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Sample records for minute post effort

  1. Estonianization Efforts Post-Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Mart

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Estonia. The paper opens with a historic overview, followed by an overview of the current demographic situation and of post-Soviet language and education policies and practices. It is argued that Estonia represents a success story in terms of language policy,…

  2. Comparison between the six-minute walk test and the six-minute step test in post stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Stroke remains one of the major chronic diseases worldwide, and is considered a major cause of disability, which results not only in persistent neurological deficits, but also in the high physical deconditioning, nevertheless there are not many forms of assessing functional capacity in this population. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of the Six Minute Walk Teste and the Six-Minute Step Test (6MST) in post-stroke patients and compare the behavior of physiological variables during the 6MST and the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), by correlating the functional performance obtained in both tests. Method The 6MWT was carried out according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the 6MST was performed in six minutes in order to compare it to the 6MWT in a 20 cm step. Was included post-stroke individuals able to walk without aid. All of them did the 6MWT and the 6MST. Results 12 patients participated in the study. There was no statistical difference in the parameters analyzed when tests were compared. There was poor correlation between the functional performance in both tests. Conclusion The 6MWT and the 6MST is feasible for post-stroke patients and physiological responses are equal during the performance of both tests. However, there was no correlation with respect to functional performance, which was assessed by the distance walked in the 6MWT and by the number of steps climbed in the 6MST. PMID:23924407

  3. Assessing Post Conflict State Building Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    economic growth, and democratization). Success does not just depend on inputs but also in how the resources are employed and the susceptibility of the...broader effort to promote political and economic reforms with the objective of transforming a society emerging from conflict into one at peace with...establishing public security and the rule of law, facilitating political transition, rebuilding infrastructure, and jumpstarting economic recovery. These

  4. Evaluation of Electromyographic Frequency Domain Changes during a Three-Minute Maximal Effort Cycling Test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Robinson, Edward H; Miramonti, Amelia A; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the time course of EMG frequency changes during a three-minute maximal effort cycling test (3MT) session and to examine which parameter between mean (MNF) and median (MDF) frequency is more suitable for evaluation of changes in neuromuscular function throughout a 3MT. Eighteen recreationally-active men volunteered to participate in this study. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was measured using a dynamometer to determine maximal EMG frequency of the vastus lateralis (VL) of the kicking leg during isometric knee extension. A maximal oxygen consumption test (VO2peak) on a cycle ergometer was performed to establish the appropriate load profile for the 3MT which was completed after a period of at least 48 hours. MNF, MDF and power output (PO) values were measured at 10-second epochs throughout the duration of the 3MT. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the changes in EMG frequency, relative to maximal values from the MVC, and change in PO during the testing procedure. MNF, Root Mean Square (RMS), and PO significantly decreased during the 3MT, while MDF did not change significantly. Statistically, EMG frequency and PO decreased at first and remained constant in response to the 3MT, which may be reflective of differing patterns of muscle fiber type fatigue throughout the testing session. Due to decreased variability, changes in neuromuscular function during this protocol may be better evaluated using MNF than MDF. Key pointsEMG frequency decreased initially and remained constant in response to all-out cycling test.The change in EMG frequency and power output were similar during all-out cycling test.MNF may be better than MDF for neuromuscular function evaluation during all-out cycling test due to decreased variability.

  5. Using posts to an online social network to assess fishing effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Dustin R.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Eskridge, Kent M.; Pope, Kevin L

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries management has evolved from reservoir to watershed management, creating a need to simultaneously gather information within and across interacting reservoirs. However, costs to gather information on the fishing effort on multiple reservoirs using traditional creel methodology are often prohibitive. Angler posts about reservoirs online provide a unique medium to test hypotheses on the distribution of fishing pressure. We show that the activity on an online fishing social network is related to fishing effort and can be used to facilitate management goals. We searched the Nebraska Fish and Game Association Fishing Forum for all references from April 2009 to December 2010 to 19 reservoirs that comprise the Salt Valley regional fishery in southeastern Nebraska. The number of posts was positively related to monthly fishing effort on a regional scale, with individual reservoirs having the most annual posts also having the most annual fishing effort. Furthermore, this relationship held temporally. Online fishing social networks provide the potential to assess effort on larger spatial scales than currently feasible.

  6. Importance of timing of post-contrast MRI in rheumatoid arthritis: what happens during the first 60 minutes after IV gadolinium-DTPA?

    PubMed Central

    Ostergaard, M; Klarlund, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Volumes of inflamed synovial membrane determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are closely related to histopathological synovitis and may predict erosive progression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, after IV injection, leakage of MRI contrast from the synovium gradually compromises the differentiation of synovium from joint fluid.
OBJECTIVE—To determine the time period after IV MRI contrast (gadolinium-DTPA (Gd)) injection in which synovial membrane volume determination is reliable.
METHODS—MRI of five RA knees with clinical synovitis was carried out, with axial, T1 weighted, spin echo images before IV Gd injection and every 1.75 minutes for 60 minutes post-Gd. By a semiautomated "signal enhancement threshold" method, including voxels with >35% or >45% relative post-Gd enhancement, synovial membrane volumes were estimated at each time point. At 4.25 minutes post-Gd, volumes were also determined by a more accurate but time consuming "manual method".
RESULTS—The initially observed synovium-effusion borderline remained clearly visible, and on the same location, within at least the initial 11 minutes post-Gd (that is, within the normal time frame of post-Gd imaging in RA) but started blurring and moving centripetally thereafter. Compared with volumes at all other time points, synovial membrane volumes at 0.75 and 2.50 minutes post-Gd were significantly lower (Wilcoxon-Pratt), suggesting that some synovial membrane areas had not yet exceeded the enhancement threshold. Thereafter, the measured volumes remained practically unchanged.
CONCLUSION—This study suggests that MR image acquisition in arthritic knee joints should be performed within the initial approximately 10 minutes after gadolinium contrast injection to achieve the most accurate distinction between synovium and joint fluid but that small time variations are not of major importance to the measured synovial membrane volumes.

 PMID:11602477

  7. A protocol for coordinating post-tsunami field reconnaissance efforts in the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Rick I.; Wood, Nathan J.; Kong, Laura; Shulters, Michael V.; Richards, Kevin D.; Dunbar, Paula; Tamura, Gen; Young, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of a catastrophic tsunami, much is to be learned about tsunami generation and propagation, landscape and ecological changes, and the response and recovery of those affected by the disaster. Knowledge of the impacted area directly helps response and relief personnel in their efforts to reach and care for survivors and for re-establishing community services. First-hand accounts of tsunami-related impacts and consequences also help researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in other parts of the world that lack recent events to better understand and manage their own societal risks posed by tsunami threats. Conducting post-tsunami surveys and disseminating useful results to decision makers in an effective, efficient, and timely manner is difficult given the logistical issues and competing demands in a post-disaster environment. To facilitate better coordination of field-data collection and dissemination of results, a protocol for coordinating post-tsunami science surveys was developed by a multi-disciplinary group of representatives from state and federal agencies in the USA. This protocol is being incorporated into local, state, and federal post-tsunami response planning through the efforts of the Pacific Risk Management ‘Ohana, the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, and the U.S. National Plan for Disaster Impact Assessments. Although the protocol was designed to support a coordinated US post-tsunami response, we believe it could help inform post-disaster science surveys conducted elsewhere and further the discussion on how hazard researchers can most effectively operate in disaster environments.

  8. Psychomotor and cognitive effects of 15-minute inhalation of methoxyflurane in healthy volunteers: implication for post-colonoscopy care

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam Q.; Burgess, Jenna; Debreceni, Tamara L.; Toscano, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Colonoscopy with portal inhaled methoxyflurane (Penthrox) is highly feasible with low sedation risk and allows earlier discharge. It is unclear if subjects can return to highly skilled psychomotor skill task shortly after Penthrox assisted colonoscopy. We evaluated the psychomotor and cognitive effects of 15-minute inhalation of Penthrox in adults. Patients and methods: Sixty healthy volunteers (18 to 80 years) were studied on 2 occasions with either Penthrox or placebo in a randomized, double-blind fashion. On each occasion, the subject’s psychomotor function was examined before, immediately, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after a 15-minute inhalation of studied drug, using validated psychomotor tests (Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), auditory reaction time (ART), eye-hand coordination (EHC) test, trail making test (TMT) and logical reasoning test (LRT). Results: Compared to placebo, a 15-minute Penthrox inhalation led to an immediate but small impairment of DSST (P < 0.001), ART (P < 0.001), EHC (P < 0.01), TMT (P = 0.02) and LRT (P = 0.04). In all subjects, the performance of all 5 tests normalized by 30 minutes after inhalation, and was comparable to that with placebo. Although increasing age was associated with a small deterioration in psychomotor testing performance, the magnitude of Penthrox effects remained comparable among all age groups. Conclusions: In all age groups, a 15-minute Penthrox inhalation induces acute but short-lasting impairment of psychomotor and cognitive performance, which returns to normal within 30 minutes , indicating that subjects who have colonoscopy with Penthrox can return to highly skilled psychomotor skills tasks such as driving and daily work the same day. PMID:27853742

  9. Post-Effort Changes in Activity of Traditional Diagnostic Enzymatic Markers in Football Players’ Blood

    PubMed Central

    Chamera, Tomasz; Spieszny, Michał; Klocek, Tomasz; Kostrzewa-Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Robert; Lachowicz, Milena; Buryta, Rafał; Ficek, Krzysztof; Eider, Jerzy; Moska, Waldemar; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term and intensive physical effort causes metabolic and biochemical adaptations for both athletic and non-athletic objectives. Knowing the importance of aerobic training in football players, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the activity of: creatinine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB (CKMB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), cholinesterase (ChE) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in response to a semi-long distance outdoor run under aerobic conditions among both female and male football players. Methods Sixteen participants aged 21.9±2 years (women) and 18.4±0.5 years (men), all of them voluntarily recruited football players, took part in an outdoor run, the women covering a distance of 7.4±0.3 km while men covered a distance of 10.7±1.0 km. Plasma activities of the studied enzymes were determined using an appropriate diagnostic assay kit. Results Our results indicate that total LDH activity could be a useful tool in evaluating physical fitness among athletes. We simultaneously established that ChE could not be a marker useful in assessing metabolic response to physical effort in athletes. Moreover, our results suggest that post-effort changes in ALP activity might be used to estimate early symptoms of certain vitamin deficiencies in an athlete’s diet. Conclusions We confirmed that the assessment of activity of selected traditional diagnostic enzymatic markers provides information about muscle state after physical effort. PMID:28356830

  10. The relationship between suboptimal effort and post-concussion symptoms in children and adolescents with mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Gabriel C; Antonini, Tanya N; Monahan, Kerry; Gelfius, Carl; Klamar, Karl; Potts, Michelle; Yeates, Keith O; Bodin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective chart review study explored the relationship between suboptimal effort and post-concussion symptoms in pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Participants were 382 clinically referred children and adolescents between 8 and 16 years of age who sustained an mTBI. Suboptimal effort was identified using reliable digit span and age-corrected scaled scores from the Numbers subtest of the Children's Memory Scale (CMS); 20% of the sample were classified as non-credible performers. Chi-square analyses and t-tests were used to examine differences in post-concussion symptoms and neuropsychological test performance between credible and non-credible performers. Linear regression was used to examine whether CMS Numbers performance predicted post-concussion symptoms after controlling for baseline symptoms and other relevant demographic- and injury-related factors. We found that non-credible performers presented with a greater number of post-concussion symptoms as compared with credible performers. Additionally, non-credible performers demonstrated comparatively poorer performance on neuropsychological tests of focused attention and processing speed. These results suggest that children and adolescents with mTBI who fail effort testing might have a greater tendency to exaggerate post-concussion symptoms and cognitive impairment. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-22

    Military Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Post-Saddam Governance and Transition...until the Baath Party coup of July 1968. Following the Baath seizure, Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr, a military figure, returned to government as President of... military commanders or Baathist political figures came forward to try to establish a post- Saddam government ; and regime leaders fled Baghdad. No WMD

  12. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol regulates the p53 post-translational modifiers Murine double minute 2 and the Small Ubiquitin MOdifier protein in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gowran, Aoife; Murphy, Carrie E; Campbell, Veronica A

    2009-11-03

    The phytocannabinoid Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the main psychoactive cannabinoid in cannabis, activates a number of signalling cascades including p53. This study examines the role of Delta(9)-THC in regulating the p53 post-translational modifier proteins, Murine double minute (Mdm2) and Small Ubquitin-like MOdifier protein 1 (SUMO-1) in cortical neurons. Delta(9)-THC increased both Mdm2 and SUMO-1 protein expression and induced the deSUMOylation of p53 in a cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB(1))-receptor dependent manner. We demonstrate that Delta(9)-THC decreased the SUMOylation of the CB(1) receptor. The data reveal a novel role for cannabinoid receptor activation in modulating the SUMO regulatory system.

