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Sample records for minoxidil

  1. Minoxidil Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... whose hair loss is recent. Minoxidil has no effect on receding hairlines. It does not cure baldness; ... faster hair growth and may cause increased side effects. You must use minoxidil for at least 4 ...

  2. Intestinal permeability study of minoxidil: assessment of minoxidil as a high permeability reference drug for biopharmaceutics classification.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Makoto; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Zur, Moran; Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-01-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate minoxidil as a high permeability reference drug for Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). The permeability of minoxidil was determined in in situ intestinal perfusion studies in rodents and permeability studies across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeability of minoxidil was compared with that of metoprolol, an FDA reference drug for BCS classification. In rat perfusion studies, the permeability of minoxidil was somewhat higher than that of metoprolol in the jejunum, while minoxidil showed lower permeability than metoprolol in the ileum. The permeability of minoxidil was independent of intestinal segment, while the permeability of metoprolol was region-dependent. Similarly, in mouse perfusion study, the jejunal permeability of minoxidil was 2.5-fold higher than that of metoprolol. Minoxidil and metoprolol showed similar permeability in Caco-2 study at apical pH of 6.5 and basolateral pH of 7.4. The permeability of minoxidil was independent of pH, while metoprolol showed pH-dependent transport in Caco-2 study. Minoxidil exhibited similar permeability in the absorptive direction (AP-BL) in comparison with secretory direction (BL-AP), while metoprolol had higher efflux ratio (ER > 2) at apical pH of 6.5 and basolateral pH of 7.4. No concentration-dependent transport was observed for either minoxidil or metoprolol transport in Caco-2 study. Verapamil did not alter the transport of either compounds across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeability of minoxidil was independent of both pH and intestinal segment in intestinal perfusion studies and Caco-2 studies. Caco-2 studies also showed no involvement of carrier mediated transport in the absorption process of minoxidil. These results suggest that minoxidil may be an acceptable reference drug for BCS high permeability classification. However, minoxidil exhibited higher jejunal permeability than metoprolol and thus to use minoxidil as a reference drug would raise the

  3. Minoxidil may suppress androgen receptor-related functions.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Lin, An-Chi; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chung, Wen-Hung; Wu, Wen-Guey

    2014-04-30

    Although minoxidil has been used for more than two decades to treat androgenetic alopecia (AGA), an androgen-androgen receptor (AR) pathway-dominant disease, its precise mechanism of action remains elusive. We hypothesized that minoxidil may influence the AR or its downstream signaling. These tests revealed that minoxidil suppressed AR-related functions, decreasing AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays, reducing expression of AR targets at the protein level, and suppressing AR-positive LNCaP cell growth. Dissecting the underlying mechanisms, we found that minoxidil interfered with AR-peptide, AR-coregulator, and AR N/C-terminal interactions, as well as AR protein stability. Furthermore, a crystallographic analysis using the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) revealed direct binding of minoxidil to the AR in a minoxidil-AR-LBD co-crystal model, and surface plasmon resonance assays demonstrated that minoxidil directly bound the AR with a K(d) value of 2.6 µM. Minoxidil also suppressed AR-responsive reporter activity and decreased AR protein stability in human hair dermal papilla cells. The current findings provide evidence that minoxidil could be used to treat both cancer and age-related disease, and open a new avenue for applications of minoxidil in treating androgen-AR pathway-related diseases.

  4. Minoxidil may suppress androgen receptor-related functions

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Lin, An-Chi; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chung, Wen-Hung; Wu, Wen-Guey

    2014-01-01

    Although minoxidil has been used for more than two decades to treat androgenetic alopecia (AGA), an androgen-androgen receptor (AR) pathway-dominant disease, its precise mechanism of action remains elusive. We hypothesized that minoxidil may influence the AR or its downstream signaling. These tests revealed that minoxidil suppressed AR-related functions, decreasing AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays, reducing expression of AR targets at the protein level, and suppressing AR-positive LNCaP cell growth. Dissecting the underlying mechanisms, we found that minoxidil interfered with AR-peptide, AR-coregulator, and AR N/C-terminal interactions, as well as AR protein stability. Furthermore, a crystallographic analysis using the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) revealed direct binding of minoxidil to the AR in a minoxidil-AR-LBD co-crystal model, and surface plasmon resonance assays demonstrated that minoxidil directly bound the AR with a Kd value of 2.6 μM. Minoxidil also suppressed AR-responsive reporter activity and decreased AR protein stability in human hair dermal papilla cells. The current findings provide evidence that minoxidil could be used to treat both cancer and age-related disease, and open a new avenue for applications of minoxidil in treating androgen-AR pathway-related diseases. PMID:24742982

  5. Minoxidil dose response study in female pattern hair loss patients determined to be non-responders to 5% topical minoxidil.

    PubMed

    McCoy, J; Goren, A; Kovacevic, M; Shapiro, J

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only US FDA approved drug for the treatment of female pattern hair loss (FPHL). 5% minoxidil foam is only effective at re-growing hair in a minority of women (approximately 40%). Thus, the majority of FPHL patients remain untreated. Previously, we demonstrated that nonresponders to 5% minoxidil have low metabolism of minoxidil in hair follicles. As such, we hypothesized that increasing the dosage of topical minoxidil to low metabolizers would increase the number of responders without increasing the incidence of adverse events. In this study, we recruited FPHL subjects that were identified as non-responders to 5% topical minoxidil utilizing the previously validated assay for minoxidil response. Subjects were treated for 12 weeks with a novel 15% topical minoxidil solution. At 12 weeks, 60% of subjects achieved a clinically significant response based on target area hair counts (>13.7% from baseline), as well as significant improvement in global photographic assessment. None of the subjects experienced significant hemodynamic changes or any other adverse events. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the potentially beneficial effect of a higher dosage of minoxidil in FPHL subjects who fail to respond to 5% minoxidil.

  6. Sulfation of minoxidil by multiple human cytosolic sulfotransferases.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R J; Kudlacek, P E; Clemens, D L

    1998-02-20

    Minoxidil is an antihypertensive agent and hair growth promoter that is metabolized by sulfation to the active compound, minoxidil sulfate. Thermostable phenol sulfotransferase (TS PST or P-PST) was initially thought to catalyze the reaction, and the enzyme was designated minoxidil sulfotransferase (MNX-ST). Information about human ST activities toward minoxidil would be useful in developing the capacity to predict individual responses to minoxidil based on tissue levels of STs. Therefore, human STs were studied from platelet homogenates, partially purified platelets, scalp skin high speed supernatants and COS-1 cell cDNA expressed preparations using a radiochemical enzymatic assay with minoxidil as the substrate. Studies showed the presence of TS PST, TL (thermolabile) PST and MNX-ST activities in human scalp skin. Biochemical properties and correlation studies suggested that in addition to TS PST, the TL PST activity, another ST activity or both were involved in the reaction. Partially purified human platelet TL PST tested with minoxidil and dopamine showed identical thermal stabilities and similar responses to the inhibitors 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol (DCNP) and NaCl. To characterize the activity of TL PST toward minoxidil, several biochemical properties of the enzyme expressed from a human liver cDNA clone were investigated. When assayed with minoxidil and dopamine, thermal stabilities of the expressed enzyme were identical and IC50 values for the inhibitors DCNP and NaCl were similar. It was also demonstrated that cDNA encoded human liver dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase and estrogen sulfotransferase contributed to the sulfation of minoxidil. The results confirm that at least four human STs contribute to minoxidil sulfation. MNX-ST activity represents a combination of ST activities. The data indicate that multiple ST activities should be taken into account in attempts to predict the regulation of minoxidil sulfation and individual responses to minoxidil.

  7. 5% Minoxidil: treatment for female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Foley, Kelly A

    2014-01-01

    Minoxidil is a Health Canada and US FDA-approved medication for hair loss in men and women. While 5% minoxidil foam has been approved for men since 2006, Health Canada and the FDA only approved 5% minoxidil foam for female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in 2014. Recent Phase III clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy of once daily 5% minoxidil foam for treatment of FPHL, where a significant change from baseline in the target area hair count was observed compared to placebo. Similar changes in hair count for 5% foam and twice daily 2% minoxidil solution established noninferiority of the 5% foam formulation. Five percent minoxidil foam provides an additional option for women with FPHL and will soon be available in Canada.

  8. Topical minoxidil: cardiac effects in bald man.

    PubMed Central

    Leenen, F H; Smith, D L; Unger, W P

    1988-01-01

    Systemic cardiovascular effects during chronic treatment with topical minoxidil vs placebo were evaluated using a double-blind, randomized design for two parallel groups (n = 20 for minoxidil, n = 15 for placebo). During 6 months of follow-up, blood pressure did not change, whereas minoxidil increased heart rate by 3-5 beats min-1. Compared with placebo, topical minoxidil caused significant increases in LV end-diastolic volume, in cardiac output (by 0.751 min-1) and in LV mass (by 5 g m-2). We conclude that in healthy subjects short-term use of topical minoxidil is likely not to be detrimental. However, safety needs to be established regarding ischaemic symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease as well as for the possible development of LV hypertrophy in healthy subjects during years of therapy. PMID:3191000

  9. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de

    2016-01-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children.

  10. Pleuropericardial effusion associated with minoxidil administration

    PubMed Central

    Webb, D. B.; Whale, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A patient on minoxidil developed pericardial and pleural effusions with a high protein content. This finding is not compatible with the view that such effusions in patients taking minoxidil are transudates. PMID:7111124

  11. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil*

    PubMed Central

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira

    2016-01-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children. PMID:26982785

  12. Minoxidil: an underused vasodilator for resistant or severe hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sica, Domenic A

    2004-05-01

    Minoxidil is a direct vasodilator introduced in the early 1970s for the treatment of hypertension. It is capable of reducing blood pressure in most persons with resistant hypertension where therapy has failed with multidrug regimens. Minoxidil's effect can be limited because of an increase in pulse rate and/or sodium (and water) retention. The latter may prove quite debilitating in some patients. Thus, minoxidil is generally administered with both a diuretic and an agent that can keep pulse rate in check, such as a beta blocker or a combined alpha-beta blocker. The prominent tachycardia with minoxidil can aggravate myocardial ischemia and, if long-standing, leads to left ventricular hypertrophy. Minoxidil has a particularly annoying side effect of hypertrichosis that may limit its use, particularly among women. Minoxidil use is infrequently associated with the idiosyncratic onset of a pericardial effusion. If a patient's hypertension is severe enough to warrant minoxidil therapy, a hypertension specialist should probably become involved in the patient's care. The use of this medication should be limited in view of the availability of effective agents with fewer side effects. There is, however, a place for minoxidil in the treatment of resistant hypertension especially in patients with advanced renal disease.

  13. Minoxidil opens mitochondrial KATP channels and confers cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Toshiaki; Li, Yulong; Saito, Tomoaki; Nakaya, Haruaki

    2003-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the mitochondrial inner membrane (mitoKATP channel) rather than in the sarcolemma (sarcKATP channel) appears to play an important role in cardioprotection. We examined the effect of minoxidil, a potent antihypertensive agent and hair growth stimulator, on sarcKATP and mitoKATP channels in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. Minoxidil activated a glybenclamide-sensitive sarcKATP channel current in the whole-cell recording mode with an EC50 of 182.6 μM. Minoxidil reversibly increased the flavoprotein oxidation, an index of mitoKATP channel activity, in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC50 for mitoKATP channel activation was estimated to be 7.3 μM; this value was notably ≈25-fold lower than that for sarcKATP channel activation. Minoxidil (10 μM) significantly attenuated the ouabain-induced increase of mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration, which was measured by loading cells with rhod-2 fluorescence. Furthermore, pretreatment with minoxidil (10 μM) before 20-min no-flow ischaemia significantly improved the recovery of developed tension measured after 60 min of reperfusion in coronary perfused guinea-pig ventricular muscles. These cardioprotective effects of minoxidil were completely abolished by the mitoKATP channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (500 μM). Our results indicate that minoxidil exerts a direct cardioprotective effect on heart muscle cells, an effect mediated by the selective activation of mitoKATP channels. PMID:14691056

  14. Fatal toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Karaoui, Lamis R; Chahine-Chakhtoura, Corinne

    2009-04-01

    Minoxidil is a direct-acting peripheral vasodilator for the treatment of symptomatic hypertension, or refractory hypertension associated with target organ damage, that is not manageable with a diuretic and two other antihypertensive drugs. The most frequent adverse events associated with minoxidil include hypertrichosis and cardiovascular events related to its powerful antihypertensive effect, and less frequently, rashes, bullous eruptions, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Evidence suggests that SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are variants of a single disease with common causes and mechanisms, but differing severities. Epidermal detachment is mild in SJS, moderate in overlap SJS-TEN, and severe (> 30% of body surface area) in TEN. We describe a case of minoxidil-associated SJS that evolved into fatal TEN. A 69-year-old African-American woman with a history of chronic kidney disease was admitted to the hospital for a cerebrovascular accident and uncontrolled hypertension. On hospital day 12, oral minoxidil was added to her drug regimen. On day 23, she developed a maculopapular rash on her face that gradually diffused to her chest and back. Vesicles and papular lesions extended to her extremities and mucosal membranes; results of a skin biopsy revealed SJS. A positive Nikolsky's sign (blisters spread on application of pressure) was detected. On days 27-31, diffuse bullae developed with rash exacerbation. Skin detachment exceeded 30% and was consistent with TEN. The patient died on day 39. An evaluation of the causality and time course suggested that minoxidil was the most likely culpable drug, with a Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score indicating that the likelihood of the association was possible (score of 3). The mechanism of this reaction has not been well elucidated. It may be related to an impaired clearance of the minoxidil metabolite, or an immune stimulation resulting in apoptosis and epidermis destruction. To our knowledge, this

  15. Minoxidil Induction of VEGF Is Mediated by Inhibition of HIF-Prolyl Hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Soohwan; Jeong, Seongkeun; Kim, Dohoon; Lee, Sunyoung; Kim, Wooseong; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Kwon, Oh Sang; Kim, Dae-Duk; Min, Do Sik; Jung, Yunjin

    2017-01-01

    The topical application of minoxidil may achieve millimolar concentrations in the skin. We investigated whether millimolar minoxidil could induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a possible effector for minoxidil-mediated hair growth, and how it occurred at the molecular level. Cell-based experiments were performed to investigate a molecular mechanism underlying the millimolar minoxidil induction of VEGF. The inhibitory effect of minoxidil on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD-2) was tested by an in vitro von Hippel–Lindau protein (VHL) binding assay. To examine the angiogenic potential of millimolar minoxidil, a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay was used. In human keratinocytes and dermal papilla cells, millimolar minoxidil increased the secretion of VEGF, which was not attenuated by a specific adenosine receptor antagonist that inhibits the micromolar minoxidil induction of VEGF. Millimolar minoxidil induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and the induction of VEGF was dependent on HIF-1. Moreover, minoxidil applied to the dorsal area of mice increased HIF-1α and VEGF in the skin. In an in vitro VHL binding assay, minoxidil directly inhibited PHD-2, thus preventing the hydroxylation of cellular HIF-1α and VHL-dependent proteasome degradation and resulting in the stabilization of HIF-1α protein. Minoxidil inhibition of PHD-2 was reversed by ascorbate, a cofactor of PHD-2, and the minoxidil induction of cellular HIF-1α was abrogated by the cofactor. Millimolar minoxidil promoted angiogenesis in the CAM assay, an in vivo angiogenic test, and this was nullified by the specific inhibition of VEGF. Our data demonstrate that PHD may be the molecular target for millimolar minoxidil-mediated VEGF induction via HIF-1. PMID:29295567

  16. Large pericardial effusion induced by minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Çilingiroğlu, Mehmet; Akkuş, Nuri; Sethi, Salil; Modi, Kalgi A

    2012-04-01

    A 53-year-old male admitted with increased shortness of breath. In the physical examination, he had dyspnea, tachycardia and tachypnea. An echocardiogram showed large pericardial effusion (PE) as well as significant pulmonary hypertension. He had been started recently on minoxidil for blood pressure control. PE was reported to occur with minoxidil treatment both in patients undergoing dialysis and those with normal renal function. Pulmonary hypertension has been reported to affect the cardiac tamponade physiology. Because of significant pulmonary hypertension in our patient, a right heart catheterization was also done, which prevented cardiac tamponade. He was treated conservatively without any intervention, and PE resolved spontaneously after discontinuation of minoxidil.

  17. Evidence for alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist activity of minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N; Mehta, A A; Santani, D D; Goyal, R K

    1997-09-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the mechanism of action of minoxidil using various smooth muscle preparations. Minoxidil (4.7 x 10(-6) M to 4.7 x 10(-4) M) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of field stimulation-evoked responses in rat anococcygeus muscle and vas deferens. The inhibition produced by minoxidil was antagonized by yohimbine (2.5 x 10(-7) M). Minoxidil (1.4 x 10(-5) M to 4.7 x 10(-4) M) also produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in oestrogen-primed potassium chloride-depolarized rat uterus. These responses were blocked not only by yohimbine but also by glibenclamide (2.02 x 10(-8) M). Our results suggest that minoxidil possesses alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist activity in addition to potassium-channel-opening activity.

  18. Minoxidil, hypercoagulability and thromboembolic disease of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Keohane, S. G.; Edmunds, M.; Holton, J.; Swales, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    Minoxidil is a potent antihypertensive agent used in the treatment of resistant hypertension. A case is presented which illustrates a probably fatal interaction between minoxidil and a coagulation disorder. PMID:8733532

  19. Preparation and in vivo evaluation of lecithin-based microparticles for topical delivery of minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jung; Oh, Dong-Won; Na, Min-Ju; Kim, Dong-Wook; Yuk, Dong-Yeon; Choi, Hyoung-Chul; Lee, Yong-Beom; Han, Kun; Park, Chun-Woong

    2017-08-01

    Minoxidil is widely used for treatment of androgenic alopecia. Commercial products containing minoxidil are usually in solution form. Repeated applications of minoxidil solution can lead to adverse effects such as skin irritation and horniness. The aims of this study were to prepare lecithin-based microparticle in minoxidil solution for enhancement of minoxidil topical delivery and skin protection and evaluate the ability of lecithin on in vitro delivery, in vivo hair growth, and skin trouble improvement compared to commercial minoxidil solution. In in vitro skin permeation study, minoxidil solution containing lecithin microparticle showed higher skin penetration rate and higher retention of drug inside the skin compared to minoxidil solution without lecithin. After topical application of minoxidil solutions with or without lecithin to C57BL/6 mice, minoxidil 5% solution containing lecithin microparticle showed hair re-growth as efficient as commercial product of minoxidil 5% solution. It also significantly improved skin troubles while commercial product presented horny substance and crust formation. Therefore, the lecithin-based microparticle in minoxidil 5% solution has good ability to promote hair growth without adverse effects.

  20. Minoxidil opens mitochondrial K(ATP) channels and confers cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Sato, Toshiaki; Li, Yulong; Saito, Tomoaki; Nakaya, Haruaki

    2004-01-01

    1. ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the mitochondrial inner membrane (mitoK(ATP) channel) rather than in the sarcolemma (sarcK(ATP) channel) appears to play an important role in cardioprotection. We examined the effect of minoxidil, a potent antihypertensive agent and hair growth stimulator, on sarcK(ATP) and mitoK(ATP) channels in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. 2. Minoxidil activated a glybenclamide-sensitive sarcK(ATP) channel current in the whole-cell recording mode with an EC(50) of 182.6 microm. Minoxidil reversibly increased the flavoprotein oxidation, an index of mitoK(ATP) channel activity, in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC(50) for mitoK(ATP) channel activation was estimated to be 7.3 microm; this value was notably approximately 25-fold lower than that for sarcK(ATP) channel activation. 3. Minoxidil (10 microm) significantly attenuated the ouabain-induced increase of mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration, which was measured by loading cells with rhod-2 fluorescence. Furthermore, pretreatment with minoxidil (10 microm) before 20-min no-flow ischaemia significantly improved the recovery of developed tension measured after 60 min of reperfusion in coronary perfused guinea-pig ventricular muscles. These cardioprotective effects of minoxidil were completely abolished by the mitoK(ATP) channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (500 microm). 4. Our results indicate that minoxidil exerts a direct cardioprotective effect on heart muscle cells, an effect mediated by the selective activation of mitoK(ATP) channels.

  1. Minoxidil attenuates ischemia-induced apoptosis in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Takatani, Tomoka; Takahashi, Kyoko; Jin, Chengshi; Matsuda, Takahisa; Cheng, Xinyao; Ito, Takashi; Azuma, Junichi

    2004-06-01

    The effects of minoxidil (a mitochondrial K+(ATP) channel opener) on ischemia-induced necrosis and apoptosis were examined using a cardiomyocyte model of simulated ischemia, since mitochondrial K+(ATP) channel openers have been suggested to be involved in the mechanisms of cardioprotective action against ischemia/reperfusion injury. In the absence of minoxidil, simulated ischemia led to cellular release of creatine phosphokinase (CPK), morphologic degeneration, and beating cessation within 24 to 72 hours. Based on the Hoechst 33258 staining pattern, a significant number of cells placed in sealed flasks underwent apoptosis. Myocytes treated with 5 microM of minoxidil failed to alter the degree of ischemia-induced CPK loss for 48 to 72 hours. However, minoxidil treatment prevented the loss of beating function in many of the ischemic cells, and attenuated the decline in intracellular ATP content after a 48-hour ischemic incubation. The number of nuclear fragmentation was significantly reduced in minoxidil-treated cells after a 72-hour ischemic insult compared with untreated ischemic cells. This effect was blocked by the mitochondrial K+(ATP) channel antagonist 5-HD. The data suggest that minoxidil renders the cell resistant to ischemia-induced necrosis and apoptosis. The beneficial effects of minoxidil appear to be related to the opening of mitochondrial K+(ATP) channels.

  2. Pediatric Minoxidil Exposures Reported to Texas Poison Centers.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2018-06-01

    It has been suggested that ingestion of even small amounts of minoxidil by young children may result in serious adverse effects. The intent of this study was to describe pediatric minoxidil exposures reported to a statewide poison center system. Cases were minoxidil exposures among patients 5 years or younger reported to Texas poison centers during 2000 to 2014. The distribution by various demographic and clinical factors was determined. Of 125 total cases, 58% were male and 78% aged 1 to 2 years. Ingestion alone was reported in 92% of the exposures. Ninety-eight percent of the exposures were unintentional, and 94% occurred at the patient's own residence. Sixty-two percent of the patients were managed on site. The outcome was not serious (no effect, minor effect, not followed [nontoxic], not followed [minimal effects]) in 88% of the exposures. The most common adverse effect was vomiting, reported in 8% of the exposures. The most common treatments were dilution/irrigation/wash (53%), activated charcoal (18%), food/snack (17%), and intravenous fluids (8%). Few pediatric minoxidil exposures were reported to Texas poison centers. Of these exposures, most involved ingestion, were unintentional, and involved patients who were male and aged 1 to 2 years. Although it has been suggested that pediatric minoxidil ingestions might result in serious adverse effects, this study suggests that most pediatric minoxidil exposures reported to poison centers are not likely to have serious outcomes and may be managed at home.

  3. Aromatic C-nitrosation of a bioactive molecule. Nitrosation of minoxidil.

    PubMed

    González-Jiménez, Mario; Arenas-Valgañón, Jorge; Calle, Emilio; Casado, Julio

    2011-10-26

    Minoxidil (2,4-diamino-6-(piperidin-1'-yl)pyrimidine N(3)-oxide; CASRN 38304-91-5) is a bioactive molecule with several nitrosatable groups widely used as an antihypertensive and antialopecia agent. Here the nitrosation of minoxidil was investigated. The conclusions drawn are as follows: (i) In the pH = 2.3-5.0 range, the minoxidil molecule undergoes aromatic C-nitrosation by nitrite. The dominant reaction was C-5 nitrosation through a mechanism that appears to consist of an electrophilic attack on the nitrosatable substrate by H(2)NO(2)(+)/NO(+), followed by a slow proton transfer; (ii) the reactivity of minoxidil as a C-nitrosatable substrate proved to be 7-fold greater than that of phenol, this being attributed to the preferred para- and ortho-orientations of the two -NH(2) groups at positions 2 and 4 of the minoxidil molecule, which activate electrophilic substitution in the C-5 position through their mesomeric effect. The N-nitrosominoxidil resulting from the nitrosation could be potentially harmful to the minoxidil users.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of a multimodal minoxidil microemulsion versus minoxidil alone in the treatment of androgenic alopecia of mixed etiology: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Farouk M; Gado, Ali Mi; Mohammed, Haseebur R; Adam, Abdel Nasser Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The variable success of topical minoxidil in the treatment of androgenic alopecia has led to the hypothesis that other pathways could mediate this form of hair loss, including infection and/or microinflammation of the hair follicles. In this study, we prepared a multimodal microemulsion comprising minoxidil (a dihydrotestosterone antagonist), diclofenac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent), and tea tree oil (an anti-infective agent). We investigated the stability and physicochemical properties of this formulation, and its therapeutic efficacy compared with a formulation containing minoxidil alone in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. We developed a multimodal oil/water (o/w) microemulsion, a formulation containing minoxidil alone, and another containing vehicle. A three-phase diagram was constructed to obtain the optimal concentrations of the selected oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant. Thirty-two men aged 18-30 years were randomized to apply 1 mL of microemulsion containing the multimodal formulation (formulation A, n = 11), minoxidil alone (formulation B, n = 11) or placebo (formulation C, n = 10) twice daily to the affected area for 32 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated by mean hair count, thickness, and weight on the targeted area of the scalp. Global photographs were taken, changes in the area of scalp coverage were assessed by patients and external investigators, and the benefits and safety of the study medications were evaluated. The physical stability of formula A was examined after a shelf storage period of 24 months. Formulation A achieved a significantly superior response than formulations B and C in terms of mean hair count (P < 0.001), mean hair weight (P < 0.001), and mean hair thickness (P < 0.05). A patient self-assessment questionnaire demonstrated that the multimodal minoxidil formulation significantly (P < 0.001) slowed hair loss, increased hair growth, and improved appearance, and showed no appreciable side effects, such as itching and

  5. Effects of Minoxidil Gel on Burn Wound Healing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khazaeli, Payam; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Rohani, Shohreh; Sadeghirad, Behnam; Ghalekhani, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Minoxidil has been reported to inhibit in-vitro fibroblast proliferation and lysyl hydroxylase activity, a key enzyme in collagen biosynthesis. These in-vitro effects proposed minoxidil to be a potential antifibrotic agent. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of minoxidil gel on wound healing procedure in a second-degree burn model in rats. Wistar rats were anesthetized and a second-degree burn was induced on the back of Wistar rats using a heated 2 cm diameter metal plate. Experimental groups received 2% or 5% topical minoxidil gel, dexpanthenol or sliver sulfadiazine. Histological parameters including collagen content, angiogenesis, number of preserved follicles and necrosis along with tensile strength of burn wound area were assessed on days 3, 7, 14 and 21 post-injury.Microscopic evaluation of specimens collected from sample animals were consistent and showed a second-degree burn. Main histological findings regarding minoxidil topical usage showed that collagen content and tensile strength of burned area did not differ between groups. However, minoxidil increased the number and diameter of blood vessels significantly compared with other groups.Although minoxidil improved the process of wound-healing, our results did not support the proposed idea of its usage as an antifibrotic agent. However, to reject its possible effects as an antifibrotic agent, more objective animal models should be developed and studied. PMID:24734077

  6. Minoxidil-associated anorexia in an infant with refractory hypertension.

    PubMed

    Vesoulis, Zachary A; Attarian, Stephanie J; Zeller, Brandy; Cole, Francis Sessions

    2014-12-01

    Minoxidil is a potent antihypertensive used as an adjunctive agent in refractory hypertension. It exerts an antihypertensive effect through two mechanisms: selective arterial vasodilation by activation of potassium channels in the vascular smooth muscle and stimulation of carotid and aortic baroreceptors, leading to downstream release of renin and norepinephrine. Although frequently cited in reviews of antihypertensive agents, limited data about the use of minoxidil in neonates are available. We describe an infant girl, born at 35 weeks of gestation, who was diagnosed with idiopathic hypertension after extensive diagnostic evaluation. Adequate blood pressure control was not achieved with captopril, amlodipine, and clonidine. Oliguria secondary to captopril and rapid-onset congestive heart failure due to persistent hypertension led to the introduction of intravenous agents labetalol and nitroprusside. Although adequate blood pressure control was achieved, attempts to transition back to oral agents were unsuccessful, prompting the use of minoxidil as an alternative agent. Although good blood pressure control was achieved, the infant's oral intake plummeted from 210 to 63 ml/kg/day. The anorexia quickly resolved after stopping minoxidil, and she was discharged home at 5 months of age receiving propranolol, amlodipine, and doxazosin. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a definite relationship (score of 10) between the patient's development of anorexia and minoxidil therapy. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of minoxidil-associated anorexia in preterm or term infants. Clinicians should be aware that anorexia is a possible adverse effect of minoxidil in this patient population when initiating the drug in similar patients. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  7. Overdose of Rogaine Extra Strength for Men topical minoxidil preparation.

    PubMed

    Farrell, S E; Epstein, S K

    1999-01-01

    Minoxidil is a potent arterial vasodilator used in the treatment of hypertension. A side effect, hypertrichosis, has prompted the marketing of a topical preparation, Rogaine, for the treatment of male-pattern baldness. Recently, a 5% solution of minoxidil became available over-the-counter as Rogaine Extra Strength For Men Hair Regrowth Treatment. We describe an oral overdose of minoxidil 3 g as the Rogaine Extra Strength preparation. Toxicity manifested as profound hypotension, requiring vasopressor support, intubation, prolonged tachycardia, and fluid overload with pleural effusions, requiring several days of therapy with furosemide. This is the largest reported ingestion of minoxidil and the first reported overdose of the extra strength 5% solution.

  8. Novel enzymatic assay predicts minoxidil response in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Goren, Andy; Castano, Juan Antonio; McCoy, John; Bermudez, Fernando; Lotti, Torello

    2014-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the most common drug used for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in men and women. Although topical minoxidil exhibits a good safety profile, the efficacy in the overall population remains relatively low at 30-40%. To observe significant improvement in hair growth, minoxidil is typically used daily for a period of at least 3-4 months. Due to the significant time commitment and low response rate, a biomarker for predicting patient response prior to therapy would be advantageous. Minoxidil is converted in the scalp to its active form, minoxidil sulfate, by the sulfotransferase enzyme SULT1A1. We hypothesized that SULT1A1 enzyme activity in the hair follicle correlates with minoxidil response for the treatment of AGA. Our preliminary retrospective study of a SULT1A1 activity assay demonstrates 95% sensitivity and 73% specificity in predicting minoxidil treatment response for AGA. A larger prospective study is now under way to further validate this novel assay. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Minoxidil is a potential neuroprotective drug for paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Fan; Chen, Li-Hsien; Yeh, Yu-Min; Wu, Pei-Ying; Chen, Yih-Fung; Chang, Lian-Yun; Chang, Jang-Yang; Shen, Meng-Ru

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common side effect of cancer treatment. No medication has been shown to be effective in the treatment of CIPN. This study aims to integrate the image-based high-content screening, mouse behavior models and mechanistic cell-based assays to discover potential neuroprotective drugs. Among screened compounds, minoxidil showed the most potent neuroprotective effect against paclitaxel, with regard to neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Minoxidil protected mice from thermal insensitivity and alleviated mechanical allodynia in paclitaxel-treated mice. The ultrastructure and quantified G-ratio of myelin integrity of sciatic nerve tissues supported the observations in mouse behavioral tests. The mechanistic study on DRG neurons suggested that minoxidil suppressed neuroinflammation and remodeled the dysregulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis provoked by paclitaxel. Importantly, minoxidil showed a synergistic anti-tumor effect with paclitaxel both in tumor xenograft models of cervical and breast cancer. Interestingly, the quantitative assays on hair length and hair growth both exhibited that minoxidil significantly improved the hair quality after chemotherapy. Since minoxidil is a drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the safety and biocompatibility are well documented. The immediate next step is to launch an early-stage clinical trial intending to prevent CIPN by minoxidil. PMID:28349969

  10. Ionic and secretory response of pancreatic islet cells to minoxidil sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Antoine, M.H.; Hermann, M.; Herchuelz, A.

    Minoxidil sulfate is an antihypertensive agent belonging to the new class of vasodilators, the K+ channel openers. The present study was undertaken to characterize the effects of minoxidil sulfate on ionic and secretory events in rat pancreatic islets. The drug unexpectedly provoked a concentration-dependent decrease in 86Rb outflow. This inhibitory effect was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by glucose and tolbutamide. Minoxidil sulfate did not affect 45Ca outflow from islets perfused in the presence of extracellular Ca++ and absence or presence of glucose. However, in islets exposed to a medium deprived of extracellular Ca++, the drug provoked a rise inmore » 45Ca outflow. Whether in the absence or presence of extracellular Ca++, minoxidil sulfate increased the cytosolic free Ca++ concentration of islet cells. Lastly, minoxidil sulfate increased the release of insulin from glucose-stimulated pancreatic islets. These results suggest that minoxidil sulfate reduces the activity of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels and promotes an intracellular translocation of Ca++. The latter change might account for the effect of the drug on the insulin-releasing process. However, the secretory response to minoxidil sulfate could also be mediated, at least in part, by a modest Ca++ entry.« less

  11. Preparation and evaluation of a multimodal minoxidil microemulsion versus minoxidil alone in the treatment of androgenic alopecia of mixed etiology: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Farouk M; Gado, Ali MI; Mohammed, Haseebur R; Adam, Abdel Nasser Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Background: The variable success of topical minoxidil in the treatment of androgenic alopecia has led to the hypothesis that other pathways could mediate this form of hair loss, including infection and/or microinflammation of the hair follicles. In this study, we prepared a multimodal microemulsion comprising minoxidil (a dihydrotestosterone antagonist), diclofenac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent), and tea tree oil (an anti-infective agent). We investigated the stability and physicochemical properties of this formulation, and its therapeutic efficacy compared with a formulation containing minoxidil alone in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Methods: We developed a multimodal oil/water (o/w) microemulsion, a formulation containing minoxidil alone, and another containing vehicle. A three-phase diagram was constructed to obtain the optimal concentrations of the selected oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant. Thirty-two men aged 18–30 years were randomized to apply 1 mL of microemulsion containing the multimodal formulation (formulation A, n = 11), minoxidil alone (formulation B, n = 11) or placebo (formulation C, n = 10) twice daily to the affected area for 32 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated by mean hair count, thickness, and weight on the targeted area of the scalp. Global photographs were taken, changes in the area of scalp coverage were assessed by patients and external investigators, and the benefits and safety of the study medications were evaluated. The physical stability of formula A was examined after a shelf storage period of 24 months. Results: Formulation A achieved a significantly superior response than formulations B and C in terms of mean hair count (P < 0.001), mean hair weight (P < 0.001), and mean hair thickness (P < 0.05). A patient self-assessment questionnaire demonstrated that the multimodal minoxidil formulation significantly (P < 0.001) slowed hair loss, increased hair growth, and improved appearance, and showed no appreciable side

  12. A Comparative Study of Microneedling with Platelet-rich Plasma Plus Topical Minoxidil (5%) and Topical Minoxidil (5%) Alone in Androgenetic Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kaksha B; Shah, Aarti N; Solanki, Rekha B; Raval, Ranjan C

    2017-01-01

    There are very few studies evaluating efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in hair restoration and its combination with microneedling. As far as ascertained, there is no study to evaluate efficacy of microneedling with PRP plus topical minoxidil (5%) versus topical minoxidil (5%) alone in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). This study aims (1) to compare the efficacy of (a) topical minoxidil (5%) alone and (b) topical minoxidil (5%) + microneedling with PRP in men between 18 and 50 years with AGA Grade III to V vertex (Norwood-Hamilton scale) and (2) to perform objective and subjective evaluation based on clinical improvement and photographic evidence. The study was conducted in the outpatient department of dermatology, venereology, and leprology in tertiary care hospital. It was open, prospective study. Fifty patients with AGA were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. These patients were randomly divided into two groups of 25 patients each and were given following treatment: (i) Group A: topical minoxidil (5%) alone and (ii) Group B: topical minoxidil (5%) + microneedling with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Patients were assessed before starting the treatment and at the end of 6 months on the basis of (a) Patient's self-assessment based on standardized seven-point scale compared with baseline (b) Physician's assessment based on standardized seven-point scale of hair growth compared with baseline. There was a significant improvement ( P < 0.05) in both patients' assessment and investigator's assessment in Group B as compared to Group A at the end of 6 months. Microneedling with PRP is safe, effective, and a promising tool for the management of AGA.

  13. Clinical use of minoxidil (Loniten)1

    PubMed Central

    Joekes, A M; Thompson, F D; O'Regan, P F B

    1981-01-01

    The powerful peripheral vasodilator minoxidil, in a dose of 5–40 mg daily, controlled the previously refractory blood pressure in 45 out of 47 patients for periods up to fifty-seven months. The majority of the previous polypharmacy was withdrawn, leaving most of the patients taking a beta-blocking drug, minoxidil and a diuretic. Severe sodium retention leading to congestive cardiac failure necessitated the withdrawal of the drug in 3 patients. In one patient the drug was discontinued because of postural hypotension, and it was withdrawn in 2 female patients because of hirsutism. Five patients were removed from the trial as they were started on chronic maintenance haemodialysis or received a renal transplant. Significant glucose intolerance developed in one patient, requiring the addition of an oral hypoglycaemic agent. The 4 deaths that occurred were not directly related to treatment. Following the oral administration of 5 mg minoxidil, an obvious reduction in both the systolic and diastolic pressure was seen in two hours. PMID:7230242

  14. Clinical utility and validity of minoxidil response testing in androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Goren, Andy; Shapiro, Jerry; Roberts, Janet; McCoy, John; Desai, Nisha; Zarrab, Zoulikha; Pietrzak, Aldona; Lotti, Torello

    2015-01-01

    Clinical response to 5% topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is typically observed after 3-6 months. Approximately 40% of patients will regrow hair. Given the prolonged treatment time required to elicit a response, a diagnostic test for ruling out nonresponders would have significant clinical utility. Two studies have previously reported that sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles predicts a patient's response to topical minoxidil therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility and validity of minoxidil response testing. In this communication, the present authors conducted an analysis of completed and ongoing studies of minoxidil response testing. The analysis confirmed the clinical utility of a sulfotransferase enzyme test in successfully ruling out 95.9% of nonresponders to topical minoxidil for the treatment of AGA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The additive effects of minoxidil and retinol on human hair growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyeon Gyeong; Chang, In-Young; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Seung Ho; Kwon, Oh Sang; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, Kyu Han

    2007-01-01

    Minoxidil enhances hair growth by prolonging the anagen phase and induces new hair growth in androgenetic alopecia (AGA), whereas retinol significantly improves scalp skin condition and promotes hair growth. We investigated the combined effects of minoxidil and retinol on human hair growth in vitro and on cultured human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). The combination of minoxidil and retinol additively promoted hair growth in hair follicle organ cultures. In addition, minoxidil plus retinol more effectively elevated phosphorylated Erk, phosphorylated Akt levels, and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio than minoxidil alone in DPCs and HaCaT. We found that the significant hair shaft elongation demonstrated after minoxidil plus retinol treatment would depend on the dual kinetics associated with the activations of Erk- and Akt-dependent pathways and the prevention of apoptosis by increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio.

  16. Topical minoxidil in the treatment of alopecia areata.

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, D A; Wilkinson, J D

    1983-01-01

    A modified double blind crossover study was performed to assess the effect of 1% topical minoxidil as compared with placebo in 30 patients with alopecia areata and alopecia totalis. The active preparation produced a highly significant incidence of hair regrowth. A cosmetically acceptable response was noted in 16 patients. No side effects were seen. The study confirmed that topical minoxidil will induce new hair growth in alopecia areata but that it is less likely to do so in more severe and extensive disease. Furthermore, patients with alopecia universalis and totalis may not respond at all. Nevertheless, as compared with other drugs minoxidil applied topically is relatively non-toxic, is easy to use, and has no systemic or local side effects. Images p1016-a PMID:6412929

  17. Inhibition of isolated human myometrium contractility by minoxidil and reversal by glibenclamide.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, S S; Dhanasekar, K R; Thomas, E; Jose, R; Peedicayil, J; Samuel, P

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the ability of the antihypertensive drug minoxidil to inhibit potassium chloride (KCl)-induced contractility of the isolated human myometrium. Twelve strips of myometrium obtained from 12 patients who underwent hysterectomy were triggered to contract with 55 mM KCl before and after incubation with 3 concentrations (1, 3 and 10 microM) of minoxidil. The percent inhibition by minoxidil on the extent of contraction, and the area under the contractile curve of KCl-induced contraction of the myometrial strips was determined. Furthermore, the effect of 10 microM glibenclamide on the inhibition generated by 3 microM minoxidil on KCl-induced contractility was studied. It was found that minoxidil produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of KCl-induced contractility of the myometrium and that glibenclamide reversed this inhibitory effect. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of minoxidil on isolated human myometrium contractility may prove useful in clinical conditions requiring relaxation of the myometrium. 2010 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  18. Minoxidil topical solution: an unsafe product for children.

    PubMed

    Claudet, Isabelle; Cortey, Caroline; Honorat, Raphaele; Franchitto, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Minoxidil hair formulation is commonly used for the treatment of male or female androgenic alopecia. This over-the-counter product is wrongly considered safe. The ingestion of a few milliliters by a child can lead to significant intoxication. We report a case of significant intoxication after the ingestion of topical minoxidil (Alopexy; Pierre Fabre Laboratoires, SA, Switzerland). A 7-year-old girl, who accidentally ingested a teaspoon of minoxidil hair solution, presented to the pediatric emergency department for emesis. At admission, she had a blood pressure of 86/56 mm Hg and a pulse of 149 beats per minute. Hypotension lasted 40 hours with the lowest value 24 hours after ingestion (79/33 mm Hg). She presented electrocardiogram changes (sinus tachycardia and flattening T-waves) but normal cardiac enzymes. Infusion of 20 mL/kg of normal saline fluid had no hemodynamic effect. Her blood pressure normalized on day 2. Minoxidil topical solution is an unsafe product for children. This formulation should be strictly kept out of reach of children and manufacturers should enhance child-resistance security of packaging. The over-the-counter availability must be questioned.

  19. Minoxidil for severe hypertension after failure of other hypotensive drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Devine, B L; Fife, R; Trust, P M

    1977-01-01

    Forty-four patients with severe hypertension who were resistant to treatment with more conventional hypotensive drugs or could not tolerate the side effects were treated with minoxidil, a potent peripheral vasodilator. A beta-blocking drug and a diuretic were used routinely to control, respectively, the tachycardia and fluid retention caused by minoxidil. During treatment the outpatient supine blood pressure fell from a mean of 221/134 mm Hg to 162/98 mm Hg. Eleven patients required additional or alternative hypotensive agents before blood pressure was adequately controlled. Side effects were minor, although the invariable hirsuties caused by minoxidil was unacceptable to three women. The possibility of cardiotoxic effects, raised by early studies in dogs, has not been excluded, and therefore this drug should be used only in patients with severe hypertension. In such patients minoxidil appears to be most effective. PMID:902045

  20. Stability of an extemporaneously compounded minoxidil oral suspension.

    PubMed

    Song, Yunmei; Chin, Zen Whey; Ellis, David; Lwin, Ei Mon Phyo; Turner, Sean; Williams, Desmond; Garg, Sanjay

    2018-03-01

    Results of a study to determine the stability of an extemporaneously compounded minoxidil oral suspension under various temperature and stress conditions are reported. Commercially available minoxidil tablets (10 mg) were crushed to a fine powder, and predetermined amounts of 2 suspending vehicles were added to produce a 1-mg/mL suspension, which was stored in glass bottles at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C) or in a refrigerator (4 ± 2 °C). To simulate daily patient use, 5 days weekly 1 bottle of the suspension was removed from refrigerated storage and shaken and 0.5 mL of the contents discarded. At each specified time point, samples were analyzed in duplicate ( n = 6 for each test condition) using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Samples were visually observed and their pH measured at each time point. Microbiological studies were performed on day 0 and at week 24. The mean percentage of initial minoxidil concentration remaining in all refrigerated samples exceeded 90% throughout the 24-week study, with no change in appearance, pH, microbial activity, odor, or redispersibility. During storage at room temperature, the suspension exhibited a color change at week 4, with slight sedimentation after 6 weeks, although minoxidil recovery exceeded 90% for 10 weeks. An extemporaneously compounded minoxidil oral suspension was stable for 24 weeks when stored in a refrigerator. This suspension can be used for up to 3 weeks when stored at room temperature. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The action of diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate on rat blood vessels: a comparison with cromakalim.

    PubMed Central

    Newgreen, D. T.; Bray, K. M.; McHarg, A. D.; Weston, A. H.; Duty, S.; Brown, B. S.; Kay, P. B.; Edwards, G.; Longmore, J.; Southerton, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    1. The actions of diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate have been compared with those of cromakalim in rat aorta and portal vein. 2. Diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate hyperpolarized the rat portal vein in a similar manner to cromakalim. 3. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate increased 42K and 86Rb efflux from rat portal vein, although minoxidil sulphate had only a small effect on 86Rb efflux. 4. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate increased 42K efflux from rat aorta but only cromakalim and diazoxide increased 86Rb efflux from this tissue. 5. Glibenclamide inhibited the relaxant actions of cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate on rat aorta and the increase in 42K efflux produced by these agents in this tissue. 6. Diazoxide relaxed an 80 mM KCl-induced contraction of rat aorta, whilst cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate were without effect. 7. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate had no effect on cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP concentrations in rat aorta. 8. It is concluded that diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate like cromakalim exhibit K+ channel opening properties in vascular smooth muscle. Diazoxide exerts an additional inhibitory action not related to the production of cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP. The action of minoxidil sulphate may be primarily located at a K+ channel which is relatively impermeable to 86Rb. PMID:2167738

  2. Minoxidil Promotes Hair Growth through Stimulation of Growth Factor Release from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Nahyun; Shin, Soyoung; Song, Sun U.; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2018-01-01

    Minoxidil directly promotes hair growth via the stimulation of dermal papilla (DP) and epithelial cells. Alternatively, there is little evidence for indirect promotion of hair growth via stimulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). We investigated whether minoxidil stimulates ASCs and if increased growth factor secretion by ASCs facilitates minoxidil-induced hair growth. Telogen-to-anagen induction was examined in mice. Cultured DP cells and vibrissae hair follicle organ cultures were used to further examine the underlying mechanisms. Subcutaneous injection of minoxidil-treated ASCs accelerated telogen-to-anagen transition in mice, and increased hair weight at day 14 post-injection. Minoxidil did not alter ASC proliferation, but increased migration and tube formation. Minoxidil also increased the secretion of growth factors from ASCs, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF), and platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C). Minoxidil increased extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, and concomitant upregulation of PD-ECGF and PDGF-C mRNA levels were attenuated by an ERK inhibitor. Subcutaneous injection of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C enhanced anagen induction in mice, and both CXCL1 and PDGF-C increased hair length in ex vivo organ culture. Treatment with CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C also increased the proliferation index in DP cells. Finally, topical application of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C with 2% minoxidil enhanced anagen induction when compared to minoxidil alone. Minoxidil stimulates ASC motility and increases paracrine growth factor signaling. Minoxidil-stimulated secretion of growth factors by ASCs may enhance hair growth by promoting DP proliferation. Therefore, minoxidil can be used as an ASC preconditioning agent for hair regeneration. PMID:29495622

  3. Minoxidil Promotes Hair Growth through Stimulation of Growth Factor Release from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nahyun; Shin, Soyoung; Song, Sun U; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2018-02-28

    Minoxidil directly promotes hair growth via the stimulation of dermal papilla (DP) and epithelial cells. Alternatively, there is little evidence for indirect promotion of hair growth via stimulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). We investigated whether minoxidil stimulates ASCs and if increased growth factor secretion by ASCs facilitates minoxidil-induced hair growth. Telogen-to-anagen induction was examined in mice. Cultured DP cells and vibrissae hair follicle organ cultures were used to further examine the underlying mechanisms. Subcutaneous injection of minoxidil-treated ASCs accelerated telogen-to-anagen transition in mice, and increased hair weight at day 14 post-injection. Minoxidil did not alter ASC proliferation, but increased migration and tube formation. Minoxidil also increased the secretion of growth factors from ASCs, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF), and platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C). Minoxidil increased extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, and concomitant upregulation of PD-ECGF and PDGF-C mRNA levels were attenuated by an ERK inhibitor. Subcutaneous injection of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C enhanced anagen induction in mice, and both CXCL1 and PDGF-C increased hair length in ex vivo organ culture. Treatment with CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C also increased the proliferation index in DP cells. Finally, topical application of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C with 2% minoxidil enhanced anagen induction when compared to minoxidil alone. Minoxidil stimulates ASC motility and increases paracrine growth factor signaling. Minoxidil-stimulated secretion of growth factors by ASCs may enhance hair growth by promoting DP proliferation. Therefore, minoxidil can be used as an ASC preconditioning agent for hair regeneration.

