of the new compound has been characterized as 13-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(3-O-β-D- glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1) on the basis of extensive 1D (1H and 13C) and 2D NMR (TOCSY, HMQC, and HMBC), and High Resolution mass spectroscopic data as well as hydrolysis studies.

  2. Social disintegration and the spread of AIDS--II. Meltdown of sociogeographic structure in urban minority neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Wallace, R

    1993-10-01

    An elementary model of sociogeographic network structure in an urban minority community suggests externally applied stress, particularly that which triggers frequent individual or family moves of increasing distance, may cause a sudden 'phase change' resulting in disconnection of previously integrated subgroups from the community. Such 'community meltdown' would seriously disrupt mechanisms for social control, economic opportunity and socialization of youth, while intensifying substance abuse and indiscriminate and frequent sexual activity, particularly among the very young. 'Phase change' of this nature would seem to preclude success of programs to control spread of HIV infection, particularly in heterosexual populations. The possibility is explored that programs of 'community recrystalization' in disintegrated urban area might likewise need to exceed some threshold of investment and organizing activity before becoming effective. However, if supported to levels above threshold, this work implies such programs might have very great impact in a very short time. The possibility of interaction between behavioral pathologies resulting from the initial meltdown and further consequent deterioration in sociogeographic network structure leads to speculation that the threshold for recrystalization may become significantly and progressively greater than for meltdown. Implications of these matters for diffusion of HIV into the general population are discussed.

  3. NMR Spectroscopy and Structural Characterization of Dithiophosphinates Relevant to Minor Actinide Extraction Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott R. Daly; Kevin S. Boland; John R. Klaehn; Stosh A. Kozimor; Molly M. MacInnes; Dean R. Peterman; Brian L. Scott

    2012-02-01

    Synthetic routes to alkyl and aryl substituted dithiophosphinate salts that contain non-coordinating PPh{sub 4}{sup 1+} counter cations are reported. In general, these compounds can be prepared via a multi-step procedure that starts with reacting secondary phosphines, i.e. HPR{sub 2}, with two equivalents elemental S. This transformation proceeds in two steps - first oxidation of the phosphine and second insertion of S into the H-P bond - and has been used to synthesize a series of dithiophoshinic acids, which were fully characterized, namely HS{sub 2}P(p-CF{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 2}, HS{sub 2}P(m-CF{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 2}, HS{sub 2}P(o-MeC{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 2}, and HS{sub 2}P(o-MeOC{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 2}. Although the insertion step was found to be much slower than the oxidation reaction, the formation of (NH{sub 4})S{sub 2}PR{sub 2} from HPSR{sub 2} occurs almost instantaneous upon addition of NH{sub 4}OH. Subsequent cation exchange reactions proceed readily with PPh{sub 4}Cl in water, under air, and at ambient conditions to provide analytically pure samples of [PPh{sub 4}][S{sub 2}PR{sub 2}] (R = p-CF{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, m-CF{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, o-CF{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, o-MeC{sub 6}H{sub 4}, o-MeOC{sub 6}H{sub 4}, Ph, and Me, 1b-7b, respectively), which were characterized by elemental analysis, multinuclear NMR, and IR spectroscopy. In addition the S{sub 2}PMe{sub 2}{sup 1-}, S{sub 2}PPh{sub 2}{sup 1-}, and dithiophosphinates with ortho-substituted arene rings were characterized by X-ray crystallography. Structural analysis show that, as opposed to the acids which have short P=S double bonds and long P-SH single bonds, the metric parameters for the S atoms in S{sub 2}PR{sub 2}{sup 1-} are equivalent. In addition, the presence of large non-coordinating PPh{sub 4}{sup 1+} cations guard against intermolecular P-S {hor_ellipsis} X interactions and insure that the P-S bond is isolated. Overall, this synthetic procedure provides high

  4. X-ray diffraction study of nanocrystalline and amorphous structure within major and minor ampullate dragline spider silks

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, Sujatha; Isdebski, Thomas; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Ayon, Joel V.; Henning, Robert W.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Antipoa, Olga; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2012-07-25

    Synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction experiments were carried out on Nephila clavipes (NC) and Argiope aurantia (AA) major (MA) and minor ampullate (MiA) fibers that make up dragline spider silk. The diffraction patterns show a semi-crystalline structure with {beta}-poly(L-alanine) nanocrystallites embedded in a partially oriented amorphous matrix. A superlattice reflection 'S' diffraction ring is observed, which corresponds to a crystalline component larger in size and is poorly oriented, when compared to the {beta}-poly(L-alanine) nanocrystallites that are commonly observed in dragline spider silks. Crystallite size, crystallinity and orientation about the fiber axis have been determined from the wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) patterns. In both NC and AA, the MiA silks are found to be more highly crystalline, when compared with the corresponding MA silks. Detailed analysis on the amorphous matrix shows considerable differences in the degree of order of the oriented amorphous component between the different silks studied and may play a crucial role in determining the mechanical properties of the silks.

  5. Homo-trimeric Structure of the Type IVb Minor Pilin CofB Suggests Mechanism of CFA/III Pilus Assembly in Human Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kazuki; Oki, Hiroya; Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Takuya; Imai, Tomoya; Maruno, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Motooka, Daisuke; Iida, Tetsuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Nakamura, Shota

    2016-03-27

    In gram-negative bacteria, the assembly of type IV pilus (T4P) and the evolutionally related pseudopilus of type II secretion system involves specialized structural proteins called pilins and pseudopilins, respectively, and is dynamically regulated to promote bacterial pathogenesis. Previous studies have suggested that a structural "tip"-like hetero-complex formed through the interaction of at least three minor (pseudo) pilins plays an important role in this process, while some members of the pathogenic type IVb subfamily are known to have only one such minor pilin subunit whose function is still unknown. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the type IVb minor pilin CofB of colonization factor antigen/III from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli at 1.88-Å resolution. The crystal structure, in conjunction with physicochemical analysis in solution, reveals a symmetrical homo-trimeric arrangement distinct from the hetero-complexes of minor (pseudo) pilins observed in other T4P and type II secretion systems. Each CofB monomer adopts a unique three-domain architecture, in which the C-terminal β-sheet-rich lectin domain can effectively initiate trimer association of its pilin-like N-terminal domain through extensive hydrophobic interactions followed by domain swapping at the central hinge-like domain. Deletion of cofB produces a phenotype with no detectable pili formation on the cell surface, while molecular modeling indicates that the characteristic homo-trimeric structure of CofB is well situated at the pilus tip of colonization factor antigen/III formed by the major pilin CofA, suggesting a role for the minor pilin in the efficient initiation of T4P assembly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Is structural stigma's effect on the mortality of sexual minorities robust? A failure to replicate the results of a published study.

    PubMed

    Regnerus, Mark

    2017-09-01

    The study of stigma's influence on health has surged in recent years. Hatzenbuehler et al.'s (2014) study of structural stigma's effect on mortality revealed an average of 12 years' shorter life expectancy for sexual minorities who resided in communities thought to exhibit high levels of anti-gay prejudice, using data from the 1988-2002 administrations of the US General Social Survey linked to mortality outcome data in the 2008 National Death Index. In the original study, the key predictor variable (structural stigma) led to results suggesting the profound negative influence of structural stigma on the mortality of sexual minorities. Attempts to replicate the study, in order to explore alternative hypotheses, repeatedly failed to generate the original study's key finding on structural stigma. Efforts to discern the source of the disparity in results revealed complications in the multiple imputation process for missing values of the components of structural stigma. This prompted efforts at replication using 10 different imputation approaches. Efforts to replicate Hatzenbuehler et al.'s (2014) key finding on structural stigma's notable influence on the premature mortality of sexual minorities, including a more refined imputation strategy than described in the original study, failed. No data imputation approach yielded parameters that supported the original study's conclusions. Alternative hypotheses, which originally motivated the present study, revealed little new information. Ten different approaches to multiple imputation of missing data yielded none in which the effect of structural stigma on the mortality of sexual minorities was statistically significant. Minimally, the original study's structural stigma variable (and hence its key result) is so sensitive to subjective measurement decisions as to be rendered unreliable. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Silent Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beth, Ed.

    Discussed in the booklet are approaches for citizens to use in helping the silent minority--mentally retarded (MR) children and adults--attain their rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The MR person is described to be one of 6 million retarded Americans, to benefit from education although his ability to learn is limited, to have…

  8. Leading RNA tertiary interactions: structures, energies, and water insertion of A-minor and P-interactions. A quantum chemical view.

    PubMed

    Sponer, Judit E; Réblova, Kamila; Mokdad, Ali; Sychrovský, Vladimír; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Sponer, Jirí

    2007-08-02

    Complex molecular shapes of ribosomal RNA molecules are stabilized by recurrent types of tertiary interactions involving highly specific and conserved non-Watson-Crick base pairs, triplets, and quartets. We analyzed the intrinsic structure and stability of the P-motif and the four basic types of A-minor interactions (types I, II, III, and 0), which represent the most prominent RNA tertiary interaction patterns refined in the course of evolution. In the studied interactions, the electron correlation component of the stabilization usually exceeds the Hartree-Fock (HF) term, leading to a strikingly different balance of forces as compared to standard base pairing stabilized primarily by the HF term. In other words, the A-minor and P-interactions are considerably more influenced by the dispersion energy as compared to canonical base pairs, which makes them particularly suitable to zip the folded RNA structures that are substantially hydrated even in their interior. Continuum solvent COSMO calculations confirm that the stability of the canonical GC base pair is affected (reduced) by the continuum solvent screening considerably more than the stability of the A-minor interaction. Among the studied systems, the strong A-minor II and weak A-minor III interactions require water molecules to stabilize the experimental geometry. Gas-phase optimization of the canonical A-minor II A/CG triplet without water results in a geometry that is clearly inconsistent with the RNA structure. The gas-phase structure of the P-interaction and the most stable A-minor I interaction nicely agrees with the geometries occurring in the ribosome. A-minor I can also adopt an alternative water-mediated substate rather often observed in X-ray and molecular dynamics studies. The A-minor I water bridge, however, does not appear to stabilize the tertiary contact, and its role is to provide structural flexibility to this binding pattern within the context of the RNA structure. Interestingly, the insertion

  9. A new anti-MRSA antibiotic complex, WAP-8294A II. Structure characterization of minor components by ESI LCMS and MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kato, Azusa; Hirata, Haruhisa; Ohashi, Yoshitami; Fujii, Kiyonaga; Mori, Kenji; Harada, Ken-ichi

    2011-05-01

    The anti-MRSA antibiotic, WAP-8294A, was isolated from the fermentation broth of Lysobacter sp. The major component, WAP-8294A2, is composed of 1 mol of Gly, L-Leu, L-Glu, D-Asn, D-Trp, D-threo-β-hydroxyasparagine, N-Me-D-Phe and N-Me-L-Val, and 2 mol of L-Ser, D-Orn and D-3-hydroxy-7-Me-octanoic acid. The structure of the WAP-8294A2 was mainly determined as a cyclic depsipeptide by 2D NMR experiments. However, it was difficult to use the NMR experiment to determine the minor components, A1, A4 and Ax13, isolated in small amounts. In the present study, ESI MS/MS was applied to the structure elucidation of these minor components. The structures of these minor components were determined on the basis of the fragmentation pattern of the product ions of WAP-8294A2 in the ESI MS/MS. As a result, it was confirmed that A1 and A4 had the same amino acid sequence as A2, while A1 and A4 had the 3-OH-octanoic acid and 3-OH-8-Me-nonanoic acid, respectively, in the place of the 3-OH-7-Me-octanoic acid in A2. In the structure of Ax13, it was found that Gly of A2 was changed to β-Ala of Ax13.

  10. The structure of avian polyomavirus reveals variably sized capsids, non-conserved inter-capsomere interactions, and a possible location of the minor capsid protein VP4

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Peter S.; Enderlein, Dirk; Nelson, Christian D.S.; Carter, Weston S.; Kawano, Masaaki; Xing Li; Swenson, Robert D.; Olson, Norman H.; Baker, Timothy S.; Cheng, R. Holland; Atwood, Walter J.; Johne, Reimar; Belnap, David M.

    2011-03-01

    Avian polyomavirus (APV) causes a fatal, multi-organ disease among several bird species. Using cryogenic electron microscopy and other biochemical techniques, we investigated the structure of APV and compared it to that of mammalian polyomaviruses, particularly JC polyomavirus and simian virus 40. The structure of the pentameric major capsid protein (VP1) is mostly conserved; however, APV VP1 has a unique, truncated C-terminus that eliminates an intercapsomere-connecting {beta}-hairpin observed in other polyomaviruses. We postulate that the terminal {beta}-hairpin locks other polyomavirus capsids in a stable conformation and that absence of the hairpin leads to the observed capsid size variation in APV. Plug-like density features were observed at the base of the VP1 pentamers, consistent with the known location of minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3. However, the plug density is more prominent in APV and may include VP4, a minor capsid protein unique to bird polyomaviruses.

  11. Examining College Opportunity Structures for Students of Color at High-"Minority," High-Poverty Secondary Schools in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Melissa A.; Welton, Anjalé D.

    2014-01-01

    This study conducts an intersectional analysis of two adjoined qualitative studies, reanalyzing the data using a college opportunity framework (González, Stoner, & Jovel, 2003) to examine how sources of social capital available within three high-"minority," high-poverty high schools in Texas shape college opportunities for Latina/o…

  12. Examining College Opportunity Structures for Students of Color at High-"Minority," High-Poverty Secondary Schools in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Melissa A.; Welton, Anjalé D.

    2014-01-01

    This study conducts an intersectional analysis of two adjoined qualitative studies, reanalyzing the data using a college opportunity framework (González, Stoner, & Jovel, 2003) to examine how sources of social capital available within three high-"minority," high-poverty high schools in Texas shape college opportunities for Latina/o…

  13. The Generic and Rhetorical Structures of Expositions in English by Chinese Ethnic Minorities: A Perspective from Intracultural Contrastive Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianxin

    2008-01-01

    This contrastive study is concerned with relations between rhetoric and ethnicity in second language (L2) writing. It investigates the influence of Chinese rhetoric on expository writing in English by three groups: the majority Chinese Han group, and two ethnic minorities, Tibetan and Mongolian. Relying on a contrastive text analysis of 30…

  14. Solution structure of DAPI selectively bound in the minor groove of a DNA T.T mismatch-containing site: NMR and molecular dynamics studies.

    PubMed Central

    Trotta, E; Paci, M

    1998-01-01

    The solution structure of the complex between 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and DNA oligomer [d(GCGATTCGC)]2, containing a central T.T mismatch, has been characterized by combined use of proton one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics computations including relaxation matrix refinement. The results show that the DAPI molecule binds in the minor groove of the central region 5'-ATT-3' of the DNA oligomer, which predominantly adopts a duplex structure with a global right-handed B-like conformation. In the final models of the complex, the DAPI molecule is located nearly isohelical with its NH indole proton oriented towards the DNA helix axis and forming a bifurcated hydrogen bond with the carbonyl O2 groups of a mismatched T5 and the T6 residue of the opposite strand. Mismatched thymines adopt a wobble base pair conformation and are found stacked between the flanking base pairs, inducing only minor local conformational changes in global duplex structure. In addition, no other binding mechanisms were observed, showing that minor groove binding of DAPI to the mismatch-containing site is favoured in comparison with any other previously reported interaction with G.C sequences. PMID:9753740

  15. DNA Minor Groove Induced Dimerization of Heterocyclic Cations: Compound Structure, Binding Affinity and Specificity for a TTAA Site

    PubMed Central

    Munde, Manoj; Kumar, Arvind; Nhili, Raja; Depauw, Sabine; David-Cordonnier, Marie-Hélène; Ismail, Mohamed A.; Stephens, Chad E.; Farahat, Abdelbasset A.; Batista-Parra, Adalgisa; Boykin, David W.; Wilson, W. David

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing number and variations of genome sequences available control of gene expression with synthetic, cell permeable molecules is within reach. The variety of sequence-specific-binding agents is, however, still quite limited. Many minor groove binding agents selectivity recognize AT over GC sequences but have less ability to distinguish among different AT sequences. The goal with this paper is to develop compounds that can bind selectively to different AT sequences. A number of studies indicate that AATT and TTAA sequences have significantly different physical and interaction properties and different requirements for minor groove recognition. Although it has been difficult to get minor groove binding at TTAA, DB293, a phenyl-furan-benzimidazole-diamidine, was found to bind as a strong, cooperative dimer at TTAA but with no selectivity over AATT. In order to improve selectivity, modifications were made to each unit of DB293. Binding affinities and stoichiometries obtained from biosensor-surface plasmon resonance experiments show that DB1003, a furan-furan-benzimidazole diamidine binds strongly to TTAA as a dimer and has selectivity (KTTAA/KAATT = 6). CD and DNAse I footprinting studies confirmed the preference of this compound for TTAA. In summary (i) a favorable stacking surface provided by the pi system, (ii) H-bond donors to interact with TA base pairs at the floor of the groove provided by a benzimidazole (or indole) –NH and amidines, and (iii) appropriate curvature of the dimer complex to match the curvature of the minor groove play important roles in differentiating the TTAA and AATT minor grooves. PMID:20713062

  16. Crystal Structure of the Minor Pilin CofB, the Initiator of CFA/III Pilus Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Kolappan, Subramania; Ng, Dixon; Yang, Guixiang; Harn, Tony; Craig, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Type IV pili are extracellular polymers of the major pilin subunit. These subunits are held together in the pilus filament by hydrophobic interactions among their N-terminal α-helices, which also anchor the pilin subunits in the inner membrane prior to pilus assembly. Type IV pilus assembly involves a conserved group of proteins that span the envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. Among these is a set of minor pilins, so named because they share their hydrophobic N-terminal polymerization/membrane anchor segment with the major pilins but are much less abundant. Minor pilins influence pilus assembly and retraction, but their precise functions are not well defined. The Type IV pilus systems of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae are among the simplest of Type IV pilus systems and possess only a single minor pilin. Here we show that the enterotoxigenic E. coli minor pilins CofB and LngB are required for assembly of their respective Type IV pili, CFA/III and Longus. Low levels of the minor pilins are optimal for pilus assembly, and CofB can be detected in the pilus fraction. We solved the 2.0 Å crystal structure of N-terminally truncated CofB, revealing a pilin-like protein with an extended C-terminal region composed of two discrete domains connected by flexible linkers. The C-terminal region is required for CofB to initiate pilus assembly. We propose a model for CofB-initiated pilus assembly with implications for understanding filament growth in more complex Type IV pilus systems as well as the related Type II secretion system. PMID:26324721

  17. Crystal Structure of the Minor Pilin CofB, the Initiator of CFA/III Pilus Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kolappan, Subramania; Ng, Dixon; Yang, Guixiang; Harn, Tony; Craig, Lisa

    2015-10-23

    Type IV pili are extracellular polymers of the major pilin subunit. These subunits are held together in the pilus filament by hydrophobic interactions among their N-terminal α-helices, which also anchor the pilin subunits in the inner membrane prior to pilus assembly. Type IV pilus assembly involves a conserved group of proteins that span the envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. Among these is a set of minor pilins, so named because they share their hydrophobic N-terminal polymerization/membrane anchor segment with the major pilins but are much less abundant. Minor pilins influence pilus assembly and retraction, but their precise functions are not well defined. The Type IV pilus systems of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae are among the simplest of Type IV pilus systems and possess only a single minor pilin. Here we show that the enterotoxigenic E. coli minor pilins CofB and LngB are required for assembly of their respective Type IV pili, CFA/III and Longus. Low levels of the minor pilins are optimal for pilus assembly, and CofB can be detected in the pilus fraction. We solved the 2.0 Å crystal structure of N-terminally truncated CofB, revealing a pilin-like protein with an extended C-terminal region composed of two discrete domains connected by flexible linkers. The C-terminal region is required for CofB to initiate pilus assembly. We propose a model for CofB-initiated pilus assembly with implications for understanding filament growth in more complex Type IV pilus systems as well as the related Type II secretion system. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Labor Policy, Minorities, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln Inst. for Research and Education, Washington, DC.

    The central theme of the papers presented in this symposium is that the labor market for minorities and youth does not appear to function properly because of structural impediments (often caused by government regulations meant to help minorities) and that these impediments must be identified and effective remedies proposed. Following an…

  19. Labor Policy, Minorities, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln Inst. for Research and Education, Washington, DC.

    The central theme of the papers presented in this symposium is that the labor market for minorities and youth does not appear to function properly because of structural impediments (often caused by government regulations meant to help minorities) and that these impediments must be identified and effective remedies proposed. Following an…

  20. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-08-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese Internalized Homophobia (IH) scale for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n = 1187), or as bisexual (n = 641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n = 353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscale associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates, including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage, and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates, and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the minority stress model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed.

  1. 3D structure/function analysis of PilX reveals how minor pilins can modulate the virulence properties of type IV pili

    PubMed Central

    Helaine, Sophie; Dyer, David H.; Nassif, Xavier; Pelicic, Vladimir; Forest, Katrina T.

    2007-01-01

    Type IV pili (Tfp) are widespread filamentous bacterial organelles that mediate multiple virulence-related phenotypes. They are composed mainly of pilin subunits, which are processed before filament assembly by dedicated prepilin peptidases. Other proteins processed by these peptidases, whose molecular nature and mode of action remain enigmatic, play critical roles in Tfp biology. We have performed a detailed structure/function analysis of one such protein, PilX from Neisseria meningitidis, which is crucial for formation of bacterial aggregates and adhesion to human cells. The x-ray crystal structure of PilX reveals the α/β roll fold shared by all pilins, and we show that this protein colocalizes with Tfp. These observations suggest that PilX is a minor, or low abundance, pilin that assembles within the filaments in a similar way to pilin. Deletion of a PilX distinctive structural element, which is predicted to be exposed on the filament surface, abolishes aggregation and adhesion. Our results support a model in which surface-exposed motifs in PilX subunits stabilize bacterial aggregates against the disruptive force of pilus retraction and illustrate how a minor pilus component can enhance the functional properties of pili of rather simple composition and structure. PMID:17893339

  2. Anti-LGBT and Anti-Immigrant Structural Stigma: An Intersectional Analysis of Sexual Minority Men's HIV Risk When Migrating to or Within Europe.

    PubMed

    Pachankis, John E; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Berg, Rigmor C; Fernández-Dávila, Percy; Mirandola, Massimo; Marcus, Ulrich; Weatherburn, Peter; Schmidt, Axel J

    2017-08-04

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) might be particularly likely to migrate to experience freedoms unavailable in their home countries. Structural stigma (e.g., laws and policies promoting the unequal treatment of oppressed populations) in MSM migrants' sending and receiving countries represent potential barriers to HIV prevention among this intersectional population. This present study represents the first investigation of structural determinants of HIV risk in a large, geographically-diverse sample of MSM migrants. The 2010 European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS) (n=23,371 migrants) was administered across 38 European countries. Structural stigma was assessed using (1) national laws and policies promoting unequal treatment of MSM across 181 countries worldwide and (2) national attitudes against immigrants in the 38 receiving countries. We also assessed linguistic status, time since migrating, and five HIV-prevention outcomes. Structural stigma toward sexual minorities (in sending and receiving countries) and toward immigrants (in receiving countries) was associated with a lack of HIV-prevention knowledge, service coverage, and precautionary behaviors among MSM migrants. Linguistic status and time since migrating moderated some associations between structural stigma and lack of HIV prevention. Structural stigma toward MSM and immigrants represents a modifiable structural determinant of the global HIV epidemic.

  3. Crystal structure of DNA-bound Co(III)·bleomycin B[subscript 2]: Insights on intercalation and minor groove binding

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, Kristie D.; Lewis, Mark A.; Long, Eric C.; Georgiadis, Millie M.

    2008-07-21

    Bleomycins constitute a widely studied class of complex DNA cleaving natural products that are used to treat various cancers. Since their first isolation, the bleomycins have provided a paradigm for the development and discovery of additional DNA-cleaving chemotherapeutic agents. The bleomycins consist of a disaccharide-modified metal-binding domain connected to a bithiazole/C-terminal tail via a methylvalerate-Thr linker and induce DNA damage after oxygen activation through site-selective cleavage of duplex DNA at 5'-GT/C sites. Here, we present crystal structures of two different 5'-GT containing oligonucleotides in both the presence and absence of bound Co(III){center_dot}bleomycin B2. Several findings from our studies impact the current view of bleomycin binding to DNA. First, we report that the bithiazole intercalates in two distinct modes and can do so independently of well ordered minor groove binding of the metal binding/disaccharide domains. Second, the Co(III)-coordinating equatorial ligands in our structure include the imidazole, histidine amide, pyrimidine N1, and the secondary amine of the {beta} aminoalanine, whereas the primary amine acts as an axial ligand. Third, minor groove binding of Co(III){center_dot}bleomycin involves direct hydrogen bonding interactions of the metal binding domain and disaccharide with the DNA. Finally, modeling of a hydroperoxide ligand coordinated to Co(III) suggests that it is ideally positioned for initiation of C4'-H abstraction.

  4. The structure of avian polyomavirus reveals variably sized capsids, nonconserved inter-capsomere interactions, and a possible location of the minor capsid protein VP4

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Peter S.; Enderlein, Dirk; Nelson, Christian D. S.; Carter, Weston S.; Kawano, Masaaki; Xing, Li; Swenson, Robert D.; Olson, Norman H.; Baker, Timothy S.; Cheng, R. Holland; Atwood, Walter J.; Johne, Reimar; Belnap, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Avian polyomavirus (APV) causes a fatal, multi-organ disease among several bird species. Using cryogenic electron microscopy and other biochemical techniques, we investigated the structure of APV and compared it to that of mammalian polyomaviruses, particularly JC polyomavirus and simian virus 40. The structure of the pentameric major capsid protein (VP1) is mostly conserved; however, APV VP1 has a unique, truncated C-terminus that eliminates an intercapsomere-connecting β-hairpin observed in other polyomaviruses. We postulate that the terminal β-hairpin locks other polyomavirus capsids in a stable conformation and that absence of the hairpin leads to the observed capsid size variation in APV. Plug-like density features were observed at the base of the VP1 pentamers, consistent with the known location of minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3. However, the plug density is more prominent in APV and may include VP4, a minor capsid protein unique to bird polyomaviruses. PMID:21239031

  5. Synthesis and structure of Ce1-xEuxPO4 solid solutions for minor actinides immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohuan; Teng, Yuancheng; Huang, Yi; Wu, Lang; Zeng, Pan

    2014-08-01

    Ce1-xEuxPO4 (x = 0-1) solid solutions were synthesized by the solid state reaction process using europium (Eu) as the surrogate for trivalent minor actinide americium (Am). The effects of calcination temperature, holding time and Eu content on the crystalline phase, microstructure and morphology of Ce1-xEuxPO4 (x = 0-1) were investigated. The monazite-type EuPO4 and CePO4 coexisted after being calcined at 1000 °C for 4 h, suggesting the CePO4 and EuPO4 phases would form initially separately. Pure and single-phase monazite-type Ce1-xEuxPO4 (x = 0-1) powders were obtained at 1300 °C for 4 h. The results of the XRD patterns Rietveld refinement and μ-Raman analysis confirmed the formation of a Ce1-xEuxPO4 (x = 0-1) continuous solid solution. The grain size of Ce0.5Eu0.5PO4 increased obviously as the holding time extended. The Ce, Eu, P and O elements were almost distributed homogeneously in the Ce0.5Eu0.5PO4 solid solution.

  6. Population clustering and clonal structure evidence the relict state of Ulmus minor Mill. in the Balearic Islands

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Utrilla, P; Valbuena-Carabaña, M; Ennos, R; Gil, L

    2014-01-01

    Field elm (Ulmus minor) is a riparian tree that grows in rare, small populations scattered along temporary watercourses in the Balearic Islands, nowadays mostly covered with Mediterranean vegetation. Agriculture and farming on the fertile land along the periodically flooded plains have reduced the elm populations to sparse tree lines along the creek beds. The presence of field elm in this very anthropic landscape has led some authors to consider it as an introduced species in the Balearics. However, pollen data suggest these elms may be the remains of larger populations experiencing continuous population shrinkage during the Holocene, and hence be native to the isles. In this paper, we apply genetic markers to assess whether field elm is or is not indigenous to the Balearic Islands. We compare the genetic variation in nine nuclear microsatellites of six Balearic populations (three in each of the largest islands, Majorca and Minorca) with that of three natural Iberian populations located in two regions, one geologically (Baetic mountains, SE Iberia) and another historically (Catalonia, NE Iberia) related to the islands. Principal coordinates analysis and Bayesian clustering methods reveal a strong genetic differentiation of the Balearic populations from the Iberian ones, and even among islands, which support their native origin. Genotypic variation in the islands is very low and clonal reproduction is very high compared with the mainland, as it is frequently observed in populations of clonal species where sexual reproduction is limited. We discuss the practical implications of these findings for the conservation of elm genetic resources of these findings. PMID:24619184

  7. The 1.59Å resolution structure of the minor pseudopilin EpsH of Vibrio cholerae reveals a long flexible loop.

    PubMed

    Raghunathan, Kannan; Vago, Frank S; Grindem, David; Ball, Terry; Wedemeyer, William J; Bagdasarian, Michael; Arvidson, Dennis N

    2014-02-01

    The type II secretion complex exports folded proteins from the periplasm to the extracellular milieu. It is used by the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae to export several proteins, including its major virulence factor, cholera toxin. The pseudopilus is an essential component of the type II secretion system and likely acts as a piston to push the folded proteins across the outer membrane through the secretin pore. The pseudopilus is composed of the major pseudopilin, EpsG, and four minor pseudopilins, EpsH, EpsI, EpsJ and EpsK. We determined the x-ray crystal structure of the head domain of EpsH at 1.59Å resolution using molecular replacement with the previously reported EpsH structure, 2qv8, as the template. Three additional N-terminal amino acids present in our construct prevent an artifactual conformation of residues 160-166, present in one of the two monomers of the 2qv8 structure. Additional crystal contacts stabilize a long flexible loop comprised of residues 104-135 that is more disordered in the 2qv8 structure but is partially observed in our structure in very different positions for the two EpsH monomers in the asymmetric unit. In one of the conformations the loop is highly extended. Modeling suggests the highly charged loop is capable of contacting EpsG and possibly secreted protein substrates, suggesting a role in specificity of pseudopilus assembly or secretion function.

  8. Insights into Minor Group Rhinovirus Uncoating: The X-ray Structure of the HRV2 Empty Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Garriga, Damià; Pickl-Herk, Angela; Luque, Daniel; Wruss, Jürgen; Castón, José R.; Blaas, Dieter; Verdaguer, Núria

    2012-01-01

    Upon attachment to their respective receptor, human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are internalized into the host cell via different pathways but undergo similar structural changes. This ultimately results in the delivery of the viral RNA into the cytoplasm for replication. To improve our understanding of the conformational modifications associated with the release of the viral genome, we have determined the X-ray structure at 3.0 Å resolution of the end-stage of HRV2 uncoating, the empty capsid. The structure shows important conformational changes in the capsid protomer. In particular, a hinge movement around the hydrophobic pocket of VP1 allows a coordinated shift of VP2 and VP3. This overall displacement forces a reorganization of the inter-protomer interfaces, resulting in a particle expansion and in the opening of new channels in the capsid core. These new breaches in the capsid, opening one at the base of the canyon and the second at the particle two-fold axes, might act as gates for the externalization of the VP1 N-terminus and the extrusion of the viral RNA, respectively. The structural comparison between native and empty HRV2 particles unveils a number of pH-sensitive amino acid residues, conserved in rhinoviruses, which participate in the structural rearrangements involved in the uncoating process. PMID:22241997

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of the minor ampullate spidroin modular amino acid sequence from Parawixia bistriatra: insights into silk tertiary structure and fibre formation.