  13. Fat-free mass and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in the 40 minutes after short-duration exhaustive exercise in young male Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Yasuaki; Moji, Kazuhiko; Honda, Sumihisa; Nakao, Rieko; Tsunawake, Noriaki; Fukuda, Rika; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Mascie-Taylor, Nicholas

    2008-05-01

    The relationship between fat-free mass (FFM) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) has not been well researched because of the relatively small number of subjects studied. This study investigated the effects of FFM on EPOC and EPOC/maximum oxygen consumption. 250 Japanese male athletes between 16 and 21 years old from Nagasaki prefecture had their EPOC measured up to 40 minutes after short-duration exhaustive exercise. The value was named as EPOC40 min. The proportions of EPOC up to 1, 3, 6, 10, and 25 minutes to EPOC40 min were calculated and named as P1, P3, P6, P10, and P25, respectively. Body size and composition, VO2max and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were also measured. Mean EPOC40 min was 9.04 L or 158 ml/kg FFM. EPOC40 min was related to FFM (r=0.55, p<0.001) and VO2max (r=0.37, p<0.001). The ratio of EPOC40 min to VO2max was related to FFM (r=0.28, p<0.001). P1, P3, P6, P10, and P25 were negatively related to EPOC40 min/FFM, EPOC40 min/VO2max, and FFM. Athletes who had larger FFM had larger EPOC40 40 min and EPOC40 40 min/VO2max, and smaller P1, P3, P10, and P25.

  14. Documentary effort.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This spring, Virtua Health, the largest health system in Southern New Jersey, launched an innovative campaign aimed at raising overall awareness of its facilities by documenting real-life patients undergoing a variety of experiences (e.g., breast cancer, high-risk pregnancy, spine surgery, and minimally-invasive knee replacement surgery). The effort, called "The Virtua Experience" became a 30-minute hospital documentary that aired on Philadelphia's NBC affiliate this summer.

  15. Minute pirate bugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The minute pirate bugs (Orius) feed primarily on small, soft-bodied arthropods, but may supplement that diet with ingestion of plant fluids. The plant-feeding behavior of the minute pirate bugs has led to anecdotal reports of plant damage and speculation that these insects may occasionally be pests...

  16. Internet Postings Linked to Student Highlight Interest in "Hate Groups": Experts Say Recruitment Efforts Targeting School-Age Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    In an Internet forum run by the Libertarian National Socialist Green Party, an organization espousing neo-Nazi views, Jeff Weise made his comments about the group in the year leading up to his deadly armed assault at Red Lake High School in Minnesota. The forum lists 34 postings written by the 16-year-old Native American youth. The commentary Mr.…

  17. Evidence for the Cost of Reproduction in Humans: High Lifetime Reproductive Effort Is Associated with Greater Oxidative Stress in Post-Menopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Ziomkiewicz, Anna; Sancilio, Amelia; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Klimek, Magdalena; Jasienska, Grazyna; Bribiescas, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    Life history theory predicts trade-offs between reproductive effort and maternal survivorship in energy-restricted environments. However, empirical evidence for the positive association between maternal mortality and reproductive effort from energetically challenged human populations are mixed and physiological mechanisms that may underlie this association are poorly understood. We hypothesized that increases in aerobic metabolism during repeated periods of pregnancy and lactation result in increased oxidative stress that may contribute to somatic deterioration, vulnerability to illness, and accelerated aging. We therefore predicted that lifetime gravidity and parity would be related to levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress, as well as antioxidative defence enzymes in post-menopausal women. Our hypothesis was supported by positive linear associations between levels of 8-OHdG, a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage (β = 0.21, p<0.05), levels of antioxidative defence enzyme Cu-Zn SOD (β = 0.25, p<0.05), and number of lifetime pregnancies. Furthermore, independent of age and health status, post-menopausal women with higher gravidity and parity (> = 4 pregnancies per lifetime) had 20% higher levels of 8-OHdG and 60% higher levels of Cu-Zn SOD compared to women with lower gravidity and parity (<4 pregnancies per lifetime). Our results present the first evidence for oxidative stress as a possible cost of reproductive effort in humans.

  18. Evidence for the Cost of Reproduction in Humans: High Lifetime Reproductive Effort Is Associated with Greater Oxidative Stress in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Sancilio, Amelia; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Klimek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Life history theory predicts trade-offs between reproductive effort and maternal survivorship in energy-restricted environments. However, empirical evidence for the positive association between maternal mortality and reproductive effort from energetically challenged human populations are mixed and physiological mechanisms that may underlie this association are poorly understood. We hypothesized that increases in aerobic metabolism during repeated periods of pregnancy and lactation result in increased oxidative stress that may contribute to somatic deterioration, vulnerability to illness, and accelerated aging. We therefore predicted that lifetime gravidity and parity would be related to levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress, as well as antioxidative defence enzymes in post-menopausal women. Our hypothesis was supported by positive linear associations between levels of 8-OHdG, a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage (β = 0.21, p<0.05), levels of antioxidative defence enzyme Cu-Zn SOD (β = 0.25, p<0.05), and number of lifetime pregnancies. Furthermore, independent of age and health status, post-menopausal women with higher gravidity and parity (> = 4 pregnancies per lifetime) had 20% higher levels of 8-OHdG and 60% higher levels of Cu-Zn SOD compared to women with lower gravidity and parity (<4 pregnancies per lifetime). Our results present the first evidence for oxidative stress as a possible cost of reproductive effort in humans. PMID:26761206

  19. Minute of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Katie

    2011-05-01

    It's 7:23 a.m. sometime last fall, students are running through the halls to get to class, and as I stand in my doorway greeting kids, I notice that only about 2/3 of my students are seated and ready to go. 7:24…7:25, the final bell rings. As the next few minutes roll past, students continue to stroll in with a glare from me. I decided to try something new to get students to class on time, and, after some research, the "Minute of Physics" was born.

  20. Ten Minute Writing Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Sharyn

    Designed with junior high school students in mind, the activities in this booklet are offered as ways to stimulate interest in writing using as little as ten minutes of class time. The activities are arranged in six sections: (1) developing observation skills and paying attention to details; (2) word play, descriptive words, and word collections…

  1. 10 Minutes of Bliss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Olynda

    2014-01-01

    For many of us, it is challenging to find the time to sleep enough each night or to sit down for a meal. So how can this author convince you that taking 10 minutes to do anything every day is actually worth it? The benefits of meditation--increased calm, clarity, compassion, and empathy, to name a few--have been known for centuries. Recently,…

  2. [Delayed post effort muscle soreness].

    PubMed

    Coudreuse, J M; Dupont, P; Nicol, C

    2004-08-01

    Muscle intolerance to exercise may result from different processes. Diagnosis involves confirming first the source of pain, then potential pathological myalgia. Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), commonly referred as tiredness, occurs frequently in sport. DOMS usually develops 12-48 h after intensive and/or unusual eccentric muscle action. Symptoms usually involve the quadriceps muscle group but may also affect the hamstring and triceps surae groups. The muscles are sensitive to palpation, contraction and passive stretch. Acidosis, muscle spasm and microlesions in both connective and muscle tissues may explain the symptoms. However, inflammation appears to be the most common explanation. Interestingly, there is strong evidence that the progression of the exercise-induced muscle injury proceeds no further in the absence of inflammation. Even though unpleasant, DOMS should not be considered as an indicator of muscle damage but, rather, a sign of the regenerative process, which is well known to contribute to the increased muscle mass. DOMS can be associated with decreased proprioception and range of motion, as well as maximal force and activation. DOMS disappears 2-10 days before complete functional recovery. This painless period is ripe for additional joint injuries. Similarly, if some treatments are well known to attenuate DOMS, none has been demonstrated to accelerate either structural or functional recovery. In terms of the role of the inflammatory process, these treatments might even delay overall recovery.

  3. Effortful echolalia.

    PubMed

    Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T

    1998-02-01

    We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.

  4. The Regeneration Challenge in the Developed World: Insights Generated from a Capabilities Approach Applied to the Understanding of Regeneration Efforts in Post-Industrial Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Nelarine; Trueman, Myfanwy

    2008-01-01

    An important aspect of the urban story of many cities in the developed world is their "regeneration" after many years of long-term social, economic and environmental decline. This is especially so in cities that have sought to reverse a long-standing, negative reputation and pejorative image. Based on the context of post-industrial…

  5. Eight Minutes to Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, William; McCauley, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to produce behavior change and related performance improvement by nonexperts in as little as eight minutes by having them become instantly engaged through instant credibility of the content and instant application to their situation. Explains digital coach technology which can create instant engagement for the nonexpert. (Author/LRW)

  6. The DECam Minute Cadence Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belardi, C.; Kilic, M.; Munn, J. A.; Gianninas, A.; Barber, S. D.; Dey, A.; Stetson, P. B.

    2017-03-01

    We present the first results from a minute cadence survey of a 3 deg2 field obtained with the Dark Energy Camera. We imaged part of the Canada- France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey area over eight half-nights. We use the stacked images to identify 111 high proper motion white dwarf candidates with g≤ 24.5 mag and search for eclipse-like events and other sources of variability. We find a new g=20.64 mag pulsating ZZ Ceti star with pulsation periods of 11-13 min. However, we do not find any transiting planetary companions in the habitable zone of our target white dwarfs. Given the probability of eclipses of 1% and our observing window from the ground, the non-detection of such companions in this first field is not surprising. Minute cadence DECam observations of additional fields will provide stringent constraints on the frequency of planets in the white dwarf habitable zone.

  7. 5 experiments in 5 minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Show, don't tell. When kids ask about your research, show, don't tell. We, the ambassadors of science, shouldn't be boring our nieces and nephews at family dinners with parameter distributions, we should make them excited about science. Getting people excited: show, don't tell. In 5 minutes, I will perform 5 experiments that anyone can do using everyday household items to get kids interested in science. Bring safety glasses.

  8. Providing Minute-to-Minute Regulation from Wind Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Ela, E.

    2010-01-01

    Our earlier work showed that it may be both technically and economically feasible for wind plants to supply minute-to-minute regulation under some circumstances. In this paper, we extend the previous analysis using time series data from existing wind plants, system loads, and regulation and energy markets. Both wind plant response performance requirements and power system needs are addressed. In present-day regulation markets, the regulation market price is typically based on the supplier's opportunity cost in the energy market. With a near-zero marginal production cost, wind would not be expected to be an attractive regulation supplier most of the time. Minimum load problems, typically on nights with high wind, and the need for conventional generators to incur additional costs when operating above minimum loads appear to make regulation from wind an economical option for some hours of the year. Unlike contingency reserves whose prices are generally low at night, the price for regulation typically remains high around the clock. In this paper, we examine wind and regulation markets in several regions to assess the viability of the concept.

  9. Hydrology Section Executive Committee Minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. Ivan

    The Hydrology Section Executive Committee (EC) convened at 8:20 A.M. on May 28, 1985, in Room 311 of the Convention Center in Baltimore, Md. The meeting was chaired by Hydrology Section President R. Allan Freeze. Section President-Elect Marshall Moss kept the minutes in the absence of the Section Secretary Thomas Maddock III. Also in attendance were William Back, Rafael Bras, Stephen Burges, Jerry Cohon, Ron Cummings, David Dawdy, Jacques Delleur, Leonard Konikow, Jurate Landwehr, Fred Molz, Don Nielsen, Joyce Peters, Karen Prestegaard, Tom Schmugge, Waldo Smith, Jery Stedinger, and Eric Wood.

  10. Ethics in 15-minutes per Week

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, Ann M.; Hugenschmidt, Christina E.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    The demand for science trainees to have appropriate responsible conduct of research instruction continues to increase the attention shown by federal agencies and graduate school programs to the development of effective ethics curriculums. However, it is important to consider that the main learning environment for science graduate students and post-doctoral research fellows is within a laboratory setting. Here we discuss an internal laboratory program of weekly 15-minute ethics discussions implemented and used over the last three years in addition to the graduate school's program of scientific integrity training. During this time, the environment and culture within our laboratory has changed to place greater emphasis on the ethical implications of our own research and the research we evaluate. We still struggle with how to accurately assess this behavioral change; although, we present preliminary survey results on the evaluation and impact of this style of curriculum for ethics instruction in our laboratory. PMID:20213534

  11. 50 CFR 510.8 - Minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minutes. 510.8 Section 510.8 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.8 Minutes. Detailed minutes shall be kept of each portion of each committee meeting. The minutes shall include:...