  4. Transcutol containing vesicles for topical delivery of minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Mura, Simona; Manconi, Maria; Valenti, Donatella; Sinico, Chiara; Vila, Amparo Ofelia; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of Transcutol (Trc) to produce elastic vesicles with soy lecithin (SL) and study the influence of the obtained vesicles on in vitro (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil. To this purpose, so-called penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) were prepared using Trc aqueous solutions (5-10-20-30% v/v) as hydrophilic phase. SL liposomes, without Trc, were used as control. Prepared formulations were characterized in terms of size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, deformability, and rheological behavior. The influence of the obtained PEVs on (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil was studied by in vitro diffusion experiments through pig skin. Results showed that all prepared PEVs were able to give good entrapment efficiency (E%≈67) similar to that of conventional liposomes. Trc-containing PEVs showed to be more deformable than liposomes only when minoxidil was loaded in 5 and 10% Trc-containing vesicles. Rheological studies showed that PEVs have higher fluidity than conventional liposomes. All PEVs showed a higher stability than liposomes as shown by studying zeta potential and size distribution during three months. Results of in vitro diffusion experiments showed that Trc-containing PEVs are able to deliver minoxidil to deep skin layers without any transdermal permeation.

  5. Crystal structure of minoxidil at low temperature and polymorph prediction.

    PubMed

    Martín-Islán, Africa P; Martín-Ramos, Daniel; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio

    2008-02-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation on crystal forms of the popular and ubiquitous pharmaceutical Minoxidil is presented here. A new crystallization method is presented for Minoxidil (6-(1-piperidinyl)-2,4-pyrimidinediamide 3-oxide) in ethanol-poly(ethylene glycol), yielding crystals with good quality. The crystal structure is determined at low temperature, with a final R value of 0.035, corresponding to space group P2(1) (monoclinic) with cell dimensions a = 9.357(1) A, b = 8.231(1) A, c = 12.931(2) A, and beta = 90.353(4) degrees . Theoretical calculations of the molecular structure of Minoxidil are set forward using empirical force fields and quantum-mechanical methods. A theoretical prediction for Minoxidil crystal structure shows many possible polymorphs. The predicted crystal structures are compared with X-ray experimental data obtained in our laboratory, and the experimental crystal form is found to be one of the lowest energy polymorphs.

  6. Minoxidil accelerates heart failure development in rats with ascending aortic constriction.

    PubMed

    Turcani, M; Jacob, R

    1998-06-01

    To test the ability of the heart to express characteristic geometric features of concentric and eccentric hypertrophy concurrently, constriction of the ascending aorta was performed in 4-week-old rats. Simultaneously, these rats were treated with an arteriolar dilator minoxidil. An examination 6 weeks after induction of the hemodynamic overload revealed no signs of congestion in systemic or pulmonary circulation in rats with aortic constriction or minoxidil-treated sham-operated rats. The magnitude of hemodynamic overload caused by aortic constriction or minoxidil treatment could be considered as equivalent, because the same enlargement of left ventricular pressure-volume area was necessary to compensate for either pressure or volume overload. Myocardial contractility decreased in rats with aortic constriction, and the compensation was achieved wholly by the marked concentric hypertrophy. Volume overload in minoxidil-treated rats was compensated partially by the eccentric hypertrophy and partially by the increased myocardial contractility. In contrast, increased lung weight and pleural effusion were found in all minoxidil-treated rats with aortic constriction. Unfavorable changes in left ventricular mass and geometry, relatively high chamber stiffness, and depressed ventricular and myocardial function were responsible for the massive pulmonary congestion.

  7. Minoxidil Skin Delivery from Nanoemulsion Formulations Containing Eucalyptol or Oleic Acid: Enhanced Diffusivity and Follicular Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Abd, Eman; Benson, Heather A. E.; Roberts, Michael S.; Grice, Jeffrey E.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we examined enhanced skin delivery of minoxidil applied in nanoemulsions incorporating skin penetration enhancers. Aliquots of fully characterized oil-in-water nanoemulsions (1 mL), containing minoxidil (2%) and the skin penetration enhancer oleic acid or eucalyptol as oil phases, were applied to full-thickness excised human skin in Franz diffusion cells, while aqueous solutions (1 mL) containing minoxidil were used as controls. Minoxidil in the stratum corneum (SC), hair follicles, deeper skin layers, and flux through the skin over 24 h was determined, as well as minoxidil solubility in the formulations and in the SC. The nanoemulsions significantly enhanced the permeation of minoxidil through skin compared with control solutions. The eucalyptol formulations (NE) promoted minoxidil retention in the SC and deeper skin layers more than did the oleic acid formulations, while the oleic acid formulations (NO) gave the greatest hair follicle penetration. Minoxidil maximum flux enhancement was associated with increases in both minoxidil SC solubility and skin diffusivity in both nanoemulsion systems. The mechanism of enhancement appeared to be driven largely by increased diffusivity, rather than increased partitioning into the stratum corneum, supporting the concept of enhanced fluidity and disruption of stratum corneum lipids. PMID:29370122

  8. Minoxidil for Treatment of Resistant Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease--A Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Heiko M; Matenaer, Matthias; Lammert, Alexander; Göttmann, Uwe; Krämer, Bernhard K; Birck, Rainer; Benck, Urs

    2016-11-01

    Resistant hypertension is still a challenge and reserve antihypertensive agents are often necessary to achieve blood pressure control. One reserve antihypertensive is minoxidil, a direct vasodilator that is known for its strong blood pressure-lowering effect, but contemporary studies are sparse. The authors retrospectively analyzed 54 inpatients with uncontrolled hypertension despite the combined use of current antihypertensive agents. To investigate the effect of minoxidil when added to other antihypertensive agents, blood pressure was evaluated at the time minoxidil treatment was initiated and at discharge. Minoxidil treatment was associated with a significant reduction in blood pressure from 162.4±15.1/83.2±12.7 mm Hg to 135.8±12.2/72.8±6.9 mm Hg (P<.0001). This effect was sustained across all analyzed subgroups. Although the well-known adverse events of minoxidil limit its widespread use, these data show that minoxidil as a reserve antihypertensive agent still has a niche indication in the particular subgroup of patients with treatment-resistant or uncontrolled hypertension. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Long-term treatment of severe hypertension with minoxidil.

    PubMed Central

    Nawar, T.; Nolin, L.; Plante, G. E.; Caron, C.; Montambault, P.

    1977-01-01

    Minoxidil, a new potent hypotensive agent, was used as the primary antihypertensive agent in 11 patients--10 men and 1 woman aged 35 to 54 years with severe hypertension that was refractory to treatment with maximal (or maximally tolerated) doses of conventional antihypertensive agents. Six patients had severely impaired renal function and three of them were undergoing long-term hemodialysis. The patients were given 2.5 to 40 mg/d of minoxidil for periods of 2 to 29 months. All except one who was almost anuric received propranolol and diuretics. Blood pressure was controlled satisfactorily in all patients. In two patients the hypertension became partially resistant after 1 year of treatment. The main side effects were sodium retention, tachycardia and hirsutism. Renal function remained stable or improved and hemodialysis was discontinued in two patients. Minoxidil is a remarkably potent hypotensive with relatively few side effects and seems particularly advantageous in patients with chronic renal failure. PMID:603847

  10. Minoxidil-induced hair growth is mediated by adenosine in cultured dermal papilla cells: possible involvement of sulfonylurea receptor 2B as a target of minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Marubayashi, A; Nakaya, Y; Fukui, K; Arase, S

    2001-12-01

    The mechanism by which minoxidil, an adenosine-triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, induces hypertrichosis remains to be elucidated. Minoxidil has been reported to stimulate the production of vascular endothelial growth factor, a possible promoter of hair growth, in cultured dermal papilla cells. The mechanism of production of vascular endothelial growth factor remains unclear, however. We hypothesize that adenosine serves as a mediator of vascular endothelial growth factor production. Minoxidil-induced increases in levels of intracellular Ca(2+) and vascular endothelial growth factor production in cultured dermal papilla cells were found to be inhibited by 8-sulfophenyl theophylline, a specific antagonist for adenosine receptors, suggesting that dermal papilla cells possess adenosine receptors and sulfonylurea receptors, the latter of which is a well-known target receptor for adenosine-triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel openers. The expression of sulfonylurea receptor 2B and of the adenosine A1, A2A, and A2B receptors was detected in dermal papilla cells by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. In order to determine which of the adenosine receptor subtypes contribute to minoxidil-induced hair growth, the effects of subtype-specific antagonists for adenosine receptors were investigated. Significant inhibition in increase in intracellular calcium level by minoxidil or adenosine was observed as the result of pretreatment with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, an antagonist for adenosine A1 receptor, but not by 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargyl-xanthine, an antagonist for adenosine A2 receptor, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor production was blocked by both adenosine A1 and A2 receptor antagonists. These results indicate that the effect of minoxidil is mediated by adenosine, which triggers intracellular signal transduction via both adenosine A1 and A2 receptors, and that the expression of sulfonylurea receptor 2B in

  11. Treatment of chronic telogen effluvium with oral minoxidil: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Perera, Eshini; Sinclair, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    Background : Chronic telogen effluvium (CTE) may be primary or secondary to various causes, including drug reaction, nutritional deficiency and female pattern hair loss (FPHL).  Oral minoxidil stimulates hair growth, and topical minoxidil is used in the treatment of FPHL and male androgenetic alopecia. minoxidil has not been used to treat CTE. This study aimed to assess the treatment of CTE with once daily oral minoxidil. Methods : Women with a diagnosis of CTE based on >6 month history of increased telogen hair shedding, no visible mid frontal scalp hair loss (Sinclair stage 1) and no hair follicle miniaturization on scalp biopsy were treated with once daily oral minoxidil.  Hair shedding scores (HSS) at baseline, 6 and 12 months were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test for pair-wise comparisons. Results : Thirty-six women were treated with oral minoxidil (range, 0.25-2.5 mg) daily for 6 months.  Mean age was 46.9 years (range 20-83), HSS at baseline was 5.64, and duration of diagnosis was 6.55 years (range 1-27).  There was a reduction in mean HSS scores from baseline to 6 months of 1.7 (p<0.001) and baseline to 12 months of 2.58 (p<0.001). Five women who described trichodynia at baseline, noted improvement or resolution within 3 months.  Mean change in blood pressure was minus 0.5 mmHg systolic and plus 2.1 mmHg diastolic.  Two patients developed transient postural dizziness that resolved with continued treatment.  One patient developed ankle oedema.  Thirteen women developed facial hypertrichosis.  For 6 patients this was mild and did not require treatment; 4 had waxing of their upper lip or forehead; 3 had laser hair removal.  No patients developed any haematological abnormality.  All 36 women completed 12 months of treatment. Conclusions : Once daily oral minoxidil appears to reduce hair shedding in CTE.  Placebo controlled studies are recommended to further assess this response.

  12. Promotive Effect of Minoxidil Combined with All-trans Retinoic Acid (tretinoin) on Human Hair Growth in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Oh, Youn Jin; Han, Ji Hyun; Lee, Se Rah; Chung, Jin Ho; Eun, Hee Chul

    2007-01-01

    Minoxidil induces hair growth in male pattern baldness and prolongs the anagen phase. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been reported to act synergistically with minoxidil in vivo: they can enhance more dense hair regrowth than either compound alone. We evaluated the effect of minoxidil combined with ATRA on hair growth in vitro. The effect of co-treatment of minoxidil and ATRA on hair growth was studied in hair follicle organ culture. In cultured human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the expressions of Erk, Akt, Bcl-2, Bax, P53 and P21 were evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Minoxidil plus ATRA additively promoted hair growth in vitro, compared with minoxidil alone. In addition, minoxidil plus ATRA elevated phosphorylated Erk, phosphorylated Akt and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, but decreased the expressions of P53 and P21 more effectively than by minoxidil alone. Our results suggest that minoxidil plus ATRA would additively enhance hair growth by mediating dual functions: 1) the prolongation of cell survival by activating the Erk and Akt signaling pathways, and 2) the prevention of apoptosis of DPCs and epithelial cells by increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and downregulating the expressions of P53 and P21. PMID:17449938

  13. Doppler laser imaging predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    McCoy, J; Kovacevic, M; Situm, M; Stanimirovic, A; Bolanca, Z; Goren, A

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only drug approved by the US FDA for the treatment of female pattern hair loss. Unfortunately, following 16 weeks of daily application, less than 40% of patients regrow hair. Several studies have demonstrated that sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles predicts topical minoxidil response in female pattern hair loss patients. However, due to patients’ discomfort with the procedure, and the time required to perform the enzymatic assay it would be ideal to develop a rapid, non-invasive test for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Minoxidil is a pro-drug converted to its active form, minoxidil sulfate, by sulfotransferase enzymes in the outer root sheath of hair. Minoxidil sulfate is the active form required for both the promotion of hair regrowth and the vasodilatory effects of minoxidil. We thus hypothesized that laser Doppler velocimetry measurement of scalp blood perfusion subsequent to the application of topical minoxidil would correlate with sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles. In this study, plucked hair follicles from female pattern hair loss patients were analyzed for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Additionally, laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the change in scalp perfusion at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, after the application of minoxidil. In agreement with our hypothesis, we discovered a correlation (r=1.0) between the change in scalp perfusion within 60 minutes after topical minoxidil application and sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hairs. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of using laser Doppler imaging as a rapid, non-invasive diagnostic test to predict topical minoxidil response in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

  14. Randomized clinical trial comparing 5% and 1% topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Ryoji; Arano, Osamu; Nishikawa, Tooru; Yamada, Hidekazu; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2009-08-01

    Minoxidil is efficacious in inducing hair growth in patients with androgenetic alopecia by inducing hair follicles to undergo transition from the early to late anagen phase. Although the efficacy of 1% topical minoxidil has been confirmed in Japan, no controlled study of 5% topical minoxidil has been conducted using male Japanese subjects. The objective of this trial was to verify the superiority in clinical efficacy of 5% topical minoxidil to 1% topical minoxidil in a double-blind controlled study with male, Japanese androgenetic alopecia patients as the subjects. The trial included 300 Japanese male patients aged 20 years or older with androgenetic alopecia who were administered either 5% topical minoxidil (n = 150) or 1% topical minoxidil (n = 150) for 24 weeks. The mean change from the baseline in non-vellus hair/cm(2), the primary efficacy variable, was 26.4 (n = 142) in the 5% topical minoxidil group and 21.2 (n = 144) in the 1% topical minoxidil group at 16 weeks, the main time point for the evaluation. The difference between the groups was significant (P = 0.020). The incidence of adverse events was 8.7% (13/150) in the 5% group and 5.3% (8/150) in the 1% group, with no significant difference between the groups (chi(2)-test: P = 0.258). Our findings confirmed the superiority of 5% topical minoxidil to 1% topical minoxidil in treating Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

  15. Minoxidil activates β-catenin pathway in human dermal papilla cells: a possible explanation for its anagen prolongation effect.

    PubMed

    Kwack, Mi Hee; Kang, Bo Mi; Kim, Moon Kyu; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan

    2011-06-01

    It is believed that the length of the actively growing phase of the anagen hair cycle mainly contributes to hair length. Recent studies showed that maintenance of β-catenin activity in the dermal papilla cells (DPCs) enables hair follicles to keep actively growing. Topical minoxidil treatment promotes hair growth in men with androgenetic alopecia, suggesting that minoxidil may prolong the actively growing phase of the anagen hair cycle. To investigate whether minoxidil prolongs the anagen hair cycle in mice and, if so, to investigate whether minoxidil activates β-catenin pathway in human DPCs. Dorsal skins of C57BL/6 mice were depilated to synchronize the hair cycle. After 10 days, 3% minoxidil were topically applied daily for 10 days. Sections of back skins were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Hair follicles were graded and hair cycle score (HCS) was calculated. Cultured human DPCs were transiently transfected with the β-catenin responsive TCF reporter plasmid (pTopflash) and corresponding negative control reporter (pFopflash) to assess the activity of β-catenin signaling by minoxidil. Immunofluorescence staining and immunoblot were performed to examine the expression and localization of β-catenin in the presence or absence of minoxidil. Phosphorylation of GSK3β, PKA and PKB were also examined by immunoblot after minoxidil treatment. RT-PCR analysis and immunoblot were employed to investigate the expression of β-catenin pathway targets in DPCs, such as Axin2, Lef-1, and EP2. Modest extension of anagen phase thereby delay of catagen progression was observed by application of minoxidil in mice. Minoxidil stimulated the transcriptional activity of pTopflash but not pFopflash. Nuclear accumulation of β-catenin was also observed after minoxidil treatment. Immunoblot further showed that minoxidil treatment increases the phosphorylation of GSK3β, PKA and PKB. Moreover, minoxidil induced Axin2, Lef-1, and EP2 expression. Our results strongly suggest that

  16. Very large pericardial effusion attributable to minoxidil: resolution without drainage of fluid.

    PubMed

    Shirwany, Arsalan; D'Cruz, Ivan A; Munir, Ahmad

    2002-08-01

    A 52-year-old man with a history of chronic hypertension presented with worsening dyspnea and leg edema. He had been on minoxidil for 10 years. The cardiac silhouette was markedly enlarged. Echocardiography and computed tomography showed a large pericardial effusion. His cardiac status was stable and he was in no cardiorespiratory distress. No attempt was made to drain the fluid. Minoxidil was discontinued, and a month later, the effusion had virtually disappeared. Cessation of minoxidil administration and conservative management may suffice, even though the pericardial effusion is large.

  17. [A case of minoxidil intoxication].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tetsuya; Takei, Tetsuhiro; Ito, Toshitaka; Sakamoto, Kazunari; Nara, Takeshi; Yagi, Keiichi

    2014-09-01

    A 26-year-old man was found unable to move after oral consumption of 120 mL of RiUP X5® (containing 5 g/100 mL minoxidil) as a suicidal attempt. The patient complaining of frequent vomiting and weakness was transferred to our hospital. Findings on arrival: GCS E4V5M6; respiratory rate 24/ min; blood pressure 83/43 mmHg; pulse 152/min, regular; SpO₂97% (oxygen by mask: 6 L/min); thus, the patient was in shock. The systolic blood pressure and the pulse rate improved to about 90 mmHg and to about 130/min, respectively, in response to rapid intravenous infusion of 2,000 mL of lactated Ringer's solution. His circulatory condition tended to improve with parenteral fluid infusion alone. Forty hours after admission, however, heart failure developed due to excessive I.V. fluid infusion and abnormal body fluid distribution associated with delayed vascular smooth muscle relaxation; therefore, mechanical ventilation was initiated. Simultaneously, intravenous noradrenaline infusion was started because of a fall of the blood pressure. Subsequently, as the patient's respiratory and circulatory conditions gradually improved, he was weaned from mechanical ventilation, and the noradrenaline infusion was discontinued at 108 hours after admission. The patient made favorable progress and was discharged home on the 9th hospital day. Minoxidil exerts adverse effects mainly on the cardiovascular system. Since minoxidil is an over-the-counter drug readily available to the public, and emergency physicians should be aware of its severe toxicity.

  18. Prevention of temporal alopecia following rhytidectomy: the prophylactic use of minoxidil. A study of 60 patients.

    PubMed

    Eremia, Sorin; Umar, Sanusi H; Li, Cindy Y

    2002-01-01

    Temporal hair loss that results from traumatized hair follicles following rhytidectomy is an unsightly complication that can distress both the patient and the operating surgeon. Topical minoxidil is a proven therapy for androgenic alopecia and female senile alopecia. It has also been found to be useful in preventing the hair loss that commonly follows hair transplantation. To analyze through a retrospective study the effect of topical minoxidil on the incidence of temporal hair loss following facelift procedures. To our knowledge this is the first study to investigate the role of minoxidil in preventing post-rhytidectomy temporal alopecia. The charts of 60 women with a mean age of 58 years who underwent primary cervicofacial rhytidectomy were studied. Either a standard SMAS/flap technique or pliation was done in all cases. Each patient received either 2% or 5% topical minoxidil for 2 weeks before surgery and for 4 weeks after surgery, with a 5-day break period beginning on the day of surgery. Patients were monitored for complications immediately postoperatively and in 3-6 months of follow-up. Almost 80% of the patients underwent SMAS/flap procedures. Transient temporal alopecia was noted in only one patient, 6 weeks after discontinuing minoxidil. This resolved within 4 weeks of its reintroduction. The only other complications noted included minor hematomas (3.3%), skin slough/infection (1.7%), minor transient and localized edema (8.3%), minor ecchymosis (1.7%), a unilateral neuropraxia of the buccal nerve lasting 3 months (1.7%), and a minor temporary unilateral skin depression (1.7%). Side effects of minoxidil were not observed. On comparing our findings to results of larger rhytidectomy series in which minoxidil was not used prophylactically, and our experience before using minoxidil, we conclude that minoxidil plays a role in effectively preventing the temporal hair loss that occurs following primary cervicofacial rhytidectomies. We also found that minoxidil did

  19. Minoxidil 2% lotion for eyebrow enhancement: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, spilt-face comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Saridpong; Tanglertsampan, Chuchai; Tanchotikul, Mingkwan; Worapunpong, Nigun

    2014-02-01

    Topical minoxidil has been successfully used to treat androgenetic alopecia. It can also be applied to enhance eyebrows. However, there is no study comparing minoxidil lotion with placebo for eyebrow enhancement. In this trial, we determined the efficacy and safety of minoxidil 2% lotion for eyebrow enhancement compared with placebo. Forty patients were randomized for minoxidil on the eyebrow on one side of the face and placebo on the other. Efficacy was evaluated by global photographic assessment, eyebrow diameter, eyebrow count and subject's satisfaction. Side-effects were also evaluated. Thirty-nine patients (97.5%) completed the study. After 16 weeks, the minoxidil group achieved significantly better results in all measured outcomes compared to the placebo group. Side-effects were minor and did not preclude patients from continuing the study. Our study suggests that minoxidil 2% lotion is a safe and effective treatment for eyebrow hypotrichosis. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Electrochemical Studies on Minoxidil and Its Determination in Tablets by Differential-Pulse Polarography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-16

    AD-R76 981 ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDIES ON MINOXIDIL AND ITS j/j IDETERMINATION IN TABLETS BY..(U) UTAH UNIV SALT LAKE AS CITY DEPT OF CHEMISTRY L...INSTRUCTIONES 2. QVT CCESSIN ". 3 krCIPII-.,n I CATALOG Numtnk 22 ’TTE(d.t8v . TYPE OF R4EPORT a PERIOD COEd Electrochemical Studies on Minoxidil and... minoxidil in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The extracting . solvent was methani and the supporting electrolyte was 1.0 N sulphuric acid. L. An excellent

  1. Relative uptake of minoxidil into appendages and stratum corneum and permeation through human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Grice, Jeffrey E; Ciotti, Susan; Weiner, Norman; Lockwood, Peter; Cross, Sheree E; Roberts, Michael S

    2010-02-01

    We examined uptake of the model therapeutic agent, minoxidil, into appendages, stratum corneum (SC), and through human skin, under the influence of different vehicles. Quantitative estimation of therapeutic drug deposition into all three areas has not previously been reported. Finite doses of minoxidil (2%, w/v) in formulations containing varying amounts of ethanol, propylene glycol (PG), and water (60:20:20, 80:20:0, and 0:80:20 by volume, respectively) were used. Minoxidil in SC (by tape stripping), appendages (by cyanoacrylate casting), and receptor fluid was determined by liquid scintillation counting. At early times (30 min, 2 h), ethanol-containing formulations (60:20:20 and 80:20:0) caused significantly greater minoxidil retention in SC and appendages, compared to the formulation lacking ethanol (0:80:20). A significant increase in minoxidil receptor penetration occurred with the PG-rich 0:80:20 formulation after 12 h. We showed that deposition of minoxidil into appendages, SC, and skin penetration into receptor fluid were similar in magnitude. Transport by the appendageal route is likely to be a key determinant of hair growth promotion by minoxidil. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Platelets rich plasma versus minoxidil 5% in treatment of alopecia areata: A trichoscopic evaluation.

    PubMed

    El Taieb, Moustafa A; Ibrahim, Hassan; Nada, Essam A; Seif Al-Din, Mai

    2017-01-01

    Alopecia areata is a common cause of nonscarring alopecia that occurs in a patchy, confluent, or diffuse pattern. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive technique for the clinical diagnosis of many skin diseases. Topical minoxidil solution 5% and platelet rich plasma are important modalities used in treatment of alopecia areata. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PRP versus topical minoxidil 5% in the treatment of AA by clinical evaluation and trichoscopic examination. Ninety patients were allocated into three groups; the first was treated with topical minoxidil 5% solution, the second with platelets rich plasma injections, and the third with placebo. Diagnosis and follow up were done by serial digital camera photography of lesions and dermoscopic scan before and every 1 month after treatment for 3 months. Patients treated with minoxidil 5% and platelets rich plasma both have significant hair growth than placebo (p < .05). Patients treated with platelets rich plasma had an earlier response in the form of hair regrowth, reduction in short vellus hair and dystrophic hair unlike patients treated with minoxidil and control (p < .05). In conclusion, platelets rich plasma is more effective in the treatment of alopecia areata than topical minoxidil 5% as evaluated by clinical and trichoscopic examination. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of the effects of the K(+)-channel openers cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate on vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Wickenden, A. D.; Grimwood, S.; Grant, T. L.; Todd, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    1 The actions of the potassium channel openers, cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate, were compared in a range of isolated blood vessel preparations. 2 Cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate inhibited spontaneous mechanical activity of the guinea-pig portal vein and relaxed the noradrenaline precontracted rat aorta with similar potency. In contrast, minoxidil sulphate was less potent than cromakalim in inhibiting spontaneous activity in the rat portal vein and was essentially inactive in the noradrenaline precontracted rat mesenteric artery and rabbit aorta. 3 Minoxidil sulphate did not antagonize the effects of cromakalim in the rabbit aorta indicating it was not acting as a partial 'agonist'. 4 Charybdotoxin, noxiustoxin and rubidium failed to discriminate between cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate indicating that the apparently selective effects of minoxidil sulphate were not mediated by either Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels, delayed rectifiers or rubidium impermeable potassium channels. 5 Glibenclamide antagonized the effects of cromakalim in an apparently competitive manner whereas the effects of minoxidil sulphate were antagonized in a non-competitive manner. The involvement of subtypes of ATP-sensitive potassium channels is discussed. PMID:1878752

  4. Topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride: An account of maintenance of hair density after replacing oral finasteride.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, B S; Nandhini, T; Vasanth, Vani; Sriram, Rashmi; Navale, Shreya

    2015-01-01

    Finasteride acts by reducing dihydrotestosterone levels, thereby inhibiting miniaturization of hair follicles in patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Oral finasteride is associated with side effects such as decreased libido, sexual dysfunction, and gynecomastia. The aim of the following study is to assess the efficacy of maintaining hair growth with 5% topical minoxidil fortified with 0.1% finasteride in patients with AGA after initial treatment with 5% topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for two years. A retrospective assessment was done in 50 male patients aged 20-40 years with AGA. All the patients had been initially treated with topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for a period of two years, after which the oral finasteride was replaced with topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride. Five of 50 patients had discontinued the treatment for a period of 8-12 months and were then resumed with only topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride. The patients' case sheets and photographs were reviewed by independent observers and the efficacy of minoxidil-finasteride combination was assessed. Of the 45 patients who underwent a continuous treatment for AGA, 84.44% maintained a good hair density with topical minoxidil-finasteride combinatio. Of the five patients who discontinued oral finasteride for 8-12 months, four demonstrated good improvement in hair density when treatment was resumed with topical minoxidil-finasteride combination. Topical finasteride can be considered for hair density maintenance after initial improvement with oral finasteride, thereby obviating the indefinite use of oral finasteride.

  5. Minoxidil upregulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human hair dermal papilla cells.

    PubMed

    Lachgar, S; Charveron, M; Gall, Y; Bonafe, J L

    1998-03-01

    The hair follicle dermal papilla which controls hair growth, is characterized in the anagen phase by a highly developed vascular network. We have demonstrated in a previous study that the expression of an angiogenic growth factor called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA varied during the hair cycle. VEGF mRNA is strongly expressed in dermal papilla cells (DPC) in the anagen phase, but during the catagen and telogen phases. VEGF mRNA is less strongly expressed. This involvement of VEGF during the hair cycle allowed us to determine whether VEGF mRNA expression by DPC was regulated by minoxidil. In addition, the effect of minoxidil on VEGF protein synthesis in both cell extracts and DPC-conditioned medium, was investigated immunoenzymatically. Both VEGF mRNA and protein were significantly elevated in treated DPC compared with controls. DPC incubated with increasing minoxidil concentrations (0.2, 2, 6, 12 and 24 mumol/L) induced a dose-dependent expression of VEGF mRNA. Quantification of transcripts showed that DPC stimulated with 24 mumol/L minoxidil express six times more VEGF mRNA than controls. Similarly, VEGF protein production increases in cell extracts and conditioned media following minoxidil stimulation. These studies strongly support the likely involvement of minoxidil in the development of dermal papilla vascularization via a stimulation of VEGF expression, and support the hypothesis that minoxidil has a physiological role in maintaining a good vascularization of hair follicles in androgenetic alopecia.

  6. Human platelet lysate versus minoxidil stimulates hair growth by activating anagen promoting signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Dastan, Maryam; Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Abedelahi, Ali; Sarvi, Mohammadreza; Niapour, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Minoxidil and human platelet lysate (HPL) are commonly used to treat patients with hair loss. However, the roles of HPL versus minoxidil in hair follicle biology largely remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that bulge and dermal papilla (DP) cells may express specific genes, including Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin after exposure to minoxidil or HPL. The mouse hair follicles were isolated on day 10 after depilation and bulge or DP regions were dissected. The bulge and DP cells were cultured for 14days in DMEM/F12 medium. Then, the cells were treated with 100μM minoxidil and 10% HPL for 10 days. Nuclear morphology was identified using DAPi staining. Reverse transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were also performed to examine the expression of Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels in the treated bulge and DP regions after organ culture. Here, we found that minoxidil influences bulge and DP cell survival (P<0.05). Apoptosis in DP cells was also meaningfully decreased by HPL treatment (P=0.014). In addition, Kras, Akt, Erk, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels were changed in response to minoxidil treatment in both bulge and DP cells. HPL mediated Erk upregulation in both bulge and DP cells (P<0.05), but Kras and Akt mRNA levels were not considerably different in the HPL-treated cells. β-catenin mRNA level was also significantly increased in the bulge region by HPL. We also found that Shh mRNA level was considerably higher in HPL-treated bulge cells than in minoxidil-treated bulge cells. In contrast, the expression of β-cateinin and Shh in the DP cells was not meaningfully increased after treatment with HPL. Our results suggest that minoxidil and HPL can promote hair growth by activating the main anagen inducing signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of minoxidil and nitroprusside on reflex increases in myocardial contractility.

    PubMed Central

    Robie, N W

    1978-01-01

    1 The effects of nitroprusside and minoxidil on increases in myocardial contractility resulting from carotid artery occlusion were investigated in anaesthetized dogs. The results were compared with those produced by intravenous influsion of noradrenaline. 2 Nitroprusside and minoxidil attenuated the pressor responses produced by carotid artery occlusion. 3 Nitroprusside, but not minoxidil, attenuated the maximal myocardial contractility resulting from carotid occlusion. 4 The pressor and contractility responses to noradrenaline infusion were unaffected by either agent. 5 Nitroprusside failed to alter the myocardial responses produced by dimethylphenylpiperazinium. 6 These results, in conjunction with those of other investigators who have demonstrated that nitroprusside does not affect the release of noradrenaline from adrenergic neurons, suggest that nitroprusside may inhibit sympathetic nervous system reflex activity via an afferent and/or central component. PMID:620094

  8. Stability of minoxidil in Espumil foam base.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Christine M; Sorenson, Bridget; Whaley, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Minoxidil is a drug used to stimulate hair growth and to slow balding. It is marketed under a number of trade names, including Rogaine, and is available in varying strength dose forms from a number of generic manufacturers. Minoxidil is available in oral and topical forms. In topical form, it can be applied by a metered-spray or rub-on applicator. A hydroalcoholic compounding vehicle can minimize greasiness, itching, burning, and contact dermatitis where low concentrations of ethanol and propylene glycol are present. Espumil Foam Base contains low concentrations of these ingredients and also can form a foam on topical application. Espumil's unique delivery by foam-activating packaging assures simple application to difficult-to-treat areas, and it vanishes quickly after application, keeping it in place and avoiding health skin areas. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of minoxidil in Espumil Foam Base. The studied sample was compounded into a 50-mg/mL solution and stored in a plastic foam-activating bottle at room temperature conditions. Three samples were assayed at each time point out to 90 days by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The method was validated for its specificity through forced-degradation studies. The beyond-use-date is at least 90 days, based on data collected when this formulation was stored at room temperature, protected from light.

  9. Long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of facial hypertrichosis during topical minoxidil therapy.

    PubMed

    Benmously Mlika, Rym; Ben Hamida, Myriam; Hammami, Houda; Dorbani Ben Thabet, Imen; Rouatbi, Mondher; Mokhtar, Inçaf

    2013-08-01

    Hypertrichosis is a well-recognized adverse effect of therapy with either oral or topical minoxidil. We report a case of fronto-temporal hypertrichosis occurring in an 8-year-old girl treated for patchy alopecia areata of the frontal area of the scalp with 2% minoxidil solution. After failure of 5-months minoxidil-discontinuation, hair removal with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm line) (Smartepil II, Deka) was tested leading to complete resolution within 2 sessions.

  10. Follicular and percutaneous penetration pathways of topically applied minoxidil foam.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Massoudy, Lida; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Dietz, Ekkehart; Rasulev, Utkur; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2010-11-01

    In the past, it was assumed that the intercellular route was the only relevant penetration pathway for topically applied substances. Recent results on follicular penetration emphasize that the hair follicles represent a highly relevant and efficient penetration pathway and reservoir for topically applied substances. This study investigates a selective closure technique of hair follicle orifices in vivo assessing interfollicular and follicular absorption rates of topical minoxidil foam in humans. In delimited skin area, single hair orifices or interfollicular skin were blocked with a microdrop of special varnish-wax-mixture in vivo. Minoxidil foam (5%) was topically applied, and transcutaneous absorption was measured by a new surface ionization mass spectrometry technique in serum. Different settings (open, closed or none of both) enabled to clearly distinguish between interfollicular and follicular penetration of the topically applied minoxidil foam. Five minutes after topical application, minoxidil was detected in blood samples when follicles remained open, whereas with closed follicles 30 min were needed. Highest levels were found first when both pathways were open, followed by open follicles and subsequently by closed follicles. These results demonstrate the high importance of the follicular penetration pathway. Hair follicles are surrounded by a dense network of blood capillaries and dendritic cells and have stem cells in their immediate vicinity, making them ideal targets for drug delivery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Minoxidil specifically decreases the expression of lysine hydroxylase in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Hautala, T; Heikkinen, J; Kivirikko, K I; Myllylä, R

    1992-01-01

    The levels of lysine hydroxylase protein and the levels of the mRNAs for lysine hydroxylase and the alpha- and beta-subunits of proline 4-hydroxylase were measured in cultured human skin fibroblasts treated with 1 mM-minoxidil. The data demonstrate that minoxidil decreases the amount of lysine hydroxylase protein, this being due to a decrease in the level of lysine hydroxylase mRNA. The effect of minoxidil appears to be highly specific, as no changes were observed in the amounts of mRNAs for the alpha- and beta-subunits of proline 4-hydroxylase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1314568

  12. Control plasma renin activity and changes in sympathetic tone as determinants of minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity.

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, K; Velasco, M; Wells, J; McNay, J L

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the possible mechanism(s) underlying minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity (PRA). 10 patients with essential hypertension were treated with minoxidil and subsequently with a combination of minoxidil plus propranolol. Minoxidil lowered mean arterial pressure 31.6 plus or minus 3.3 mm Hg, mean plus or minus SEM. There was an associated increase in both PRA, 6.26 plus or minus 2.43 NG/ML/H, and heart rate, 21.4 plus or minus 2.7 beats/min. The changes in PRA and heart rate were positively correlated, r, 0.79. Addition of propranolol reduced mean arterial pressure by a further 10.1 plus or minus 1.5 mm Hg and returned heart rate to control levels. Propranolol reduced PRA significantly but not to control levels. Control PRA positively correlated with PRA on minoxidil, r, 0.97, and with PRA on minoxidil plus propranolol, r, 0.98. We conclude that control PRA is a major determinant of change in PRA with minoxidil. Minoxidil increased PRA by at least two mechanisms: (a) an adrenergic mechanism closely related to change in heart rate and blocked by propranolol, and (b) a mechanism(s) not sensitive to propranolol and possibly related to decrease in renal perfusion pressure. PMID:1127099

  13. Minoxidil-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC): characterization and rheological behaviour of topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Santos, D; Ferreira, D C; Souto, E B

    2009-03-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are used as biocompatible carriers for several types of drugs intended for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and biochemical purposes. The wide range of lipids and surfactants available for the production of such particles turns these carriers highly suitable for distinct applications (topical, dermal and transdermal, parenteral, pulmonary, and oral administration). This work describes the development of a special type of lipid particles, namely nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), for minoxidil as an alternative to conventional topical alcoholic solutions. NLC were composed of stearic acid and oleic acid, being the matrix stabilized with poloxamer 188 in aqueous dispersion. To develop a suitable topical formulation, lipid dispersions were further mixed with freshly prepared Carbopol or perfluorocarbon based hydrogels. Minoxidil-loaded NLC were approximately 250 nm in size before the entrapment within the gel network and remained below 500 nm after mixing with both types of hydrogels. The occurrence of minoxidil crystallization in the aqueous phase of lipid dispersions was discarded under analysis by light microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to assess the recrystallization index (i.e. measure of the percentage of lipid matrix that is crystallized) of the particles, which was shown to be 62% for minoxidil-free dispersions and 68% for minoxidil-loaded NLC dispersions. Rheological analysis of hydrogels containing NLC dispersions showed typical pseudoplastic behaviour which makes them suitable for topical purposes.

  14. Limitations of human occipital scalp hair follicle organ culture for studying the effects of minoxidil as a hair growth enhancer.

    PubMed

    Magerl, Markus; Paus, Ralf; Farjo, Nilofer; Müller-Röver, Sven; Peters, Eva M J; Foitzik, Kerstin; Tobin, Desmond J

    2004-10-01

    Minoxidil induces new hair growth in approximately one-third of patients with androgenetic alopecia after 1 year of treatment. With several conflicting reports in the literature based on small-scale studies, the current study aimed to clarify whether organ culture of human scalp anagen VI hair follicles is a suitable in vitro test system for reproducing, and experimentally dissecting, the recognized in vivo hair-growth-promoting capacity of minoxidil. Hair shaft elongation was studied in terminal anagen VI hair follicles microdissected from the occipital scalp of 36 healthy adults. A total of 2300 hair follicles, approximately 65 per individual, were tested using modifications of a basic organ culture protocol. It is shown here that minoxidil does not significantly increase hair shaft elongation or the duration of anagen VI in ex vivo culture despite several enhancements on the conventional methodology. This disparity to what is seen clinically in minoxidil responders may be explained by the following: (i) use of occipital (rather than frontotemporal or vertex) hair follicles; (ii) use of, already maximally growing, anagen VI hair follicles; (iii) a predominance of hair follicles from minoxidil unresponsive-donors; (iv) use of minoxidil rather than its sulfate metabolite; and/or (v) use of a suboptimal minoxidil dosage. This disparity questions the usefulness of standard human hair follicle organ culture in minoxidil research. Unexpectedly, minoxidil even inhibited hair shaft elongation in the absence of insulin, which may indicate that the actual hair-growth-modulatory effects of minoxidil depend on the concomitant local presence/absence of other growth modulators.

  15. Sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Janet; Desai, Nisha; McCoy, John; Goren, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Two percent topical minoxidil is the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Its success has been limited by the low percentage of responders. Meta-analysis of several studies reporting the number of responders to 2% minoxidil monotherapy indicates moderate hair regrowth in only 13-20% of female patients. Five percent minoxidil solution, when used off-label, may increase the percentage of responders to as much as 40%. As such, a biomarker for predicting treatment response would have significant clinical utility. In a previous study, Goren et al. reported an association between sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles and minoxidil response in a mixed cohort of male and female patients. The aim of this study was to replicate these findings in a well-defined cohort of female patients with AGA treated with 5% minoxidil daily for a period of 6 months. Consistent with the prior study, we found that sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts treatment response with 93% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Our study further supports the importance of minoxidil sulfation in eliciting a therapeutic response and provides further insight into novel targets for increasing minoxidil efficacy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Central chorioretinopathy associated with topical use of minoxidil 2% for treatment of baldness.

    PubMed

    Scarinci, Fabio; Mezzana, Paolo; Pasquini, Paola; Colletti, Michelle; Cacciamani, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Minoxidil is one of the drugs approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. This article presents a case of central serous chorioretinopathy after application of topical minoxidil solution. We examined a 37-year-old man who complained of a positive relative scotoma, metamorphopsia and impaired dark adaptation involving the right eye. The patient reported an 8 month history of daily topical use but denied previous treatment with other drugs. Dilated fundus examination of right eye revealed central swelling located over the macula. Optical coherence tomography showed the presence of subretinal fluid. Fluorescein angiography disclosed one focal hyperfluorescent spot in the foveal area with minimal pigmentary changes limitated to that area. The patient was diagnosed with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) potentially related to an 8 month topical minoxidil solution administration. One month after the drug was discontinued, normal findings were found upon reexamination. The patient reported no previous episode of CSC. Major systemic side effects from topical solution of minoxidil are rare. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a central serous chorioretinopathy associated with long-term use of this drug.

  17. Germacrone and sesquiterpene-enriched extracts from Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. increase skin penetration of minoxidil, a hair growth promoter.

    PubMed

    Srivilai, Jukkarin; Waranuch, Neti; Tangsumranjit, Anothai; Khorana, Nantaka; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2018-02-01

    Minoxidil is approved for topical treatment of androgenic alopecia but hampered by poor cutaneous absorption. Recently, the randomized control trial showed that hair loss treatment of minoxidil was improved by co-application of the anti-androgen, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extract. Here, we aimed to show that the apparent synergism arises from improved cutaneous penetration of minoxidil by bioactive compound, germacrone or C. aeruginosa (as an n-hexane extract, or essential oil). The partition coefficient of germacrone was determined by HPLC. Skin penetration was measured ex vivo on Franz diffusion cells using full thickness human foreskin as membranes. The receiver solution was sampled hourly for 8 h after which the skin was removed, the stratum corneum separated, and minoxidil assayed in this and in the remaining viable skin layer by HPLC. Skin penetration of minoxidil with 0.2 and 2% extract was increased ~ 4-fold (accumulated amount in receiver + skin viable layer after 8 h). Furthermore, germacrone enhanced minoxidil flux by ~ 10-fold and C. aeruginosa essential oil by ~ 20-fold. This work suggests three clinical consequences: (i) minoxidil efficacy is promoted, (ii) lower doses of minoxidil suffice, and (iii) C. aeruginosa extract/essential oil or germacrone can supplement treatment outcomes by acting as anti-androgen, thereby introducing a more effective topical treatment strategy for androgenic alopecia.

  18. Pseudoacromegaly induced by the long-term use of minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kari H; Marks, James G

    2003-06-01

    Acromegaly is an endocrine disorder caused by chronic excessive growth hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary gland. Significant disfiguring changes occur as a result of bone, cartilage, and soft tissue hypertrophy, including the thickening of the skin, coarsening of facial features, and cutis verticis gyrata. Pseudoacromegaly, on the other hand, is the presence of similar acromegaloid features in the absence of elevated growth hormone or insulin-like growth factor levels. We present a patient with pseudoacromegaly that resulted from the long-term use of minoxidil at an unusually high dose. This is the first case report of pseudoacromegaly as a side effect of minoxidil use.

  19. [Hair growth effect of minoxidil].

    PubMed

    Otomo, Susumu

    2002-03-01

    The length and size of hair are depend on the anagen term in its hair cycle. It has been reported that the some cell growth factors, such as VEGF, FGF-5S, IGF-1 and KGF, induce the proliferation of cells in the matrix, dermal papilla and dermal papillary vascular system and increase the amount of extra cellular matrix in dermal papilla and then maintain follicles in the anagen phase. On the other hand, negative factors, like FGF-5, thrombospondin, or still unknown ones, terminate the anagen phase. If the negative factors become dominant against cell proliferation factors according to fulfilling some time set by the biological clock for hair follicles, TGF beta induced in the matrix tissues evokes apoptosis of matrix cells and shifts the follicles from anagen to catagen. Androgenetic alopecia is caused by miniaturizing of hair follicles located in the frontal or crown part of scalp and are hereditarily more sensitive to androgen. In their hair cycles, the androgen shortens the anagen phase of follicles and shifts them to the catagen phase earlier than usual. The mode of action of hair growth effect of minoxidil is not completely elucidated, but the most plausible explanation proposed here is that minoxidil works as a sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) activator and prolongs the anagen phase of hair follicles in the following manner: minoxidil (1) induces cell growth factors such as VEGF, HGF, IGF-1 and potentiates HGF and IGF-1 actions by the activation of uncoupled SUR on the plasma membrane of dermal papilla cells, (2) inhibits of TGF beta induced apoptosis of hair matrix cells by opening the Kir 6.0 channel pore coupled with SUR on the mitochondrial inner membrane, and (3) dilates hair follicle arteries and increases blood flow in dermal papilla by opening the Kir 6.0 channel pore coupled with SUR on the plasma membrane of vascular smooth muscle cells.

  20. Comparison of Saccharina japonica-Undaria pinnatifida Mixture and Minoxidil on Hair Growth Promoting Effect in Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Soo; Park, Dae Hwan

    2016-11-01

    Algae have traditionally been used for promotion of hair growth. Use of hair regrowth drugs, such as minoxidil, is limited due to side effects. The aim of this study was to examine a mixture of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida (L-U mixture) on hair growth and to compare the promoting effect of hair growth by a 3% minoxidil and a L-U mixture. To evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity, saline, 50% ethanol, 3% minoxidil, and the L-U mixture were applied 2 times a day for a total of 14 days on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice after depilation. Analysis was determined by using a high-resolution hair analysis system, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and H&E staining. On day 14, the hair growth effect of the L-U mixture was the same as that of the 3% minoxidil treatment. The L-U mixture significantly (P<0.05) stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor -1. Increase of VEGF was observed in the L-U mixture group compared with minoxidil and the negative control. In contrast, the L-U mixture suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1, which is the hair loss-related gene. In histological examination in the L-U mixture and minoxidil groups, the induction of an anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of control groups. This study provides evidence that the L-U mixture can promote hair growth in mice, similar to the effect from minoxidil, and suggests that there is potential application for hair loss treatments.

  1. Randomized trial of electrodynamic microneedle combined with 5% minoxidil topical solution for the treatment of Chinese male Androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Bao, Linlin; Gong, Lin; Guo, Menger; Liu, Taoming; Shi, Anyu; Zong, Haifeng; Xu, Xuegang; Chen, Hongduo; Gao, Xinghua; Li, Yuanhong

    2017-10-13

    In treating androgenetic alopecia, 5% minoxidil is a commonly used topical drug. By using electrodynamic microneedle at the same time may increase absorption of minoxidil and further stimulate hair growth. A 24-week, randomized, evaluator blinded, comparative study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of treating Chinese male androgenetic alopecia using microneedle combined with 5% minoxidil topical solution. Randomized subjects received topical 5% minoxidil (group 1, n = 20), local electrodynamic microneedle treatments (group 2, n = 20), or local electrodynamic microneedle treatments plus topical 5% minoxidil (group 3, n = 20). A total of 12 microneedle treatments were performed every 2 weeks with 2ml 5% minoxidil delivery in group 3 during each microneedle treatment. Patient receiving topical 5% minoxidil applied 1 ml of the solution twice daily over the course of the study. A total of 60 Chinese male subjects with Norwood-Hamilton type III-VI androgenetic alopecia were treated. The mean improvement in total hair density from baseline to 24 weeks was 18.8/cm 2 in group 1, 23.4/cm 2 in group 2, and 38.3/cm 2 in group 3. The hair growth in the 3 groups was significantly different (P = 0.002), but there were no significant differences in toxicity found between the 3 groups. Treatment with microneedle plus topical 5% minoxidil was associated with the best hair growth.