    PubMed

    Murad, André M; Rech, Elíbio L

    2011-05-01

    Spider fibres are primarily composed of proteins that are secreted by specialised glands found in different groups of arthropods. Because of their unique mechanical characteristics, it is of great interest to understand how the influence of repetitive modules within the fibres affects the final protein structure. Because each fibre is composed of a diverse set of repeated modular sequences, the differences between fibres allow for their structural comparison and, thereby, their functional comparison. Herein, we present molecular dynamics simulations of partial sequences from minor ampullate Spidroin (MiSp) silk of the Brazilian species Parawixia bistriata. Our data show that the formation of β-sheet structures is directly related to the N-termini alignment of the modules. The N-terminal alignment gives rise to a high number of hydrogen bonds whose formation is driven by repeated alanine (Ala) sequences, which, in turn, lead to increased fibre strength. This increased fibre strength contributes significantly to the final tertiary structure of the silk.

  10. Complexes of mismatched and complementary DNA with minor groove binders. Structures at nucleotide resolution via an improved hydroxyl radical cleavage methodology

    PubMed Central

    Bialonska, Dobroslawa; Song, Kenneth; Bolton, Philip H.

    2011-01-01

    Tumor cell lines can replicate faster than normal cells and many also have defective DNA repair pathways. This has lead to the investigation of the inhibition of DNA repair proteins as a means of therapeutic intervention. An alternative approach is to hide or mask damaged DNA from the repair systems. We have developed a protocol to investigate the structures of the complexes of damaged DNA with drug like molecules. Nucleotide resolution structural information can be obtained using an improved hydroxyl radical cleavage protocol. The use of a dTn tail increases the length of the smallest fragments of interest and allows efficient co-precipitation of the fragments with poly(A). The use of a fluorescent label, on the 5′ end of the dTn tail, in conjunction with modified cleavage reaction conditions, avoids the lifetime and other problems with 32P labeling. The structures of duplex DNAs containing AC and CC mismatches in the presence and absence of minor groove binders have been investigated as have those of the fully complementary DNA. The results indicate that the structural perturbations of the mismatches are localized, are sequence dependent and that the presence of a mismatch can alter the binding of drug like molecules. PMID:21893212

  11. Complexes of mismatched and complementary DNA with minor groove binders. Structures at nucleotide resolution via an improved hydroxyl radical cleavage methodology.

    PubMed

    Bialonska, Dobroslawa; Song, Kenneth; Bolton, Philip H

    2011-11-27

    Tumor cell lines can replicate faster than normal cells and many also have defective DNA repair pathways. This has lead to the investigation of the inhibition of DNA repair proteins as a means of therapeutic intervention. An alternative approach is to hide or mask damaged DNA from the repair systems. We have developed a protocol to investigate the structures of the complexes of damaged DNA with drug like molecules. Nucleotide resolution structural information can be obtained using an improved hydroxyl radical cleavage protocol. The use of a dT(n) tail increases the length of the smallest fragments of interest and allows efficient co-precipitation of the fragments with poly(A). The use of a fluorescent label, on the 5' end of the dT(n) tail, in conjunction with modified cleavage reaction conditions, avoids the lifetime and other problems with (32)P labeling. The structures of duplex DNAs containing AC and CC mismatches in the presence and absence of minor groove binders have been investigated as have those of the fully complementary DNA. The results indicate that the structural perturbations of the mismatches are localized, are sequence dependent and that the presence of a mismatch can alter the binding of drug like molecules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Historical Consciousness and the Structuring of Group Boundaries: A Look at Two Francophone School History Teachers regarding Quebec's Anglophone Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanazanian, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at the impact of historical consciousness on the structuring of group boundaries among national history teachers within Quebec's context of group duality between Francophones and Anglophones. By using an "open-ended interpretation key" for taking into account how teachers interact with temporal change for negotiating…

  13. Historical Consciousness and the Structuring of Group Boundaries: A Look at Two Francophone School History Teachers regarding Quebec's Anglophone Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanazanian, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at the impact of historical consciousness on the structuring of group boundaries among national history teachers within Quebec's context of group duality between Francophones and Anglophones. By using an "open-ended interpretation key" for taking into account how teachers interact with temporal change for negotiating…

  14. Crystal structure of the Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion chaperone SycD in complex with a peptide of the minor translocator YopD

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Type III secretion systems are used by Gram-negative bacteria as “macromolecular syringes” to inject effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. Two hydrophobic proteins called translocators form the necessary pore in the host cell membrane. Both translocators depend on binding to a single chaperone in the bacterial cytoplasm to ensure their stability and efficient transport through the secretion needle. It was suggested that the conserved chaperones bind the more divergent translocators via a hexapeptide motif that is found in both translocators and conserved between species. Results We crystallized a synthetic decapeptide from the Yersinia enterocolitica minor type III secretion translocator YopD bound to its cognate chaperone SycD and determined the complex structure at 2.5 Å resolution. The structure of peptide-bound SycD is almost identical to that of apo SycD with an all helical fold consisting of three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) and an additional C-terminal helix. Peptide-bound SycD formed a kinked head-to-head dimer that had previously been observed for the apo form of SycD. The homodimer interface comprises both helices of the first tetratricopeptide repeat. The YopD peptide bound in extended conformation into a mainly hydrophobic groove on the concave side of SycD. TPRs 1 and 2 of SycD form three hydrophobic pockets that accommodated the conserved hydrophobic residues at position 1, 3 and 6 of the translocator hexapeptide sequence. Two tyrosines that are highly conserved among translocator chaperones contribute to the hydrophobic patches but also form hydrogen bonds to the peptide backbone. Conclusions The interaction between SycD and YopD is very similar to the binding of the Pseudomonas minor translocator PopD to its chaperone PcrH and the Shigella major translocator IpaB to its chaperone IpgC. This confirms the prediction made by Kolbe and co-workers that a hexapeptide with hydrophobic residues at three positions is a conserved

  15. Crystal structure of the Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion chaperone SycD in complex with a peptide of the minor translocator YopD.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Madeleine; Niemann, Hartmut H

    2012-06-18

    Type III secretion systems are used by Gram-negative bacteria as "macromolecular syringes" to inject effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. Two hydrophobic proteins called translocators form the necessary pore in the host cell membrane. Both translocators depend on binding to a single chaperone in the bacterial cytoplasm to ensure their stability and efficient transport through the secretion needle. It was suggested that the conserved chaperones bind the more divergent translocators via a hexapeptide motif that is found in both translocators and conserved between species. We crystallized a synthetic decapeptide from the Yersinia enterocolitica minor type III secretion translocator YopD bound to its cognate chaperone SycD and determined the complex structure at 2.5 Å resolution. The structure of peptide-bound SycD is almost identical to that of apo SycD with an all helical fold consisting of three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) and an additional C-terminal helix. Peptide-bound SycD formed a kinked head-to-head dimer that had previously been observed for the apo form of SycD. The homodimer interface comprises both helices of the first tetratricopeptide repeat. The YopD peptide bound in extended conformation into a mainly hydrophobic groove on the concave side of SycD. TPRs 1 and 2 of SycD form three hydrophobic pockets that accommodated the conserved hydrophobic residues at position 1, 3 and 6 of the translocator hexapeptide sequence. Two tyrosines that are highly conserved among translocator chaperones contribute to the hydrophobic patches but also form hydrogen bonds to the peptide backbone. The interaction between SycD and YopD is very similar to the binding of the Pseudomonas minor translocator PopD to its chaperone PcrH and the Shigella major translocator IpaB to its chaperone IpgC. This confirms the prediction made by Kolbe and co-workers that a hexapeptide with hydrophobic residues at three positions is a conserved chaperone binding motif. Because the

  16. Minor meteor shower activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendtel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Video meteor observations provide us with data to analyze structures in minor meteor showers or weak features in flux profiles. Samples obtained independently by other techniques allow to calibrate the data sets and to improve the confidence of results as demonstrated with a few results. Both, the confirmation of events predicted by model calculation and the input of observational data to improve the modelling results may help to better understand meteoroid stream evolution processes. Furthermore, calibrated data series can be used for studies of the long-term evolution of meteor shower activity.

  17. Structure of the pseudorabies virus capsid: comparison with herpes simplex virus type 1 and differential binding of essential minor proteins.

    PubMed

    Homa, F L; Huffman, J B; Toropova, K; Lopez, H R; Makhov, A M; Conway, J F

    2013-09-23

    The structure of pseudorabies virus (PRV) capsids isolated from the nucleus of infected cells and from PRV virions was determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and compared to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsids. PRV capsid structures closely resemble those of HSV-1, including distribution of the capsid vertex specific component (CVSC) of HSV-1, which is a heterodimer of the pUL17 and pUL25 proteins. Occupancy of CVSC on all PRV capsids is near 100%, compared to ~50% reported for HSV-1 C-capsids and 25% or less that we measure for HSV-1 A- and B-capsids. A PRV mutant lacking pUL25 does not produce C-capsids and lacks visible CVSC density in the cryo-EM-based reconstruction. A reconstruction of PRV capsids in which green fluorescent protein was fused within the N-terminus of pUL25 confirmed previous studies with a similar HSV-1 capsid mutant localizing pUL25 to the CVSC density region that is distal to the penton. However, comparison of the CVSC density in a 9-Å-resolution PRV C-capsid map with the available crystal structure of HSV-1 pUL25 failed to find a satisfactory fit, suggesting either a different fold for PRV pUL25 or a capsid-bound conformation for pUL25 that does not match the X-ray model determined from protein crystallized in solution. The PRV capsid imaged within virions closely resembles C-capsids with the addition of weak but significant density shrouding the pentons that we attribute to tegument proteins. Our results demonstrate significant structure conservation between the PRV and HSV capsids. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure of the pseudorabies virus capsid: comparison with herpes simplex virus type 1 and differential binding of essential minor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Homa, FL; Huffman, JB; Toropova, K; Lopez, HR; Makhov, AM; Conway, JF

    2013-01-01

    The structure of pseudorabies virus (PRV) capsids isolated from the nucleus of infected cells and from PRV virions was determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), and compared to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsids. PRV capsid structures closely resemble those of HSV-1, including distribution of the capsid vertex specific component (CVSC) of HSV-1, which is a heterodimer of the pUL17 and pUL25 proteins. Occupancy of CVSC on all PRV capsids is near 100%, compared to ~50% reported for HSV-1 C-capsids and 25% or less that we measure for HSV-1 A- and B-capsids. A PRV mutant lacking pUL25 does not produce C-capsids and lacks visible CVSC density in the cryo-EM-based reconstruction. A reconstruction of PRV capsids in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused within the N-terminus of pUL25 confirmed previous studies with a similar HSV-1 capsid mutant localizing pUL25 to the CVSC density region that is distal to the penton. However, comparison of the CVSC density in a 9 Ångstrom resolution PRV C-capsid map with the available crystal structure of HSV-1 pUL25 failed to find a satisfactory fit, suggesting either a different fold for PRV pUL25 or a capsid- bound conformation for pUL25 that does not match the X-ray model determined from protein crystallized in solution. The PRV capsid imaged within virions closely resembles C-capsids with the addition of weak but significant density shrouding the pentons that we attribute to tegument proteins. Our results demonstrate significant structure conservation between the PRV and HSV capsids. PMID:23827137

  19. Clustered marginalization of minorities during social transitions induced by co-evolution of behaviour and network structure.

    PubMed

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Donges, Jonathan F; Engemann, Denis A; Levermann, Anders

    2016-08-11

    Large-scale transitions in societies are associated with both individual behavioural change and restructuring of the social network. These two factors have often been considered independently, yet recent advances in social network research challenge this view. Here we show that common features of societal marginalization and clustering emerge naturally during transitions in a co-evolutionary adaptive network model. This is achieved by explicitly considering the interplay between individual interaction and a dynamic network structure in behavioural selection. We exemplify this mechanism by simulating how smoking behaviour and the network structure get reconfigured by changing social norms. Our results are consistent with empirical findings: The prevalence of smoking was reduced, remaining smokers were preferentially connected among each other and formed increasingly marginalized clusters. We propose that self-amplifying feedbacks between individual behaviour and dynamic restructuring of the network are main drivers of the transition. This generative mechanism for co-evolution of individual behaviour and social network structure may apply to a wide range of examples beyond smoking.

  20. Clustered marginalization of minorities during social transitions induced by co-evolution of behaviour and network structure

    PubMed Central

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Donges, Jonathan F.; Engemann, Denis A.; Levermann, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale transitions in societies are associated with both individual behavioural change and restructuring of the social network. These two factors have often been considered independently, yet recent advances in social network research challenge this view. Here we show that common features of societal marginalization and clustering emerge naturally during transitions in a co-evolutionary adaptive network model. This is achieved by explicitly considering the interplay between individual interaction and a dynamic network structure in behavioural selection. We exemplify this mechanism by simulating how smoking behaviour and the network structure get reconfigured by changing social norms. Our results are consistent with empirical findings: The prevalence of smoking was reduced, remaining smokers were preferentially connected among each other and formed increasingly marginalized clusters. We propose that self-amplifying feedbacks between individual behaviour and dynamic restructuring of the network are main drivers of the transition. This generative mechanism for co-evolution of individual behaviour and social network structure may apply to a wide range of examples beyond smoking. PMID:27510641

  1. Clustered marginalization of minorities during social transitions induced by co-evolution of behaviour and network structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Donges, Jonathan F.; Engemann, Denis A.; Levermann, Anders

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale transitions in societies are associated with both individual behavioural change and restructuring of the social network. These two factors have often been considered independently, yet recent advances in social network research challenge this view. Here we show that common features of societal marginalization and clustering emerge naturally during transitions in a co-evolutionary adaptive network model. This is achieved by explicitly considering the interplay between individual interaction and a dynamic network structure in behavioural selection. We exemplify this mechanism by simulating how smoking behaviour and the network structure get reconfigured by changing social norms. Our results are consistent with empirical findings: The prevalence of smoking was reduced, remaining smokers were preferentially connected among each other and formed increasingly marginalized clusters. We propose that self-amplifying feedbacks between individual behaviour and dynamic restructuring of the network are main drivers of the transition. This generative mechanism for co-evolution of individual behaviour and social network structure may apply to a wide range of examples beyond smoking.

  2. Minor planets: the discovery of minor satellites.

    PubMed

    Binzel, R P; VAN Flandern, T C

    1979-03-02

    The recent confirmation of the discovery of a satellite of the minor planet 532 Herculina indicates that other similar anomalous sightings are probably also due to satellites, which must therefore be numerous and commonplace. There are now 23 candidate satellites for eight minor planets, and no one of these minor planets occulting a star has failed to show evidence of at least one secondary event. Such companions are gravitationally stable but apparently have rapid tidal evolution rates.

  3. Gamma ray sterilization of delta inulin adjuvant particles (Advax™) makes minor, partly reversible structural changes without affecting adjuvant activity.

    PubMed

    Cooper, P D; Barclay, T G; Ginic-Markovic, M; Petrovsky, N

    2014-01-23

    We earlier identified a developmental series of seven isoforms/polymorphs of microparticulate inulin by comparing non-covalent bonding strengths. Their pharmaceutical utility lies in the modulation of cellular immunity, exploited as vaccine adjuvants (Advax™) especially for delta inulin (DI). As such particles cannot be sterilized by filtration we explore the effect of (60)Co gamma radiation (GR) on inulin isoforms, particularly DI. Its adjuvant activity and overt physical properties were unaffected by normal GR sterilizing doses (up to 25kGy). Heating irradiated isoform suspensions near their critical dissolution temperature revealed increased solubility deduced to reflect a single lethal event in one component of a multi-component structure. Local oxidative effects of GR on DI were not found. The observed DI loss was almost halved by re-annealing at the critical temperature: surviving inulin chains apparently reassemble into smaller amounts of the original type of structure. Colorimetric tetrazolium assay revealed increases in reducing activity after GR of raw inulin powder, which yielded DI with normal physical properties but only 25% normal recovery yet 4× normal reducing ability, implying final retention of some GR-changed inulin chains. These findings suggest minimal inulin chain cleavage and confirm that GR may be a viable strategy for terminal sterilization of microparticulate inulin adjuvants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gamma ray sterilization of delta inulin adjuvant particles (Advax™) makes minor, partly reversible structural changes without affecting adjuvant activity

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, P. D.; Barclay, T. G.; Ginic-Markovic, M.; Petrovsky, N.

    2014-01-01

    We earlier identified a developmental series of seven isoforms/polymorphs of microparticulate inulin by comparing non-covalent bonding strengths. Their pharmaceutical utility lies in modulation of cellular immunity, exploited as vaccine adjuvants (Advax™) especially for delta inulin (DI). As such particles cannot be sterilized by filtration we explore the effect of 60Co gamma radiation (GR) on inulin isoforms, particularly DI. Its adjuvant activity and overt physical properties were unaffected by normal GR sterilizing doses (up to 25 kGy). Heating irradiated isoform suspensions near their critical dissolution temperature revealed increased solubility deduced to reflect a single lethal event in one component of a multi-component structure. Local oxidative effects of GR on DI were not found. The observed DI loss was almost halved by re-annealing at the critical temperature: surviving inulin chains apparently reassemble into smaller amounts of the original type of structure. Colorimetric tetrazolium assay revealed increases in reducing activity after GR of raw inulin powder, which yielded DI with normal physical properties but only 25% normal recovery yet 4× normal reducing ability, implying final retention of some GR-changed inulin chains. These findings suggest minimal inulin chain cleavage and confirm that GR may be a viable strategy for terminal sterilization of microparticulate inulin adjuvants. PMID:24342245

  5. Minority Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Minority Women's Health This section of womenshealth.gov takes a ... Health email updates. Enter email address Submit Minority Women's Health news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link ...

  6. Office of Minority Health

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Office of Minority Health A A A En Español Newsroom Contact Us Search: About OMH What We Do Resource Center Policy and Data ... Funding and Programs History Leadership Regional Staff State Minority Health Contacts Offices of Minority Health at HHS ...

  7. Ethnic Minorities and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Hull, Marion

    Developments in communications technology should become a major concern of minorities (native Americans and Americans of African, Asian, and Hispanic racial or ethnic origin). Although minorities are disillusioned with broadcast television because television decision makers have not been sensitive to minority needs, they have shown interest…

  8. Minorities and Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Lawrence; Petty, Reginald

    This publication explores needed changes in the career preparation and education for minorities and examines the implications of career education emphases for minorities in the U.S. Contents include: (1) "An Overview of Minorities and Career Education" by L. Davenport and R. Petty, (2) "Public Schools, Public Policy, and Public Problems: Some…

  9. Minorities and Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Lawrence; Petty, Reginald

    This publication explores needed changes in the career preparation and education for minorities and examines the implications of career education emphases for minorities in the U.S. Contents include: (1) "An Overview of Minorities and Career Education" by L. Davenport and R. Petty, (2) "Public Schools, Public Policy, and Public Problems: Some…

  10. The 1.19 Å X-ray structure of 2′-O-Me(CGCGCG)2 duplex shows dehydrated RNA with 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol in the minor groove

    PubMed Central

    Adamiak, Dorota A.; Rypniewski, Wojciech R.; Milecki, Jan; Adamiak, Ryszard W.

    2001-01-01

    The crystal and molecular structure of 2′-O-Me(CGCGCG)2 has been determined at 1.19 Å resolution, at 100 K, using synchrotron radiation. The structure in space group P3212 is a half-turn right-handed helix that includes two 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) molecules bound in the minor groove. The structure deviates from A-form RNA. The duplex is overwound with an average value of 9.7 bp per turn, characterised as having a C3′-endo sugar pucker, very low base pair rise and high helical twist and inclination angles. The structure includes 65 ordered water molecules. Only a single row of water molecules is observed in the minor groove due to the presence of hydrophobic 2′-O-methyl groups. As many as five magnesium ions are located in the structure. Two are in the major groove and interact with O6 and N7 of guanosine and N4 of cytidine residues through their hydration spheres. This work provides the first example of molecular interactions of nucleic acids with MPD, which was used as a precipitant, cryo-solvent and resolution enhancing agent. The two MPD molecules intrude into the hydration network in the minor groove, each forming hydrogen bonds between their secondary hydroxyl group and exo-amino functions of guanosine residues. Comparison of the 2′-O-Me(CGCGCG)2 structure in the P3212 and P6122 crystals delineates stability of the water network within the minor groove to dehydration by MPD and is of interest for evaluating factors governing small molecule binding to RNA. Intrusion of MPD into the minor groove of 2′-O-Me(CGCGCG)2 is discussed with respect to RNA dehydration, a prerequisite of Z-RNA formation. PMID:11600703

  11. Synthesis, phase structure and microstructure of monazite-type Ce1-xPrxPO4 solid solutions for immobilization of minor actinide neptunium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Pan; Teng, Yuancheng; Huang, Yi; Wu, Lang; Wang, Xiaohuan

    2014-09-01

    Praseodymium was used as the surrogate for trivalent minor actinide neptunium, and a complete series of pure monazite-type Ce1-xPrxPO4 (x = 0-1) solid solutions were successfully prepared by the solid state reaction. The effects of calcining temperature, holding time and Pr content on the structure of Ce1-xPrxPO4 solid solutions were investigated. The results show that although Pr6O11 (Pr23+Pr44+O11) exists two stabilized oxidation states, there has been no tetravalent praseodymium phosphate during the synthesis process. The optimized temperature for the synthesis of Ce0.8Pr0.2PO4 solid solution is more than 1100 °C, and a hypothetical reaction mechanism is also proposed. Besides, the crystalline grains coarsen as the increasing of holding time. The linear variation of unit cell parameters and a gradual hypsochromic shift in the Raman spectra are observed with the increase of Pr content, indicating that cerium is progressively replaced by praseodymium and Ce1-xPrxPO4 solid solutions were prepared.

  12. Right-angle pattern of minor fluvial networks from the Ionian terraced belt, southern Italy: passive structural control or foreland bending?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioia, Dario; Schiattarella, Marcello; Ivo Giano, Salvatore; Di Leo, Paola

    2016-04-01

    whole study area, suggesting a control by a pervasive orthogonal fracture system rather than by isolated faults and/or master joints. Such a structural pattern and the arrangement of the terraces slope don't match very well with the tectonic features associated to a vertical uplift motion. Fractures were produced and preserved into the brittle caprock of the terraces, made by conglomerate, and exerted their control on the minor fluvial channels that progressively deepened into the underlying Pleistocene clay and sand, but they are not much represented in these soft rocks. Since a similar pervasive and orthogonal fracture pattern is actually generated by gentle folding of rocks, the development of the Ionian hydrographic networks could be attributed to a general - maybe still active - bending of the foredeep area due to the eastward propagation of blind thrusting of the Apennines chain.

  13. Functional and structural analysis of AT-specific minor groove binders that disrupt DNA-protein interactions and cause disintegration of the Trypanosoma brucei kinetoplast.

    PubMed

    Millan, Cinthia R; Acosta-Reyes, Francisco J; Lagartera, Laura; Ebiloma, Godwin U; Lemgruber, Leandro; Nué Martínez, J Jonathan; Saperas, Núria; Dardonville, Christophe; de Koning, Harry P; Campos, J Lourdes

    2017-08-21

    Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT), contains a kinetoplast with the mitochondrial DNA (kDNA), comprising of >70% AT base pairs. This has prompted studies of drugs interacting with AT-rich DNA, such as the N-phenylbenzamide bis(2-aminoimidazoline) derivatives 1 [4-((4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)amino)-N-(4-((4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)amino)phenyl)benzamide dihydrochloride] and 2 [N-(3-chloro-4-((4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)amino)phenyl)-4-((4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)amino)benzamide] as potential drugs for HAT. Both compounds show in vitro effects against T. brucei and in vivo curative activity in a mouse model of HAT. The main objective was to identify their cellular target inside the parasite. We were able to demonstrate that the compounds have a clear effect on the S-phase of T. brucei cell cycle by inflicting specific damage on the kinetoplast. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-biosensor experiments show that the drug can displace HMG box-containing proteins essential for kDNA function from their kDNA binding sites. The crystal structure of the complex of the oligonucleotide d[AAATTT]2 with compound 1 solved at 1.25 Å (PDB-ID: 5LIT) shows that the drug covers the minor groove of DNA, displaces bound water and interacts with neighbouring DNA molecules as a cross-linking agent. We conclude that 1 and 2 are powerful trypanocides that act directly on the kinetoplast, a structure unique to the order Kinetoplastida. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Minority Language Group Status: A Theoretical Conspexus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Howard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explores several models of cognitive and structural perspectives involving minority-language situations, and attempts to integrate them into a framework of predictive propositions that elaborate psychosocial climates of maintenance, majority-minority encounter, and interactive strategies. (65 references) (Author/CB)

  15. New Minority Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallworth, B. Joyce

    This study was a follow-up investigation of five minority first-year teachers who were 1992 graduates of the Peabody Internship/Induction Teaching Program. The study was designed to examine the socialization of new minority group teachers. Structured interview protocols for the teachers and their principals were the primary means of data…

  16. Multiple choice minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, F. K.; Chau, H. F.

    2003-03-01

    Minority game is a model of heterogeneous players who think inductively. In this game, each player chooses one out of two alternatives every turn and those who end up in the minority side wins. It is instructive to extend the minority game by allowing players to choose one out of many alternatives. Nevertheless, such an extension is not straight-forward due to difficulties in finding a set of reasonable, unbiased and computationally feasible strategies. Here, we propose a variation of the minority game where every player has more than two options. Results of numerical simulations agree with the expectation that our multiple choices minority game exhibits similar behavior as the original two-choice minority game.

  17. The Trojan minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, Christopher E.

    1988-08-01

    There are (March, 1988) 3774 minor planets which have received a permanent number. Of these, there are some whose mean distance to the sun is very nearly equal to that of Jupiter, and whose heliocentric longitudes from that planet are about 60°, so that the three bodies concerned (sun, Jupiter, minor planet) make an approximate equilateral triangle. These minor planets, which occur in two distinct groups, one preceding Jupiter and one following, have received the names of the heroes of the Trojan war. This paper concerns the 49 numbered minor planets of this group.

  18. In-situ crystal structure determination of seifertite SiO 2 at 129 GPa: Studying a minor phase near Earth’s core–mantle boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Li; Popov, Dmitry; Meng, Yue; Wang, Junyue; Ji, Cheng; Li, Bing; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2016-01-01

    Seifertite SiO₂ likely exists as a minor phase near the core–mantle boundary. By simulating the pressure and temperature conditions near the core–mantle boundary, seifertite was synthesized as a minor phase in a coarse-grained, polycrystalline sample coexisting with the (Mg,Fe)SiO₃ post-perovskite (pPv) phase at 129 GPa and 2500 K. Here we report the first in situ single-crystal structure determination and refinement of seifertite at high pressure and after a temperature quench from laser heating. We improved the data coverage of a minor phase from a diamond-anvil cell (DAC) by merging single-crystal data of seifertite from six selected grains that had different orientations. Observed systematic absences of reflections from the six individual grains allowed only one space group: Pbcn. The refined results of seifertite are in good agreement with the predictions from previous first-principles calculations at high pressure. This approach provides a method for structure determination of a minor phase in a mineral assemblage synthesized under P-T conditions representative of the deep Earth.

  19. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.

    PubMed

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness.

  20. Gerontology Training for Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Pill Jay

    The Grambling State University Minority Management Internship in Aging program described in this report was designed to provide internships to social work students to aid the minority elderly. The status of the elderly in the United States and the personnel and agencies that assist them are discussed in the following chapters: (1)…

  1. Minority Leadership Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Harry, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Potential sources of resistance to minority managers include issues of perceived competence, leader-follower fit, and supervision of same-race subordinates. Awareness of these issues can guide the preprofessional preparation of minority managers and training and support once they enter the workplace. (SK)

  2. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don…

  3. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don…

  4. Testing Linguistic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Esteban L.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that psychological and educational testing of members of linguistic minority groups should take into account the diverse social, political, and economic realities moderated by educational opportunities, which in turn are closely linked to standardized testing. Discusses conceptual and operational issues in the area of minority group…

  5. FIESTA; Minority Television Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Wes; And Others

    The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…

  6. Minorities and Malnutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornegay, Francis A.

    Various aspects of the relationship between minorities and malnutrition are discussed in this brief paper. Malnutrition, one of the byproducts of low economic status, is creating a crisis-proportion health problem affecting minority citizens. Malnutrition seriously affects children, older people in poverty, and chronically unemployed or…

  7. FIESTA; Minority Television Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Wes; And Others

    The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…

  8. Recruiting Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Bobette P.; Dandridge, William L.

    To help improve private schools' recruitment of minority students, this handbook discusses where and how to begin, recruitment strategies, applicant assessment, and the need for in-school support systems for minority students. The authors stress that each school should begin by analyzing its own objectives, attitudes, and admission program.…

  9. Women and Minority Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Betty M.

    1975-01-01

    Offers statistics on the numbers of women and members of minority groups in the sciences. Suggests if women and members of minority groups are to be encouraged to prepare for scientific careers, they must be given the same incentives as offered to men. (CP)

  10. Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume I: The View from the Farm--Special Problems of Minority and Low-Income Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

    This is the first of two volumes of papers examining the impact of national agricultural policy on the rural poor. The seven articles in this volume offer personal accounts of minority and low-income farmers struggling to gain a foothold in American agriculture. "'It's Too Late for Our Family,'" by Marian Lenzen, describes a family's…

  11. Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume I: The View from the Farm--Special Problems of Minority and Low-Income Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

    This is the first of two volumes of papers examining the impact of national agricultural policy on the rural poor. The seven articles in this volume offer personal accounts of minority and low-income farmers struggling to gain a foothold in American agriculture. "'It's Too Late for Our Family,'" by Marian Lenzen, describes a family's…

  12. Minor Planet Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, Brian G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the activities of the Minor Planet Center for the year of 1998. The main product of this center is the Minor Planet Circulars, augmented by the Minor Planet Circulars Supplement which is a new series introduced in 1997 to include the actual observations, which are now only summarized MPC. The introduction of the Daily Orbit Update (DOU) lists all the orbits computed and identification found since the previous issue. There has been a fivefold increase in the reported Near Earth Objects, which includes the addition of 55 potentially hazardous asteroids.

  13. Stroke in Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Brian; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Minorities in the United States have higher stroke risks, stroke occurrence at an earlier age, and for some groups, more severe strokes than non-Hispanic whites. Factors contributing to this disparity are explored. Characteristics of African American, Hispanic, and Native American stroke risk and incidence are reviewed. We mention recent interventions to raise the awareness of stroke risk factors and symptoms in minorities. The importance of the problem is discussed, and we suggest ways stroke in minorities may be reduced. PMID:19026907

  14. Minority Innovation Challenges Institute

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Do you want to learn more about how to compete in NASA’s technical challenges for both prestige and significant cash prizes? NASA’s Minority Innovation Challenges Institute trains and mentors mino...

  15. NIH Minority Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This publication contains brief descriptions of National Institutes of Health programs for underrepresented minorities, including fellowships, programs for high school students, graduate research assistantships, postdoctoral training, and programs for college students. The publication provides a description of each program, eligibility…

  16. Neptune: Minor Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2003-04-01

    All but one of Neptune's minor satellites orbit within or just outside its ringsystem; the exception is the distant object Nereid. Some of them are betterdescribed as `mid-sized' rather than `minor', but are included under thisheading as little is known of them. The inner four, with approximatediameters, are Naiad (60 km), Thalassa (80 km), Despina (150 km) and Galatea(160 km). The first three lie...