  12. 50 CFR 510.8 - Minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minutes. 510.8 Section 510.8 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.8 Minutes. Detailed minutes shall be kept of each portion of each committee meeting. The minutes shall include:...

  13. 50 CFR 510.8 - Minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minutes. 510.8 Section 510.8 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.8 Minutes. Detailed minutes shall be kept of each portion of each committee meeting. The minutes shall include:...

  14. 50 CFR 510.8 - Minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minutes. 510.8 Section 510.8 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.8 Minutes. Detailed minutes shall be kept of each portion of each committee meeting. The minutes shall include:...

  15. 50 CFR 510.8 - Minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minutes. 510.8 Section 510.8 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.8 Minutes. Detailed minutes shall be kept of each portion of each committee meeting. The minutes shall include:...

  16. Mechanical Working Group meeting minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This documents contains the minutes and viewgraphs from the October 27--28, 1992 meeting on the subject of power generation and delivery systems for military applications. Attendees represented the US Air Force and NASA. The thermal management panel reported on the capillary pump loop test facility, thermal control systems and compressors, and the oxygen heat pipe flight experiment. The aerospace power panel reported on the integrated power unit for the more electric airplane, the solar dynamic power system, the modular high temperature gas cooled reactor-gas-turbine program, the multi-megawatt CBC power system, and analytical modeling for heat pipe performance. The terrestrial power panel reported on a free piston stirling engine power generation system, fuel cell vehicles, and the advanced gas turbine project.

  17. Exercise 30 minutes a day (image)

    MedlinePlus

    You get the most benefit from exercise if you do it for at least 30 minutes a day for 5 to 6 days a week. But you do not have to do 30 minutes in a row. Studies suggest that you ... for 10 minutes 3 times a day as you do during a longer session.

  18. The ribosomal protein genes and Minute loci of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Marygold, Steven J; Roote, John; Reuter, Gunter; Lambertsson, Andrew; Ashburner, Michael; Millburn, Gillian H; Harrison, Paul M; Yu, Zhan; Kenmochi, Naoya; Kaufman, Thomas C; Leevers, Sally J; Cook, Kevin R

    2007-01-01

    Background Mutations in genes encoding ribosomal proteins (RPs) have been shown to cause an array of cellular and developmental defects in a variety of organisms. In Drosophila melanogaster, disruption of RP genes can result in the 'Minute' syndrome of dominant, haploinsufficient phenotypes, which include prolonged development, short and thin bristles, and poor fertility and viability. While more than 50 Minute loci have been defined genetically, only 15 have so far been characterized molecularly and shown to correspond to RP genes. Results We combined bioinformatic and genetic approaches to conduct a systematic analysis of the relationship between RP genes and Minute loci. First, we identified 88 genes encoding 79 different cytoplasmic RPs (CRPs) and 75 genes encoding distinct mitochondrial RPs (MRPs). Interestingly, nine CRP genes are present as duplicates and, while all appear to be functional, one member of each gene pair has relatively limited expression. Next, we defined 65 discrete Minute loci by genetic criteria. Of these, 64 correspond to, or very likely correspond to, CRP genes; the single non-CRP-encoding Minute gene encodes a translation initiation factor subunit. Significantly, MRP genes and more than 20 CRP genes do not correspond to Minute loci. Conclusion This work answers a longstanding question about the molecular nature of Minute loci and suggests that Minute phenotypes arise from suboptimal protein synthesis resulting from reduced levels of cytoribosomes. Furthermore, by identifying the majority of haplolethal and haplosterile loci at the molecular level, our data will directly benefit efforts to attain complete deletion coverage of the D. melanogaster genome. PMID:17927810

  19. A 30-Minute, but Not a 10-Minute Nighttime Nap is Associated with Sleep Inertia

    PubMed Central

    Hilditch, Cassie J.; Centofanti, Stephanie A.; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess sleep inertia following 10-min and 30-min naps during a simulated night shift. Methods: Thirty-one healthy adults (aged 21–35 y; 18 females) participated in a 3-day laboratory study that included one baseline (BL) sleep (22:00–07:00) and one experimental night involving randomization to either: total sleep deprivation (NO-NAP), a 10-min nap (10-NAP) or a 30-min nap (30-NAP). Nap opportunities ended at 04:00. A 3-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT-B), digit-symbol substitution task (DSST), fatigue scale, sleepiness scale, and self-rated performance scale were undertaken pre-nap (03:00) and at 2, 17, 32, and 47 min post-nap. Results: The 30-NAP (14.7 ± 5.7 min) had more slow wave sleep than the 10-NAP (0.8 ± 1.5 min; P < 0.001) condition. In the NO-NAP condition, PVT-B performance was worse than pre-nap (4.6 ± 0.3 1/sec) at 47 min post-nap (4.1 ± 0.4 1/sec; P < 0.001). There was no change across time in the 10-NAP condition. In the 30-NAP condition, performance immediately deteriorated from pre-nap (4.3 ± 0.3 1/sec) and was still worse at 47 min post-nap (4.0 ± 0.5 1/sec; P < 0.015). DSST performance deteriorated in the NO-NAP (worse than pre-nap from 17 to 47 min; P < 0.008), did not change in the 10-NAP, and was impaired 2 min post-nap in the 30-NAP condition (P = 0.028). All conditions self-rated performance as better than pre-nap for all post-nap test points (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study is the first to show that a 10-min (but not a 30-min) nighttime nap had minimal sleep inertia and helped to mitigate short-term performance impairment during a simulated night shift. Self-rated performance did not reflect objective performance following a nap. Citation: Hilditch CJ, Centofanti SA, Dorrian J, Banks S. A 30-minute, but not a 10-minute nighttime nap is associated with sleep inertia. SLEEP 2016;39(3):675–685. PMID:26715234

  20. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  1. Safety of Infusing Ipilimumab Over 30 Minutes

    PubMed Central

    Momtaz, Parisa; Park, Vivian; Panageas, Katherine S.; Postow, Michael A.; Callahan, Margaret; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Chapman, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The approved dose of ipilimumab is 3 mg/kg infused over 90 minutes; however, in clinical trials, 10 mg/kg has also been infused over 90 minutes. At this higher dose, patients receive 3 mg/kg within the first 27 minutes of treatment. We sought to determine whether the standard dose of 3 mg/kg could be safely infused over 30 minutes. Methods We reviewed retrospectively the incidence of infusion-related reactions (IRRs) to ipilimumab at our institution in patients receiving doses of either 3 or 10 mg/kg infused over 90 minutes. Our findings led to a change in institutional guidelines for ipilimumab infusion time from 90 minutes to 30 minutes. We reviewed the first 14 months of our prospective experience using a 30-minute infusion of ipilimumab. Results Between April 1, 2008, and June 30, 2013, 595 patients received 2,507 doses of ipilimumab infused at either 3 mg/kg (n = 457) or 10 mg/kg (n = 138) over 90 minutes. Although the 10 mg/kg group had a higher incidence of IRRs (4.3%) than the 3 mg/kg group (2.2%), this difference was not statistically significant (P = .22). In 120 patients treated prospectively with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg infused over 30 minutes, seven patients (5.8%) had an IRR (P = .06 compared with 90-minute infusions). All IRRs occurred at dose 2; six were grade 2, and one was grade 3. All seven patients received subsequent doses of ipilimumab safely, the majority with premedication. Conclusion Ipilimumab at 3 mg/kg can be infused safely over 30 minutes with an acceptably low incidence of IRRs. After an IRR, patients can safely receive additional doses of ipilimumab with premedication. PMID:26124475

  2. 48 CFR 9901.312 - Minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minutes. 9901.312 Section 9901.312 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ADMINISTRATION RULES AND PROCEDURES 9901.312 Minutes....

  3. 29 CFR 1912a.11 - Minutes; transcript.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minutes; transcript. 1912a.11 Section 1912a.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.11 Minutes; transcript....

  4. Classroom Minutes: A Valuable Teaching Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boris, Edna Zwick

    1983-01-01

    A system is described in which students are assigned to keep minutes for each class, read the minutes to the next class, and submit them for grading. The approach is helpful to both teachers and students throughout the course in diagnosing problems, introducing grading criteria, and reinforcing basic skills. (MSE)

  5. Mild Wind Series, Minute Steak Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-20

    AD-A286 599 _C *POR-6546’ IWT-65461 MILD WIND SERIES MINUTE STEAK EVENT PROJECT OFFICERS REPORT TECHNICAL DIRECTORS SUMMARY REPORT flELECTL...POR-6546 (2) POR-2039 (2) POR-6300 (2) POR-2725 (2) POR-6337 (2) POR-3000 (2) WT-561 (2) WT-601 (2) POR-6546 (WT-6546) MILD WIND SERIES MINUTE STEAK ...PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. r lit ! ABSTRACT MINUTE STEAK was a Department of Defense Vertical Line of Sight (LOS) undergound It was detonated

  6. NASA Efforts on Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the field of nanotechnology within the theme of "New efforts in Nanotechnology Research," will be presented. NASA's interest, requirements and current efforts in this emerging field will be discussed. In particular, NASA efforts to develop nanoelectronic devices, fuel cells, and other applications of interest using this novel technology by collaborating with academia will be addressed. Progress on current collaborations in this area with the University of Puerto Rico will be highlighted.

  7. 12 CFR 311.8 - Transcripts and minutes of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., maintain a set of minutes. (b) Content of minutes. If minutes are maintained, they will fully and clearly... transcript, identifying each speaker, or minutes of items on the agenda or testimony of any witness received... will maintain for at least 2 years a set of minutes of each meeting of the Board or portion...

  8. Interagency Advanced Power Group meeting minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This document contains the minutes and viewgraphs from a meeting of military personnel on the subject of power generation and distribution systems for military applications. Topics include heating and cooling systems for standard shelters, SDIO power programs, solar dynamic space power systems, hybrid solar dynamic/ photovoltaic systems, pulsed power technology, high-{Tc} superconductors, and actuators and other electronic equipment for aerospace vehicles. Attendees represented the US Air Force, Army, Navy, and NASA. (GHH)

  9. Interagency Advanced Power Group meeting minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the minutes and viewgraphs from a meeting of military personnel on the subject of power generation and distribution systems for military applications. Topics include heating and cooling systems for standard shelters, SDIO power programs, solar dynamic space power systems, hybrid solar dynamic/ photovoltaic systems, pulsed power technology, high-{Tc} superconductors, and actuators and other electronic equipment for aerospace vehicles. Attendees represented the US Air Force, Army, Navy, and NASA. (GHH)

  10. PRECISION INTEGRATOR FOR MINUTE ELECTRIC CURRENTS

    DOEpatents

    Hemmendinger, A.; Helmer, R.J.

    1961-10-24

    An integrator is described for measuring the value of integrated minute electrical currents. The device consists of a source capacitor connected in series with the source of such electrical currents, a second capacitor of accurately known capacitance and a source of accurately known and constant potential, means responsive to the potentials developed across the source capacitor for reversibly connecting the second capacitor in series with the source of known potential and with the source capacitor and at a rate proportional to the potential across the source capacitor to maintain the magnitude of the potential across the source capacitor at approximately zero. (AEC)

  11. The DECam minute cadence survey - I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belardi, Claudia; Kilic, Mukremin; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Gianninas, A.; Barber, Sara D.; Dey, Arjun; Stetson, Peter B.

    2016-11-01

    We present the first results from a minute cadence survey of a 3 deg2 field obtained with the Dark Energy Camera. We imaged part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey area over eight half-nights. We use the stacked images to identify 111 high proper motion white dwarf candidates with g ≤ 24.5 mag and search for eclipse-like events and other sources of variability. We find a new g = 20.64 mag pulsating ZZ Ceti star with pulsation periods of 11-13 min. However, we do not find any transiting planetary companions in the habitable zone of our target white dwarfs. Given the probability of eclipses of 1 per cent and our observing window from the ground, the non-detection of such companions in this first field is not surprising. Minute cadence DECam observations of additional fields will provide stringent constraints on the frequency of planets in the white dwarf habitable zone.

  12. 10 CFR 7.13 - Minutes of advisory committee meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minutes of advisory committee meetings. 7.13 Section 7.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.13 Minutes of advisory committee meetings. (a) Detailed minutes shall be kept of each NRC advisory committee meeting. The minutes shall...

  13. 39 CFR 6.5 - Minutes of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minutes of meetings. 6.5 Section 6.5 Postal... VI) § 6.5 Minutes of meetings. The Secretary shall preserve the minutes of Board meetings prepared under § 4.6 of these bylaws. After the minutes of any meeting are approved by the Board, the...