  2. Penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) as carriers for cutaneous delivery of minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Mura, Simona; Manconi, Maria; Sinico, Chiara; Valenti, Donatella; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a few different penetration enhancers to produce elastic vesicles with soy lecithin and the influence of the obtained vesicles on in vitro (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil. To this purpose, so-called Penetration Enhancer-containing Vesicles (PEVs) were prepared as dehydrated-rehydrated vesicles by using soy lecithin and different amounts of three penetration enhancers, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol (Transcutol), capryl-caproyl macrogol 8-glyceride (Labrasol), and cineole. Soy lecithin liposomes, without penetration enhancers, were used as control. Prepared formulations were characterized in terms of size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, and vesicle deformability. The influence of PEVs on (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil was studied by in vitro diffusion experiments through newborn pig skin in comparison with traditional liposomes and ethanolic solutions of the drug also containing each penetration enhancer. A skin pre-treatment study using empty PEVs and conventional liposomes was also carried out. Results showed that all the used penetration enhancers were able to give more deformable vesicles than conventional liposomes with a good drug entrapment efficiency and stability. In vitro skin penetration data showed that PEVs were able to give a statistically significant improvement of minoxidil deposition in the skin in comparison with classic liposomes and penetration enhancer-containing drug ethanolic solutions without any transdermal delivery. Moreover, the most deformable PEVs, prepared with Labrasol and cineole, were also able to deliver to the skin a higher total amount of minoxidil than the PE alcoholic solutions thus suggesting that minoxidil delivery to the skin was strictly correlated to vesicle deformability, and therefore to vesicle composition.

  3. Formulation and in vitro assessment of minoxidil niosomes for enhanced skin delivery.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Shanmugam, Srinivasan; Lee, Won Seok; Lee, Won Mo; Kim, Jong Oh; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Dae-Duk; Kim, Jung Sun; Yoo, Bong Kyu; Choi, Han-Gon; Woo, Jong Soo; Yong, Chul Soon

    2009-07-30

    Niosomes have been reported as a possible approach to improve the low skin penetration and bioavailability characteristics shown by conventional topical vehicle for minoxidil. Niosomes formed from polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers (Brij) or sorbitan monoesters (Span) with cholesterol molar ratios of 0, 1 and 1.5 were prepared with varying drug amount 20-50mg using thin film-hydration method. The prepared systems were characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size, zeta potential and stability. Skin permeation studies were performed using static vertical diffusion Franz cells and hairless mouse skin treated with either niosomes, control minoxidil solution (propylene glycol-water-ethanol at 20:30:50, v/v/v) or a leading topical minoxidil commercial formulation (Minoxyl). The results showed that the type of surfactant, cholesterol and incorporated amount of drug altered the entrapment efficiency of niosomes. Higher entrapment efficiency was obtained with the niosomes prepared from Span 60 and cholesterol at 1:1 molar ratio using 25mg drug. Niosomal formulations have shown a fairly high retention of minoxidil inside the vesicles (80%) at refrigerated temperature up to a period of 3 months. It was observed that both dialyzed and non-dialyzed niosomal formulations (1.03+/-0.18 to 19.41+/-4.04%) enhanced the percentage of dose accumulated in the skin compared to commercial and control formulations (0.11+/-0.03 to 0.48+/-0.17%) except dialyzed Span 60 niosomes. The greatest skin accumulation was always obtained with non-dialyzed vesicular formulations. Our results suggest that these niosomal formulations could constitute a promising approach for the topical delivery of minoxidil in hair loss treatment.

  4. Successful management of minoxidil toxicosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Tyler J M; Yaxley, Page E; Culler, Christine A; Balakrishnan, Anusha

    2018-01-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old sexually intact female mixed-breed dog was evaluated at an emergency hospital approximately 5 hours after ingestion of an unknown amount of over-the-counter topical hair growth promoter containing 5% minoxidil foam. Vomiting and signs of lethargy were reported by the owner, and physical examination revealed tachycardia and hypotension. No treatments were performed, and the dog was transferred to a veterinary referral hospital for management of suspected minoxidil toxicosis. CLINICAL FINDINGS On arrival at the referral hospital, the dog was tachycardic (heart rate, 200 to 220 beats/min) and hypotensive (systolic arterial blood pressure, 70 mm Hg). Electrocardiography revealed a regular, narrow-complex tachycardia with no evidence of ventricular ectopy. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Hypotension was effectively managed with a constant rate infusion of dopamine hydrochloride (12.5 μg/kg/min [5.7 μg/lb/min], IV). Once normotensive, the dog remained tachycardic and a constant rate infusion of esmolol hydrochloride (40 μg/kg/min [18.2 μg/lb/min], IV) was initiated for heart rate control. A lipid emulsion was administered IV as a potential antidote for the toxic effects of the lipophilic minoxidil, with an initial bolus of 1.5 mL/kg (0.7 mL/lb) given over 15 minutes followed by a continuous rate infusion at 0.25 mL/kg/min (0.11 mL/lb/min) for 60 minutes. While hospitalized, the dog also received maropitant citrate and ondansetron. Resolution of clinical signs was achieved with treatment, and the dog was discharged from the hospital 36 hours after admission. Four days later, the owner reported that the dog had made a full recovery and had returned to its typical behavior and activity level at home. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of successful clinical management of accidental minoxidil toxicosis in a dog.

  5. The investigation of minoxidil-induced [Ca2+]i rises and non-Ca2+-triggered cell death in PC3 human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Shu; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liu, Yuan-Yuarn; Yu, Chia-Cheng; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Chen, Fu-An; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2017-02-01

    Minoxidil is clinically used to prevent hair loss. However, its effect on Ca 2+ homeostasis in prostate cancer cells is unclear. This study explored the effect of minoxidil on cytosolic-free Ca 2+ levels ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and cell viability in PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Minoxidil at concentrations between 200 and 800 μM evoked [Ca 2+ ] i rises in a concentration-dependent manner. This Ca 2+ signal was inhibited by 60% by removal of extracellular Ca 2+ . Minoxidil-induced Ca 2+ influx was confirmed by Mn 2+ -induced quench of fura-2 fluorescence. Pre-treatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X, PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA), nifedipine and SKF96365 inhibited minoxidil-induced Ca 2+ signal in Ca 2+ containing medium by 60%. Treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ pump inhibitor 2,5-ditert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) in Ca 2+ -free medium abolished minoxidil-induced [Ca 2+ ] i rises. Conversely, treatment with minoxidil abolished BHQ-induced [Ca 2+ ] i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U73122 abolished minoxidil-evoked [Ca 2+ ] i rises. Overnight treatment with minoxidil killed cells at concentrations of 200-600 μM in a concentration-dependent fashion. Chelation of cytosolic Ca 2+ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent minoxidil's cytotoxicity. Together, in PC3 cells, minoxidil induced [Ca 2+ ] i rises that involved Ca 2+ entry through PKC-regulated store-operated Ca 2+ channels and PLC-dependent Ca 2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Minoxidil-induced cytotoxicity in a Ca 2+ -independent manner.

  6. Near ultraviolet spectroscopic studies of 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine-3-oxide (minoxidil) and 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine (desoxyminoxidil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamann, Thomas J.

    The near u.v. spectra of 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine (desoxyminoxidil) and 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine-3-oxide (minoxidil) can be viewed as perturbed pyrimidine spectra. The u.v. properties of pyrimidine and a series of aminopyrimidines, specifically 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine, are examined to obtain u.v. spectral assignments for desoxyminoxidil and minoxidil. Minoxidil and its desoxy counterpart have C s symmetry, and all π → π* absorptions are allowed 1A' ← 1A' transitions. The two lowest energy π →- π* absorptions observed in minoxidil (262 nm, 292 nm) are tentatively assigned as very mild oxygen → pyrimidine ring charge-transfer transitions. Intensity decreases in protic solvents, and the results of simple Hückel molecular orbital calculations indicate that the 292 nm transition has more charge-transfer character than the 262 nm absorption. The protonated species of desoxyminoxidil and minoxidil have very similar u.v. spectra. This is due to the lack of oxygen-related charge transfer in protonated minoxidil, and the high probability that the positive charge resides in similar environments in the minoxidil and desoxyminoxidil molecular frameworks.

  7. Isolation and structural identification of a novel minoxidil analogue in an illegal dietary supplement: triaminodil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Han Na; Park, Hyoung Joon; Kim, Nam Sook; Park, Sung-Kwan; Lee, Jongkook; Baek, Sun Young

    2018-01-01

    A new minoxidil analogue was detected in an illegal dietary supplement advertised as a hair-growth treatment. The analogue was identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The compound was structurally elucidated as a minoxidil analogue in which the piperidinyl group of minoxidil was replaced with a pyrrolidinyl group corresponding to a molecular formula of C 8 H 13 N 5 O. The new analogue has been named triaminodil. As this is the first report of the compound, there are no chemical, toxicology or pharmacological data available.

  8. Influence of minoxidil on ischemic cutaneous flaps in rats.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Rogério de Castro; Biondo-Simões, Maria de Lourdes Pessole; Paula, Josué Brunginski de; Martynetz, Juliano; Groth, Anne

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of minoxidil, a well known vasodilator, on ischemic flap necrosis prevention in rats. Ventral cutaneous flaps, measuring 8x4 cm, were designed in 20 Wistar rats based on the right cranial epigastric artery. In the experiment group, 50 mg/kg/day of minoxidil sulfate was administered by orogastric tube and the same amount of saline solution was administered to the control group. Such procedure was initiated 24 h before surgery and kept once a day through the 7th postoperative day. Microcirculation was evaluated with laser fluxometry 24 h before surgical procedure, at immediate postoperative and at the 7th postoperative day. Flap necrosis area was evaluated by 2 methods: planimetry and weight/paper ratio. A significant flow increase in distal and medial extremity at M1 (medial point 1) (p=0.0484) was observed in the experiment group. There was significant difference in flap necrosis prevention in the experiment group (p=0.0433), although after necrosis took place there was no significant difference in necrosis size. (p=0.1051 and p=0.2799). Minoxidil sulfate is effective in avoiding necrosis in ischemic flaps, but after necrosis is present there is no difference in survival area between experimental and control groups.

  9. Combined treatment with oral finasteride and topical minoxidil in male androgenetic alopecia: a randomized and comparative study in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruiming; Xu, Feng; Sheng, Youyu; Qi, Sisi; Han, Yumei; Miao, Ying; Rui, Wenlong; Yang, Qinping

    2015-01-01

    Finasteride at 1 mg/day and 5% topical minoxidil are effective in male androgenetic alopecia (MAGA). However, studies describing their effects in Chinese individuals are scarce. 450 Chinese MAGA patients were randomly assigned to receive finasteride (n = 160), minoxidil (n = 130) and combined medication (n = 160) for 12 months. The patients returned to the clinic every 3 months for efficacy evaluation. And efficacy was evaluated in 428 men at treatment end, including 154, 122, and 152 in the finasteride, 5% minoxidil, and combination groups, respectively. All groups showed similar baseline characteristics, including age at enrollment, and duration and severity of alopecia (p > 0.05). At 12 months, 80.5, 59, and 94.1% men treated with finasteride, 5% minoxidil and the combination therapy showed improvement, respectively. Adverse reactions were rare (finasteride, 1.8%; minoxidil, 6.1%), and disappeared right after drug withdrawal. In conclusion, finasteride is superior to 5% minoxidil, while the combined medication showed the best efficacy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 1% topical minoxidil solution in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Ryoji; Tanaka, Takao; Nishikawa, Tooru; Ueki, Rie; Yamada, Hidekazu; Katsuoka, Kensei; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takeda, Katsuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Minoxidil is effective in inducing hair growth in patients with androgenetic alopecia by stimulating hair follicles to undergo transition from early to late anagen phase. However, there have been no controlled studies of topical minoxidil in Asian women. The objective of this trial was to investigate the efficacy of 1% topical minoxidil for androgenetic alopecia in Japanese female patients using a double-blind controlled method. This trial included 280 Japanese female patients aged 20 years or older with androgenetic alopecia who were administered either 1% topical minoxidil (n = 140) or placebo (n = 140) for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was mean change from baseline in non-vellus hair count/cm(2). The mean change was 8.15 in the 1% topical minoxidil group and 2.03 in the placebo group, with a significant difference between groups (p < 0.001) [difference: 6.12 (two-sided 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.29-8.96)]. Secondary variables included investigators' assessments and patients' self-assessments. As assessed by investigators, 29.2% (40/137) of the patients had moderate or better improvement in the 1% topical minoxidil group compared to 11.8% (16/136) in the placebo group (p < 0.001 versus placebo). The effect on hair growth was assessed as improved or better by 36.5% (50/137) of the patients themselves in the 1% topical minoxidil group compared to 23.5% (32/136) in the placebo group (p = 0.019 versus placebo). The patients tolerated treatment with 1% topical minoxidil well without significant adverse effects.

  11. Treatment of permanent chemotherapy-induced alopecia with low dose oral minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyi; Thai, Keng-Ee

    2016-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a well-established cause of major distress to patients. Permanent chemotherapy-induced alopecia (PCIA) is the absence of or incomplete hair regrowth lasting longer than 6 months after the cessation of chemotherapy and it does not respond to standard treatments of scalp cooling or topical minoxidil. The increasing numbers of reports of PCIA highlight the need for research into an effective treatment. We report a case of a 39 year-old woman with cosmetically significant regrowth after continuous therapy with oral minoxidil. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  12. The effect of topical minoxidil pretreatment on nonsurgical delay of rat cutaneous flaps: further studies.

    PubMed

    Gümüş, Nazım; Odemiş, Yusuf; Tuncer, Ersin; Yılmaz, Sarper

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of topically applied minoxidil in the pharmacological delay phenomenon and to demonstrate the comparable microscopic and macroscopic changes between minoxidil-pretreated flaps and surgically delayed flaps. A modified version of the McFarlane flap was used. Group 1 rats, in which a caudally based dorsal skin flap was raised and sutured back, were the control group. In group II, minoxidil solution was spread over the marked skin flap area for 7 days. On the 7th day, a caudally based dorsal skin flap was elevated and then sutured back. Group III rats underwent a surgical delay procedure alone. On the 7th day after flap elevation, evaluation was done by histologic examination and calculation of the flap survival areas in all groups. The lowest flap survival rate appeared in group I and was statistically different from groups II and III. The mean surviving skin flap area in the minoxidil-pretreated group was significantly larger than that in the control group. After histologic evaluation, moderate angiogenesis was also detected in group II. We also found that surgical delay significantly reduced flap necrosis when compared to the minoxidil pretreatment group. According to our study, minoxidil may be considered an effective vasoactive agent for the stimulation of angiogenesis in rat cutaneous flaps and capable of achieving pharmacological delay and increasing flap survival. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  13. Treatment of anal fissures using a combination of minoxidil and lignocaine: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Muthukumarassamy, Rajakannu; Robinson, Smile S; Sarath, Sistla Chandra; Raveendran, R

    2005-01-01

    Anal fissures are associated with hypertonia of the internal anal sphincter and pain. We evaluated the efficacy of local application of a combination of minoxidil and lignocaine in healing anal fissures. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, 90 patients with anal fissure were recruited. Patients received local applications of ointments containing 5% lignocaine (n=28), 0.5% minoxidil (n=36), or both (n=26). Healing of anal fissure at 6 weeks was used as the primary end-point. Rates of complete healing of fissure were similar in the three groups (lignocaine alone 8/27, minoxidil alone 10/34, combination 7/22; p=ns). Mean (SD) time taken for complete healing with combination treatment [1.9 (0.6) weeks] was significantly shorter than that with minoxidil alone (3.1 [1.7] weeks; p=0.001) or with lignocaine alone (3.3 [0.8] weeks; p=0.002). Rates of pain relief were similar in the three groups. Stoppage of bleeding occurred more often with combination treatment than with lignocaine alone. No patient had systemic or local side effects. Combination treatment with minoxidil and lignocaine helps in faster healing of anal fissures and provides better symptomatic relief than either drug alone.

  14. Efficacy and safety of 3% minoxidil versus combined 3% minoxidil / 0.1% finasteride in male pattern hair loss: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Tanglertsampan, Chuchai

    2012-10-01

    Topical minoxidil and oral finasteride have been used to treat men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). There are concerns about side effects of oral finasteride especially erectile dysfunction. To compare the efficacy and safety of the 24 weeks application of 3% minoxidil lotion (MNX) versus combined 3% minoxidil and 0.1% finasteride lotion (MFX) in men with AGA. Forty men with AGA were randomized treated with MNX or MFX. Efficacy was evaluated by hair counts and global photographic assessment. Safety assessment was performed by history and physical examination. At week 24, hair counts were increased from baseline in both groups. However paired t-test revealed statistical difference only in MFX group (p = 0.044). Unpaired t-test revealed no statistical difference between two groups with respect to change of hair counts at 24 weeks from baseline (p = 0.503). MFX showed significantly higher efficacy than MNX by global photographic assessment (p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in side effects between both groups. Although change of hair counts was not statistically different between two groups, global photographic assessment showed significantly greater improvement in the MFX group than the MNX group. There was no sexual side effect. MFX may be a safe and effective treatment option.

  15. [Minoxidil intoxication, the pharmacological agent of a hair lotion].

    PubMed

    Aprahamian, A; Escoda, S; Patteau, G; Merckx, A; Chéron, G

    2011-12-01

    Accidental intoxications in children are frequent but most of them are without serious consequences. We describe herein the case of a young girl who drank 100 mg of a topical hair lotion with minoxidil. On arrival, she had no symptoms except flush on the face and ears. Four and half hours after ingestion, tachycardia appeared with a pulse above 170 beats per min with hypotension at 76/24 mmHg. The heart rate remained between 170 and 190 beats per min for 12 h and then lowered to between 140 and 160 beats per min. Thirty-six hours after ingestion, the heart beat was at 140 beats per min. Minoxidil is a strong vasodilator used first in the 1970s for severe hypertension. It produces hypotension by direct arteriolar vasodilatation. Only a few cases of minoxidil intoxication have been described in the literature, including only one pediatric case. This young boy had only tachycardia of 160 beats per min for 40 h. Most serious cases have been described in adults. They suffered long-lasting tachycardia, hypotension, and ECG changes. Most patients need a bolus of normal saline fluid and some with hemodynamic problems need vasoactive drugs such as dopamine and/or phenylephrine. All patients need to be under medical supervision for a long time because of the product's very long action. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Induction of rat hepatic aryl sulfotransferase (SULT1A1) gene expression by triamcinolone acetonide: impact on minoxidil-mediated hypotension.

    PubMed

    Duanmu, Z; Dunbar, J; Falany, C N; Runge-Morris, M

    2000-05-01

    The hypotensive agent minoxidil (6-imino-1, 2-dihydro-1-hydroxy-2-imino-4-piperidinopyrimidine) depends upon aryl sulfotransferase (SULT1)-catalyzed sulfation for its bioactivation. Previous reports suggest that glucocorticoids induce class-specific SULT1 and isoform-specific SULT1A1 gene expression in rat liver. In the present study, rats were treated with the glucocorticoid triamcinolone acetonide (TA, 5 mg/kg/day i.p. x 3 days) or its vehicle, 2% Tween-20, prior to minoxidil, and subsequent effects on mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and hepatic SULT1 gene expression were characterized. Minoxidil treatment (1.5 mg/kg) resulted in a steady decline in MAP values of 16.3 to 18.6% relative to basal control levels at 35 to 60 min following minoxidil injection. Pentachlorophenol (PCP, 40 micromol/kg i.p.), an inhibitor of SULT1 enzyme activity, effectively ablated the hypotensive effects of minoxidil. By contrast, pretreatment with TA significantly enhanced minoxidil-induced hypotension. Relative to vehicle-treated controls, TA-treated rats displayed a steeper rate of decline in MAP and more profound levels of hypotension with decreases in MAP following minoxidil administration of 27.8%. TA also produced significant increases in hepatic SULT1 mRNA expression (of 271%) and SULT1A1 immunoreactive protein levels (of 273%), relative to vehicle-treated controls. These results provide physiological evidence to support the biological relevance of SULT1A1 induction by glucocorticoids. The data indicate that steroid treatment induces SULT1A1 gene expression and, as a consequence, accentuates the hypotensive effects of minoxidil. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Videodermoscopy does not enhance diagnosis of scalp contact dermatitis due to topical minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Antonella; Donati, Aline; Vincenzi, Colombina; Fabbrocini, Gabriella

    2009-07-01

    Videodermoscopy (VD) is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that provides useful information for the differential diagnosis of scalp disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate if dermoscopy may help the clinician in the diagnosis of contact dermatitis of the scalp. We analyzed the dermoscopic images taken from 7 patients with contact dermatitis due to topical minoxidil, 6 patients complaining of intense scalp itching during treatment with topical minoxidil but with negative patch tests and 19 controls. The following dermoscopic patterns described for scalp diseases were evaluated: Vascular patterns (simple loops, twisted loops and arborizing lines), follicular/perifollicular patterns (yellow dots, empty ostia, white dots, peripilar signs), white scales, yellow scales, follicular plugging, hair diameter diversity, honeycomb pattern and short regrowing hairs. Findings were graded from 0-4, according to severity in 20-fold magnifications. Statistical analysis included univariate analysis and Chi-square test by SPSS version 12. There were no statistical differences in the analysis of the vascular patterns and scales between the 3 groups. We were not able to detect dermoscopic features that can help the clinician in distinguishing scalp contact dermatitis due to topical minoxidil from other conditions that cause severe scalp itching. In particular, minoxidil contact dermatitis does not produce increase or alterations in the morphology of the scalp vessels or significant scalp scaling when evaluated with dermoscopy.

  18. Chronic Treatment with Minoxidil Induces Elastic Fiber Neosynthesis and Functional Improvement in the Aorta of Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Coquand-Gandit, Marion; Jacob, Marie-Paule; Fhayli, Wassim; Romero, Beatriz; Georgieva, Miglena; Bouillot, Stéphanie; Estève, Eric; Andrieu, Jean-Pierre; Brasseur, Sandrine; Bouyon, Sophie; Garcia-Honduvilla, Natalio; Huber, Philippe; Buján, Julia; Atanasova, Milena; Faury, Gilles

    2017-06-01

    Normal arterial aging processes involve vascular cell dysfunction associated with wall stiffening, the latter being due to progressive elastin and elastic fiber degradation, and elastin and collagen cross-linking by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). These processes progressively lead to cardiovascular dysfunction during aging. Elastin is only synthesized during late gestation and childhood, and further degradation occurring throughout adulthood cannot be physiologically compensated by replacement of altered material. However, the ATP-dependent K + channel opener minoxidil has been shown to stimulate elastin expression in vitro and in vivo in the aorta of young adult rats. Therefore, we have studied the effect of a 10-week chronic oral treatment with minoxidil (120 mg/L in drinking water) on the aortic structure and function in aged 24-month-old mice. Minoxidil treatment increased tropoelastin, fibulin-5, and lysyl-oxidase messenger RNA levels, reinduced a moderate expression of elastin, and lowered the levels of AGE-related molecules. This was accompanied by the formation of newly synthesized elastic fibers, which had diverse orientations in the wall. A decrease in the glycation capacity of aortic elastin was also produced by minoxidil treatment. The ascending aorta also underwent a minoxidil-induced increase in diameter and decrease in wall thickness, which partly reversed the age-associated thickening and returned the wall thickness value and strain-stress relation closer to those of younger adult animals. In conclusion, our results suggest that minoxidil presents an interesting potential for arterial remodeling in an antiaging perspective, even when treating already aged animals.

  19. Differential inhibition of hepatic and duodenal sulfation of (-)-salbutamol and minoxidil by mefenamic acid.

    PubMed

    Vietri, M; Pietrabissa, A; Spisni, R; Mosca, F; Pacifici, G M

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether mefenamic acid and salicylic acid inhibit the sulfation of (-)-salbutamol and minoxidil in the human liver and duodenum, and if so, to ascertain whether the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) estimates are different in the two tissues. Sulfotransferase activities were measured for 10 mM (-)-salbutamol and 5 mM minoxidil, and the concentration of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate-[35S] was 0.4 microM. The IC50 estimates for (-)-salbutamol and minoxidil sulfation of mefenamic acid were 72 +/- 5.4 nM and 1.5 +/- 0.6 microM (liver), respectively, and 161 + 23 microM and 420 +/- 18 microM (duodenum), respectively. The figures for the liver were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than those for the duodenum. The IC50 estimates for (-)-salbutamol sulfation of salicylic acid were 93 +/- 11 microM (liver) and 705 +/- 19 microM (duodenum, P < 0.0001). Salicylic acid was a poor inhibitor of minoxidil sulfation. The IC50 estimates for (-)-salbutamol sulfation of mefenamic acid and salicylic acid are lower than their unbound plasma concentrations after standard dosing, suggesting that mefenamic acid and salicylic acid should inhibit the hepatic sulfation of (-)-salbutamol in vivo.

  20. Niosomes as a vesicular carrier for topical administration of minoxidil: formulation and in vitro assessment.

    PubMed

    Mali, Nitin; Darandale, Sharad; Vavia, Pradeep

    2013-12-01

    Niosomes are reported to increase the skin permeation and bioavailability of topically applied drug molecules. However, very few studies were reported for nanometer-sized niosome vesicles. The aim of the present study was to prepare minoxidil-loaded niosomal formulation using ethanol injection method. Surfactant screening showed that only Span 60, Span 20, and Tween 20 with cholesterol have capability of nano size vesicle formation. The formed niosomes were characterized for entrapment efficiency, vesicle size, scanning electron microscope, and physical stability. By modulation of surfactant and cholesterol ratio maximum entrapment up to 34.70 ± 1.1 % with size of 470 ± 27 nm was obtained (Span 60/cholesterol ratio of 1:2). The vesicle size obtained was between 150 and 800 nm that was depending on cholesterol ratio and type of nonionic surfactant employed. The in vitro skin permeation study showed that an increase in cholesterol concentration in niosome vesicles increases minoxidil skin retention. Niosome formulation prepared with 1:2 ratio of Span 60 and cholesterol showed 17.21 ± 3.2 % skin retention of minoxidil, which is more than eightfold as compared to control minoxidil gel.

  1. The use of topical minoxidil to accelerate nail growth: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aiempanakit, Kumpol; Geater, Alan; Limtong, Preeyachat; Nicoletti, Kathleen

    2017-07-01

    Linear nail growth rate is affected by various conditions, one of which is the level of blood flow. Our supposition was that topical minoxidil, which has vasodilatory properties, can increase the rate of nail growth. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of topical minoxidil on nail growth. A 5% topical minoxidil solution was applied twice daily to the fingernails of 32 participants. Two groups of 16 participants were randomly chosen. In one group, the applications were made to the right index and left ring fingernails, and, in the other, the left index and right ring fingernails. During each visit (weekly during the first month and every 2 weeks during the second month), the nail length of six fingernails (index, middle, and ring of both hands) was measured using a digital caliper. Beginning in the first week, the mean nail length of the treated nails was greater than that of nails in the untreated group with statistical significance. There were no systemic or cutaneous side effects. During the first month, the mean growth of the treated nails was 4.27 mm/month compared with 3.91 mm/month in the untreated nails (P = 0.003). These findings suggest that a 5% concentration of topical minoxidil can stimulate nail growth with increased growth beginning in the first week of application. The results may have important implications for the treatment of nail disorders; however, a comparable study involving participants with nail disorders is highly recommended. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of topical minoxidil and topical alfatradiol in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kunte, Christian; Krisp, Andreas; Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Ellwanger, Ulf; Hoffmann, Rolf

    2007-05-01

    Two drugs which are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women in Germany were compared with regard to their influence on hair growth. Patients were randomized to group I (n = 52) who used 2% minoxidil solution twice daily for a period of 12 months or to group II (n = 51) who used 0.025% alfatradiol solution once daily for 6 months and were then switched to 2% minoxidil solution for months 7-12. Changes in hair growth parameters were determined using the TrichoScan. Topical treatment with 2% minoxidil solution for 6 months resulted in a significant increase of cumulative hair thickness (p < 0.0001) and absolute hair density (p < or = 0.0025), whereas these parameters of hair growth remained nearly unchanged after 6 months of treatment with alfatradiol solution. Evaluation of the same parameters from month 7 to month 12 demonstrated that 12 months minoxidil treatment resulted in an increasing stabilization (group I). After the alfatradiol-->minoxidil switch in group II a significant increase in cumulative hair thickness (p < 0.0001) and absolute hair density (p < 0.0001) was achieved. Both study medications were well tolerated. Treatment with minoxidil can induce an increase in hair density and hair thickness,whereas treatment with alfatradiol results in deceleration or stabilization of hair loss.

  3. Squarticles as a lipid nanocarrier for delivering diphencyprone and minoxidil to hair follicles and human dermal papilla cells.

    PubMed

    Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Sung, Calvin T; Shen, Feng-Ming; Huang, Chi-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of diphencyprone (DPCP) and minoxidil to hair follicles and related cells is important in the treatment of alopecia. Here we report the development of "squarticles," nanoparticles formed from sebum-derived lipids such as squalene and fatty esters, for use in achieving targeted drug delivery to the follicles. Two different nanosystems, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and nanoemulsions (NE), were prepared. The physicochemical properties of squarticles, including size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, and drug release, were examined. Squarticles were compared to a free control solution with respect to skin absorption, follicular accumulation, and dermal papilla cell targeting. The particle size of the NLC type was 177 nm; that of the NE type was 194 nm. Approximately 80% of DPCP and 60% of minoxidil were entrapped into squarticles. An improved drug deposition in the skin was observed in the in vitro absorption test. Compared to the free control, the squarticles reduced minoxidil penetration through the skin. This may indicate a minimized absorption into systemic circulation. Follicular uptake by squarticles was 2- and 7-fold higher for DPCP and minoxidil respectively compared to the free control. Fluorescence and confocal images of the skin confirmed a great accumulation of squarticles in the follicles and the deeper skin strata. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in dermal papilla cells was significantly upregulated after the loading of minoxidil into the squarticles. In vitro papilla cell viability and in vivo skin irritancy tests in nude mice suggested a good tolerability of squarticles to skin. Squarticles provide a promising nanocarrier for topical delivery of DPCP and minoxidil.

  4. The effects of particle properties on nanoparticle drug retention and release in dynamic minoxidil foams.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanjun; Brown, Marc B; Jones, Stuart A

    2010-01-04

    Nanocarriers may act as useful tools to deliver therapeutic agents to the skin. However, balancing the drug-particle interactions; to ensure adequate drug loading, with the drug-vehicle interactions; to allow efficient drug release, presents a significant challenge using traditional semi-solid vehicles. The aim of this study was to determine how the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles influenced minoxidil release pre and post dose application when formulated as a simple aqueous suspension compared to dynamic hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) foams. Minoxidil loaded lipid nanoparticles (LN, 1.4 mg/ml, 50 nm) and polymeric nanoparticles with a lipid core (PN, 0.6 mg/ml, 260 nm) were produced and suspended in water to produce the aqueous suspensions. These aqueous suspensions were emulsified with HFA using pluronic surfactant to generate the foams. Approximately 60% of the minoxidil loaded into the PN and 80% of the minoxidil loaded into the LN was released into the external aqueous phase 24h after production. Drug permeation was superior from the PN, i.e. it was the particle that retained the most drugs, irrespective of the formulation method. Premature drug release, i.e. during storage, resulted in the performance of the topical formulation being dictated by the thermodynamic activity of the solubilised drug not the particle properties.

  5. Effects of minoxidil 2% vs. cyproterone acetate treatment on female androgenetic alopecia: a controlled, 12-month randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Vexiau, P; Chaspoux, C; Boudou, P; Fiet, J; Jouanique, C; Hardy, N; Reygagne, P

    2002-06-01

    Hormone studies have demonstrated the androgen-dependent character of female androgenetic alopecia, but there have been few controlled studies of therapies for alopecia in women. To compare topical minoxidil 2% and cyproterone acetate in the treatment of female alopecia. Sixty-six women with female-pattern alopecia were randomly assigned for 12 cycles into two groups, 33 received two local applications (2 mL day-1) of topical minoxidil 2% plus combined oral contraceptive and 33 received cyproterone acetate 52 mg day-1 plus ethinyl oestradiol 35 microg for 20 of every 28 days. A mean reduction of 2.4 +/- 6.2 per 0.36 cm2 in hairs of diameter > 40 microm was observed in the cyproterone acetate group (P = 0.05) and a mean increase of 6.5 +/- 9 per 0.36 cm2 in the minoxidil group (P < 0.001). Comparison of the total number of hairs at 12 months and the body mass index (BMI) revealed a borderline positive correlation in the cyproterone acetate group (r = 0.39, P = 0.06) and a negative correlation in the minoxidil group (r = -0.42, P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in the total number of hairs among cyproterone acetate patients according to the presence or absence of other symptoms of hyperandrogenism, whereas in the minoxidil group, the total number of new hairs was higher in patients with isolated alopecia (Delta = 8.1; P < 0.05). Variations in scalp seborrhoea were significant in both groups, but the result was better (for acne and hirsutism as well) in the cyproterone acetate group than in the minoxidil group (P < 0.001). Minoxidil treatment was more effective in the absence of other signs of hyperandrogenism, hyperseborrhoea, and menstrual cycle modifications when the BMI was low, and when nothing argued in favour of biochemical hyperandrogenism. Cyproterone acetate treatment was more effective when other signs were present and when the BMI was elevated, factors that favoured a diagnosis of biochemical hyperandrogenism.

  6. [Effect of minoxidil on hair growth in androgenic alopecia in women].

    PubMed

    Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2002-09-01

    The aim of the study was to carry out clinical and trichological examination (trichogram and assessment of hair loss) before and after treatment in 17 women aged 41-50 years with androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil (Loxon) was topically applied twice a day massaging the solution into the scalp over 6-12 months. It was revealed on the ground of clinical and trichological examination that the medication containing 2% solution of minoxidil externally applied on the scalp with androgenic alopecia over a few months caused normalization of hair root condition and decrease of hair loss in some patients of the observed group. The drug has a stimulating influence on hair growth and should be administered as an adjuvant therapy in androgenic alopecia in women.

  7. New ethanol and propylene glycol free gel formulations containing a minoxidil-methyl-β-cyclodextrin complex as promising tools for alopecia treatment.

    PubMed

    Lopedota, Angela; Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Lopalco, Antonio; Selva, Stefano; Ragni, Lorella; Tongiani, Serena; Franco, Massimo

    2015-05-01

    New topical totally aqueous formulations that improve the low water solubility of minoxidil and realize an adequate permeability of drug in the skin are proposed. These formulations are lacking in propylene glycol and alcohol that are the principal irritant ingredients present in minoxidil commercial solutions. In order to enhance poor water solubility of minoxidil randomly methyl-β-cyclodextrin was used, and four hydrogels such as, calcium alginate, sodium alginate, carbopol 934 and hydroxyethylcellulose were utilized to ensure a prolonged time of contact with the scalp. The inclusion complex minoxidil/methyl-β-cyclodextrin with a molar ratio 1:1 was obtained by freeze drying and evaluated by NMR, FT-IR and DSC analysis. An apparent stability constant of formed inclusion complex was calculated by phase solubility diagram and its value was 400 M(-1). The solid inclusion complex was used to prepare gel formulations with similar dose to minoxidil commercial solution. The gels were evaluated for various technological parameters including rheological behavior, in vitro drug release and ex vivo permeation through pig skin. The best performance was observed for the calcium alginate formulation.

  8. The clinical effect of JetpPeel-assisted topical minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia: A randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lin; Bao, Linlin; Tian, Tian; Li, Yuanhong

    2018-02-01

    We used JetPeel, combined with topical minoxidil to treat patients with AGA, in order to observe whether the JetPeel can accelerate the recovery of the disease and find a new method for AGA treatment. Thirty patients who met the standard were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups. The first group was treated with JetPeel-assisted topical minoxidil. The second group received topical minoxidil monotherapy. The third group was not given any treatment. We used objective evaluation (amount and diameter of hair, oil secretion level) and subjective evaluation (hair growth score marked by dermatologist and patient) to evaluate the hair growth condition before treatment and every other month. The calculated p values of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant. All of the 30 patients finished the study. There was no difference in age, sex, and duration and severity of the disease among groups prior to treatment (p > 0.05). And there was greater improvement in scores of hair growth in the first group compared to the second and third group, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Compared with topical minoxidil monotherapy, JetPeel-assisted topical minoxidil is more effective during the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

  9. Minoxidil use in dermatology, side effects and recent patents.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alfredo; Cantisani, Carmen; Melis, Luca; Iorio, Alessandra; Scali, Elisabetta; Calvieri, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Minoxidil, a vasodilator medication known for its ability to slow or stop hair loss and promote hair regrowth, was first introduced, exclusively as an oral drug, to treat high blood pressure. It was however discovered to have the important side-effect of increasing growth or darkening of fine body hairs; this led to the development of a topical formulation as a 2% concentration solution for the treatment of female androgenic alopecia or 5% for treating male androgenic alopecia. Measurable changes disappear within months after discontinuation of treatment. The mechanism by which it promotes hair growth is not fully understood. Minoxidil is a potassium channel opener, causing hyperpolarization of cell membranes and it is also a vasodilator, it is speculated that, by widening blood vessels and opening potassium channels, it allows more oxygen, blood and nutrients to the follicle. This can also cause follicles in the telogen phase to shed, usually soon to be replaced by new, thicker hairs in a new anagen phase. It needs to be applied regularly, once or twice daily, for hair gained to be maintained, and side effects are common. The most common adverse reactions of the topical formulation are limited to irritant and allergic contact dermatitis on the scalp. There have been cases of allergic reactions to the nonactive ingredient propylene glycol, which is found in some topical solution especially if they are galenic. Increased hair loss which can occur during Minoxidil use, is due to the synchronization of the hair cycle that the treatment induces. In this review, we described its mechanism of action, use in dermatology and some patents related to alternative treatment of allergic reactions due to its use.

  10. Topical Minoxidil: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Its Efficacy in Androgenetic Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Charrette, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Topical minoxidil has become a mainstay in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Despite being a longstanding treatment for AGA, relatively few reviews of its efficacy have been published. The current study sought to synthesize the available efficacy data by performing a systematic review of the literature and conducting random-effects pairwise meta-analyses for the outcomes percent increase in hair count from baseline, investigator assessment, and patient self-assessment. Results showed that minoxidil is more effective than placebo in promoting total and nonvellus hair growth (mean difference [MD], 16.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.34-24.03 and MD, 20.90; 95% CI, 9.07-32.74). A significantly higher proportion of participants in the minoxidil group had greater hair growth than participants in the placebo group as judged by both investigators and self-reports (relative risk [RR], 2.28; 95% CI, 1.58-3.31 and RR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.34-1.80). Despite significant clinical efficacy, cosmetically acceptable results are present in only a subset of patients. Compliance is thought to be a major limiting factor and is being addressed by novel formulations and combinations.

  11. Chitosan microparticles for sustaining the topical delivery of minoxidil sulphate.

    PubMed

    Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Gratieri, Taís; Simão, Patrícia Sper; de Freitas, Luís Alexandre Pedro; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2011-01-01

    Given the hypothesis that microparticles can penetrate the skin barrier along the transfollicular route, this work aimed to obtain and characterise chitosan microparticles loaded with minoxidil sulphate (MXS) and to study their ability to sustain the release of the drug, attempting a further application utilising them in a targeted delivery system for the topical treatment of alopecia. Chitosan microparticles, containing different proportions of MXS/polymer, were prepared by spray drying and were characterised by yield, encapsulation efficiency, size and morphology. Microparticles selected for further studies showed high encapsulation efficiency (∼82%), a mean diameter of 3.0 µm and a spherical morphology without porosities. When suspended in an ethanol/water solution, chitosan microparticles underwent instantaneous swelling, increasing their mean diameter by 90%. Release studies revealed that the chitosan microparticles were able to sustain about three times the release rate of MXS. This feature, combined with suitable size, confers to these microparticles the potential to target and improve topical therapy of alopecia with minoxidil.

  12. The effects of minoxidil, 1% pyrithione zinc and a combination of both on hair density: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Berger, R S; Fu, J L; Smiles, K A; Turner, C B; Schnell, B M; Werchowski, K M; Lammers, K M

    2003-08-01

    Recent studies of antidandruff shampoos or tonics containing antifungal or antibacterial agents produced effects suggestive of a potential hair growth benefit. The purpose of this 6-month, 200-patient, randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel-group clinical study was to assess the hair growth benefits of a 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo. The efficacy of a 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo (used daily), was compared with that of a 5% minoxidil topical solution (applied twice daily), a placebo shampoo and a combination of the 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo and the 5% minoxidil topical solution. Two hundred healthy men between the ages of 18 and 49 years (inclusive) exhibiting Hamilton-Norwood type III vertex or type IV baldness were enrolled. Total hair counts, the primary efficacy measure, were obtained using fibre-optic microscopy and a computer-assisted, manual hair count method. Secondary measures of efficacy included assessments of hair diameter, as well as patient and investigator global assessments of improvement in hair growth. These were based on photographs of the scalp using both midline and vertex views. Hair count results showed a significant (P < 0.05) net increase in total visible hair counts for the 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo, the 5% minoxidil topical solution, and the combination treatment groups relative to the placebo shampoo after 9 weeks of treatment. The relative increase in hair count for the 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo was slightly less than half that for the minoxidil topical solution and was essentially maintained throughout the 26-week treatment period. No advantage was seen in using both the 5% minoxidil topical solution and the 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo. A small increase in hair diameter was observed for the minoxidil-containing treatment groups at week 17. Assessments of global improvements by the patients and investigator generally showed the benefit of 5% minoxidil. The benefit of the 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo used alone tended (P < 0.1) to be

  13. Minoxidil 5% solution for topical treatment of loose anagen hair syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Nisha S; Oranje, Arnold P

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old girl with a diagnosis of loose anagen hair syndrome was treated with a tapering regime of minoxidil 5% solution over 28 months, resulting in quick, significant clinical improvement with no adverse effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Efficacy of topical latanoprost versus minoxidil and betamethasone valerate on the treatment of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Amal Ahmad; El-Maadawy, Iman Hamed; El-Maghraby, Gamal Mohamed

    2018-02-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is one of the most common causes of localized hair loss. There is no universally proven therapy that induces and sustains remission of hair growth in AA. To compare the efficacy and safety of topical latanoprost, minoxidil and betamethasone valerate on hair growth in patients with AA. Hundred patients with AA classified into five groups of 20 treated with: Group I, latanoprost 0.1% lotion; Group II, minoxidil 5% lotion; Group III, betamethasone valerate 0.1% solution; Group IV, combination of latanoprost lotion and betamethasone valerate solution and Group V, a vehicle lotion control group. There was a statistically significant improvement in all therapeutic groups when compared with control group and reduction of severity of alopecia tool score of scalp and beard before and after treatment for all therapeutic groups. Latanoprost, minoxidil and betamethasone valerate are effective and safe in the treatment of patchy AA. The use of latanoprost added to the therapeutic efficacy of topical betamethasone valerate in the treatment of AA and could be an effective adjunctive topical therapy for AA.

  15. An analysis of gene expression data involving examination of signaling pathways activation reveals new insights into the mechanism of action of minoxidil topical foam in men with androgenetic alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jeff; Pappas, Apostolos; Mirmirani, Paradi; McCormick, Thomas S.; Cooper, Kevin D.; Schastnaya, Jane; Ozerov, Ivan V.; Aliper, Alexander; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss. Minoxidil has been approved for the treatment of hair loss, however its mechanism of action is still not fully clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of 5% minoxidil topical foam on gene expression and activation of signaling pathways in vertex and frontal scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia. We identified regional variations in gene expression and perturbed signaling pathways using in silico Pathway Activation Network Decomposition Analysis (iPANDA) before and after treatment with minoxidil. Vertex and frontal scalp of patients showed a generally similar response to minoxidil. Both scalp regions showed upregulation of genes that encode keratin associated proteins and downregulation of ILK, Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways after minoxidil treatment. Our results provide new insights into the mechanism of action of minoxidil topical foam in men with androgenetic alopecia. PMID:28594262

  16. An analysis of gene expression data involving examination of signaling pathways activation reveals new insights into the mechanism of action of minoxidil topical foam in men with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Stamatas, Georgios N; Wu, Jeff; Pappas, Apostolos; Mirmirani, Paradi; McCormick, Thomas S; Cooper, Kevin D; Consolo, Mary; Schastnaya, Jane; Ozerov, Ivan V; Aliper, Alexander; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss. Minoxidil has been approved for the treatment of hair loss, however its mechanism of action is still not fully clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of 5% minoxidil topical foam on gene expression and activation of signaling pathways in vertex and frontal scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia. We identified regional variations in gene expression and perturbed signaling pathways using in silico Pathway Activation Network Decomposition Analysis (iPANDA) before and after treatment with minoxidil. Vertex and frontal scalp of patients showed a generally similar response to minoxidil. Both scalp regions showed upregulation of genes that encode keratin associated proteins and downregulation of ILK, Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways after minoxidil treatment. Our results provide new insights into the mechanism of action of minoxidil topical foam in men with androgenetic alopecia.

  17. Mechanism of action of minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia is likely mediated by mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase-induced stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Goren, A; Naccarato, T; Situm, M; Kovacevic, M; Lotti, T; McCoy, J

    2017-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only topical drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. However, the exact mechanism by which minoxidil stimulates anagen phase and promotes hair growth is not fully understood. In the late telegen phase of the hair follicle growth cycle, stem cells located in the bulge region differentiate and re-enter anagen phase, a period of growth lasting 2-6 years. In androgenetic alopecia, the anagen phase is shortened and a progressive miniaturization of hair follicles occurs, eventually leading to hair loss. Several studies have demonstrated that minoxidil increases the amount of intracellular Ca2+, which has been shown to up-regulate the enzyme adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase. A recent study demonstrated that ATP synthase, independent of its role in ATP synthesis, promotes stem cell differentiation. As such, we propose that minoxidil induced Ca2+ influx can increase stem cell differentiation and may be a key factor in the mechanism by which minoxidil facilitates hair growth. Based on our theory, we provide a roadmap for the development of a new class of drugs for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

  18. Therapeutic Efficacy of a Combination Therapy of Topical 17α-Estradiol and Topical Minoxidil on Female Pattern Hair Loss: A Noncomparative, Retrospective Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Choe, Sung Jay; Lee, Solam; Choi, Jaewoong; Lee, Won-Soo

    2017-06-01

    A variety of agents have been used to treat female pattern hair loss (FPHL), including topical minoxidil, topical 17α-estradiol, oral anti-androgen agents, and mineral supplements. Compared with these single agent regimens, combination therapies could be a better therapeutic option in expectation of superior treatment outcome. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of a combination therapy consisting of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil in Korean patients with FPHL. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in 34 women who applied topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil once daily for more than 6 months. Phototrichogram analysis was performed before and after therapy. The efficacy was evaluated with respect to total hair count, hair caliber (as assessed by phototrichogram analysis), and photographic assessment. Total hair count and hair caliber both increased from baseline to 6 months in patients treated with the combination therapy of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil ( p <0.001). Photographic assessment also revealed significant disease improvement, thus supporting the therapeutic efficacy. A combination therapy consisting of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil can be tried as an effective treatment for FPHL.

  19. Simultaneous effects of tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) on local hair growth promotion and systemic absorption of topically applied minoxidil in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Ho; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Wu, An-Bang; Lin, Keng-Ping; Ho, Hsiu-O

    2005-12-08

    In this study, topical minoxidil solutions supplemented with TPGS in cosolvent systems of various compositions consisting of water, alcohol, and polyethylene glycol 400 were designed to evaluate the efficacy of promoting hair growth after topical application and the safety in terms of the amount of minoxidil absorbed through the skin into the circulation using C57BL/6J mice as a model. The commercial product of 2% Regaine) was used as the positive control. The role, which sulfotransferase activity plays in hair growth with treatment using minoxidil, was determined as well. The results revealed that the addition of 0.5% TPGS was able to enhance the proliferation of hair, but an increase in the amount of TPGS to 2% led to deterioration in the enhancement of hair growth. At the higher added amount (2.0%) of TPGS, the promotion of hair growth was slightly reduced for both cosolvent formulations F1 (100% water) and F3 (100% PEG 400), whereas it was reduced to a greater extent for the cosolvent formulations F8-F10. In comparison, the influences of cosolvent compositions with TPGS amounts of 0.0 and 2.0% on the promotion of hair growth were similar. On the contrary, variability in the promotion of hair growth by different solvent formulations was minimal when the added amount of TPGS was 0.5%. In general, a relationship between hair growth and sulfotransferase activities after topical application of 2% Regaine and minoxidil formulations containing various amounts of TPGS was not demonstrated. Plasma concentrations of minoxidil with 2% Regaine were found to be greater than those of 2% minoxidil in those cosolvent formulations containing various amounts of TPGS, while showing insignificant differences among those 10 cosolvent formulations with a fixed amount of TPGS. A tendency for the plasma concentration of minoxidil to increase after the topical administration of minoxidil formulations containing the higher amount of TPGS (2%) was noted.