  17. Community among African American Students on Small, Predominantly White Campuses: The Unforeseen "Minority within a Minority" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Sixteen African American students participated in semi-structured, open-ended interviews about their experiences at small, predominantly white colleges in the Appalachian region. Two main themes emerged from the interviews: community among minorities and minority within a minority. The students described community among African Americans on campus…

  18. Community among African American Students on Small, Predominantly White Campuses: The Unforeseen "Minority within a Minority" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Sixteen African American students participated in semi-structured, open-ended interviews about their experiences at small, predominantly white colleges in the Appalachian region. Two main themes emerged from the interviews: community among minorities and minority within a minority. The students described community among African Americans on campus…

  19. Disproportionate Minority Contact.

    PubMed

    Fix, Rebecca L; Cyperski, Melissa A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-04-01

    The overrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities within the criminal justice system relative to their population percentage, a phenomenon termed disproportionate minority contact, has been examined within general adult and adolescent offender populations; yet few studies have tested whether this phenomenon extends to juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). In addition, few studies have examined whether offender race/ethnicity influences registration and notification requirements, which JSOs are subject to in some U.S. states. The present study assessed for disproportionate minority contact among general delinquent offenders and JSOs, meaning it aimed to test whether the criminal justice system treats those accused of sexual and non-sexual offenses differently by racial/ethnic group. Furthermore, racial/ethnic group differences in risk, legal classification, and sexual offending were examined for JSOs. Results indicated disproportionate minority contact was present among juveniles with non-sexual offenses and JSOs in Alabama. In addition, offense category and risk scores differed between African American and European American JSOs. Finally, registration classifications were predicted by offending characteristics, but not race/ethnicity. Implications and future directions regarding disproportionate minority contact among JSOs and social and legal policy affecting JSOs are discussed.

  20. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women (IHVN-W): Conceptualization, factor structure, reliability, and associations with hypothesized correlates

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese internalized homophobia (IH) scale, for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n=1187), or as bisexual (n=641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n=353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscales’ associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the Minority Stress Model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed. PMID:27007469

  1. Sex Trafficking of Minors.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jessica L; Kaplan, Dana M; Barron, Christine E

    2017-04-01

    Sex trafficking is an increasingly recognized global health crisis affecting every country and region in the world. Domestic minor sex trafficking is a subset of commercial sexual exploitation of children, defined as engagement of minors (<18 years of age) in sexual acts for items of value (eg, food, shelter, drugs, money) involving children victimized within US borders. These involved youth are at risk for serious immediate and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Continued efforts are needed to improve preventive efforts, identification, screening, appropriate interventions, and subsequent resource provision for victimized and high-risk youth.

  2. The crystal structure of N(1)-[2-(2-amino-ethylamino)-ethyl]-ethane-1,2-diamine (polyamines) binding to the minor groove of d(CGCGCG)(2), hexamer at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Kenji; Ohtsuchi, Masahiro; Hakoshima, Toshio; Rich, Alexander

    2002-07-17

    The crystal structure of a left-handed Z-DNA hexamer, d(CG)(3) in complex with a synthetic polyamine, N(1)-[2-(2-amino-ethylamino)-ethyl]-ethane-1,2-diamine, NH(3)(+)-(CH(2))(2)-NH(2)(+)-(CH(2))(2)-NH(2)(+)-(CH(2))(2)-NH(3)(+) [PA(222)], has been determined by the X-ray diffraction method at 1.0 A resolution. In an orthorhombic crystal, the d(CG)(3) duplex binds two PA(222) molecules, and this synthetic polyamine exhibits dual conformational properties. One of the two PA(222) molecules resides on the floor of the minor groove of a Z-DNA duplex and imino groups bridge the two phosphate chains across a double helix, while the terminal amino groups link the oxygen atoms O2 of four cytosine bases. This PA(222) molecule makes a U-turn like a fishhook at one of its ends to provide a micro-environmental network previously unseen in complexes of DNA with polyamines. The width of the minor groove does not become considerably greater with the looped end of the polyamine, indicating conformational rigidity of the Z-DNA backbone imposed by the high stacking energy of the GC base pairs. While polyamine binding to the minor groove has been postulated by theoretical studies for stabilizing the Z-DNA double helical conformation, the finding in the crystal of the looped polyamine chain binding the minor groove of Z-DNA is observed for the first time from the data collected at 10 degrees C (so-called room temperature data). Another PA(222) molecule binds on the convex outer surface of the major groove of the Z-DNA duplex and links three d(CG)(3) duplexes which are symmetrically related to each other. The structure of this PA(222) presents the previously reported zig-zag type conformation [Egli et al., Biochemistry 30 (1991) 11388-11402]. Comparison of this structure with other polyamine-DNA cocrystals reveals structural themes and differences that may relate to the length of the polyamine.

  3. Nurturing the Innovative Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the innovative minority. Gifted students differ from the average students. There are those who argue that the differences are a matter merely of quantitative degree reference studies of IQ scores, or SAT scores, which are clearly quantitative scales, and point out that gifted students appear at the top level of these scales…

  4. Assessing Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.

    Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…

  5. Minority Work Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East-West Gateway Coordinating Council, St. Louis, MO.

    This report covers a work-study program in the East-West Gateway area to provide employment and training for minority and economically disadvantaged graduate and upper-division undergraduate students enrolled in planning and related curricula. The program has aided students in continuing their education who might otherwise be financially unable to…

  6. Minority Work Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East-West Gateway Coordinating Council, St. Louis, MO.

    This report covers a work-study program in the East-West Gateway area to provide employment and training for minority and economically disadvantaged graduate and upper-division undergraduate students enrolled in planning and related curricula. The program has aided students in continuing their education who might otherwise be financially unable to…

  7. Assessing Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.

    Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…

  8. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  9. PATTERNS OF MINORITY RELATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUSTER, TROY S.; MACK, RAYMOND W.

    ACCORDING TO SOCIAL SCIENTISTS AND BIOLOGISTS, ALL RACES ARE EQUAL IN ABILITY, NEVERTHELESS, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION EXISTS WHEN THE CULTURE OF A SOCIETY ALLOWS PEOPLE TO EXPRESS THEIR AGRESSIONS IN A SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE WAY. ONE WAY TO DEFINE GROUP BOUNDARIES IS TO SINGLE OUT A CHARACTERISTIC OF A MINORITY GROUP AND TO INSTITUTIONALIZE THIS…

  10. PATTERNS OF MINORITY RELATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUSTER, TROY S.; MACK, RAYMOND W.

    ACCORDING TO SOCIAL SCIENTISTS AND BIOLOGISTS, ALL RACES ARE EQUAL IN ABILITY, NEVERTHELESS, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION EXISTS WHEN THE CULTURE OF A SOCIETY ALLOWS PEOPLE TO EXPRESS THEIR AGRESSIONS IN A SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE WAY. ONE WAY TO DEFINE GROUP BOUNDARIES IS TO SINGLE OUT A CHARACTERISTIC OF A MINORITY GROUP AND TO INSTITUTIONALIZE THIS…

  11. How Immigration Harms Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matloff, Norman

    1996-01-01

    The negative impacts of immigration are felt most strongly by nonwhite Americans. The significant problems with today's immigration policies can only be solved by reducing immigration levels, something many minority groups support. Immigration is not the root of social problems, but in its present form, it exacerbates them. (SLD)

  12. Minority Male Afterschool Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Herbert F., Jr.

    Through a program called the Minority Male Afterschool Program (MMAP), college students at Mississippi Valley State University in Itta Bena (Mississippi) are working one-on-one with high school students. The MMAP is an enrichment program that encourages at-risk African American students aged 12 to 19 to complete high school and pursue…

  13. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  14. Housing Problems of Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Robert

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, reviews the status of minority group housing and the effects of federal programs upon it, advocating an approach which recognizes the intrinsic locational and real estate value of many black ghettos. (Author/JM)

  15. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  16. Psychological Tests and Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Brenda Johnson; Isenstein, Vivian R.

    The problems with traditional testing, particularly as they relate to minorities, are discussed; and psychological tests designed specifically for Blacks are reviewed. Considered are general problems, problems with testing at the higher education level and for employment, and moral and legal implications of the testing controversy. The rationale…

  17. Nurturing the Innovative Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the innovative minority. Gifted students differ from the average students. There are those who argue that the differences are a matter merely of quantitative degree reference studies of IQ scores, or SAT scores, which are clearly quantitative scales, and point out that gifted students appear at the top level of these scales…

  18. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  19. Sexual minorities seeking services.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Tracey L; Emanuel, Kristen; Bradford, Judith

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for services between July 1, 1997 and December 31, 2000 at Fenway Community Health in Boston, MA. Data are based on clients' self-reports and clinician assessments of clients' presenting problem, relevant developmental history, prior mental health and substance abuse treatment, current reports of emotional/psychological symptoms, and areas of impaired functioning. Although substance abuse and suicidal ideation were commonly reported problems, other concerns were more frequently reported. High percentages of lesbians and bisexual women reported relationship concerns and lack of adequate social networks; rates of depression and anxiety based on clinicians' assessments were also high. Overall, lesbians and bisexual women did not differ in the issues they brought to treatment or level or types of impairment. Compared with previous community survey samples, however, study participants appeared to be healthier than general, non-clinical samples of self-identified lesbians, possibly reflecting the special characteristics of sexual minority women who seek treatment in specialized community sites such as the Fenway. Although patients who come to these sites may not represent the more general population of sexual minority women, community health centers known to serve lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals may be fruitful access points for studying the mental health status and treatment needs of sexual minority women.

  20. Minority attitudes toward contraception.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J O

    1974-12-01

    The training division of the Los Angeles Regional Family Planning Council conducted a seminar for minority members to discover attitudes toward birth control. Indian-Americans, Mexican-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Black-Americans participated. Some fears and misunderstandings relative to birth control were voiced. The timidity of recent Chinese immigrants was mentioned. Male reluctance to use birth control out of a sense of machismo was mentioned in relation to Black- and Mexican-Americans. The conclusion was that, when birth control methods are adequately explained, women of all ethnic groups are willing to use them. To allay fears, suspicions, and concerns, family planning should be presented to minority communities as a health service and not a social service. Family planning clinics would be more accepted in these communities if they expanded their work into other health areas.

  1. Minority energy assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Teotia, A.P.S.; Poyer, D.A.; Lampley, L.; Anderson, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to project household energy consumption, energy expenditure, and energy expenditure as share of income for five population groups from 1991 to 2009. The approach uses the Minority Energy Assessment Model (MEAM), developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy's Office of Minority Economic Impact. The MEAM provides a framework that can be used to forecast regional energy consumption and energy expenditure for majority, black, Hispanic, poor, and nonpoor households. The forecasts of key macroeconomic and energy variables used as exogenous variables in the MEAM were obtained from the Data Resources, Inc., Macromodel and Energy Model. Generally, the projections of household energy consumption, expenditure, and energy expenditure as share of income vary across population groups and census regions.

  2. Minor planet databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykhlova, L.; Bakanas, E.

    We cast a retrospective look at the mankind's acquaintance with minor bodies of the Solar System, at the explosive growth in their discoveries resulting from the technological progress, and at gradual understanding of the danger to our very existence that some of them might actually pose. Then, we review current effort, of the astronomical community in general and of its Russian part in particular, to integrate our rapidly expanding knowledge of the potential Earth impactors and to make it readily available online.

  3. A Nanopore-Structured Nitrogen-Doped Biocarbon Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction from Two-Step Carbonization of Lemna minor Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chaozhong; Li, Zhongbin; Niu, Lidan; Liao, Wenli; Sun, Lingtao; Wen, Bixia; Nie, Yunqing; Cheng, Jing; Chen, Changguo

    2016-05-01

    So far, the development of highly active and stable carbon-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to replace commercial Pt/C catalyst is a hot topic. In this study, a new nanoporous nitrogen-doped carbon material was facilely designed by two-step pyrolysis of the renewable Lemna minor enriched in crude protein under a nitrogen atmosphere. Electrochemical measurements show that the onset potential for ORR on this carbon material is around 0.93 V (versus reversible hydrogen electrode), slightly lower than that on the Pt/C catalyst, but its cycling stability is higher compared to the Pt/C catalyst in an alkaline medium. Besides, the ORR at this catalyst approaches to a four-electron transfer pathway. The obtained ORR performance can be basically attributed to the formation of high contents of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogen atoms inside this catalyst. Thus, this work opens up the path in the ORR catalysis for the design of nitrogen-doped carbon materials utilizing aquatic plants as starting precursors.

  4. A Portrait of Older Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Emily M.

    This booklet presents facts and statistics describing minority elderly persons in the United States. First general information is presented about minority elderly as a whole, noting that minority groups have increased risks of poor education, substandard housing, poverty, malnutrition, and generally poor health. Next, facts are presented about…

  5. Career Education: Implications for Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, N. Alan; Witherspoon, Everette L.

    In general, minorities, especially blacks, approach career education warily, fearing it might turn out to be a new name for an old game. Statistics indicate the minority dilemma; for example, unemployment among minorities 16 and older is nearly twice the white unemployment rate. A number of critical questions about career education as related to…

  6. A Portrait of Older Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Emily M.

    This booklet presents facts and statistics describing minority elderly persons in the United States. First general information is presented about minority elderly as a whole, noting that minority groups have increased risks of poor education, substandard housing, poverty, malnutrition, and generally poor health. Next, facts are presented about…

  7. Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C.

    This paper discusses ways that institutions can change the higher education system and environment to accommodate more minority students. The first section, "Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement," presents an overview of the problems facing colleges and universities with respect to recruiting and retaining minority students. In the…

  8. Novel derivatives of pyridylbenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamides and benzo[b]thieno[2,3-c]naphthyridin-2-ones: minor structural variations provoke major differences of antitumor action mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ester, Katja; Hranjec, Marijana; Piantanida, Ivo; Caleta, Irena; Jarak, Ivana; Pavelić, Kresimir; Kralj, Marijeta; Karminski-Zamola, Grace

    2009-04-23

    Novel cyano- and 2-imidazolinyl-substituted derivatives of pyridylbenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamides 4, 5, 10-13 and benzo[b]thieno[2,3-c]naphthyridin-2-ones 6, 7, 14-17 were prepared. All derivatives showed a prominent antiproliferative effect. Extensive DNA binding studies and additional biological evaluations point to various modes/targets of action. The results strongly support intercalation into DNA as a dominant binding mode of fused analogues, which was substantiated using topoisomerase I inhibition assay. Most intriguingly, only minor structural difference between "nonfused" compounds 12 and 13 has strong impact on the interactions with DNA; while 13 binds within the DNA minor groove in the form of dimer, 12 does not form significant interactions with DNA. The assumption that severe mitotic impairment (G2/M phase arrest) induced by 12 could point to tubulin, another important target, was confirmed by its obvious anti-tubulin activity observed in immunofluorescence assay, whereby treated cells showed disruption of microtubule formation comparable to the effect obtained by paclitaxel, a well-known tubulin antagonist chemotherapeutic.

  9. Universalism, conservation and attitudes toward minority groups.

    PubMed

    Beierlein, Constanze; Kuntz, Anabel; Davidov, Eldad

    2016-07-01

    Findings from previous studies corroborate the hypothesis that universalism and conservation values are associated with negative attitudes toward immigration. In the current study we examine whether universalism and conservation values also play a critical role in the explanation of attitudes toward other minority groups. Drawing on previous research on group-focused enmity, we explore its relations with universalism and conservation values in a German sample. Employing structural equation modeling, we find that individuals who prioritize universalism values approve of various minorities more whereas those who prioritize conservation values exhibit more disapproval.

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Minority Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, R.

    2005-02-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players—Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang—have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the `physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the `stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG

  11. Studies on the minor constituents of the Caribbean gorgonian octocoral Briareum asbestinum Pallas. Isolation and structure determination of the eunicellin-based diterpenoids briarellins E--I.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A D; Cóbar, O M

    1995-11-01

    Five new eunicellin-type diterpenoids, briarellins E--I, along with several known diterpenoids of the asbestinane, briarane and eunicellane classes, were isolated from the Caribbean gorgonian octocoral Briareum asbestinum collected in Puerto Rico. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

  12. The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use Among Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White) completed a questionnaire assessing gender expression, minority stressors (i.e., victimization, internalized homophobia, and concealment), social–psychological resources (i.e., social support, spirituality), and health-related outcomes. We used structural equation modeling to test associations among these factors, with gender expression as an antecedent and social–psychological resources as a mediator between minority stress and health. Results The final model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ2(79) = 414.00, p < .05, confirmatory fit index = .93, Tucker–Lewis index = .91, standardized root-mean-square residual = .05, root-mean-square error of approximation = .06, accounting for significant portions of the variance in mental health problems (56%) and substance use (14%), as well as the mediator social–psychological resources (24%). Beyond indirect effects of minority stress on health outcomes, direct links emerged between victimization and substance use and between internalized homophobia and substance use. Conclusions Findings indicate a significant impact of minority stressors and social–psychological resources on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. The results improve understanding of the distinct role of various minority stressors and their mechanisms on health outcomes. Health care professionals should assess for minority stress and coping resources and refer for evidence-based psychosocial treatments. PMID:21341888

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of an N(2)-guanine DNA adduct derived from the potent tumorigen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: intercalation from the minor groove with ruptured Watson-Crick base pairing.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yijin; Liu, Zhi; Ding, Shuang; Lin, Chin H; Cai, Yuqin; Rodriguez, Fabian A; Sayer, Jane M; Jerina, Donald M; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E

    2012-12-04

    The most potent tumorigen identified among the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is the nonplanar fjord region dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P). It is metabolically activated in vivo through the widely studied diol epoxide (DE) pathway to form covalent adducts with DNA bases, predominantly guanine and adenine. The (+)-11S,12R,13R,14S DE enantiomer forms adducts via its C14 position with the exocyclic amino group of guanine. Here, we present the first nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of a DB[a,l]P-derived adduct, the 14R-(+)-trans-anti-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG (DB[a,l]P-dG) lesion in double-stranded DNA. In contrast to the stereochemically identical benzo[a]pyrene-derived N(2)-dG adduct (B[a]P-dG) in which the B[a]P rings reside in the B-DNA minor groove on the 3'-side of the modifed deoxyguanosine, in the DB[a,l]P-derived adduct the DB[a,l]P rings intercalate into the duplex on the 3'-side of the modified base from the sterically crowded minor groove. Watson-Crick base pairing of the modified guanine with the partner cytosine is broken, but these bases retain some stacking with the bulky DB[a,l]P ring system. This new theme in PAH DE-DNA adduct conformation differs from (1) the classical intercalation motif in which Watson-Crick base pairing is intact at the lesion site and (2) the base-displaced intercalation motif in which the damaged base and its partner are extruded from the helix. The structural considerations that lead to the intercalated conformation of the DB[a,l]P-dG lesion in contrast to the minor groove alignment of the B[a]P-dG adduct, and the implications of the DB[a,l]P-dG conformational motif for the recognition of such DNA lesions by the human nucleotide excision repair apparatus, are discussed.

  14. NMR solution structure of an N2-guanine DNA adduct derived from the potent tumorigen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: Intercalation from the minor groove with ruptured Watson-Crick base pairing

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yijin; Liu, Zhi; Ding, Shuang; Lin, Chin H.; Cai, Yuqin; Rodriguez, Fabian A.; Sayer, Jane M.; Jerina, Donald M.; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    The most potent tumorigen identified among the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is the non-planar fjord region dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P). It is metabolically activated in vivo through the widely-studied diol epoxide (DE) pathway to form covalent adducts with DNA bases, predominantly guanine and adenine. The (+)-11S,12R,13R,14S DE enantiomer forms adducts via its C14-position with the exocyclic amino group of guanine. Here, we present the first NMR solution structure of a DB[a,l]P-derived adduct, the 14R (+)-trans-anti-DB[a,l]P–N2-dG (DB[a,l]P-dG) lesion in double-stranded DNA. In contrast to the stereochemically identical benzo[a]pyrene-derived N2-dG adduct (B[a]P-dG) in which the B[a]P rings reside in the B-DNA minor groove on the 3’-side of the modifed deoxyguanosine, in the DB[a,l]P-derived adduct the DB[a,l]P rings intercalate into the duplex on the 3’-side of the modified base from the sterically crowded minor groove. Watson-Crick base pairing of the modified guanine with the partner cytosine is broken, but these bases retain some stacking with the bulky DB[a,l]P ring system. This new theme in PAH DE - DNA adduct conformation differs from: (1) the classical intercalation motif where Watson-Crick base-pairing is intact at the lesion site, and (2) the base-displaced intercalation motif in which the damaged base and its partner are extruded from the helix . The structural considerations that lead to the intercalated conformation of the DB[a,l]P-dG lesion in contrast to the minor groove alignment of the B[a]P-dG adduct, and the implications of the DB[a,l]P-dG conformational motif for the recognition of such DNA lesions by the human nucleotide excision repair apparatus, are discussed. PMID:23121427

  15. The structure of feared social situations among race-ethnic minorities and Whites with social anxiety disorder in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Asnaani, Anu; Aderka, Idan M.; Marques, Luana; Simon, Naomi; Robinaugh, Donald J.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated feared social situations in individuals with social anxiety disorder from different racial and ethnic groups in the United States. The sample included 247 African Americans, 158 Latinos, and 533 non-Latino Whites diagnosed with social anxiety disorder within the past 12 months from the integrated Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies data set. After randomly splitting the full sample, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis with half of the sample to determine the structure of feared social situations in a more diverse sample than has been used in previous studies. We found evidence for a model consisting of three feared social domains: performance/public speaking, social interaction, and observational. We then conducted a confirmatory factor analysis on the remaining half of the sample to examine whether this factor structure varied significantly between the race-ethnic groups. Analyses revealed an adequate fit of this model across all three race-ethnic groups, suggesting invariance of the factor structure between the study groups. Broader cultural contexts within which these findings are relevant are discussed, along with important implications for comprehensive, culturally sensitive assessment of social anxiety. PMID:25795220

  16. The structure of feared social situations among race-ethnic minorities and Whites with social anxiety disorder in the United States.

    PubMed

    Asnaani, Anu; Aderka, Idan M; Marques, Luana; Simon, Naomi; Robinaugh, Donald J; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2015-12-01

    We investigated feared social situations in individuals with social anxiety disorder from different racial and ethnic groups in the United States. The sample included 247 African Americans, 158 Latinos, and 533 non-Latino Whites diagnosed with social anxiety disorder within the past 12 months from the integrated Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies data set. After randomly splitting the full sample, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis with half of the sample to determine the structure of feared social situations in a more diverse sample than has been used in previous studies. We found evidence for a model consisting of three feared social domains: performance/public speaking, social interaction, and observational. We then conducted a confirmatory factor analysis on the remaining half of the sample to examine whether this factor structure varied significantly between the race-ethnic groups. Analyses revealed an adequate fit of this model across all three race-ethnic groups, suggesting invariance of the factor structure between the study groups. Broader cultural contexts within which these findings are relevant are discussed, along with important implications for comprehensive, culturally sensitive assessment of social anxiety.

  17. Heparin sodium compliance to the new proposed USP monograph: elucidation of a minor structural modification responsible for a process dependent 2.10 ppm NMR signal.

    PubMed

    Mourier, Pierre A J; Guichard, Olivier Y; Herman, Fréderic; Viskov, Christian

    2011-01-25

    Heparin is a highly sulfated hetero polysaccharide mixture found and extracted from mammalian tissues. It has been widely used as an anticoagulant drug during the past decades. In the new proposed USP heparin monograph, the ¹H NMR acceptance criteria to prevent contamination by over sulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), or other persulfated glycosaminoglycans, specifies that no unidentified signals greater than 4% of the mean of signal height of 1 and 2 should be present in the following ranges: 0.10-2.00, 2.10-3.20, and 5.70-8.00 ppm. However, those criteria do not take into account the impact of potential structural modifications generated by the heparin manufacturing processes. In fact, starting from pig mucosa, heparin purification involves oxidizing reagents such as sodium peroxide, potassium permanganate and peracetic acid. In the present work, we demonstrate that potassium permanganate treated heparins show a small but characteristic extra signal at 2.10 ppm. Controlled heparinase I depolymerisation is used to target and excise the oligosaccharide responsible for this extra signal from the polysaccharide backbone. By using orthogonal chromatographic techniques, the fingerprint oligosaccharide was isolated and its structure elucidated. Without the identification of this structural moiety, such purified heparins may have been considered as non-compliant drug substance and not suitable for pharmaceutical use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Minorities and Urban Electoral Change: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Rufus P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes changes in minority officeholding, voter turnout, and minority candidacies and coalitions in mayoral and council elections in 10 northern California cities from 1950 to 1977. Expanding on studies of negative impact of nonpartisan elections on Democratic strength, argues that traditional nonpartisan structures have been significantly…

  19. Unraveling the "Model Minority" Stereotype: Listening to Asian American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Stacey J.

    The model minority image of Asian Americans authorizes the flat denial of racism and structures of racial dominance and silences those who are not economically successful. This book explores how young people incorporate, interpret, and make meaning of the "model minority" stereotype in the context of their lived experience in school and…

  20. Minor surgery in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Krupa, Debra T.; Stonestreet, Robert; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate and demonstrate equipment and techniques proposed for minor surgery on Space Station Freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to test and evaluate methods of surgical instrument packaging and deployment; (2) to test and evaluate methods of surgical site preparation and draping; (3) to evaluate techniques of sterile procedure and maintaining sterile field; (4) to evaluate methods of trash management during medical/surgical procedures; and (4) to gain experience in techniques for performing surgery in microgravity. A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed on March 30, 1990 with the goal of investigating and demonstrating surgical equipment and techniques under consideration for use on SSF. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola.

  1. Binary Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2006-05-01

    A review of observations and theories regarding binary asteroids and binary trans-Neptunian objects [collectively, binary minor planets (BMPs)] is presented. To date, these objects have been discovered using a combination of direct imaging, lightcurve analysis, and radar. They are found throughout the Solar System, and present a challenge for theorists modeling their formation in the context of Solar System evolution. The most promising models invoke rotational disruption for the smallest, shortest-lived objects (the asteroids nearest to Earth), consistent with the observed fast rotation of these bodies; impacts for the larger, longer-lived asteroids in the main belt, consistent with the range of size ratios of their components and slower rotation rates; and mutual capture for the distant, icy, trans-Neptunian objects, consistent with their large component separations and near-equal sizes. Numerical simulations have successfully reproduced key features of the binaries in the first two categories; the third remains to be investigated in detail.

  2. Food addiction among sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Rainey, Jacob C; Furman, Celina R; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2017-08-19

    Although sexual minorities represent a small proportion of the general population, this group has been observed to be at an increased risk of developing various pathologies, including substance use and eating disorders. Research suggests that foods high in added fat and refined carbohydrates may trigger an addictive response, especially in at-risk individuals. Consequently, food addiction is associated with elevated risk for obesity, diet-related disease, and psychological distress. However, there is limited research on whether food addiction, like substance use, may be elevated among sexual minorities, and whether self-compassion may be a protective factor. Thus, the current study aims to test whether food addiction is elevated in sexual minorities (relative to heterosexuals) and if discrimination and self-compassion may be related to food addiction among sexual minorities. In a community sample of 356 participants (43.3% sexual minority), sexual minorities had almost twice the prevalence of food addiction (16.9%) as heterosexuals (8.9%). Also, sexual minorities on average experienced more food addiction symptoms (M = 2.73, SD = 1.76) than heterosexuals (M = 1.95, SD = 1.59). For sexual minorities, heterosexist harassment was associated with increased food addiction, while self-compassion appeared to be a protective factor. Further research needs to examine between-group differences among sexual minorities for better treatment and interventions for food addiction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Structure and stability of a DNA triple helix in solution: NMR studies on d(T) sub 6 ter dot d(T) sub 6 and its complex with a minor groove binding drug

    SciTech Connect

    Umemoto, Kimiko; Sarma, Mukti H.; Gupta, Goutam; Luo, Jia; Sarma, Ramaswamy H. )

    1990-05-23

    The possibility of both Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen A{center dot}T pairs can result in a triple helical structure for d(T){sub 6}{center dot}d(A){sub 6}{center dot}d(T){sub 6} in solution. In the triple helix the Watson-Crick paired T strand can run antiparallel, while the Hoogsteen paired T strand can run parallel to the A strand. On the basis of 1D/2D NMR studies, we have characterized the structural properties of the triple helix in terms of (a) nature of H-bonding, (b) chain conformations and relative chain orientations, (c) location of triplets T{center dot}A{center dot}T with respect to the helix axis, and (d) effects of NaCl and MgCl{sub 2}. In addition, we experimentally demonstrate that a minor groove specific drug Dst2 (a distamycin analogue) can bind to the triple helix. We show that the nature of thermal transition is altered by Dst2 binding; i.e., the host triple helix shows triple {yields} coil (monophasic) transition in the absence of Dst2, while in its presence the helix shows a triplex {yields} duplex {yields} coil (biphasic) transition.