  14. 10 CFR 7.13 - Minutes of advisory committee meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minutes of advisory committee meetings. 7.13 Section 7.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.13 Minutes of advisory committee meetings. (a) Detailed minutes shall be kept of each NRC advisory committee meeting. The minutes shall...

  15. 10 CFR 7.13 - Minutes of advisory committee meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minutes of advisory committee meetings. 7.13 Section 7.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.13 Minutes of advisory committee meetings. (a) Detailed minutes shall be kept of each NRC advisory committee meeting. The minutes shall...

  16. 10 CFR 7.13 - Minutes of advisory committee meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minutes of advisory committee meetings. 7.13 Section 7.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.13 Minutes of advisory committee meetings. (a) Detailed minutes shall be kept of each NRC advisory committee meeting. The minutes shall...

  17. 10 CFR 7.13 - Minutes of advisory committee meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minutes of advisory committee meetings. 7.13 Section 7.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.13 Minutes of advisory committee meetings. (a) Detailed minutes shall be kept of each NRC advisory committee meeting. The minutes shall...

  18. Integrating management techniques to restore sites invaded by mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to suppress an invasive weed are often undertaken with the goal of facilitating the recovery of a diverse native plant community. In some cases, however, reduction in the abundance of the target weed results in an increase in other exotic weeds. Mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata (L.)...

  19. Minutes of the Sixth CEOS Plenary Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observations Satellites (CEOS) minutes for the sixth plenary meeting held in London, December 9-11, 1992 are presented. Attending as prospective members were the Russian Space Agency (RSA), the Committee for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring of the Ministry for Ecology and Natural resources of the Russian Federation (ROSCOMGIDROMET), the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) and the National Remote Sensing Center of China (NRSCC). Actions taken at the meeting included membership issues, CEOS proposals, data policy, and working group reports. Data requirements of CEOS affiliates were also reported on. Additional summations and statements as well as lists of participants and future meetings are included. In general, topics covered related to remote sensing and global change.

  20. Calorimetry measurements in less than 20 minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.B. ); Cremers, T. )

    1991-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a new series of 10 watt Bulk Plutonium Assay Calorimeters (BPAC10). The calorimeter measures bulk samples of plutonium bearing material in containers up to 5in. in diameter and 7in. high. The average measurement time is 19.7 minutes compared to 2--9 hours for the same sample measured in a water bath calorimeter. Measurement precision in the range of 1--10 watts is 1% to 0.1% and it is 0.010 watt for sample power less than 1 watt. BPAC10 series calorimeters are in use in two plutonium facilities at the EG G Rocky Flats Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory TA55 Plutonium Facility. The paper presents a description of the calorimeter, discusses operating experience at Los Alamos, and presents a comparison of data on typical samples measured with both types of calorimeters. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The Ideal Promotion Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward L.

    The ideal promotional effort for an educational television (ETV) station is dependent on a professional approach to the problem. This means that each ETV station should employ a public relations manager and should keep him informed about all major station decisions. The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) has a campaign of its own to bring attention…

  2. Assessing Public Relations Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Doris; Johnson, T. Earle, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The need to establish goals and objectives for public relations activities is discussed, followed by descriptions of several evaluation techniques for public relations programs. The continuous education of faculty regarding costs and logistics of publicity, and long-term continuity in the public relations effort are stressed as essential elements…

  3. International aerospaceplane efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    Although the U.S. began the first reusable space booster effort in the late 1950's, it is no longer an exclusive field. All of the technologically advanced nations, and several groups of nations, have one or more reusable booster efforts in progress. A listing of the entries in the field is presented. The list is somewhat misleading, because it includes both fully reusable and partially reusable boosters, both manned and unmanned, and both flight test and operational proposals. Additionally, not all of the projects are funded, and only a few of the projects will survive. The most likely candidates are the following: France/ESA, Germany/ESA, Great Britain/ESA/(USSR), USSR(past), and Japan. A discussion of the preceding projects is provided.

  4. Comparison of walking performance over the first 2 minutes and the full 6 minutes of the Six-Minute Walk Test

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), as recommended by the American Thoracic Society, is widely used as a measure of functional endurance, it may not be applicable in some settings and populations. We sought to examine, therefore, performance over the first 2 minutes and the full 6 minutes of the 6MWT. Specifically, we investigated completion rates, distances walked, test-retest reliability, and the relationship between distances walked over the first 2 and the full 6 minutes of the 6MWT. Methods Community-dwelling children and adults age 3–85 years (n = 337) were asked to walk back and forth on a 15.24 meter (50 ft) course as far as possible without running over a 6 minute period. Test completion and the distance covered by the participants at 2 and 6 minutes were documented. The reliability of distances covered at 2 and 6 minutes was determined by retesting a subsample of 54 participants 6 to 10 days later. The relationship between distances covered at 2 and 6 minutes was determined for the 330 participants completing the 6MWT. Results All 337 participants completed at least 2 minutes of walking, but 7 children less than 5 years of age ceased walking before 6 minutes had elapsed. For the remaining 330 participants the mean distance walked was 186 meters at 2 minutes and 543 meters at 6 minutes. The distances covered at 2 and 6 minutes were reliable between sessions (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.888 and 0.917, respectively). The distances covered over 2 and 6 minutes were highly correlated (r = 0.968). Conclusions The completion rate, values obtained, test-retest reliability, and relationship of the distances walked in 2 and 6 minutes support documentation of 2 minute distance during the 6MWT. The findings also provide support for use of a Two-Minute Walk Test as the endurance component in the Motor Battery of the NIH Toolbox. PMID:24767634

  5. The effect of liquid carbohydrate ingestion on repeated maximal effort exercise in competitive cyclists.

    PubMed

    Haub, Mark D; Haff, G Gregory; Potteiger, Jeffrey A

    2003-02-01

    We investigated the effects of carbohydrate ingestion during recovery from high-intensity exercise on subsequent high-intensity exercise in trained cyclists. Aerobic power was determined, and the competitive cyclists (N = 7) were familiarized with the 100-kJ test protocol (100 KJ-TEST). The subjects performed a first 100 KJ-TEST (RIDE-1), ingested 0.7 g.(kg body mass)(-1) of Gatorlode (CHO) or placebo (PLC), rested for 60 minutes, and then performed a second 100 KJ-TEST (RIDE-2). Blood samples taken before (PRE-1) and after (POST-1) RIDE-1 and before (PRE-2) and after (POST-2) RIDE-2 were analyzed for plasma glucose ([glucose]), lactate, and nonesterified fatty acids ([NEFA]). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between treatments in time to complete RIDE-1 (CHO = 270.3 +/- 29.0 seconds; PLC = 269.9 +/- 33.0 seconds) and RIDE-2 (CHO = 271.7 +/- 26.6 seconds; PLC = 275.3 +/- 30.6 seconds). Plasma [glucose] significantly decreased during the 60-minute recovery for PLC. There was an interaction effect for [NEFA] during recovery, with [NEFA] increasing for PLC and decreasing for CHO. Carbohydrate ingestion after maximal exercise does not appear to influence subsequent short-duration maximal effort exercise in competitive cyclists but does alter plasma [glucose] and [NEFA] relative to a PLC condition.

  6. 45 CFR 1802.7 - Transcripts, recordings, minutes of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., the Board shall maintain either such a transcript or recording, or a set of minutes. (b) Where minutes... item on the agenda, or of any item of the testimony of any witness received at the meeting except...

  7. Managing Content in a Matter of Minutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA software created to help scientists expeditiously search and organize their research documents is now aiding compliance personnel, law enforcement investigators, and the general public in their efforts to search, store, manage, and retrieve documents more efficiently. Developed at Ames Research Center, NETMARK software was designed to manipulate vast amounts of unstructured and semi-structured NASA documents. NETMARK is both a relational and object-oriented technology built on an Oracle enterprise-wide database. To ensure easy user access, Ames constructed NETMARK as a Web-enabled platform utilizing the latest in Internet technology. One of the significant benefits of the program was its ability to store and manage mission-critical data.

  8. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop: Summary Minutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The general theme for the workshop revolved around global environmental change. Over 170 individuals participated in the presentations and ensuing discussions about the many agency activities using airborne platforms and sensors in support of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (GCRP). The U.S. GCRP was developed as a central component of the U.S. Government's approach to global change and its contribution to worldwide efforts. An all-encompassing U.S. plan was developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES), which continues as the interagency coordinating group for the program. The U.S. GCRP was established as a Presidential initiative in the FY90 budget, making it a particularly relevant topic for the workshop. The following are presented in the appendices: (1) final agenda and list of registrants; (2) final list of poster presenters; (3) steering group luncheon participants; (4) the draft resolution; and (5) selected handouts.

  9. Oxygen uptake in maximal effort constant rate and interval running.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Daniel; O'Brien, Brendan J; Clark, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated differences in average VO2 of maximal effort interval running to maximal effort constant rate running at lactate threshold matched for time. The average VO2 and distance covered of 10 recreational male runners (VO2max: 4158 ± 390 mL · min(-1)) were compared between a maximal effort constant-rate run at lactate threshold (CRLT), a maximal effort interval run (INT) consisting of 2 min at VO2max speed with 2 minutes at 50% of VO2 repeated 5 times, and a run at the average speed sustained during the interval run (CR submax). Data are presented as mean and 95% confidence intervals. The average VO2 for INT, 3451 (3269-3633) mL · min(-1), 83% VO2max, was not significantly different to CRLT, 3464 (3285-3643) mL · min(-1), 84% VO2max, but both were significantly higher than CR sub-max, 3464 (3285-3643) mL · min(-1), 76% VO2max. The distance covered was significantly greater in CLRT, 4431 (4202-3731) metres, compared to INT and CR sub-max, 4070 (3831-4309) metres. The novel finding was that a 20-minute maximal effort constant rate run uses similar amounts of oxygen as a 20-minute maximal effort interval run despite the greater distance covered in the maximal effort constant-rate run.

  10. Navy superconductivity efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  11. Navy superconductivity efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-04-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  12. Allocation of Instructional Minutes and Achievement in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined seventh grade student achievement in math, reading, and language arts relating to the allocation of instructional minutes per subject. The treatment group consisted of students assigned to 90 minute classes in the core content. The control group consisted of students assigned to 55 minute classes in the core content.…

  13. 22 CFR 214.35 - Minutes of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minutes of meetings. 214.35 Section 214.35 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.35 Minutes of meetings. (a) Minutes are to be kept of each meeting of each...

  14. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  15. Minute Temperature Fluctuations Detected in Eta Bootis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-11-01

    A group of astronomers from the Aarhus University (Denmark) and the European Southern Observatory (2) have for the first time succeeded in detecting solar-type oscillations in another star. They observed the temperature of the bright northern star Eta Bootis during six nights with the 2.5-metre Nordic Optical Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands) and were able to show that it varies periodically by a few hundredths of a degree. These changes are caused by pressure waves in the star and are directly dependent on its inner structure. A detailed analysis by the astronomers has shown that the observed effects are in good agreement with current stellar models. This is a most important, independent test of stellar theory. The Sun is an Oscillating Star About twenty years ago, it was discovered that the nearest star, our Sun, oscillates like the ringing of a bell with a period of about 5 minutes. The same phenomenon is known in the Earth, which begins to vibrate after earthquakes; in this way seismologists have been able to discern a layered structure in the Earth's interior. The recent impacts of a comet on Jupiter most likely had a similar effect on that planet. The observed solar oscillations concern the entire gaseous body of the Sun, but we can of course only observe them on its surface. It has been found that each mode moves the surface up and down by less than 25 metres; the combined motion is very complicated, because there are many different, simultaneous modes, each of which has a slightly different period. The exact values of these periods are sensitive to the speed of sound in the Sun's interior, which in turn depends on the density of the material there. Thus, by measuring the periods of solar oscillations, we may probe the internal structure of the Sun, that is otherwise inaccessible to observations. Why does the Sun oscillate and what is the cause of these oscillations ? We do not know yet, but it is

  16. Prioritizing earthquake and tsunami alerting efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Allen, S.; Aranha, M. A.; Chung, A. I.; Hellweg, M.; Henson, I. H.; Melgar, D.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Nof, R. N.; Strauss, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The timeline of hazards associated with earthquakes ranges from seconds for the strong shaking at the epicenter, to minutes for strong shaking at more distant locations in big quakes, to tens of minutes for a local tsunami. Earthquake and tsunami warning systems must therefore include very fast initial alerts, while also taking advantage of available time in bigger and tsunami-generating quakes. At the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory we are developing a suite of algorithms to provide the fullest possible information about earthquake shaking and tsunami inundation from seconds to minutes after a quake. The E-larmS algorithm uses the P-wave to rapidly detect an earthquake and issue a warning. It is currently issuing alerts to test users in as little as 3 sec after the origin time. Development of a new waveform detector may lead to even faster alerts. G-larmS uses permanent deformation estimates from GNSS stations to estimate the geometry and extent of rupture underway providing more accurate ground shaking estimates in big (M>~7) earthquakes. It performed well in the M6.0 2014 Napa earthquake. T-larmS is a new algorithm designed to extend alert capabilities to tsunami inundation. Rapid estimates of source characteristics for subduction zones event can not only be used to warn of the shaking hazard, but also the local tsunami inundation hazard. These algorithms are being developed, implemented and tested with a focus on the western US, but are also now being tested in other parts of the world including Israel, Turkey, Korea and Chile. Beta users in the Bay Area are receiving the alerts and beginning to implement automated actions. They also provide feedback on users needs, which has led to the development of the MyEEW smartphone app. This app allows beta users to receive the alerts on their cell phones. All these efforts feed into our ongoing assessment of directions and priorities for future development and implementation efforts.