  20. Positive lymphocyte transformation test in a patient with allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp after short-term use of topical minoxidil solution.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Tobias; Schlütter-Böhmer, Brigitte; Allam, Jean-Pierre; Bieber, Thomas; Novak, Natalija

    2005-07-01

    Topical 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine-3-oxide (minoxidil) solution has been widely used for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia for over 15 years now and the substance is currently approved for this indication in 2% and 5% formulation. Typical side effects of this topical treatment include irritative dermatitis going along with pruritus, erythema, scaling and dryness, which occur especially at the onset of the therapy. In some cases, allergic contact dermatitis or exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis has been reported. While most of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis described in the literature showed a positive sensitization to the vehicle substance propylene glycol evaluated by patch testing, reactions to the active ingredient minoxidil are rare. Here, we report a case of allergic sensitization to minoxidil, which we evaluated and differentiated from an irritative reaction by a combination of patch testing and lymphocyte transformation test. The differentiation of allergic and irritative adverse effects and the identification of the causative allergen are of major relevance for the proceeding and adjustment of the therapy. Patients with sensitizations against propylene glycol are candidates for preparations with alternative solvents but can proceed treatment with minoxidil. In contrast, patients with allergies to the active ingredient itself are no longer candidates for treatment with minoxidil and should undergo alternative therapeutic options.

  1. Refractory hypotension due to Rogaine® (minoxidil) ingestion managed with midodrine.

    PubMed

    Garrard, Alexander; Wood, Adam; Sollee, Dawn; Aaronson, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Minoxidil (Rogaine®) is a direct vasodilator that can cause significant toxicity when ingested. We report a case of ingestion of topical minoxidil [Rogaine® (Johnson & Johnson Healthcare Products, Division of McNeil-PPC, Inc)] resulting in refractory hypotension that was successfully managed with the oral α (1) agonist midodrine. A 48-year-old male who ingested an eight ounce bottle of Rogaine® presented to the emergency department. The patient presented with a blood pressure of 57/45 mmHg and a pulse of 84 beats per minute. The patient received IV fluids and multiple vasopressors to maintain an adequate mean arterial pressure. Midodrine, an oral α (1) vasopressor, was added 10 hours post ingestion and was able to maintain an adequate mean arterial pressure. Over the next two days, midodrine was titrated down as his blood pressure returned to baseline. Midodrine may serve as an additional option to treat toxicant induced hypotension.

  2. Rapid determination of minoxidil in human plasma using ion-pair HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zarghi, A; Shafaati, A; Foroutan, S M; Khoddam, A

    2004-10-29

    A rapid, simple and sensitive ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for quantification of minoxidil in plasma. The assay enables the measurement of minoxidil for therapeutic drug monitoring with a minimum detectable limit of 0.5 ng ml(-1). The method involves simple, one-step extraction procedure and analytical recovery was complete. The separation was performed on an analytical 150 x 4.6 mm i.d. microbondapak C18 column. The wavelength was set at 281 nm. The mobile phase was a mixture of 0.01 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (60:40, v/v) containing 2.5 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate adjusted to pH 3.5 at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The column temperature was set at 50 degrees C. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 2-100 ng ml(-1). The coefficients of variation for inter-day and intra-day assay were found to be less than 8%.

  3. A randomized, single-blind trial of 5% minoxidil foam once daily versus 2% minoxidil solution twice daily in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Hillmann, Kathrin; Dietz, Ekkehart; Canfield, Douglas; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2011-12-01

    Although twice-daily application of propylene glycol-containing 2% minoxidil topical solution (MTS) stimulates new hair growth, higher concentrations of minoxidil in a once-daily, propylene glycol-free formulation may improve efficacy and reduce unpleasant side effects. We sought to compare the efficacy, safety, and acceptability and to show noninferiority of once-daily 5% minoxidil topical foam (MTF) with twice-daily 2% MTS in women with androgenetic alopecia. A total of 113 women with androgenetic alopecia were randomized to 24 weeks of treatment with 5% MTF or 2% MTS. The primary efficacy parameter was change from baseline in nonvellus target area hair count at week 24. Secondary end points included change in nonvellus target area hair width, overall efficacy by global photographic review as assessed by treatment-blinded evaluators and the subject herself, adverse events, and participants' assessment of product aesthetics. After 24 weeks, women randomized to 5% MTF once daily showed noninferior target area hair count and target area hair width and experienced greater, but nonsignificant, improvements in target area hair count, target area hair width, and overall efficacy by global photographic review than those randomized to 2% MTS used twice daily. 5% MTF was significantly superior to 2% MTS in participants' agreement with "the treatment does not interfere with styling my hair" (P = .002). Women randomized to 5% MTF experienced significantly lower rates of local intolerance (P = .046) especially in pruritus and dandruff compared with 2% MTS. Because of differences in the formulations tested, study participants were not blinded to treatment. Once-daily 5% MTF is noninferior and as effective for stimulating hair growth as twice-daily 2% MTS in women with androgenetic alopecia and is associated with several aesthetic and practical advantages. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Release of atrial natriuretic peptide from rat myocardium in vitro: effect of minoxidil-induced hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Kinnunen, P.; Taskinen, T.; Leppäluoto, J.; Ruskoaho, H.

    1990-01-01

    1. Ventricular hypertrophy is characterized by stimulation of ventricular synthesis of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). To examine the role of ventricular ANP levels in the secretion of ANP into the circulation, atrial and ventricular levels of immunoreactive-ANP (IR-ANP) as well as ANP messenger RNA (mRNA), and the release of IR-ANP from isolated perfused hearts, both before and after atrialectomy, were measured simultaneously in control and minoxidil-treated Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. 2. IR-ANP levels in the ventricles of untreated, 12 month-old SHR with severe ventricular hypertrophy were increased when compared to age-matched WKY rats. Minoxidil treatment for 8 weeks in both strains resulted in a decrease in mean arterial pressure and increases in ventricular weight to body weight ratios, plasma IR-ANP concentrations (in WKY from 133 +/- 20 to 281 +/- 34 pg ml-1, P less than 0.01; in SHR from 184 +/- 38 to 339 +/- 61 pg ml-1, P less than 0.05), and in ventricular IR-ANP contents (in WKY: 53%; in SHR: 41%). A highly significant correlation was found between ventricular IR-ANP content and ventricular weight to body weight ratio (r = 0.59, P less than 0.001, n = 26). 3. When studied in vitro, in isolated perfused heart preparations, the hypertrophied ventricular tissue after atrialectomy secreted more ANP into the perfusate than ventricles of the control hearts; ventricles contributed 28%, 22%, 18% and 15% of the total ANP release to perfusate in the minoxidil-treated SHR, control SHR, minoxidil-treated WKY and control WKY, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2141796

  5. Rosemary oil vs minoxidil 2% for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia: a randomized comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2015-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a medicinal plant with diverse activities including enhancement microcapillary perfusion. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of rosemary oil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and compare its effects with minoxidil 2%. Patients with AGA were randomly assigned to rosemary oil (n = 50) or minoxidil 2% (n = 50) for a period of 6 months. After a baseline visit, patients returned to the clinic for efficacy and safety evaluations every 3 months. A standardized professional microphotographic assessment of each volunteer was taken at the initial interview and after 3 and 6 months of the trial. No significant change was observed in the mean hair count at the 3-month endpoint, neither in the rosemary nor in the minoxidil group (P > .05). In contrast, both groups experienced a significant increase in hair count at the 6-month endpoint compared with the baseline and 3-month endpoint (P < .05). No significant difference was found between the study groups regarding hair count either at month 3 or month 6 (> .05). The frequencies of dry hair, greasy hair, and dandruff were not found to be significantly different from baseline at either month 3 or month 6 trial in the groups (P > .05). The frequency of scalp itching at the 3- and 6-month trial points was significantly higher compared with baseline in both groups (P < .05). Scalp itching, however, was more frequent in the minoxidil group at both assessed endpoints (P < .05). The findings of the present trial provided evidence with respect to the efficacy of rosemary oil in the treatment of AGA.

  6. Effect of topically applied minoxidil on the survival of rat dorsal skin flap.

    PubMed

    Gümüş, Nazım; Odemiş, Yusuf; Yılmaz, Sarper; Tuncer, Ersin

    2012-12-01

    Flap necrosis still is a challenging problem in reconstructive surgery that results in irreversible tissue loss. This study evaluated the effect of topically applied minoxidil on angiogenesis and survival of a caudally based dorsal rat skin flap. For this study, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of eight each. A caudally based dorsal skin flap with the dimensions of 9 × 3 cm was raised. After elevation of the flaps, they were sutured back into their initial positions. In group 1 (control group), 1 ml of isotonic saline was applied topically to the flaps of all the animals for 14 days. In group 2, minoxidil solution was spread uniformly over the flap surface for 7 days after the flap elevation. In group 3, minoxidil solution was applied topically to the flap surface during a 14-day period. On day 7 after the flap elevation, the rats were killed. The average area of flap survival was determined for each rat. Subdermal vascular architecture and angiogenesis were evaluated under a light microscope after two full-thickness skin biopsy specimens had been obtained from the midline of the flaps. The lowest flap survival rate was observed in group 1, and no difference was observed between groups 1 and 2. Compared with groups 1 and 2, group 3 had a significantly increased percentage of flap survival (P < 0.05). Intense and moderate angiogenesis also was observed respectively at the proximal and distal areas of the flaps in group 3. The results of this experiment seem to show that the early effect of minoxidil is vasodilation and that prolonged use before flap elevation leads to angiogenesis, increasing flap viability. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  7. Therapeutic Efficacy of a Combination Therapy of Topical 17α-Estradiol and Topical Minoxidil on Female Pattern Hair Loss: A Noncomparative, Retrospective Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Sung Jay; Lee, Solam; Choi, Jaewoong

    2017-01-01

    Background A variety of agents have been used to treat female pattern hair loss (FPHL), including topical minoxidil, topical 17α-estradiol, oral anti-androgen agents, and mineral supplements. Compared with these single agent regimens, combination therapies could be a better therapeutic option in expectation of superior treatment outcome. Objective This study was designed to determine the efficacy of a combination therapy consisting of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil in Korean patients with FPHL. Methods Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in 34 women who applied topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil once daily for more than 6 months. Phototrichogram analysis was performed before and after therapy. The efficacy was evaluated with respect to total hair count, hair caliber (as assessed by phototrichogram analysis), and photographic assessment. Results Total hair count and hair caliber both increased from baseline to 6 months in patients treated with the combination therapy of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil (p<0.001). Photographic assessment also revealed significant disease improvement, thus supporting the therapeutic efficacy. Conclusion A combination therapy consisting of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil can be tried as an effective treatment for FPHL. PMID:28566902

  8. An open, randomized, comparative study of oral finasteride and 5% topical minoxidil in male androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Arca, Ercan; Açikgöz, Gürol; Taştan, Halis Bülent; Köse, Osman; Kurumlu, Zafer

    2004-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is undoubtedly the most common form of hair loss in males. It is a condition which may cause cosmetic and psychosocial problems in androgen-dependent cases. In this open, randomized and comparative study we evaluated the efficacy of oral finasteride and 5% topical minoxidil treatment for 12 months in 65 male patients with mild to severe AGA. We randomly assigned 40 (61.53%) patients to receive 1 mg/day oral finasteride for 12 months, and 25 (38.47%) patients applied 5% topical minoxidil solution twice daily for 12 months. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups considering age, age of onset of hair loss, family history and type of hair loss (p > 0.05). In the clinical evaluation at the endpoint of treatment, the clinical cure rates (i.e. increased intensity of hair) were 80% (32/40) for the oral finasteride group and 52% (13/25) for the 5% topical minoxidil group. Encountered side effects were all mild, and there was no need to stop the treatment. In the group given oral finasteride, side effects were noted in 7 patients: 6 patients suffered from loss of libido, and 1 patient had an increase in other body hairs; irritation of the scalp was seen in 1 patient in the group administered 5% minoxidil. These adverse events disappeared as soon as the treatment was stopped. The laboratory data on both drug groups did not show any statistically or clinically significant intragroup changes from baseline values to the endpoint (p > 0.05), except the level of serum total testosterone which was increased, and free testosterone and serum prostate-specific antigen in the finasteride group which were statistically decreased from baseline values to the endpoint (p < 0.05). In this comparative study of systemic finasteride and topical minoxidil, it was concluded that both drugs were effective and safe in the treatment of mild to severe AGA, although oral finasteride treatment was more effective (p < 0.05). Adverse events were not

  9. Stability indicating RP-HPLC method development and validation for the simultaneous determination of aminexil and minoxidil in pharmaceutical dosage form.

    PubMed

    Siddiraju, S; Sahithi, M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to develop stability indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of aminexil and minoxidil in pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved with BDS Hypersil C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm×5 μ) as stationary phase and phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (78:22) as mobile phase. The method was employed by using a flow rate of 1.1 mL/min kept at 30°C. The detection wavelength was kept at 238 nm by using photo-diode array detector. The retention times of the aminexil and minoxidil were found to be 2.3 min and 3.9 min, respectively. The method developed was validated in accordance with ICH guidelines with respect to the stability indicating capacity of the method including system suitability, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness. The linearity responses of aminexil and minoxidil were found to be in the concentration ranges of 18.75-112.5 μg/mL and 25-150 μg/mL, respectively. The LOD and LOQ values for aminexil were found to be 0.31 and 0.92 μg/mL and minoxidil were found to be 0.03 and 0.10 μg/mL respectively. The percentage recoveries for both the drugs were found in the range of 98-101%. This method is accurate, precise and sensitive; hence, it can be employed for routine quality control of aminexil and minoxidil in pharmaceutical industries and drug testing laboratories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Female pattern hair loss: a pilot study investigating combination therapy with low-dose oral minoxidil and spironolactone.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2018-01-01

    Minoxidil and spironolactone are oral antihypertensives known to stimulate hair growth. To report on a case series of women with pattern hair loss (PHL) treated with once daily minoxidil 0.25 mg and spironolactone 25 mg. Women newly diagnosed with a Sinclair stage 2-5 PHL were scored for hair shedding and hair density before and after 12 months of treatment with oral minoxidil 0.25 mg and spironolactone 25 mg. A total of 100 women were included in this observational pilot study. Mean age was 48.44 years (range 18-80). Mean hair loss severity at baseline was Sinclair 2.79 (range 2-5). Mean hair shedding score at baseline was 4.82. Mean duration of diagnosis was 6.5 years (range 0.5-30). Mean reduction in hair loss severity score was 0.85 at 6 months and 1.3 at 12 months. Mean reduction in hair shedding score was 2.3 at 6 months and 2.6 at 12 months. Mean change in blood pressure was -4.52 mmHg systolic and -6.48 mmHg diastolic. Side effects were seen in eight women but were generally mild. No patients developed hyperkalemia or any other blood test abnormality. Six of these women continued treatment, and two women who developed urticaria discontinued treatment. Prospective, uncontrolled, open-label observational study. Once daily capsules containing minoxidil 0.25 mg and spironolactone 25 mg appear to be safe and effective in the treatment of FPHL. Placebo-controlled studies to investigate this further are warranted. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Need for beta-blockade in hypertension reduced with long-term minoxidil.

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, H R; Jaeger, P; Ferguson, R K; Jequier, E; Turini, G; Gavras, H

    1978-01-01

    Sequential changes in plasma renin activity and urinary aldosterone and noradrenaline were assessed in eight patients with severe hypertension after minoxidil had been added to their treatment. Doses of 2.5--27.5 (mean 12.5) mg/day reduced the mean blood pressure from 166/113 +/-6/2 mm Hg to 124/88+/-4/2 mm Hg in one week. Plasma renin activity and urinary aldosterone and noradrenaline increased twofold to threefold initially but returned to baseline values within two to three weeks and remained unchanged during a mean follow-up of 5.1 months. Beta-blocking drugs were then withdrawn slowly in six patients without adverse effects, though blood pressure and heart rate increased in three patients, who required minimal doses of beta-blockers. Plasma renin activity and urinary aldosterone and noradrenaline did not change significantly after beta-blockade had been stopped. We conclude that the need for beta-blockade is greatly reduced with long-term minoxidil treatment and that it may be unnecessary in some patients. PMID:28811

  12. Efficacy and safety of a new 5% minoxidil formulation in male androgenetic alopecia: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, noninferiority study.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Issiakhem, Zahida; Gautier, Stephanie; Kottner, Jan; Wigger-Alberti, Walter; Fischer, Tobias; Hoffmann, Rolf; Tonner, Françoise; Bouroubi, Athmane; Voisard, Jean-Jacques

    2018-04-16

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common cause of hair loss in men. Topical minoxidil solutions can help to treat AGA but have to be applied continuously to be effective. A new minoxidil formulation with improved cosmetic characteristics (DC0120, Pierre-Fabre Dermatologie) was tested for noninferiority vs a comparator minoxidil product (ALOSTIL ® , Johnson & Johnson) in stimulating hair growth in men with AGA. Two 10 cm 2 areas on the scalp of each subject were randomized to receive DC0120, the comparator, or one of their corresponding vehicles, applied twice per day for 16 weeks. Nonvellus target area hair count (TAHC) was measured within treatment areas at baseline (day 1) and after 8 and 16 weeks by digital phototrichogram. Two hundred and twenty subjects were included and randomized, of which 210 completed the study. The mean change in nonvellus TAHC between baseline and week 16 was +22.0 hairs/cm 2 (95% CI: 18.1; 25.9) in the DC0120 group and +20.5 hairs/cm 2 (95% CI: 16.6; 24.4) in the comparator group. The adjusted mean difference in TAHC changes between the two treatments was +1.5 hairs/cm 2 (95% CI -2.3; 5.2), with the lower 95% confidence interval above the noninferiority threshold of -7 hairs/cm 2 . This indicated that DC0120 was noninferior to the comparator. Both minoxidil treatments also increased nonvellus TAHC compared to vehicle groups at 8 and 16 weeks. No new safety signals were observed. DC0120 was as safe and effective as a similar marketed minoxidil product for stimulating hair growth in men with AGA. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A hairy fall: syncope resulting from topical application of minoxidil

    PubMed Central

    Dubrey, S W; VanGriethuysen, J; Edwards, C M B

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a young man who developed syncope after using a high strength formulation of topical minoxidil as a hair growth restorer. Other potential cardiovascular and endocrine causes were excluded, and his symptoms resolved on discontinuation of the product. While syncope is a recognised side effect of using this powerful systemic antihypertensive agent, few cases are documented in the literature, which we illustrate in our discussion. PMID:26347235

  14. Efficacy and safety of 5% minoxidil topical foam in male pattern hair loss treatment and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh, Hournaz; Nasrollahi, Saman Ahmad; Halavati, Nader; Saberi, Maryam; Firooz, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Male pattern hair loss is widespread around the world. Its prevalence indicates the importance of finding the best treatment modalities. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of minoxidil 5% topical foam in male pattern hair loss treatment and patient satisfaction. This study was a before-and-after trial on 17 male patients with male pattern hair loss. Subjects were instructed to apply one capful (1 ml) of minoxidil 5% topical foam on the scalp daily for 6 months. Efficacy was assessed through hair counts, subject assessment, and global photographic review. Seventeen male volunteers were recruited, and three volunteers were withdrawn; 14 participated in the trial for 16 weeks, and 12 continued up to 24 weeks. The average hair count with a camera at week 16 (181.87 ± 52.42) and week 24 (194.58 ± 62.82) and with an eye count at week 16 (62.57 ± 15.28) and week 24 (69.91 ± 15.61) increased significantly compared to the baseline after intervention. This study confirmed that minoxidil 5% topical foam is a safe and effective treatment for MPHL. The effect of it is evident after 24 weeks of use.

  15. Human hair follicles contain two forms of ATP-sensitive potassium channels, only one of which is sensitive to minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Shorter, Katie; Farjo, Nilofer P; Picksley, Steven M; Randall, Valerie A

    2008-06-01

    Hair disorders cause psychological distress but are generally poorly controlled; more effective treatments are required. Despite the long-standing use of minoxidil for balding, its mechanism is unclear; suggestions include action on vasculature or follicle cells. Similar drugs also stimulate hair, implicating ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels. To investigate whether K(ATP) channels are present in human follicles, we used organ culture, molecular biological, and immunohistological approaches. Minoxidil and tolbutamide, a K(ATP) channel blocker, opposed each other's effects on the growing phase (anagen) of scalp follicles cultured in media with and without insulin. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction identified K(ATP) channel component gene expression including regulatory sulfonylurea receptors (SUR) SUR1 and SUR2B but not SUR2A and pore-forming subunits (Kir) Kir6.1 and Kir6.2. When hair bulb tissues were examined separately, epithelial matrix expressed SUR1 and Kir6.2, whereas both dermal papilla and sheath exhibited SUR2B and Kir6.1. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated similar protein distributions. Thus, human follicles respond biologically to K(ATP) channel regulators in culture and express genes and proteins for two K(ATP) channels, Kir6.2/SUR1 and Kir6.1/SUR2B; minoxidil only stimulates SUR2 channels. These findings indicate that human follicular dermal papillae contain K(ATP) channels that can respond to minoxidil and that tolbutamide may suppress hair growth clinically; novel drugs designed specifically for these channels could treat hair disorders.

  16. Short-term minoxidil use associated with pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade: an uncommon presentation.

    PubMed

    Pasala, Krishna K; Gujja, Karthik; Prabhu, Hejmadi; Vasavada, Balendu; Konka, Sudarsanam

    2012-11-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with complaints of shortness of breath and lower extremity swelling. His medical history was significant for hypertension on minoxidil and recent intracerebellar hemorrhage. Electrocardiography showed sinus tachycardia with left ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiomegaly was noted in the chest x-ray. The patient was hypertensive and tachypneic on admission. An echocardiogram taken immediately showed a large pericardial effusion with evidence of cardiac tamponade. He underwent immediate pericardiocentesis with drainage of 900 mL of pericardial fluid with significant improvement in the symptoms. Analysis of the pericardial fluid proved to be nondiagnostic. Infectious and rheumatologic causes were ruled out. After an extensive battery of tests, not yielding any diagnostic results, the pericardial effusion was attributed to minoxidil therapy. Closer monitoring is needed to prevent potentially fatal complications such as cardiac tamponade as in our patient.

  17. A hairy fall: syncope resulting from topical application of minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Dubrey, S W; VanGriethuysen, J; Edwards, C M B

    2015-09-07

    We describe the case of a young man who developed syncope after using a high strength formulation of topical minoxidil as a hair growth restorer. Other potential cardiovascular and endocrine causes were excluded, and his symptoms resolved on discontinuation of the product. While syncope is a recognised side effect of using this powerful systemic antihypertensive agent, few cases are documented in the literature, which we illustrate in our discussion. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Minoxidil Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxi; Chen, Lina; Huang, Xinyan; Shao, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are interesting delivery systems for enhancing the penetration of an active substance through the skin after topical administration. The present paper described the development of a novel NLCs for minoxidil (MXD) topical delivery. Stearic acid and oleic acid that showed the highest solubility for MXD were selected as solid lipid and liquid lipid, respectively, and the NLCs were prepared by hot high pressure homogenization method. The minoxidil loaded NLCs prepared accordingly to the optimal formulation exhibited spherical shape with a mean diameter of 281.4 ± 7.4 nm, polydispersity of 0.207 ± 0.009, zeta potential of -32.90 ± 1.23 mV, drug entrapment efficiency of 92.48 ± 0.31%, and drug loading of 13.85 ± 0.47%. Storage stability studies demonstrated that the particle size and entrapment efficiency of the MXD-NLCs were not changed during 3 months both at 4°C and room temperature. Moreover, the release of MXD from the NLCs was faster than drug release from SLNs. In vitro skin permeability test demonstrated that MXD-NLCs had a more pronounced permeation and retention profile than MXD-SLNs. Furthermore, no erythema was observed after administration of MXD-NLCs. All these results indicated that the developed MXD-NLCs could be a promising and effective nanocarrier for topical delivery of MXD.

  19. Solid effervescent formulations as new approach for topical minoxidil delivery.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maíra N; Schulte, Heidi L; Duarte, Natane; Lima, Eliana M; Sá-Barreto, Livia L; Gratieri, Tais; Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Cunha-Filho, Marcilio S S

    2017-01-01

    Currently marketed minoxidil formulations present inconveniences that range from a grease hard aspect they leave on the hair to more serious adverse reactions as scalp dryness and irritation. In this paper we propose a novel approach for minoxidil sulphate (MXS) delivery based on a solid effervescent formulation. The aim was to investigate whether the particle mechanical movement triggered by effervescence would lead to higher follicle accumulation. Preformulation studies using thermal, spectroscopic and morphological analysis demonstrated the compatibility between effervescent salts and the drug. The effervescent formulation demonstrated a 2.7-fold increase on MXS accumulation into hair follicles casts compared to the MXS solution (22.0±9.7μg/cm 2 versus 8.3±4.0μg/cm 2 ) and a significant drug increase (around 4-fold) in remaining skin (97.1±29.2μg/cm 2 ) compared to the drug solution (23.5±6.1μg/cm 2 ). The effervescent formulations demonstrated a prominent increase of drug permeation highly dependent on the effervescent mixture concentration in the formulation, confirming the hypothesis of effervescent reaction favoring drug penetration. Clinically, therapy effectiveness could be improved, increasing the administration interval, hence, patient compliance. More studies to investigate the follicular targeting potential and safety of new formulations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A pilot split-scalp study of combined fractional radiofrequency microneedling and 5% topical minoxidil in treating male pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Yu, A-J; Luo, Y-J; Xu, X-G; Bao, L-L; Tian, T; Li, Z-X; Dong, Y-X; Li, Y-H

    2018-06-27

    Various trials have been conducted on the management of male pattern hair loss (MPHL), but the outcomes often seem to be limited. Adjuvant therapies are urgently needed. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined fractional radiofrequency microneedling (FRM) and 5% topical minoxidil in the treatment of male pattern hair loss. In total, 19 Chinese men were enrolled in this randomized, controlled, split-scalp trial. Participants received monotherapy with 5% topical minoxidil twice daily to one half of the scalp, while on the other half of the scalp the treatment with twice-daily 5% topical minoxidil was combined with five sessions of FRM at 4-week intervals. Mean hair count and hair thickness, global assessment by the investigators, subject self-assessment and adverse effects were assessed. After 5 months of treatment, mean hair count increased from 44.12 ± 21.58 to 73.14 ± 25.45 on the combined-therapy side and from 46.22 ± 18.77 to 63.21 ± 19.22 on the monotherapy side, while mean hair thickness increased from 53 ± 13 μm to 71 ± 15 μm and from 52 ± 16 μm to 66 ± 14 μm, respectively. Compared with the monotherapy side, the combined-therapy side had a higher degree of improvement in both hair count (P = 0.01) and hair thickness (P = 0.02). Combined treatment with fractional radiofrequency microneedle and 5% topical minoxidil could be an effective and safe treatment option for male pattern hair loss. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. An Open-Label Randomized Multicenter Study Assessing the Noninferiority of a Caffeine-Based Topical Liquid 0.2% versus Minoxidil 5% Solution in Male Androgenetic Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Dhurat, Rachita; Chitallia, Jill; May, Theodor W; Jayaraaman, Ammani M; Madhukara, Jithendriya; Anandan, Subbu; Vaidya, Pradyumna; Klenk, Adolf

    2017-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is a condition with a high prevalence worldwide and affects both males and females. Currently, only 2 approved treatments exist: finasteride (males only) and minoxidil 2 or 5% solution (males and females). We conducted a randomized, open-label, multicenter noninferiority study to determine whether a caffeine-based 0.2% topical liquid would be no less effective than minoxidil 5% solution in males (n = 210) with androgenetic alopecia. The primary end point was the percentage change in the proportion of anagen hairs from baseline to 6 months using a frontal and occipital trichogram. At 6 months, the group of the 5% minoxidil solution showed a mean improvement in anagen ratio of the trichogram of 11.68%, and the group of the 0.2% caffeine solution had an anagen improvement of 10.59%. The difference of mean values between both groups was 1.09%. The statistical analysis was performed and reported in accordance with the CONSORT Guidelines 2010 for reporting of noninferiority and equivalence randomized trials. A caffeine-based topical liquid should be considered as not inferior to minoxidil 5% solution in men with androgenetic alopecia. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Quality of life in women with female pattern hair loss and the impact of topical minoxidil treatment on quality of life in these patients.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiao-Sheng; Zheng, You-You; Xu, Jia-Jia; Fan, Wei-Xin

    2013-08-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common hair loss disorder in women and it may impact on the psychological and social activities of patients, thereby reducing their quality of life (QoL). Topical minoxidil has been shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of patients with FPHL. The aim of this study was to assess the QoL of patients with FPHL and investigate whether topical minoxidil solution treatment improves the QoL of these patients. In this study, we enrolled 125 female patients aged 16-72 years to answer visual analog scale (VAS) and dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaires. Of these patients, 31 were recruited for the follow-up study after 12 months of treatment with 2% minoxidil. Each index and the change in QoL prior to and following treatment were statistically analyzed. There was identified to be a correlation between clinical severity and the values of the indices in all patients. There was a statistically significant difference between the VAS and DLQI scores prior to and following treatment with 2% minoxidil. A comparison between the good responders (n=23) and the poor responders (n=8) revealed no significant difference in the improvement of VAS and DLQI scores. The QoL of the patients was severely impaired by FPHL. The DLQI and VAS used in this study were validated as useful indices for the evaluation of QoL due to their high reliability, sensitivity and simplicity. This evaluation is recommended for the management of FPHL treatment. The results of the study demonstrated that topical minoxidil improved the QoL of the patients.

  3. Role of protein sulfation in vasodilation induced by minoxidil sulfate, a K+ channel opener

    SciTech Connect

    Meisheri, K.D.; Oleynek, J.J.; Puddington, L.

    Evidence from contractile, radioisotope ion flux and electrophysiological studies suggest that minoxidil sulfate (MNXS) acts as a K+ channel opener in vascular smooth muscle. This study was designed to examine possible biochemical mechanisms by which MNXS exerts such an effect. Experiments performed in the isolated rabbit mesenteric artery (RMA) showed that MNXS, 5 microM, but not the parent compound minoxidil, was a potent vasodilator. Whereas the relaxant effects of an another K+ channel opener vasodilator, BRL-34915 (cromakalim), were removed by washing with physiological saline solution, the effects of MNXS persisted after repeated washout attempts. Furthermore, after an initial exposure ofmore » segments of intact RMA to (35S) MNXS, greater than 30% of the radiolabel was retained 2 hr after removal of the drug. In contrast, retention of radiolabel was not detected with either (3H)MNXS (label on the piperidine ring of MNXS) or (3H)minoxidil (each less than 3% after a 2-hr washout). These data suggested that the sulfate moiety from MNXS was closely associated with the vascular tissue. To determine if proteins were the acceptors of sulfate from MNXS, intact RMAs were incubated with (35S)MNXS, and then 35S-labeled proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analyzed by fluorography. Preferential labeling of a 116 kD protein was detected by 2 and 5 min of treatment. A 43 kD protein (resembling actin) also showed significant labeling. A similar profile of 35S-labeled proteins was observed in (35S) MNXS-treated A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells, suggesting that the majority of proteins labeled by (35S)MNXS in intact RMA were components of smooth muscle cells.« less

  4. Minoxidil (Mx) as a prophylaxis of doxorubicin--induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, R; Machiavelli, M; Leone, B; Romero, A; Cuevas, M A; Langhi, M; Romero Acuña, L; Romero Acuña, J; Amato, S; Barbieri, M

    1994-10-01

    Minoxidil (Mx) is known to induce hair growth in men with male-pattern baldness. Based on this potential, the effectiveness of Mx 2% topical solution was evaluated in cancer patients (pts) to prevent doxorubicin-induced alopecia. 48 female pts with different types of solid tumors treated with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in a dose range of 50-60 mg/m2/cycle were randomly assigned to receive Mx 2% topical solution or placebo. 88% and 92% of pts in both arms showed severe alopecia (p = ns). No adverse effects were observed. In this study Mx 2% topical solution was non-toxic but was not effective in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Once-Daily Minoxidil Foam 5% Versus Twice-Daily Minoxidil Solution 2% in Female Pattern Hair Loss: A Phase III, Randomized, Investigator-Blinded Study.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Shapiro, Jerry; Messenger, Andrew G; Hordinsky, Maria K; Zhang, Paul; Quiza, Carlos; Doshi, Uday; Olsen, Elise A

    2016-07-01

    A once-daily minoxidil topical foam (MTF) has been developed to treat female pattern hair loss.
    Determine noninferiority of once-daily 5% MTF versus twice-daily 2% minoxidil topical solution (MTS) based on the change from baseline in target area hair count (TAHC) at 24 weeks. In a randomized, phase III trial, women with female pattern hair loss received once-daily 5% MTF (n=161) or twice-daily 2% MTS (n=161) for 52 weeks. Primary endpoint was change from baseline in TAHC at 24 weeks. Secondary endpoint was change from baseline in TAHC at 12 weeks. Exploratory endpoints included change in total unit area density and change in overall scalp coverage.
    Once-daily 5% MTF increased TAHC from baseline (adjusted mean ± standard error) by 23.9 ± 2.1 hairs/cm2 at week 24. Twice-daily 2% MTS increased TAHC 24.2 ± 2.1 hairs/cm2 at week 24. The treatment difference was -0.3 hairs/cm2 (95% CI = -6.0, 5.4). Since the lower bound of the 95% CI was less than -5.0, the prespecified noninferiority goal was not met. Both treatments were well tolerated.
    Once-daily 5% MTF and twice-daily 2% MTS induced hair regrowth in female pattern hair loss, but prespecified noninferiority criteria were not met.
    ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01145625

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):883-889.

  6. Anti-PDGF receptor β antibody-conjugated squarticles loaded with minoxidil for alopecia treatment by targeting hair follicles and dermal papilla cells.

    PubMed

    Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Pan, Tai-Long; Sung, Calvin T; Chang, Shu-Hao; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-08-01

    This study developed lipid nanocarriers, called squarticles, conjugated with anti-platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-receptor β antibody to determine whether targeted Minoxidil (MXD) delivery to the follicles and dermal papilla cells (DPCs) could be achieved. Squalene and hexadecyl palmitate (HP) were used as the matrix of the squarticles. The PDGF-squarticles showed a mean diameter and zeta potential of 195 nm and -46 mV, respectively. Nanoparticle encapsulation enhanced MXD porcine skin deposition from 0.11 to 0.23 μg/mg. The antibody-conjugated nanoparticles ameliorated follicular uptake of MXD by 3-fold compared to that of the control solution in the in vivo mouse model. Both vertical and horizontal skin sections exhibited a wide distribution of nanoparticles in the follicles, epidermis, and deeper skin strata. The encapsulated MXD moderately elicited proliferation of DPCs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. The active targeting of PDGF-squarticles may be advantageous to improving the limited success of alopecia therapy. Topical use of minoxidil is only one of the very few treatment options for alopecia. Nonetheless, the current delivery method is far from ideal. In this article, the authors developed lipid nanocarriers with anti-platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? antibody to target dermal papilla cells, and showed enhanced uptake of minoxidil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Minoxidil 2% Solution in Combination With a Botanical Hair Solution in Women With Female Pattern Hair Loss/Androgenic Alopecia.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Amy; Pham, Hanh; von Grote, Erika; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-04-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL), also known as female androgenic alopecia, affects over 21 million women in the United States with devastating effects on self-esteem and psychosocial functioning. Topical minoxidil 2% and 5% formulations are the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for FPHL. The length of time it typically takes to observe the benefits is a challenge for many patients, and may affect adherence to treatment. Herbal extracts, which are also believed to promote healthier-looking hair, have a long history of use in hair care formulations. The safety and efficacy of a twice-daily regimen of 2% minoxidil solution used in combination with the botanical hair solution for 12 weeks in 54 subjects was evaluated in a multicenter, single-arm, open-label study. Assessments included investigator and subject ratings of improvement and subject satisfaction. Investigator ratings indicated significant improvement in hair growth and overall treatment benefits in as early as 6 weeks (P<.001). Subject self-ratings indicated significant satisfaction with hair volume and quality improvement at week 6 (P<.001). Subjects also indicated an increase in self-confidence and attractiveness at week 12 (P<.001). The investigator and subject-assessed efficacy and subject satisfaction with this regimen provides clinicians with an effective treatment option for FPHL that also provides a high level of patient acceptance, which ultimately may help promote minoxidil treatment adherence.

  8. Inhibitory effects of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers cromakalim, pinacidil and minoxidil on the carbachol-response curve in porcine detrusor muscle.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Jasmin Katrin; Kirschner-Hermanns, Ruth; Ding, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels represent promising drug targets for treating specific bladder diseases. The inhibitory effects of ATP-selective potassium channel openers (PCOs) on the carbachol-response curve in porcine detrusor muscle were examined. Each of the three substances used in the study represent one prototype of a different class of PCO: cromakalim belongs to the benzopyran series, pinacidil is a cyanoguanidine derivative, and minoxidil represents a pyrimidine derivative. The porcine detrusor muscle represents one of the best models for human detrusor. Experiments were conducted on muscle strips of porcine detrusor muscle suspended in a tissue bath. Concentration-response curves of carbachol were constructed after pretreatment with cromakalim at 10(-7), 10(-6) and 10(-5) M, and with pinacidil and minoxidil at 10(-6), 10(-5.5) and 10(-5) M, respectively. Each muscle strip was only used to examine one concentration of one substance. Cromakalim had the greatest inhibitory effect, significantly suppressing the carbachol-response curve at 10(-6) and 10(-5) M. Pinacidil showed a significant inhibitory effect at 10(-5.5) and 10(-5) M, which was smaller than that of cromakalim. Minoxidil did not significantly inhibit the contractions at all examined concentrations. The examined ATP-sensitive PCOs belonging to the benzopyrans and cyanoguanidines significantly suppressed detrusor contractions. The development of derivatives of these prototypes could open new possibilities for the pharmacological treatment of selected bladder diseases.

  9. Improvement in physicochemical parameters of DPPC liposomes and increase in skin permeation of aciclovir and minoxidil by the addition of cationic polymers.

    PubMed

    Hasanovic, Amra; Hollick, Caroline; Fischinger, Kerstin; Valenta, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) liposomes were prepared by high-pressure homogeniser and coated with two cationic polymers, chitosan (CS) and for the first time Eudragit EPO (EU), respectively. Compared to the control liposomes, the polymeric liposomes showed greater physicochemical stability in terms of mean particle size and zeta potential at room temperature. In the present study, aciclovir and minoxidil have been used as hydrophilic and hydrophobic candidates. In the presence of the drugs, the polymeric liposomes still showed constant particle size and zeta potential. Influences of polymers and model drugs on thermotropic phase transition of DPPC liposomes were studied by micro-differential scanning calorimetry (microDSC). The influences on configuration of DPPC liposomes were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). According to DSC results, cationic polymers had a stabilising effect, whereas aciclovir and minoxidil changed the physical properties of the DPPC bilayers by influencing the main phase transition temperature and erasing the pre-transition. The investigation of CO stretching bands of DPPC at 1736 cm(-1) in FTIR spectra showed that aciclovir has strong hydrogen bonding with CO groups of DPPC, whereas carbonyl groups were free in minoxidil presence. Moreover, the coating of liposomes with CS or EU led to higher skin diffusion for both drugs. This could be explained as an effect of positively charged liposomes to interact stronger with skin negatively charged surface and their possible interactions with structures below the stratum corneum. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the efficacy of topical minoxidil 5% and adenosine 0.75% solutions on male androgenetic alopecia and measuring patient satisfaction rate.

    PubMed

    Faghihi, Gita; Iraji, Fariba; Rajaee Harandi, Manijeh; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad-Ali; Askari, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    According to the hypothesis on the stimulating effect of adenosine on increasing fibroblast growth factor 7 in dermal papilla cells and its vasorelaxant effect, we performed this study to compare the effect of topical minoxidil 5% and adenosine 0.75% on male pattern androgenetic alopecia. This prospective-randomized study recruited 110 male patients suffering from grade II-V Hamilton androgenetic alopecia. Fifty-five patients received minoxidil 5% (group 1) and adenosine 0.75% (group 2) each. Later, 16 patients were excluded due to allergic reactions or loss to follow up. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, complete and relative recovery rates alongside patient satisfaction rate (faster prevention of primary hair loss and appearance of newly grown hair) were compared between the groups. After 3 months of treatment, relative recovery was achieved in 2.4% and 1.9% of patients in group 1 and group 2, respectively, which was not significantly different (p=0.17). During 6 months, the relative recovery rate did not change either within or between the groups (p=0.99) and after 6 months none of the patients achieved complete recovery. However, the patient satisfaction rate was significantly higher in group 2 (p=0.003). In the light of the results, adenosine has no statistically superiority to minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia according to recovery rates. However, the patients were significantly more satisfied with adenosine because of faster prevention of hair loss and appearance of the newly grown hairs. It seems further studies with larger sample size or different drug dosages are required to clarify the findings.

  11. Synthesis of minoxidil conjugates and their evaluation as HL-60 differentiation agents.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Sonia; Magoulas, George E; Antoniou, Antonia I; Suleiman, Sherif; Cassar, Analisse; Gatt, Lucienne; Papaioannou, Dionissios; Athanassopoulos, Constantinos M; Schembri-Wismayer, Pierre

    2016-02-15

    Activation of minoxidil (MNX) with N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole and coupling with natural polyamines (PAs) and commercially available aliphatic or aromatic amines provided a series of new conjugates which were evaluated for their ability to induce differentiation to HL-60 acute myeloid leukemia cancer cells, using a modified NBTZ reduction test. Although neither MNX nor 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) or 2,7-diaminofluorene (DAF), alone or in combination, had any effect, the MNX-spermine (SPM) conjugate (11) and the conjugates 7 and 8 of MNX with MDA and DAF exhibited a differentiation-inducing effect at a concentration of 10 μM without being toxic on proliferating human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) as carriers for cutaneous delivery of minoxidil: in vitro evaluation of drug permeation by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mura, Simona; Manconi, Maria; Fadda, Anna Maria; Sala, Maria Chiara; Perricci, Jacopo; Pini, Elena; Sinico, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we carried out a research on new liposomal systems prepared by using in their composition a few penetration enhancers which differ for chemical structure and physicochemical properties. The penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) were prepared by using soy lecithin and different amounts of three penetration enhancers, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy) ethanol (Transcutol(®)), capryl-caproyl macrogol 8-glyceride (Labrasol(®)), and cineole.To study the influence of the PEVs on (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil, in vitro diffusion experiments were performed through new born pig skin and the results were compared with that obtained applying the vesicular system without enhancer (control) after pretreatment of the skin with the various enhancers. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), attenuated total reflectance FTIR (ATR-FTIR) and FTIR imaging were used to evaluate the effective penetration of minoxidil in the skin layers and to discover the influence of the enhancer on the drug topical delivery. These analytical studies allowed us to characterize the drug formulations and to evaluate the vesicle distribution into the skin. Recorded spectra confirmed that the vesicle formulations with penetration enhancers promoted drug deposition into the skin.

  13. [Efficacy and tolerability of 5% minoxidil solution (Carexidil®) in male and female androgenetic alopecia: a 6-month open multicentric study].

    PubMed

    Piraccini, B; Starace, M; Alessandrini, A; Guarrera, M; Fiorucci, M C; Lorenzi, S

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of 5% Carexidil solution®, applied twice a day on the scalp, on male and female androgenetic alopecia. The 6 month-study was performed in three Italian dermatological centers. Evaluation of efficacy was performed with subjective and objective methods, including operator and patient assessments, global photography and videodermoscopy. Global photography revealed that after 6 months of treatment with 5% Carexidil solution®, androgenetic alopecia was improved in all 32 females and 16 males. Alopecia stopped to progress in 6 males. Scalp videodermoscopy confirmed the results. Some patients complained of increased hair greasiness, others complained of mild scalp itching. Two female patients developed contact sensitization to minoxidil, confirmed by patch test, 2 a mild malar-temporal hypertrichosis. All patients were satisfied by treatment and continued it after the end of the study. Our study confirms the data of the literature and the evidence coming from years of clinical experience, that twice a day topical application of 5% minoxidil solution, Carexidil ®, is effective in the treatment of male and female androgenetic alopecia, with evident efficacy already after 6 months.

  14. Iontophoresis of minoxidil sulphate loaded microparticles, a strategy for follicular drug targeting?

    PubMed

    Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Barros, M Angélica de Oliveira; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Guy, Richard H; Lopez, Renata F V

    2015-10-01

    The feasibility of targeting drugs to hair follicles by a combination of microencapsulation and iontophoresis has been evaluated. Minoxidil sulphate (MXS), which is used in the treatment of alopecia, was selected as a relevant drug with respect to follicular penetration. The skin permeation and disposition of MXS encapsulated in chitosan microparticles (MXS-MP) was evaluated in vitro after passive and iontophoretic delivery. Uptake of MXS was quantified at different exposure times in the stratum corneum (SC) and hair follicles. Microencapsulation resulted in increased (6-fold) drug accumulation in the hair follicles relative to delivery from a simple MXS solution. Application of iontophoresis enhanced follicular delivery for both the solution and the microparticle formulations. It appears, therefore, that microencapsulation and iontophoresis can act synergistically to enhance topical drug targeting to hair follicles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety of topical minoxidil solution: a one-year, prospective, observational study.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Topical minoxidil solution (TMS) is widely used for androgenetic alopecia (AGA), and this is the first report of a large safety trial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety profile of TMS by comparing hospitalization and death rates among subjects using TMS with controls. Cardiovascular safety and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated, and usage patterns were described. All subjects were followed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Usage patterns, pregnancy status, overnight hospital stays, and cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated. Subjects rated effectiveness of TMS in the treatment of AGA. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine if TMS was associated with an increased risk of death or hospitalization. TMS is a safe and effective treatment for AGA. There were no increases in cardiovascular events and no apparent increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. This large, prospective study demonstrated the overall safety of TMS in the treatment of AGA.

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Minoxidil 5% Foam in Combination With a Botanical Hair Solution in Men With Androgenic Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Keaney, Terrence C; Pham, Hanh; von Grote, Erika; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-04-01

    Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss in men, characterized by hair miniaturization, hairline recession, and vertex balding. It affects approximately 50% of men, negatively affecting self-esteem and sociability. Topical minoxidil formulations are approved up to a 5% concentration for men, but patient adherence to treatment is challenged by gradual results that may be perceived as a lack of initial benefit. Herbal extracts, which are also believed to promote healthier-looking hair, have a long history of use in hair care formulations. The safety and efficacy of a twice-daily regimen of 5% minoxidil foam used in combination with a novel botanical hair solution was evaluated in a 12-week, multicenter, single-arm, open label study in 56 subjects with mild to moderate AGA. Assessments included investigator ratings of improvement and subject self-ratings of satisfaction. Investigator ratings indicated significant improvement in scalp hair coverage and perception of overall treatment benefit in as early as 4 weeks (P<.001). Subject self-ratings were significant for improved hair growth and hair appearance in as few as 4 weeks (P<.05). The regimen was well tolerated, and subjects indicated a high degree of satisfaction. Investigator and subject-assessed efficacy and subject satisfaction with this novel regimen provide clinicians with an effective treatment option for AGA that also provides a high level of patient satisfaction, which may help promote patient adherence to long-term treatment.

  17. Solid lipid nanoparticles suspension versus commercial solutions for dermal delivery of minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Padois, Karine; Cantiéni, Céline; Bertholle, Valérie; Bardel, Claire; Pirot, Fabrice; Falson, Françoise

    2011-09-15

    Solid lipid nanoparticles have been reported as possible carrier for skin drug delivery. Solid lipid nanoparticles are produced from biocompatible and biodegradable lipids. Solid lipid nanoparticles made of semi-synthetic triglycerides stabilized with a mixture of polysorbate and sorbitan oleate were loaded with 5% of minoxidil. The prepared systems were characterized for particle size, pH and drug content. Ex vivo skin penetration studies were performed using Franz-type glass diffusion cells and pig ear skin. Ex vivo skin corrosion studies were realized with a method derived from the Corrositex(®) test. Solid lipid nanoparticles suspensions were compared to commercial solutions in terms of skin penetration and skin corrosion. Solid lipid nanoparticles suspensions have been shown as efficient as commercial solutions for skin penetration; and were non-corrosive while commercial solutions presented a corrosive potential. Solid lipid nanoparticles suspensions would constitute a promising formulation for hair loss treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Minoxidil topical treatment may be more efficient if applied on damp scalp in comparison with dry scalp.