  4. Ethnic Minority Dropout in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from similar high school tracks show no significant…

  5. A Seminar for Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhiot, Grete; Ninan, Mary

    1979-01-01

    Describes a seminar for minority, particularly Black, students entering the junior year at the School of Nursing, Loyola University of Chicago. Seminar objective was to give academic, emotional, and social support. Notes changing minority student attitudes, the need for earlier tutoring for academic weakness, and the value of group discussion. (MF)

  6. Supporting Women and Minority Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, JoAnn

    2004-01-01

    Good departmental practices can help women and minority faculty thrive and make the greatest possible contribution to the academic enterprise. Several recent books have explored what is wrong with the current way of doing business. In this article, the author outlines steps to bring U.S. minority and European American women faculty--at both the…

  7. Education Rights and Minorities. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyani, Chaloka; And Others

    This report not only examines the role of mass education in the integration of minorities into the society, but also examines the importance to minorities of the cultural transmission of their values and world view recognized by international standards. The general human right to education implies certain duties of the state under the 1948…

  8. Supporting Women and Minority Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, JoAnn

    2004-01-01

    Good departmental practices can help women and minority faculty thrive and make the greatest possible contribution to the academic enterprise. Several recent books have explored what is wrong with the current way of doing business. In this article, the author outlines steps to bring U.S. minority and European American women faculty--at both the…

  9. Minority Education in Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Patricia A., Ed.; Stone, Frank A., Ed.

    These papers from the World Education Workshop on minority education present the question of minority education in its many guises around the world. Basic objectives of the workshop include bringing together people concerned with the polycultural and international dimensions in the preparation of professional educators, promoting recognition of a…

  10. Introducing Literature of the Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Elizabeth

    This paper discusses a thematic approach to introduce high school or college students to fiction that deals with minority groups. The author discusses how this thematic arrangement of novels may be a useful method for organizing a study of minority groups as represented in major works of American fiction. She discusses the initiation motif as a…

  11. College and the Minority Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Robert L.

    1974-01-01

    The crusade to recruit "minority" students has now progressed far enough to draw some conclusions from the results. This article summarizes the minority student recruitment program in general and outlines some of the areas most in need of revision. (Author/PC)

  12. Minorities Access to Research Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    The Minorities Access to Research Careers (MARC) program at Hunter College, New York is designed to provide an in-depth 2-year research training experience for minority students in order to prepare them for graduate school and eventual research careers in alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health fields. The target groups include Blacks, Hispanics,…

  13. Finding Respondents from Minority Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mier, Nelda; Medina, Alvaro A.; Bocanegra-Alonso, Anabel; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Acosta-Gonzalez, Rosa I.; Ramirez, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    The recruitment of respondents belonging to ethnic minorities poses important challenges in social and health research. This paper reflects on the enablers and barriers to recruitment that we encountered in our research work with persons belonging to ethnic minorities. Additionally, we applied the Matching Model of Recruitment, a theoretical…

  14. Linguistic Landscape and Minority Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the linguistic landscape of two streets in two multilingual cities in Friesland (Netherlands) and the Basque Country (Spain) where a minority language is spoken, Basque or Frisian. The paper analyses the use of the minority language (Basque or Frisian), the state language (Spanish or Dutch) and English as an international…

  15. Minority Participation in Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Reginald

    While the largest growth in the college-age population (i.e., 18 to 24 year olds) is among minority group members, the largest decline in college-going rates is among minorities. Because of poor academic preparation, rising tuition rates, and declining financial aid resources, the community college has become the college of necessity, rather than…

  16. Minorities in the Armed Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Anthony

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the findings of the Congressional Black Caucus and the specially formed task force; reports that high ranking officers have pledged to attack racial discrimination; and describes an association of minority officers whose purpose is to enhance the image of the armed forces within the minority community. (Author/JM)

  17. Tanker Structural Analysis for Minor Collisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    masses (including virtual masses of the water), the initial bearings, and velocities. 2. Throughout the analysis, the bow of the striking ship Is...initial velocity of the striking ship: m( F ______ (1 t 0 V20) =0.0 f= virtual mass, ship I 2 = virtual mass, ship 2~ m I V . V f ’ K’ Jt 11 FIUR m-2...situ .K. 5Y( i~ lZAKD bow $H 14ILIQj P Lh5T I C. EQ k Y kps) 0 0 94-1 W~IAk) J~~E 0 oC4O.1 ,I Hi PL~c,1C. tlA% ;OQ)- AULA / ;0) 4 4 4~IN -c Q

  18. Ethnic minority energy conference: report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The report of a 1977 energy conference sponsored by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People summarizes the basic concern that US energy policy was not addressing the importance of full employment or the impact of rising energy costs on the poor. Conference speakers spoke of the social and economic changes that are needed if minorities are to participate in the economics of the technological age. These include better educational opportunities and cooperation between civil rights groups and energy planners. Other topics were venture opportunities for minorities in energy-related fields and opportunities for minority advocacy and energy efficiency actions.

  19. Meckel diverticulum in exomphalos minor

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Hee Ju; Park, Kwi-Won; Lee, Na Mi; Kim, Mi-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    A congenital hernia into the base of the umbilical cord is known as an exomphalos and when the size of the defect is 5 cm or less and containing only bowel, it is called as exomphalos minor. We present a case of a newborn with an exomphalos minor within a Meckel diverticulum. He underwent surgical resection of the Meckel diverticulum and repair of the abdominal wall defect. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Meckel diverticulum in an exomphalos minor in Korea. PMID:27478815

  20. Haitians: A Neglected Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Linda

    1977-01-01

    Haitians have been found to respond well to client-centered group counseling and to be able to use that structure to deal with personal, social, and vocational difficulties. Counseling with Haitians can be particularly gratifying because of their motivation for self-help and their willingness to become involved in counseling. (Author)

  1. Homooligomeric dA.dU and dA.dT sequences in parallel and antiparallel strand orientation: consequence of the 5-methyl groups on stability, structure and interaction with the minor groove binding drug Hoechst 33258.

    PubMed

    Germann, M W; Kalisch, B W; van de Sande, J H

    1996-06-01

    Oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing dA.dU base combinations were shown to form parallel stranded DNA. CD spectra and hyperchromicity profiles provide evidence that the structure is very similar to that of a related parallel stranded dA.dT oligomer. Thermal denaturation studies show that these parallel dA.dU sequences are significantly less stable than their dA.dT analogues in either antiparallel or parallel stranded orientations. The stabilizing effect of the 5-methyl group is similar for parallel and antiparallel sequences. The minor groove binding drug Hoechst 33258 binds with similar affinity to APS dA.dT and APS dA.dU sequences. However, binding to the PS dA.dT hairpin is significantly impaired as a consequence of the different groove dimensions and the presence of thymine methyl groups at the binding site. This results in an 8.6 kJmol-1 reduced free energy of binding for the PS dA.dT sequence. Replacement of the bulky methyl group with a hydrogen (ie. T-->U) results in significantly stronger Hoechst 33258 binding to the parallel dA.dU sequences with a penalty of only 4.1 kJmol-1. Our data demonstrate that although Hoechst 33258 detects the altered groove, it is still able to bind a PS duplex containing dA.dU base pairs with high affinity, despite the large structural differences from its regular binding site in APS DNA.

  2. Cultural minority students' experiences with intercultural competency in medical education.

    PubMed

    Leyerzapf, Hannah; Abma, Tineke

    2017-05-01

    Medical schools increasingly value and focus on teaching students intercultural competency within present-day multicultural society. Little is known about the experiences of cultural minority students in intercultural competence activities. This article discusses the intercultural competence activities of medical education in a Dutch university from the perspective of cultural minority students. We will formulate recommendations for how to stimulate intercultural competency in, as well as inclusiveness of, medical education. A qualitative evaluation was performed within a medical school in the Netherlands. Data were collected through interviews (n = 23), a focus group (six participants) and participant observations (20 hours). Thematic analysis was performed. Cultural minority students experienced a lack of respect and understanding by cultural majority students and teachers. Education activities intended to transfer intercultural knowledge, address personal prejudice and stimulate intercultural sensitivity were perceived as stigmatising and as creating an unsafe climate for cultural minority students. Cultural minority and majority students on campus seemed segregated and the intercultural awareness of minority students was not integrated in intercultural competence activities. As cultural minority students were confronted with microaggressions, the medical school did not succeed in creating a safe education environment for all students. Contrary to their aims and intentions, intercultural competence activities had limited effect and seemed to support the polarisation of cultural minority and majority students and teachers. This can be seen as pointing towards a hidden curriculum privileging majority over minority students. For structural integration of intercultural competency in medical education, the focus must penetrate beyond curricular activities towards the critical addressing of the culture and structure of medical school. Collective commitment to

  3. NAFTA Minor Use Joint Reviews

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and Health Canada Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) worked together to develop a registration process that will permit a regulatory decision of pesticide uses for the minor use grower communities in both countries simultaneously.

  4. Minor Uses and Grower Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides growers, registrants and other interested parties with information on the programs EPA is implementing to ensure safe pesticide tools are available, particularly for those involved in the minor uses of pesticides.

  5. Ethnic Minorities' Impression Management in the Interview: Helping or Hindering?

    PubMed

    Derous, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities' interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred 'entitlements' whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians) preferred 'opinion conformity' as IM-tactics. An experimental follow-up study among 163 ethnic majority raters showed no main effect of IM-tactics on interview ratings. Ethnic minorities' use of IM-tactics only affected interview ratings if rater characteristics were considered. Specifically, interview ratings were higher when ethnic minorities used opinion conformity (i.e., majority-preferred IM-tactic) and lower when minorities used entitlements (i.e., minority-preferred IM-tactic) if recruiters were high in social dominance orientation, and when they felt more experienced/proficient with interviewing. IM-tactics are a human capital factor that might help applicants to increase their job chances on the labor market. It is concluded that ethnic minority applicants' preferences for certain IM-tactics might lead to bias even in structured interview settings, but that this depends on ethnic majority recruiters' interview experience and ingroup/outgroup attitudes. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  6. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Anant D.; Santini, Danilo J.; Marik, Sheri K.

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  7. The application of minority stress theory to marijuana use among sexual minority adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Schrager, Sheree M; Dunlap, Shannon L; Holloway, Ian W

    2015-02-01

    Previous research indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, including heightened rates of marijuana use. Minority stress theory suggests that difficult social situations create a state of chronic stress that leads to poor health outcomes for LGB adults; however, the applicability of this model has not been well explored in relation to substance use among LGB adolescents. The current study is a secondary analysis of the OutProud survey, conducted in 2000. The original study used purposive sampling to collect data from 1,911 LGB adolescents (age 12-17) across the United States, and represents the largest known study to explore experiences specific to identifying as LGB, such as homophobia and gay-related victimization. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the feasibility of applying a minority stress framework to understand marijuana use in this population. The final structural model for marijuana use in the LGB adolescent sample displayed excellent fit and modest explanatory power for marijuana use. Two of the five factors, community connectedness and internalized homophobia, were significantly (p < .05) associated with marijuana use. Findings suggest that minority stress theory may be appropriately applied to marijuana use in this population; however, better measurement of minority stress concepts for LGB adolescents is needed.

  8. Structural dynamics of the box C/D RNA kink-turn and its complex with proteins: the role of the A-minor 0 interaction, long-residency water bridges, and structural ion-binding sites revealed by molecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Spacková, Nad'a; Réblová, Kamila; Sponer, Jirí

    2010-08-19

    Kink-turns (K-turns) are recurrent elbow-like RNA motifs that participate in protein-assisted RNA folding and contribute to RNA dynamics. We carried out a set of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using parm99 and parmbsc0 force fields to investigate structural dynamics of the box C/D RNA and its complexes with two proteins: native archaeal L7ae protein and human 15.5 kDa protein, originally bound to very similar structure of U4 snRNA. The box C/D RNA forms K-turn with A-minor 0 tertiary interaction between its canonical (C) and noncanonical (NC) stems. The local K-turn architecture is thus different from the previously studied ribosomal K-turns 38 and 42 having A-minor I interaction. The simulations reveal visible structural dynamics of this tertiary interaction involving altogether six substates which substantially contribute to the elbow-like flexibility of the K-turn. The interaction can even temporarily shift to the A-minor I type pattern; however, this is associated with distortion of the G/A base pair in the NC-stem of the K-turn. The simulations show reduction of the K-turn flexibility upon protein binding. The protein interacts with the apex of the K-turn and with the NC-stem. The protein-RNA interface includes long-residency hydration sites. We have also found long-residency hydration sites and major ion-binding sites associated with the K-turn itself. The overall topology of the K-turn remains stable in all simulations. However, in simulations of free K-turn, we observed instability of the key C16(O2')-A7(N1) H-bond, which is a signature interaction of K-turns and which was visibly more stable in simulations of K-turns possessing A-minor I interaction. It may reflect either some imbalance of the force field or it may be a correct indication of early stages of unfolding since this K-turn requires protein binding for its stabilization. Interestingly, the 16(O2')-7(N1) H- bond is usually not fully lost since it is replaced by a water bridge with a tightly

  9. Minority workers or minority human beings? A European dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Phillipson, Robert

    1996-07-01

    "European" identities may be politonymic, toponymic, ethnomyic or linguonymic (Bromley 1984). Each dimension may affect whether migrant minorities are treated as "European", and influence their schooling, integration and rights. Treatment and terminology vary in different states and periods of migration. However, the position for immigrated minorities is that they are still largely seen as workers rather than human beings with equal rights. Lack of success in schools is blamed on the migrants themselves rather than the educational system. This construction of migrants as being deficient is parallel to educational practice which falls within a UN definition of linguistic genocide, and contributes to mis-education. If current efforts in international bodies to codify educational linguistic human rights were to lead to greater support for minorities, this could assist in a redefinition of national identities and a reduction of racism and conflict.

  10. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    PubMed

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional.

  11. Anatomical study of minor alterations in neonate vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Adriano Rezende; Machado Jr, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2014-01-01

    Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. To evaluate the existence and anatomical characterization of minor structural alterations in the vocal folds of newborns. 56 larynxes excised from neonates of both genders were studied. They were examined fresh, or defrosted after conservation via freezing, under a microscope at magnifications of 25× and 40×. The vocal folds were inspected and palpated by two examiners, with the aim of finding minor structural alterations similar to those described classically, and other undetermined minor structural alterations. Larynges presenting abnormalities were submitted to histological examination. Six cases of abnormalities were found in different larynges: one (1.79%) compatible with a sulcus vocalis and five (8.93%) compatible with a laryngeal micro-diaphragm. No cases of cysts or mucosal bridges were found. The observed abnormalities had characteristics similar to those described in other age groups. Abnormalities similar to sulcus vocalis or micro-diaphragm may be present at birth. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Minorities in Housing Administration in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welty, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed 208 institutions to determine the number of minority employees in college housing programs and their job classifications. Found an increasing number of minority employees, but a higher percentage of minority employees holding nonprofessional positions. Suggests additional efforts to increase minority employees at the central housing…

  13. Minorities in Housing Administration in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welty, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed 208 institutions to determine the number of minority employees in college housing programs and their job classifications. Found an increasing number of minority employees, but a higher percentage of minority employees holding nonprofessional positions. Suggests additional efforts to increase minority employees at the central housing…

  14. Minority Enrollment Report, Fall Semester 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Ronald B.

    This report displays longitudinal data on minority enrollment at Piedmont Virginia Community College (PVCC), and examines trends that may affect minority enrollment in the future. A record number of minority students attended PVCC for the fall semester 1999. Slightly over two-thirds of all minority students attending PVCC were African-American.…

  15. Segmented Assimilation and Minority Cultures of Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Carter, Prudence; Lee, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Considers how the experiences of middle class minorities might alter current models of second-generation incorporation, proposing that minority middle classes share a minority culture of mobility (cultural elements responsive to distinctive problems of interracial encounters in public settings and interclass relations within minority communities).…

  16. Increasing the Minority CTE Teacher Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the need for more minority teachers. This issue deserves serious consideration as the K-12 minority student population increases and the number of minority teachers does not. Various states have implemented programs designed to recruit minority teachers, including teacher shadowing initiatives in South…

  17. 22 CFR 51.28 - Minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Application § 51.28 Minors. (a) Minors under age 16—(1) Personal appearance. Minors under 16 years of age applying for a passport must appear in person, unless the personal appearance of the minor is specifically excused by a senior passport authorizing...

  18. 22 CFR 51.28 - Minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Application § 51.28 Minors. (a) Minors under age 16—(1) Personal appearance. Minors under 16 years of age applying for a passport must appear in person, unless the personal appearance of the minor is specifically excused by a senior passport authorizing...

  19. 22 CFR 51.28 - Minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Application § 51.28 Minors. (a) Minors under age 16—(1) Personal appearance. Minors under 16 years of age applying for a passport must appear in person, unless the personal appearance of the minor is specifically excused by a senior passport authorizing...

  20. 40 CFR 161.60 - Minor uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.60 Minor uses. (a) Minor use policy. A minor use of a pesticide is a use on a “minor crop” (a crop which is planted on a small...

  1. 40 CFR 161.60 - Minor uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.60 Minor uses. (a) Minor use policy. A minor use of a pesticide is a use on a “minor crop” (a crop which is planted on a small...

  2. Fast clique minor generation in Chimera qubit connectivity graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boothby, Tomas; King, Andrew D.; Roy, Aidan

    2016-01-01

    The current generation of D-Wave quantum annealing processor is designed to minimize the energy of an Ising spin configuration whose pairwise interactions lie on the edges of a Chimera graph C_{M,N,L}. In order to solve an Ising spin problem with arbitrary pairwise interaction structure, the corresponding graph must be minor-embedded into a Chimera graph. We define a combinatorial class of native clique minors in Chimera graphs with vertex images of uniform, near minimal size and provide a polynomial-time algorithm that finds a maximum native clique minor in a given induced subgraph of a Chimera graph. These minors allow improvement over recent work and have immediate practical applications in the field of quantum annealing.

  3. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  4. Mainstreaming and the Minority Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    Provided are 16 author-contributed papers dealing with theoretical questions and practical concerns relating to the effect of mainstreaming on the minority child. The text is divided into five parts: overview and perspectives, educational assessment for mainstream placement, curriculum issues and teaching strategies, evaluation and research, and…

  5. Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

    Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

  6. Magic, Myth and Minority Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard R.

    Optimum time for efforts to attract minority students to a science career is when the students are enrolled in grade school and junior high school rather than at undergraduate and graduate levels, where many present programs are aimed. Student population is at its maximum in grade school, and successful efforts will reduce the amount of remedial…

  7. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  8. Office management of minor wounds.

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, S.; Patel, H.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review office interventions for minor wounds not requiring sutures, such as abrasions, bites, and lacerations. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most information on minor wound management comes from descriptive studies. Few comparative studies examine the effectiveness of topical antisepsis for minor wounds. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that tissue adhesives produce short- and long-term cosmetic results equivalent to those achieved with suture materials. MAIN MESSAGE: Sterile saline is the least toxic solution for wound irrigation. Chlorhexidine (2%) and povidone iodine (10%) have been the most investigated antiseptic solutions. Systemic antibiotics are unnecessary for wounds unlikely to be infected. All bite wounds require special attention. Primary closure of bite wounds is indicated in certain circumstances: less than 12-hour-old nonpuncture wounds, uninfected wounds, and low-risk lesions (such as on the face). In spite of their many advantages, skin tapes should be used for low-tension wounds only. The popularity of tissue adhesives has greatly increased. Since the advent of newer products (with increased bonding strength and flexibility), adhesives are used to manage most lacerations except those in areas of high tension (e.g., joints) and on mucosal surfaces. CONCLUSION: Minor wounds not requiring sutures can be managed easily in the office. PMID:11340758

  9. Magic, Myth and Minority Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard R.

    Optimum time for efforts to attract minority students to a science career is when the students are enrolled in grade school and junior high school rather than at undergraduate and graduate levels, where many present programs are aimed. Student population is at its maximum in grade school, and successful efforts will reduce the amount of remedial…

  10. Obstacles to Financing Minority Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    In 1972, the District of Columbia Advisory Committee initiated an inquiry to determine the role that discrimination has played in limiting minority business enterprises in the Washington area. Meetings were held in which businessmen, representatives of technical assistance organizations, government officials, and bankers examined the question of…

  11. Minority Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

  12. Minority Student Progress Report, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Porfirio R.; Luan, Jing

    This report offers a consolidated systemwide analysis of key issues and recommendations for improvement of minority recruitment and retention at Arizona State Universities and an evaluation of progress toward achieving Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) approved recruitment and graduation goals. A description of ABOR system goals notes three goals:…

  13. Minority Student Progress Report, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Porfirio R.; Luan, Jing

    This report offers a consolidated systemwide analysis of key issues and recommendations for improvement of minority recruitment and retention at Arizona State Universities and an evaluation of progress toward achieving Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) approved recruitment and graduation goals. A description of ABOR system goals notes three goals:…

  14. Minority Leaders for Independent Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Bobette Reed; Dandridge, William L.

    This booklet addresses minority group teachers and teacher candidates and provides information on the career opportunities that are available in independent elementary and secondary schools. A brief description of private schools includes notes on how they differ from public schools in governance, finances, curriculum, and student and faculty…

  15. Language, Power, and Minority Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, David

    1991-01-01

    Ways are discussed that education and the discourse practices it authorizes can routinely repress, dominate, and disempower language users whose practices differ from the norms that it establishes. The ideas of two key theorists, Bourdieu and Bhaskar, are linked and applied to such issues as schooling, high status language, and minority discursive…

  16. Mainstreaming and the Minority Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    Provided are 16 author-contributed papers dealing with theoretical questions and practical concerns relating to the effect of mainstreaming on the minority child. The text is divided into five parts: overview and perspectives, educational assessment for mainstream placement, curriculum issues and teaching strategies, evaluation and research, and…

  17. Isolation and characterization of a minor fimbria from Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, N; Sojar, H T; Cho, M I; Genco, R J

    1996-01-01

    We have discovered two distinctly different fimbriae expressed by the same Porphyromonas gingivalis strain. The construction of a fimA mutant of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 has previously been reported by N. Hamada et al. (Infect. Immun. 62:1696-1704, 1994). Expression of fimbriae on the surface of the fimA mutant and the wild-type strain, ATCC 33277, were investigated by electron microscopy. The wild-type strain produced long fimbrial structures extending from the cell surface, whereas those structures were not observed on the fimA mutant. However, short fimbrial structures were seen on the surface of the fimA mutant. The short fimbrial protein was purified from the fimA mutant by selective protein precipitation and chromatography on DEAE Sepharose CL-6B. We have found that the second fimbrial structure of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 is distinct from the 41-kDa (43-kDa) major fimbrial protein (FimA). We provisionally call this protein minor fimbriae. The molecular mass of the minor fimbriae is 67 kDa as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions after boiling at 100 degrees C. The component shows a ladder-like pattern at 80 degrees C under nonreducing conditions, suggesting a tendency to aggregate or polymerize. In immunoblotting analysis, anti-minor fimbria serum reacted with both the 100 degrees C- and the 80 degrees C-treated minor fimbriae. The anti-minor fimbria serum also reacts with the same-molecular-size fimbrial preparation from the wild-type strain. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the anti-minor fimbria serum bound to the minor fimbria on the cell surface of the wild-type strain. This is the first report on the identification of the minor fimbria produced by P. gingivalis. These results suggest that the minor fimbriae appearing on the fimA mutant strain are produced together with numerous long major fimbriae on the wild-type strain. Moreover, the minor fimbriae are different in size and

  18. Minority stress and physical health among sexual minority individuals.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Lehavot, Keren; Meyer, Ilan H

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effects of minority stress on the physical health of lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs). Participants (N = 396) completed baseline and one year follow-up interviews. Exposure to stress and health outcomes were assessed with two methods: a subjective self-appraisal method and a method whereby two independent judges externally rated event narratives using standardized criteria. The odds of experiencing a physical health problem at follow-up were significantly higher among LGBs who experienced an externally rated prejudice event during the follow-up period compared to those who did not. This association persisted after adjusting for experiences of general stressful life events that were not related to prejudice. Self-appraised minority stress exposures were not associated with poorer physical health at 1-year follow-up. Prejudice-related stressful life events have a unique deleterious impact on health that persists above and beyond the effect of stressful life events unrelated to prejudice.

  19. The Nabataeans and Asia Minor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameen, Z. al

    The Nabataean period (c. 312 BC- AD 106) stands out as a period of prosperity, expansion, cultural growth and a relative political unity. It is clear that the Nabataean commercial activities as well as their involvement in the lucrative trade of aromatics had been the major acknowledged influence on the Nabataean urban settlements, economic development and architectural renaissance. This paper focuses on the international Nabataean relations with the west and their influences on the Nabataean cultural achievements. The specific question of this work investigates the influence of international maritime and long distance trade as well as the influence of Asia Minor on the Nabataean culture. It discusses the south-western Asia Minor archaeological evidence uncovered in Nabataea. Attention focuses on the nature and extent of the Nabataean material remains found in the Mediterranean and south west Anatolia and discusses the south-western Anatolian influence on the cultural achievements of the Nabataeans.

  20. Photographic positions of minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debehogne, H.; Scardia, M.

    1992-03-01

    The GPO astrograph at the ESO and a second astrograph are utilized to give the positions of minor planets with photographic position. The method is based on the standard technique of using three exposures slightly spaced in declination, and five stars are used for reference in the measurement and reduction. The present method is theorized to provide accurate measurements and an enhanced ability to identify the observed asteroids.

  1. Workforce utilization of visible and linguistic minorities in Canadian nursing.

    PubMed

    Premji, Stephanie; Etowa, Josephine B

    2014-01-01

    Aim  This study seeks to develop a diversity profile of the nursing workforce in Canada and its major cities. Background  There is ample evidence of ethnic and linguistic segregation in the Canadian labour market. However, it is unknown if there is equitable representation of visible and linguistic minorities in nursing professions. Methods  We cross-tabulated aggregate data from Statistics Canada's 2006 Census. Analyses examined the distribution of visible and linguistic minorities, including visible minority sub-groups, among health managers, head nurses, registered nurses, licensed nurses and nurse aides for Canada and major cities as well as by gender. Results  In Canada and its major cities, a pyramidal structure was found whereby visible and linguistic minorities, women in particular, were under-represented in managerial positions and over-represented in lower ranking positions. Blacks and Filipinos were generally well represented across nursing professions; however, other visible minority sub-groups lacked representation. Conclusions  Diversity initiatives at all levels can play a role in promoting better access to and quality of care for minority populations through the increased cultural and linguistic competence of care providers and organizations. Implications for Nursing Management  Efforts to increase diversity in nursing need to be accompanied by commitment and resources to effectively manage diversity within organizations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Properties of interaction networks underlying the minority game.

    PubMed

    Caridi, Inés

    2014-11-01

    The minority game is a well-known agent-based model with no explicit interaction among its agents. However, it is known that they interact through the global magnitudes of the model and through their strategies. In this work we have attempted to formalize the implicit interactions among minority game agents as if they were links on a complex network. We have defined the link between two agents by quantifying the similarity between them. This link definition is based on the information of the instance of the game (the set of strategies assigned to each agent at the beginning) without any dynamic information on the game and brings about a static, unweighed and undirected network. We have analyzed the structure of the resulting network for different parameters, such as the number of agents (N) and the agent's capacity to process information (m), always taking into account games with two strategies per agent. In the region of crowd effects of the model, the resulting networks structure is a small-world network, whereas in the region where the behavior of the minority game is the same as in a game of random decisions, networks become a random network of Erdos-Renyi. The transition between these two types of networks is slow, without any peculiar feature of the network in the region of the coordination among agents. Finally, we have studied the resulting static networks for the full strategy minority game model, a maximal instance of the minority game in which all possible agents take part in the game. We have explicitly calculated the degree distribution of the full strategy minority game network and, on the basis of this analytical result, we have estimated the degree distribution of the minority game network, which is in accordance with computational results.

  3. Minority Teachers Are Few and Far Between.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shure, Jennifer L.

    2001-01-01

    The enrollment rate of minority students is soaring and the shortage of minority teachers is a grave concern. Programs in Connecticut, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, and North Carolina are attempting to combat the problem. (JOW)

  4. Report on Minor Uses of Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report on minor uses of pesticides was required by Section 31 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. It describes EPA's minor use activities and our partnerships with other federal agencies.

  5. Promoting the participation of minorities in research.

    PubMed

    Garber, Mandy; Arnold, Robert M

    2006-01-01

    The current policy of the National Institute of Health designed to increase the participation of women and minorities is radically different from previous policies designed to protect minorities from abuses in research studies. The principal arguments to support this policy are twofold: 1) Increased representation of minorities and women in research would increase the generalizability of research data and allow for valid analyses of differences in subpopulations; and 2) being in a clinical research study is advantageous to participants regardless of the final research study results. It remains unclear whether minorities find these arguments compelling. Instead of telling minorities that participation in research is good for them, the research community should focus on understanding what minority communities want from clinical research and then tailoring the message to meet this need. Persuasive arguments to promote long-term increased representation of minorities in clinical research must come from within minority communities.

  6. Minority Women's Health: Asian-Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > Asian-Americans Minority Women's Health Asian-Americans Health conditions common in Asian- ... to top Health conditions common in Asian-American women Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Heart disease ...

  7. Fluidic, Inc Minor New Source Permit Application

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents related to the Minor New Source Review Permit for Fluidic, Inc, Salt River Pima-Maricopa, near Scottsdale, AZ. This is an application for a Tribal Minor New Source Review (NSR) Permit that is currently under review.

  8. Minority Outlook: Opening the Door in Biomedicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiherr, Gregory

    1979-01-01

    The national Minority Biomedical Support (MBS) Program, established in 1972 with National Institutes of Health funds, is described with emphasis on its role in increasing minority representation in biomedical research. (LBH)

  9. 43 CFR 3102.3 - Minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.3 Minors. Leases shall not be acquired or held by one considered a minor under the laws of the State in which the lands...

  10. The Counseling of Minority Group Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Dwane R.; Collins, Myrtle T.

    1974-01-01

    This article maintains that the counseling of minority students is complicated and demands a high level of professional competence. Discusses needs, mores, and life styles of certain minority groups and includes suggestions for improving the counseling relationship. (HMV)

  11. Minor uses: national and international activities.

    PubMed

    Meijer, A C

    2003-01-01

    Through the national and international approaches we hope to achieve proper solutions for minor use problems. At the national level, the following foundations/parties give support to organizations/individuals who need support in finding solutions: [table: see text] At the international level the Minor Use Helpdesk, but especially the Technical Group within the Expert Group on Minor Uses initiated by the EU Commission, will play an important role in solving minor use problems.

  12. The Symbolic Value and Limitations of Racial Concordance in Minority Research Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Craig S.; Passmore, Susan R.; Maietta, Raymond C.; Petruzzelli, Jeff; Casper, Erica; Brown, Natasha A.; Butler, James; Garza, Mary A.; Thomas, Stephen B.; Quinn, Sandra C.

    2015-01-01

    The well-documented underrepresentation of racial and ethnic minorities in research demands action. The field of health disparities research, however, lacks scientific consensus about how best to respectfully recruit underrepresented minority populations in research. We explore the investigators’ perspective regarding how their own racial and ethnic background influenced their ability to recruit minorities, including 1) the influence of racial concordance (“race-matching”) in research recruitment, 2) attributes and shared values important in the development of trust with minority communities, and 3) the role self-reflection plays in the development of meaningful research relationships. In 2010, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured, telephone interviews with investigators (N=31) experienced with minority populations. Through the analysis of this coherent narrative, we uncovered both the symbolic and surface level assumptions regarding minority recruitment to expose a deep structure understanding of race, ethnicity, and social context that are critical for bridging the true social difference between researchers and participants. PMID:25769299

  13. Strategies employed by sexual minority adolescents to cope with minority stress

    PubMed Central

    Goldbach, J.T.; Gibbs, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) experience disparities in health and behavioral health outcomes, including high rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, substance use, HIV risk behavior, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. These outcomes are commonly attributed to minority stress. Stress experiences are different for SMA than their adult counterparts. For example, disclosing their sexual orientation may be more likely to result in homelessness because these youth more often live with parents or other family members. Although stress in this population has been explored in previous research, very little is known about how SMA cope. Relying upon an adolescent coping model, this study examined the coping strategies, responses, and resources of SMA related to stress. Forty-eight racially and ethnically diverse SMA (age 14–19) were recruited for 90-minute tape-recorded interviews. The semi-structured interviews were guided by a life history calendar. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo. All transcripts were coded by two members of the research team and went through a consensus process. Forty-three unique coping statements emerged that fit with the Compas model of adolescent coping. SMA cope with minority stress in similar ways to heterosexual youth coping with general stress, but findings suggest that SMA may also use different kinds of coping resources. Although further research is needed, the present study identified a variety of ways SMA cope with stress and can inform future research on the development interventions. PMID:26634221

  14. Strategies employed by sexual minority adolescents to cope with minority stress.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, J T; Gibbs, J J

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) experience disparities in health and behavioral health outcomes, including high rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, substance use, HIV risk behavior, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. These outcomes are commonly attributed to minority stress. Stress experiences are different for SMA than their adult counterparts. For example, disclosing their sexual orientation may be more likely to result in homelessness because these youth more often live with parents or other family members. Although stress in this population has been explored in previous research, very little is known about how SMA cope. Relying upon an adolescent coping model, this study examined the coping strategies, responses, and resources of SMA related to stress. Forty-eight racially and ethnically diverse SMA (age 14-19) were recruited for 90-minute tape-recorded interviews. The semi-structured interviews were guided by a life history calendar. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo. All transcripts were coded by two members of the research team and went through a consensus process. Forty-three unique coping statements emerged that fit with the Compas model of adolescent coping. SMA cope with minority stress in similar ways to heterosexual youth coping with general stress, but findings suggest that SMA may also use different kinds of coping resources. Although further research is needed, the present study identified a variety of ways SMA cope with stress and can inform future research on the development interventions.