  17. Intact Survival After Obstetric Hemorrhage and 55 Minutes of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Anast, Nicholas; Kwok, Joseph; Carvalho, Brendan; Lipman, Steven; Flood, Pamela

    2015-07-01

    Cardiac arrest occurs in approximately 1:12,000 parturients. Among nonpregnant patients who have in-hospital cardiac arrest, those whose spontaneous circulation does not return within 15 to 20 minutes have a high risk of death and disability, so life support efforts are generally stopped after this period. However, among parturients, witnessed in-hospital arrest is often reversible and has a better prognosis. We describe a successful clinical outcome after maternal cardiac arrest and 55 minutes of advanced cardiac life support. This case underscores the importance of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation and raises questions about the appropriate duration of resuscitation efforts in otherwise healthy young mothers with a potentially reversible cause of arrest.

  18. Materials characterization on efforts for ablative materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytula, Thomas P.; Schad, Kristin C.; Swann, Myles H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental efforts to develop a new procedure to measure char depth in carbon phenolic nozzle material are described. Using a Shor Type D Durometer, hardness profiles were mapped across post fired sample blocks and specimens from a fired rocket nozzle. Linear regression was used to estimate the char depth. Results are compared to those obtained from computed tomography in a comparative experiment. There was no significant difference in the depth estimates obtained by the two methods.

  19. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  20. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  1. Structure of the solar oscillation with period near 160 minutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The solar oscillation with period near 160 minutes is found to be unique in a spectrum computed over the range of periods from about 71 to 278 minutes. A best estimate of the period is 160.0095 + or - 0.001 minutes, which is different from 160 minutes (one ninth of a day) by a highly significant amount. The width of the peak is approximately equal to the limiting resolution that can be obtained from an observation lasting 6 years, which suggests that the damping time of the oscillations is considerably longer than 6 years. A suggestion that this peak might be the result of a beating phenomenon between the five minute data averages and a solar oscillation with period near five minutes is shown to be incorrect by recomputing a portion of the spectrum using 15 second data averages.

  2. Is Effort Praise Motivational? The Role of Beliefs in the Effort-Ability Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Yim, Pui-shan; Ng, Yee-lam

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how beliefs in the effort-ability relationship moderated the effects of effort praise on student motivation. Study 1 showed that the more the participants believed that effort and ability were related positively (the positive rule) versus related negatively (the inverse rule), the more they would have positive…

  3. [OR minute myth : Guidelines for calculation of DRG revenues per OR minute].

    PubMed

    Waeschle, R M; Hinz, J; Bleeker, F; Sliwa, B; Popov, A; Schmidt, C E; Bauer, M

    2016-02-01

    The economic situation in German Hospitals is tense and needs the implementation of differentiated controlling instruments. Accordingly, parameters of revenue development of different organizational units within a hospital are needed. This is particularly necessary in the revenue and cost-intensive operating theater field. So far there are only barely established productivity data for the control of operating room (OR) revenues during the year available. This article describes a valid method for the calculation of case-related revenues per OR minute conform to the diagnosis-related groups (DRG).For this purpose the relevant datasets from the OR information system and the § 21 productivity report (DRG grouping) of the University Medical Center Göttingen were combined. The revenues defined in the DRG browser of the Institute for Hospital Reimbursement (InEK) were assigned to the corresponding process times--incision-suture time (SNZ), operative preparation time and anesthesiology time--according to the InEK system. All full time stationary DRG cases treated within the OR were included and differentiated according to the surgical department responsible. The cost centers "OR section" and "anesthesia" were isolated to calculate the revenues of the operating theater. SNZ clusters and cost type groups were formed to demonstrate their impact on the revenues per OR minute. A surgical personal simultaneity factor (GZF) was calculated by division of the revenues for surgeons and anesthesiologists. This factor resembles the maximum DRG financed personnel deployment for surgeons in German hospitals.The revenue per OR minute including all cost types and DRG was 16.63 €/min. The revenues ranged from 10.45 to 24.34 €/min depending on the surgical field. The revenues were stable when SNZ clusters were analyzed. The differentiation of cost type groups revealed a revenue reduction especially after exclusion of revenues for implants and infrastructure. The calculated GZF over

  4. Posting with Intentionality in Online Instruction: Supporting Instructors' Facilitation Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Judith; van Barneveld, Angela; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2016-01-01

    As higher education institutions move to incorporate more online learning into their long-term strategies, it is important for instructors to become adept at facilitating discussions in ways that engage learners, promote critical thinking, and support the development of a learning community. Through the strategic application of effective…

  5. 10 CFR 9.108 - Certification, transcripts, recordings and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... copy of such certification, together with a statement from the presiding officer of the meeting setting..., the Commission shall maintain such a transcript, or recording or a set of minutes. Such minutes shall... of any item on the agenda, or of any item of the testimony of any witness received at the...

  6. Econometric Assessment of "One Minute" Paper as a Pedagogic Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Amaresh

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes an econometric testing of one-minute paper used as a tool to manage and assess instruction in my statistics class. One of our findings is that the one minute paper when I have tested it by using an OLS estimate in a controlled Vs experimental design framework is found to statistically significant and effective in enhancing…

  7. 5 CFR 1632.10 - Transcripts, recordings, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transcripts, recordings, and minutes... REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 1632.10 Transcripts, recordings, and minutes. (a) The Board will maintain a complete transcript or electronic recording or transcription thereof adequate to record...

  8. One-Minute Paper: Student Perception of Learning Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Deborah; Burns, Shari

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine students' perceptions of learning gains when using the one-minute paper. Thirty-one students from the Physical Therapy (PT) and Nurse Anesthesia (NA) programs participated in this study. Students completed the one-minute paper in three classes. An email to students clarified the "muddy" points…

  9. 16 CFR 1018.25 - Minutes and meeting reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1018.25 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 1018.25 Minutes and meeting reports. (a) The Advisory Committee Management Officer shall be responsible for the preparation of detailed minutes of each meeting of...

  10. Photospheric Origin of Three-minute Oscillations in a Sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Jongchul; Lee, Jeongwoo; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Song, Donguk; Cho, Kyungsuk; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2017-02-01

    The origin of the three-minute oscillations of intensity and velocity observed in the chromosphere of sunspot umbrae is still unclear. We investigated the spatio-spectral properties of the 3 minute oscillations of velocity in the photosphere of a sunspot umbra as well as those in the low chromosphere using the spectral data of the Ni i λ5436, Fe i λ5435, and Na i D2 λ5890 lines taken by the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph of the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. As a result, we found a local enhancement of the 3 minute oscillation power in the vicinities of a light bridge (LB) and numerous umbral dots (UDs) in the photosphere. These 3 minute oscillations occurred independently of the 5 minute oscillations. Through wavelet analysis, we determined the amplitudes and phases of the 3 minute oscillations at the formation heights of the spectral lines, and they were found to be consistent with the upwardly propagating slow magnetoacoustic waves in the photosphere with energy flux large enough to explain the chromospheric oscillations. Our results suggest that the 3 minute chromospheric oscillations in this sunspot may have been generated by magnetoconvection occurring in the LB and UDs.

  11. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    PubMed

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (p<0.001 across all probes tested) with increasing upper airway pressure repeatable across the range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions studied. These were: the three fundamental modulations in amplitude (AM-Effort), baseline (BM-Effort) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA-Effort); two pulse transit time modulations - one using a pulse oximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper

  12. Cardiac Effect of Interstitial Lung Disease Correlated with Spirometry and Six Minute Walk Test

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Mitali Bharat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The cardiac effect of different pulmonary functions, six minute walk distance, arterial blood gases and saturation in Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) is not much known. So this study, a tertiary care hospital experience that entails to know the various factors in Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) mentioned above causing PH and their correlation with PH. Aim To study the correlation of PH in patients with ILD with spirometry and six minute walk test (6MWT). Materials and Methods All consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of ILD taken over a period of 1½year in tertiary care hospital. 6MWT and spirometry were performed as per the American Thoracic Guidelines. Percent predicted 6 minute walk distance was calculated using Enright et al., and Indian reference equation. PH was diagnosed using 2-D echo. The spirometry variables and 6MWT were then correlated with the mean pulmonary artery pressure. Results There were 75 patients. About 66.66 % had PH on 2-D echo. The mean% predicted six minute walk distance as per the Indian reference equation, pre- and post- exercise PaO2 as well as desaturation had a significant correlation with PH. Spirometry variables Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) did not correlate with PH. Conclusion Thus, the 6MWT correlated significantly with PH while spirometry did not. PMID:28384908

  13. Clinicopathologic characteristics and management of minute esophageal lesions diagnosed by narrow-band imaging endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kumamoto, Takashi; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Oka, Shiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Yasui, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Magnifying narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy enables the diagnosis of minute esophageal neoplasia. We aimed to evaluate clinicopathological diagnosis of minute esophageal neoplasia by using magnifying NBI endoscopy and biopsy. Patients and methods: In total, 309 patients (127 men and 182 women) with minute esophageal lesions of intrapapillary capillary loop (IPCL) type IV were enrolled. Of these patients, 249 underwent biopsy for histologic diagnosis and also for treatment. Of the 249 patients, 123 underwent follow-up with endoscopy. We analyzed the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of these lesions after biopsy. Results: Of the 249 biopsied lesions, we histologically diagnosed 11 as high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN), 41 as low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), and 197 as non-neoplasia (Non-N) including inflammation. Six of the 11 HGINs and 11 of the 41 LGINs showed slight elevation. Background coloration was observed in 9 of 11 HGINs, 34 of 41 LGINs, and 33 of 197 Non-Ns. Of the 249 biopsied lesions, 147 were microscopically measurable. The average diameter was 1.4 mm for HGINs and 0.8 mm for LGINs. Of the 123 patients who underwent post-biopsy follow-up, 93 (76 %) showed no lesions at the biopsied sites during the NBI examinations and were suspected to have undergone complete resection by biopsy. Conclusions: Biopsy was useful for diagnosis and treatment of minute esophageal lesions, diagnosed as IPCL type IV by magnifying NBI endoscopy. PMID:27652295

  14. First report of anthracnose of mile-a-minute (Persicaria perfoliata) caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mile-a-minute (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross; family Polygonaceae) is an exotic annual barbed vine that is now invasive in the northeastern USA, Mississippi, and Oregon and is a target of biological control efforts. In July, 2010, diseased P. perfoliata plants were found along the Firtina Rive...

  15. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  16. 10 CFR 9.108 - Certification, transcripts, recordings and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...). Copies of such transcript, or minutes, or a transcription of such recording disclosing the identity of... transcription as provided in § 9.14. The Secretary shall maintain a complete verbatim copy of the transcript,...

  17. NASA Now Minute: Geology: Structure of the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    This program shows how re-examining moon data from the Apollo days withmodern technology helps scientists determine the structure of the moon’sinterior. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a wee...

  18. Ovarian dysgenesis in an alpaca with a minute chromosome 36.

    PubMed

    Fellows, Elizabeth; Kutzler, Michelle; Avila, Felipe; Das, Pranab J; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    A 4-year-old female alpaca (Lama pacos [LPA]) was presented to the Oregon State Veterinary Teaching Hospital for failure to display receptive behavior to males. Although no abnormalities were found on physical examination, transrectal ultrasonographic examination of the reproductive tract revealed uterine hypoplasia and ovarian dysgenesis. Cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a normal female 74,XX karyotype with 1 exceptionally small (minute) homologue of autosome LPA36. Chromosome analysis by Giemsa staining and DAPI- and C-banding revealed that the minute LPA36 was submetacentric, AT-rich, and largely heterochromatic. Because of the small size and lack of molecular markers, it was not possible to identify the origin of the minute. There is a need to improve molecular cytogenetic tools to further study the phenomenon of this minute chromosome and its relation to female reproduction in alpacas and llamas.