    PubMed

    Angelo, T; Barbalho, G N; Gelfuso, G M; Gratieri, T

    2016-09-01

    There is yet no consensus among prescribers whether minoxidil (MXD) formulations should be applied on wet/damp or dry scalp and no clear FDA guidelines on the matter. We hypothesized that the use of MXD on damp scalp may lead to higher drug penetration. First, because the drug diffusion and consequent deposition into the hair follicle may be favored when follicle cast is humid. Second, because humidity may also prevent drug crystallization and, therefore, maintain a higher thermodynamic activity for longer periods, which leads to increased penetration. Following in vitro experiments on rat and porcine skin we confirmed the hypothesis, which could markedly improve treatment effectiveness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Similar Response Patterns to 5%Topical Minoxidil Foam in Frontal and Vertex Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia: A Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mirmirani, P.; Consolo, M.; Oyetakin-White, P.; Baron, E.; Leahy, P.; Karnik, P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background There are regional variations in scalp hair miniaturization seen in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Use of topical minoxidil can lead to reversal of miniaturization in the vertex scalp. However, its effects on other scalp regions are less well studied. Methods A placebo controlled double-blinded prospective pilot study of minoxidil topical foam 5% (MTF) vs placebo was conducted in sixteen healthy men ages 18-49 with Hamilton-Norwood type IV-V thinning. The subjects were asked to apply the treatment (active drug or placebo) to the scalp twice daily for eight weeks. Stereotactic scalp photographs were taken at the baseline and final visits to monitor global hair growth. Scalp biopsies were done at the leading edge of hair loss from the frontal and vertex scalp before and after treatment with MTF and placebo and microarray analysis was done using the Affymetrix GeneChip HG U133 Plus 2.0. Results Global stereotactic photographs showed that MTF induced hair growth in both the frontal and vertex scalp of AGA patients. Regional differences in gene expression profiles were observed before treatment. However, MTF treatment induced the expression of hair keratin associated genes and decreased the expression of epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) and inflammatory genes in both scalp regions. Conclusions These data suggest that MTF is effective in the treatment of both the frontal and vertex scalp of AGA patients. PMID:25204361

  20. Comparing the Effects of Zinc Sulfate, Calcium Pantothenate, Their Combination and Minoxidil Solution Regimens on Controlling Hair Loss in Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Siavash, Mansour; Tavakoli, Fereshteh; Mokhtari, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combination of oral supplements with 2% minoxidil solution in four groups of women with hair loss. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted from July to December 2016 in dermatology clinics affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. A total of 73, 15-45-year-old, women with hair loss participated in this 4-month study. Simple randomization using Random Allocation Software was done to put the participants in four groups to receive coadministration of zinc sulfate and calcium pantothenate, zinc sulfate, calcium pantothenate, and 2% minoxidil solution. The primary endpoint was the change in hair density and diameter measured by dermatoscope. Secondary endpoints included the researcher's evaluation, dermatologist's opinion - which was blinded to the study - from comparing the participants' photographs before and after treatment and finally, overall changes in hair density measured by participants' self-assessment. Seventy-three women participated in this study. Primary hair count and thickness were 118.5 ± 10 hairs/cm 2 and 58.8 ± 5.8 μ that changed to 124 ± 11 hairs/cm 2 and 62.3 ± 4.3 μ respectively ( P < 0.001) which in the zinc plus pantothenate group these changes were from 118.6 ± 9.9 hairs/cm 2 to 121.9 ± 11.1 hairs/cm 2 ( P = 0.042) and from 62.2 ± 6.6 μ to 64.0 ± 5.0 μ ( P = 0.126), respectively. Hair density increments were more obvious in the minoxidil group, and hair thickness increments were more obvious in pantothenate group. Participants' satisfaction was 85% in the combination therapy which was more than other groups. Participants' satisfaction, author's and blind dermatologist's opinion showed a significant correlation ( P = 0.0001). Based on the participants' satisfaction, the combination of zinc sulfate and calcium pantothenate when administered in a pulse therapy way could be a good choice for hair loss controlling in initial stages.

  1. Purification and characterization of rat liver minoxidil sulphotransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Hirshey, S J; Falany, C N

    1990-01-01

    Minoxidil (Mx), a pyrimidine N-oxide, is used therapeutically as an antihypertensive agent and to induce hair growth in patients with male pattern baldness. Mx NO-sulphate has been implicated as the agent active in producing these effects. This paper describes the purification of a unique sulphotransferase (ST) from rat liver cytosol that is capable of catalysing the sulphation of Mx. By using DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, hydroxyapatite chromatography and ATP-agarose affinity chromatography, Mx-ST activity was purified 240-fold compared with the activity in cytosol. The purified enzyme was also capable of sulphating p-nitrophenol (PNP) at low concentrations (less than 10 microM). Mx-ST was purified to homogeneity, as evaluated by SDS/PAGE and reverse-phase h.p.l.c. The active form of the enzyme had a molecular mass of 66,000-68,000 Da as estimated by gel exclusion chromatography and a subunit molecular mass of 35,000 Da. The apparent Km values for Mx, 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulphate and PNP were 625 microM, 5.0 microM and 0.5 microM respectively. However, PNP displayed potent substrate inhibition at concentrations above 1.2 microM. Antibodies raised in rabbits to the pure enzyme detected a single band in rat liver cytosol with a subunit molecular mass of 35,000 Da, as determined by immunoblotting. The anti-(rat Mx-ST) antibodies also reacted with the phenol-sulphating form of human liver phenol sulphotransferase, suggesting some structural similarity between these proteins. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2241904

  2. Optimization of minoxidil microemulsions using fractional factorial design approach.

    PubMed

    Jaipakdee, Napaphak; Limpongsa, Ekapol; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply fractional factorial and multi-response optimization designs using desirability function approach for developing topical microemulsions. Minoxidil (MX) was used as a model drug. Limonene was used as an oil phase. Based on solubility, Tween 20 and caprylocaproyl polyoxyl-8 glycerides were selected as surfactants, propylene glycol and ethanol were selected as co-solvent in aqueous phase. Experiments were performed according to a two-level fractional factorial design to evaluate the effects of independent variables: Tween 20 concentration in surfactant system (X1), surfactant concentration (X2), ethanol concentration in co-solvent system (X3), limonene concentration (X4) on MX solubility (Y1), permeation flux (Y2), lag time (Y3), deposition (Y4) of MX microemulsions. It was found that Y1 increased with increasing X3 and decreasing X2, X4; whereas Y2 increased with decreasing X1, X2 and increasing X3. While Y3 was not affected by these variables, Y4 increased with decreasing X1, X2. Three regression equations were obtained and calculated for predicted values of responses Y1, Y2 and Y4. The predicted values matched experimental values reasonably well with high determination coefficient. By using optimal desirability function, optimized microemulsion demonstrating the highest MX solubility, permeation flux and skin deposition was confirmed as low level of X1, X2 and X4 but high level of X3.

  3. Similar response patterns to topical minoxidil foam 5% in frontal and vertex scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia: a microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, P; Consolo, M; Oyetakin-White, P; Baron, E; Leahy, P; Karnik, P

    2015-06-01

    There are regional variations in the scalp hair miniaturization seen in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Use of topical minoxidil can lead to reversal of miniaturization in the vertex scalp. However, its effects on other scalp regions have been less well studied. To determine whether scalp biopsies from men with AGA show variable gene expression before and after 8 weeks of treatment with minoxidil topical foam 5% (MTF) vs. placebo. A placebo-controlled double-blinded prospective pilot study of MTF vs. placebo was conducted in 16 healthy men aged 18-49 years with Hamilton-Norwood type IV-V thinning. The subjects were asked to apply the treatment (active drug or placebo) to the scalp twice daily for 8 weeks. Stereotactic scalp photographs were taken at the baseline and final visits, to monitor global hair growth. Scalp biopsies were taken at the leading edge of hair loss from the frontal and vertex scalp before and after treatment with MTF and placebo, and microarray analysis was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip HG U133 Plus 2.0. Global stereotactic photographs showed that MTF induced hair growth in both the frontal and vertex scalp of patients with AGA. Regional differences in gene expression profiles were observed before treatment. However, MTF treatment induced the expression of hair keratin-associated genes and decreased the expression of epidermal differentiation complex and inflammatory genes in both scalp regions. These data suggest that MTF is effective in the treatment of both the frontal and vertex scalp of patients with AGA. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Effect of minoxidil topical foam on frontotemporal and vertex androgenetic alopecia in men: a 104-week open-label clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kanti, V; Hillmann, K; Kottner, J; Stroux, A; Canfield, D; Blume-Peytavi, U

    2016-07-01

    Topical minoxidil formulations have been shown to be effective in treating androgenetic alopecia (AGA) for 12 months. Efficacy and safety in both frontotemporal and vertex regions over longer application periods have not been studied so far. To evaluate the effect of 5% minoxidil topical foam (5% MTF) in the frontotemporal and vertex areas in patients with moderate AGA over 104 weeks. An 80-week, open-label extension phase was performed, following a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in men with AGA grade IIIvertex to VI. Group 1 (n = 22) received ongoing 5% MTF for 104 weeks, Group 2 (n = 23) received placebo topical foam (plaTF) until week 24, followed by 5% MTF until week 104 during the extension phase. Frontotemporal and vertex target area non-vellus hair counts (f-TAHC, v-TAHC) and cumulative hair width (f-TAHW, v-TAHW) were assessed at baseline and at weeks 24, 52, 76 and 104. In Group 1, f-TAHW and f-TAHC showed a statistically significant increase from baseline to week 52 and week 76, respectively, returning to values comparable to baseline at week 104. No significant differences were found between baseline and week 104 in v-TAHC in Group 1 as well as f-TAHC, v-TAHC, f-TAHW and v-TAHW values in Group 2. 5% MTF is effective in stabilizing hair density, hair width and scalp coverage in both frontotemporal and vertex areas over an application period of 104 weeks, while showing a good safety and tolerability profile with a low rate of irritant contact dermatitis. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. After-rinsing hair growth promotion of minoxidil-containing amino alpha-cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Chul; Kim, Myoung-Dong

    2007-12-01

    Triamino alpha-cyclodextrin (CD) was synthesized and the inclusion complex with Minoxidil (MXD) was prepared. alpha-CD was azidated by modifying the 6-hydroxylmethyl CD rim with sodium azide. Then, mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-azidocyclodextrins were separated by a flash column chromatography and reduced to the corresponding amines by hydrogenation with Pd/C. The substantivities of MXD included in either 2-hydroxypropyl alpha-CD (HP alpha-CD) or triamino alpha-CD were evaluated in vitro using hairless mice skins. After applying the preparations onto the skin and rinsing it, the amount of the drug left on the skin was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was the highest when the drug was included in triamino alpha-CD. The electrostatic interaction between the protonated amino CD and the negatively charged skin would be responsible for the relatively high substantivity. The in vivo hair growth promotion effect of each preparation was investigated, where the sample application onto the clipped backs of female mice (C57BL6) and the subsequent rinsing of the backs were done once a day for 30 days. Only MXD in triamino alpha-CD had hair growth promotion effect, possibly due to the significant substantivity.

  6. A Single-Centre, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Minoxidil Topical Foam in Frontotemporal and Vertex Androgenetic Alopecia in Men.

    PubMed

    Hillmann, Kathrin; Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Kottner, Jan; Stroux, Andrea; Canfield, Douglas; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    5% minoxidil formulations twice daily are effective in treating vertex male androgenetic alopecia (AGA); however, efficacy and safety data in frontotemporal regions are lacking. To assess the efficacy of 5% minoxidil topical foam (5% MTF) in the frontotemporal region of male AGA patients after 24 weeks of treatment compared to placebo treatment and to the vertex region. Seventy males with moderate AGA applied 5% MTF or placebo foam (plaTF) twice daily for 24 weeks in frontotemporal and vertex regions. Target area non-vellus hair count (TAHC) was the primary end point. Frontotemporal and vertex TAHC and target area cumulative non-vellus hair width (TAHW) showed similar responses to 5% MTF with significant increases up to week 16 compared to baseline (p < 0.001). After 24 weeks of treatment, frontotemporal TAHW increased significantly in the 5% MTF group compared to the plaTF group (p = 0.017), while TAHC showed a similar non-significant increase from baseline in both regions. At 24 weeks, 5% MTF users rated a significant improvement in scalp coverage for the frontotemporal (p = 0.016) and vertex areas (p = 0.027). 5% MTF twice a day promotes hair density and width in both frontotemporal and vertex regions in men with moderate stages of AGA. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Iontophoresis-targeted, follicular delivery of minoxidil sulfate for the treatment of alopecia.

    PubMed

    Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Gratieri, Tais; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Guy, Richard H; Vianna Lopez, Renata Fonseca

    2013-05-01

    Although minoxidil (MX) is a drug known to stimulate hair growth, the treatment of androgenic alopecia could be improved by delivery strategies that would favor drug accumulation into the hair follicles. This work investigated in vitro the potential of iontophoresis to achieve this objective using MX sulfate (MXS), a more water-soluble derivative of MX. Passive delivery of MXS was first determined from an ethanol-water solution and from a thermosensitive gel. The latter formulation resulted in greater accumulation of MXS in the stratum corneum (skin's outermost layer) and hair follicles and an overall decrease in absorption through the skin. Anodal iontophoresis of MXS from the same gel formulation was then investigated at pH 3.5 and pH 5.5. Compared with passive delivery, iontophoresis increased the amount of drug reaching the follicular infundibula from 120 to 600 ng per follicle. In addition, drug recovery from follicular casts was threefold higher following iontophoresis at pH 5.5 compared with that at pH 3.5. Preliminary in vivo experiments in rats confirmed that iontophoretic delivery of MXS facilitated drug accumulation in hair follicles. Overall, therefore, iontophoresis successfully and significantly enhanced follicular delivery of MX suggesting a useful opportunity for the improved treatment of alopecia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of the antioxidative potential of minoxidil-polyamine conjugates.

    PubMed

    Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Magoulas, George E; Bariamis, Stavros E; Tsimali, Zinovia; Avgoustakis, Konstantinos; Kontogiorgis, Christos A; Athanassopoulos, Constantinos M; Papaioannou, Dionissios

    2013-07-01

    A series of conjugates (MNX-CO-PA) of minoxidil (MNX) with the polyamines (PAs) putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM) as well as dopamine were produced through activation of MNX with N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole, followed by reaction with dopamine or selectively protected PAs and acid-mediated deprotection. These conjugates together with conjugates of the general type MNX-PA or PA-MNX-PA, readily produced using literature protocols, were tested as antioxidants. The most potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation were the conjugates MNX-SPM (2, 94%), SPM-MNX-SPM (4, 94%) and MNX-N(4)-SPD (7, 91%) and MNX (91%). The most powerful lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors were MNX (IC50 = 20 μM) and the conjugates MNX-N(8)-SPD (9, IC50 = 22.1 μM), MNX-CO-dopamine (11, IC50 = 28 μM) and MNX-N(1)-SPD (8, IC50 = 30 μM). The most interesting conjugates 2, MNX-CO-PUT (5), 8 and 11 as well as MNX were generally found to exhibit weaker (22-36.5%) or no (conjugate 8) anti-inflammatory activity than indomethacin (47%) with the exception of MNX which showed almost equal potency (49%) to indomethacin. The cytocompatibility of conjugates and MNX at the highest concentration of 100 μM showed a survival percentage of 87-107%, with the exception of conjugates with SPM (compound 2) and MNX-CO-SPM (6), which showed considerable cytotoxicity (survival percentage 8-14%). Molecular docking studies were carried on conjugate 9 and the parent compound MNX and were found to be in accordance with our experimental biological results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Chitosan nanoparticles for targeting and sustaining minoxidil sulphate delivery to hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Matos, Breno Noronha; Reis, Thaiene Avila; Gratieri, Taís; Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins

    2015-04-01

    This work developed minoxidil sulphate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (MXS-NP) for targeted delivery to hair follicles, which could sustain drug release and improve the topical treatment of alopecia. Chitosan nanoparticles were obtained using low-molecular weight chitosan and tripolyphosphate as crosslink agent. MXS-NP presented a monomodal distribution with hydrodynamic diameter of 235.5 ± 99.9 nm (PDI of 0.31 ± 0.01) and positive zeta potential (+38.6 ± 6.0 mV). SEM analysis confirmed nanoparticles average size and spherical shape. A drug loading efficiency of 73.0 ± 0.3% was obtained with polymer:drug ratio of 1:1 (w/w). Drug release through cellulose acetate membranes from MXS-NP was sustained in about 5 times in comparison to the diffusion rate of MXS from the solution (188.9 ± 6.0 μg/cm(2)/h and 35.4 ± 1.8 μg/cm(2)/h). Drug permeation studies through the skin in vitro, followed by selective recovery of MXS from the hair follicles, showed that MXS-NP application resulted in a two-fold MXS increase into hair follicles after 6h in comparison to the control solution (5.9 ± 0.6 μg/cm(2) and 2.9 ± 0.8 μg/cm(2)). MXS-loading in nanoparticles appears as a promising and easy strategy to target and sustain drug delivery to hair follicles, which may improve the topical treatment of alopecia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of hypertension in animals with reduced total peripheral resistance.

    PubMed

    Huang, M; Hester, R L; Coleman, T G; Smith, M J; Guyton, A C

    1992-12-01

    The object of the present study was to determine whether deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension can be produced in rats in the presence of low total peripheral resistance (TPR) induced by long-term administration of minoxidil, a vasodilator. The rats were divided into four groups: sham-control, DOCA-salt, minoxidil, and DOCA-salt with minoxidil. The rats in both DOCA groups had DOCA pellets implanted subcutaneously and were given saline to drink. The rats in both minoxidil groups were given minoxidil (3 mg/day) in the drinking water throughout the experiment. Final measurements, including mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac index, and renal blood flow were made after 4-6 weeks. Flow measurements were made using radioactive microspheres. Cardiac index (ml.min-1.100 g-1) in sham-control rats averaged 18 +/- 2 and was higher in the other groups: 23 +/- 4 (DOCA-salt), 25 +/- 2 (minoxidil), and 30 +/- 2 (DOCA-salt plus minoxidil). Mean arterial pressure (mm Hg) was increased in both DOCA-salt rats (160 +/- 8) and DOCA-salt plus minoxidil rats (153 +/- 5) as compared with sham-control (116 +/- 2) and minoxidil (113 +/- 3) rats. There was no significant difference in TPR between the sham-control and DOCA-salt rats, but TPR in minoxidil and DOCA-salt plus minoxidil rats was 30% and 28% lower than that in untreated sham-control and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, respectively. In contrast, renal vascular resistance was significantly increased in both DOCA-salt groups as compared with non-DOCA-salt groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Development and characterization of minoxidil-loaded liposomal system for delivery to pilosebaceous units.

    PubMed

    Jain, Bhawna; Singh, Bhupinder; Katare, Om Prakash; Vyas, Suresh Prashad

    2010-06-01

    The current study aimed to deliver minoxidil (2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine 3-oxide; MXD), a potent hypertrichotic agent, into the pilosebaceous units, exploring the potential of the liposomal system. MXD-loaded liposomes of different compositions were prepared by a thin-film hydration technique and subsequently characterized for various vesicle-specific attributes (i.e., size, shape, lamellarity, and entrapment efficiency). Comparative analysis among these compositions was conducted with reference to their vesicle-specific parameters, drug deposition, and drug-delivery mechanism toward pilosebaceous units. The latter may bring about a distinct change in MXD therapy for various ailments related to pilosebaceous units, such as alopecia. The in vitro drug release, ex vivo skin permeation, and drug-retention behavior of the prepared formulation were evaluated by employing rat skin (normal as well as pilosebaceous free) and semipermeable membrane. The results revealed that the neutral liposomes (mean vesicle size, 3.83 +/- 0.18 microm) showed maximum drug deposition in the pilosebaceous units among all the other tested formulations. A quantitative estimation of pilosebaceous delivery revealed that the concentration of MXD in each pilosebaceous unit decreased in the following order: neutral liposomal formulation (5.8 x 10(3) to 7.25 x 10(3) microg) > positively charged liposomal formulation (4.7 x 10(3) to 5.87 x 10(3) microg) > negatively charged liposomal formulation (4.2 x 10(3) to 5.25 x 10(3) microg) > nonliposomal formulation (1.6 x 10(3) to 2.0 x 10(3) microg). Stability studies construed the need to store the liposomal formulation at lower temperatures. The results of the current work indicate that the neutral liposomes can deliver the drug molecules into pilosebaceous units more effectively than the other studied formulations.

  12. Clinical Investigation Program Annual Progress Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-30

    027 78/114 In Vitro Effect of Minoxidil on Collagen Produc- tion by Normal and Scleroderma Fibroblasts (C) (PR...effect of minoxidil on collagen production Dy normal and scleroderma fibroblasts. Previously titled: The use of minoxidil in treating progressive...Svc: (tO) Assoc Investigators: (11) Key Words: scleroderma, minoxidil Thomas P. O’Barr PhD, DAC fibroblasts, collagen Ellen Swanson MS, DAC Don

  13. Efficacy of non-surgical treatments for androgenetic alopecia: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Mays, Rachel R; Dotzert, Michelle S; Versteeg, Sarah G; Shear, Neil H; Piguet, Vincent

    2018-05-24

    Androgenetic alopecia, or male/female pattern baldness, is the most common type of progressive hair loss disorder. The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in non-surgical treatments for androgenetic alopecia and identify the most effective treatments. A network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted of the available literature of the six most common non-surgical treatment options for treating androgenetic alopecia in both men and women; dutasteride 0.5mg, finasteride 1mg, low level laser therapy (LLLT), minoxidil 2%, minoxidil 5% and platelet rich plasma (PRP). Seventy-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and twenty-two studies had the data necessary for a network meta-analysis. Relative effects show LLLT as the superior treatment. Relative effects show PRP, finasteride 1 mg (male), finasteride 1 mg (female), minoxidil 5%, minoxidil 2% and dutasteride (male) are approximately equivalent in mean change hair count following treatment. Minoxidil 5% and minoxidil 2% reported the most drug-related adverse events (n=45 and n=23, respectively). The quality of evidence of minoxidil 2% vs. minoxidil 5% was high; minoxidil 5% vs. placebo was moderate; dutasteride (male) vs. placebo, finasteride (female) vs placebo, minoxidil 2% vs. placebo, minoxidil 5% vs. LLLT was low and finasteride (male) vs. placebo, LLLT vs. sham, PRP vs. placebo, finasteride vs. minoxidil 2% was very low. Results of this NMA indicate the emergence of novel, non-hormonal therapies as effective treatments for hair loss; however, the quality of evidence is generally low. High quality randomized controlled trials and head to head trials are required to support these findings and aid in the development of more standardized protocols, particularly for PRP. Regardless, this analysis may aid physicians in clinical decision making and highlight the variety of non-surgical hair restoration options for patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by

  14. Development of a Rat Model to Investigate Contributions of Anatomic and Physiologic Determinants of in Vivo Skin Permeation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-30

    physiologic states. Physiologic perturbations were performed to test the sensitivity of the model system to detect effects of minoxidil -mediated... Minoxidil , leukotriene D̂ , tape stripping of stratum corneum, and topical ether-ethanol experiments produced statistically significant increases (52 to... Minoxidil 68 B. Phenylephrine 69 C. Leukotriene D̂ 69 D. Ether-Ethanol 70 E. Tape stripping 76 8. Data analysis 77 Vlll RESULTS 80 1

  15. Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1979,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    Chemoimmunotherapy of Carcinoma of the Large 27 Bowel. (T) 77-8 Minoxidil as an Antihypertensive in Patients 29 Refractory to Available Medications. (T) 77-11...INVESTIGATION SERVICE INVESTIGATION PROJECT RESUME TITLE: Minoxidil as an Antihypertensive in Patients Refractory to Available Medications. WORK UNIT...NO: 77-8 (Satellite Protocol of FAMC) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: James H. Wilkin, MD, LTC, MD OBJECTIVES To test the hypothesis that minoxidil is an

  16. Interactions of Neuromodulators with Cells of the Immune System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-20

    that cyclic AMP (cAMP), minoxidil and norepinephrine inhibit ConA- mediated lymphocyte activation. These experiments test the effects of these... minoxidil or 8x0W1M norepinephrine markedly inhibited IL2 activation (95%, 50% and 60% respec- tively) and showed similar effects in a ConA-activated...and 2) suggest that the inhibi- tory effects of cAMP, minoxidil and norepinephrine occur at points distal to 1L2 interaction in the lymphocyte

  17. 76 FR 33310 - Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. et al.; Withdrawal of Approval of 70 New Drug Applications and 97...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ..., Inc. ANDA 074634 Dobutamine Injection Hospira, Inc. USP, 12.5 mg/mL. ANDA 074643 Minoxidil Topical Bausch & Lomb, Inc. Solution, 2%. ANDA 074743 Minoxidil Topical Sight Solution, 2%. Pharmaceuticals, Inc...

  18. Prescribing Habits for Androgenic Alopecia Among Dermatologists in Spain in 2017: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Pindado-Ortega, C; Saceda-Corralo, D; Buendía-Castaño, D; Fernández-González, P; Moreno-Arrones, Ó M; Fonda-Pascual, P; Alegre-Sánchez, A; Rodrigues-Barata, A R; Vañó-Galván, S

    2018-04-12

    Topical minoxidil and oral finasteride are the only drugs approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in Spain. However, the management of this condition is highly variable because numerous treatments are used off-label. The main aim of this study was to describe the prescribing habits of dermatologists in Spain for male AGA (MAGA) and female AGA (FAGA). Descriptive cross-sectional study using online questionnaires completed by dermatologists working in Spain. The responses of 241 dermatologists were analyzed. The most common treatments prescribed for MAGA were minoxidil (98%), oral finasteride (96%), nutricosmetics (44%), topical finasteride (37%), oral dutasteride (33%), platelet-rich plasma (14%), and low-level laser therapy (8%). For premenopausal FAGA, the most common treatments were topical minoxidil (98%), oral contraceptives (81%), nutricosmetics (72%), cyproterone acetate (58%), oral finasteride (39%), topical finasteride (39%), spironolactone (27%), platelet-rich plasma (20%), oral dutasteride (20%), oral flutamide (18%), and low-level laser therapy (7%). Finally, for postmenopausal FAGA, the most common treatments prescribed were topical minoxidil (98%), oral finasteride (84%), nutricosmetics (68%), topical finasteride (50%), oral dutasteride (35%), platelet-rich plasma (21%), spironolactone (16%), cyproterone acetate (16%), oral flutamide (9%), and low-level laser therapy (9%). A limitation of our study is that we did not analyze novel AGA treatments such as oral minoxidil and dutasteride mesotherapy. The most common treatments prescribed for AGA by dermatologists in Spain are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and nutricosmetics for MAGA and postmenopausal FAGA and topical minoxidil, oral contraceptives, and nutricosmetics for premenopausal FAGA. Copyright © 2018 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Vasodilators

    MedlinePlus

    ... directly on the vessel walls are hydralazine and minoxidil. Doctors prescribe vasodilators to prevent, treat or improve ... http://www.micromedexsolutions.com. Accessed May 23, 2016. Minoxidil. Micromedex 2.0 Healthcare Series. http://www.micromedexsolutions. ...

  20. Male pattern baldness

    MedlinePlus

    ... baldness. Medicines that treat male pattern baldness include: Minoxidil (Rogaine), a solution that is applied directly to ... slows hair loss. It works slightly better than minoxidil. Hair loss returns when you stop using this ...

  1. Types of Blood Pressure Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Generic name Common brand names hydralazine hydrochloride Apresoline* minoxidil Loniten*† Some noted possible side effects of vasodilators: ... This drug isn't usually used by itself. Minoxidil (Loniten)* is a potent drug that's usually used ...

  2. Potential synergistic effects of human placental extract and minoxidil on hair growth-promoting activity in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Kwon, T-R; Oh, C T; Park, H M; Han, H J; Ji, H J; Kim, B J

    2015-08-01

    Human placenta extract (HPE) has been used to alleviate tiredness and promote wound healing, and for its antiageing functions; however, it has not yet been studied for its effects on hair growth. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effect of HPE on hair growth by observing its actions on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs). To define how HPE promotes induction of anagen hair growth during the telogen phase, and to understand the synergistic molecular mechanisms of HPE and minoxidil (MXD) actions on hair growth. We examined the effects of HPE and MXD on C57BL6/J mice using haematoxylin and eosin staining, quantitative histomorphometry, hair growth scoring, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on the dorsal skins of C57BL/6J mice. We found that HPE synergistically augmented the effects of MXD, a promoter of hair growth. In particular, histomorphometric analysis data indicated that subcutaneous injection of HPE induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the anagen phase. It also stimulated increases in both the number and size of hair follicles in groups treated with HPE alone and HPE + MXD. From our data, we conclude that HPE increases β-catenin and Wnt3a expression levels. Overall, our findings suggest that HPE in combination with MXD has hair growth-promoting activity and is a potential novel therapeutic treatment for alopecia or baldness in humans. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Molecular Basis of Ion Channels and Receptors Involved in Nerve Excitation, Synaptic Transmission and Muscle Contraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-20

    shows the effect of minoxidil sulphate on CFTR Cl currents; similar results were obtained with BRL 38227 and diazoxide. As was observed for the...dependent; halt-maximal inhibition occurred at about 40 l±M minoxidil sulphate, 50 pM BRI. 38227, and 250 p.M diazoxide. This effect was weaker than...their stimulation of K-ATP channels in vascular smooth muscle."’ 280 ANNALS NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES +50 mV -90 mV A ~Bi cAMP cAMP + minoxidil

  4. Curcuma aeruginosa, a novel botanically derived 5α-reductase inhibitor in the treatment of male-pattern baldness: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Pumthong, Ganniga; Asawanonda, Pravit; Varothai, Supenya; Jariyasethavong, Vorapicha; Triwongwaranat, Daranporn; Suthipinittharm, Puan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Leelapornpisit, Pimporn; Waranuch, Neti

    2012-10-01

    Several botanically derived agents are available for the treatment of male-pattern baldness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 5% hexane extract of Curcuma aeruginosa, a botanically derived inhibitor of 5α-reductase and 5% minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. Eighty-seven men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) were randomized to receive 5% Curcuma aeruginosa, 5% minoxidil, combination formulation (5% hexane extract of Curcuma aeruginosa + 5% minoxidil) or placebo, twice daily for 6 months. Efficacy was assessed by target area hair count, global photographic review as well as patients' subjective assessments of hair regrowth and hair shedding. There were statistically significant improvements in global photographic review (p < 0.001), subjects' overall assessments of hair regrowth (p = 0.008), and hair shedding (p = 0.004) when the combination formulation was compared with placebo. Similarly, treatment with 5% minoxidil and 5% C. aeruginosa extract also led to some degrees of hair regrowth. There were no serious adverse events during and after the study. In men with hair loss in the vertex area of the scalp, the combination of 5% hexane extract of C. aeruginosa and 5% minoxidil slowed hair loss and increased hair growth.

  5. A Study to Determine the Evolution of Advances in Medical Technology Expected in the Next 25 Years and Possible Impacts on Coast Guard Operation and Support Programs. Appendix D. Literature Search of Forecasts Relevant to Medical Technologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Medicine - Biomedicine Related Subjects: Drugs * 1’ 136 Forecast: Minoxidil , an experimental drug for reducing high blood pressure is also proven to be...Derived by The Futures Group from: Sannerstedt, Rune, et.al., " Minoxidil : Haemodynamic and Clinical Experiences With a New Peripheral Vasodilator

  6. Effectiveness of a Layer-by-Layer Microbubbles-Based Delivery System for Applying Minoxidil to Enhance Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ai-Ho; Lu, Ying-Jui; Lin, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hang-Kang; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Minoxidil (Mx) is a conventional drug for treating androgenetic alopecia, preventing hair loss, and promoting hair growth. The solubility of Mx has been improved using chemical enhancement methods to increase its skin permeability over the long term. This study created a new ultrasound (US) contrast agent-albumin-shelled microbubbles (MBs) that absorb chitosan oligosaccharide lactate (COL) and Mx-and combined it with sonication by US energy in the water phase to enhance hair growth while shortening the treatment period. COL and Mx grafted with MBs (mean diameter of 1480 nm) were synthesized into self-assembled complexes of COL-MBs and Mx-COL-MBs that had mean diameters of 4150 and 4500 nm, respectively. The US was applied at 3 W/cm(2) for 1 min, and combined with Mx-COL-MBs containing 0.3% Mx. The diffusion of Mx through the dialysis membrane from Mx-COL-MB during US (US+Mx-COL-MB) was more rapid at pH 4 than at pH 7.4, which is favorable given that the environment of the scalp is mildly acidic (pH=4.5-5.5). In Franz diffusion experiments performed in vitro, the release rates at 18 hours in the US+Mx-COL-MBs and US+MBs+Mx groups resulted in 2.3 and 1.7 times the penetration and deposition, respectively, of Mx relative to the group with Mx alone. During 21 days treatment in animal experiments, the growth rates at days 10 and 14 in the US+Mx-COL-MBs group increased by 22.6% and 64.7%, respectively, and there were clear significant differences (p<0.05) between the US+Mx-COL-MBs group and the other four groups. The use of US+Mx-COL-MB in the water phase can increased the effects of Mx so as to shorten the telogen phase, and also increase both the diameter of keratinized hair shafts and the size of hair follicles without causing skin damage.

  7. Effectiveness of a Layer-by-Layer Microbubbles-Based Delivery System for Applying Minoxidil to Enhance Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ai-Ho; Lu, Ying-Jui; Lin, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hang-Kang; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Minoxidil (Mx) is a conventional drug for treating androgenetic alopecia, preventing hair loss, and promoting hair growth. The solubility of Mx has been improved using chemical enhancement methods to increase its skin permeability over the long term. This study created a new ultrasound (US) contrast agent—albumin-shelled microbubbles (MBs) that absorb chitosan oligosaccharide lactate (COL) and Mx—and combined it with sonication by US energy in the water phase to enhance hair growth while shortening the treatment period. COL and Mx grafted with MBs (mean diameter of 1480 nm) were synthesized into self-assembled complexes of COL-MBs and Mx-COL-MBs that had mean diameters of 4150 and 4500 nm, respectively. The US was applied at 3 W/cm2 for 1 min, and combined with Mx-COL-MBs containing 0.3% Mx. The diffusion of Mx through the dialysis membrane from Mx-COL-MB during US (US+Mx-COL-MB) was more rapid at pH 4 than at pH 7.4, which is favorable given that the environment of the scalp is mildly acidic (pH=4.5-5.5). In Franz diffusion experiments performed in vitro, the release rates at 18 hours in the US+Mx-COL-MBs and US+MBs+Mx groups resulted in 2.3 and 1.7 times the penetration and deposition, respectively, of Mx relative to the group with Mx alone. During 21 days treatment in animal experiments, the growth rates at days 10 and 14 in the US+Mx-COL-MBs group increased by 22.6% and 64.7%, respectively, and there were clear significant differences (p<0.05) between the US+Mx-COL-MBs group and the other four groups. The use of US+Mx-COL-MB in the water phase can increased the effects of Mx so as to shorten the telogen phase, and also increase both the diameter of keratinized hair shafts and the size of hair follicles without causing skin damage. PMID:27162552

  8. Estrogen-Mediated Breast Carcinogenesis: The Role of Sulfation Pharmacogenetics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    Cipkus, L.A. and Taylor, C.J. Mechanism of action of minoxidil sulfate- induced vasodilation: a role for increased K+ permeability. J. Pharmacol...1993. Meisheri, K.D., Cipkus, L.A. and Taylor, C.J. Mechanism of action of minoxidil sulfate-induced vasodilation: a role for increased K

  9. Section II: Reviews. Antihypertensive Drugs in Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Sleep 1997;20:806-11. utility in treating hypertensive emergencies. Only hydralazine and minoxidil are suitable for 7. Hampton JR. Comparative efficacy...like trials. European Heart J 1992;13(Suppl G):85- syndrome, the frequency of occurrence depending 91. on dose and duration. 4 Minoxidil causes severe

  10. The effectiveness of treatments for androgenetic alopecia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Adil, Areej; Godwin, Marshall

    2017-07-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, or male pattern hair loss, is a hair loss disorder mediated by dihydrotestosterone, the potent form of testosterone. Currently, minoxidil and finasteride are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, and HairMax LaserComb, which is FDA-cleared, are the only treatments recognized by the FDA as treatments of androgenetic alopecia. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the efficacy of nonsurgical treatments of androgenetic alopecia in comparison to placebo for improving hair density, thickness, growth (defined by an increased anagen:telogen ratio), or subjective global assessments done by patients and investigators. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane were searched up to December 2016, with no lower limit on the year. We included only randomized controlled trials of good or fair quality based on the US Preventive Services Task Force quality assessment process. A meta-analysis was conducted separately for 5 groups of studies that tested the following hair loss treatments: low-level laser light therapy in men, 5% minoxidil in men, 2% minoxidil in men, 1 mg finasteride in men, and 2% minoxidil in women. All treatments were superior to placebo (P < .00001) in the 5 meta-analyses. Other treatments were not included because the appropriate data were lacking. High heterogeneity in most studies. This meta-analysis strongly suggests that minoxidil, finasteride, and low-level laser light therapy are effective for promoting hair growth in men with androgenetic alopecia and that minoxidil is effective in women with androgenetic alopecia. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of the effects of several potassium-channel openers on rat bladder and rat portal vein in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, G.; Henshaw, M.; Miller, M.; Weston, A. H.

    1991-01-01

    1. The ability of several K-channel openers to inhibit KCl-induced contractions of rat bladder detrusor and spontaneous mechanical activity in rat portal vein was examined. 2. Lemakalim, pinacidil, Ro 31-6930, RP 49356, P1060 and S 0121 dose-dependently relaxed rat detrusor, precontracted with 20 mM KCl. With the exception of pinacidil, concentrations of these agents below 30 microM did not inhibit 80 mM KCl-included contractions. Pinacidil (10 microM) produced a small, but significant (P < 0.05) relaxation of 80 mM KCl-induced mechanical activity. Minoxidil sulphate and BRL 38226 produced some relaxation of 20 mM but not 80 mM KCl-induced contractions. 3. Glibenclamide (0.3-3 microM) antagonized the relaxant effects of lemakalim, pinacidil, Ro 31-6930, RP 49356, P1060 and S 0121 in a competitive manner (pA2 values 6.3-6.6). The effects of minoxidil sulphate and BRL 38226 were fully antagonized by 3 microM glibenclamide. 4. Lemakalim, pinacidil, S 0121, BRL 38226 and minoxidil sulphate were each approximately 8 times more potent as inhibitors of the spontaneous contractions of rat portal vein than KCl-induced contractions of the rat detrusor. Minoxidil sulphate was approximately 30 times more potent in the rat portal vein than in the bladder. This may indicate that either minoxidil sulphate is acting at different recognition sites in these two tissues, or that this compound has an additional mechanism of action in the portal vein. 5. With the exception of minoxidil sulphate, all the compounds tested stimulated 86Rb efflux and 42K efflux from preloaded rat detrusor strips.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1364839

  12. Minoxidil

    MedlinePlus

    ... and other problems. In addition to taking medication, making lifestyle changes will also help to control your ... This branded product is no longer on the market. Generic alternatives may be available.

  13. Role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the piracetam induced blockade of opioid effects.

    PubMed

    Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Nirmal; Jindal, Seema

    2007-12-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of piracetam on morphine/ buprenorphine-induced antinociception in rats and effect of piracetam on morphine or minoxidil induced relaxation in KCl-precontracted isolated rat aortic ring preparation. Nociceptive threshold was measured by the tail flick test in rats. The cumulative dose responses of morphine or minoxidil were recorded in KCl-precontracted isolated rat aortic ring preparation. Piracetam attenuated buprenorphine-induced antinociception in rats. Piracetam significantly reduced the morphine and minoxidil induced relaxation in KCl precontracted isolated rat aortic ring preparation suggesting that piracetam interferes with opioid receptor and ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) opener mediated responses in vitro. Thus, it may be suggested that piracetam attenuates opioid effects by an opioid receptor-KATP channel linked mechanism.

  14. Clinical Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-30

    Aeling, J.L. and Chalet, M.D.: Collagen : Basic Science and Re:ated Diseases. Accepted for Publication. J. of Assoc. of Military Derm., 1979...102 Minoxidil as an Antihypertensive in Patients Refractory to Available Medications (T) (P) (PR). ...... . 037 75/107 A Comparison of the Results of...of Systemic Scleroderma with Minoxidil (U-1858) (0) .... ........................... 100 78/115 The Effect of Immunotherapy on the Tissue Threshold

  15. Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1979,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    Infusion on 58 Hemoglobin Oxygen Carrying Patterns in Man. (0) (PR) C-6-78 Minoxidil as an Anti-Hypertensive in Patients 59 Refractory to Available...aspirin. Ann. Int. Med. 89:1006, 1978. Rubin, E.N., Walker, B.K., Ersler, A.J., et al. Euthyroid aplasia complicating collagen vascular disease...Texas 78234 CLINICAL INVESTIGATION SERVICE INVESTIGATION PROJECT RESUME TITLE: Minoxidil as an Anti-Hypertensive in Patients Refractory to Available

  16. Minoxidil sulfate induced the increase in blood-brain tumor barrier permeability through ROS/RhoA/PI3K/PKB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yan-ting; Xue, Yi-xue; Wang, Yan-feng; Wang, Jin-hui; Chen, Xia; ShangGuan, Qian-ru; Lian, Yan; Zhong, Lei; Meng, Ying-nan

    2013-12-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel (KATP channel) activator, minoxidil sulfate (MS), can selectively increase the permeability of the blood-tumor barrier (BTB); however, the mechanism by which this occurs is still under investigation. Using a rat brain glioma (C6) model, we first examined the expression levels of occludin and claudin-5 at different time points after intracarotid infusion of MS (30 μg/kg/min) by western blotting. Compared to MS treatment for 0 min group, the protein expression levels of occludin and claudin-5 in brain tumor tissue of rats showed no changes within 1 h and began to decrease significantly after 2 h of MS infusion. Based on these findings, we then used an in vitro BTB model and selective inhibitors of diverse signaling pathways to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS)/RhoA/PI3K/PKB pathway play a key role in the process of the increase of BTB permeability induced by MS. The inhibitor of ROS or RhoA or PI3K or PKB significantly attenuated the expression of tight junction (TJ) protein and the increase of the BTB permeability after 2 h of MS treatment. In addition, the significant increases in RhoA activity and PKB phosphorylation after MS administration were observed, which were partly inhibited by N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine (MPG) or C3 exoenzyme or LY294002 pretreatment. The present study indicates that the activation of signaling cascades involving ROS/RhoA/PI3K/PKB in BTB was required for the increase of BTB permeability induced by MS. Taken together, all of these results suggested that MS might increase BTB permeability in a time-dependent manner by down-regulating TJ protein expression and this effect could be related to ROS/RhoA/PI3K/PKB signal pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical Investigation Program. Annual Research Progress Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-30

    1 Derma, Voi O, No. I, Spriny 1980. Thompson, P.B., Aeling, J.L., Chalet, M.D.; Collagen : Basic Science and Related Diseases, J of the Assoc of Mil...Oxidation in Rat Skeletal Muscle M LLb,.,dria. (0) (P) (PR) .......... ... 080 78/114 Treatment of Systemic Scleroderma with Minoxidil (U-1858) (0...D- .. . i. . tut Il Sumilrc, ry )tluc I) ~ (T~ProtNo.: 78/114 77 > Treatment of Systemic Scleroderma with Minoxidil (U-1858) .,, r- L-. Jun 79 L

  18. Targeting solid tumours with potassium channel activators. A return to fundamentals?

    PubMed

    Trechot, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    From a pharmacological point of view nicotinamide and minoxidil are potassium channel activators. Nicotinamide is used as a radiosensitizer in ARCON (accelerated radiotherapy combined with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide) therapeutic strategy with promising results but not confirmed so far. Minoxidil has never been considered by radiotherapists. Based from recent pathophysiological considerations we suggest a new perspective for the use of these two "old" molecules in order to target solid tumours. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  19. Efficacy of topical tofacitinib in promoting hair growth in non-scarring alopecia: possible mechanism via VEGF induction.

    PubMed

    Meephansan, Jitlada; Thummakriengkrai, J; Ponnikorn, S; Yingmema, W; Deenonpoe, R; Suchonwanit, P

    2017-11-01

    Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor that promotes hair growth; however, the efficacy and mechanism of this effect are not yet understood. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and mechanism of topical tofacitinib on hair growth in mice. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided equally into four groups and treated topically with tofacitinib, minoxidil, or vehicle once daily for 21 days. Weekly photographs were taken to determine the area and rate of hair growth, and tissue samples were collected for histopathological evaluation. mRNA and protein expression of anagen-maintaining growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), were determined via RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Tofacitinib-treated mice exhibited more hair regrowth than either minoxidil-treated or control mice did between day 7 and 21 (P < 0.05). Topical tofacitinib also promoted more rapid hair growth rate than topical minoxidil or control did (P < 0.001). Histopathology showed a distinct increase in the number of hair follicles, mostly in the anagen phase, in the tofacitinib-treated group. Hair follicles in the minoxidil- and vehicle-treated groups were more often classified as catagen and anagen. VEGF mRNA and protein expression in the tofacitinib-treated group was significantly greater than those in the other groups (P < 0.05). IGF-1 mRNA expression was not upregulated in tofacitinib-treated mice. Topical tofacitinib is effective in promoting hair growth, and the possible mechanism involves increased VEGF levels and lowered inflammation. This study will help develop a new therapeutic option for non-scarring alopecia.

  20. Use of low-level laser therapy as monotherapy or concomitant therapy for male and female androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Munck, Andréia; Gavazzoni, Maria Fernanda; Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-04-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men and in women. Currently, minoxidil and finasteride are the treatments with the highest levels of medical evidence, but patients who exhibit intolerance or poor response to these treatments are in need of additional treatment modalities. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for AGA, either as monotherapy or as concomitant therapy with minoxidil or finasteride, in an office-based setting. Retrospective observational study of male and female patients with AGA, treated with the 655 nm-HairMax Laser Comb(®), in an office-based setting. Efficacy was assessed with global photographic imaging. Of 32 patients (21 female, 11 male), 8 showed significant, 20 moderate, and 4 no improvement. Improvement was seen both with monotherapy and with concomitant therapy. Improvement was observed as early as 3 months and was sustained up to a maximum observation time of 24 months. No adverse reactions were reported. LLLT represents a potentially effective treatment for both male and female AGA, either as monotherapy or concomitant therapy. Combination treatments with minoxidil, finasteride, and LLLT may act synergistic to enhance hair growth.

  1. Treatment of Alopecia Areata in the United States: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Farhangian, Michael E; McMichael, Amy J; Huang, Karen E; Feldman, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    Alopecia Areata (AA) is a non-scarring alopecia that affects millions of Americans, however the way it is treated and which patients seek treatment is not well characterized. To better understand how AA was being treated in the United States, what type of patients are seen for AA, and what physicians treated them. We analyzed data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) from 2001 to 2010. We tabulated patient characteristics, the physicians who treated AA and what treatments were prescribed for AA. There were an estimated 2.6 million outpatient visits for AA. Patients with AA were most commonly treated by a dermatologists (84.8%). Patients were most commonly treated with topical and injected corticosteroids (61.0%) followed by minoxidil (5.9%) and topical tacrolimus (5.7%). Males made fewer visits per 1,000 capita compared to females (P=0.01). The NAMCS and NHAMCS do not record severity of disease data. Topical and injected corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for AA, however the use of steroid sparing agents such as minoxidil is low. Despite no studies demonstrating efficacy, topical tacrolimus was used almost as frequently as minoxidil.