  15. Minority Stress and Physical Health Among Sexual Minorities.

    PubMed

    Lick, David J; Durso, Laura E; Johnson, Kerri L

    2013-09-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals suffer serious mental health disparities relative to their heterosexual peers, and researchers have linked these disparities to difficult social experiences (e.g., antigay victimization) and internalized biases (e.g., internalized homophobia) that arouse stress. A recent and growing body of evidence suggests that LGB individuals also suffer physical health disparities relative to heterosexuals, ranging from poor general health status to increased risk for cancer and heightened diagnoses of cardiovascular disease, asthma, diabetes, and other chronic conditions. Despite recent advances in this literature, the causes of LGB physical health problems remain relatively opaque. In this article, we review empirical findings related to LGB physical health disparities and argue that such disparities are related to the experience of minority stress-that is, stress caused by experiences with antigay stigma. In light of this minority stress model, we highlight gaps in the current literature and outline five research steps necessary for developing a comprehensive knowledge of the social determinants of LGB physical health. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. 75 FR 10446 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... BOARD 12 CFR Part 906 FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1207 RIN 2590-AA28 Minority and Women... issuing notice and opportunity for the public to comment on this proposed rule on minority and women... to promote diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities. Consequently,...

  17. 33 CFR 52.62 - Minority report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minority report. 52.62 Section 52... CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Judgment and Disposition § 52.62 Minority report. In case of disagreement among Board members, a minority report may be submitted dissenting from or...

  18. 33 CFR 52.62 - Minority report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minority report. 52.62 Section 52... CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Judgment and Disposition § 52.62 Minority report. In case of disagreement among Board members, a minority report may be submitted dissenting from or...

  19. Wellness of Minority Female Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon; Butler, S. Kent

    2013-01-01

    Minority female counselor educators are faced with numerous challenges. This qualitative study revealed that for female minority counselor educators, these challenges continue to negatively affect their professional and personal experiences. It is through operational wellness practices and optimal balance and functioning that minority female…

  20. 33 CFR 52.62 - Minority report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minority report. 52.62 Section 52... CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Judgment and Disposition § 52.62 Minority report. In case of disagreement among Board members, a minority report may be submitted dissenting from or...

  1. 33 CFR 52.62 - Minority report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minority report. 52.62 Section 52... CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Judgment and Disposition § 52.62 Minority report. In case of disagreement among Board members, a minority report may be submitted dissenting from or...

  2. 12 CFR 217.21 - Minority interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minority interest. 217.21 Section 217.21 Banks... OF BOARD-REGULATED INSTITUTIONS Definition of Capital § 217.21 Minority interest. (a) Applicability. For purposes of § 217.20, a Board-regulated institution is subject to the minority...

  3. 33 CFR 52.62 - Minority report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minority report. 52.62 Section 52... CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Judgment and Disposition § 52.62 Minority report. In case of disagreement among Board members, a minority report may be submitted dissenting from or...

  4. The Minority Teacher Shortage: Fact or Fable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; May, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This research examines national data on the status of the minority teacher shortage--the low proportion of minority teachers in comparison to the increasing numbers of students of color in schools. The authors show that efforts over recent decades to recruit more minority teachers, and place them in disadvantaged schools, have been very…

  5. 12 CFR 324.21 - Minority interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minority interest. 324.21 Section 324.21 Banks... ADEQUACY OF FDIC-SUPERVISED INSTITUTIONS Definition of Capital § 324.21 Minority interest. (a) Applicability. For purposes of § 324.20, an FDIC-supervised institution is subject to the minority...

  6. 12 CFR 3.21 - Minority interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minority interest. 3.21 Section 3.21 Banks and... Capital § 3.21 Minority interest. (a) Applicability. For purposes of § 3.20, a national bank or Federal savings association is subject to the minority interest limitations in this section if: (1) A...

  7. Minority Student Enrollment in Kansas Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    Data on minority student enrollments in Kansas community colleges, including an analysis of trends between 1978 and 1985, are presented in this report. The following statistics are provided: (1) minority students as percentage of total enrollment by college, fall 1984; (2) percentages converted to actual unduplicated headcount by minority group by…

  8. Minorities in Germany after 1945. Discussion Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Lutz R.

    Members of minority groups in Germany were subjected to extreme forms of repression and in some cases extermination at the hands of the Nazis. Today, for many different reasons, members of minority groups are living in West Germany again. This paper presents the experience of minorities in West Germany since 1945 in light of the following factors:…

  9. Recruiting Minority Students with Limited Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindale, Carolyn

    1990-01-01

    Reviews efforts to improve minority recruitment within journalism. Suggests enlisting the aid of community groups such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Urban League. Calls for support of minority journalism by encouraging minority students in high school journalism programs, promoting student…

  10. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... treatment until the minor patient consents to the disclosure necessary to obtain reimbursement, but refusal... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minor patients. 2.14 Section 2.14 Public Health... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of...

  11. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... treatment until the minor patient consents to the disclosure necessary to obtain reimbursement, but refusal... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minor patients. 2.14 Section 2.14 Public Health... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of...

  12. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... treatment until the minor patient consents to the disclosure necessary to obtain reimbursement, but refusal... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minor patients. 2.14 Section 2.14 Public Health... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of...

  13. Minority Organizations: A National Directory. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Katherine W., Ed.

    This directory lists and describes 7,186 currently active organizations that were established by minority group members or which operate programs for the benefit of minority groups. (An additional 1,358 entries for "lost" or inactive organizations are also included.) For purposes of the directory, minority groups are defined as including Native…

  14. A Hidden Minority Amidst White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Miriam J.

    2008-01-01

    It seems rather amusing to say that the author belongs to a minority, no less a hidden minority. After all, at first glance, she appears to be just another white girl (or woman). She grew up in the mid-west in a predominantly white community, middle class, and well educated. The paradox comes in their definition of minority. Today, as they seek to…

  15. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of the...

  16. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of the...

  17. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of the...

  18. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of the...

  19. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of the...

  20. 7 CFR 795.12 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minor children. 795.12 Section 795.12 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.12 Minor children. (a) A minor child and his parents or guardian (or other person responsible for him) shall be considered as...

  1. 7 CFR 795.12 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 795.12 Section 795.12 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.12 Minor children. (a) A minor child and his parents or guardian (or other person responsible for him) shall be considered as...

  2. 7 CFR 795.12 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minor children. 795.12 Section 795.12 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.12 Minor children. (a) A minor child and his parents or guardian (or other person responsible for him) shall be considered as...

  3. 7 CFR 795.12 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minor children. 795.12 Section 795.12 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.12 Minor children. (a) A minor child and his parents or guardian (or other person responsible for him) shall be considered as...

  4. 7 CFR 795.12 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minor children. 795.12 Section 795.12 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.12 Minor children. (a) A minor child and his parents or guardian (or other person responsible for him) shall be considered as...

  5. Teaching minority children hygiene: investigating hygiene education in kindergartens and homes of ethnic minority children in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20 homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account

  6. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-07-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  7. Minor sesquiterpenes from Maytenus chubutensis.

    PubMed

    González, A G; Nuñez, M P; Ravelo, A G; Luis, J G; Jiménez, I A; Munoz, O M

    1990-01-01

    Four new minor dihydro-beta-agarofuran-skeleton sesquiterpenes, 9 beta-benzoyloxy-1 alpha,2 alpha,6 beta-triacetoxy-15-hydroxydihydro-beta- agarofuran [1], 9 beta-benzoyloxy-1 alpha,2 alpha,6 beta,15-tetracetoxydihydro-beta-agarofuran [6], 9 alpha-benzoyloxy-1 alpha,2 alpha,6 beta-triacetoxy- 8 alpha,15-dihydroxydihydro-beta-agarofuran [7], and 9 alpha-benzoyloxy-1 alpha,2 alpha,6 beta,8 alpha-tetracetoxy-15- hydroxydihydro-beta-agarofuran [8] were isolated from the aerial parts of Maytenus chubutensis and identified by spectroscopy and chemical reactions.

  8. Selected Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on Minority Studies, April, 1975; Essays on Minority Cultures. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, George E.,Ed.; Parker, James R., Ed.

    This second volume of Proceedings from the Annual Conference on Minority Studies departs from the precedent set in the first volume. Its structure is not limited to a given topic. Instead, in keeping with the objectives of the National Association of Interdisciplinary Studies for Native-Americans, blacks, Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, and Asian…

  9. Shoulder pain and an isolated teres minor nerve lesion.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Mika A; Kovala, Tero T; Niemelä, Erkki N K; Huuskonen, Usko E J; Tolonen, E Uolevi

    2011-10-01

    The finding of isolated teres minor denervation during examination of the shoulders using MRI occurs in 3% to 5.5% of examinations. We describe eight patients with shoulder pain, in whom electromyography revealed an isolated lesion in the motor branch of the axillary nerve to the teres minor muscle. This nerve lesion is clinically impossible to diagnose, the lack of a clear diagnosis often resulting in inappropriate treatment and therefore potentially prolonged disability. Hence, when encountering shoulder problems, neurophysiologists should examine the teres minor muscle as a matter of routine. In the MRI and ultrasound examinations of patients with shoulder problems, therefore, not only routine tendon and joint structure but also muscles should be evaluated.

  10. Utilization of Minor Actinides (Np, Am, Cm) in Nuclear Power Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, A.; Bergelson, B.; Tikhomirov, G.

    2014-06-01

    Calculation research of the utilization process of minor actinides (transmutation with use of power released) is performed for specialized power reactor of the VVER type operating on the level of electric power of 1000 MW. Five subsequent cycles are considered for the reactor with fuel elements containing minor actinides along with enriched uranium. It was shown that one specialized reactor for the one cycle (900 days) can utilize minor actinides from several VVER-1000 reactors without any technological and structural modifications. Power released because of minor actinide fission is about 4% with respect to the total power

  11. Teres minor muscle and related anatomy.

    PubMed

    Chafik, Dara; Galatz, Leesa M; Keener, Jay D; Kim, H Mike; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the complex anatomy surrounding the teres minor muscle. Thirty-one cadaveric human shoulders were dissected. Qualitative fascial and neurovascular anatomy were described. Location of motor nerves to teres minor were measured in reference to local anatomy. Fascial anatomy of the posterior shoulder had 2 distinct and equally common variants, 1 of which demonstrated a stout, inflexible fascial compartment enveloping the teres minor muscle. The other had a continuous fascia enveloping both the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles. In both variants, the primary nerve to teres minor traveled around a fascial sling, becoming sub-fascial at an average of 44 mm (range, 25-68) medial to the teres minor's insertion. The nerve took its most angulated course as it entered the fascial sling. Smaller accessory innervation of teres minor began, on average, 30 mm (range, 15-48) medial to the muscle's lateral insertion. None of the accessory motor nerves coursed deep to the fascial sling nor to the distinct teres minor fascial compartment. A stout fascial sling may be the potential site of greatest compression and tethering of the primary motor nerve to teres minor. Additional lateral accessory motor nerves to teres minor remained extra-fascial and took a less angulated path. Half of the shoulders demonstrated a separate teres minor fascial compartment. An improved understanding of the fascial anatomy and innervation pattern of the teres minor muscle may help clinicians who treat patients with symptomatic isolated teres minor muscle atrophy. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Minority Stress and Intimate Partner Violence Among Gay and Bisexual Men in Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are disproportionately high among sexual minority populations. Few studies have examined the plausible relationship between minority stress and IPV among men who have sex with men. This study examines the associations between IPV and three indicators of minority stress: internalized homophobia, sexuality-based discrimination, and racism, in a large venue-based sample of gay and bisexual men from Atlanta, USA. Each of the minority stress measures was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of self-reporting any form of receipt of IPV. Significant associations were also identified between perpetration of IPV and minority stressors, with most types of IPV perpetration linked to internalized homophobia. This study confirms findings in a growing body of research supporting the relationship between minority stress and increased prevalence of IPV among men who have sex with men, and points to the need to address structural factors in IPV prevention programs for male-male couples.

  13. THE STRUCTURES AND TOTAL (MINOR + MAJOR) MERGER HISTORIES OF MASSIVE GALAXIES UP TO z {approx} 3 IN THE HST GOODS NICMOS SURVEY: A POSSIBLE SOLUTION TO THE SIZE EVOLUTION PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    Bluck, Asa F. L.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Buitrago, Fernando; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Hoyos, Carlos; Mortlock, Alice; Bauer, Amanda E. E-mail: conselice@nottingham.ac.uk

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the total major (>1:4 by stellar mass) and minor (>1:100 by stellar mass) merger history of a population of 80 massive (M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) galaxies at high redshifts (z = 1.7-3). We utilize extremely deep and high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope H-band imaging from the GOODS NICMOS Survey, which corresponds to rest-frame optical wavelengths at the redshifts probed. We find that massive galaxies at high redshifts are often morphologically disturbed, with a CAS (concentration, C; asymmetry, A; clumpiness, S) deduced merger fraction f{sub m} = 0.23 {+-} 0.05 at z = 1.7-3. We find close accord between close pair methods (within 30 kpc apertures) and CAS methods for deducing major merger fractions at all redshifts. We deduce the total (minor + major) merger history of massive galaxies with M{sub *} > 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} galaxies, and find that this scales roughly linearly with log-stellar-mass and magnitude range. We test our close pair methods by utilizing mock galaxy catalogs from the Millennium Simulation. We compute the total number of mergers to be (4.5 {+-} 2.9)/({tau}{sub m}) from z = 3 to the present, to a stellar mass sensitivity threshold of {approx}1:100 (where {tau}{sub m} is the merger timescale in Gyr which varies as a function of mass). This corresponds to an average mass increase of (3.4 {+-} 2.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} over the past 11.5 Gyr due to merging. We show that the size evolution observed for these galaxies may be mostly explained by this merging.

  14. 78 FR 46374 - Minority Depository Institution Preservation Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... ADMINISTRATION RIN 3133-AE16 Minority Depository Institution Preservation Program AGENCY: National Credit Union.... SUMMARY: The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) recognizes the importance of minority credit... Minority Depository Institution Preservation Program to encourage the preservation of Minority...

  15. Examining minor and major depression in adolescents.

    PubMed

    González-Tejera, Gloria; Canino, Glorisa; Ramírez, Rafael; Chávez, Ligia; Shrout, Patrick; Bird, Hector; Bravo, Milagros; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Ribera, Julio; Bauermeister, José

    2005-08-01

    Research has shown that a large proportion of adolescents with symptoms of depression and substantial distress or impairment fail to meet the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder (MDD). However, many of these undiagnosed adolescents may meet criteria for a residual category of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR), Depressive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Minor Depression (mDEP), an example of one of these categories, allows the inclusion of sub-threshold cases that fall below the diagnostic criteria of the five symptoms required for MDD. Minor depression in adolescence is important because it is significantly related to MDD in adulthood. The present study examines a number of risk factors, functional impairment, comorbidity and service utilization patterns associated with depression in community adolescents who met the DSM-IV criteria for mDEP and compares their profile to adolescents who met the criteria for MDD. Puerto Rican adolescents 11 to 17 years old were selected from an island-wide probability household sample of children ranging in age from 4 to 17. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule in Spanish (DISC IV), together with a structured protocol of risks and protective factors, and service utilization questionnaires were administered to primary caretakers and their children. Our findings indicate that youngsters with mDEP had significant impairment and used more mental health services than those with major depression. In addition, adolescents with mDEP had similar outcomes when compared to those meeting full criteria for MDD in terms of psychosocial correlates and comorbidity. The results, although not definitive, suggest a need for further research in order to determine the validity of the present DSM IV diagnostic criteria for mDEP in adolescents.

  16. Minor elements in Keweenawan lavas, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornwall, H.R.; Rose, H.J.

    1957-01-01

    The distribution of minor elements in three basaltic flows of the Keweenawan series, of Michigan, is related to differentiation in the flows. Thus, nickel is most abundant in the early differentiates; nickel, chromium, and barium are generally deficient in the pegmatites, which formed late; whereas copper, vanadium, yttrium, and other minor elements are concentrated in the pegmatites. The minor-element content of individual minerals in the Greenstone flow varies markedly from one mineral to another and seems to depend primarily on the presence or absence in the minerals of major elements for which the minor elements can substitute. Minor elements have substituted most readily for those major elements with similar ionic radii. Valence and electronegativity also seem to influence the ease of substitution. The distribution of other minor elements in copper-bearing lodes of the Michigan copper district shows no apparent relation to copper mineralization. ?? 1957.

  17. Key Issues in Minority Education. Research Directions and Practical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Wanda E., Ed.; Cross, Mary M., Ed.

    A collection of 10 papers on minority education is presented, with sections on legal aspects of access for minorities, minority faculty and staff, minority graduate education, and standardized testing in the admission of minority students. Papers are as follows: "The Legal Obligation to Secure Access for Minority Students in Higher Education"…

  18. 21 CFR 516.21 - Documentation of minor use status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Designation of a Minor Use or Minor Species New Animal Drug § 516.21 Documentation of minor use status. So that FDA can determine whether a drug qualifies for MUMS-drug designation as a minor use in a major species...

  19. Statistics on Women and Minority Students in Engineering, April 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineers Joint Council, New York, NY. Engineering Manpower Commission.

    This collection and analysis of data on minorities in engineering emphasizes: minority engineering students by field, men; minority engineering students by field, women; minority engineering students by degree level; class standing of women and minority engineering students; high school background and standing of women and minority engineering…

  20. Key Issues in Minority Education. Research Directions and Practical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Wanda E., Ed.; Cross, Mary M., Ed.

    A collection of 10 papers on minority education is presented, with sections on legal aspects of access for minorities, minority faculty and staff, minority graduate education, and standardized testing in the admission of minority students. Papers are as follows: "The Legal Obligation to Secure Access for Minority Students in Higher Education"…

  1. Minor and repetitive head injury.

    PubMed

    Buki, Andras; Kovacs, Noemi; Czeiter, Endre; Schmid, Kara; Berger, Rachel P; Kobeissy, Firas; Italiano, Domenico; Hayes, Ronald L; Tortella, Frank C; Mezosi, Emese; Schwarcz, Attila; Toth, Arnold; Nemes, Orsolya; Mondello, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in the young, active population and expected to be the third leading cause of death in the whole world until 2020. The disease is frequently referred to as the silent epidemic, and many authors highlight the "unmet medical need" associated with TBI.The term traumatically evoked brain injury covers a heterogeneous group ranging from mild/minor/minimal to severe/non-salvageable damages. Severe TBI has long been recognized to be a major socioeconomical health-care issue as saving young lives and sometimes entirely restituting health with a timely intervention can indeed be extremely cost efficient.Recently it has been recognized that mild or minor TBI should be considered similarly important because of the magnitude of the patient population affected. Other reasons behind this recognition are the association of mild head injury with transient cognitive disturbances as well as long-term sequelae primarily linked to repeat (sport-related) injuries.The incidence of TBI in developed countries can be as high as 2-300/100,000 inhabitants; however, if we consider the injury pyramid, it turns out that severe and moderate TBI represents only 25-30 % of all cases, while the overwhelming majority of TBI cases consists of mild head injury. On top of that, or at the base of the pyramid, are the cases that never show up at the ER - the unreported injuries.Special attention is turned to mild TBI as in recent military conflicts it is recognized as "signature injury."This chapter aims to summarize the most important features of mild and repetitive traumatic brain injury providing definitions, stratifications, and triage options while also focusing on contemporary knowledge gathered by imaging and biomarker research.Mild traumatic brain injury is an enigmatic lesion; the classification, significance, and its consequences are all far less defined and explored than in more severe forms of brain injury

  2. Micromechanics of Minor Cervical Spine Injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederer, Peter F.; Schmitt, Kai-Uwe; Muser, Markus H.; Walz, Felix H.

    Minor soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine are of increasing significance in public health. They may in particular be associated with long-term impairment. Such injuries are observed primarily in rear-end automobile collisions at low impact speeds and are attributed to a “whiplash”-type event. The question with respect to injury mechanisms of the cervical spine in cases of impacts of a low severity have raised controversial views in the past. Among proposed injury mechanisms, interactions between fluid and solid structures have been postulated: Viscous shear stresses or pressure gradients which arise in the deforming anatomical structures may have an adverse influence, e. g., on cellular membranes. In this communication, mathematical modeling approaches are presented which allow for a quantification of fluid/solid interactions under typical loading conditions of interest here. It is found, that the shear stresses caused by fluids and acting on accelerated surfaces of fluid-filled bodies depend largely on the size of the fluid space under consideration. Accelerations exhibit a stronger influence than their duration. It cannot be excluded that critical levels are reached even in a low speed impact scenario.

  3. Pyrimidine Metabolism in Lemna minor

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Hugh

    1978-01-01

    Cytidine deoxyriboside (Cdr), uridine deoxyriboside (Udr), and guanosine deoxyriboside (Gdr), induce quantitative bleaching of the fronds of Lemna minor (duckweed) during growth in continuous light on photoheterotrophic medium. Cdr-induced bleaching is not accompanied by a reduction in frond multiplication rate, but Udr- and Gdr-induced bleaching is. Bleaching by Cdr is fully prevented by thymidine (Tdr), cytidine (Cr), or uridine (Ur), but not by orotic acid (OA) which itself inhibits growth. Bleaching by Udr is not antagonized by Tdr, Cdr, Cr, Ur, or OA. The ability of Cdr to induce phenocopies of chlorophyll-deficient mutants in the absence of effect on growth rate is interpreted as indicating a functional compartmentation of pyrimidine metabolism between chloroplast and whole cell. On the assumption that Cdr induces bleaching by regulating the biosynthesis of deoxynucleoside triphosphates, and in analogy with the antagonism of fluorodeoxyuridine effects on growth by Tdr, Cr, or Ur, the suggestion is made that deoxycytidine is converted to thymidylate by a step other than that utilizing thymidylate synthetase. PMID:16660440

  4. The IRAS Minor Planet Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.; Veeder, Glenn J.; Fowler, John W.; Chillemi, Joseph R.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the program and data used to identify known asteroids observed by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and to compute albedos and diameters from their IRAS fluxes. It also presents listings of the results obtained. These results supplant those in the IRAS Asteroid and Comet Survey, 1986. The present version used new and improved asteroid orbital elements for 4679 numbered asteroids and 2632 additional asteroids for which at least two-opposition elements were available as of mid-1991. It employed asteroid absolute magnitudes on the International Astronomical Union system adopted in 1991. In addition, the code was modified to increase the reliability of associating asteroids with IRAS sources and rectify several shortcomings in the final data products released in 1986. Association reliability was improved by decreasing the position difference between an IRAS source and a predicted asteroid position required for an association. The shortcomings addressed included the problem of flux overestimation for low SNR sources and the systematic difference in albedos and diameters among the three wavelength bands (12, 25, and 60 micrometers). Several minor bugs in the original code were also corrected.

  5. Tribal Minor NSR Synthetic Minor Limit Application Form in EPA's South Central Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Tribal Minor NSR application form should be used to notify the EPA Region 6 Tribal NSR Permitting Program of requested synthetic minor emission limits associated with a new source general application form.

  6. Tribal Minor NSR Synthetic Minor Limit Application Form in Region 8

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Tribal Minor NSR application form should be used to notify the EPA Region 8 Tribal NSR Permitting Program of requested synthetic minor emission limits associated with a new source general application form.

  7. Building the Speechwriter-Principal Relationship: Minority Leader Robert Michel Confronts His Ghost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Martin J.; Dreibelbis, Gary C.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the interpersonal relationship between Robert Michel, Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, and William F. Gavin, his speechwriter, and how that relationship structures and defines the speechwriting process. (RS)

  8. Needed: Minorities in Educational R&D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Stanley C.

    "This paper addresses the need to open opportunities in educational research so that more minority researchers can contribute their personal experiences and acquired expertise to the development of excellent, equitable, and effective school programs and practices for all children. It captures the perspectives of a young minority (African…

  9. The Shortchanged: Women and Minorities in Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Rodney; Sapery, Elisabeth

    The study by a team from the Council on Economic Priorities found: (1) that employment discrimination against minorities and women is endemic to commercial banking; (2) that a majority of the commercial banks studied are unwilling to permit public scrutiny of their employment and minority lending practices; and (3) that both the secrecy and the…

  10. Minorities Are Disproportionately Underrepresented in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Mattison, Richard; Maczuga, Steve; Li, Hui; Cook, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether minority children attending U.S. elementary and middle schools are disproportionately represented in special education. We did so using hazard modeling of multiyear longitudinal data and extensive covariate adjustment for potential child-, family-, and state-level confounds. Minority children were consistently less likely…

  11. 22 CFR 51.28 - Minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... guardianship showing the minor's name, date and place of birth, and the names of the parent or parents or legal... following: (A) A birth certificate providing the minor's name, date and place of birth and the name of only the applying parent; (B) A Consular Report of Birth Abroad of a Citizen of the United States...

  12. Minority Health in Michigan: Closing the Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing.

    The wide and growing discrepancy in mortality rates between the minority populations of Blacks, Hispanics, Arab Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans and the White population of the State of Michigan make improving minority health status a matter of simple justice. Section I, "Introduction and Overview," comprises…

  13. Values and Minorities: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, James A.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography on values of ethnic minorities in the United States contains one hundred entries from various sources, mostly research and educational journals. It is intended to assist researchers, teachers, school administrators, and students to understand how some American minorities function within their own cultures and societies.…

  14. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  15. Minor Illnesses, Temperament, and Toddler Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolak, Amy M.; Frey, Tara J.; Brown, Chloe A.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Minor illnesses, such as upper respiratory infections, stomachaches, and fevers, have been associated with children's decreased activity and increased irritability. This multi-method investigation of 110 day care-attending children examined whether experience with recurrent, minor illnesses and negative emotionality worked…

  16. Minority Ownership of Small Businesses: Instructional Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is intended to provide supplementary instruction on basic business techniques for adult minority students in business education. Relevant information on how to start a business is provided by means of actual business situations and problems encountered in 30 recent minority business ventures. Focusing on business procedures and…

  17. Ethnic Minority Human Resourcs in Psychology Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Esteban L., Comp.; And Others

    Minority members of the American Psychological Association (APA) who have expressed a desire to serve as professional resources are listed in this directory. Individuals are identified under one of four broad categories of ethnic minority groups: American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific American, Black/Afro American, and Hispanic. Within each…

  18. 7 CFR 51.2720 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Shelled Runner Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2720 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the... which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more than one-fourth of the surface; (b) Flesh discoloration which is darker than a light yellow color or consists of more than a slight...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2762 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2762 Minor defects. Minor defects means that... discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more than one-fourth of the surface; (b) Flesh discoloration which is darker than a light yellow color or consists of more than a...

  20. The Linguistic Minorities of New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCamp, Suzanne

    This report describes the major linguistic minority groups residing in New York (New York). Hispanics are the largest language minority in the city. In 1990, nearly one-quarter of the city's population was of Hispanic origin, and 35% of school children were Hispanic. The Latino population continues to grow through natural increase and immigration.…

  1. Comparative Models for Preparing Teachers of Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Dale; Dolgos, Kathleen

    This paper highlights three programs that prepare culturally sensitive teachers to meet the needs of minority students. The University of Hawaii's Preservice Education for Teachers of Minorities has a partnership with the Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate private school for children of Hawaiian ancestry. The school brings new culturally sensitive…

  2. Ten Years of Success at Minority Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, B. A.

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes the Minority Manpower Resources Project conducted through the joint efforts of the NASA - Manned Spacecraft Center and Texas Southern University. Indicates that the main reason for the project's success is the identification, careful screening of high quality ethnic minority students. (CC)

  3. Making the Computer Laboratory Accessible to Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert

    Research literature shows that current uses of computers in public school education are not reaching minority populations, and that females and ethnic minority students are less likely to have access to a computer at home. In addition, a study of computer use in the Learning Skills Center (LSC) at the University of Alabama supported the research…

  4. Introducing Minorities to Natural Resource Career Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Mary Lynne; Shepard, Clinton L.

    1985-01-01

    Determined the effectiveness of a program designed to introduce selected minority youth to natural resources career opportunities. At the end of the three-day, resident experience, minority participants indicated an increased interest in forestry and other natural resource management areas, especially wildlife. (Author/JN)

  5. Minority Business Export Initiatives: Final Report, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huhra, Lourdene

    The Minority Business Export Initiatives Program was developed by Harold Washington College and Chicago City-Wide College (two schools in the City Colleges of Chicago system) to assist minority business owners in developing and implementing international business strategies that would strengthen their economic viability within today's complex…

  6. A Mosaic of America's Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellows, Donald Keith

    In this approach to an understanding of America's ethnic minorities, the most important concern is with the interaction between these various culture groups and the dominant, white society. Six of America's principal ethnic minorities have been considered: blacks, Mexicans, Indians, Chinese, Japanese, and Puerto Ricans. In each case the same…

  7. GUIDELINES FOR TESTING MINORITY GROUP CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FISHMAN, JOSHUA A.; AND OTHERS

    FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE TESTING OF MINORITY GROUP CHILDREN ARE PRESENTED. THE CONVENTIONAL INSTRUMENTS OF MENTAL TESTING ARE TOO OFTEN DEVELOPED FOR THE INTELLECTUAL AND SOCIAL WAYS OF MIDDLE-CLASS CHILDREN. AS A RESULT MINORITY GROUP CHILDREN ARE EXCLUDED FROM OPPORTUNITIES FOR TRAINING BECAUSE OF "CULTURAL DEPRIVATION." THE GUIDE…

  8. Evolutionary minority game with heterogeneous strategy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, T. S.; Lim, S. W.; Hui, P. M.; Johnson, N. F.

    2000-11-01

    We present detailed numerical results for a modified form of the so-called Minority Game, which provides a simplified model of a competitive market. Each agent has a limited set of strategies, and competes to be in a minority. An evolutionary rule for strategy modification is included to mimic simple learning. The results can be understood by considering crowd formation within the population.

  9. Minor Illnesses, Temperament, and Toddler Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolak, Amy M.; Frey, Tara J.; Brown, Chloe A.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Minor illnesses, such as upper respiratory infections, stomachaches, and fevers, have been associated with children's decreased activity and increased irritability. This multi-method investigation of 110 day care-attending children examined whether experience with recurrent, minor illnesses and negative emotionality worked…

  10. Introducing Minorities to Natural Resource Career Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Mary Lynne; Shepard, Clinton L.

    1985-01-01

    Determined the effectiveness of a program designed to introduce selected minority youth to natural resources career opportunities. At the end of the three-day, resident experience, minority participants indicated an increased interest in forestry and other natural resource management areas, especially wildlife. (Author/JN)

  11. Women and Minorities in School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Effie H.; Montenegro, Xenia P.

    The representation of women and members of racial and ethnic minorities among the United States' public school administrators increased between the years 1982 and 1985, according to a survey conducted by the American Association of School Administrators' Office of Minority Affairs. Following the same procedure used in a 1981-82 survey, the…

  12. Sociolinguistic Minorities, Research, and Social Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Mark; Raschka, Christine; Sercombe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests elements of an agenda for future sociolinguistics among minority groups, by seeing it as a mutual relationship that involves benefits to researcher and researched. We focus on two aspects of the relationship. One is the political, economic and social benefits that can accrue to a minority group as a result of the research.…

  13. 22 CFR 51.28 - Minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... guardianship showing the minor's name, date and place of birth, and the names of the parent or parents or legal... following: (A) A birth certificate providing the minor's name, date and place of birth and the name of only the applying parent; (B) A Consular Report of Birth Abroad of a Citizen of the United States of...