  19. Techniques of Assessing Mental Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cennamo, Katherine S.

    The search for techniques to increase the effort that learners invest in video-based instruction has been hindered by the limitations of the instruments used to assess the construct of mental effort. Several researchers have noted the confusion of terms in the field that refer to the cognitive resources devoted to processing the stimulus. In this…

  20. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  1. Grading System and Student Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Several papers have proposed that the grading system affects students' incentives to exert effort. In particular, the previous literature has compared student effort under relative and absolute grading systems, but the results are mixed and the implications of the models have not been empirically tested. In this paper, I build a model where…

  2. Geologic map of the Chelan 30-minute by 60-minute quadrangle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.W.; Frizzell, V.A.; Whetten, J.T.; Waitt, R.B.; Swanson, D.A.; Byerly, G.R.; Booth, D.B.; Hetherington, M.J.; Zartman, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    , uplift, and erosion recorded in the rocks and deposits of the quadrangle continued into post-Miocene time. Quaternary deposits reflect advances of glaciers down the major valleys, a complicated history of catastrophic glacial floods down the Columbia River, the formation of lakes in the Columbia and Wenatchee river valleys by landslides and flood backwaters, and hillslope erosion by large and small landslides and debris flows.

  3. Relationship effort, satisfaction, and stability: differences across union type.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Kevin; Jensen, Todd M; Larson, Jeffry H

    2014-04-01

    Relationship satisfaction and stability are two commonly studied outcomes in marriage and family research. Majority of studies address socio demographic variability and differences across union type in these outcomes. We extend this literature by addressing how the amount of effort one puts into their relationship is associated with stability and satisfaction. Specifically, we focus on how effort impacts these measures of quality in four union types: premarital cohabitation, first marriage, post-divorce cohabitation, and second marriage following divorce. Furthermore, we make union type comparisons in the strength of effort's association with satisfaction and stability. Using data from 8,006 respondents in the Relationship Evaluation Survey, our results show that effort was strongly and positively associated with satisfaction and stability in all four unions. Although effort is more strongly associated with satisfaction in first marriage than cohabiting relationships, no union type differences in the role of effort on stability were observed. Clinical and research implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Exploring Market State and Stock Interactions on the Minute Timescale.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lei; Chen, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Bo; Ouyang, Fang-Yan

    2016-01-01

    A stock market is a non-stationary complex system. The stock interactions are important for understanding the state of the market. However, our knowledge on the stock interactions on the minute timescale is limited. Here we apply the random matrix theory and methods in complex networks to study the stock interactions and sector interactions. Further, we construct a new kind of cross-correlation matrix to investigate the correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes within one trading day. Based on 50 million minute-to-minute price data in the Shanghai stock market, we discover that the market states in the morning and afternoon are significantly different. The differences mainly exist in three aspects, i.e. the co-movement of stock prices, interactions of sectors and correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes. In the afternoon, the component stocks of sectors are more robust and the structure of sectors is firmer. Therefore, the market state in the afternoon is more stable. Furthermore, we reveal that the information of the sector interactions can indicate the financial crisis in the market, and the indicator based on the empirical data in the afternoon is more effective.

  5. [Use of the six-minute walk test in cardiology].

    PubMed

    Kervio, G; Ville, N S; Leclercq, C; Daubert, J C; Carré, F

    2005-12-01

    The symptom-limited exercise test is nowadays the gold standard to assess the exercise tolerance and the effects of different treatments in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). A simpler alternative to this test is the 6-minute walk test. The 6-minute walk test is easy to realize and well-tolerated. Moreover, it is reliable just after one familiarization practice and requires standardization. Indeed, its conduction, which is submitted to some security precautions, can be altered by variation factors. The distance walked during the 6 minutes was the only parameter studied during the test. This parameter could allow judging the CHF severity and prognostic. The analyse of cardiorespiratory parameters has shown that the 6-minute walk test relative intensity is near to the peak individual values. Moreover, the cardiac and ventilatory adaptation of patient during this test depends to his own functional capacity. Lastly, the 6-minute walk test is a submaximal constant-load exercise, which should be performed in complement to the symptom-limited exercise test in cardiac patients.

  6. Exploring Market State and Stock Interactions on the Minute Timescale

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lei; Chen, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Bo; Ouyang, Fang-Yan

    2016-01-01

    A stock market is a non-stationary complex system. The stock interactions are important for understanding the state of the market. However, our knowledge on the stock interactions on the minute timescale is limited. Here we apply the random matrix theory and methods in complex networks to study the stock interactions and sector interactions. Further, we construct a new kind of cross-correlation matrix to investigate the correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes within one trading day. Based on 50 million minute-to-minute price data in the Shanghai stock market, we discover that the market states in the morning and afternoon are significantly different. The differences mainly exist in three aspects, i.e. the co-movement of stock prices, interactions of sectors and correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes. In the afternoon, the component stocks of sectors are more robust and the structure of sectors is firmer. Therefore, the market state in the afternoon is more stable. Furthermore, we reveal that the information of the sector interactions can indicate the financial crisis in the market, and the indicator based on the empirical data in the afternoon is more effective. PMID:26900948

  7. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  8. How Much Work Effort is Involved in Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion?

    PubMed Central

    Ledonio, Charles G.T.; Polly, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion is increasing significantly. Starting January 1, 2015, it has a category I CPT code. The current RVU for this procedure is not equal to the amount of work involved. There is not a published RUC validated survey to establish the work effort of MI SI fusion. Our hospital system has been doing this procedure for 4 years and has been tracking surgeon time through a commercial tracking system (Navicare). Our study looks at time utilization for performance of MI SI joint fusion and a comparator of primary lumbar discectomy (PLD), presumably similar in time and work effort. Methods This study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data using Navicare. The data for 3 surgeons who perform MI SI joint fusion and lumbar discectomies from January 1, 2013 through November 30, 2014 was retrieved. Surgeon room time was identified as the time the patient entered the OR to the time they exited the OR. This was used as opposed to skin to skin time seen in similar studies as it was more accurately and consistently recorded in the medical record. Mean and standard deviations were then compared using student's t-test. Results In 50 primary MI SI joint fusions, the average in-room time was 112 minutes (SD=23). In 89 cases of PLD, the average in-room time was 119 minutes (SD=26). When comparing mean in-room times, MI SI and PLD were not statistically significantly different (p=0.135, 2-tailed t-test). Post-operative work effort was found to be greater for MI SI joint fusion than PLD. Conclusions / Level of evidence Surgical time was found to be comparable between MI SI joint fusion and PLD, while work effort was found to be greater for MI SI joint fusion. This signifies at a minimum an equal RVU for PLD should be used for MI SI joint fusion. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Minnesota. Level of evidence: 3. PMID:26609513

  9. Tensoral for post-processing users and simulation authors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dresselhaus, Eliot

    1993-01-01

    The CTR post-processing effort aims to make turbulence simulations and data more readily and usefully available to the research and industrial communities. The Tensoral language, which provides the foundation for this effort, is introduced here in the form of a user's guide. The Tensoral user's guide is presented in two main sections. Section one acts as a general introduction and guides database users who wish to post-process simulation databases. Section two gives a brief description of how database authors and other advanced users can make simulation codes and/or the databases they generate available to the user community via Tensoral database back ends. The two-part structure of this document conforms to the two-level design structure of the Tensoral language. Tensoral has been designed to be a general computer language for performing tensor calculus and statistics on numerical data. Tensoral's generality allows it to be used for stand-alone native coding of high-level post-processing tasks (as described in section one of this guide). At the same time, Tensoral's specialization to a minute task (namely, to numerical tensor calculus and statistics) allows it to be easily embedded into applications written partly in Tensoral and partly in other computer languages (here, C and Vectoral). Embedded Tensoral, aimed at advanced users for more general coding (e.g. of efficient simulations, for interfacing with pre-existing software, for visualization, etc.), is described in section two of this guide.

  10. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort.

    PubMed

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  11. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort

    PubMed Central

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  12. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  13. Dopamine, Behavioral Economics, and Effort

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M.; Nunes, Eric J.; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  14. Wire bundle formed into grids with minute interstices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, H. H.

    1965-01-01

    Deforming the ends of a bundle of closely packed parallel wires to restrict the interstices to substantially uniform and minute dimensions produces grids or filters for ion engines. Porous metal structures made by this process are also used as fuel cell electrodes, diffusion membranes, and catalysts.

  15. 46 CFR 535.704 - Filing of minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of rates or charges, whether in tariffs or service contracts; pooling or apportionment of cargo... represented; (3) A description of discussions detailed enough so that a non-participant reading the minutes... taken with regard to rates that, if adopted, would be required to be published in an appropriate...

  16. 12 CFR 261b.11 - Transcripts, recordings, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... minutes. (a) The agency will maintain a complete transcript or electronic recording or transcription... § 261b.5 of this part. Transcriptions of recordings will disclose the identity of each speaker. (b) The agency will maintain either such a transcript, recording or transcription thereof, or a set of...

  17. 5 CFR 1632.10 - Transcripts, recordings, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... maintain a complete transcript or electronic recording or transcription thereof adequate to record fully.... Transcriptions of recordings will disclose the identity of each speaker. (b) The Board will maintain either such a transcript, recording or transcription thereof, or a set of minutes that will fully and...

  18. 5 CFR 1632.10 - Transcripts, recordings, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... maintain a complete transcript or electronic recording or transcription thereof adequate to record fully.... Transcriptions of recordings will disclose the identity of each speaker. (b) The Board will maintain either such a transcript, recording or transcription thereof, or a set of minutes that will fully and...

  19. 12 CFR 261b.11 - Transcripts, recordings, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... minutes. (a) The agency will maintain a complete transcript or electronic recording or transcription... § 261b.5 of this part. Transcriptions of recordings will disclose the identity of each speaker. (b) The agency will maintain either such a transcript, recording or transcription thereof, or a set of...

  20. Biology and Biological Control of Mile-a-Minute Weed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mile-a-minute weed (MAM), Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross (Fig. 1), is a member of the family Polygonaceae. It is an annual vine that can grow up to 6 meters long over the course of a season. It is widely distributed throughout east Asia, including Japan, China, Korea, India, Indonesia, Banglade...

  1. Council Minutes, February 4-6, 2011: Santa Monica, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Researcher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents minutes of the American Educational Research Association's meetings held in Santa Monica, California, on February 4-6, 2011. President Kris D. Gutierrez led a discussion of the meeting dates for the summer Executive Board and Council meetings. It was agreed that members of Council will be polled to determine the best dates…

  2. SToPV: A Five Minute Assessment of Place Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    Place value underpins much of what people do in number. In this article, the author describes some simple tasks that may be used to assess students' understanding of place value. This set of tasks, the Six Tasks of Place Value (SToPV), takes five minutes to administer and can give direct insight into a student's understanding of the number system…

  3. 5 CFR 1632.10 - Transcripts, recordings, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 1632.10 Section 1632.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD RULES REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 1632.10 Transcripts, recordings, and minutes. (a) The Board will... the proceedings of each meeting or portion of a meeting closed to public observation pursuant...

  4. 5 CFR 1632.10 - Transcripts, recordings, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 1632.10 Section 1632.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD RULES REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 1632.10 Transcripts, recordings, and minutes. (a) The Board will... the proceedings of each meeting or portion of a meeting closed to public observation pursuant...

  5. Using Minute Papers to Determine Student Cognitive Development Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Can anonymous written feedback collected during classroom assessment activities be used to assess students' cognitive development levels? After library instruction in a first-year engineering design class, students submitted minute papers that included answers to "what they are left wondering." Responses were coded into low, medium and…

  6. 45 CFR 1802.7 - Transcripts, recordings, minutes of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transcripts, recordings, minutes of meetings. 1802... SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION PUBLIC MEETING PROCEDURES OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES § 1802.7 Transcripts, recordings... recording adequate to record fully the proceedings of each meeting, or portion of a meeting, closed to...

  7. 45 CFR 1802.7 - Transcripts, recordings, minutes of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transcripts, recordings, minutes of meetings. 1802... SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION PUBLIC MEETING PROCEDURES OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES § 1802.7 Transcripts, recordings... recording adequate to record fully the proceedings of each meeting, or portion of a meeting, closed to...