  2. Lipid nanoparticles for topical and transdermal application for alopecia treatment: development, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro release and penetration studies

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Maria João; Martins, Susana; Ferreira, Domingos; Segundo, Marcela A; Reis, Salette

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder, commonly known as hair loss, which affects up to half of the Caucasian male population by middle age, and almost all (95%) Caucasian men by old age. Considering that alopecia affects so many people and that there is currently no scientifically proven treatment with few side effects, new drug-delivery systems able to improve alopecia therapy are urgently required. With this purpose in mind, the present study aimed to develop lipid nanoparticles (nanostructured lipid carriers) with the ability to incorporate and deliver anti-alopecia active compounds (minoxidil and finasteride) into the dermis and hair follicles. Lipid nanoparticles, prepared by ultrasonication method, showed mean particle sizes around 200 nm, which is sufficient for reaching the dermis and hair follicles, and zeta potential values around −30 mV, which indicates good physical stability. Over 28 days of storage, no significant variations in these parameters were observed, which indicates that all nanoformulations are stable in storage over that period. Cryo-scanning electron microscope measurements showed that all the lipid nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape and a smooth surface regardless of their composition. Differential scanning calorimetry studies allowed the determination of phase transition temperatures and confirmed the recrystallization of the lipid nanoparticles (recrystallization index between 11% and 86%). A high loading efficiency was achieved for finasteride (between 70% and 90%), while less than 30% was achieved for minoxidil nanoparticles, over 28 days. Controlled release assays in physiological conditions demonstrated that nanoparticles loaded with minoxidil yielded a prolonged release, as desired. Penetration assays through pig ear skin demonstrated that nanoparticles loaded with minoxidil and finasteride had low levels of penetration. These results suggest that the proposed novel formulation presents several good characteristics

  3. Lipid nanoparticles for topical and transdermal application for alopecia treatment: development, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro release and penetration studies.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Maria João; Martins, Susana; Ferreira, Domingos; Segundo, Marcela A; Reis, Salette

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder, commonly known as hair loss, which affects up to half of the Caucasian male population by middle age, and almost all (95%) Caucasian men by old age. Considering that alopecia affects so many people and that there is currently no scientifically proven treatment with few side effects, new drug-delivery systems able to improve alopecia therapy are urgently required. With this purpose in mind, the present study aimed to develop lipid nanoparticles (nanostructured lipid carriers) with the ability to incorporate and deliver anti-alopecia active compounds (minoxidil and finasteride) into the dermis and hair follicles. Lipid nanoparticles, prepared by ultrasonication method, showed mean particle sizes around 200 nm, which is sufficient for reaching the dermis and hair follicles, and zeta potential values around -30 mV, which indicates good physical stability. Over 28 days of storage, no significant variations in these parameters were observed, which indicates that all nanoformulations are stable in storage over that period. Cryo-scanning electron microscope measurements showed that all the lipid nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape and a smooth surface regardless of their composition. Differential scanning calorimetry studies allowed the determination of phase transition temperatures and confirmed the recrystallization of the lipid nanoparticles (recrystallization index between 11% and 86%). A high loading efficiency was achieved for finasteride (between 70% and 90%), while less than 30% was achieved for minoxidil nanoparticles, over 28 days. Controlled release assays in physiological conditions demonstrated that nanoparticles loaded with minoxidil yielded a prolonged release, as desired. Penetration assays through pig ear skin demonstrated that nanoparticles loaded with minoxidil and finasteride had low levels of penetration. These results suggest that the proposed novel formulation presents several good characteristics

  4. Use of Low-Level Laser Therapy as Monotherapy or Concomitant Therapy for Male and Female Androgenetic Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Munck, Andréia; Gavazzoni, Maria Fernanda; Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men and in women. Currently, minoxidil and finasteride are the treatments with the highest levels of medical evidence, but patients who exhibit intolerance or poor response to these treatments are in need of additional treatment modalities. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for AGA, either as monotherapy or as concomitant therapy with minoxidil or finasteride, in an office-based setting. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study of male and female patients with AGA, treated with the 655 nm-HairMax Laser Comb®, in an office-based setting. Efficacy was assessed with global photographic imaging. Results: Of 32 patients (21 female, 11 male), 8 showed significant, 20 moderate, and 4 no improvement. Improvement was seen both with monotherapy and with concomitant therapy. Improvement was observed as early as 3 months and was sustained up to a maximum observation time of 24 months. No adverse reactions were reported. Conclusions: LLLT represents a potentially effective treatment for both male and female AGA, either as monotherapy or concomitant therapy. Combination treatments with minoxidil, finasteride, and LLLT may act synergistic to enhance hair growth. PMID:25191036

  5. Fuzzy Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Rick

    1991-01-01

    Research on the structure, growth, development, and loss of hair in humans is reviewed. Studies designed to investigate methods of hair restoration using minoxidil and other compounds and treatments are discussed. (CW)

  6. In vivo hair growth-stimulating effect of medicinal plant extract on BALB/c nude mice.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahnaz; Gu, Li-Juan; Lee, Mi-Ra; Li, Zheng; Li, Jing-Jie; Hossain, Md Jamil; Wang, Yun-Bo; Sung, Chang Keun

    2015-08-01

    Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum (Asteraceae) (CZ) and Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (Polygonaceae) (PM) have been used traditionally to treat different systemic diseases and acclaimed for various biological activities including hair growth. This study investigates the hair restoration efficacy of selected medicinal plant extracts on nude mice. Nude mice genetically predisposed to pattern balding were used in this study. Topical methanol extracts of CZ and PM (10 mg/mouse/d) with standardized vehicle formulation, only vehicle (propylene glycol:ethanol:dimethyl sulfoxide, 67:30:3% v/v) and Minoxidil (2%) were applied daily for 40 consecutive days. In our study, the maximum hair score (2.5 ± 0.29) was obtained in the CZ-treated group. Histological observation revealed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in the number of hair follicles (HF) in CZ-treated mice (58.66 ± 3.72) and Minoxidil-treated mice (40 ± 2.71). Subsequently, immunohistochemical analysis also confirmed the follicular keratinocyte proliferation by detection of BrdU-labeling, S-phase cells in Minoxidil and CZ-treated mouse follicular bulb and outer root sheaths. Our study revealed the underlying mechanism of stimulating hair growth in athymic nude mice by repair the nu/nu follicular keratin differentiation defect. Thus, the topical application of CZ may represent a novel strategy for the management and therapy of certain forms of alopecia.

  7. Inhibitory effects of different ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers on electrically generated and carbachol-induced contractions of porcine and human detrusor muscle.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Jasmin Katrin; Ding, Andrea; Bross, Stephan

    2008-02-01

    The inhibitory effects of different potassium channel openers (PCOs) on electrically generated and carbachol-induced contractions of porcine and human detrusor muscle were examined. PCOs could be an interesting substance class for treatment of detrusor overactivity. Experiments were performed on muscle strips suspended in a tissue bath. Human tissue originated from patients who underwent total cystectomy. The concentration-relaxation curves of the first-generation PCOs cromakalim and pinacidil and the untypical PCO minoxidil were performed using carbachol-precontracted detrusor muscle strips of pigs and humans. Additionally, the inhibitory effects of cromakalim, pinacidil and minoxidil on electrically generated contractions of porcine detrusor muscle were examined. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of the second-generation, bladder-selective PCO ZM 226600 on electrically generated contractions of the human detrusor muscle was determined. Frequency-response curves were performed before and after incubation with one PCO used in two different concentrations. In humans, cromakalim and pinacidil led to a maximum decrease of 73.5 and 68.4% and showed mean pD2 values of 6.65 and 5.5, respectively. In pigs, cromakalim and pinacidil led to a maximum decrease of 90.6 and 93.6% and showed mean pD2 values of 6.39 and 5.01, respectively. Minoxidil did not significantly decrease the precontraction at the highest used concentration in both species. Cromakalim exhibited the biggest inhibitory effect being significant at 10(-5) and 10(-6) M. Pinacidil showed only a significant inhibitory effect at 10(-5) M which was smaller than that of cromakalim. At 3 x 10(-6) M only a very small effect occurred at 1 Hz. Minoxidil did not inhibit the contractions at both examined concentrations except for a very small effect at 1 Hz. In humans, ZM 226600 exhibited at 10(-6) and 10(-5) M a significant inhibitory effect. At 10(-7) M it was only significant at one frequency.

  8. A Phase III, Multicenter, Parallel-Design Clinical Trial to Compare the Efficacy and Safety of 5% Minoxidil Foam Versus Vehicle in Women With Female Pattern Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Bergfeld, Wilma; Washenik, Ken; Callender, Valerie; Zhang, Paul; Quiza, Carlos; Doshi, Uday; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    BACKGROUND Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common hair disorder that affects millions of women. A new 5% minoxidil topical foam (MTF) formulation, which does not contain propylene glycol, has been developed.
    To compare the efficacy and safety of once-daily 5% MTF with vehicle foam for the treatment of FPHL.
    This was a Phase III, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group, international multicenter trial (17 sites) in women aged at least 18 years with FPHL (grade D3 to D6 on the Savin Density Scale), treated once daily with 5% MTF or vehicle foam for 24 weeks. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were the change from baseline at week 24 in target area hair count (TAHC) and subject assessment of scalp coverage. Also evaluated were TAHC at week 12, expert panel review of hair regrowth at week 24, and change from baseline in total unit area density (TUAD, sum of hair diameters/cm2) at weeks 12 and 24.
    A total of 404 women were enrolled. At 12 and 24 weeks, 5% MTF treatment resulted in regrowth of 10.9 hairs/cm2 and 9.1 hairs/cm2 more than vehicle foam, respectively (both P<.0001). Improved scalp coverage at week 24 was observed by both subject self-assessment (0.69-point improvement over vehicle foam; P<.0001) and expert panel review (0.36-point improvement over the vehicle foam; P<.0001). TUAD increased by 658 μm/cm2 and 644 μm/cm2 more with 5% MTF than with vehicle foam at weeks 12 and 24, respectively (both P<.0001). MTF was well tolerated. A low incidence of scalp irritation and facial hypertrichosis was observed, with no clinically significant differences between groups.
    Five percent MTF once daily for 24 weeks was well tolerated and promoted hair regrowth in women with FPHL, resulting in improved scalp coverage and increased hair density compared with vehicle foam. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: nCT01226459

  9. Topical Products for Human Hair Regeneration: A Comparative Study on an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Orasan, Meda Sandra; Coneac, Andrei; Muresan, Adriana; Mihu, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Background Hair loss and hair growth is the subject of tremendous amount of research. Objective This study investigated the efficacy of three chemical treatments used in humans for hair loss, using a rat model of hair regrowth. The products tested were 2% minoxidil, Hairgrow (Dar-Al-Dawa Pharma), Aminexil, Dercos (Vichy Laboratoires), and Kerium, Anti-chute (La Roche-Posay). Methods Thirty-two adult female Wistar-Bratislava rats were assigned to 4 groups. Two rectangular areas (2×4 cm) were shaved on either sides of the mid dorsal line (left side - control; right side - test area). Group I was treated topically with 2% minoxidil, group II with Aminexil, and group III with Kerium. Each rat received 0.3 ml of substance applied topically to the shaved dorsal skin every day for 28 days. Rats in group IV served as sham controls receiving no treatment. Hair regrowth was evaluated by trichoscopy (with a dermatoscope), grown hair weight (from a surface area of 1 cm2), and histopathological examination for skin thickness, follicle count, and percentage of anagen induction (morphometric assessment). Results Treatment with 2% minoxidil significantly induced hair regrowth as assessed by trichoscopy, hair weight examination, and morphometric evaluation. Hair weight examination and morphometric assessment demonstrated the lowest hair growth effect with Aminexil among the tested products. Treatment with Kerium was found to significantly induce hair regrowth (p<0.05 as compared to the control group). Conclusion Our study demonstrates that hair regrowth efficacy of products recommended for human use is not similar when tested on an animal model. PMID:26848220

  10. Hair growth promoting activity of cedrol isolated from the leaves of Platycladus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Han, Ling; Chen, Shan-Shan; Guan, Jian; Qu, Fan-Zhi; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2016-10-01

    Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco is traditionally known to potentiate hair growth promotion. However, there has been no report on its main active ingredient responsible for the hair growth activity. In the current work, cedrol as a major constituent from P. orientalis was evaluated for its potential on hair growth in vivo. Different concentrations of cedrol (10, 20 and 30mg/mL) were applied topically over the shaved skin of C57BL/6 mice and monitored for 21days. Results indicated that cedrol significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, particularly for the female mice. Both male and female mice groups treated with 30mg/mL cedrol required shorter time than the blank control and 2% minoxidil groups at different growth stages. Compared with the blank control (8.87mm) and 2% minoxidil (9.94mm) groups at 21days, the hair length of female mice treated with 30mg/mL cedrol showed a remarkable increase with the value of 11.07mm. Hair in male and female mice groups treated with 30mg/mL cedrol was heavier than the 2% minoxidil (38.2 and 35.9mg, respectively) groups with the weight of 42.6 and 45.2mg, respectively. Further observation of the hair follicle demonstrated that cedrol exerted a remarkable effect on the hair follicle length. These findings suggested that cedrol may be the main active ingredient of P. orientalis and have the potential of becoming a new hair growth promoter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of male-pattern and female-pattern hair loss, 2017 version.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Motomu; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Itami, Satoshi; Osada, Shin-Ichi; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Ito, Taisuke; Inui, Shigeki; Ueki, Rie; Ohyama, Manabu; Kurata, Sotaro; Kono, Takeshi; Saito, Norimitsu; Sato, Akio; Shimomura, Yutaka; Nakamura, Motonobu; Narusawa, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2018-06-04

    Male-pattern hair loss (MPHL, androgenetic alopecia) is a slowly progressive form of alopecia which begins after puberty. In 2010, we published the first Japanese edition of guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of MPHL. It achieved the original goal of providing physicians and patients in Japan with evidence-based information for choosing efficacious and safe therapy for MPHL. Subsequently, new therapeutic drugs and treatment methods have been developed, and women's perception of MPHL has undergone change and the term "female-pattern hair loss (FPHL)" is becoming more common internationally. Thus, here we report a revised version of the 2010 guidelines aimed at both MPHL and FPHL. In these guidelines, finasteride 1 mg daily, dutasteride 0.5 mg daily and topical 5% minoxidil twice daily for MPHL, and topical 1% minoxidil twice daily for FPHL, are recommended as the first-line treatments. Self-hair transplantation, irradiation by light-emitting diodes and low-level lasers, and topical application of adenosine for MPHL are recommended, whereas prosthetic hair transplantation and oral administration of minoxidil should not be performed. Oral administration of finasteride or dutasteride are contraindicated for FPHL. In addition, we have evaluated the effectiveness of topical application of carpronium chloride, t-flavanone, cytopurine, pentadecane and ketoconazole, and wearing a wig. Unapproved topical application of bimatoprost and latanoprost, and emerging hair regeneration treatments have also been addressed. We believe that the revised guidelines will improve further the diagnostic and treatment standards for MPHL add FPHL in Japan. © 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  12. A Retrospective Review of Treatment Results for Patients With Central Centrifugal Cicatrical Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Eginli, Ariana; Dothard, Emily; Bagayoko, Courtney W; Huang, Karen; Daniel, Alyssa; McMichael, Amy J

    2017-04-01

    INTRODUCTION: Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is a form of scarring alopecia primarily affecting women of African descent on the crown of the scalp. Limited data exists regarding evidence-based treatment for CCCA.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine photos of subjects with CCCA before and after treatment in order to evaluate results of treatment and compare results of different treatment regimens.

    METHODS: Photographs of 15 subjects with CCCA before and after treatment were evaluated by two blinded investigators who assigned disease severity scores to photographs based on a published scale: Central Scalp Alopecia Photographic Scale in African American Women.

    RESUTLS: Median change in severity score (post-treatment severity score - pre-treatment severity score) was 0.5 (P = 0.58) for all 15 subjects receiving a series of 7 to 8 intralesional steroid injections along with topical steroids (Class I/II) +/- minoxidil and +/- anti-dandruff shampoo, indicating worsening of disease after treatment. Subjects receiving minoxidil versus those who did not (0.25 vs 0.5; P = 0.38) and subjects receiving anti-dandruff shampoo versus those who did not (0.0 vs 0.5; P = 0.42) demonstrated no statistically significant difference in pre- and post-treatment severity scores. Of 15 subjects, 5/15 (33.3%) had decreased severity scores, 8/15 (53.3%) had increased severity scores, and 2/15 (13.3%) had no change in severity scores.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although no statistically significant difference was found in pre- versus post-treatment disease severity, this may indicate intralesional steroid injections and topical steroids +/- minoxidil and +/- anti-dandruff shampoo halt disease progression.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(4):317-320.

    .

  13. Differences in reproductive toxicology between alopecia drugs: an analysis on adverse events among female and male cases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological condition with limited therapeutic options. Only two drugs, finasteride and minoxidil, are approved by FDA for alopecia treatment. However, little is known about the differences in adverse effects between these two drugs. We examined the clinical reports submitted to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) from 2004 to 2014. For both female and males, finasteride was found to be more associated with reproductive toxicity as compared to minoxidil. Among male alopecia cases, finasteride was significantly more concurrent with several forms of sexual dysfunction. Among female alopecia cases, finasteride was significantly more concurrent with harm to fetus and disorder of uterus. In addition, drug-gene network analysis indicated that finasteride could profoundly disturb pathways related to sex hormone signaling and oocyte maturation. These findings could provide clues for subsequent toxicological research. Taken together, this analysis suggested that finasteride could be more liable to various reproductive adverse effects. Some of these adverse effects have yet to be warned in FDA-approved drug label. This information can help improve the treatment regimen of alopecia and post-marketing regulation of drug products. PMID:27738338

  14. Effects of several potassium channel openers and glibenclamide on the uterus of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Piper, I.; Minshall, E.; Downing, S. J.; Hollingsworth, M.; Sadraei, H.

    1990-01-01

    1. The ability of several potassium (K+) channel openers to inhibit spasm of the uterus of the nonpregnant rat and their susceptibility to antagonism by glibenclamide was assessed in vitro and in vivo. 2. In the isolated uterus exposed to oxytocin (0.2 nM), cromakalim, RP 49356 and pinacidil were of similar potency (mean pD2 = 6.4, 6.0 and 6.2 respectively) while minoxidil sulphate was of lower potency (pD2 = 4.7). Glibenclamide antagonized cromakalim and RP 49356 with the interactions consistent with competitive antagonism (mean pA2 of 6.57 and 7.00 respectively). Glibenclamide also antagonized pinacidil (pA2 = 6.22) but the slope of the Schild plot was significantly greater than -1. Neither salbutamol nor minoxidil sulphate was antagonized by glibenclamide (10 microM). 3. Cromakalim (1 and 10 microM), RP 49356 (1 and 10 microM), pinacidil (1 microM) and minoxidil sulphate (100 microM) suppressed spasm evoked by low (less than 40 mM) but not high (greater than or equal to 40 mM) KCl concentrations. Glibenclamide (10 microM) prevented cromakalim (10 microM)-, RP 49356 (10 microM)- and pinacidil (10 microM)-induced suppression of KCl (20 mM)-evoked spasm. Pinacidil (10 and 100 microM), cromakalim (100 microM) and salbutamol (0.01-1 microM) inhibited spasm evoked by all concentrations of KCl (10-80 mM). Suppression of spasm evoked by KCl (10-80 mM) by cromakalim (100 microM) and pinacidil (100 microM) was insensitive to glibenclamide (10 microM). 4. Cromakalim (0.1 mg kg-1) and RP 49356 (0.1 mg kg-1), given by i.v. bolus injection, inhibited uterine contractions, produced a fall in blood pressure and a slight tachycardia in the conscious ovariectomized rat.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2128195

  15. Functional role for mouse cerebellar NO/cGMP/KATP pathway in ethanol-induced ataxia.

    PubMed

    Saeed Dar, M

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that brain adenosine A1 receptors and nitric oxide (NO) play an important role in ethanol (EtOH)-induced cerebellar ataxia (EICA) through glutamate/NO/cGMP pathway. I now report possible modulation of EICA by the cerebellar NO/cGMP/K(ATP) pathway. EICA was evaluated by Rotorod in CD-1 male mice. All drugs (K(ATP) activators pinacidil, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 nmol; minoxidil, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 pmol; antagonists glipizide/glibenclamide, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 nmol; NO donor l-arginine, 20 nmol; NOS inhibitors [iNOS] inhibitor L-NAME, 50 nmol; glutamate, 1.5 nmol; adenosine A1 receptor agonist N(6) -cyclohexyladenosine [CHA], 6, 12 pmol; antagonist DPCPX, 0.1 or 0.4 nmol) were given by direct intracerebellar microinfusion via stereotaxically implanted guide cannulas, except EtOH (2 g/kg, i.p.). Pinacidil and minoxidil dose-dependently accentuated, whereas glipizide and glibenclamide markedly attenuated EICA, indicating tonic participation of K(ATP) channels. Glipizide abolished the pinacidil potentiation of EICA, which confirmed both drugs acted via K(ATP) channels. A possible link between K(ATP) channels and glutamate/NO pathway was suggested when (i) CHA (12 pmol) totally abolished l-arginine-induced attenuation of EICA; (ii) L-NAME abolished l-arginine-induced attenuation of EICA associated with further increase in EICA; and (iii) the combined l-arginine and glutamate infusion virtually abolished EICA. Also, whereas CHA abolished glibenclamide-induced attenuation and potentiated pinacidil/minoxidil-induced accentuation of EICA, the effects of DPCPX were just the opposite to those of CHA. The results with CHA therefore suggest a functional link between K(ATP) and A1 receptors and between K(ATP) and glutamate/NO and as an extension may involve participation of NO/cGMP/K(ATP) pathway in EICA. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. North American Virginian Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana): Based Scalp Care and Protection for Sensitive Scalp, Red Scalp, and Scalp Burn-Out.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-07-01

    A sensitive scalp is a frequent problem in daily clinical practice and often represents a major challenge for dermatologists. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a Northamerican Virginian Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana)-based shampoo and tonic (Erol(®) Energy) for treatment of the sensitive scalp. Retrospective observational study of male and female patients given Erol(®) Energy products in the period between August 2010 and December 2013 at the Center for Dermatology and Hair Diseases Professor Trüeb to treat irritable scalp conditions or as concomitant treatment to minoxidil therapy for androgenetic alocepia. Shampoo was applied successfully in 1,373 patients (1,233 women and 140 men). Patients reported improvement of subjective manifestations of irritation and rated tolerance of both products as good to excellent. During this period, 369 (26.9%) have received Erol(®) shampoo more than once. The choice of appropriate hair-care products represents an important aspect in the management of the sensitive scalp and related conditions. With the Erol(®) Energy hair-care products, the advantages of H. virginiana are available for successful treatment of the scalp, especially in the context of problems associated with red scalp, scalp burn-out, and the use of topical minoxidil for androgenetic alopecia.

  17. North American Virginian Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana): Based Scalp Care and Protection for Sensitive Scalp, Red Scalp, and Scalp Burn-Out

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-01-01

    Background: A sensitive scalp is a frequent problem in daily clinical practice and often represents a major challenge for dermatologists. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a Northamerican Virginian Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana)-based shampoo and tonic (Erol® Energy) for treatment of the sensitive scalp. Methods: Retrospective observational study of male and female patients given Erol® Energy products in the period between August 2010 and December 2013 at the Center for Dermatology and Hair Diseases Professor Trüeb to treat irritable scalp conditions or as concomitant treatment to minoxidil therapy for androgenetic alocepia. Results: Shampoo was applied successfully in 1,373 patients (1,233 women and 140 men). Patients reported improvement of subjective manifestations of irritation and rated tolerance of both products as good to excellent. During this period, 369 (26.9%) have received Erol® shampoo more than once. Conclusions: The choice of appropriate hair-care products represents an important aspect in the management of the sensitive scalp and related conditions. With the Erol® Energy hair-care products, the advantages of H. virginiana are available for successful treatment of the scalp, especially in the context of problems associated with red scalp, scalp burn-out, and the use of topical minoxidil for androgenetic alopecia. PMID:25210333

  18. Treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Masoumeh; Gorouhi, Farzam; Babakoohi, Shahab; Moghadam-Kia, Siamak; Firooz, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) as a distinctive entity was first described about 30 years ago. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials for treatment of FPHL. A preliminary search was carried out in several databases up to August 2008 to identify all randomized controlled trials on nonsurgical interventions for treatment of FPHL. Studies reporting fewer than 10 patients and non-English articles were excluded. Additionally, references of relevant articles and reviews were checked manually in search for additional sources. Among 238 citations found in the preliminary search, 12 fulfilled all criteria to be included in the systematic review. Topical minoxidil 1% to 5% for 24 to 48 weeks was shown to be effective in FPHL and its effect was not related to age or androgen level of patients. In addition, it may be effective in women with FPHL, both with and without hyperandrogenism, and in young and old premenopausal or postmenopausal. In patients with increased serum androgens, oral flutamide but not finasteride or cyproterone acetate was more effective than no treatment. Topical minoxidil is effective in patients with FPHL, with or without hyperandrogenism, but there is limited evidence for the efficacy of antiandrogens.

  19. Interventions for female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Schoones, Jan

    2016-05-26

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL), or androgenic alopecia, is the most common type of hair loss affecting women. It is characterised by progressive shortening of the duration of the growth phase of the hair with successive hair cycles, and progressive follicular miniaturisation with conversion of terminal to vellus hair follicles (terminal hairs are thicker and longer, while vellus hairs are soft, fine, and short). The frontal hair line may or may not be preserved. Hair loss can have a serious psychological impact on women. To determine the efficacy and safety of the available options for the treatment of female pattern hair loss in women. We updated our searches of the following databases to July 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1872), AMED (from 1985), LILACS (from 1982), PubMed (from 1947), and Web of Science (from 1945). We also searched five trial registries and checked the reference lists of included and excluded studies. We included randomised controlled trials that assessed the efficacy of interventions for FPHL in women. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality, extracted data and carried out analyses. We included 47 trials, with 5290 participants, of which 25 trials were new to this update. Only five trials were at 'low risk of bias', 26 were at 'unclear risk', and 16 were at 'high risk of bias'.The included trials evaluated a wide range of interventions, and 17 studies evaluated minoxidil. Pooled data from six studies indicated that a greater proportion of participants (157/593) treated with minoxidil (2% and one study with 1%) reported a moderate to marked increase in their hair regrowth when compared with placebo (77/555) (risk ratio (RR) = 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51 to 2.47; moderate quality evidence). These results were confirmed by the investigator-rated assessments in seven studies with 1181

  20. HYPERTENSION’S 3 DILEMMAS & 3 SOLUTIONS Pharmacology of the Kidney in Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pettinger, William

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY The Hypertension Community has three conflicting dilemmas, a goal systolic pressure of 120 mmHg or less (The SPRINT Trials), 40% of our 60,000,000 hypertensives still sustain blood pressures above 140/90 mmHg and our most potent antihypertensive drug minoxidil sits on the side-lines, imprisoned in the FDA’s Black Box Designation. My solutions to these dilemmas are: #1. Review of the facts of our most potent antihypertensive drug minoxidil which is essentially free of toxicity, #2. Treatment focus on the fundamental cause of High Blood Pressure, excess dietary sodium and, #3. Prevention of, and/or reversal of, the fundamental mechanism of worsening hypertension, arteriolar hypertrophy. My focus at U.T. Southwestern in Dallas was on extremely severely hypertensive patients with a quantifiable, measurable complication of high blood pressure, progression of nephrosclerotic damage to kidneys. This model had the greatest likelihood of exposing fundamental dis-regulatory mechanisms in hypertensive patients (which it did) and the potential for study of the most relevant antihypertensive drug interactions to achieve optimal blood pressure control (which it did). By maintaining diastolic pressures at 80 mmHg or less in the first NIH supported, long term randomized clinical trial to save the kidneys, the bases for a fundamental blood pressure support mechanism (arteriolar hypertrophy) was illuminated but not fully described until now. This fundamental hypertensinogenic mechanism results from HBP but with time and severity, becomes its own raison d’être. I am now 84 years of age. As a result of a stroke 20 years ago which caused permanent double vision and because of poor blood pressure control with triple therapy I started using minoxidil 5 mg/day along with atenolol and occasional furosemide. Now, along with some dietary salt restriction, my resting blood pressure is 110/65–125/75 and, in spite of > 30 year history of HBP, I have no retinal arteriolar

  1. [What is the value of low-energie lasers in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia ?

    PubMed

    Paquet, Ph; Orduz, M; Franchimont, C; Nikkels, A F

    2017-12-01

    Male and female androgenetic alopecia is a common, chronic, psychologically stressful disorder affecting more than 50 % of the individuals by 50 years of age. Despite the current topical (minoxidil) or oral (the inhibitors of 5-? reductase finasteride or dutasteride) treatments, there is a need for more effective management options. The current clinical evidence, the possible mechanisms of action and the rare adverse events of the low level laser therapy in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia are presented.

  2. Low-level laser therapy for the treatment of androgenic alopecia: a review.

    PubMed

    Darwin, Evan; Heyes, Alexandra; Hirt, Penelope A; Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2018-02-01

    There are many new low-level laser technologies that have been released commercially that claim to support hair regrowth. In this paper, we will examine the clinical trials to determine whether the body of evidence supports the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to treat androgenic alopecia (AGA). A literature search was conducted through Pubmed, Embase, and Clinicaltrials.gov for clinical trials using LLLT to treat AGA. Thirteen clinical trials were assessed. Review articles were not included. Ten of 11 trials demonstrated significant improvement of androgenic alopecia in comparison to baseline or controls when treated with LLLT. In the remaining study, improvement in hair counts and hair diameter was recorded, but did not reach statistical significance. Two trials did not include statistical analysis, but showed marked improvement by hair count or by photographic evidence. Two trials showed efficacy for LLLT in combination with topical minoxidil. One trial showed efficacy when accompanying finasteride treatment. LLLT appears to be a safe, alternative treatment for patients with androgenic alopecia. Clinical trials have indicated efficacy for androgenic alopecia in both men and women. It may be used independently or as an adjuvant of minoxidil or finasteride. More research needs to be undertaken to determine the optimal power and wavelength to use in LLLT as well as LLLT's mechanism of action.

  3. Protopanaxatirol type ginsenoside Re promotes cyclic growth of hair follicles via inhibiting transforming growth factor β signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Lee, Jungsul; Choi, Kyungsun; Kim, Sunchang; Choi, Chulhee

    2016-02-19

    Ginsenosides, the major bio-active ingredients included in Panax ginseng, have been known for the hair growth activity and used to treat patients who suffer from hair loss; however, the detailed mechanisms of this action are still largely unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for hair growth promoting effect of ginsenoside Re (GRe) in vitro and in vivo. Different doses of minoxidil and GRe were administered topically to the back regions of nude mice for up to 45 days, and hair shaft length and hair cycles were determined for hair promoting activities. Topical treatment of GRe significantly increased the hair shaft length and hair existent time, which was comparable to the action of minoxidil. We also demonstrated that GRe stimulated hair shaft elongation in the ex vivo cultures of vibrissa hair follicles isolated from C57BL/6 mouse. Systemic transcriptome analysis by next generation sequencing demonstrated that TGF-β-pathway related genes were selectively down-regulated by treatment of GRe in vivo, and the same treatment suppressed TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of ERK in HeLa cells. The results clearly indicated that GRe is the effective constituent in the ginseng on hair promotion via selective inhibition of the hair growth phase transition related signaling pathways, TGF-β signaling cascades. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Evaluation of Cardiac Toxicity Biomarkers in Rats from Different Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyuri; Chini, Naseem; Fairchild, David G.; Engle, Steven K.; Reagan, William J.; Summers, Sandra D.; Mirsalis, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    There is a great need for improved diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of potential cardiac toxicity in drug development. This study reports the evaluation of several commercially available biomarker kits by three institutions (SRI, Eli Lilly and Pfizer) for the discrimination between myocardial degeneration/necrosis and cardiac hypertrophy as well as the assessment of the inter-laboratory and inter-platform variation in results. Serum concentrations of natriuretic peptides (NT-proANP, NT-proBNP), cardiac and skeletal troponins (cTnI, cTnT, sTnI), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3) and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) were assessed in rats treated with minoxidil and isoproterenol. Minoxidil caused increased heart-to-body weight ratios and prominent elevations in NT-proANP and NT-proBNP concentrations detected at 24 hr postdose without elevation in troponins, Myl3 or FABP3 and with no abnormal histopathological findings. Isoproterenol caused ventricular leukocyte infiltration, myocyte fibrosis and necrosis with increased concentrations of the natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponins and Myl3. These results reinforce the advantages of a multi-marker strategy in elucidating the underlying cause of cardiac insult and detecting myocardial tissue damage at 24 hr post-treatment. The inter-laboratory and inter-platform comparison analyses also showed that the data obtained from different laboratories and platforms are highly correlated and reproducible, making these biomarkers widely applicable in preclinical studies. PMID:27638646

  5. Hair growth-promoting activity of hot water extract of Thuja orientalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan-nan; Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-10

    Thuja orientalis has been traditionally used to treat patients who suffer from baldness and hair loss in East Asia. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth-promoting activity of T. orientalis hot water extract and the underlying mechanism of action. After T. orientalis extract was topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 N mice, the histomorphometric analysis was employed to study induction of the hair follicle cycle. To determine the effect of T. orientalis extract on the telogen to anagen transition, the protein expression levels of β-catenin and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in hair follicles were determined by immunohistochemistry. We observed that T. orientalis extract promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6 N mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric analysis data indicates that topical application of T. orientalis extract induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the mature anagen phase, in contrast to either the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. We also observed increases in both the number and size of hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis reveals earlier induction of β-catenin and Shh proteins in hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group, compared to the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. These results suggest that T. orientalis extract promotes hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in resting hair follicles and might therefore be a potential hair growth-promoting agent.

  6. Determination of illegal adulteration of dietary supplements with synthetic hair-growth compounds by UPLC and LC-Q-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kang, Gihaeng; Park, Han Na; Kim, Jihee; Kim, Nam Sook; Park, Seongsoo; Park, Sung-Kwan; Baek, Sun Young; Kang, Hoil

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we developed a UPLC-PDA and LC-Q-TOF/MS method to identify and measure the following prohibited substances that may be found in dietary supplements:triaminodil, minoxidil, bimatoprost, alimemazine, diphenylcyclopropenone, α-tradiol, finasteride, methyltestosterone, spironolatone, flutamide, cyproterone, dutasteride, and testosterone 17-propionate.The method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ, recovery, and stability. The method was completely validated showing satisfactory data for all method validation parameters. The linearity was good (R 2  > 0.999) with intra- and inter-day precision values of 0.2-3.4% and 0.3-2.9%, respectively. Moreover, the intra- and inter-day accuracies were 87-102% and 86-103%, respectively, and the precision was better than 9.4% (relative standard deviation).Hence, the proposed method is precise and has high quality,and can be utilised to comprehensively and continually monitor illegal drug adulteration in various forms of dietary supplements. Furthermore, to evaluate the applicability of the proposed method, we analysed 13 hair-growth compounds in 78 samples including food and dietary supplements. Minoxidil and triaminodil were detected in capsules at concentrations of 4.69 mg/g and 6.54 mg/g. In addition, finasteride was detected in a tablet at 13.45 mg/g. In addition, the major characteristic fragment ions were confirmed once again using LC-Q-TOF/MS for higher accuracy.

  7. Structures of Prostacyclin Synthase and Its Complexes with Substrate Analog and Inhibitor Reveal a Ligand-specific Heme Conformation Change*s

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Ching; Chiang, Chia-Wang; Yeh, Hui-Chun; Hsu, Pei-Yung; Whitby, Frank G.; Wang, Lee-Ho; Chan, Nei-Li

    2008-01-01

    Prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) is a cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme that catalyzes production of prostacyclin from prostaglandin H2. PGIS is unusual in that it catalyzes an isomerization rather than a monooxygenation, which is typical of P450 enzymes. To understand the structural basis for prostacyclin biosynthesis in greater detail, we have determined the crystal structures of ligand-free, inhibitor (minoxidil)-bound and substrate analog U51605-bound PGIS. These structures demonstrate a stereo-specific substrate binding and suggest features of the enzyme that facilitate isomerization. Unlike most microsomal P450s, where large substrate-induced conformational changes take place at the distal side of the heme, conformational changes in PGIS are observed at the proximal side and in the heme itself. The conserved and extensive heme propionate-protein interactions seen in all other P450s, which are largely absent in the ligand-free PGIS, are recovered upon U51605 binding accompanied by water exclusion from the active site. In contrast, when minoxidil binds, the propionate-protein interactions are not recovered and water molecules are largely retained. These findings suggest that PGIS represents a divergent evolution of the P450 family, in which a heme barrier has evolved to ensure strict binding specificity for prostaglandin H2, leading to a radical-mediated isomerization with high product fidelity. The U51605-bound structure also provides a view of the substrate entrance and product exit channels. PMID:18032380

  8. Hair growth-promoting effect of Geranium sibiricum extract in human dermal papilla cells and C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, William A; Yu, Miri; Choi, Youngbin; Jeong, Gi Hee; Zhang, Yi-Lin; Cho, Sunghun; Choi, Changsun; Lee, Sanghyun; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2017-02-13

    Geranium sibiricum L. has been used as a medicinal plant to treat diarrhea, bacterial infection, and cancer in Bulgaria, Peru, and Korea. However, its hair growth-promoting effect was not investigated so far. This study examined the effects of Geranium sibiricum L. extract (GSE) on hair growth, using in vitro and in vivo models. Antioxidant, proliferation and migration assay of GSE was performed with human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs). Hair-growth promoting effect was measured in animal model. Relative expression of interleukin-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta 1 was determined by real time RT-PCR. Expression of Ki-67 and stem cell factor were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. GSE treatment proliferated and migrated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) more than treatment of 10 μM minoxidil. GSE significantly stimulated the expression of Ki-67 protein and the mRNA levels of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in hDPCs. Topical application of 1,000 ppm GSE for 3 weeks promoted more significant hair growth on shaved C57BL/6 mice than did 5% minoxidil. The histological morphology of hair follicles demonstrated an active anagen phase with the induction of stem cell factor. GSE treatment significantly reduced the number of mast cells and the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 in mouse skin tissues. These results demonstrated that GSE promotes hair growth in vitro and in vivo by regulating growth factors and the cellular response.

  9. Hair growth-promoting activity of hot water extract of Thuja orientalis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thuja orientalis has been traditionally used to treat patients who suffer from baldness and hair loss in East Asia. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth-promoting activity of T. orientalis hot water extract and the underlying mechanism of action. Methods After T. orientalis extract was topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 N mice, the histomorphometric analysis was employed to study induction of the hair follicle cycle. To determine the effect of T. orientalis extract on the telogen to anagen transition, the protein expression levels of β-catenin and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in hair follicles were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results We observed that T. orientalis extract promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6 N mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric analysis data indicates that topical application of T. orientalis extract induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the mature anagen phase, in contrast to either the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. We also observed increases in both the number and size of hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis reveals earlier induction of β-catenin and Shh proteins in hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group, compared to the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. Conclusion These results suggest that T. orientalis extract promotes hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in resting hair follicles and might therefore be a potential hair growth-promoting agent. PMID:23305186

  10. Understanding and management of female pattern alopecia.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Matt

    2008-11-01

    Female pattern hair loss is devastating to many of the 21 million U.S. women who suffer from it. It is essential to differentiate female pattern hair loss from other types of hair loss to ensure appropriate treatment. Through use of follicular units, follicular families, and follicular pairing between existing hair follicles, natural-looking results can be achieved in women. Hair transplants create the benefit of increasing density and providing options for hair styling and can be combined with medications, devices, and styling aids such as minoxidil, low-level laser therapy, and topical powder makeup, respectively.

  11. K+ channel openers restore verapamil-inhibited lung fluid resolution and transepithelial ion transport

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lung epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) are regulated by cell Ca2+ signal, which may contribute to calcium antagonist-induced noncardiogenic lung edema. Although K+ channel modulators regulate ENaC activity in normal lungs, the therapeutical relevance and the underlying mechanisms have not been completely explored. We hypothesized that K+ channel openers may restore calcium channel blocker-inhibited alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) by up-regulating both apical and basolateral ion transport. Methods Verapamil-induced depression of heterologously expressed human αβγ ENaC in Xenopus oocytes, apical and basolateral ion transport in monolayers of human lung epithelial cells (H441), and in vivo alveolar fluid clearance were measured, respectively, using the two-electrode voltage clamp, Ussing chamber, and BSA protein assays. Ca2+ signal in H441 cells was analyzed using Fluo 4AM. Results The rate of in vivo AFC was reduced significantly (40.6 ± 6.3% of control, P < 0.05, n = 12) in mice intratracheally administrated verapamil. KCa3.1 (1-EBIO) and KATP (minoxidil) channel openers significantly recovered AFC. In addition to short-circuit current (Isc) in intact H441 monolayers, both apical and basolateral Isc levels were reduced by verapamil in permeabilized monolayers. Moreover, verapamil significantly altered Ca2+ signal evoked by ionomycin in H441 cells. Depletion of cytosolic Ca2+ in αβγ ENaC-expressing oocytes completely abolished verapamil-induced inhibition. Intriguingly, KV (pyrithione-Na), K Ca3.1 (1-EBIO), and KATP (minoxidil) channel openers almost completely restored the verapamil-induced decrease in Isc levels by diversely up-regulating apical and basolateral Na+ and K+ transport pathways. Conclusions Our observations demonstrate that K+ channel openers are capable of rescuing reduced vectorial Na+ transport across lung epithelial cells with impaired Ca2+ signal. PMID:20507598

  12. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinju; Ma, Liyi; Zhang, Zhongquan; Li, Kai; Wang, Youqiong; Chen, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential.

  13. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jinju

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential. PMID:29438422

  14. Development of a rate model to investigate contributions of anatomic and physiologic determinants of in vivo skin permeation

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, N.M.

    The skin is a heterogeneous, bi-directional impediment to chemical flux, in which the stratum corneum is a major, though not the sole, rate-limiting barrier layer to permeation. Systemic toxicity following dermal exposure to environmental chemicals and use of skin as a portal for systemic administration of drugs have led to extensive investigations of the inward flux of xenobiotics applied to the outer surface of skin. Those investigations mainly utilized in vitro experimental systems that were limited by the absence of normal physiologic functions. The objective of the present research was to investigate an in vivo skin permeation model system thatmore » was sensitive to perturbations of skin capillary physiology and stratum corneum. A [open quotes]fuzzy[close quotes] rat model system was devised that employed outward cutaneous migration of a systemically administered permeation probe, isoflurane. Specially devised, transdermal vapor collection devices were used to capture the outward flux of isoflurane through the skin. Isoflurane flux measurements, coupled with blood isoflurane concentrations, were used to calculate cutaneous permeability coefficients (K[sub p]) of isolflurane, as an index of permeation, under various conditions of normal or perturbed cutaneous physiologic states. Physiologic perturbations were performed to test the sensitivity of the model system to detect effects of minoxidil-mediated vasodilation, phenylephrine-mediated vasoconstriction, and leukotriene D[sub 4]-mediated increased capillary permeability on the outward flux of isoflurane. Tape stripping and topical ether-ethanol application produced either physical removal or chemical disruption of the stratum corneum, respectively. Minoxidil, leukotriene D[sub 4], tape stripping of stratum corneum, and topical ether-ethanol experiments produced statistically significant increases (52 to 193%) in the K[sub p's], while phenylephrine had no significant effect on isoflurane permeation.« less

  15. Hair loss and regeneration performed on animal models

    PubMed Central

    ORASAN, MEDA SANDRA; ROMAN, IULIA IOANA; CONEAC, ANDREI; MURESAN, ADRIANA; ORASAN, REMUS IOAN

    2016-01-01

    Research in the field of reversal hair loss remains a challenging subject. As Minoxidil 2% or 5% and Finasteride are so far the only FDA approved topical treatments for inducing hair regrowth, research is necessary in order to improve therapeutical approach in alopecia. In vitro studies have focused on cultures of a cell type - dermal papilla or organ culture of isolated cell follicles. In vivo research on this topic was performed on mice, rats, hamsters, rabbits, sheep and monkeys, taking into consideration the advantages and disadvantages of each animal model and the depilation options. Further studies are required not only to compare the efficiency of different therapies but more importantly to establish their long term safety. PMID:27547051

  16. Androgenetic alopecia. Battling a losing proposition.

    PubMed

    Rubin, M B

    1997-08-01

    Some degree of hair loss with aging is inevitable in both men and women. The exact underlying mechanism is not well understood. Although genetic factors have a role in the development of androgenetic alopecia, the outcome in an individual patient cannot be reliably predicted on the basis of family history. Balding tends to begin earlier in men and to develop in well-recognized patterns. Women have more diffuse hair loss that often occurs after menopause. The available treatment options, such as topical minoxidil therapy, hair transplantation, and other surgical techniques, are not very successful. Lessening patients' anxiety about hair loss by reassuring them that they will not go totally bald immediately may be the most effective management.

  17. [Two cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Anke; Bormann, Gisela; Marsch, Wolfgang Christian; Wohlrab, Johannes

    2004-08-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is an uncommon, slowly progressive, cicatricial alopecia which mainly affects postmenopausal women. It is considered to be a variant of lichen planopilaris. We describe two postmenopausal women who developed over 11 and 24 months an asymptomatic atrophic alopecia, restricted to the frontal hairline. The diagnosis of FFA was confirmed by biopsy showing a perifollicular lymphocytic infiltrate with fibrosis. Topical corticosteroids, in one case combined with minoxidil, administered for 3 months arrested the hair loss. The treatment of FFA is often difficult. In most cases, the disease resolves spontaneously after several years. Immunomodulators such as corticosteroids and calcineurin antagonists should be tried in the early stage of FFA (frontal effluvium with perifollicular erythema) in order to arrest the disease in its inflammatory phase.

  18. Effect of potassium channel modulators in mouse forced swimming test

    PubMed Central

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Ghelardini, Carla; Caldari, Bernardetta; Bartolini, Alessandro

    1999-01-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of different potassium channel blockers (tetraethylammonium, apamin, charybdotoxin, gliquidone), potassium channel openers (pinacidil, minoxidil, cromakalim) and aODN to mKv1.1 on immobility time was evaluated in the mouse forced swimming test, an animal model of depression. Tetraethylammonium (TEA; 5 μg per mouse i.c.v.), apamin (3 ng per mouse i.c.v.), charybdotoxin (1 μg per mouse i.c.v.) and gliquidone (6 μg per mouse i.c.v.) administered 20 min before the test produced anti-immobility comparable to that induced by the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline (15 mg kg−1 s.c.) and imipramine (30 mg kg−1 s.c.). By contrast pinacidil (10–20 μg per mouse i.c.v.), minoxidil (10–20 μg per mouse i.c.v.) and cromakalim (20–30 μg per mouse i.c.v.) increased immobility time when administered in the same experimental conditions. Repeated administration of an antisense oligonucleotide (aODN) to the mKv1.1 gene (1 and 3 nmol per single i.c.v. injection) produced a dose-dependent increase in immobility time of mice 72 h after the last injection. At day 7, the increasing effect produced by aODN disappeared. A degenerate mKv1.1 oligonucleotide (dODN), used as control, did not produce any effect in comparison with saline- and vector-treated mice. At the highest effective dose, potassium channels modulators and the mKv1.1 aODN did not impair motor coordination, as revealed by the rota rod test, nor did they modify spontaneous motility as revealed by the Animex apparatus. These results suggest that modulation of potassium channels plays an important role in the regulation of immobility time in the mouse forced swimming test. PMID:10323599

  19. The Success of Thread-embedding Therapy in Generating Hair Re-growth in Mice Points to Its Possibly Having a Similar Effect in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun Jong; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kwon, Kang; Seo, Hyung-Sik; Jeong, Han-Sol; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Ha, Ki-Tae; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Jang, Yong-Suk; Lee, Byung-Wook; Kim, Byung Joo; Jung, Myeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recently, thread-embedding therapy (TET) has been widely applied in Korean medicine for cosmetic purposes such as reducing skin wrinkles. An inserted thread was reported to have induced continuous stimulation, followed by support for connective tissue regeneration. However, the potential role of TET in hairgrowth has not yet been reported. Methods: We designed this study to evaluate whether TET has a hair-growth-promoting effect. C57 black 6 (C57BL/6) mice were divided into three groups: normal saline-treated, minoxidil-treated, and thread-embedded groups. Normal saline or 5% minoxidil was topically sprayed on the dorsal skin of the mice once a day for 16 days. Medical threads were embedded into the dorsal skin of the mice in a single application. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using dermoscopic and microscopic observations. Sections of the dorsal skin were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7), and fibroblast growth factor-5 (FGF-5) were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was adopted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of FGF-7 and FGF-5. Results: TET enhanced anagen development in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. The expressions of BrdU and PCNA, both of which imply active cellular proliferation, were increased by using TET. Moreover, TET increased the expression of FGF-7, an anagen-inducing growth factor, while decreasing the expression of FGF-5, an anagen-cessation growth factor, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. Conclusion: TET enhanced hair re-growth in C57BL/6 mice. TET regulated the expressions of anagen-associated growth factors and activated the proliferation of hair follicular cells in depilated skin lesions. Considering its long-lasting effect, TET may be a good alternative therapeutic for the treatment of alopecia

  20. [Adverse effects of hair care in users].

    PubMed

    Tennstedt, D; Herman, A; Lachapelle, J-M

    2018-06-26

    The panoply of products used by hair care professionals to wash, dye, shape and beautify hair is not entirely free from adverse events. Such effects consist mainly of irritation dermatitis and allergic contact eczema affecting the scalp, as well as the back and front of the neck, the forehead and periorbital areas, and the cheeks. The most frequently cited allergens include paraphenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes, glycerol monothioglycolate (GMTG) in acid perm lotions, and ammonium persulphate in hair lighteners (the latter substance being responsible primarily for contact urticaria). However, care should also be paid to other allergens such as cocamidopropyl betaine among surfactants, as well as certain components in hair formulations such as preservatives and fragrances (as well as minoxidil, frequently used by patients). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Alopecia secondary to mesotherapy.