  14. Facts on Women Workers of Minority Races.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This booklet on women workers of minority races includes all races in a minority other than white, Negroes constituting about 90 percent of all persons other than white in the United States; Spanish-speaking persons are included in the white population. The following topics are encompassed; labor force participation; unemployment; marital status;…

  15. Joint Minorities Development Program (JMDP). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organizing and Supportive Agency, Inc., Ithaca, NY.

    The Joint Minorities Development Program (JMDP) was a joint enterprise of Organizing and Supportive Agency, Inc. (OSA) and Human Interest Regarding Employment/Minorities Action Coalition (HIRE/MAC) to train black construction workers and organize them into a self-supportive construction cooperative. JMDP evolved in three stages. The first phase…

  16. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of April...

  17. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of June...

  18. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of June...

  19. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of June...

  20. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of June...

  1. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  2. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor... or drug abuse treatment, any written consent for disclosure authorized under subpart C of these... drug abuse treatment, any written consent for disclosure authorized under subpart C of...

  3. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor... or drug abuse treatment, any written consent for disclosure authorized under subpart C of these... drug abuse treatment, any written consent for disclosure authorized under subpart C of...

  4. Differences in Autism Symptoms between Minority and Non-Minority Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tek, Saime; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about whether early symptom presentation differs in toddlers with ASD from ethnic minority versus non-minority backgrounds. Within a treatment study for toddlers with ASD, we compared 19 minority to 65 Caucasian children and their parents on variables obtained from the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Autism Diagnostic Observation…

  5. Minority Status and Schooling: A Comparative Study of Immigrant and Involuntary Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A., Ed.; Ogbu, John U., Ed.

    This study addresses the question of why some minority groups do relatively well in school, in spite of facing substantial barriers while other minorities confronting similar barriers do far less well in school. The exploration proceeds largely through examining and comparing the school-adaptation patterns of minorities who are relatively…

  6. The Office of Minority Health Resource Center: Impacting on Health Related Disparities among Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Karen W.; Ugarte, Carlos A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Office of Minority Health Resource Center, designed to disseminate minority health-related information and increase public awareness of the gravity and magnitude of the health disparity that persists between minority and nonminority populations. Technical support, assistance, and information referral services are provided to…

  7. Do Double Minority Students Face Double Jeopardy? Testing Minority Stress Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Chun-Kennedy, Caitlin; Edens, Astrid; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Data from 2 studies revealed that ethnic and sexual minority clients experienced greater psychological distress on multiple dimensions than did European American or heterosexual clients, respectively, as did ethnic and sexual minority students who were not clients. Among sexual minority students, ethnicity was not an added source of distress.…

  8. 76 FR 11331 - New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 516 RIN 0910-AG58 New Animal Drugs for Minor Use... November 15, 2010 (75 FR 69586). The direct final rule amends the regulations regarding new animal drugs for minor use and minor species (MUMS) to update language and clarify the intent of the regulations...

  9. Do Double Minority Students Face Double Jeopardy? Testing Minority Stress Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Chun-Kennedy, Caitlin; Edens, Astrid; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Data from 2 studies revealed that ethnic and sexual minority clients experienced greater psychological distress on multiple dimensions than did European American or heterosexual clients, respectively, as did ethnic and sexual minority students who were not clients. Among sexual minority students, ethnicity was not an added source of distress.…

  10. Minority issues in prostate disease.

    PubMed

    French, Dan B; Jones, LeRoy A

    2005-07-01

    This article has discussed the increased incidence and disproportionately increased mortality of prostate cancer among African American men.Although the exact reasons are unknown, genetics may play a role, in addition to health care practices. Morbidity from other disease states, such as diabetes, obesity, or hypertension, may influence the overall survival of patients with prostate cancer. Current research tools will continue to explore biologic differences between the races; however, socioeconomic status and access to health care must not be overlooked. Several studies have demonstrated that similar disease stages and equal access to health care will result in similar outcomes. It is recognized that screening for prostate cancer will remain a controversial topic. Several influential professional societies recommend against screening and other professional societies endorse screening. Large-scale trials are currently underway hoping to answer this critical question. Since the advent of current screening tools, however, it seems that the overall mortality for prostate cancer has decreased and this cannot be ignored. Certainly, screening programs and clinical trials have traditionally had difficulty in recruiting minority participants, although more recent trials seem to be finding success. A primary care physician who is viewed as competent by their patients can certainly have a positive impact on their African American patients' willingness to participate in studies and screening programs. Most importantly, on the individual level, primary care physicians can provide a great service to their minority patients by offering educational materials on prostate cancer and by offering screening to qualified patients. The current American Urologic Association and National Cancer Institute guidelines recommend offering screening to all men age 50 and above. African American men or men with a first-degree relative with prostate cancer should be offered screening beginning at

  11. Minor Groove Deformability of DNA: A Molecular Dynamics Free Energy Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Zacharias, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The conformational deformability of nucleic acids can influence their function and recognition by proteins. A class of DNA binding proteins including the TATA box binding protein binds to the DNA minor groove, resulting in an opening of the minor groove and DNA bending toward the major groove. Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations in combination with the umbrella sampling approach have been performed to investigate the molecular mechanism of DNA minor groove deformations and the indirect energetic contribution to protein binding. As a reaction coordinate, the distance between backbone segments on opposite strands was used. The resulting deformed structures showed close agreement with experimental DNA structures in complex with minor groove-binding proteins. The calculated free energy of minor groove deformation was ∼4–6 kcal mol−1 in the case of a central TATATA sequence. A smaller equilibrium minor groove width and more restricted minor groove mobility was found for the central AAATTT and also a significantly (∼2 times) larger free energy change for opening the minor groove. The helical parameter analysis of trajectories indicates that an easier partial unstacking of a central TA versus AT basepair step is a likely reason for the larger groove flexibility of the central TATATA case. PMID:16698780

  12. Health Disparities Among Sexual Minority Women Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Shipherd, Jillian C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Lesbian and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) identity is more common among women veterans than among male veterans. Unique health issues have been identified among women veterans and among sexual minority women, but little is known about women who are both sexual minorities and veterans. This study aimed to compare demographic and health information from sexual minority women veterans with sexual minority women non-veterans and heterosexual women veterans. Methods Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data were pooled from ten U.S. states that elected to ask sexual identity during 2010. The analytic sample was comprised of women who identified both their sexual identity and veteran status (n=1,908). Mental health indicators were frequent mental distress, sleep problems, low social/emotional support, and low satisfaction with life. Health risk indicators included current smoking, overweight, and obesity. Physical health status was defined by three components: disability requiring assistive equipment, >14 days of poor physical health in the past 30 days, and activity limitations. Results Compared with heterosexual women veterans, sexual minority women veterans had higher odds of mental distress (odds ratio [OR]=3.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61–5.70) and smoking (OR=2.31, 95%CI: 1.19–4.48). After adjusting for demographic correlates, sexual minority women veterans had three times the odds of poor physical health (OR=3.01, 95%CI: 1.51–5.99) than their sexual minority non-veteran peers. Conclusions Results suggest sexual minority women veterans may experience unique health disparities relevant to provision of care in both Veterans Affairs (VA) and non-VA healthcare systems. Future research requires availability of data that include sexual minority status. PMID:23746281

  13. Tobacco Product Use Among Sexual Minority Adults

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah E.; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Tessman, Greta K.; King, Brian A.; Alexander, Tesfa; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A growing body of evidence reveals higher rates of tobacco use among sexual minority populations relative to non-minority (“straight”) populations. This study seeks to more fully characterize this disparity by examining tobacco use by distinct sexual identities and gender to better understand patterns of: (1) cigarette smoking and smoking history; and (2) use of other tobacco products including cigars, pipes, hookah, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco. Methods Data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a random-digit dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, were analyzed in 2014. A sexual minority category was created by combining gay, lesbian, and bisexual responses, along with those who selected an option for other non-heterosexual identities. Results Smoking prevalence was higher among sexual minority adults (27.4%) than straight adults (17.3%). Cigarette smoking was particularly high among bisexual women (36.0%). Sexual minority women started smoking and transitioned to daily smoking earlier than their straight peers. Use of other tobacco products was higher among sexual minority women: prevalence of e-cigarette (12.4%), hookah (10.3%), and cigar use (7.2%) was more than triple that of their straight female peers (3.4%, 2.5%, and 1.3%, respectively). Likewise, prevalence of sexual minority men’s e-cigarette (7.9%) and hookah (12.8%) use exceeded that of straight men (4.7% and 4.5%, respectively). Conclusions Tobacco use is significantly higher among sexual minority than straight adults, particularly among sexual minority women. These findings underscore the importance of tobacco control efforts designed to reach sexual minorities and highlight the heterogeneity of tobacco use within this population. PMID:26526162

  14. A review of minor surgery in general practice in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Wall, D W

    1987-12-01

    Few general practitioners in the United Kingdom do minor surgery, in contrast to their colleagues in other countries. The reasons are largely historical and relate to the structure and function of the National Health Service. This history of minor surgery describes its common occurrence before the NHS, its virtual disappearance after the NHS came about, and later revival by a few enthusiasts. The state of the art describes the wide range of surgical procedures in general surgery, orthopaedics, ear-nose-and-throat, gynaecology and ophthalmology. There are few complications, and very short waiting times in general practice minor surgery. The workload is not great. Economic studies show great saving may be made. Patients strongly prefer general practice minor surgery. In conclusion, despite many advantages, there remain major financial disadvantages for general practitioners in the United Kingdom to provide minor surgery for their patients.

  15. Recuiting minority students into your REU program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, David

    2009-03-01

    It is important for the field of physics that we draw our talent from the broadest pool. However, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans are substantially underrepresented in physics. Since summer research experiences are a useful tool to assist students in gaining entrance into graduate school, it is particularly important that underrepresented minority students are fully able to participate. The NSF REU program at Vanderbilt University is historically comprised of one half minority students. How this comes about and how we pro-actively recruit minority students will be described.

  16. Addressing Health Care Disparities Among Sexual Minorities.

    PubMed

    Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Oranuba, Ebele; Werts, Niya; Edwards, Lorece V

    2017-03-01

    There is evidence of health disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual populations. Although the focus of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health research has been human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men, there are health disparities among sexual minority women. Using the minority stress framework, these disparities may in part be caused by individual prejudice, social stigma, and discrimination. To ensure equitable health for all, there is urgent need for targeted culturally sensitive health promotion, cultural sensitivity training for health care providers, and intervention-focused research.

  17. Minor's Test: Objective Demonstration of Horner's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sriraam, Laya Manasa; Sundaram, Raja; Ramalingam, Ravi; Ramalingam, K K

    2015-06-01

    To highlight the Minor's test, which is useful in demonstrating anhidrosis of Horner's syndrome. A 39 year old female presented to us with a slow growing neck swelling which was provisionally diagnosed as a probable case of cervical sympathetic chain (CSC) Schwannoma. Intra operatively, the mass was found arising from the CSC which was sacrificed. Post operatively, Horner's syndrome was expected, but was difficult to demonstrate clinically. On performing the Minor's test, the presence of anhidrosis, and thus Horner's syndrome was confirmed. Minor's test is a simple objective test to demonstrate Horner's syndrome, especially because diagnosis from the eye signs can be difficult.

  18. Attributions to sexual minority women's academic success.

    PubMed

    McCleaf, Kathy J

    2014-01-01

    Narratives from 33 sexual minority women were examined to discover what factors contributed to their ability to acquire academic success, and what, if any, attributions are evident in some sexual minority women's experiences that provide the ability to persist and graduate. Coping strategies the participants used to gain the resiliency and persistence necessary to acquire academic success are discussed. Intrinsic themes were work ethic values, altruism, and self-efficacy. Extrinsic themes were mentors, family, and friends. Sexual minority women identified the complexity of intrinsic and extrinsic attributions that were used to successfully complete a four-year undergraduate degree in the United States.

  19. Minor ions in the low corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of Coulomb friction to drag minor ions out of the subsonic region of the low corona is studied analytically. New analytical expressions are obtained for the minimum proton flux that is required to drag minor ions out of the corona and for the velocity, relative to the protons, at which the minor ions are dragged out. These new results are used to suggest that the positive n(alpha)/n(p) versus v(p) correlation and the negative n(alpha)/n(p) versus n(p)v(p) correlation observed for solar wind helium at 1 AU are due to variations in the temperature of the low corona.

  20. Integrated software package STAMP for minor planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochetova, O. M.; Shor, Viktor A.

    1992-01-01

    The integrated software package STAMP allowed for rapid and exact reproduction of the tables of the year-book 'Ephemerides of Minor Planets.' Additionally, STAMP solved the typical problems connected with the use of the year-book. STAMP is described. The year-book 'Ephemerides of Minor Planets' (EMP) is a publication used in many astronomical institutions around the world. It contains all the necessary information on the orbits of the numbered minor planets. Also, the astronomical coordinates are provided for each planet during its suitable observation period.

  1. A multilevel health promotion intervention in minority-owned workplaces

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Deborah J.; Briant, Katherine J.; Harris, Jeffrey; Hannon, Peggy; Buchwald, Dedra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Changing health behaviors and health-related environments is important in reducing chronic disease. Minority workplaces are potential venues to provide regular, effective health promotion opportunities to underserved individuals. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of changing workplace policy, programs, and practices in minority-owned workplaces. Methods Four minority Native American-owned businesses were recruited to participate in this study. The intervention was a set of recommended standards and guidelines gleaned from the US Preventive Task Force and The Community Guide relevant to workplaces. Each workplace selected between 4 and 6 target areas to improve over the year-long intervention period. The evaluation tool was a semi-structured survey conducted at baseline and at one-year follow-up, with workplace staff responsible for benefits and services to employees. Feasibility was evaluated by assessing the likelihood that the workplaces implemented health promotion activities in the year-long intervention. Results Several practices and policies changed significantly during the intervention in the four workplaces, including coverage for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), elimination of out of pocket costs for screening and tobacco cessation, accountability systems for providers, posted stair use, cessation line availability that included NRT, offering weight loss programs, offering physical activity programs, and conducting targeted communication programs about health promotion. Other practices and polices changed in the expected direction, but were not significant. Conclusion Changing workplace programs, practices, and policies is feasible in minority workplaces, with support and tools provided by outside organizations. These findings could drive a full-scale test of the intervention in minority businesses in order to improve the health of disadvantaged workers. PMID:26693135

  2. A multilevel health promotion intervention in minority-owned workplaces.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Deborah J; Briant, Katherine J; Harris, Jeffrey; Hannon, Peggy; Buchwald, Dedra

    2015-12-01

    Changing health behaviors and health-related environments is important in reducing chronic disease. Minority workplaces are potential venues to provide regular, effective health promotion opportunities to underserved individuals. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of changing workplace policy, programs, and practices in minority-owned workplaces. Four minority Native American-owned businesses were recruited to participate in this study. The intervention was a set of recommended standards and guidelines gleaned from the US Preventive Task Force and The Community Guide relevant to workplaces. Each workplace selected between 4 and 6 target areas to improve over the year-long intervention period. The evaluation tool was a semi-structured survey conducted at baseline and at one-year follow-up, with workplace staff responsible for benefits and services to employees. Feasibility was evaluated by assessing the likelihood that the workplaces implemented health promotion activities in the year-long intervention. Several practices and policies changed significantly during the intervention in the four workplaces, including coverage for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), elimination of out of pocket costs for screening and tobacco cessation, accountability systems for providers, posted stair use, cessation line availability that included NRT, offering weight loss programs, offering physical activity programs, and conducting targeted communication programs about health promotion. Other practices and polices changed in the expected direction, but were not significant. Changing workplace programs, practices, and policies is feasible in minority workplaces, with support and tools provided by outside organizations. These findings could drive a full-scale test of the intervention in minority businesses in order to improve the health of disadvantaged workers.

  3. RNA tertiary interactions in the large ribosomal subunit: The A-minor motif

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, Poul; Ippolito, Joseph A.; Ban, Nenad; Moore, Peter B.; Steitz, Thomas A.

    2009-10-07

    Analysis of the 2.4-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the large ribosomal subunit from Haloarcula marismortui reveals the existence of an abundant and ubiquitous structural motif that stabilizes RNA tertiary and quaternary structures. This motif is termed the A-minor motif, because it involves the insertion of the smooth, minor groove edges of adenines into the minor groove of neighboring helices, preferentially at C-G base pairs, where they form hydrogen bonds with one or both of the 2' OHs of those pairs. A-minor motifs stabilize contacts between RNA helices, interactions between loops and helices, and the conformations of junctions and tight turns. The interactions between the 3' terminal adenine of tRNAs bound in either the A site or the P site with 23S rRNA are examples of functionally significant A-minor interactions. The A-minor motif is by far the most abundant tertiary structure interaction in the large ribosomal subunit; 186 adenines in 23S and 5S rRNA participate, 68 of which are conserved. It may prove to be the universally most important long-range interaction in large RNA structures.

  4. 40 CFR 49.158 - Synthetic minor source permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Synthetic minor source permits. 49.158... Federal Minor New Source Review Program in Indian Country § 49.158 Synthetic minor source permits. You may obtain a synthetic minor source permit under this program to establish a synthetic minor source for...

  5. 40 CFR 49.158 - Synthetic minor source permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Synthetic minor source permits. 49.158... Federal Minor New Source Review Program in Indian Country § 49.158 Synthetic minor source permits. You may obtain a synthetic minor source permit under this program to establish a synthetic minor source for...

  6. 40 CFR 49.158 - Synthetic minor source permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Synthetic minor source permits. 49.158... Federal Minor New Source Review Program in Indian Country § 49.158 Synthetic minor source permits. You may obtain a synthetic minor source permit under this program to establish a synthetic minor source for...

  7. Bisexual-Specific Minority Stressors, Psychological Distress, and Suicidality in Bisexual Individuals: the Mediating Role of Loneliness.

    PubMed

    Mereish, Ethan H; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Woulfe, Julie

    2017-08-01

    Bisexual individuals are at higher risk for poor mental health outcomes compared to heterosexual as well as lesbian and gay individuals and experience minority stressors, such as discrimination, from both heterosexual and sexual minority communities. However, there is little research examining the negative effects of bisexual-specific minority stressors on bisexual individuals' mental health as well as psychological factors that might help explain minority stressors' deleterious effects. This research examined the effects of distal minority stressors (i.e., anti-bisexual experiences from both heterosexual as well as lesbian and gay people) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized heterosexism and sexual orientation concealment) on psychological distress and suicidality among bisexual adults (N = 503). Building on the relational framing of the minority stress model, we also tested one relational factor (i.e., loneliness) as a mediator of the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and poor mental health (i.e., psychological distress and suicidality). Structural equation modeling analyses were used to test the mediating effects of loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress and suicidality. Although distal and proximal minority stressors were not associated with each other, loneliness mediated the effects of distal and proximal minority stressors on psychological distress and suicidality. The results of this study underscore the importance of targeting bisexual-specific minority stressors as well as loneliness in preventive interventions to improve the mental health of bisexual individuals.

  8. Hippocampus minor, calcar avis, and the Huxley-Owen debate.

    PubMed

    Owen, Christopher M; Howard, Allyson; Binder, Devin K

    2009-12-01

    On the bicentennial of Darwin's birth, we describe the origin of the calcar avis and summarize the debate around this structure, which played a central role in the evolution debate in the mid-19th century. We performed a comprehensive review of relevant neuroanatomic literature, bibliographic sources, and 19th century primary sources. Once known as the hippocampus minor, the structure now known as the calcar avis is an involution of the ventricular wall produced by the calcarine fissure. A heated debate raged between 2 prominent scientific theorists, Sir Richard Owen and Thomas Henry Huxley, over the presence of the hippocampus minor in apes versus humans. Owen put forward the lack of an identifiable hippocampus minor in humans as part of an attempt to debunk evolution. A bitter personal and academic rivalry ensued, as Huxley conducted his own dissections to refute Owen's claims. Huxley ultimately dismantled Owen's premises, securing the epithet "Darwin's bulldog" for his defense of the theory of evolution. Thus, this relatively obscure neuroanatomic landmark served as a pivotal point of contention in the most popularized and acrimonious evolutionary debate of the 19th century.

  9. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  10. Revitalizing Inner-City Minority Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikemma, William N.

    1977-01-01

    The black neighborhood based business environment in Houston, Texas, is examined as an example of minority community revitalization. A number of strategies for improving black community development in the nation's cities are suggested. (GC)

  11. Linguistic Minorities in Canada and Health

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Louise; Desmeules, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Official language minorities (Francophones outside of Quebec and Anglophones in Quebec) make up about 6.4% of the Canadian population. Even though the Canadian constitution gives legal equality status to French and English, there is still room to ask if this equality is maintained in the health sector. In other words, do Francophone and Anglophone communities of Canada have the same health profiles regardless of their minority or majority status? Do they have access to the same health services and in the same conditions? The objective of this paper is to identify the health issues associated with belonging to a linguistic minority. Our research allows us to highlight the social and health disparities that can be attributed to belonging to a minority. In the Canadian context, which has two official languages, an equitable health policy will have to take into consideration language as a determinant of health. PMID:24289938

  12. [Linguistic minorities in Canada and health].

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Louise; Desmeules, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Official language minorities (Francophones outside of Quebec and Anglophones in Quebec) make up about 6.4% of the Canadian population. Even though the Canadian constitution gives legal equality status to French and English, there is still room to ask if this equality is maintained in the health sector. In other words, do Francophone and Anglophone communities of Canada have the same health profiles regardless of their minority or majority status? Do they have access to the same health services and in the same conditions? The objective of this paper is to identify the health issues associated with belonging to a linguistic minority. Our research allows us to highlight the social and health disparities that can be attributed to belonging to a minority. In the Canadian context, which has two official languages, an equitable health policy will have to take into consideration language as a determinant of health.

  13. Closing the Minority Achievement Gap in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Minority students face numerous academic barriers for achievement in the classroom as well as outside the school. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) suggests six principles for maintaining the standard of school mathematics.

  14. 40 CFR 161.60 - Minor uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amount of acreage) or a use which is otherwise limited such that the potential market volume of the... pesticides includes the following elements: (1) Since the market volume for a minor use of a pesticide is...

  15. Ethnic Minority Representation in Counselor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed chairpersons of 476 counselor education programs to determine ethnic minority representation among students and faculty. Compared to population statistics, Asian Americans were found to be underrepresented as both students and faculty. (JAC)

  16. 40 CFR 161.60 - Minor uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... intrinsically low, and the risk associated with the use often is also correspondingly low, EPA will adjust the... to support establishment of individual minor use tolerances. (4) Group tolerances will be...

  17. Ethnic Minority Representation in Counselor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed chairpersons of 476 counselor education programs to determine ethnic minority representation among students and faculty. Compared to population statistics, Asian Americans were found to be underrepresented as both students and faculty. (JAC)

  18. Minority women and advocacy for women's health.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, S K; Morssink, C B; Nestle, M

    2001-09-01

    US minority health issues involve racial/ethnic disparities that affect both women and men. However, women's health advocacy in the United States does not consistently address problems specific to minority women. The underlying evolution and political strength of the women's health and minority health movements differ profoundly. Women of color comprise only one quarter of women's health movement constituents and are, on average, socioeconomically disadvantaged. Potential alliances may be inhibited by vestiges of historical racial and social divisions that detract from feelings of commonality and mutual support. Nevertheless, insufficient attention to minority women's issues undermines the legitimacy of the women's health movement and may prevent important advances that can be achieved only when diversity is fully considered.

  19. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency.

    PubMed

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J

    2013-02-01

    To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents' preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). The results showed that early fans of different types of rock (eg, rock, heavy metal, gothic, punk), African American music (rhythm and blues, hip-hop), and electronic dance music (trance, techno/hardhouse) showed elevated minor delinquency concurrently and longitudinally. Preferring conventional pop (chart pop) or highbrow music (classic music, jazz), in contrast, was not related to or was negatively related to minor delinquency. Early music preferences emerged as more powerful indicators of later delinquency rather than early delinquency, indicating that music choice is a strong marker of later problem behavior. The mechanisms through which music preferences are linked to minor delinquency are discussed within the framework of MMT.

  20. Faster Parameterized Algorithms for Minor Containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Isolde; Dorn, Frederic; Fomin, Fedor V.; Sau, Ignasi; Thilikos, Dimitrios M.

    The theory of Graph Minors by Robertson and Seymour is one of the deepest and significant theories in modern Combinatorics. This theory has also a strong impact on the recent development of Algorithms, and several areas, like Parameterized Complexity, have roots in Graph Minors. Until very recently it was a common belief that Graph Minors Theory is mainly of theoretical importance. However, it appears that many deep results from Robertson and Seymour's theory can be also used in the design of practical algorithms. Minor containment testing is one of algorithmically most important and technical parts of the theory, and minor containment in graphs of bounded branchwidth is a basic ingredient of this algorithm. In order to implement minor containment testing on graphs of bounded branchwidth, Hicks [NETWORKS 04] described an algorithm, that in time O(3^{k^2}\\cdot (h+k-1)!\\cdot m) decides if a graph G with m edges and branchwidth k, contains a fixed graph H on h vertices as a minor. That algorithm follows the ideas introduced by Robertson and Seymour in [J'CTSB 95]. In this work we improve the dependence on k of Hicks' result by showing that checking if H is a minor of G can be done in time O(2^{(2k +1 )\\cdot log k} \\cdot h^{2k} \\cdot 2^{2h^2} \\cdot m). Our approach is based on a combinatorial object called rooted packing, which captures the properties of the potential models of subgraphs of H that we seek in our dynamic programming algorithm. This formulation with rooted packings allows us to speed up the algorithm when G is embedded in a fixed surface, obtaining the first single-exponential algorithm for minor containment testing. Namely, it runs in time 2^{O(k)} \\cdot h^{2k} \\cdot 2^{O(h)} \\cdot n, with n = |V(G)|. Finally, we show that slight modifications of our algorithm permit to solve some related problems within the same time bounds, like induced minor or contraction minor containment.

  1. Resilience to Discrimination and Rejection Among Young Sexual Minority Males and Transgender Females: A Qualitative Study on Coping With Minority Stress.

    PubMed

    Bry, Laura Jane; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert; Burns, Michelle Nicole

    2017-09-13

    Sexual minority and transgender status is associated with mental health disparities, which have been empirically and theoretically linked to stressors related to social stigma. Despite exposure to these unique stressors, many sexual minority and transgender individuals will not experience mental health disorders in their lifetime. Little is known about the specific processes that sexual minority and transgender youth use to maintain their wellbeing in the presence of discrimination and rejection. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 sexual minority males and transgender females aged 18-22 years, who currently met criteria for an operationalized definition of resilience to depression and anxiety. Data were analyzed qualitatively, yielding information related to a wide variety of problem-solving, support-seeking, and accommodative coping strategies employed by youth in the face of social stigma. Results are discussed in light of their clinical implications.

  2. Minor consent and delivery of adolescent vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ford, Carol A; Skiles, Martha P; English, Abigail; Cai, Jianwen; Agans, Robert P; Stokley, Shannon; Markowitz, Lauri; Koumans, Emilia H

    2014-02-01

    To explore whether, and to what extent, minor consent influences adolescent vaccine delivery in the United States. A telephone survey was completed by 263 professionals with responsibilities for adolescent health care and/or vaccination in 43 states. Measures included perceived frequency of unaccompanied minor visits and perceived likelihood of vaccine delivery to unaccompanied minors in hypothetical scenarios that varied by adolescent age, vaccine type, visit type, and clinical setting. Among the 76 respondents most familiar with private primary care clinics, 47.1% reported perceptions that 17-year-old patients often present without a parent/legal guardian. Among the 104 respondents most familiar with public primary care clinics, 56.7% reported that 17-year-old patients often present alone. In response to hypothetical scenarios, approximately 30% of respondents familiar with private clinics and 50% of respondents familiar with public clinics reported perceptions that unaccompanied 17-year-old adolescents would not receive influenza, Tdap, or human papillomavirus vaccines during routine check-ups because they could not provide consent. Perceived likelihood of unaccompanied minors receiving vaccines when seen for confidential services in primary care, sexually transmitted disease, and Title X/family planning clinics varied significantly by vaccine type and clinical setting. On average, respondents reported that they would support minors having the ability to self-consent for vaccines at age 14. The inability of minors to consent for vaccines is likely one barrier to vaccination. Interventions to increase adolescent vaccination should consider strategies that increase the ability of unaccompanied minors, particularly older minors, to receive vaccines within the context of legal, ethical, and professional guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuropsychological sequelae of minor head injury.

    PubMed

    Barth, J T; Macciocchi, S N; Giordani, B; Rimel, R; Jane, J A; Boll, T J

    1983-11-01

    Seventy-one patients with minor head injury were given extensive neuropsychological evaluations 3 months after injury. A significant percentage of the patients demonstrated cognitive impairment, which seemed essentially unrelated to the length of unconsciousness or of posttraumatic amnesia. Impaired patients evidenced memory and visuospatial deficits. Cognitively impaired patients also had difficulty returning to work after injury. The psychological and cognitive impairment that follows minor head injury is discussed in relation to diagnostic and intervention issues.

  4. Minor Consent and Delivery of Adolescent Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Carol A.; Skiles, Martha P.; English, Abigail; Cai, Jianwen; Agans, Robert P.; Stokley, Shannon; Markowitz, Lauri; Koumans, Emilia H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore whether, and to what extent, minor consent influences adolescent vaccine delivery in the United States. Methods A telephone survey was completed by 263 professionals with responsibilities for adolescent health care and/or vaccination in 43 states. Measures included perceived frequency of unaccompanied minor visits and perceived likelihood of vaccine delivery to unaccompanied minors in hypothetical scenarios that varied by adolescent age, vaccine type, visit type, and clinical setting. Results Among the 76 respondents most familiar with private primary care clinics, 47.1% reported perceptions that 17-year-old patients often present without a parent/legal guardian. Among the 104 respondents most familiar with public primary care clinics, 56.7% reported that 17-year-old patients often present alone. In response to hypothetical scenarios, approximately 30% of respondents familiar with private clinics and 50% of respondents familiar with public clinics reported perceptions that unaccompanied 17-year-old adolescents would not receive influenza, Tdap, or human papillomavirus vaccines during routine check-ups because they could not provide consent. Perceived likelihood of unaccompanied minors receiving vaccines when seen for confidential services in primary care, sexually transmitted disease, and Title X/family planning clinics varied significantly by vaccine type and clinical setting. On average, respondents reported that they would support minors having the ability to self-consent for vaccines at age 14. Conclusions The inability of minors to consent for vaccines is likely one barrier to vaccination. Interventions to increase adolescent vaccination should consider strategies that increase the ability of unaccompanied minors, particularly older minors, to receive vaccines within the context of legal, ethical, and professional guidelines. PMID:24074605

  5. Minority carrier lifetime in indium phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Weinberg, Irving; Kneisel, Keith

    1991-01-01

    Transient photoluminescence is used to measure the minority carrier lifetime on n-type and p-type InP wafers. The measurements show that unprocessed InP wafers have very high minority carrier lifetimes. Lifetimes of 200 ns and 700 ns were observed for lightly-doped p- and n-type material respectively. Lifetimes over 5 ns were found in heavily doped n-type material.

  6. Minority carrier lifetime in indium phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Weinberg, Irving; Kneisel, Keith

    1991-01-01

    Transient photoluminescence is used to measure the minority carrier lifetime on n-type and p-type InP wafers. The measurements show that unprocessed InP wafers have very high minority carrier lifetimes. Lifetimes of 200 ns and 700 ns were observed for lightly-doped p- and n-type material respectively. Lifetimes over 5 ns were found in heavily doped n-type material.