  8. Minute bug with enormous impacts on insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minute pirate bugs (Orius spp.) are common and abundant insect predators that can be found in cotton and many other field crops in Arizona and the western U.S. They are important predators of a variety of insect and mite pests in western crops and can help to suppress pest populations and thus cont...

  9. 46 CFR 535.704 - Filing of minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing of minutes. 535.704 Section 535.704 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984 Reporting...

  10. [Six-minute walk test in children with neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Anleu, Israel Didier; Baños-Mejía, Benjamín Omar; Galicia-Amor, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Background: neuromuscular diseases affect the motor unit. When they evolve, respiratory complications are common; the six-minute walk test plays an important role in the assessment of functional capacity. Methods: prospective, transversal, descriptive and observational study. We studied seven children with a variety of neuromuscular diseases and spontaneous ambulation. We tested their lung function, and administered a six-minute walk test and a test of respiratory muscle strength to these children. Results: the age was 9.8 ± 2.4 years. All patients were males. Forced vital capacity decreased in three patients (42.8 %), forced expiratory volume during the first second (2.04 ± 1.4 L) and peak expiratory flow (4.33 ± 3.3 L/s) were normal. The maximum strength of respiratory muscles was less than 60 % of predicted values. The distance covered in the six-minute walk test was lower when compared with healthy controls (29.9 %). Conclusions: the six-minute walk test can be a useful tool in early stages of this disease, since it is easy to perform and well tolerated by the patients.

  11. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  12. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  13. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  14. Increasing Expectations for Student Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Karen Maitland; Schilling, Karl L.

    1999-01-01

    States that few higher education institutions have publicly articulated clear expectations of the knowledge and skills students are to attain. Describes gap between student and faculty expectations for academic effort. Reports that what is required in students' first semester appears to play a strong role in shaping the time investments made in…

  15. Six-minute stepper test: a valid clinical exercise tolerance test for COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Grosbois, JM; Riquier, C; Chehere, B; Coquart, J; Béhal, H; Bart, F; Wallaert, B; Chenivesse, C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exercise tolerance testing is an integral part of the pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The 6-minute stepper test (6MST) is a new, well-tolerated, reproducible exercise test, which can be performed without any spatial constraints. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the results of the 6MST to those obtained during a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in a cohort of COPD patients. Methods Ninety-one COPD patients managed by outpatient PR and assessed by 6MST, 6MWT, and CPET were retrospectively included in this study. Correlations between the number of steps on the 6MST, the distance covered on the 6MWT, oxygen consumption, and power at the ventilatory threshold and at maximum effort during CPET were analyzed before starting PR, and the improvement on the 6MST and 6MWT was compared after PR. Results The number of steps on the 6MST was significantly correlated with the distance covered on the 6MWT (r=0.56; P<0.0001), the power at maximum effort (r=0.46; P<0.0001), and oxygen consumption at maximum effort (r=0.39; P<0.005). Performances on the 6MST and 6MWT were significantly improved after PR (570 vs 488 steps, P=0.001 and 448 vs 406 m, respectively; P<0.0001). Improvements of the 6MST and 6MWT after PR were significantly correlated (r=0.34; P=0.03). Conclusion The results of this study show that the 6MST is a valid test to evaluate exercise tolerance in COPD patients. The use of this test in clinical practice appears to be particularly relevant for the assessment of patients managed by home PR. PMID:27099483

  16. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    DOEpatents

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2009-10-20

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position one or more of the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  17. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    DOEpatents

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2012-11-06

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  18. [Draft minutes of IAPG Mechanical Working Group meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, D.M.

    1993-12-15

    This report provides the draft minutes of the Interagency Advanced Power Group meeting held November 3--4, 1993. Topics addressed are: Materials for thermal management; photovoltaic programs in the Airforce; ground based radar advanced power system development program; battery research; generator prognostics & diagnostics equipment; a thermal flight experiment test program; power systems assessment; Overview: Phillip`s space thermal technologies branch; and development of actuator thermal management.

  19. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    ScienceCinema

    Elliott, Doug

    2016-07-12

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  20. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Doug

    2013-12-17

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  1. Endoscopic diagnosis of minute, small, and flat early gastric cancers.

    PubMed

    Misumi, A; Misumi, K; Murakami, A; Harada, K; Honmyo, U; Akagi, M

    1989-07-01

    We reviewed the diagnostic process in 6 minute, 6 small and 9 flat early cancers detected preoperatively, and in additional 12 flat cancers that were found in resected stomachs only at histology between 1976 and 1986. The limit of the size of cancer detectable preoperatively was 4 mm. Endoscopically, 7 out of 12 minute and small cancers detected preoperatively showed obvious morphological changes, while the others showed only color changes with or without erosion. Lesions with morphological changes significantly invaded the mucosa more often than those with no such changes (p = 0.010). Among flat cancers, color change was significantly more frequently observed in cancers involving the whole mucosa than in those confined to the superficial part of the mucosa (p = 0.015). Redness and discoloration were significantly more frequent in the differentiated and undifferentiated groups, respectively (p = 0.005). This study suggests that morphological and color changes are important indicators of minute or small cancers, especially those involving the whole mucosa.

  2. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  3. Expiratory muscle training and sensation of respiratory effort during exercise in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, S.; Sato, M.; Okubo, T.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The sensation of respiratory effort may increase as expiratory muscles become fatigued during expiratory loading. A study was performed to determine whether expiratory muscle training (EMT) affects the sensation of respiratory effort during exercise in healthy subjects. METHODS--Six subjects performed EMT for 15 minutes twice daily for four weeks using a pressure threshold device; another six subjects served as a control group. The expiratory threshold was set at 30% of the individual's maximum expiratory mouth pressure (PEmax). The sensation of respiratory effort was evaluated during a progressive exercise test using the Borg scale. RESULTS--After EMT PEmax increased by 25% in the training group. The Borg score increased as exercise grade increased before and after EMT, but scores for each grade were lower after EMT. Minute ventilation during exercise decreased after EMT, as did the breathing frequency during exercise, while the expiratory time increased. Although there was no difference in the relationship between Borg score and minute ventilation before or after EMT, the curve shifted to a lower Borg score after EMT. There were no changes in PEmax, Borg score, minute ventilation, or breathing pattern after the four week study period in the control group. CONCLUSION--These findings suggest that EMT increases expiratory muscle strength and reduces the sensation of respiratory effort during exercise, presumably by reducing minute ventilation. PMID:7785008

  4. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  5. Use of Minute-by-Minute Cardiovascular Measurements During Tilt Tests to Strengthen Inference on the Effect of Long-Duration Space Flight on Orthostatic Hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Stein, Sydney P.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Typical methodology for evaluating the effects of spaceflight on orthostatic hypotension (OH) has been survival analysis of tolerance times from 80 head-up tilt tests. However when scheduled test durations are short, there may not be enough failures to allow survival analysis to adequately estimate and compare the effects of flight phase (e.g. pre-flight, number of days post-flight), flight duration, and their interaction, as well as interactions with effects of interventions or countermeasures. The problem is exacerbated in the presence of a repeated measures design, in which subjects participate in tilt tests during various flight phases. Here we show how it is possible to dramatically improve the efficiency of statistical inference in this setting by making use of the additional information contained in minute-by-minute observations of cardiovascular parameters thought to be reflective of progression towards presyncope during tilt testing. Methods: We retrospectively examined operational tilt test (OTT; 10 -min 80 head-up tilt) data from 20 International Space Station (ISS) and 66 Shuttle astronauts 10 d before launch (L-10), on landing day (R+0) and during recovery (R+1, R+3, R+6-10) depending on the level of participation. Data from 5 ISS astronauts tested on R+0 or R+1 who used non-standard countermeasures were excluded. In addition to OTT survival time, 8 cardiovascular parameters (CP: heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure, pulse pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance) that might be predictive of progression towards presyncope were measured every minute of each OTT. Statistical analysis was predicated on a two ]stage model of causation. In the first stage, flight duration and time from landing affect the astronauts' degree of OH, which is manifested in the time trends and variation of the above CPs during OTTs. In the second stage, the behavior of these parameters directly affects OTT survival

  6. Eight-minute excretory urographic film: once is enough

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, W.L.; White, H.; Shkolnik, A.; Finder, C.

    1981-11-01

    A film reading exercise was developed to test the advisability and accuracy of using one ''postinfusion'' roentgenogram instead of a series of films for a complete antegrade urographic evaluation. The experience of the radiologist making the interpretations was also considered. In most cases a singly eight-minute postinfusion delayed film showed enough detail to rule out pathology when none existed and adequately revealed either specific abnormal findings or suggested an abnormality existed when such was indeed present. No false negative call was made by and of the radiologists, but experience did aid in detailing the pathology.

  7. Pyrotechnic Panel Minutes. Volume 13, Numbers 518-579

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-11-01

    22.3.1*6. Mrs. E. E. Arundel. DS 82227/1 Minute P.P. Mo. Subject 5"l8 Soldered Blow-off Discs on Pyro Stores ( Candles Smoke Red, Message...Carrying and Candles Smoke Yellow, Mk.VI N.J. 519 Rustproofing, Tubes of Roman Candles . 520 Float, Smoke and Flame, A/C Nav. K.T.V. Albright and T/ilson...Fuze, Safety, for Naval .Demolition, Development. 542 Candles , Smoke, Yellow or Red (Submarine) Blow-off lids, type of Sealing. 543 Rockets

  8. A momentum calculation for charged tracks with minute curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treadwell, Elliott

    1982-07-01

    ADJUST is a calculational method written in A.N.S.I. Fortran IV to correct the momenta of charged tracks with minute radius of curvature and large fractional momentum error [ K<0.0014 (GeV/ c) -1 and Δp/ p⩾0.30]. Single application of the method to straight tracks eliminates remeasurements and avoids creating additional biases against high multiplicity events ( NCH>8 tracks). Although ADJUST originated from the analysis of bubble-chamber events, the method is not restricted to bubble-chamber data.

  9. ED gets patients upstairs in 60 minutes or less.

    PubMed

    2000-09-01

    The ED at Overlook Hospital in Summit, NJ, reduced admission cycle times from 3 1/2 to four hours to less than 60 minutes. Although nursing staff members are encouraged to resolve problems on their own, the "czarina of bed control" serves as a point person in the ED to resolve significant problems. A housekeeping staff member is assigned to clean the beds on each unit in order of priority. ED staff have access to real-time information about patients being discharged from the floors.

  10. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  11. Shock wave lithotripsy at 60 or 120 shocks per minute: A randomized, double-blinded trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Kenneth; Ghiculete, Daniela; Harju, Melanie; Honey, R. John

    2005-04-01

    Rate of shock wave administration is a factor in the per-shock efficiency of SWL. Decreasing shock wave frequency from 120 shocks per minute (s/m) may improve stone fragmentation. This study is the first to test this hypothesis in vivo. Patients with previously untreated radio-opaque kidney stones were randomized to SWL at 60 or 120 s/m and followed at 2 weeks and 3 months. Primary outcome was success rate, defined as stone-free or asymptomatic fragments 5 mm in size 3 months post-treatment. 111 patients were randomized to 60 s/m and 109 to 120 s/m. The groups were comparable on age, gender, BMI, stent status, and initial stone area. Success rate was higher for 60 s/m (75% versus 61%, p=0.027). Patients with stone area 100 mm2 experienced the greatest benefit: success rates were 71% for 60 s/m versus 32% (p=0.002), and stone-free rates were 60% versus 28% (p=0.015). Repeat SWL treatment was required in 32% treated at 120 s/m versus 18% (p=0.018). Fewer shocks were required (2423 versus 2906, p=0.001), but treatment time was longer (40.6 versus 24.2 minutes, p=0.001). SWL treatment at 60 s/m yields better outcomes than 120 s/m, particularly for stones 100 mm2.

  12. Vagal influences on the jejunal 'minute rhythm' in the anaesthetized ferret.

    PubMed Central

    Collman, P I; Grundy, D; Scratcherd, T

    1983-01-01

    Spontaneous jejunal motility in the urethane-anaesthetized ferret shows a cyclical pattern of contraction bursts alternating with quiescent periods described as 'minute rhythm' in conscious animals. Cooling the cervical vagi to below 4 degrees C or acute vagotomy abolished this pattern of motility. On re-warming the vagi there was a return to cyclical motility after a latency which depended upon the contractile state at the time vagal conduction was restored. Electrical vagal stimulation produced bursts of contractions at the same frequency as the spontaneous motility. Longer periods of stimulation gave rise to bursts of contractions interrupted by periods of relative quiescence, mimicking the spontaneous motility, despite the continuous stimulation. Following atropinization all spontaneous motility was abolished, but electrical stimulation of the vagi revealed a non-cholinergic, non-adrenergic response whose characteristics differed from that of the cholinergic response. It is concluded that the vagus plays a permissive role in regulating the jejunal 'minute rhythm' via a cholinergic pathway and that there is a second excitatory vagal pathway which innervates non-cholinergic post-ganglionic neurones whose functional significance and transmitter mechanism is unknown. PMID:6663513

  13. A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.J.; Plankey, M.W.; Hoffman, S.R.; Boyd, C.L.; Dye, K.R.; Frierson, H.F. Jr.; Guerrant, R.L.; McCallum, R.W. )

    1991-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid {sup 14}C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of {sup 14}C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO{sub 2} in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective.