    PubMed

    Duque-Estrada, Bruna; Vincenzi, Colombina; Misciali, Cosimo; Tosti, Antonella

    2009-10-01

    Mesotherapy has recently become an advertised method for the treatment of different types of alopecia despite the lack of any data regarding its efficacy and possible side effects. The substances injected into the scalp include "cocktails" of natural plant extracts, homoeopathic agents, vitamins, vasodilators, and drugs that may stimulate hair growth, such as finasteride and minoxidil. We report two cases of patchy alopecia that developed after mesotherapy for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. In the first patient, alopecia developed after injections of the heparinoid vasodilator mesoglycan; the 3-month follow-up examination revealed a small residual area of cicatricial alopecia. The second patient developed reversible alopecia after multiple scalp injections of homeopathic agents. These cases underline the possible risks of mesotherapy as a therapeutic technique for hair loss.

  2. Structural characterization and dissolution profile of mycophenolic acid cocrystals.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qing-Zhu; Ouyang, Jian; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Three novel cocrystals of mycophenolic acid (MPA) with isonicotinamide (MPA-ISO), minoxidil (MPA-MIN) and 2,2'-dipyridylamine (MPA-DPA) as coformers have been prepared successfully by both slow evaporation and liquid-assisted grinding. The structures of these cocrystals show that all the three coformers form hydrogen bonds with the carboxylic acid group of MPA. The cocrystal MPA-ISO possesses remarkably improved solubility and dissolution rate, while two other cocrystals exhibit the opposite characteristics. The solids in the slurry with pH6.8 phosphate buffer and cocrystals remain as the incipient cocrystal after 24h. However, evidence of slight polymerization was shown in the slurry of pH6.8 phosphate buffer with MPA and MPA-ISO cocrystal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Promising therapies for treating and/or preventing androgenic alopecia.

    PubMed

    McElwee, K J; Shapiro, J S

    2012-06-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) may affect up to 70% of men and 40% of women at some point in their lifetime. While men typically present with a distinctive alopecia pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding, women normally exhibit a diffuse hair thinning over the top of their scalps. The treatment standard in dermatology clinics continues to be minoxidil and finasteride with hair transplantation as a surgical option. Here we briefly review current therapeutic options and treatments under active investigation. Dutasteride and ketoconazole are also employed for AGA, while prostaglandin analogues latanoprost and bimatoprost are being investigated for their hair growth promoting potential. Laser treatment products available for home use and from cosmetic clinics are becoming popular. In the future, new cell mediated treatment approaches may be available for AGA. While there are a number of potential treatment options, good clinical trial data proving hair growth efficacy is limited.

  4. New Treatments for Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Vañó-Galván, S; Camacho, F

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy. b) For alopecia areata, Janus kinase inhibitors are reviewed. c) For frontal fibrosing alopecia, we discuss the use of antiandrogens and, for some patients, pioglitazone. d) Finally, we mention new robotic devices for hair transplant procedures and techniques for optimal follicular unit extraction. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Platelet rich plasma for the management of hair loss: Better alone or in combination?

    PubMed

    Anitua, Eduardo; Pino, Ander; Jaén, Pedro; Navarro, Mª Rogelia

    2018-06-14

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and autologous protein-based treatments have recently emerged as a potential therapeutic approach for hair loss-related disorders including androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. The safety and efficacy of repeated intradermal injections of PRP has proved to promote hair growth in a number of randomized clinical trials. Biologically active proteins and cytokines released upon platelet activation have shown to induce folliculogenesis and activate the anagen growing phase of dormant bulbs. Interestingly, further studies have revealed that combining PRP with other hair loss-related products may enhance the final performance of the treatment. These synergistic approaches include Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs such as finasteride or minoxidil, bioactive macromolecules and cell-based therapies. Here, recent research involving alone or combined therapy with platelet-rich plasma for the management of hair loss-related disorders are outlined and future prospects are discussed. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Treating Alopecia Areata: Current Practices Versus New Directions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Carviel, Jessie; Abramovits, William

    2017-02-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is non-scarring hair loss resulting from an autoimmune disorder. Severity varies from patchy hair loss that often spontaneously resolves to severe and chronic cases that can progress to total loss of scalp and body hair. Many treatments are available; however, the efficacy of these treatments has not been confirmed, especially in severe cases, and relapse rates are high. First-line treatment often includes corticosteroids such as intralesional or topical steroids for mild cases and systemic steroids or topical immunotherapy with diphenylcyclopropenone or squaric acid dibutylester in severe cases. Minoxidil and bimatoprost may also be recommended, usually in combination with another treatment. Ongoing research and new insights into mechanisms have led to proposals of innovative therapies. New directions include biologics targeting immune response as well as lasers and autologous platelet-rich plasma therapy. Preliminary data are encouraging, and it is hoped this research will translate into new options for the treatment of AA in the near future.

  7. Novel targets for Huntington’s disease in an mTOR-independent autophagy pathway

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrea; Sarkar, Sovan; Cuddon, Paul; Ttofi, Evangelia K.; Saiki, Shinji; Siddiqi, Farah H.; Jahreiss, Luca; Fleming, Angeleen; Pask, Dean; Goldsmith, Paul; O’Kane, Cahir J.; Floto, R. Andres; Rubinsztein, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Autophagy is a major clearance route for intracellular aggregate-prone proteins causing diseases like Huntington’s disease. Autophagy induction with the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, accelerates clearance of these toxic substrates. As rapamycin has non-trivial side effects, we screened FDA-approved drugs to identify novel autophagy-inducing pathways. We found that L-type Ca2+ channel antagonists, the K+ATP channel opener minoxidil, and the Gi signaling activator clonidine, induce autophagy. These drugs revealed a cyclical mTOR-independent pathway regulating autophagy, where cAMP regulates IP3 levels, influencing calpain activity, which completes the cycle by cleaving and activating Gsα, which regulates cAMP levels. This pathway has numerous potential points where autophagy can be induced and we provide proof-of-principle for therapeutic relevance in Huntington’s disease using mammalian cell, fly and zebrafish models. Our data also suggest that insults that elevate intracytosolic Ca2+, like excitotoxicity, will inhibit autophagy, thus retarding clearance of aggregate-prone proteins. PMID:18391949

  8. Effects of isradipine and other calcium antagonists on arteriovenous-shunt flow in anesthetized rabbits and cats

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, R.P.

    The effects of vasodilators on arteriovenous (AV)-shunt flow was investigated in anesthetized cats and rabbits, using the tracer microsphere method. In cats, the calcium antagonist isradipine reduced AV-shunt flow; verapamil showed a similar tendency and nicardipine was without effect. Dihydralazine strongly increased, but nitroglycerin and dipyridamole decreased AV-shunt flow. In rabbits, the effects of isradipine and verapamil were similar to those seen in cats. Sodium nitroprusside had no effect, whereas prazosin, minoxidil, and the potassium-channel activator cromakalim increased AV-shunt flow. The contrasting effects of drugs sharing the same mechanism of action suggest that target-tissue selectivity is more important than themore » mechanism of action. An increase of AV-shunt flow is unlikely to be beneficial but could be associated with a number of undesirable side effects. It might negatively affect migraine sufferers and, if AV-shunt dilatation shows no tolerance development, it represents an unnecessary hemodynamic burden for the heart.« less

  9. Dominant missense mutations in ABCC9 cause Cantú syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harakalova, Magdalena; van Harssel, Jeske J T; Terhal, Paulien A; van Lieshout, Stef; Duran, Karen; Renkens, Ivo; Amor, David J; Wilson, Louise C; Kirk, Edwin P; Turner, Claire L S; Shears, Debbie; Garcia-Minaur, Sixto; Lees, Melissa M; Ross, Alison; Venselaar, Hanka; Vriend, Gert; Takanari, Hiroki; Rook, Martin B; van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Breur, Hans M; Swinkels, Marielle E; Scurr, Ingrid J; Smithson, Sarah F; Knoers, Nine V; van der Smagt, Jasper J; Nijman, Isaac J; Kloosterman, Wigard P; van Haelst, Mieke M; van Haaften, Gijs; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-05-18

    Cantú syndrome is characterized by congenital hypertrichosis, distinctive facial features, osteochondrodysplasia and cardiac defects. By using family-based exome sequencing, we identified a de novo mutation in ABCC9. Subsequently, we discovered novel dominant missense mutations in ABCC9 in 14 of the 16 individuals with Cantú syndrome examined. The ABCC9 protein is part of an ATP-dependent potassium (K(ATP)) channel that couples the metabolic state of a cell with its electrical activity. All mutations altered amino acids in or close to the transmembrane domains of ABCC9. Using electrophysiological measurements, we show that mutations in ABCC9 reduce the ATP-mediated potassium channel inhibition, resulting in channel opening. Moreover, similarities between the phenotype of individuals with Cantú syndrome and side effects from the K(ATP) channel agonist minoxidil indicate that the mutations in ABCC9 result in channel opening. Given the availability of ABCC9 antagonists, our findings may have direct implications for the treatment of individuals with Cantú syndrome.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANDROGENETIC ALOPECIA AND DEMODEX INFESTATION

    PubMed Central

    Zari, Javidi; Abdolmajid, Fata; Masood, Maleki; Vahid, Mashayekhi; Yalda, Nahidi

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is one of the most common dermatologic disorders with a multifactorial etiology. Inflammatory activators such as Demodex infestation may play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of androgenetic alopecia that do not respond to common treatments such as minoxidil and finasteride. The goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Demodex infestation and AGA. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 41 patients with AGA referred to the Dermatology Clinic of Imam Reza Hospital and 33 healthy individuals were evaluated as control. All of them were between 20 and 40 years old men. In order to identify Demodex infestation they were referred to the Parasitology laboratory. Results: Demodex was detected in 19.5% of patients and 15.2% of controls; therefore, there was no significant relationship between them statistically (P = 0.0787). Most of patients (85.4%) had greasy hair. The most common pattern of baldness was II degree in Hamilton scale. Conclusion: There is no relation between AGA and Demodex. PMID:19881989

  11. Further Clinical Evidence for the Effect of IGF-1 on Hair Growth and Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2018-04-01

    Observations on the Laron syndrome originally offered the opportunity to explore the effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) deficiency on human hair growth and differentiation. According to its expression in the dermal hair papilla, IGF-1 is likely involved in reciprocal signaling. It has been shown to affect follicular proliferation, tissue remodeling, and the hair growth cycle, as well as follicular differentiation, identifying IGF-1 signaling as an important mitogenic and morphogenetic regulator in hair follicle biology. Of all the cytokines or growth factors that have been postulated to play a role in hair follicles, ultimately IGF-1 is known to be regulated by androgens. Accordingly, dermal papillary cells from balding scalp follicles were found to secrete significantly less IGF-1 than their counterparts from nonbalding scalp follicles. Herein, hypotrichosis in primary growth hormone deficiency, and a lack of response of female and male androgenetic-type alopecia to treatment with topical minoxidil and oral finasteride in patients who had undergone surgical resection of the pituitary gland, provide further evidence for an effect of IGF-1 on hair growth and alopecia.

  12. Effects of subfornical organ lesions on acutely induced thirst and salt appetite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thunhorst, R. L.; Beltz, T. G.; Johnson, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the role of the subfornical organ (SFO) in stimulating thirst and salt appetite using two procedures that initiate water and sodium ingestion within 1-2 h of extracellular fluid depletion. The first procedure used injections of a diuretic (furosemide, 10 mg/kg sc) and a vasodilator (minoxidil, 1-3 mg/kg ia) to produce hypotension concurrently with hypovolemia. The resulting water and sodium intakes were inhibited by intravenous administration of ANG II receptor antagonist (sarthran, 8 micrograms . kg(-1). min(-1)) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril, 2.5 mg/h). The second procedure used injections of furosemide (10 mg/kg sc) and a low dose of captopril (5 mg/kg sc) to initiate water and sodium ingestion upon formation of ANG II in the brain. Electrolytic lesions of the SFO greatly reduced the water intakes, and nearly abolished the sodium intakes, produced by these relatively acute treatments. These results contrast with earlier findings showing little effect of SFO lesions on sodium ingestion after longer-term extracellular fluid depletion.

  13. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is the most common scarring alopecia among African American women. Data about epidemiology, etiology, genetic inheritance, and management are scarce and come from individual reports or small series. CCCA has been associated with hot combing and traumatic hair styling for years; however, studies fail to confirm it as the sole etiologic factor. It has been shown in a small series that CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with a partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and sex. CCCA presents clinically as a central area of progressive irreversible hair loss that expands to the periphery. A patchy form has also been described. Dermoscopy is helpful to identify the optimal site for the biopsy, which establishes the diagnosis. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to discover the optimal management. At this point, patients are advised to avoid traction and chemical treatments; topical and intralesional steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and minoxidil can be helpful in halting the progression. PMID:27574457

  14. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Binding and effects of KATP channel openers in the vascular smooth muscle cell line, A10

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Ulrich; Metzger, Friedrich; Kickenweiz, Elisabeth; Hambrock, Annette; Krippeit-Drews, Peter; Quast, Ulrich

    1997-01-01

    The ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP channel) in A10 cells, a cell line derived from rat thoracic aorta, was characterized by binding studies with the tritiated KATP channel opener, [3H]-P1075, and by electrophysiological techniques. Saturation binding experiments gave a KD value of 9.2±5.2 nM and a binding capacity (BMax) of 140±40 fmol mg−1 protein for [3H]-P1075 binding to A10 cells; from the BMax value a density of binding sites of 5–10 per μm2 plasmalemma was estimated. KATP channel modulators such as the openers P1075, pinacidil, levcromakalim and minoxidil sulphate and the blocker glibenclamide inhibited [3H]-P1075 binding. The extent of inhibition at saturation depended on the compound, levcromakalim inhibiting specific [3H]-P1075 binding by 85%, minoxidil sulphate and glibenclamide by 70%. The inhibition constants were similar to those determined in strips of rat aorta. Resting membrane potential, recorded with microelectrodes, was −51±1 mV. P1075 and levcromakalim produced a concentration-dependent hyperpolarization by up to −25 mV with EC50 values of 170±40 nM and 870±190 nM, respectively. The hyperpolarization induced by levcromakalim (3 μM) was completely reversed by glibenclamide with an IC50 value of 86±17 nM. Voltage clamp experiments were performed in the whole cell configuration under a physiological K+ gradient. Levcromakalim (10 μM) induced a current which reversed around −80 mV; the current-voltage relationship showed considerable outward rectification. Glibenclamide (3 μM) abolished the effect of levcromakalim. Analysis of the noise of the levcromakalim (10 μM)-induced current at −40 and −20 mV yielded estimates of the channel density, the single channel conductance and the probability of the channel to be open of 0.14 μm−2, 8.8 pS and 0.39, respectively. The experiments showed that A10 cells are endowed with functional KATP channels which resemble those in vascular tissue; hence, these

  16. Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT) for Treatment of Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Clark, Jason; Wikonkal, Norbert; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Alopecia is a common disorder affecting more than half of the population worldwide. Androgenetic alopecia, the most common type, affects 50% of males over the age of 40 and 75% of females over 65. Only two drugs have been approved so far (minoxidil and finasteride) and hair transplant is the other treatment alternative. This review surveys the evidence for low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to the scalp as a treatment for hair loss and discusses possible mechanisms of actions. Methods and Materials Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar were carried out using keywords alopecia, hair loss, LLLT, photobiomodulation. Results Studies have shown that LLLT stimulated hair growth in mice subjected to chemotherapy-induced alopecia and also in alopecia areata. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that LLLT stimulated hair growth in both men and women. Among various mechanisms, the main mechanism is hypothesized to be stimulation of epidermal stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and shifting the follicles into anagen phase. Conclusion LLLT for hair growth in both men and women appears to be both safe and effective. The optimum wavelength, coherence and dosimetric parameters remain to be determined. PMID:23970445

  17. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  18. Alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam-Lun E; Leung, Alexander K C

    2011-05-01

    Alopecia aerata (AA) is an autoimmune disease that presents as well defined patches of nonscarring hair loss with no overt epidermal changes. The life-time risk of AA in the general population is approximately 1.7%. As many as 60% of patients with AA have disease onset before 20 years of age. AA most commonly manifests as sudden loss of hair in well demarcated, localized area in the scalp. The hair loss is usually limited to a single patch. The lesion is usually round or oval. "Exclamation point hairs" are frequently seen at the periphery of the lesion. Because of the high rate of spontaneous recovery especially in those with small areas of hair loss or with a recent onset, not all patients require pharmacological treatment. A "watch-and-wait" approach is often recommended. Psychological support may be offered if necessary. For patients who actively desire treatment, topical corticosteroids and/or minoxidil are the treatment of choice. Interleukin (IL)-31 antibodies and 308-nm Excimer laser as novel treatment modalities appear promising in the armamentarium against this distressing disease. The review also outlined recent patents on the treatment of alopecia.

  19. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) for treatment of hair loss.

    PubMed

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K; Clark, Jason; Wikonkal, Norbert; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    Alopecia is a common disorder affecting more than half of the population worldwide. Androgenetic alopecia, the most common type, affects 50% of males over the age of 40 and 75% of females over 65. Only two drugs have been approved so far (minoxidil and finasteride) and hair transplant is the other treatment alternative. This review surveys the evidence for low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to the scalp as a treatment for hair loss and discusses possible mechanisms of actions. Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar were carried out using keywords alopecia, hair loss, LLLT, photobiomodulation. Studies have shown that LLLT stimulated hair growth in mice subjected to chemotherapy-induced alopecia and also in alopecia areata. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that LLLT stimulated hair growth in both men and women. Among various mechanisms, the main mechanism is hypothesized to be stimulation of epidermal stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and shifting the follicles into anagen phase. LLLT for hair growth in both men and women appears to be both safe and effective. The optimum wavelength, coherence and dosimetric parameters remain to be determined. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A Critical Assessment of the Evidence for Low-Level Laser Therapy in the Treatment of Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Foley, Kelly A

    2017-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is currently in use to stimulate hair growth and is quickly gaining in popularity due to the ease of use and absence of side effects. In 2015 alone, the number of LLLT devices with the Food and Drug Administration clearance has doubled. To consolidate evidence and establish which data are still required for the widespread acceptance of LLLT for hair loss therapy. A thorough search of the PubMed database was conducted to obtain studies investigating LLLT for androgenetic alopecia in men and women. Nine trials were identified for comb and helmet/cap devices, five of which were randomized controlled trials. Data comparison across LLLT trials and with traditional hair loss therapy (minoxidil, finasteride) was not straight forward because there was a lack of visual evidence, sample sizes were low, and there were large variations in study duration and efficacy measurements. There are a number of unanswered questions about the optimum treatment regimen, including maintenance treatment and the long-term consequences of LLLT use. Moving forward, protocols should be standardized across trials. Moreover, it is recommended that future trials include visual evidence and trial duration be expanded to 12 months.

  1. Gold thread implantation promotes hair growth in human and mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Eun-Young; Kwon, Euna; Kim, Woo-Ho; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Yong-Soon

    2017-01-01

    Thread-embedding therapy has been widely applied for cosmetic purposes such as wrinkle reduction and skin tightening. Particularly, gold thread was reported to support connective tissue regeneration, but, its role in hair biology remains largely unknown due to lack of investigation. When we implanted gold thread and Happy Lift™ in human patient for facial lifting, we unexpectedly found an increase of hair regrowth in spite of no use of hair growth medications. When embedded into the depilated dorsal skin of mice, gold thread or polyglycolic acid (PGA) thread, similarly to 5% minoxidil, significantly increased the number of hair follicles on day 14 after implantation. And, hair re-growth promotion in the gold threadimplanted mice were significantly higher than that in PGA thread group on day 11 after depilation. In particular, the skin tissue of gold thread-implanted mice showed stronger PCNA staining and higher collagen density compared with control mice. These results indicate that gold thread implantation can be an effective way to promote hair re-growth although further confirmatory study is needed for more information on therapeutic mechanisms and long-term safety. PMID:29399026

  2. Hair growth is promoted by BeauTop via expression of EGF and FGF-7

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Ying; Yang, Chi-Yu; Lin, Ching-Che; Yu, Min-Chien; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2018-01-01

    Minoxidil and finasteride have been approved to treat hair loss by the Food and Drug Administration. However, the further elucidation of treatments for hair loss, including those using Chinese herbal medicine, remains important clinically. BeauTop (BT) is a health food supplement which contains Ginseng radix, Astragali radix, Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ligustri fructus, Rehmannia glutinosa and Eclipta prostrata (Linn). Susbsequent to oral administration of BT at 0.6 g/kg/day to wax/rosin-induced alopecia in C57BL/6 mice, BT significantly induced hair growth at day 8 compared with control treatment (P<0.05). The expression levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-7 were increased compared with control animals on day 8. In contrast, levels of FGF-5 of the BT group were reduced compared with the control on day 12. There were no effects on the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1. The results demonstrated that the mechanism of BT improving alopecia is potentially associated with modulation of EGF and FGF-7 levels. Taken together, it is suggested that BT may have a potential effect of the promotion of hair growth. PMID:29693180

  3. In vivo hair growth-promoting effect of rice bran extract prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Woi-Sook; Moon, Jin-Nam; Cheon, Eun Jin; Kim, Joo-Wan; Jung, Sung Kyu; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2014-01-01

    The potential hair growth-promoting activity of rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) and major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid, policosanol, γ-oryzanol, and γ-tocotrienol, were evaluated with the histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in C57BL/6 mice. RB-SCE showed hair growth-promoting potential to a similar extent as 3% minoxidil, showing that the hair follicles were induced to be in the anagen stage. The numbers of the hair follicles were significantly increased. In addition, mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) were also significantly increased and that of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) decreased in RB-SCE-treated groups. Among the major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid and γ-oryzanol induced the formation of hair follicles according to examination of histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that RB-SCE, particularly linoleic acid and γ-oryzanol, promotes hair growth and suggests RB-SCE can be applied as hair loss treatment.

  4. Hair Loss Myths.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective.

    METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth.

    RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments.

    DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694.

    .

  5. [Hypertensive crisis in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Skrzypczyk, Piotr; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Daniel, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Hypertensive crisis is a sudden rise in blood pressure above 99 c. for sex, age and height +5 mm Hg. Depending on patient's symptoms, hypertensive crisis can be divided into hypertensive emergency severe arterial hypertension with target organ insufficiency and/r damage (central nervous system, heart, kidney, eye), and hypertensive urgency - severe arterial hypertension without target organ insufficiency and damage with non-specific symptoms like: headaches, vertigo, nasal bleeding, nausea, and vomiting. The most common causes of hypertensive crisis in neonates and infants are renal artery thrombosis, broncho-pulmonary dysplasia, and coarctation of aorta; in older children - kidney diseases and renal artery stenosis. In neonates and infants symptoms of cardiac failure predominate, whereas in older children symptoms from central nervous system (headaches, nausea, vomiting, changes in level of consciousness, seizures, focal deficits). Hypertensive crisis is treated with fast- and short-acting medications; 25% reduction of blood pressure within first 8 hours is recommended, with complete normalization within 24-48 hours. Hypertensive emergency should be treated with intravenous agents (labetalol, hydralazine, nicardipine, and sodium nitroprusside), hypertensive urgency with intravenous or oral agents like nifedipine, isradipine, clonidine and minoxidil. Nicardipine is a first-choice medication in neonates.

  6. Scrotal Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Genital rejuvenation is applicable not only to women (vaginal rejuvenation) but also to men (scrotal rejuvenation). There is an increased awareness, reflected by the number of published medical papers, of vaginal rejuvenation; however, rejuvenation of the scrotum has not received similar attention in the medical literature. Scrotal rejuvenation includes treatment of hair-associated scrotal changes (alopecia and hypertrichosis), morphology-associated scrotal changes (wrinkling and laxity), and vascular-associated scrotal changes (angiokeratomas). Rejuvenation of the scrotum potentially may utilize medical therapy, such as topical minoxidil and oral finasteride, for scrotal alopecia and conservative modalities, such as depilatories and electrolysis, for scrotal hypertrichosis. Lasers and energy-based devices may be efficacious for scrotal hypertrichosis and scrotal angiokeratomas. Surgical intervention is the mainstay of therapy for scrotal laxity; however, absorbable suspension sutures are postulated as a potential intervention to provide an adequate scrotal lift. Hair transplantation for scrotal alopecia and injection of botulinum toxin into the dartos muscle for scrotal wrinkling are hypothesized as possible treatments for these conditions. The interest in scrotal rejuvenation is likely to increase as men and their physicians become aware of both the conditions of the scrotum that may warrant rejuvenation and the potential treatments of the scrotum for these individuals. PMID:29755912

  7. Efficacy of fractional lasers in treating alopecia: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Perper, Marina; Aldahan, Adam S; Fayne, Rachel A; Emerson, Christopher P; Nouri, Keyvan

    2017-11-01

    Hair loss stemming from different types of alopecia, such as androgenic alopecia and alopecia areata, negatively affects over half the population and, in many circumstances, causes serious psychosocial distress. Current treatment options for alopecia, such as minoxidil, anthralin, and intralesional corticosteroids, vary efficacy and side effect profiles. It is known that low-level laser/light therapies (LLLT), or photobiomodulations, such as the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, He-Ne laser, and excimer laser, are relatively affordable, user-friendly, safe, and effective forms of treatment for hair loss. While less is known about the effectiveness of fractional lasers for combating hair loss, research suggests that by creating microscopic thermal injury zones, fractional lasers may cause an increase in hair growth from a wound healing process, making them potential therapeutic options for alopecia. A literature review was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of fractional lasers on hair regrowth. The specific fractional laser therapies include the 1550-nm nonablative fractional erbium-glass laser, the ablative fractional 2940-nm erbium:YAG laser, and the ablative fractional CO 2 fractional laser. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of the lasers, as well as to establish appropriate parameters and treatment intervals.

  8. Hair growth is promoted by BeauTop via expression of EGF and FGF‑7.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chien-Ying; Yang, Chi-Yu; Lin, Ching-Che; Yu, Min-Chien; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2018-06-01

    Minoxidil and finasteride have been approved to treat hair loss by the Food and Drug Administration. However, the further elucidation of treatments for hair loss, including those using Chinese herbal medicine, remains important clinically. BeauTop (BT) is a health food supplement which contains Ginseng radix, Astragali radix, Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ligustri fructus, Rehmannia glutinosa and Eclipta prostrata (Linn). Susbsequent to oral administration of BT at 0.6 g/kg/day to wax/rosin‑induced alopecia in C57BL/6 mice, BT significantly induced hair growth at day 8 compared with control treatment (P<0.05). The expression levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)‑7 were increased compared with control animals on day 8. In contrast, levels of FGF‑5 of the BT group were reduced compared with the control on day 12. There were no effects on the expression of insulin‑like growth factor 1. The results demonstrated that the mechanism of BT improving alopecia is potentially associated with modulation of EGF and FGF‑7 levels. Taken together, it is suggested that BT may have a potential effect of the promotion of hair growth.

  9. Induction of hair follicle dermal papilla cell properties in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived multipotent LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) mesenchymal cells

    PubMed Central

    Veraitch, Ophelia; Mabuchi, Yo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Sasaki, Takashi; Okuno, Hironobu; Tsukashima, Aki; Amagai, Masayuki; Okano, Hideyuki; Ohyama, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    The dermal papilla (DP) is a specialised mesenchymal component of the hair follicle (HF) that plays key roles in HF morphogenesis and regeneration. Current technical difficulties in preparing trichogenic human DP cells could be overcome by the use of highly proliferative and plastic human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In this study, hiPSCs were differentiated into induced mesenchymal cells (iMCs) with a bone marrow stromal cell phenotype. A highly proliferative and plastic LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) subset of iMCs was subsequently programmed using retinoic acid and DP cell activating culture medium to acquire DP properties. The resultant cells (induced DP-substituting cells [iDPSCs]) exhibited up-regulated DP markers, interacted with human keratinocytes to up-regulate HF related genes, and when co-grafted with human keratinocytes in vivo gave rise to fibre structures with a hair cuticle-like coat resembling the hair shaft, as confirmed by scanning electron microscope analysis. Furthermore, iDPSCs responded to the clinically used hair growth reagent, minoxidil sulfate, to up-regulate DP genes, further supporting that they were capable of, at least in part, reproducing DP properties. Thus, LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) iMCs may provide material for HF bioengineering and drug screening for hair diseases. PMID:28220862

  10. Panax ginseng extract antagonizes the effect of DKK-1-induced catagen-ike changes of hair follicles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yonghee; Kim, Su Na; Hong, Yong Deog; Park, Byung Cheol; Na, Yongjoo

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that Panax ginseng (PG) has various pharmacological effects such as anti-aging and anti-inflammation. In a previous study, the authors identified that PG extract induced hair growth by means of a mechanism similar to that of minoxidil. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of PG extract on Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1)-induced catagen-like changes in hair follicles (HFs) was investigated in addition to the underlying mechanism of action. The effects of PG extract on cell proliferation, anti-apoptotic effect, and hair growth were observed using cultured outer root sheath (ORS) keratinocytes and human HFs with or without DKK-1 treatment. The PG extract significantly stimulated proliferation and inhibited apoptosis, respectively, in ORS keratinocytes. PG extract treatment affected the expression of apoptosis-related genes Bcl-2 and Bax. DKK-1 inhibited hair growth, and PG extract dramatically reversed the effect of DKK-1 on ex vivo human hair organ culture. PG extract antagonizes DKK-1-induced catagen-like changes, in part, through the regulation of apoptosis-related gene expression in HFs. These findings suggested that PG extract may reduce hair loss despite the presence of DKK-1, a strong catagen inducer via apoptosis. PMID:28849028

  11. Low-level light therapy for androgenetic alopecia: a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, sham device-controlled multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Choi, Jee Woong; Kim, Jun Young; Shin, Jung Won; Lee, Seok-Jong; Huh, Chang-Hun

    2013-08-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a common disorder affecting men and women. Finasteride and minoxidil are well-known, effective treatment methods, but patients who exhibit a poor response to these methods have no additional adequate treatment modalities. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a low-level light therapy (LLLT) device for the treatment of AGA. This study was designed as a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, sham device-controlled trial. Forty subjects with AGA were enrolled and scheduled to receive treatment with a helmet-type, home-use LLLT device emitting wavelengths of 630, 650, and 660 nm or a sham device for 18 minutes daily. Investigator and subject performed phototrichogram assessment (hair density and thickness) and global assessment of hair regrowth for evaluation. After 24 weeks of treatment, the LLLT group showed significantly greater hair density than the sham device group. Mean hair diameter improved statistically significantly more in the LLLT group than in the sham device group. Investigator global assessment showed a significant difference between the two groups, but that of the subject did not. No serious adverse reactions were detected. LLLT could be an effective treatment for AGA. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Peppermint Oil Promotes Hair Growth without Toxic Signs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min Ah; Kim, Young Chul

    2014-01-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is a plant native to Europe and has been widely used as a carminative and gastric stimulant worldwide. This plant also has been used in cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component and skin conditioning agent. This study investigated the effect of peppermint oil on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were randomized into 4 groups based on different topical applications: saline (SA), jojoba oil (JO), 3% minoxidil (MXD), and 3% peppermint oil (PEO). The hair growth effects of the 4-week topical applications were evaluated in terms of hair growth, histological analysis, enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gene expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), known bio-markers for the enhanced hair growth. Of the 4 experimental groups, PEO group showed the most prominent hair growth effects; a significant increase in dermal thickness, follicle number, and follicle depth. ALP activity and IGF-1 expression also significantly increased in PEO group. Body weight gain and food efficiency were not significantly different between groups. These results suggest that PEO induces a rapid anagen stage and could be used for a practical agent for hair growth without change of body weight gain and food efficiency. PMID:25584150

  13. Current concepts in aesthetic endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Gruber, C J; Wieser, F; Gruber, I M L; Ferlitsch, K; Gruber, D M; Huber, J C

    2002-12-01

    The extragenital effects of ovarian steroids are relevant to the metabolism of skin and hair, the changes in body composition and the alterations of the subcutaneous fat distribution throughout life. When ovarian steroids become deficient or are produced in excess, different problems may arise in these tissues and some of these problems, i.e., obesity and cellulite, display gender-specific components. Therefore, a new field in endocrine research known as aesthetic endocrinology is gaining more interest. Because sex steroids are small molecules they can be transported into the skin by topical application when properly formulated. This possibility is used in aesthetic endocrinology in order to achieve local effects but to avoid systemic reactions. After reviewing the current data it collectively seems legitimate to recommend estrogens, either orally or topically, in order to counteract the aging of the skin after menopause. Although a reconstitution of juvenile skin cannot be achieved through this method, a slowing in the skin aging process seems a reasonable expectation. In contrast, the successful treatment of hair loss in women is only confirmed for the application of the non-hormonal compound minoxidil. Apart from the difficult problem of hirsutism, acne and changes in body composition offer promising therapeutical options for endocrinological methods.

  14. Promotion effect of constituents from the root of Polygonum multiflorum on hair growth.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya Nan; Cui, Long; Li, Wei; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kang, Jung Il; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-09-01

    Two new compounds, gallic acid ester of torachrysone-8-O-β-D-glucoside (1) and (E)-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-xyloside (4), along with eight known compounds (2, 3, 5-10) were isolated from a 70% ethanol extract of Polygonum multiflorum roots. The structures were determined by (1)H and (13)C NMR, HMQC, and HMBC spectrometry. Extracts of P. multiflorum have been reported to promote hair growth in vivo. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of isolated compounds from P. multiflorum on promoting hair growth using dermal papilla cells (DPCs), which play an important role in hair growth. When DPCs were treated with compounds (1-10) from P. multiflorum, compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, and 10 increased the proliferation of DPCs compared with the control. Specifically, compound 2 (10 and 20 μM) induced a greater increase in the proliferation of DPCs than minoxidil (10 μM). Additionally, treatment of vibrissa follicles with compound 2 for 21 days increased hair-fiber length significantly. On the basis of this result, further investigation and optimization of these derivatives might help in the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of alopecia. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Permanent scalp alopecia related to breast cancer chemotherapy by sequential fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC) and docetaxel: a prospective study of 20 patients.

    PubMed

    Kluger, N; Jacot, W; Frouin, E; Rigau, V; Poujol, S; Dereure, O; Guillot, B; Romieu, G; Bessis, D

    2012-11-01

    To analyze the clinical and histological features of permanent alopecia following a sequential fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC) and docetaxel regimen for adjuvant breast cancer treatment. Women treated for breast cancer by a sequential adjuvant FEC and docetaxel regimen who developed permanent alopecia diagnosed between 2007 and 2011 were identified from the Department of Dermatology (Saint-Eloi Hospital, Montpellier, France) and the Department of Medical Oncology (CRLC Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier, France). Data were collected regarding demographics, type of cancer, delay of onset after chemotherapy, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), clinical description of the lesions, scalp biopsies, laboratory explorations investigating steroid hormonal, iron, zinc and thyroid status, therapy and outcome. Twenty white Caucasian females were included. Hair loss presented with a moderate or intense androgenetic-like pattern of scalp alopecia. Biopsy specimen examinations were normal or displayed the androgenetic-like pattern. Laboratory explorations ruled out iron or zinc deficiency and thyroid disorders and confirmed hormonal menopause without hyperandrogenism. The overall mean DLQI score reflected the distressing psychological consequences in the patients' lives. No spontaneous regrowth of the scalp hair was noted. Treatment including vitamins, minoxidil, psoralen and ultraviolet A therapy and spironolactone proved to be ineffective. Permanent and severe alopecia is a newly reported complication of the FEC 100-docetaxel breast cancer regimen.

  16. Multi-therapies in androgenetic alopecia: review and clinical experiences.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alfredo; Anzalone, Alessia; Fortuna, Maria Caterina; Caro, Gemma; Garelli, Valentina; Pranteda, Giulia; Carlesimo, Marta

    2016-11-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a genetically determined progressive hair-loss condition which represents the most common cause of hair loss in men. The use of the medical term androgenetic alopecia reflects current knowledge about the important role of androgens and genetic factors in its etiology. In addition to androgen-dependent changes in the hair cycle, sustained microscopic follicular inflammation contributes to its onset. Furthermore, Prostaglandins have been demonstrated to have the ability in modulating hair follicle cycle; in particular, PGD2 inhibits hair growth while PGE2/F2a promote growth. Due to the progressive nature of AGA, the treatment should be started early and continued indefinitely, since the benefit will not be maintained upon ceasing therapy. To date, only two therapeutic agents have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency for the treatment of AGA: topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Considering the many pathogenetic mechanisms involved in AGA, various treatment options are available: topical and systemic drugs may be used and the choice depends on various factors including grading of AGA, patients' pathological conditions, practicability, costs and risks. So, the treatment for AGA should be based on personalized therapy and targeted at the different pathophysiological aspects of AGA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Quan Q; Sinclair, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful. PMID:18044135

  18. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jae Young; Gupta, Biki; Park, Hyoung Geun; Son, Miwon; Jun, Joon-Ho; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Jong Oh

    2017-01-01

    The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner ( p < 0.05), and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1  μ M minoxidil (MXD) significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group ( p < 0.05). MXD (3%) and DA-5512 (1%, 5%) significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs) versus the controls (each p < 0.05). The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD ( p < 0.05). In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  19. Clinical efficacy of oral administration of finasteride at a dose of 2.5 mg/day in women with female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Won, Yong-Yon; Lew, Bark-Lynn; Sim, Woo-Young

    2018-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) presents with diffuse thinning over the mid-frontal scalp, for which various treatment modalities have been tried. Although currently, oral 5 α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride are being used, their clinical efficacy remains controversial. We retrospectively investigated 544 premenopausal or postmenopausal patients with FPHL who were prescribed finasteride at a dose of 2.5 mg/day. Our study excluded patients with a follow-up period of < 3 months and patients who were prescribed other FPHL treatment modalities including topical minoxidil. Finally, 112 patients were evaluated based on their medical records and clinical photographs. Based on assessment using the Ludwig scale at the time of their initial visit, among 112 patients studied, 59 patients were classified as belonging to grade I, 47 were grade II, and 6 were grade III. Using global photographs, we found that 33 (29.5%) of the 112 patients studied showed slight improvement, 73 (65.2%) showed significant improvement, whereas no change was recorded in 6 (5.4%). We could demonstrate efficacy of administration of finasteride at a dose of 2.5 mg/day for patients with FPHL and also found that finasteride has a better effect on hair growth when patients had a lower Ludwig score and an older age at onset. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array and electrospray-mass spectrometry analysis of non-allowed substances in cosmetic products for preventing hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases.

    PubMed

    De Orsi, Daniela; Pellegrini, Manuela; Pichini, Simona; Mattioli, Donatella; Marchei, Emilia; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2008-11-04

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet diode array (UV-DAD) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection has been developed for the determination of minoxidil, progesterone, estrone, spironolactone, canrenone, hydrocortisone and triamcinolone acetonide in cosmetic products. The presence of these substances in commercial cosmetic samples is prohibited. The compounds were separated by reversed phase chromatography with water (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) and acetonitrile gradient elution and detected by UV-DAD at 230, 254 and 280 nm and by ESI-MS positive ionisation mode. Benzoic acid was used as internal standard. Linearity was studied with UV-DAD detection from 1.50 to 1,000 microg/ml or mug/g range, depending on the different compounds and type of cosmetic preparation and with ESI-MS in the 50-1,000 ng/ml or ng/g range. Good determination coefficients (r(2)>or=0.99) were found in both UV and ESI-MS. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of both UV-DAD and ESI-MS assay, mean recoveries were always higher than 90% for the different analytes. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of substances under investigations illegally added in cosmetic cream and lotions, sold on internet web sites to prevent hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases, like acne and hirsutism.

  1. Intracellular Calcium Mobilization in Response to Ion Channel Regulators via a Calcium-Induced Calcium Release Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Petrou, Terry; Olsen, Hervør L.; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Masters, John R.; Ashmore, Jonathan F.

    2017-01-01

    Free intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), in addition to being an important second messenger, is a key regulator of many cellular processes including cell membrane potential, proliferation, and apoptosis. In many cases, the mobilization of [Ca2+]i is controlled by intracellular store activation and calcium influx. We have investigated the effect of several ion channel modulators, which have been used to treat a range of human diseases, on [Ca2+]i release, by ratiometric calcium imaging. We show that six such modulators [amiodarone (Ami), dofetilide, furosemide (Fur), minoxidil (Min), loxapine (Lox), and Nicorandil] initiate release of [Ca2+]i in prostate and breast cancer cell lines, PC3 and MCF7, respectively. Whole-cell currents in PC3 cells were inhibited by the compounds tested in patch-clamp experiments in a concentration-dependent manner. In all cases [Ca2+]i was increased by modulator concentrations comparable to those used clinically. The increase in [Ca2+]i in response to Ami, Fur, Lox, and Min was reduced significantly (P < 0.01) when the external calcium was reduced to nM concentration by chelation with EGTA. The data suggest that many ion channel regulators mobilize [Ca2+]i. We suggest a mechanism whereby calcium-induced calcium release is implicated; such a mechanism may be important for understanding the action of these compounds. PMID:27980039

  2. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  3. Female-patterned alopecia in teenage brothers with unusual histologic features.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J Andrew; Malysz, Jozef; Schwartz, Joseph

    2006-11-01

    Patterned hair loss, follicular miniaturization, and increased telogen hair counts characterize androgenic alopecia (AGA). Follicular inflammation in AGA has been associated with treatment resistance and progressive hair loss. Brothers, 15 and 18 years old, presented with frontal and mid-scalp hair loss with an intact frontal hairline noted over a 1-year period. The elder reported past use of androgenic steroids. Laboratory assessment for metabolic and hormonal abnormalities was unrevealing, and hair pull test was negative. Scalp biopsies revealed decreased terminal hairs, marked diameter variation of anagen hairs, decreased terminal to vellus hair ratios (3.7:1/3.4:1, older/younger), and increased telogen counts (23%/21%). Infrabulbar and peri-isthmic (follicular bulge region) lymphocytic infiltrates were present. Hair loss has progressed, unabated by daily topical 0.5% clobetasol (for 6 months), daily 5% minoxidil (1 year), and latter, daily oral finasteride (2 years - older brother only). Based on patterned hair loss and miniaturized hairs, these brothers have AGA. The female pattern of hair loss (diffuse hair loss affecting the central scalp with preservation of frontal hair line) coupled with follicular isthmic lymphocytic inflammation represents an unusual presentation, possibly a treatment resistant, inflammatory variant of AGA. The differential diagnosis includes exogenous androgen-mediated hair loss, cicatricial pattern hair loss, or the superimposition of alopecia areata.

  4. Valproic Acid Induces Hair Regeneration in Murine Model and Activates Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Human Dermal Papilla Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soung-Hoon; Yoon, Juyong; Shin, Seung Ho; Zahoor, Muhamad; Kim, Hyoung Jun; Park, Phil June; Park, Won-Seok; Min, Do Sik; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2012-01-01

    Background Alopecia is the common hair loss problem that can affect many people. However, current therapies for treatment of alopecia are limited by low efficacy and potentially undesirable side effects. We have identified a new function for valproic acid (VPA), a GSK3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, to promote hair re-growth in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/ Principal Findings Topical application of VPA to male C3H mice critically stimulated hair re-growth and induced terminally differentiated epidermal markers such as filaggrin and loricrin, and the dermal papilla marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP). VPA induced ALP in human dermal papilla cells by up-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, whereas minoxidil (MNX), a drug commonly used to treat alopecia, did not significantly affect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. VPA analogs and other GSK3β inhibitors that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway such as 4-phenyl butyric acid, LiCl, and BeCl2 also exhibited hair growth-promoting activities in vivo. Importantly, VPA, but not MNX, successfully stimulate hair growth in the wounds of C3H mice. Conclusions/ Significance Our findings indicate that small molecules that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, such as VPA, can potentially be developed as drugs to stimulate hair re-growth. PMID:22506014

  5. Polyethylene glycol as marker for nitrofurazone allergy: 20 years of experience from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özkaya, Esen; Kılıç, Sıla

    2018-03-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and propylene glycol (PG) are used as vehicles in various medicinal and cosmetic products. They are potential contact sensitizers, including low molecular weight PEGs in nitrofurazone preparations that are still widely used in Turkey. To investigate the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis caused by PEG and PG in a relatively large group of patients in Turkey. In this retrospective, cross-sectional, single-centre study, 836 patients patch tested with PEG and PG between 1996 and 2015 were reviewed. Thirty-five patients (4.2%) showed positive patch test reactions to PEG, and 7 (0.8%) showed positive patch test reactions to PG, partly as late positive reactions with PEG. PEG sensitivity was almost exclusively related to nitrofurazone allergy. Patch test reactions to PG were currently relevant mainly with regard to the use of minoxidil, and antiherpetic or corticosteroid creams. Ten patients (25%) had concomitant contact allergies to various topical drugs containing mainly PEGs. PEG sensitivity seems to be a marker for contact allergy to topical nitrofurazone in Turkey. Nitrofurazone allergy appears to favour concomitant sensitization to PEG. We would suggest the inclusion of PEG in an extended baseline patch test series in Turkey. Late patch test readings are important to diagnose delayed positive reactions to PEG. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Bioactives in Chinese Proprietary Medicine Modulates 5α-Reductase Activity and Gene Expression Associated with Androgenetic Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Justin J. Y.; Pan, Jing; Sun, Lihan; Zhang, Junying; Wu, Chunyong; Kang, Lifeng

    2017-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is characterized by a progressive and patterned transformation of thick, pigmented terminal scalp hairs into short, hypo-pigmented vellus-like hairs. The use of Minoxidil and Finasteride to treat AGA are often associated with complications in safety and efficacy. However, herbal remedies are deemed to have lesser side effects in many societies. This study aims to identify potential hair growth properties of individual compounds from a Chinese proprietary medicine known as Yangxue Shengfa capsule (YSC), used in China for many years for improving AGA. Six marker compounds, including 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), Chlorogenic acid, Emodin, Ferulic acid, Isoimperatorin, and Paeoniflorin were used for simultaneous HPLC quantification and anti-AGA in-vitro screening. Simultaneous quantification of these components was performed on 75% (v/v) methanol extracts of YSC, using a Welch Ultimate XB-C18 column and gradient elution. Five compounds significantly promoted cell proliferation in cultured immortalized human Dermal Papilla Cells (DPC). Multiple genes associated with the progression of AGA, including IGF-1, DKK-1, and TGF-β1, were found to be regulated by some of these compounds. Interestingly, Ferulic acid and Emodin demonstrated good pharmacological properties against AGA, thereby concluding the potential of these bioactives to be used in the treatment against AGA. PMID:28450835

  7. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  8. Hair Growth-Promoting Effects of Lavender Oil in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boo Hyeong; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hair growth effects of lavender oil (LO) in female C57BL/6 mice. The experimental animals were divided into a normal group (N: saline), a vehicle control group (VC: jojoba oil), a positive control group (PC: 3% minoxidil), experimental group 1 (E1: 3% LO), and experimental group 2 (E2: 5% LO). Test compound solutions were topically applied to the backs of the mice (100 μL per application), once per day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. The changes in hair follicle number, dermal thickness, and hair follicle depth were observed in skin tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the number of mast cells was measured in the dermal and hypodermal layers stained with toluidine blue. PC, E1, and E2 groups showed a significantly increased number of hair follicles, deepened hair follicle depth, and thickened dermal layer, along with a significantly decreased number of mast cells compared to the N group. These results indicated that LO has a marked hair growth-promoting effect, as observed morphologically and histologically. There was no significant difference in the weight of the thymus among the groups. However, both absolute and relative weights of the spleen were significantly higher in the PC group than in the N, VC, E1, or E2 group at week 4. Thus, LO could be practically applied as a hair growth-promoting agent. PMID:27123160

  9. Hair Growth-Promoting Effects of Lavender Oil in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boo Hyeong; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hair growth effects of lavender oil (LO) in female C57BL/6 mice. The experimental animals were divided into a normal group (N: saline), a vehicle control group (VC: jojoba oil), a positive control group (PC: 3% minoxidil), experimental group 1 (E1: 3% LO), and experimental group 2 (E2: 5% LO). Test compound solutions were topically applied to the backs of the mice (100 μL per application), once per day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. The changes in hair follicle number, dermal thickness, and hair follicle depth were observed in skin tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the number of mast cells was measured in the dermal and hypodermal layers stained with toluidine blue. PC, E1, and E2 groups showed a significantly increased number of hair follicles, deepened hair follicle depth, and thickened dermal layer, along with a significantly decreased number of mast cells compared to the N group. These results indicated that LO has a marked hair growth-promoting effect, as observed morphologically and histologically. There was no significant difference in the weight of the thymus among the groups. However, both absolute and relative weights of the spleen were significantly higher in the PC group than in the N, VC, E1, or E2 group at week 4. Thus, LO could be practically applied as a hair growth-promoting agent.