  7. MITRAM. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Santini, D.J.

    1989-02-01

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  8. Contribution of minor mergers to the growth of elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta de Arriba, L.; Balcells, M.; Trujillo, I.; Falcón-Barroso, J.

    2013-05-01

    Size evolution studies have shown that the structural properties of the elliptical galaxies dramatically changed with cosmic time (e. g. Trujillo et al. 2007). This result challenges the ideas developed from the detailed analyses of the stellar populations of these galaxies in the nearby universe. The study of the local elliptical galaxies has revealed their stars are old, and formed over short-timescales (see the review by Renzini 2006). In order to resolve this discrepancy, it has been hypothesized that new material continuously accretes in minor merger events (Naab et al. 2007). Index-index diagrams are a promising way to probe the minor merger scenario. However, a large sample of galaxies is required for this goal. In this poster we present our preliminary index measurements of a subsample of galaxies studied by Trujillo et al. (2007) using the spectra published by the DEEP2 DR4 survey (Newman et al. 2012).

  9. General and minority stress in an LGB population in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Cox, Nele; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Dewaele, Alexis; Vinke, John

    2008-01-01

    This article concentrates on the influence of determinants of mental health on a lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population in Flanders. Our sample is drawn from the Zzzip survey, and contains 2,280 LGBs, of whom 1,565 are men and 715 are women. The traditional social stress model outlines the influence of general stressors on stress (Pearlin, 1989). Meyer (1995) has expanded Pearlin's model to include the concept of minority stress. This study focuses on aspects of personal characteristics and social structural arrangements. Our study confirms the importance of age and education as relevant determinants for mental health. Additionally, although most research establishes sex differences in depression, this study does not find significant differences in depression between men and women. In women, sexual identity is a significant determinant of depressive score, but we do not find the same in men. Finally, both general and minority stressors, especially the internal stressors, are found to have an important effect on depressive outcomes.

  10. Use of emergency services by unaccompanied minors.

    PubMed

    Treloar, D J; Peterson, E; Randall, J; Lucid, W

    1991-03-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the use of emergency services by minors who are unaccompanied by their parents or guardians and how they are managed in emergency departments. Self-administered survey. The ED directors of 71 emergency medicine training programs, 82 Michigan community EDs, and 56 pediatric EDs. One hundred eighteen (58%) surveys were returned. A median of five unaccompanied minors (range 0.2 to 150) were seen weekly by responding EDs. Pediatric EDs saw the most unaccompanied minors weekly (ten) compared with training programs (five) and community EDs (three) (P less than .01). Emergency medicine training programs had the greatest percentage (3.0%) of minors who were unaccompanied compared with pediatric EDs (2.2%) and community EDs (2.6%) (P less than .05). For all conditions surveyed, only 3.8% of patients would be refused medical care without parental consent. However, 36.8% of patients would have medical care delayed even for conditions that might be painful or harmful if left untreated for some time. Most EDs (85.5%) screen patients and treat those who are acutely ill, but some (11.1%) treat all regardless of severity. Protocols should be developed for unaccompanied minors to ensure that delays in obtaining consent do not jeopardize the child and that the rights of minors for confidentiality and consent are recognized.

  11. Improving Urban Minority Girls' Health Via Community Summer Programming.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Amy M; Bates, Carolyn R; Heard, Amy M; Burdette, Kimberly A; Ward, Amanda K; Silton, Rebecca L; Dugas, Lara R

    2017-03-31

    Summertime has emerged as a high-risk period for weight gain among low-income minority youth who often experience a lack of resources when not attending school. Structured programming may be an effective means of reducing risk for obesity by improving obesogenic behaviors among these youth. The current multi-method study examined sedentary time, physical activity, and dietary intake among low-income urban minority girls in two contexts: an unstructured summertime setting and in the context of a structured 4-week community-based summer day camp program promoting physical activity. Data were analyzed using paired-sample t tests and repeated-measure analyses of variance with significance at the p < .05 level. Results evidenced no significant differences in total calories and fat consumed between the unstructured and structured settings. Participants exhibited significant increases in fruit consumption and physical activity and significant decreases in sedentary time of over 2 h/day and dairy consumption when engaged in structured summer programming. All improvements were independent of weight status and age, and African-American participants evidenced greater changes in physical activity during programming. The study concludes that structured, community-based summertime programming may be associated with fewer obesogenic behaviors in low-income urban youth and may be a powerful tool to address disparities in weight gain and obesity among high-risk samples.

  12. 76 FR 71438 - Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee AGENCY... Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee (MDIAC or Committee) formerly administered by the... preserve the present number of minority depository institutions and encourage the creation of new...

  13. Minority Students at Risk: An Interview with Professor Shirley Chisholm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeter, Larry

    1987-01-01

    Professor Shirley Chisholm responds to questions concerning the decline in minority higher education enrollments, student financial aid considerations, ways of fostering a climate of support for minority students, faculty behaviors, racism on campus, and family pressures on minority students. (DMM)

  14. A Map of Minor Groove Shape and Electrostatic Potential from Hydroxyl Radical Cleavage Patterns of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Eric P.; Rohs, Remo; Parker, Stephen C. J.; West, Sean M.; Liu, Peng; Mann, Richard S.; Honig, Barry; Tullius, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    DNA shape variation and the associated variation in minor groove electrostatic potential are widely exploited by proteins for DNA recognition. Here we show that the hydroxyl radical cleavage pattern is a quantitative measure of DNA backbone solvent accessibility, minor groove width, and minor groove electrostatic potential, at single nucleotide resolution. We introduce maps of DNA shape and electrostatic potential as tools for understanding how proteins recognize binding sites in a genome. These maps reveal periodic structural signals in yeast and Drosophila genomic DNA sequences that are associated with positioned nucleosomes. PMID:21967305

  15. Antineoplastic DNA-binding compounds: intercalating and minor groove binding drugs.

    PubMed

    Mišković, Katarina; Bujak, Maro; Baus Lončar, Mirela; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica

    2013-12-01

    DNA intercalating and minor groove binding compounds are new weapons in the battle against malignant diseases. These antineoplastic agents target the DNA molecule and interfere with the cell cycle leading to rapidly proliferating cell death. They are mainly derivates of a naturally occurring organic compound derived from a microorganism or plant. Intercalators usually act as topoisomerase I and/or II poisons, while the mechanisms of DNA minor groove binders are a combination of several steps including topoisomerase poisoning. This paper gives an overview of some of the developed DNA intercalating and minor groove binding compounds, as well as an explanation of their chemical structures, origins, and application in chemotherapy.

  16. Minority Representation in Migraine Treatment Trials.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Nathaniel M; Bernat, James L

    2017-03-01

    Minorities have historically been underrepresented in clinical research trials despite having comparatively poor health indicators. Recognizing the dual inequalities of increased disease burden and decreased research participation, the National Institute of Health (NIH) Revitalization Act of 1993 mandated the inclusion and reporting of women and minorities in NIH-funded research. While progress has been made in the subsequent decades, this underrepresentation of minorities in research trials persists and has been documented in multiple disciplines. However, the extent of adequate representation and reporting of minority inclusion in clinical trials for migraine remains unknown. In this systematic review and study, we review the literature examining the representation of women and minorities in migraine clinical research trials METHODS: First we searched PubMed for pertinent articles examining the inclusion of women and minorities in migraine clinical research trials. Second, we identified controlled-trials for migraine published since 2011 in major neurology, headache, and general medicine journals using the terms "migraine randomized controlled trial." We then reviewed the results manually and excluded pilot studies and those with fewer than 50 participants. We next determined (a) how frequently representation of minorities and women were reported in these major trials; (b) what factors correlated with reporting; and (c) whether women and minority inclusion comprised their ratios in the general population. We identified 128 relevant clinical trials, of which 36 met our inclusion criteria. All 36 trials (100%) reported gender frequency, and 25 of 36 (69.4%) reported ethnicity or race. Among all studies, women and Whites represented 84.2 and 82.9% of participants (mean), respectively. Studies conducted in the United States and funded by a private company were more likely to report race than studies conducted exclusively outside of the U.S. or with a public sponsor

  17. Development of new business opportunities for minorities in nuclear energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Spight, C.

    1980-12-15

    In Part I of this report the basis for the optimal development of new business opportunities for minorities in nuclear energy programs is defined within the successful completion of all contract tasks. The basis presented consists of an identification of a set of qualified minority-owned small businesses, a defined reservoir of highly trained minorities with applicable expertise, a policy context for the development of opportunities, and a proposed networking structure for information transfer/professional development. In Part II a contractor-focused analysis of the structure of the nuclear industry, a breakdown of the DOE nuclear program by region and functional area, and a directory of minority-owned small businesses by region are presented.

  18. The truth about mentoring minorities. Race matters.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D A

    2001-04-01

    Diversity has become a top priority in corporate America. Despite corporations' best intentions, however, many have failed to achieve a racial mix at the top levels of management. Some have revolving doors for talented minorities, recruiting the best and brightest, only to see them leave, frustrated by their experiences. Others are able to retain high-potential professionals of color but find them mired in middle management. To understand the different career trajectories of whites and minorities, David Thomas studied the progression of racial minorities at three large U.S. corporations. Here, he explains the three career stages that all professionals advance through, and he discusses why promising white professionals tend to enter fast tracks early in their careers, whereas high-potential minorities typically take off after they have reached middle management. Thomas's research shows that minorities who advance the furthest share one characteristic: a strong network of mentors and corporate sponsors. He found that minorities who plateaued in middle management received mentoring that was basically instructional; it helped them to develop skills. By contrast, minorities who became executives enjoyed fuller developmental relationships with their mentors. Thomas explains the types of support mentors provide for their protégés and outlines the challenges of mentoring across racial lines. Specifically, he addresses negative stereotypes, public scrutiny, difficulty with role modeling, and peer resentment. Finally, Thomas challenges the notion that the job of mentors begins and ends with their one-on-one relationships with their protégés. He offers concrete advice on how mentors can support broader initiatives at their organizations to create and enhance conditions that foster the upward mobility of professionals of color.

  19. We Can Recruit Minorities Into The Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, S.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the dismal numbers, efforts to recruit minorities into the geosciences are improving, thanks in part to NSF's "Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences" (OEDG) initiative. At Wesleyan University, a small liberal arts college in Connecticut, we have significantly increased our recruitment of minority students. Twenty percent (four students) of the class of 2013 are African American. Most of the recruitment is done on an individual basis and working in conjunction with the "Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement" and courting minority students in introductory classes. The Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement is aware of our interest in increasing diversity and that we are able to hire minority students during the academic year and through the summer with OEDG funds. When she identifies minority students who might be interested in the geosciences, she refers them to faculty in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Department. Our faculty can provide employment, mentoring and a variety of geo-related experiences. Courting students in introductory courses can include inviting them to lunch or other activity, and attending sports, theater or dance events in which they are participating. Not all efforts result in new majors. Courses in ancillary sciences may be stumbling blocks and higher grades in less demanding courses have lured some students into other majors. Nevertheless, we now have a large enough cohort of minority students so that minority students from other majors visit their friends in our labs. A critical mass? Even a student, who chooses another major, may continue an interest in geoscience and through outreach efforts and discussions with younger family members, may provide a bridge that becomes a conduit for future students.

  20. The shape of the DNA minor groove directs binding by the DNA-bending protein Fis

    SciTech Connect

    Stella, Stefano; Cascio, Duilio; Johnson, Reid C.

    2010-06-21

    The bacterial nucleoid-associated protein Fis regulates diverse reactions by bending DNA and through DNA-dependent interactions with other control proteins and enzymes. In addition to dynamic nonspecific binding to DNA, Fis forms stable complexes with DNA segments that share little sequence conservation. Here we report the first crystal structures of Fis bound to high- and low-affinity 27-base-pair DNA sites. These 11 structures reveal that Fis selects targets primarily through indirect recognition mechanisms involving the shape of the minor groove and sequence-dependent induced fits over adjacent major groove interfaces. The DNA shows an overall curvature of {approx}65{sup o}, and the unprecedented close spacing between helix-turn-helix motifs present in the apodimer is accommodated by severe compression of the central minor groove. In silico DNA structure models show that only the roll, twist, and slide parameters are sufficient to reproduce the changes in minor groove widths and recreate the curved Fis-bound DNA structure. Models based on naked DNA structures suggest that Fis initially selects DNA targets with intrinsically narrow minor grooves using the separation between helix-turn-helix motifs in the Fis dimer as a ruler. Then Fis further compresses the minor groove and bends the DNA to generate the bound structure.

  1. HIV/AIDS: a minority health issue.

    PubMed

    Cargill, Victoria A; Stone, Valerie E

    2005-07-01

    HIV infection among racial and ethnic minorities is an ongoing health crisis. The disproportionate impact of HIV infection on racial and ethnic minorities has affected communities already struggling with many social and economic challenges, such as poverty, substance abuse, homelessness,unequal access to health care, and unequal treatment once in the health care system. Superimposed on these challenges is HIV infection, the transmission of which is facilitated by many of these factors. Although the epidemic is disproportionately affecting all racial and ethnic minorities, within these minority populations women are particularly affected. The care and management of racial and ethnic minorities who have HIV infection has been complicated by the unequal access to health care and the unequal treatment once enrolled in health care. Health insurance status, lack of concordance between the race of the patient and the provider, and satisfaction with the quality of their care all impact on treatment outcomes in this population. In addition, the provider must be aware of the many comorbid conditions that may affect the delivery of care to minority patients living with HIV infection: depression, substance and alcohol abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorders. The impact of these comorbid conditions on the therapeutic relationship, including treatment and adherence, warrants screening for these disorders and treating them when identified. Because the patient provider relationship has been repeatedly identified as a predictor of higher adherence, developing and maintaining a strong therapeutic alliance is critical. Participation of racial and ethnic minorities in HIV clinical trials, as in other disease states, has been very poor. Racial and ethnic minorities have been chronically underrepresented in HIV clinical trials, despite their overrepresentation in the HIV epidemiology. This underrepresentation seems to be the result of a combination of factors including (1) provider

  2. MINORITY STRESS, POSITIVE IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT, AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESILIENCE AMONG SEXUAL MINORITY MALE YOUTH

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Minority stress processes have been shown to have significant associations with negative mental health outcomes among sexual minority populations. Given that adversity may be experienced growing up as a sexual minority in heteronormative, if not heterosexist, environments, our research on resilience among sexual minority male youth proposes that positive identity development may buffer the effects of a range of minority stress processes. Methods An ethnically diverse sample of 200 sexual minority males ages 16–24 (mean age, 20.9 years) was recruited using mixed recruitment methods. We developed and tested two new measures: concealment stress during adolescence and sexual minority-related positive identity development. We then tested a path model that assessed the effects of minority stressors, positive identity development, and social support on major depressive symptoms. Results Experience of stigma was associated with internalized homophobia (β=.138, p<.05) and major depressive symptoms (β=1.076, OR=2.933, p<.001), and internalized homophobia partially mediated experience’s effects on major depression (β=.773, OR=2.167, p<.001). Concealment stress was associated with positive identity development (β=.155, p<.05) and internalized homophobia (β=.418, p<.001), and positive identity development partially mediated concealment stress’s effects on internalized homophobia (β=−.527, p<.001). Concealment stress demonstrated a direct effect on major depression (β=1.400, OR=4.056, p<.001), and indirect paths to social support through positive identity development. Conclusions With these results, we offer an exploratory model that empirically identifies significant paths among minority stress dimensions, positive identity development, and major depressive symptoms. This study helps further our understanding of minority stress, identity development, and resources of resilience among sexual minority male youth. PMID:26478901

  3. MINORITY STRESS, POSITIVE IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT, AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESILIENCE AMONG SEXUAL MINORITY MALE YOUTH.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2015-09-01

    Minority stress processes have been shown to have significant associations with negative mental health outcomes among sexual minority populations. Given that adversity may be experienced growing up as a sexual minority in heteronormative, if not heterosexist, environments, our research on resilience among sexual minority male youth proposes that positive identity development may buffer the effects of a range of minority stress processes. An ethnically diverse sample of 200 sexual minority males ages 16-24 (mean age, 20.9 years) was recruited using mixed recruitment methods. We developed and tested two new measures: concealment stress during adolescence and sexual minority-related positive identity development. We then tested a path model that assessed the effects of minority stressors, positive identity development, and social support on major depressive symptoms. Experience of stigma was associated with internalized homophobia (β=.138, p<.05) and major depressive symptoms (β=1.076, OR=2.933, p<.001), and internalized homophobia partially mediated experience's effects on major depression (β=.773, OR=2.167, p<.001). Concealment stress was associated with positive identity development (β=.155, p<.05) and internalized homophobia (β=.418, p<.001), and positive identity development partially mediated concealment stress's effects on internalized homophobia (β=-.527, p<.001). Concealment stress demonstrated a direct effect on major depression (β=1.400, OR=4.056, p<.001), and indirect paths to social support through positive identity development. With these results, we offer an exploratory model that empirically identifies significant paths among minority stress dimensions, positive identity development, and major depressive symptoms. This study helps further our understanding of minority stress, identity development, and resources of resilience among sexual minority male youth.

  4. Sexual minority cancer survivors' satisfaction with care.

    PubMed

    Jabson, Jennifer M; Kamen, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Satisfaction with care is important to cancer survivors' health outcomes. Satisfaction with care is not equal for all cancer survivors, and sexual minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) cancer survivors may experience poor satisfaction with care. Data were drawn from the 2010 LIVESTRONG national survey. The final sample included 207 sexual minority cancer survivors and 4,899 heterosexual cancer survivors. Satisfaction with care was compared by sexual orientation, and a Poisson regression model was computed to test the associations between sexual orientation and satisfaction with care, controlling for other relevant variables. Sexual minority cancer survivors had lower satisfaction with care than did heterosexual cancer survivors (B = -0.12, SE = 0.04, Wald χ(2) = 9.25, p< .002), even controlling for demographic and clinical variables associated with care. Sexual minorities experience poorer satisfaction with care compared to heterosexual cancer survivors. Satisfaction with care is especially relevant to cancer survivorship in light of the cancer-related health disparities reported among sexual minority cancer survivors.

  5. Sexual Minority Cancer Survivors’ Satisfaction with Care

    PubMed Central

    Jabson, Jennifer; Kamen, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Satisfaction with care is important to cancer survivors’ health outcomes. Satisfaction with care is not equal for all cancer survivors and sexual minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) cancer survivors may experience poor satisfaction with care. Methods Data were drawn from the 2010 LIVESTRONG national survey. The final sample included 207 sexual minority and 4,899 heterosexual cancer survivors. Satisfaction with care was compared by sexual orientation and a Poisson regression model was computed to test the associations between sexual orientation and satisfaction with care, controlling for other relevant variables. Results Sexual minority cancer survivors had lower satisfaction with care than heterosexual cancer survivors (B=−0.12, SE=0.04, Wald χ2=9.25, p<0.002), even controlling for demographic and clinical variables associated with care. Conclusions Sexual minorities experience poorer satisfaction with care compared to heterosexual cancer survivors. Clinical Implications: Satisfaction with care is especially relevant to cancer survivorship in light of the cancer-related health disparities reported among sexual minority cancer survivors. PMID:26577277

  6. Atmospheric Solar Heating in Minor Absorption Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah

    1998-01-01

    Solar radiation is the primary source of energy driving atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Concerned with the huge computing time required for computing radiative transfer in weather and climate models, solar heating in minor absorption bands has often been neglected. The individual contributions of these minor bands to the atmospheric heating is small, but collectively they are not negligible. The solar heating in minor bands includes the absorption due to water vapor in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) spectral region from 14284/cm to 25000/cm, the ozone absorption and Rayleigh scattering in the near infrared, as well as the O2 and CO2 absorption in a number of weak bands. Detailed high spectral- and angular-resolution calculations show that the total effect of these minor absorption is to enhance the atmospheric solar heating by approximately 10%. Depending upon the strength of the absorption and the overlapping among gaseous absorption, different approaches are applied to parameterize these minor absorption. The parameterizations are accurate and require little extra time for computing radiative fluxes. They have been efficiently implemented in the various atmospheric models at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, including cloud ensemble, mesoscale, and climate models.

  7. The 1990 GP contract: modelling variation in minor surgery provision.

    PubMed

    Silcock, J; Ratcliffe, J

    1995-01-01

    Logistic regression was used to determine the extent to which general medical practices undertake the maximum amount of minor surgery activity allowed for in the GP contract. Data on activity for 89 practices in the Grampian region of Scotland was available for two consecutive financial years: 1992-93 and 1993-94. Comparison of the regression models developed in each year showed that rural location and practice size were consistently associated with the maximization of minor surgery activity under the terms of 1990 GP Contract. In 1993-94 practices with a greater proportion of deprived patients were also more likely to be 'maximizers'. Quantitative modelling allows the performance of GPs to be assessed and also helps to identify factors which are a barrier to service development. It seems likely that, in Grampian, GPs who were able to exploit fully the provisions of their contract were those whose patients had the greatest capacity to benefit from minor surgery. Currently the GP contract is nationally negotiated, but in the future local negotiated remuneration is likely to become widespread. Modelling will have an important role in the design and monitoring of incentive structures, and help to ensure that service provision equates to local needs.

  8. Referral for minor mental illness: a qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, S; Chalmers-Watson, C; Gantley, M; Underwood, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mild depression and anxiety are common problems in general practice. They can be managed by the general practitioner (GP) alone or referred. Previous quantitative studies have shown a large variation between GPs in terms of referral behaviour. The reasons for this variation are not fully understood. AIM: To describe and analyse GP's decision-making processes when considering who should be treating patients with minor mental illness, using a qualitative method. DESIGN OF STUDY: A qualitative interview study. SETTING: Twenty-three GPs in east London and Essex. METHOD: Subjects were chosen using a purposive sampling strategy and participated in one-to-one semi-structured interviews. A grounded theory approach was used for analysis. RESULTS: Two distinct referral strategies were identified--the 'containment' and the 'conduit' approaches. In addition, referrals were found to be of two types--proactive 'referrals to' and reactive 'referrals away'; for minor mental illness the 'referrals away' were found to predominate. Emotive as well as rational responses informed GP decision making on referral. CONCLUSIONS: Explanations of the variation in referral rates need to recognise the emotive responses of individual GPs to minor mental illness. The contribution of guidelines, which assume consistently rational responses to illness, may therefore be limited. PMID:11407051

  9. Referral for minor mental illness: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Nandy, S; Chalmers-Watson, C; Gantley, M; Underwood, M

    2001-06-01

    Mild depression and anxiety are common problems in general practice. They can be managed by the general practitioner (GP) alone or referred. Previous quantitative studies have shown a large variation between GPs in terms of referral behaviour. The reasons for this variation are not fully understood. To describe and analyse GP's decision-making processes when considering who should be treating patients with minor mental illness, using a qualitative method. A qualitative interview study. Twenty-three GPs in east London and Essex. Subjects were chosen using a purposive sampling strategy and participated in one-to-one semi-structured interviews. A grounded theory approach was used for analysis. Two distinct referral strategies were identified--the 'containment' and the 'conduit' approaches. In addition, referrals were found to be of two types--proactive 'referrals to' and reactive 'referrals away'; for minor mental illness the 'referrals away' were found to predominate. Emotive as well as rational responses informed GP decision making on referral. Explanations of the variation in referral rates need to recognise the emotive responses of individual GPs to minor mental illness. The contribution of guidelines, which assume consistently rational responses to illness, may therefore be limited.

  10. A relational model of sexual minority mental and physical health: The negative effects of shame on relationships, loneliness, and health.

    PubMed

    Mereish, Ethan H; Poteat, V Paul

    2015-07-01

    Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at an increased risk for poorer mental and physical health outcomes than heterosexuals, and some of these health disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test 4 models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A Relational Model of Sexual Minority Mental and Physical Health: The Negative Effects of Shame on Relationships, Loneliness, and Health

    PubMed Central

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at higher risk for mental and physical health disparities than heterosexuals, and some of these disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test four models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress. PMID:26010289

  12. Initial Development of a New Measure of Minor Stress for Adolescents: The Adolescent Minor Stress Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Steven C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nirelli, Liza M.; Patten, Christi A.; Friedrich, William N.; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to develop, standardize, and establish initial reliability and validity for the Adolescent Minor Stress Inventory (AMSI), a new measure of minor stress for adolescents. The AMSI improves upon existing adolescent stress measures in a number of important ways in that it does not emphasize school or classroom-based…

  13. The Importance of Minority Teachers: Student Perceptions of Minority versus White Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Halpin, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    The demographic divide between teachers and students is of growing public concern. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the common argument that students, and particularly minority students, have more favorable perceptions of minority versus White teachers. Using data from the Measure of Effective Teaching study, we find that students…

  14. The BCLA Minor: Business, Communication, and Liberal Arts Minor at Towson University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahin, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cross-disciplinary minor that combines elements of business, communication, and the liberal arts. The BCLA Minor enhances employment opportunities and cultural awareness for students with majors in the Colleges of Business and Economics, Fine Arts and Communication, and Liberal Arts by integrating the…

  15. Minority Capital Resource Handbook. A Guide to Raising Capital for Minority Entrepreneurs. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.

    This minority capital resource handbook consists of a guide to raising capital for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such capital. The first section deals with the process of raising capital. The realities of raising capital, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…

  16. Minority Dropouts: Do Rural, Urban, and Suburban Administrators Perceive Causes Affecting Minorities as Priority Items?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Kay S.; And Others

    This study compared the perceptions of a national sample of urban, suburban, and rural administrators (N=891, a 72% response) about minority dropout indicators to what current research literature identifies as highly-ranked causal variables related to minority dropout rates. The literature review identified the following causes of dropping out,…

  17. The Minority Voice in Educational Reform: An Analysis by Minority and Women College of Education Deans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castenell, Louis A., Ed.; Tarule, Jill M., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines the issue of minority and female deans in colleges of education, offering the current thinking by a group of minority and female deans of education. Part 1, "Changing Leadership: Tensions within Academic and Social Roles," presents the first four chapters: (1) "Surviving the Middle Passage: The Absent Legacy of…

  18. Minority Capital Resource Handbook. A Guide to Raising Capital for Minority Entrepreneurs. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.

    This minority capital resource handbook consists of a guide to raising capital for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such capital. The first section deals with the process of raising capital. The realities of raising capital, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…

  19. Words and Deeds: Presidential Discussion of Minority Health, Public Policies, and Minority Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Gillion, Daniel Q

    2017-10-01

    What are the different rhetorical approaches presidents used to address minority health inequality? More importantly, how have the efforts of presidents impacted minorities' perceptions of health? I offer a historical perspective that describes the three major periods of presidential engagement in discussions of minority health since the 1960s. I couple this historical overview with an empirical assessment that introduces a novel and extensive dataset of every presidential discussion of minority health spanning five decades (1960-2016). This study finds that, since the early 1990s, presidents have transported their discussion of minority health beyond the confines of Washington, DC, traveling to speak to local communities throughout the nation that have a disproportionate number of blacks and Latinos. Moreover, a presidential discussion of minority health leads to greater salience on this issue and thus increases public health awareness. This work suggests that presidential messaging on minority health provides a framework for minority groups to understand and discuss the health disparities that may plague their communities. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  20. The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use among Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…

  1. When Minor Is Minor and Major Is Major: Language Expansion, Contraction and Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, T. L.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a linguistically valid definition of minority language, as well as language expansion, contraction, and death. The definitional model presented features the establishment of a continuum which also is shown to have predictive power, yielding an effective operational definition of majority/minority status and predicting new data. (Author/CB)

  2. 77 FR 18685 - New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES DEPARTMENT Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 516 New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 599, revised as of April 1, 2011, on...

  3. The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use among Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…

  4. Self-Esteem Comparisons among Intellectually Gifted Minority/Non-Minority Junior High Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legin-Bucell, Cynthia; And Others

    Differences in self-esteem between 48 minority and 62 non-minority intellectually gifted and 75 intellectually average junior-high students were assessed using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Results indicated a higher level of self-esteem for the gifted students than for the control group. Significant differences were also found to exist…

  5. The BCLA Minor: Business, Communication, and Liberal Arts Minor at Towson University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahin, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cross-disciplinary minor that combines elements of business, communication, and the liberal arts. The BCLA Minor enhances employment opportunities and cultural awareness for students with majors in the Colleges of Business and Economics, Fine Arts and Communication, and Liberal Arts by integrating the…

  6. Disadvantages of Minority Group Membership: The Perspective of a "Nondeprived" Minority Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Abraham D.

    1975-01-01

    Utilizing a sample of Jewish undergraduate students, evidence is presented to indicate that a minority group which is not deprived materially can nonetheless perceive itself as receiving disadvantages from its minority group status. The most frequently perceived disadvantages (as well as advantages) are enumerated and discussed. (EH)

  7. The Importance of Minority Teachers: Student Perceptions of Minority versus White Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Halpin, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    The demographic divide between teachers and students is of growing public concern. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the common argument that students, and particularly minority students, have more favorable perceptions of minority versus White teachers. Using data from the Measure of Effective Teaching study, we find that students…

  8. Ethnic minority psychology: struggles and triumphs.

    PubMed

    Sue, Stanley

    2009-10-01

    This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups? Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Occurrence of minor elements in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durum, W.H.; Haffty, Joseph

    1961-01-01

    Three basic studies, using spectrographic methods, have been used to establish the occurrence of minor elements in natural waters. One study, of oceanborne chemicals in principal rivers, has established a method for the quantitative analysis of many minor elements. Strontium, barium, lithium, rubidium, chromium, nickel, copper, lead, boron, titanium, molybdenum, manganese, and vanadium occur most frequently in measurable quantities. Reconnaissance of the strontium in surface waters of the United States, shows that surface waters in parts of northern and western Texas and southern New Mexico and Arizona are comparatively high in strontium. A study of minor elements in selected waters of California is continuing. Assessment of preliminary data on uranium and radium in waters is facilitated by grouping data for 10 geotectonic regions of the United States.

  10. Improving Prenatal Care for Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Gennaro, Susan; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; CPNP/PMHNP; FAANP; O'Connor, Caitlin; Gibeau, Anne M.; Nadel, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Since the inception of prenatal care in the early 1900s, the focus of care has been on risk reduction rather than on health promotion. Prenatal care began as individualized care, but more recently group prenatal care has been documented to be very successful in improving birth outcomes. For all women, an emphasis on improving health behaviors is important at this critical time while women are engaging regularly with the health care system. An emphasis on mental health promotion may decrease some of the disparities in birth outcomes that are well documented between minority and majority women, as minority women are known to experience increased levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. Providing support for pregnant women and incorporating knowledge and skills through prenatal care may promote both physical and mental health in minority women. PMID:26854915

  11. Major surgical complications from minor urological procedures.

    PubMed Central

    Eke, N.

    2000-01-01

    Some urological procedures are regarded as minor or simple. As a result, these may be delegated to trainee surgeons to do. Occasionally nonmedical persons embark on some of the procedures such as male circumcision. Published serious complications from urological procedures considered minor or simple were identified from a Medline search (1966 through 1999) and reference lists of relevant publications. The operations regarded as minor were carried out by medical personnel of all grades as well as by nonmedical persons. The complications can be classified as mutilatory, infective, hemorrhagic, or obstructive. Although the mutilatory complications affect mainly procedures on the penis, infective and hemorrhagic complications affect almost all the procedures. Tumor implantation has occurred along needle biopsy tracts. Although many of the complications are not related to technique or competence, a plea is made for the awareness of their occurrence to encourage preventive strategies. Adequate training of surgical personnel remains essential worldwide. PMID:10976176

  12. Successful strategies in repeated minority games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmura, T.; Pitz, T.