  10. Bee Venom Promotes Hair Growth in Association with Inhibiting 5α-Reductase Expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Seeun; Erdogan, Sedef; Hwang, Dahyun; Hwang, Seonwook; Han, Eun Hye; Lim, Young-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Alopecia is an important issue that can occur in people of all ages. Recent studies show that bee venom can be used to treat certain diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, neuralgia, and multiple sclerosis. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of bee venom on alopecia, which was measured by applying bee venom (0.001, 0.005, 0.01%) or minoxidil (2%) as a positive control to the dorsal skin of female C57BL/6 mice for 19 d. Growth factors responsible for hair growth were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis using mice skins and human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs). Bee venom promoted hair growth and inhibited transition from the anagen to catagen phase. In both anagen phase mice and dexamethasone-induced catagen phase mice, hair growth was increased dose dependently compared with controls. Bee venom inhibited the expression of SRD5A2, which encodes a type II 5α-reductase that plays a major role in the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. Moreover, bee venom stimulated proliferation of hDPCs and several growth factors (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 and 7) in bee venom-treated hDPCs dose dependently compared with the control group. In conclusion, bee venom is a potentially potent 5α-reductase inhibitor and hair growth promoter.

  11. Effects of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on hair growth and alopecia prevention.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Jung, Sung Kyu; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Jin-Nam; Moon, Woi-Sook; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Choi, In Soon; Wook Son, Sang

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential hair growth-promoting activity and the expression of cell growth factors of Lycopersicon esculentum extracts, each 3% (w/w) of ethyl acetate extract (EAE), and supercritical CO2 extract (SCE) of L. esculentum and isolated lycopene Tween 80 solution (LTS) and test hair tonic (THT) containing LTS were applied on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice, once a day for 4 weeks. At week 4, LTS and THT exhibited hair growth-promoting potential similar to that of 3% minoxidil as a positive control (PC). Further, in the LTS group, a significant increase of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), keratinocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was observed than PC, as well as the negative control (NC). In the THT group, increases in IGF-1 and decrease in VEGF and transforming growth factor-β expression were significant over the NC. In a histological examination in the THT group, the induction of anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of NC. In the Draize skin irritation study for THT, no observable edema or erythema was observed on all four sectors in the back skin after exposure for 24 or 72 h for any rabbit. Therefore, this study provides reasonable evidence that L. esculentum extracts promote hair growth and suggests that applications could be found in hair loss treatments without skin irritation at moderate doses.

  12. Evaluation of Cardiac Toxicity Biomarkers in Rats from Different Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyuri; Chini, Naseem; Fairchild, David G; Engle, Steven K; Reagan, William J; Summers, Sandra D; Mirsalis, Jon C

    2016-12-01

    There is a great need for improved diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of potential cardiac toxicity in drug development. This study reports the evaluation of several commercially available biomarker kits by 3 institutions (SRI, Eli Lilly, and Pfizer) for the discrimination between myocardial degeneration/necrosis and cardiac hypertrophy as well as the assessment of the interlaboratory and interplatform variation in results. Serum concentrations of natriuretic peptides (N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide [NT-proANP] and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]), cardiac and skeletal troponins (cTnI, cTnT, and sTnI), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) were assessed in rats treated with minoxidil (MNX) and isoproterenol (ISO). MNX caused increased heart-to-body weight ratios and prominent elevations in NT-proANP and NT-proBNP concentrations detected at 24-hr postdose without elevation in troponins, Myl3, or FABP3 and with no abnormal histopathological findings. ISO caused ventricular leukocyte infiltration, myocyte fibrosis, and necrosis with increased concentrations of the natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponins, and Myl3. These results reinforce the advantages of a multimarker strategy in elucidating the underlying cause of cardiac insult and detecting myocardial tissue damage at 24-hr posttreatment. The interlaboratory and interplatform comparison analyses also showed that the data obtained from different laboratories and platforms are highly correlated and reproducible, making these biomarkers widely applicable in preclinical studies.

  13. Hair Growth Promoting and Anticancer Effects of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) Inhibitors Isolated from Different Parts of Alpinia zerumbet.

    PubMed

    Taira, Nozomi; Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2017-01-14

    PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) is an emerging target for the treatment of hair loss (alopecia) and cancer; therefore, the search for PAK1 blockers to treat these PAK1-dependent disorders has received much attention. In this study, we evaluated the anti-alopecia and anticancer effects of PAK1 inhibitors isolated from Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia) in cell culture. The bioactive compounds isolated from alpinia were found to markedly promote hair cell growth. Kaempferol-3- O -β-d-glucuronide (KOG) and labdadiene, two of the isolated compounds, increased the proliferation of human follicle dermal papilla cells by approximately 117%-180% and 132%-226%, respectively, at 10-100 μM. MTD (2,5-bis(1 E ,3 E ,5 E )-6-methoxyhexa-1,3,5-trien-1-yl)-2,5-dihydrofuran) and TMOQ (( E )-2,2,3,3-tetramethyl-8-methylene-7-(oct-6-en-1-yl)octahydro-1 H -quinolizine) showed growth-promoting activity around 164% and 139% at 10 μM, respectively. The hair cell proliferation induced by these compounds was significantly higher than that of minoxidil, a commercially available treatment for hair loss. Furthermore, the isolated compounds from alpinia exhibited anticancer activity against A549 lung cancer cells with IC 50 in the range of 67-99 μM. Regarding the mechanism underlying their action, we hypothesized that the anti-alopecia and anticancer activities of these compounds could be attributed to the inhibition of the oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1.

  14. Oral Finasteride Presents With Sexual-Unrelated Withdrawal in Long-Term Treated Androgenic Alopecia in Men.

    PubMed

    Perez-Mora, Nicolas; Velasco, Carlos; Bermüdez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Side effects associated with oral finasteride (FT) (1 mg/d) and topical 5% minoxidil (M5) have been previously described. The authors have evaluated long-term adverse effects and causes of long-term therapy withdrawal in patients with androgenic alopecia (AGA) treated with M5+FT vs M5 without FT. A total of 130 AGA patients with a minimum 2-year follow-up volunteered to complete a questionnaire on side effects. Patients' responses were classified as "never," "rarely," "sometimes," "often," and "all the time." An adverse effect was considered in the presence of an "often" or "all the time" response. A total of 100 patients received combined M5+FT and were compared with 30 patients receiving single-therapy M5 according to the physician's clinical criteria. Erectile dysfunction (3%), diminished libido (4%), and reduced ejaculation (7%) were present in patients taking M5+FT but were absent in patients taking M5. Only 1 of 100 patients taking M5+FT quit long-term therapy due to sexual adverse effects (diminished libido). The main causes for therapy withdrawal in the FT group were lack of positive results in 11% and in the M5 group side effects in 4% (P < .02). Increased body hair was different between groups: with 6.6% in the M5 group and 4% in the M5+FT group (P < .03). FT demonstrates sexual-unrelated reasons as the main cause of therapy withdrawal in long-term treated AGA patients.

  15. Essential roles of insulin, AMPK signaling and lysyl and prolyl hydroxylases in the biosynthesis and multimerization of adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Ming-Ming; Corcoran, Marie; Zhang, Shaoping; Cooper, Garth J S

    2015-01-05

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the adiponectin molecule are essential for its full bioactivity, and defects in PTMs leading to its defective production and multimerization have been linked to the mechanisms of insulin resistance, obesity, and type-2 diabetes. Here we observed that, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, decreased insulin signaling caused by blocking of insulin receptors (InsR) with an anti-InsR blocking antibody, increased rates of adiponectin secretion, whereas concomitant elevations in insulin levels counteracted this effect. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling regulated adiponectin production by modulating the expression of adiponectin receptors, the secretion of adiponectin, and eventually the expression of adiponectin itself. We found that lysyl hydroxylases (LHs) and prolyl hydroxylases (PHs) were expressed in white-adipose tissue of ob/ob mice, wherein LH3 levels were increased compared with controls. In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, both non-specific inhibition of LHs and PHs by dipyridyl, and specific inhibition of LHs by minoxidil and of P4H with ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, caused significant suppression of adiponectin production, more particularly of the higher-order isoforms. Transient gene knock-down of LH3 (Plod3) caused a suppressive effect, especially on the high molecular-weight (HMW) isoforms. These data indicate that PHs and LHs are both required for physiological adiponectin production and in particular are essential for the formation/secretion of the HMW isoforms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  17. Immediate central and peripheral haemodynamic effects of a new vasodilating agent Pinacidil (P1134) in hypertensive man.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, J E; Kardel, T; Hilden, T; Tangø, M; Trap-Jensen, J

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate central and peripheral haemodynamic effects of a new vasodilating agent P 1134, in hypertensive man. After oral administration of 25 mg P 1134, the maximal haemodynamic changes were (mean +/- 1 SEM): mean blood pressure fell from 121.8 +/- 6.5 to 80.5 +/- 7.8 mmHg, heart rate increased 24.2 +/- 4.5 beats/min, cardiac output rose 2.9 +/- 0.3 1/min and forearm blood flow increased 1.0 +/- 0.1 ml/100 ml tissue/min. Stroke volume increased 17.0 +/- 2.1 ml and the inotropic state of the heart as judged from systolic time intervals increased. Total peripheral resistance and forearm vascular resistance were both reduced by approx. 50%. Linear correlations were found between the serum concentration of P 1134 and the change in mean blood pressure and total peripheral resistance. Changes in the other parameters mentioned above occurred progressively with changes in mean blood pressure and total peripheral resistance. It can be concluded that P 1134 is a very potent hypotensive agent with a haemodynamic profile identical to that seen with vasodilators with preferably act on precapillary resistance vessels. Potency and maximal efficacy exceeds that of hydralazine and seems like that of minoxidil. P 1134 is remarkably free from side-effects apart from causing water retention as all other vasodilators. It can be administered orally as well as intravenously. This makes P 1134 a very interesting compound in the treatment of moderate to severe hypertension, and further studies are well-founded.

  18. Role of different types of potassium channels in the antidepressant-like effect of agmatine in the mouse forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Budni, Josiane; Gadotti, Vinícius M; Kaster, Manuella P; Santos, Adair R S; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2007-12-01

    The administration of agmatine elicits an antidepressant-like effect in the mouse forced swimming test by a mechanism dependent on the inhibition of the NMDA receptors and the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway. Since it has been reported that the NO can activate different types of potassium (K(+)) channels in several tissues, the present study investigates the possibility of synergistic interactions between different types of K(+) channel inhibitors and agmatine in the forced swimming test. Treatment of mice by i.c.v. route with subeffective doses of tetraethylammonium (a non specific inhibitor of K(+) channels, 25 pg/site), glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K(+) channels inhibitor, 0.5 pg/site), charybdotoxin (a large- and intermediate-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channel inhibitor, 25 pg/site) or apamin (a small-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channel inhibitor, 10 pg/site), augmented the effect of agmatine (0.001 mg/kg, i.p.) in the forced swimming test. Furthermore, the administration of agmatine and the K(+) channel inhibitors, alone or in combination, did not affect locomotion in the open-field test. Moreover, the reduction in the immobility time elicited by an active dose of agmatine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the forced swimming test was prevented by the pre-treatment of mice with the K(+) channel openers cromakalim (10 microg/site, i.c.v.) and minoxidil (10 microg/site, i.c.v.), without affecting locomotion. Together these data raise the possibility that the antidepressant-like effect of agmatine in the forced swimming test is related to its modulatory effects on neuronal excitability, via inhibition of K(+) channels.

  19. A Proposal of an Effective Platelet-rich Plasma Protocol for the Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Juan; García-García, Sandra Cecilia; González-de-Cossío, Ana Cecilia; Bou, Lola; Navarra, Esperanza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has emerged as a promising treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA). In spite of the several studies previously reported, to date, a standardized protocol for PRP preparation and application, as well as a standard method for evaluating results has not been established. Aims: The aim of this study is to propose a standardized method for preparation and application of PRP for male AGA (MAGA) and female AGA (FAGA) and assess its safety and efficacy as a co-adjuvant therapy. Materials and Methods: Seventy-eight patients, 19 men and 59 women with AGA Grades II–IV in Ebling's scale, currently on treatment with topical minoxidil and/or oral finasteride for more than a year without improvement, were included in this study. PRP was prepared using a single spin method, and injected in affected areas for 3 monthly sessions, followed by 3 bimonthly sessions. A decrease of at least one grade in Ebling's scale was considered a successful result. Results: After the 6° session, 71.4% of MAGA and 73.4% of FAGA patients reached a successful outcome while 21.4% and 16.3%, respectively, remained without changes. Only 7.1% of MAGA and 10.2% of FAGA presented worsening of their condition. Conclusions: PRP together with a periodical application protocol can be considered effective as a coadjuvant therapy in patients who no longer respond to pharmacological treatments. Ebling's scale was a practical and reliable parameter to allow a better evaluation in both MAGA and FAGA. PMID:29118521

  20. In vivo hair growth promotion effects of ultra-high molecular weight poly-γ-glutamic acid from Bacillus subtilis (Chungkookjang).

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Chul; Uyama, Hiroshi; Lee, Chul-Hoon; Sung, Moon-Hee

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the effect of ultra-high molecular weight poly-γ-glutamic acid (UHMW γ-PGA) on hair loss in vitro and in vivo. 5-Alpha reductase is an enzyme that metabolizes the male hormone testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. By performing an in vitro experiment to analyze the inhibitory effects of UHMW γ-PGA on 5-alpha reductase activity, we determined that UHMW γ-PGA did in fact inhibit 5-alpha reductase activity, indicating the use of UHMW γ-PGA as a potential 5-alpha reductase inhibitor in the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia. To evaluate the promotion of hair growth in vivo, we topically applied UHMW γ-PGA and minoxidil on the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 mice for 4 weeks. At 4 weeks, the groups treated with UHMW γ-PGA showed hair growth on more than 50% of the shaved skin, whereas the control group showed less hair growth. To investigate the progression of hair follicles in the hair cycle, hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed. Histological observations revealed that the appearance of hair follicles was earlier in the UHMW γ-PGA-treated group than in the control group. The number of hair follicles on the relative area of shaved skin in the UHMW γ-PGA-treated group was higher than that observed on the shaved skin in the control group. These results indicate that UHMW γ-PGA can promote hair growth by effectively inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6 mice.

  1. Development and validation of rapid and simultaneous method for determination of 12 hair-growth compounds in adulterated products by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Park, Han Na; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Sung-Kwan; Baek, Sun Young; Lee, Yong-Moon; Kang, Hoil

    2018-03-01

    Synthetic hair-growth compounds have been illegally used in diverse products to enhance the short-term efficacy of these products. In this study, a rapid and simultaneous method for the determination of hair-growth compounds in adulterated products based on ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQs) of the method were 0.08-43.6ng/mL and 0.27-145ng/mL for the solid-, liquid-, and cream-type samples, respectively. Good calibration linearity for all compounds was demonstrated with a correlation coefficient (r 2 ) higher than 0.997. The intra- and inter-assay precisions were within 11%. The corresponding accuracies were 86-117% and 81-113%, respectively. The mean recoveries obtained for the solid-, liquid, and cream-type samples ranged from 87 to 114%, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) within 6%. The RSD of the stability evaluated at 4°C for 48h was less than 6%. The established method was used to screen 76 samples advertised as hair-growth treatments, from online and offline markets, over the course of two years. In 10% of the samples, four compounds, including triaminodil, minoxidil, finasteride, methyltestosterone, and testosterone-propionate were detected. The concentrations were in the range of 0.5-16.4mg/g. This technique provides a reliable platform for technical analysis for continuous monitoring of adulterated products to protect public health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Status of scalp hair and therapy of alopecia in men in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M; de Viragh, P A

    2001-02-15

    A community-based interview and a questionnaire of men visiting the dermatologist for treatment of hair loss were conducted in Switzerland, to characterize the significance of scalp hair and self-perception of hair loss in Swiss men, and to evaluate current treatment of hair loss. 508 men, aged 15-74 years, regardless of the degree of hair loss, were interviewed by telephone, and 308 patient questionnaires were completed by 19 dermatologists. The questions addressed by the interview were: degree of self-rated hair loss, time invested for hair care, use or reasons for rejecting hair growing agents, relevant criteria for scalp hair, self-assessment with respect to different "hair communication types". The questionnaire analysed the causes of hair loss, prior and current treatment modalities, and follow-up at the dermatologist. Respondents rated their hair loss on a 5-point, textual scale that ranged from 'no hair loss' to 'bald areas'. 43% reported hair loss to some extent. For 42% a full head of hair was very important, especially for men under 29 years, who invested more time for hair care and had not lost hair. Of men with hair loss, 26% previously applied hair growing agents. Of men consulting the dermatologist for hair loss, 90% had androgenetic alopecia. 37% were previously treated: prior treatment was in 59% minoxidil, in 4% finasteride (Propecia), in 7% Aminexil, in 7% dietary supplements, and in 6% conducted by the hair dresser. In 79% treatment was switched to Propecia: of these, 73% adhered to the follow-up consultations at the dermatologist.

  3. Erbium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser irradiation ameliorates skin permeation and follicular delivery of antialopecia drugs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Li, Yi-Ching; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-11-01

    Alopecia usually cannot be cured because of the available drug therapy being unsatisfactory. To improve the efficiency of treatment, erbium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er-YAG) laser treatment was conducted to facilitate skin permeation of antialopecia drugs such as minoxidil (MXD), diphencyprone (DPCP), and peptide. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption experiments were carried out by using nude mouse skin and porcine skin as permeation barriers. Fluorescence and confocal microscopies were used to visualize distribution of permeants within the skin. Laser ablation at a depth of 6 and 10 μm enhanced MXD skin accumulation twofold to ninefold depending on the skin barriers selected. DPCP absorption showed less enhancement by laser irradiation as compared with MXD. An ablation depth of 10 μm could increase the peptide flux from zero to 4.99 and 0.33 μg cm(-2) h(-1) for nude mouse skin and porcine skin, respectively. The laser treatment also promoted drug uptake in the hair follicles, with DPCP demonstrating the greatest enhancement (sixfold compared with the control). The imaging of skin examined by microscopies provided evidence of follicular and intercellular delivery assisted by the Er-YAG laser. Besides the ablative effect of removing the stratum corneum, the laser may interact with sebum to break up the barrier function, increasing the skin delivery of antialopecia drugs. The minimally invasive, well-controlled approach of laser-mediated drug permeation offers a potential way to treat alopecia. This study's findings provide the basis for the first report on laser-assisted delivery of antialopecia drugs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  4. Reversible Alopecia with Localized Scalp Necrosis After Accidental Embolization of the Parietal Artery with Hyaluronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Qiu, Lihong; Yi, Chenggang; Xue, Ping; Yu, Zhou; Ma, Xianjie; Su, Yingjun; Guo, Shuzhong

    2017-06-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) filler injection is widely used for soft-tissue augmentation. Complications associated with HA filling are not uncommon; however, HA-induced alopecia is a rarely reported complication that could result in severe secondary psychological trauma. The etiology, clinical traits, treatment strategies, outcomes, and possible reversibility of HA-induced alopecia have not been characterized. Here, we report a case in which bilateral temple injections of 6.5 mL of HA led to persistent pain over the left scalp for several days. Although the pain was relieved at day 9 after 600 U of hyaluronidase were injected in the left temple, the patient developed localized alopecia at the left temporoparietal region with central skin necrosis at day 15. After topical applications of recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor gel and 2% minoxidil spay, the necrotic skin wound was healed at day 42. Hair regrowth and normal hair density were restored at day 74. Analyses of Doppler ultrasound examinations and histopathology of the skin biopsy suggested that mild ischemia of the left temporoparietal region led to reversible alopecia, while the permanent hair loss in the left parietal area was associated with severe skin ischemia. Therefore, the key to treatment would be to focus on the effective correction of severe ischemia-induced skin necrosis to prevent permanent hair loss. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  5. Intratumoral oxygen gradients mediate sarcoma cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Daniel M.; Park, Kyung Min; Tang, Vitor; Xu, Yu; Pak, Koreana; Eisinger-Mathason, T. S. Karin; Simon, M. Celeste; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a critical factor in the progression and metastasis of many cancers, including soft tissue sarcomas. Frequently, oxygen (O2) gradients develop in tumors as they grow beyond their vascular supply, leading to heterogeneous areas of O2 depletion. Here, we report the impact of hypoxic O2 gradients on sarcoma cell invasion and migration. O2 gradient measurements showed that large sarcoma mouse tumors (>300 mm3) contain a severely hypoxic core [≤0.1% partial pressure of O2 (pO2)] whereas smaller tumors possessed hypoxic gradients throughout the tumor mass (0.1–6% pO2). To analyze tumor invasion, we used O2-controllable hydrogels to recreate the physiopathological O2 levels in vitro. Small tumor grafts encapsulated in the hydrogels revealed increased invasion that was both faster and extended over a longer distance in the hypoxic hydrogels compared with nonhypoxic hydrogels. To model the effect of the O2 gradient accurately, we examined individual sarcoma cells embedded in the O2-controllable hydrogel. We observed that hypoxic gradients guide sarcoma cell motility and matrix remodeling through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activation. We further found that in the hypoxic gradient, individual cells migrate more quickly, across longer distances, and in the direction of increasing O2 tension. Treatment with minoxidil, an inhibitor of hypoxia-induced sarcoma metastasis, abrogated cell migration and matrix remodeling in the hypoxic gradient. Overall, we show that O2 acts as a 3D physicotactic agent during sarcoma tumor invasion and propose the O2-controllable hydrogels as a predictive system to study early stages of the metastatic process and therapeutic targets. PMID:27486245

  6. A comparative study of a new food supplement, ViviScal, with fish extract for the treatment of hereditary androgenic alopecia in young males.

    PubMed

    Lassus, A; Eskelinen, E

    1992-11-01

    A controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study compared the effects of ViviScal (a new food supplement incorporating special marine extracts and a silica compound) with those of a fish extract in the treatment of young males with hereditary androgenic alopecia. The pretreatment histological diagnosis was alopecia with a mild to moderate perifollicular inflammation zone. The study consisted of 20 subjects who received two tablets of ViviScal once daily and 20 who received two tablets of fish extract once daily for 6 months. The mean patient age and mean duration and severity of baldness compared well between the two groups. Most patients had been treated with long-term topical 2% minoxidil for 1 year or more prior to the study. At baseline and after 6 months' treatment, a biopsy was taken for histological examination. A non-vellus hair count was performed at baseline and after 2, 4 and 6 months. In the fish extract treatment group three patients withdrew from the study before the fourth month due to lack of therapeutic effect. After 6 months' treatment, patients receiving ViviScal showed a mean increase in non-vellus hair of 38% compared with a 2% increase in the fish extract treatment group (P < 0.0001). In the ViviScal group, 19 (95%) subjects showed both clinical and histological cure, whereas none treated with fish extract showed any clinical or histological difference after 6 months' treatment (P < 0.0001). In both groups, a minimal decrease in the erythemal index was observed. In conclusion, ViviScal appears to be the first highly active treatment for androgenic alopecia in young males.

  7. Intratumoral oxygen gradients mediate sarcoma cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Daniel M; Park, Kyung Min; Tang, Vitor; Xu, Yu; Pak, Koreana; Eisinger-Mathason, T S Karin; Simon, M Celeste; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-08-16

    Hypoxia is a critical factor in the progression and metastasis of many cancers, including soft tissue sarcomas. Frequently, oxygen (O2) gradients develop in tumors as they grow beyond their vascular supply, leading to heterogeneous areas of O2 depletion. Here, we report the impact of hypoxic O2 gradients on sarcoma cell invasion and migration. O2 gradient measurements showed that large sarcoma mouse tumors (>300 mm(3)) contain a severely hypoxic core [≤0.1% partial pressure of O2 (pO2)] whereas smaller tumors possessed hypoxic gradients throughout the tumor mass (0.1-6% pO2). To analyze tumor invasion, we used O2-controllable hydrogels to recreate the physiopathological O2 levels in vitro. Small tumor grafts encapsulated in the hydrogels revealed increased invasion that was both faster and extended over a longer distance in the hypoxic hydrogels compared with nonhypoxic hydrogels. To model the effect of the O2 gradient accurately, we examined individual sarcoma cells embedded in the O2-controllable hydrogel. We observed that hypoxic gradients guide sarcoma cell motility and matrix remodeling through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activation. We further found that in the hypoxic gradient, individual cells migrate more quickly, across longer distances, and in the direction of increasing O2 tension. Treatment with minoxidil, an inhibitor of hypoxia-induced sarcoma metastasis, abrogated cell migration and matrix remodeling in the hypoxic gradient. Overall, we show that O2 acts as a 3D physicotactic agent during sarcoma tumor invasion and propose the O2-controllable hydrogels as a predictive system to study early stages of the metastatic process and therapeutic targets.

  8. Topical treatment and combination approaches for vitiligo: new insights, new developments.

    PubMed

    Hossani-Madani, A R; Halder, R M

    2010-02-01

    Despite much research done involving elucidation of the pathogenesis of vitiligo, a precise cause is still not known. Prevalent hypotheses include the autoimmune, genetic, neural, self-destruction, growth factor deficiency, viral, and convergence theories, which have served as the basis for treatment formulation. Topical therapies have been a mainstay of vitiligo treatment, with or without phototherapy. Topical treatments used in the treatment of vitiligo include steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, vitamin D analogues, pseudocatalase, and depigmenting agents. Combination therapies are used to improve the success rate of repigmentation. In this article, we have examined randomized controlled trials utilizing topical treatments used as monotherapy or combination therapy. Although psoralen and khellin can be used as topical agents, used in conjunction with UV radiation, we have not included them in the review due to their inability to be used as monotherapy. We have also excluded less used or ineffective topical agents, such as melagenina, topical phenylalanine, topical L-DOPA, coal tar, anacarcin forte oil and topical minoxidil. According to current guidelines, a less than two month trial of potent or very potent topical corticosteroids or topical calcineurin inhibitors may be used for therapy of localized vitiligo (<20% skin surface area). Combinations of topical corticosteroids with excimer laser and UVA seem to be more effective than steroids alone. Pseudocatalase plus NB-UVB does not seem to be more effective than placebo with NB-UVB. Combinations of vitamin D analogues have varied efficacy based on which type is used and the type of UV light. Efficacy of calcineurin inhibitor combinations also vary based on the type used and UV light combined, with tacrolimus being more effective with excimer laser. Pimecrolimus has been effective with NB-UVB and excimer laser on facial lesions, and microdermabrasion on localized areas.

  9. Use of low-level laser therapy in treatment of the androgenic alopecia, the first systematic review.

    PubMed

    Najem, Ibrahim; Chen, Hongxiang

    2017-12-11

    Alopecia is a common disease affecting more than half of the world total number of people. Alopecia exists in different types, but one of the most common of these types is the Androgenic Alopecia which has affected approximately 51% of the total number of males ranging between the age bracket of 40 years and 75 years. This type of alopecia is more common in females who are above the age of 65 years and above. Despite this widespread effect, much has not been done regarding identifying the possible drugs for treating this disease. At present, there exist only two possible medications that have been scientifically approved to cure this disease, include finasteride and minoxidil. Also, another possible form of treatment has been the case of hair transplantation. Despite the new possible treatment options available for treatment of different types of hair loss, there is a need for the invention for more efficient management and treatment options that are less costly, environmentally friendly, and most importantly human consumption friendly. Due to the recent evaluation that low-level laser therapy stimulated hair growth. This systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine whether the use of low-level laser therapy is an effective therapy for treatment of the Androgenic alopecia and also to some degree we reviewed the level of the patient's satisfaction. Some earlier studies had shown that the use of low-level laser therapy stimulated the hair growth when mice were treated with chemotherapy which was induced by the alopecia and also the other type of alopecia called alopecia areata. The researchers hypothesized that the primary mechanism of treating Androgenic alopecia to be the stimulation of the epidermal stem cells which are in the hair follicle making them bulge and shift the follicles into the anagen phase.

  10. Action Mechanism of Chamaecyparis obtusa Oil on Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Ok; Kim, Su-Eun; Kim, Young-Chul

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine the action mechanism of Chamaecyparis obtusa oil (CO) on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. For alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) activities in the skin tissue, at week 4, the 3% minoxidil (MXD) and 3% CO treatment groups showed an ALP activity that was significantly higher by 85% (p < 0.001) and 48% (p < 0.05) and an γ-GT activity that was significantly higher by 294% (p < 0.01) and 254% (p < 0.05) respectively, as compared to the saline (SA) treatment group. For insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA expression in the skin tissue, at week 4, the MXD and CO groups showed a significantly higher expression by 204% (p < 0.05) and 426% (p < 0.01) respectively, as compared to the SA group. At week 4, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the MXD and CO groups showed a significantly higher expression by 74% and 96% (p < 0.05) respectively, however, epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression in the MXD and CO groups showed a significantly lower expression by 66% and 61% (p < 0.05) respectively, as compared to the SA group. Stem cell factor (SCF) expression in the MXD and CO groups was observed by immunohistochemistry as significant in a part of the bulge around the hair follicle and in a part of the basal layer of the epidermis. Taking all the results together, on the basis of effects on ALP and γ-GT activity, and the expression of IGF-1, VEGF and SCF, which are related to the promotion of hair growth, it can be concluded that CO induced a proliferation and division of hair follicle cells and maintained the anagen phase. Because EGF expression was decreased significantly, CO could delay the transition to the catagen phase. PMID:24578794

  11. Lack of manifestations of diazoxide/5-hydroxydecanoate-sensitive KATP channel in rat brain nonsynaptosomal mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Brustovetsky, Tatiana; Shalbuyeva, Natalia; Brustovetsky, Nickolay

    2005-10-01

    Pharmacological modulation of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel (mitoKATP) sensitive to diazoxide and 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) represents an attractive strategy to protect cells against ischaemia/reperfusion- and stroke-related injury. To re-evaluate a functional role for the mitoKATP in brain, we used Percoll-gradient-purified brain nonsynaptosomal mitochondria in a light absorbance assay, in radioisotope measurements of matrix volume, and in measurements of respiration, membrane potential (DeltaPsi) and depolarization-induced K+ efflux. The changes in mitochondrial morphology were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Polyclonal antibodies raised against certain fragments of known sulphonylurea receptor subunits, SUR1 and SUR2, and against different epitopes of K+ inward rectifier subunits Kir 6.1 and Kir 6.2 of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel of the plasma membrane (cellKATP), were employed to detect similar subunits in brain mitochondria. A variety of plausible blockers (ATP, 5-hydroxydecanoate, glibenclamide, tetraphenylphosphonium cation) and openers (diazoxide, pinacidil, chromakalim, minoxidil, testosterone) of the putative mitoKATP were applied to show the role of the channel in regulating matrix volume, respiration, and DeltaPsi and K+ fluxes across the inner mitochondrial membrane. None of the pharmacological agents applied to brain mitochondria in the various assays pinpointed processes that could be unequivocally associated with mitoKATP activity. In addition, immunoblotting analysis did not provide explicit evidence for the presence of the mitoKATP, similar to the cellKATP, in brain mitochondria. On the other hand, the depolarization-evoked release of K+ suppressed by ATP could be re-activated by carboxyatractyloside, an inhibitor of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT). Moreover, bongkrekic acid, another inhibitor of the ANT, inhibited K+ efflux similarly to ATP. These observations implicate the ANT in ATP-sensitive K

  12. [Experimental study on Dendrobium candidum polysaccharides on promotion of hair growth].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Qi, Hui; Li, Jin-Biao; Yi, Yan-Qun; Chen, Dan; Hu, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Mei-Ling; Sun, Xing-Li; Wei, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    To observe the effect and mechanism of Dendrobium candidum polysaccharides (DCP) in promoting hair growth, in order to lay a foundation for the development and utilization of D. candidum. The water-extraction and alcohol-precipitation method was adopted to extract DCP, and the phenol-sulphuric acid method was used to determine its content. Thirty C57BL6J mice were collected to establish the hair loss model with hair removal cream. They were randomly divided into the control group, the positive control group and the DCP group, and given 0.2 mL of ultra-pure water, minoxidil tincture and DCP (5.0 g x L(-1)) 21 days. The mice hair growth scoring standard was adopted to evaluate the hair growth of C57BL/6J mice at 7, 14 d. The hairs in unit hair-losing areas of treated C57BL/6J mice at 21 d were weighed to evaluate the effect of DCP on the promotion of hair growth. MTT assay and RT-PCR method were used to evaluate the effect of DCP on the proliferatin of HaCaT cells and the mRNA expression of VEGF in HaCaT cells. The extraction percent of DCP was 29.87%, and its content was 79.65%. The average scores for the hair growth and weight of C57BL/6J mice of DCP group were much higher than the control group. The survival rate and mRNA expression of VEGF of HaCaT cells were much higher than the control group. DCP has the effect in promoting hair growth. Its mechanism may be related to the up-regulation of the mRNA expression of VEGF.

  13. Immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1) Promotes Murine Hair Growth and Human Dermal Papilla Cell Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Wakame, Koji; Okawa, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Ken-Ich; Nakata, Akifumi; Sato, Keisuke; Ingawa, Hiroyuki; Kohchi, Chie; Nishizawa, Takashi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-like compound derived from Pantoea agglomerans (immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1)) has been used not only as dietary supplement or cosmetic for humans, but also by Japanese veterinarians as an anti-tumor, anti-allergy, "keep a fine coat of fur" and hair growth-promoting functional food for dogs and cats. In the present study, we focused on the hair growth-promoting effects of IP-PA1 on a hair-shaved animal model and its mechanism of action. We also investigated its potential on gene expression after stimulating human dermal papilla cells with IP-PA1. The hair on the back of a C3H/HeN mouse was shaved and IP-PA1 was orally administered or applied to the skin. The status of hair growth was observed and recorded for 14 days. Skin was collected and histological tissue examination was performed with respect to hair growth status using hematoxylin and eosin staining. After IP-PA1 administration (2 and 10 μg/ml) to human dermal papilla cell culture system for 24 h, fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. IP-PA1, when given orally, showed a tendency to promote hair growth in mice. In addition, skin application also significantly promoted hair growth, while histopathological examinations further demonstrated hair elongation from dermal papilla cells. In the human dermal papilla cell culture system, significant FGF-7 and VEGF mRNA expressions were observed (p<0.05). An underlying mechanism of gene expression by which IP-PA1 promotes hair growth was suggested to be different from that of medicine and traditional hair tonics, such as minoxidil and adenosine. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment of female pattern hair loss with oral antiandrogens.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, R; Wewerinke, M; Jolley, D

    2005-03-01

    It has not been conclusively established that female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is either due to androgens or responsive to oral antiandrogen therapy. To evaluate the efficacy of oral antiandrogen therapy in the management of women with FPHL using standardized photographic techniques (Canfield Scientific), and to identify clinical and histological parameters predictive of clinical response. For this single-centre, before-after, open intervention study, 80 women aged between 12 and 79 years, with FPHL and biopsy-confirmed hair follicle miniaturization [terminal/vellus (T/V) hair ratio < or = 4 : 1] were photographed at baseline and again after receiving a minimum of 12 months of oral antiandrogen therapy. Forty women received spironolactone 200 mg daily and 40 women received cyproterone acetate, either 50 mg daily or 100 mg for 10 days per month if premenopausal. Women using topical minoxidil were excluded. Standardized photographs of the midfrontal and vertex scalp were taken with the head positioned in a stereotactic device. Images were evaluated by a panel of three clinicians experienced in the assessment of FPHL, blinded to patient details and treatment and using a three-point scale. As there was no significant difference in the results or the trend between spironolactone and cyproterone acetate the results were combined. Thirty-five (44%) women had hair regrowth, 35 (44%) had no clear change in hair density before and after treatment, and 10 (12%) experienced continuing hair loss during the treatment period. Ordinal logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of response revealed no influence of patient age, menopause status, serum ferritin, serum hormone levels, clinical stage (Ludwig) or histological parameters such as T/V ratio or fibrosis. The only significant predictor was midscalp clinical grade, with higher-scale values associated with a greater response (P = 0.013). Eighty-eight percent of women receiving oral antiandrogens could expect to see no

  15. Frontal fibrosing alopecia: a survey in 16 patients.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ramírez, D; Camacho Martínez, F

    2005-11-01

    Postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia (PFFA) was described by Kossard et al. as a progressive recession of the frontal hairline affecting particularly postmenopausal women. Further cases of PFFA have been reported to date, all of them considering it as a variant of lichen planopilaris on the basis of its clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features. To describe clinical features, and response to treatment of 16 cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia diagnosed at our department in the last 6 years. In addition to clinical data, biopsies and laboratory tests (antinuclear antibodies, sex hormones, thyroid hormones) were performed in order to rule out other causes of scarring alopecia. Patients were treated with intralesional corticosteroids, finasteride, and minoxidil, depending on the stage of the disease and association to androgenetic alopecia. All patients presented progressive alopecia localized to the frontal and temporal hairlines. Eight patients (50%) had loss of eyebrows, and six patients (37.5%) had axillar alopecia. Ages ranged from 45 to 79. Three of these women were premenopausal. Androgenetic alopecia was evident in seven patients (43.8%). All patients biopsied showed perifollicular lymphocitic infiltrate with lamelar fibrosis limited to the upper portions of the follicle. The progression of the condition stopped in most patients after a variable period on treatment. When treatment was abandoned the alopecia progressed to 'clown alopecia' appearance. Cases of Kossard's type scarring alopecia affecting premenopausal women made us consider that this condition is not exclusive of postmenopausal women. Differential diagnosis should take into account conditions like female androgenetic alopecia, fibrosing alopecia in a pattern distribution, alopecia areata, and chronic lupus erythematosus. Except for the pattern of alopecia, lichen planopilaris and frontal fibrosing alopecia are indistinguishable, thus the latter is included as a variant of lichen

  16. A non-human primate model for investigating drug-induced risk of orthostatic hypotension and sympathetic dysfunction: Preclinical correlate to a clinical test.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Siddhartha; Foote, Stephen; Smith, Andrew; Butler, Paul; Steidl-Nichols, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Drug induced orthostatic hypotension (OH) is an important clinical concern and can be an unexpected hurdle during drug development. OH is defined as an abnormal decrease in blood pressure (BP) triggered by a rapid postural change. The sympathetic nervous system is critical for controlling normal cardiovascular function and compensatory responses to changes in posture. Thus, OH can also serve as a surrogate indicator of sympathetic dysfunction. However, preclinical conscious models for investigating risk of OH and/or sympathetic dysfunction are lacking. Herein, we describe a conscious nonhuman primate (NHP) model which mimics the widely used clinical tilt table test for OH. Male, Cynomolgus NHPs (n = 7-8) implanted with radio-telemetry transmitters were placed in modified tilt chairs in a supine position. Subsequently, a 90° head up tilt was performed for 3 min followed by return to the supine position. BP and heart rate were continuously monitored. Test compounds were administered either intravenously or via oral gavage in a crossover design, with blood samples collected at the end of the each tilt to assess total drug concentrations. Tilt responses were assessed following treatment with positive control compounds that cause sympathetic dysfunction; hexamethonium (ganglionic blocker) and prazosin (alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist). Both compounds induced marked OH as evidenced by robust and sustained BP reduction in response to a head up tilt (decrease of 25-35 mmHg for hexamethonium, decrease of 21-44 mmHg for prazosin). OH incidence rates increased in a dose-dependent manner. OH incidences following treatment with minoxidil (vasodilator) were markedly lower to those observed with hexamethonium and prazosin indicating the role of sympathetic dysfunction in causing OH. These data demonstrate that the NHP tilt test is a valuable model for investigating OH risk. This model fills an important preclinical gap for assessing such a safety concern and can be

  17. Vasodilators and α-adrenoceptor antagonists in hypertension and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    1 The mechanism of the increase in arteriolar resistance in hypertension and heart failure is differently derived. In hypertension, venous compliance is normal and the concentric narrowing of the arteriolar resistance vessels is `anatomical'; it is not due to increased stimulation or enhanced sensitivity of the vascular smooth muscle. In heart failure narrowing of both the arteriolar resistance and venous capacitance vessels derives predominantly from increased sympathoadrenal stimulation of α1-adrenoceptors in the vascular smooth muscle. 2 Vasodilator drugs which relax vascular smooth muscle differ widely in their site of activity. None are entirely specific for arteries, arterioles or veins, but they may be grouped for therapeutic convenience into those predominantly acting on arterioles (for example hydralazine) and those acting on veins (for example nitrates). 3 Control of the resting blood pressure in stable essential hypertension appears to be equally well achieved with non-specific arteriolar dilators (for example hydralazine, minoxidil, calcium antagonists) as those with specific α1-adrenoceptor blocking properties (for example prazosin, indoramin). Pressure surges due to dynamic exercise and mental stress are little influenced by either category of drug. In contrast, α-adrenoceptor antagonists appear to be capable of partly suppressing increase in ambulatory pressure and the pressor responses to isometric exercise and cold, particularly in patients pre-treated with β-blocking drugs. 4 In acute heart failure, non-selective α-blocking drugs (for example phentolamine) produce an equal reduction in left ventricular filling pressure but greater increase in cardiac output than vasodilator drugs with a more balanced relaxing effect on arterioles and venules. 5 In chronic heart failure, the little information available indicates that non-selective arteriolar dilatation is probably associated with a greater increase in cardiac output lesser reduction in left

  18. [Molecular and functional diversity of ATP-sensitive K+ channels: the pathophysiological roles and potential drug targets].

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Haruaki; Miki, Takashi; Seino, Susumu; Yamada, Katsuya; Inagaki, Nobuya; Suzuki, Masashi; Sato, Toshiaki; Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Matsushita, Kenji; Kurachi, Yoshihisa; Arita, Makoto

    2003-09-01

    ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels comprise the pore-forming subunit (Kir6.1 or Kir6.2) and the regulatory subunit sulfonylurea receptors (SUR1 or SUR2). K(ATP) channels with different combinations of these subunits are present in various tissues and regulate cellular functions. From the analysis of mouse models with targeted deletion of the gene encoding the pore-forming subunit Kir6.1 or Kir6.2, functional roles of K(ATP) channels in various organs have been clarified. Kir6.1(-/-) mice showed sudden death associated with ST elevation and atrioventricular block in ECG, a phenotype resembling Prinzmetal angina in humans. Kir6.2(-/-) mice were more susceptible to generalized seizure during hypoxia than wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting that neuronal K(ATP) channels, probably composed of Kir6.2 and SUR1, play a crucial role for the protection of the brain against lethal damage due to seizure. In Kir6.2(-/-) mice lacking the sarcolemmal K(ATP) channel activity in cardiac cells, ischemic preconditioning failed to reduce the infarct size, suggesting that sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels play an important role in cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injuries in the heart. Mitochondrial K(ATP) channels have been also proposed to play a crucial role in cardioprotection, although the molecular identity of the channel has not been established. Nicorandil and minoxidil, K(+) channel openers activating mitochondrial K(ATP) channels, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, thereby preventing the Ca(2+) overload in the mitochondria of guinea-pig ventricular cells. SURs are the receptors for K(+) channel openers and the activating effects on sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels in cardiovascular tissues could be modulated by the interaction of nucleotides. Due to the molecular diversity of the accessory and pore subunits of K(ATP) channels, there would be considerable differences in the tissue selectivity of K(ATP) channel-acting drugs. Studies of Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 knockout

  19. Development of a strategy to identify gastrointestinal epithelial membrane proteins induced by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Kathleen P.

    Radiotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of solid tumours but its use is limited by its damaging effects on normal healthy cells. The deleterious effects of radiation are predominantly due to the targeting of stem cells - cells with the remarkable potential to generate different cell types - as they share many of the characteristics of cancer cells. Consequently, when treating cancers of the abdomen and the pelvis, the gastrointestinal tract can ultimately be injured. The damage response of the intestinal epithelium to radiation insult is well characterised morphologically. Crypt stem cells are deleted and the capacity for their replacement is compromised. As a result, holes appear in the epithelium leading to ulceration, anorexia, vomiting and diarrhoea and septicaemia - a condition referred to as mucositis. However, less is known about the factors controlling the fate of radiation damaged cells. With this in mind, this thesis set out to develop a successful means to identify membrane protein regulators of the intestinal radiation response for commercial exploitation and clinical development as novel anti-mucositis agents. 151 target genes, chosen on the basis of a prior indication of radio-responsiveness or the availability of chemical tools, were screened for differential expression in normal and irradiated gastrointestinal tissues using quantitative PCR. To generate leads for functional characterisation, screening was performed in a stepwise fashion, and as methods improved, was refined from whole tissues to multiple microdissected crypts. Targets exhibiting overt changes in mRNA levels in response to radiation were further characterised until three were identified as likely candidates for functional analysis. The activity of one of these candidates, the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K[ATP]) was chosen for investigation in a mouse primary culture model of the intestinal epithelium. The K[ATP] openers minoxidil and levcromakalim increased cell number by

  20. Binding of KATP channel modulators in rat cardiac membranes

    PubMed Central

    Löffler-Walz, Cornelia; Quast, Ulrich

    1998-01-01

    The binding of [3H]-P1075, a potent opener of adenosine-5′-triphosphate-(ATP)-sensitive K+ channels, was studied in a crude heart membrane preparation of the rat, at 37°C.Binding required MgATP. In the presence of an ATP-regenerating system, MgATP supported [3H]-P1075 binding with an EC50 value of 100 μM and a Hill coefficient of 1.4.In saturation experiments [3H]-P1075 binding was homogeneous with a KD value of 6±1 nM and a binding capacity (Bmax) of 33±3 fmol mg−1 protein.Upon addition of an excess of unlabelled P1075, the [3H]-P1075-receptor complex dissociated in a mono-exponential manner with a dissociation rate constant of 0.13±0.01 min−1. If a bi-molecular association mechanism was assumed, the dependence of the association kinetics on label concentration gave an association rate constant of 0.030±0.003 nM−1 min−1. From the kinetic experiments the KD value was calculated as 4.7±0.6 nM.Openers of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel belonging to different structural classes inhibited specific [3H]-P1075 binding in a monophasic manner to completion; an exception was minoxidil sulphate where maximum inhibition was 68%. The potencies of the openers in this assay agree with published values obtained in rat cardiocytes and are on average 3.5 times lower than those determined in rat aorta.Sulphonylureas, such as glibenclamide and glibornuride and the sulphonylurea-related carboxylate, AZ-DF 265, inhibited [3H]-P1075 binding with biphasic inhibition curves. The high affinity component comprised about 60% of the curves with the IC50 value of glibenclamide being ≈amp;90 nM; affinities for the low affinity component were in the μM concentration range. The fluorescein derivative, phloxine B, showed a monophasic inhibition curve with an IC50 value of 6 μM, a maximum inhibition of 94% and a Hill coefficient of 1.5.It is concluded that binding studies with [3H]-P1075 are feasible in rat heart membranes in the presence of MgATP and of an ATP

  1. [Regression of left heart hypertrophy in arterial hypertension: principles, experimental and clinical findings].

    PubMed

    Klaus, D

    1985-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy is the consequence of a structural adaptation of the heart in response to the chronic pressure load, leading to a reduction of the increased systolic wall stress. Studies in spontaneously hypertensive rats have shown, that left ventricular hypertrophy can be influenced by various, but not all antihypertensive agents. Alpha-methyldopa, captopril, beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers resulted in reversal of hypertrophy. Treatment with diuretics, hydralazine or minoxidil did not increase or alter degree of myocardial hypertrophy despite normalization of blood pressure. The biochemical profile after reversal of hypertrophy differs according to antihypertensive therapy, i.e. alpha-methyldopa induces an increase in collagen content, whereas captopril does not alter the collagen content of the myocardium. Adrenergic factors play an important role in modulating the response of the heart. In clinical studies the reduction in cardiac mass does not depend solely on the antihypertensive effect on blood pressure levels. There is only a weak correlation between decrease of left ventricular hypertrophy and fall of blood pressure level, as is shown in 12 patients with essential hypertension, treated with captopril over 6 months. The degree of regression of hypertrophy is influenced by stability of blood pressure control (diurnal variations and response to stress are more important than single casual values), neurohumoral response, presence of associated cardiac diseases, cause and severity of hypertension, genetic factors and age. We studied the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy by M-mode-echocardiography in 12 patients with mild or moderate essential hypertension during a 6-month therapy with captopril (50-75 mg p.d.) and hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg p.d.). In 11 of 12 patients captopril treatment resulted in a reduction of LV-mass of 30.9 +/- 15.1% and wall thickness. Peak systolic and endsystolic wall stress decreased significantly (-29

  2. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a