    2006-05-01

    The minority game is an important example of a non-cooperative n-person game, which can be applied on different situations with social and economic contexts. We analysed the minority game as an elementary traffic scenario in which human participants had to choose 100 times between a road A and a road B. In each period, the road, which was chosen by the minority of players won. At first view, there seems to be no outstandingly advisable strategy for the participants to enhance their payoffs because both roads have the same properties. However, an important observation is that the number of road changes of a participant is negatively correlated to his/her cumulative payoff. On average, subjects with high numbers of road changes received less money than participants who stoically chose the same road. Furthermore one could increase the coordination of the players by providing the players distribution on both roads in the last period.

  13. Division III / Service Minor Planet Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahr, Timothy B.; Williams, Gareth V.; Marsden, Brian G.

    The activity of the Minor Planet Center continued generally to increase during the two triennia covered by this report, principally because of the continuing success of the surveys for near-earth objects. Chief among these has been the Lincoln (Laboratory) Near-Earth Asteroid Research Project, or LINEAR, which is credited with the discovery of slightly more than half of all the minor planets that have been numbered, although since 2005 the Catalina Sky Survey and Mount Lemmon Survey in Arizona and the Siding Spring Survey in New South Wales (all three of which, together with the long-lasting Spacewatch Survey, are operated from the University of Arizona) have come to dominate the field. The total number of observations of minor planets in the MPC's files more than doubled from 14.1 million in mid-2002 to 30.9 million in mid-2005, with almost another doubling, to 55.4 million, in mid-2008.

  14. Ethics in age estimation of unaccompanied minors.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Kvaal, S I; Willems, G

    2012-11-30

    Children absconding from countries of conflict and war are often not able to document their age. When an age is given, it is frequently untraceable or poorly documented and therefore questioned by immigration authorities. Consequently many countries perform age estimations on these children. Provision of ethical practice during the age estimation investigation of unaccompanied minors is considered from different angles: (1) The UN convention on children's rights, formulating specific rights, protection, support, healthcare and education for unaccompanied minors. (2) Since most age estimation investigations are based on medical examination, the four basic principles of biomedical ethics, namely autonomy, beneficence, non-malevolence, justice. (3) The use of medicine for non treatment purposes. (4) How age estimates with highest accuracy in age prediction can be obtained. Ethical practice in age estimation of unaccompanied minors is achieved when different but related aspects are searched, evaluated, weighted in importance and subsequently combined. However this is not always feasible and unanswered questions remain.

  15. Some Minorants and Majorants of Random Walks and Levy Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Joshua Simon

    majorant, which is then used to find a complete description of the concave majorant of a walk of infinite length. In the case where subsets of increments may have the same arithmetic mean (the more general case mentioned above), we investigate three nested compositions that naturally arise from our construction of the concave majorant. This chapter is based on [4], which was co-written with Jim Pitman. In Chapter 3, we study the Lipschitz minorant of a Levy process. For alpha > 0, the alpha-Lipschitz minorant of a function f : R→R is the greatest function m : R→R such that m ≤ f and | m(s) - m(t)| ≤ alpha |s - t| for all s, t ∈ R should such a function exist. If X = Xtt∈ R is a real-valued Levy process that is not pure linear drift with slope +/-alpha, then the sample paths of X have an alpha-Lipschitz minorant almost surely if and only if | E [X1]| < alpha. Denoting the minorant by M, we investigate properties of the random closed set Z := {t ∈ R : Mt = {Xt ∧ Xt-}, which, since it is regenerative and stationary, has the distribution of the closed range of some subordinator "made stationary" in a suitable sense. We give conditions for the contact set Z to be countable or to have zero Lebesgue measure, and we obtain formulas that characterize the Levy measure of the associated subordinator. We study the limit of Z as alpha → infinity and find for the so-called abrupt Levy processes introduced by Vigon that this limit is the set of local infima of X. When X is a Brownian motion with drift beta such that |beta| < alpha, we calculate explicitly the densities of various random variables related to the minorant. This chapter is based on [2], which was co-written with Steven N. Evans. Finally, in Chapter 4 we study the structure of the shocks for the inviscid Burgers equation in dimension 1 when the initial velocity is given by Levy noise, or equivalently when the initial potential is a two-sided Levy process This shock structure turns out to give rise to a

  16. The role of personality in predicting drug and alcohol use among sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Nicholas A; Oost, Kathryn M; Heck, Nicholas C; Cochran, Bryan N

    2015-06-01

    Research consistently demonstrates that sexual minority status is associated with increased risk of problematic substance use. Existing literature in this area has focused on group-specific minority stress factors (e.g., victimization and internalized heterosexism). However, no known research has tested the incremental validity of personality traits as predictors of substance use beyond identified group-specific risk factors. A sample of 704 sexual minority adults was recruited nationally from lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning community organizations and social networking Web sites and asked to complete an online survey containing measures of personality, sexual minority stress, and substance use. Hierarchical regression models were constructed to test the incremental predictive validity of five-factor model personality traits over and above known sexual minority risk factors. Consistent with hypotheses, extraversion and conscientiousness were associated with drug and alcohol use after accounting for minority stress factors, and all factors except agreeableness were associated with substance use at the bivariate level of analysis. Future research should seek to better understand the role of normal personality structures and processes conferring risk for substance use among sexual minorities. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. The Role of Personality in Predicting Drug and Alcohol Use Among Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Nicholas A.; Oost, Kathryn M.; Heck, Nicholas C.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Research consistently demonstrates that sexual minority status is associated with increased risk of problematic substance use. Existing literature in this area has focused on group-specific minority stress factors (e.g., victimization and internalized heterosexism). However, no known research has tested the incremental validity of personality traits as predictors of substance use beyond identified group-specific risk factors. Methods A sample of 704 sexual minority adults were recruited nationally from LGBTQQ community organizations and social networking websites and asked to complete an online survey containing measures of personality, sexual minority stress, and substance use. Results Hierarchical regression models were constructed to test the incremental predictive validity of Five-Factor personality traits over and above known sexual minority risk factors. Consistent with hypotheses, extraversion and conscientiousness were associated with drug and alcohol use after accounting for minority stress factors, and all factors except agreeableness were associated with substance use at the bivariate level of analysis. Conclusion Future research should seek to better understand the role of normal personality structures and processes conferring risk for substance use among sexual minorities. PMID:25347022

  18. Disclosure experiences of sexual minority college student victims of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Sylaska, Kateryna M; Edwards, Katie M

    2015-06-01

    Although research on disclosure following intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is burgeoning, sexual minority young adults' (lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, questioning, etc.; LGBQ+) experiences have not received equal attention. The current study employed the minority stress framework to examine disclosure experiences of LGBQ+ college students across the United States reporting physical IPV victimization within their current relationship (n = 77). Participants completed measures assessing minority stress and IPV disclosure, and answered open-ended questions regarding the most and least helpful persons/responses to disclosure or reasons for non-disclosure. Results indicated that approximately one-third (35 %) of victims disclosed to at least one person, with friends being the most common recipients. Thematic analyses indicated that talking or listening to the victim was considered the most helpful response and not understanding the situation least helpful. Reasons for non-disclosure centered on themes of the victims' perception that the IPV was not a big deal. Quantitative findings regarding physical IPV disclosure indicated that non-disclosers experienced greater minority stress than disclosers. The current study suggests the presence of differences between sexual minority (i.e., LGBQ +persons) and non-sexual minority persons, as well as between LGBQ+ young adults/college students and older adults and presents a theoretical structure (i.e., minority stress framework) through which these differences may be understood.

  19. Zero minors of the neutrino mass matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Lashin, E. I.; Chamoun, N.

    2008-10-01

    We examine the possibility that a certain class of neutrino mass matrices, namely, those with two independent vanishing minors in the flavor basis, regardless of being invertible or not, is sufficient to describe current data. We compute generic formulas for the ratios of the neutrino masses and for the Majorana phases. We find that seven textures with two vanishing minors can accommodate the experimental data. We present an estimate of the mass matrix for these patterns. All of the possible textures can be dynamically generated through the seesaw mechanism augmented with a discrete Abelian symmetry.

  20. Energy and minorities, women, and the poor

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, H.L.; Perry, E.B.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date (1975 to 1980) bibliography of articles, books and other publications is presented dealing with the subject of energy and minorities, women and the poor. Included are academic, popular, and government publications as well as publications by private groups and organizations. It is intended for political scientists, sociologists, economists, home economists, energy planners, energy managers and others interested in the interface of minorities, women, and the poor with energy. Following a brief introduction, there is a general listing. Also included are references dealing with energy and black Americans, native Americans (Indians), the poor, and women. (MJJ)

  1. Depressive Symptoms Among Immigrant Latino Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Martinez, Omar; Song, Eun-Young; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Duck, Stacy; Downs, Mario; Bloom, Fred R.; Allen, Alex Boeving; Miller, Cindy; Reboussin, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of depressive symptoms among immigrant Latino sexual minorities. Methods Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, and univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify correlates of depressive symptoms. Results Unweighted and RDS-weighted prevalence estimates of depressive symptoms were 69.2% and 74.8%, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, low social support, sexual compulsivity, and high self-esteem were significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conclusions A need exists for culturally congruent mental health services for immigrant Latino sexual minorities in the southern United States. PMID:23985187

  2. 75 FR 1289 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA or agency) is issuing notice and opportunity for the public to comment on this proposed regulation on minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 amended section 1319A of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992, requiring FHFA, the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, and the Federal Home Loan Banks to promote diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities. The proposed rule will implement this provision.

  3. Depressive symptoms among immigrant Latino sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Martinez, Omar; Song, Eun-Young; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Duck, Stacy; Downs, Mario; Bloom, Fred R; Allen, Alex Boeving; Miller, Cindy; Reboussin, Beth

    2013-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of depressive symptoms among immigrant Latino sexual minorities. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, and univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify correlates of depressive symptoms. Unweighted and RDS-weighted prevalence estimates of depressive symptoms were 69.2% and 74.8%, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, low social support, sexual compulsivity, and high self-esteem were significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms. A need exists for culturally congruent mental health services for immigrant Latino sexual minorities in the southern United States.

  4. Official language minority communities in Canada: is linguistic minority status a determinant of mental health?

    PubMed

    Puchala, Chassidy; Leis, Anne; Lim, Hyun; Tempier, Raymond

    2013-04-05

    Language has been identified as a determinant of mental health. Within Canada, individuals may speak an official language and still belong within the linguistic minority (Francophones outside Quebec and Anglophones within Quebec). The objectives of this study were to compare mental health problems between minority and majority official language communities, and examine the association between official language minority and mental health problems. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 were used to make two comparisons: Francophones to Anglophones within Quebec, and Francophones to Anglophones outside Quebec. Twelve-month and lifetime prevalences of mental disorders (major depressive episode, anxiety disorders, and alcohol/substance abuse/dependence) and mental health indices were compared. Logistic regression analysis examined whether official language minority status was a determinant of mental health. Mental health between minority and majority language groups was similar. Official language minority status was not a significant determinant of mental health. Self-rated mental health indices varied between groups. In some cases, minority language groups reported lower levels of life satisfaction (minority Anglophones versus majority Francophones), while in other cases more majority Anglophones reported poor life satisfaction and mental health (majority Anglophones versus minority Francophones). Overall, few differences were found between language groups, though variations in self-rated mental health indices were observed. In order to better understand the role of context in determining health outcomes, future research should examine mental health problems among official language minority groups provincially to help stakeholders in directing resources and programs to populations in most need.

  5. Teaching minority middle-school students to solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, James; Gates, Billy J., Jr.

    2014-03-01

    We aspired to teach minority middle school students to solder. We found that important variables affecting our ability to do so included: student-to-teacher ratio, venue of instruction, relationships with community partners, and understanding of the structure of the student's worldview. Once the effects of these variables had been understood, we found the students readily learned to solder. We now want to see whether the acquisition of the skill of soldering leads the students to be more interested in technical careers and in going to college. Supported by an APS Outreach Mini-grant.

  6. 41 CFR 109-40.110-2 - Minority business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minority business... Minority business enterprises. Minority business enterprises shall have the maximum practical opportunity... minority enterprises and encourage them to provide services that will support DOE's...

  7. 41 CFR 109-40.110-2 - Minority business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minority business... Minority business enterprises. Minority business enterprises shall have the maximum practical opportunity... minority enterprises and encourage them to provide services that will support DOE's...

  8. 41 CFR 109-40.110-2 - Minority business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minority business... Minority business enterprises. Minority business enterprises shall have the maximum practical opportunity... minority enterprises and encourage them to provide services that will support DOE's...

  9. Validation of the Parenting Stress Index--Short Form with Minority Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Jung; Gopalan, Geetha; Harrington, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There has been little examination of the structural validity of the Parenting Stress Index--Short Form (PSI-SF) for minority populations in clinical contexts in the Unites States. This study aimed to test prespecified factor structures (one-factor, two-factor, and three-factor models) of the PSI-SF. Methods: This study used…

  10. Validation of the Parenting Stress Index--Short Form with Minority Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Jung; Gopalan, Geetha; Harrington, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There has been little examination of the structural validity of the Parenting Stress Index--Short Form (PSI-SF) for minority populations in clinical contexts in the Unites States. This study aimed to test prespecified factor structures (one-factor, two-factor, and three-factor models) of the PSI-SF. Methods: This study used…

  11. Crystalloid architecture of a sialolith in a minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Riesco, J M; Juanes, J A; Díaz-González, M P; Blanco, E J; Riesco-López, J M; Vázquez, R

    1999-11-01

    A sialolith from a minor salivary gland of the mucosa of the upper lip was studied morphologically and analytically. Under stereoscopic microscopic visualisation, no core or any concentric laminar structure was found in the sialolith and it had a transparent glassy appearance. Scanning electron microscopy revealed differences between the internal structure of the sialolith and its external structure. No microbes were observed but some mineralized inclusion bodies were seen. X-ray diffraction indicated the absence of inorganic crystals in the sialolith, while energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis revealed a high content of S followed by Ca, Si and Na and little and scarce P on the fracture surface, with S, Na, Ca and P being distributed throughout the external coating of the sialolith. The results suggest that the sialolith was young and consisted of a crystalloid body with an incipient coating undergoing calcification.

  12. NMR studies of DNA oligomers and their interactions with minor groove binding ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Fagan, Patricia A.

    1996-05-01

    The cationic peptide ligands distamycin and netropsin bind noncovalently to the minor groove of DNA. The binding site, orientation, stoichiometry, and qualitative affinity of distamycin binding to several short DNA oligomers were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The oligomers studied contain A,T-rich or I,C-rich binding sites, where I = 2-desaminodeoxyguanosine. I•C base pairs are functional analogs of A•T base pairs in the minor groove. The different behaviors exhibited by distamycin and netropsin binding to various DNA sequences suggested that these ligands are sensitive probes of DNA structure. For sites of five or more base pairs, distamycin can form 1:1 or 2:1 ligand:DNA complexes. Cooperativity in distamycin binding is low in sites such as AAAAA which has narrow minor grooves, and is higher in sites with wider minor grooves such as ATATAT. The distamycin binding and base pair opening lifetimes of I,C-containing DNA oligomers suggest that the I,C minor groove is structurally different from the A,T minor groove. Molecules which direct chemistry to a specific DNA sequence could be used as antiviral compounds, diagnostic probes, or molecular biology tools. The author studied two ligands in which reactive groups were tethered to a distamycin to increase the sequence specificity of the reactive agent.

  13. The Symbolic Value and Limitations of Racial Concordance in Minority Research Engagement.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Craig S; Passmore, Susan R; Maietta, Raymond C; Petruzzelli, Jeff; Casper, Erica; Brown, Natasha A; Butler, James; Garza, Mary A; Thomas, Stephen B; Quinn, Sandra C

    2016-05-01

    The well-documented underrepresentation of racial and ethnic minorities in research demands action. The field of health disparities research, however, lacks scientific consensus about how best to respectfully recruit underrepresented minority populations in research. We explore the investigators' perspective regarding how their own racial and ethnic background influenced their ability to recruit minorities, including (a) the influence of racial concordance ("race-matching") in research recruitment, (b) attributes and shared values important in the development of trust with minority communities, and (c) the role self-reflection plays in the development of meaningful research relationships. In 2010, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured, telephone interviews with investigators (N= 31) experienced with minority populations. Through the analysis of this coherent narrative, we uncovered both the symbolic and surface-level assumptions regarding minority recruitment to expose a deep structural understanding of race, ethnicity, and social context that is critical for bridging the true social difference between researchers and participants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Macro-Level Approaches to HIV Prevention Among Ethnic Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as structural or policy interventions, have the potential to impact the HIV epidemic at a population level, and thus reduce the HIV health disparities that exist among ethnic minority youth and other segments of the U.S. population. This article calls for a paradigm shift to develop, evaluate, and disseminate interventions that target upstream/macro-level factors or that, at a minimum, integrate both a macro and individual level perspective. The article also discusses the challenges in developing and evaluating such interventions. Psychologists and other behavioral scientists can play a critical role in reducing the impact of HIV on ethnic minority youth by integrating macro-level approaches to future HIV prevention strategies. PMID:23688095

  15. Minority Students' Self-Control of Procrastination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Leon

    1982-01-01

    Examined effects of self-monitoring alone and self-monitoring plus self-reward on three academic and three related procrastinative behaviors of six academically disadvantaged minority college students. Self-monitoring plus self-reward was effective in producing substantial increases in academic behaviors and grades and in producing decreases in…

  16. The SWOT Team Approach: Focusing on Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorski, Susan E.

    1991-01-01

    Underscores the applicability of marketing principles to minority student recruitment and retention at community colleges. Proposes the assessment of an institution's Strengths, Weaknesses, and external Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) to strategically market the college. Considers the development of a plan for action based on the SWOT analysis.…

  17. Improving Underrepresented Minority Student Persistence in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Mica; Burnett, Myra; Campbell, Andrew G.; Campbell, Patricia B.; Denetclaw, Wilfred F.; Gutiérrez, Carlos G.; Hurtado, Sylvia; John, Gilbert H.; Matsui, John; McGee, Richard; Okpodu, Camellia Moses; Robinson, T. Joan; Summers, Michael F.; Werner-Washburne, Maggie; Zavala, MariaElena

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Joint Working Group on Improving Underrepresented Minorities (URMs) Persistence in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)--convened by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute--review current data and propose deliberation about why the academic "pathways"…

  18. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR...

  19. Minor forest products of the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Elmer W. Shaw

    1949-01-01

    The evergreen forests of Washington and Oregon are the source of an interesting variety of so-called "minor products," Many of these forest sidelines are not well known. They are generally underestimated and quite often misunderstood. This is partly because the value and significance of these smaller, incidental products of the forest have long been...

  20. The Educational Isolation of Sexual Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudrey-Camino, Renee

    Sexual minority youth (gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning) function in a society that condones homophobia. Results of a research study conducted by J. Sears (1991) indicated that teachers often expressed that they should be more proactive, supportive, and committed to the welfare of all their students, but the realities of…

  1. Data Collection Report on Language Minority Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Barney

    Data on Maine's population of minority language children consists of three sections. The first contains summative data in tabular or graphic form on: the distribution of monolingual-English and bilingual children, including: children of limited English proficiency (LEP); distribution of languages spoken by school-aged children; current trends in…

  2. A Guide to Minority Aging References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar, Jose B.; Stanford, E. Percil

    The approximately l500 references in this document comprise a comprehensive list of the published and unpublished material on aging minorities in the United States and its territories. The bibliography is divided into six major parts. The first four are ethnic-specific, dealing with American Indian/Alaska Native, Hispanic, Black and Pacific/Asian…

  3. Theory of the evolutionary minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, T. S.; Hui, P. M.; Johnson, N. F.

    2000-09-01

    We present a theory describing a recently introduced model of an evolving, adaptive system in which agents compete to be in the minority. The agents themselves are able to evolve their strategies over time in an attempt to improve their performance. The theory explicitly demonstrates the self-interaction, or market impact, that agents in such systems experience.

  4. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David A.

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)

  5. The Unexpected Minority: Handicapped Children in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliedman, John; Roth, William

    The book takes a civil rights perspective to the problems of handicapped children and adults and points out that no other minority group has its social and political oppression so thoroughly masked as the disabled in America. Part I looks at why American society has traditionally failed to view the handicapped as an oppressed social group. Three…

  6. Language and Cultural Minorities Resource Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Charlotte, Comp.; And Others

    The revised and expanded 1992 version of the catalog lists almost 1,000 print and nonprint materials for use in elementary and secondary schools with linguistic minorities. The catalog contains 20 sections: Afghan; Asian and refugee; bilingual education; Chinese; civil rights; Poland; English as a Second Language (ESL); ESL instructional…

  7. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David A.

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)

  8. Browns in Anger: The Overlooked Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Braud, Jorge

    This speech advocates that Mexican-Americans must undergo a process of radicalization to attempt to transfer anger from deeds to words. This minority is losing faith in speech as a means of redress, but corrective measures should come through dialogue and not collision. Few Mixican Americans designated themselves "browns" a year ago--but it is now…

  9. [Mental health problems in ethnic minority groups].

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Justyna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the specificity of mental health issues as experienced by ethnic minority groups' representatives. A substantial body of evidence clearly indicates the differences in incidence of psychosis, affective disorders and suicidal tendencies in members of minority groups compared to the rest of the population. Relevant statistical data will be presented and examined from both a biological and socio-cultural point of view. Hoffman's Social Deafferentation Hypothesis will be introduced as a possible explanation of high incidence of psychotic disorders in immigrants. Subsequently, socio-cultural factors will receive attention. Acculturation and identity issues will be taken into account with regards to the data suggesting that these are second generation immigrants that suffer from mental health disorders most. The fact of being discriminated against and being exposed to negative social messages regarding one's group of reference will also be taken into consideration. Moreover, ethnic minorities will be compared on this dimension with other groups discriminated against, such as women and sexual minorities.

  10. Minority Contributions to Science, Engineering, and Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funches, Peggy; And Others

    Offering an historical perspective on the development of science, engineering, medicine, and technology and providing current role models for minority students, the bulletin lists the outstanding contributions made by: (1) Blacks - medicine, chemistry, architecture, engineering, physics, biology, and exploration; (2) Hispanos - biomedical…

  11. Partnerships for Minority Student Achievement Program (PMSA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    This packet of materials describes the Partnerships for Minority Achievement (PMSA) Project of the National Science Foundation (NSF). PMSA is a comprehensive precollege program that builds on the NSF strategy of forging alliances and partnerships for systemic reform. The partnerships identify successful models in the public and private sectors to…

  12. Serving Ethnic Minorities. Topical Paper 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcleroad, Fred F.; And Others

    Dedicated to the memory of Raymond E. Schultz, the essays in this monograph discuss the role of the community college in serving minority students. An introductory essay by Fred F. Harcleroad summarizes Schultz's contributions to community college education. John E. Roueche then discusses the provision of equal educational opportunity to…

  13. Indochinese Refugees: An Emerging Ethnic Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Kenneth A.; Hendricks, Glenn L.

    This paper examines the extent to which educational and other institutions of the dominant society are shaping the ethnic self-identity of Indochinese refugees. It is argued that an institutionally-defined ethnic self-identity is being imposed on the Indochinese as a precondition for consideration as a minority group in United States society.…

  14. The Unexpected Minority: Handicapped Children in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliedman, John; Roth, William

    The book takes a civil rights perspective to the problems of handicapped children and adults and points out that no other minority group has its social and political oppression so thoroughly masked as the disabled in America. Part I looks at why American society has traditionally failed to view the handicapped as an oppressed social group. Three…

  15. Religious Minorities and the Pressures of Americanization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Eric Michael

    2001-01-01

    Provides historical information on religious freedom within the United States and the meaning of constitutional order. Discusses how different religious minority groups, such as the Jehovah's Witnesses, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latterday Saints, and the Native Americans, used strategies of balance to abide by the constitutional order. (CMK)

  16. Building the Minority Faculty Development Pipeline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Paul E.; Ganey, James H.; Brown, Marc D.

    2003-01-01

    Describes efforts toward minority faculty development in dentistry, including those of Harlem Hospital-Columbia University School of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, the National Dental Association Foundation, and Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center. Explains that critical elements in the success of these programs are environment, selection criteria,…

  17. [Diagnostics and initial estimation of refugee minors].

    PubMed

    Sukale, T; Hertel, C; Möhler, E; Joas, J; Müller, M; Banaschewski, T; Schepker, R; Kölch, M G; Fegert, J M; Plener, P L

    2017-01-01

    The number of underage refugees arriving in Germany has rapidly increased since 2015. Many of these children and adolescents have been and still are, exposed to a large number of stressful circumstances. The group of those helping refugee minors is heterogeneous with both volunteers and professional workers from the fields of child welfare and healthcare services. Easily applicable instruments to assess both burdens and resources are needed in order to plan appropriate interventions. This paper focuses on instruments for assessing the circumstances of refugee minors and includes pilot data of an online-based screening instrument to assess burdens and resources (providing online resource and trauma assessment for refugees, PORTA). Field application was tested by the staff of a clearing and preclearing institution with 33 cases and good practical feasibility was reported. Applying a simple to use screening instrument for refugee minors and their helpers, which is available in several languages creates the possibility of a shared definition of problems and solutions and is beneficial to helpers (e.g. volunteers, youth welfare services and medical doctors) as well as refugee minors.

  18. Ethnic Bilingual Education for Canada's Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, James Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Historical forces and factors affecting the development of Canada's bilingual programs for ethnic minorities include changing immigration policies, a decline in Anglo-conformism and growth in multiculturalism, fears about native language maintenance and second language learning, and language and cultural attitudes in second language learning. (MSE)

  19. Change Agent Research for Windsor Minor Hockey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Duthie, James

    This study was based on an earlier 1972-73 study (see SP 009 113) which led to organizational restructuring of Windsor minor hockey (WMH). It was felt that further studies comparing attitudes and beliefs with behavior would be beneficial. Of particular interest were: (a) whether or not attitudes and beliefs changed due to adjusted organization and…

  20. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR...

  1. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR...

  2. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR...

  3. 29 CFR 780.320 - Nonlocal minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6) Statutory... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nonlocal minors. 780.320 Section 780.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR...

  4. Mentoring Women and Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordova, Fred; And Others

    Some relevant issues concerning the mentoring of women and minorities in the realm of higher education are addressed, primarily focusing on the differences and problems that exist in assisting these two groups of professionals in achieving their career goals. The importance of mentoring and methods that can be used by a mentor in assisting the…

  5. Minorities and Mentoring: A Closer Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jerusalem T.

    An ethnographic pilot study explored mentor/protege relationships within the corporate setting of a consumer pharmaceutical firm to determine how minorities were affected. An unstructured interview format was used with 17 individuals in 4 groups: white and Afro-American, male and female. Interviews focused around the history and advantages of…

  6. Library Censorship and the Permissive Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Howard D.

    1981-01-01

    A nationwide survey of 2,486 American adults, conducted for the Commission on Obscenity and Pornography in 1970, is reanalyzed to permit new comparisons of the large majority who favored library censorship of erotica with the minority who opposed it. Sixteen references are cited. (Author/FM)

  7. Religious Minorities and the Pressures of Americanization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Eric Michael

    2001-01-01

    Provides historical information on religious freedom within the United States and the meaning of constitutional order. Discusses how different religious minority groups, such as the Jehovah's Witnesses, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latterday Saints, and the Native Americans, used strategies of balance to abide by the constitutional order. (CMK)

  8. The Deaf Child as a Linguistic Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charrow, Veda R.; Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    The author offers support for viewing the deaf child as a member of a linguistic minority and considers how this situation affects education of the deaf. Deaf persons are discussed in terms of their intellectual abilities, educational achievement, English competence, and the sociolinguistic factors which point to the existence of a deaf community.…

  9. Minority Enrollments Rose in 1995, Study Finds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Ben

    1997-01-01

    College student enrollment from the four largest minority groups (American Indians, Asians, Blacks, Hispanics) rose by 2.9% in 1995, accounting for one-quarter of all students. White student enrollments accounted for an overall enrollment decline of 1%, although the proportion of whites aged 18-24 in college reached an all-time high, 43%. Blacks…

  10. Orbital elements of numbered minor planets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. V.; Marsden, B. G.; Asher, D. J.; Nakano, S.

    2000-06-01

    This list is a continuation of Abstr. 098.023. The numbered minor planets are listed according to their definitive number. Newly numbered objects are indicated by an asterisk. The names of the orbit computers are given behind the respective M.P.C. (or MPO) numbers:

  11. Building the Minority Faculty Development Pipeline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Paul E.; Ganey, James H.; Brown, Marc D.

    2003-01-01

    Describes efforts toward minority faculty development in dentistry, including those of Harlem Hospital-Columbia University School of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, the National Dental Association Foundation, and Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center. Explains that critical elements in the success of these programs are environment, selection criteria,…

  12. Consent requirements for treatment of minors.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H A

    1989-08-01

    The American Academy of Family Physicians, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Nurses Association of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the National Medical Association recently released guidelines aimed at protecting the privacy of adolescent patients. The organizations stated that, in many cases, young people will not confide in health professionals if the young people feel that these discussions will be reported to their parents. Ultimately, the organizations said, health risks to adolescents are so impelling that legal barriers and deference to parental involvement should not stand in the way of needed health care. In Texas there is a statute regarding consent for medical treatment of minors, which responds to the above organizations' concerns about confidentially treating children for substance abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, and suicide prevention. However, the statute is silent in regard to medical treatment involving prescription contraceptives. By negative inference, the statute would preclude a minor on her own from making a decision about abortion. This article examines Texas statutes dealing with consent for medical treatment for minors and discusses US Supreme Court decisions on a minor's rights to abortions and contraceptives.

  13. English as a Minority Language in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boberg, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The variety of English spoken by about half a million people in the Canadian province of Quebec is a minority language in intensive contact with French, the local majority language. This unusual contact situation has produced a unique variety of English which displays many instances of French influence that distinguish it from other types of…

  14. Dropping Out among Language Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The following variables concerning school-leaving among language minority youth are discussed: background factors, academic achievement, school characteristics, school performance, and school experiences. A combination of socioeconomic disadvantage and early academic failure appear to contribute to the higher dropout rate of language minority…

  15. 14 CFR 1214.106 - Minor delays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minor delays. 1214.106 Section 1214.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government, Reimbursable Customers § 1214.106...

  16. 14 CFR 1214.106 - Minor delays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Minor delays. 1214.106 Section 1214.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government, Reimbursable Customers § 1214.106...

  17. 14 CFR 1214.106 - Minor delays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minor delays. 1214.106 Section 1214.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government, Reimbursable Customers § 1214.106...

  18. 14 CFR 1214.106 - Minor delays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor delays. 1214.106 Section 1214.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government, Reimbursable Customers § 1214.106...

  19. 75 FR 81395 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD 12 CFR Part 906 FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1207 RIN 2590-AA28 Minority and Women... characteristics like gender and race are misguided and counterproductive. Another private citizen commented...

  20. Language and Cultural Minorities Resource Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Educational and Cultural Services, Augusta.

    The revised edition of the resource catalog lists nearly 1,000 print and non-print materials for use in Maine schools where close to 7,000 children of linguistic minorities are enrolled. There are 19 sections on these groups or topics: Afghan, Asian and refugee, bilingual education, Chinese, civil rights, Eastern Europe, English as a Second…