  14. Sea level oscillations over minute timescales: a global perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilibic, Ivica; Sepic, Jadranka

    2016-04-01

    Sea level oscillations occurring over minutes to a few hours are an important contributor to sea level extremes, and a knowledge on their behaviour is essential for proper quantification of coastal marine hazards. Tsunamis, meteotsunamis, infra-gravity waves and harbour oscillations may even dominate sea level extremes in certain areas and thus pose a great danger for humans and coastal infrastructure. Aside for tsunamis, which are, due to their enormous impact to the coastlines, a well-researched phenomena, the importance of other high-frequency oscillations to the sea level extremes is still underrated, as no systematic long-term measurements have been carried out at a minute timescales. Recently, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) established Sea Level Monitoring Facility portal (http://www.ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org), making 1-min sea level data publicly available for several hundred tide gauge sites in the World Ocean. Thereafter, a global assessment of oscillations over tsunami timescales become possible; however, the portal contains raw sea level data only, being unchecked for spikes, shifts, drifts and other malfunctions of instruments. We present a quality assessment of these data, estimates of sea level variances and contributions of high-frequency processes to the extremes throughout the World Ocean. This is accompanied with assessment of atmospheric conditions and processes which generate intense high-frequency oscillations.

  15. Evaluation of samples comprising minute amounts of DNA.

    PubMed

    Benschop, Corina C G; Haned, Hinda; Yoo, Seong Yeon; Sijen, Titia

    2015-09-01

    Minute amounts of DNA representing only few diploid cells, may be interrogated using enhanced DNA profiling, which will be accompanied by stochastic amplification effects. Notwithstanding, a weight of evidence statistic may be calculated using current interpretation software. In this study, we profiled single donor, two- and three-person samples having only 3 pg to 12 pg of DNA per contributor using both standard and enhanced capillary electrophoresis (CE) injection settings. Likelihood ratios (LRs) were computed using LRmix Studio, compared for both types of profiles and examined in relation to the amount of DNA, drop-out level, number of detected alleles, peak heights and reproducibility of alleles. Especially for DNA profiles that were generated using enhanced CE, the obtained LRs could indicate strong evidence in favour of the prosecution (log10(LR)>6), also when the amount of DNA represented about half of a diploid cell equivalent in the amplification. These results illustrate that an assessment of the criminalistic relevance of a sample carrying minute amounts of DNA is essential prior to applying enhanced interrogation techniques and/or calculating a weight of evidence statistic.

  16. Six-minute walk test in children and adolescents with renal diseases: tolerance, reproducibility and comparison with healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Flávia Tieme; Koch, Vera Herminia Kalika; Juliani, Regina Celia Turola Passos; Cunha, Maristela Trevisan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate exercise tolerance and the reproducibility of the six-minute walk test in Brazilian children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease and to compare their functional exercise capacities with reference values for healthy children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed the use of the six-minute walk test in children and adolescents aged 6-16 with stage V chronic kidney disease. For statistical analysis of exercise tolerance, including examinations of correlations and comparisons with reference values, the longest walked distances were considered. The reproducibility of the six-minute walk test was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: A total of 38 patients (14 females and 24 males) were evaluated, including 5 on peritoneal dialysis, 12 on hemodialysis and 21 who had undergone renal transplantation, with a median age of 11.2 years (6.5-16). The median walked distance was 538.5 meters (413-685) and the six-minute walk test was found to be reproducible. The walked distance was significantly correlated with age (r=0.66), weight (r=0.76), height (r=0.82), the height Z score (r=0.41), hemoglobin (r=0.46), hematocrit (r=0.47) and post-test systolic blood pressure (r=0.39). The chronic kidney disease patients predicted walked distance was 84.1% of the reference value according to age, 90.6% according to age-corrected height and 87.4% according to a predictive equation. CONCLUSIONS: The stage V chronic kidney disease patients had a significantly decreased functional exercise capacity, as measured by the six-minute walk test, compared with the healthy pediatric reference values. In addition, the six-minute walk test was shown to be well tolerated, reliable and applicable as a low-cost tool to monitor functional exercise capacity in patients with renal disease. PMID:26872080

  17. Heart Rate Recovery in the First Minute at the Six-Minute Walk Test in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Lindemberg, Sabrina; Chermont, Sergio; Quintão, Mônica; Derossi, Milena; Guilhon, Sergio; Bernardez, Sabrina; Marchese, Luana; Martins, Wolney; Nóbrega, Antônio Claudio L.; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart rate recovery at one minute of rest (HRR1) is a predictor of mortality in heart failure (HF), but its prognosis has not been assessed at six-minute walk test (6MWT) in these patients. Objective This study aimed to determine the HRR1 at 6MWT in patients with HF and its correlation with six-minute walk distance (6MWD). Methods Cross-sectional, controlled protocol with 161 individuals, 126 patients with stable systolic HF, allocated into 2 groups (G1 and G2) receiving or not β-blocker and 35 volunteers in control group (G3) had HRR1 recorded at the 6MWT. Results HRR1 and 6MWD were significantly different in the 3 groups. Mean values of HRR1 and 6MWD were: HRR1 = 12 ± 14 beat/min G1; 18 ± 16 beat/min G2 and 21 ± 13 beat/min G3; 6MWD = 423 ± 102 m G1; 396 ± 101m G2 and 484 ± 96 m G3 (p < 0.05). Results showed a correlation between HRR1 and 6MWD in G1(r = 0.3; p = 0.04) and in G3(r = 0.4; p= 0.03), but not in G2 (r= 0.12; p= 0.48). Conclusion HRR1 response was attenuated in patients using βB and showed correlation with 6MWD, reflecting better exercise tolerance. HRR1 after 6MWT seems to represent an alternative when treadmill tests could not be tolerated. PMID:24714794

  18. Geologic map and digital database of the Pinto Mountain 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    The geologic map and digital database of the Pinto Mountain quadrangle are products of a regional geologic mapping effort undertaken in the eastern Transverse Ranges in and around Joshua Tree National Park. This investigation, part of the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), is conducted in cooperation with the California Geologic Survey and the National Park Service. In line with the goals of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP), mapping of the Pinto Mountain and other quadrangles has been directed toward generating a multipurpose digital geologic map database that is applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. This mapping is conducted to further understanding of bedrock geology and surficial processes in the region and to document evidence for seismotectonic activity in the eastern Transverse Ranges. It is also intended to serve as a base layer suitable for ecosystem and mineral resource assessment and for building a hydrogeologic framework for Pinto Basin. Initial investigations span Pinto Basin from the Hexie and Eagle Mountains northward into the Pinto Mountains. Quadrangles mapped include the Conejo Well 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001a), the Porcupine Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001b), the Pinto Mountain 7.5-minute quadrangle, and the San Bernardino Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2002). Parts of the Pinto Mountain quadrangle had been mapped previously at a variety of scales (Weir, and Bader, 1963; Hope, 1966, 1969; Jennings, 1967; Powell, 1981, 1993).

  19. Geologic map and digital database of the San Bernardino Wash 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.; digital preparation by Cossette, Pamela M.

    2002-01-01

    The geologic map and digital database of the San Bernardino Wash quadrangle are products of a regional geologic mapping effort undertaken in the eastern Transverse Ranges in and around Joshua Tree National Park. This investigation, part of the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), is conducted in cooperation with the California Geologic Survey and the National Park Service. In line with the goals of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP), mapping of the San Bernardino Wash and other quadrangles has been directed toward generating a multipurpose digital geologic map database that is applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. This mapping is conducted to further understanding of bedrock geology and surficial processes in the region and to document evidence for seismotectonic activity in the eastern Transverse Ranges. It is also intended to serve as a base layer suitable for ecosystem and mineral resource assessment and for building a hydrogeologic framework for Pinto Basin. Initial investigations span Pinto Basin from the Hexie and Eagle Mountains northward into the Pinto Mountains (see fig. 1). Quadrangles mapped include the Conejo Well 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001a), the Porcupine Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001b), the Pinto Mountain 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2002), and the San Bernardino Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle. Parts of the San Bernardino Wash quadrangle had been mapped previously at a variety of scales (Weir, and Bader, 1963; Hope, 1966, 1969; Jennings, 1967; Powell, 1981, 1993).

  20. Minutes of the fourth SALE program participants meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This report is a documentation of the presentations made to the Fourth Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (S.A.L.E.) Program Participants Meeting at Argonne, Illinois, July 8-9, 1981. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and was coordinated by the S.A.L.E. Program of the New Brunswick Laboratory. The objective of the meeting was to provide a forum through which administration of the Program and methods appropriate to the analysis of S.A.L.E. Program samples could be discussed. The Minutes of the Meeting is a collection of presentations by the speakers at the meeting and of the discussions following the presentations. The presentations are included as submitted by the speakers. The discussion sections were transcribed from tape recordings of the meeting and were edited to clarify and emphasize important comments. Seventeen papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  1. Shock Acceleration of Solar Energetic Protons: The First 10 Minutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Chee K.; Reames, Donald V.

    2008-01-01

    Proton acceleration at a parallel coronal shock is modeled with self-consistent Alfven wave excitation and shock transmission. 18 - 50 keV seed protons at 0.1% of plasma proton density are accelerated in 10 minutes to a power-law intensity spectrum rolling over at 300 MeV by a 2500km s-1 shock traveling outward from 3.5 solar radius, for typical coronal conditions and low ambient wave intensities. Interaction of high-energy protons of large pitch-angles with Alfven waves amplified by low-energy protons of small pitch angles is key to rapid acceleration. Shock acceleration is not significantly retarded by sunward streaming protons interacting with downstream waves. There is no significant second-order Fermi acceleration.

  2. Ral-GTPases: approaching their 15 minutes of fame.

    PubMed

    Feig, Larry A

    2003-08-01

    Andy Warhol, the famous pop artist, once claimed that "in the future everyone will be famous for 15 minutes". The same, it seems, can be said of proteins, because at any given time some proteins become more "fashionable" to study than others. But most proteins have been highly conserved throughout millions of years of evolution, which implies that they all have essential roles in cell biology. Thus, each one will no doubt enter the limelight if the right experiment in the right cell type is done. A good example of this is the Ras-like GTPases (Ral-GTPases), which until recently existed in the shadow of their close cousins--the Ras proto-oncogenes. Recent studies have yielded insights into previously unappreciated roles for Ral-GTPases in intensively investigated disciplines such as vesicle trafficking, cell morphology, transcription and possibly even human oncogenesis.

  3. Rain Hampers Tsunami Relief Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The cleanup and relief efforts from the recent tsunamis continue in coastal communities that were ravaged by the waves all across the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains have further complicated the matter and added to the misery in parts of eastern Sri Lanka. Between December 28, 2004, and January 5, 2005, up to 10 to 15 inches of rain may have fallen along the southeast coast of the island, and as much as 20 inches (red areas) fell just offshore. This rainfall map was created by the TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which monitors rainfall over the global tropics. The map shows that many other regions around the Indian Ocean were also affected by the rains, including Malaysia and parts of Sumatra. The heaviest rains fell on December 31 and January 4. The rains were likely the result of a combination of the northeast monsoon interacting with the topography and an active phase of what is known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (or 30-60 day oscillation). The MJO is a large-scale disturbance that propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean into the West Pacific Ocean, bringing extended periods of unsettled weather with it. Individual convective complexes within the MJO can last on the order of a day. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. NASA image produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) and caption by Steve Lang (SSAI/NASA GSFC).

  4. A 12 MINUTE ORBITAL PERIOD DETACHED WHITE DWARF ECLIPSING BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Kenyon, Scott J.; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Prieto, Carlos Allende E-mail: mkilic@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jjhermes@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: callende@iac.es

    2011-08-10

    We have discovered a detached pair of white dwarfs (WDs) with a 12.75 minute orbital period and a 1315 km s{sup -1} radial velocity amplitude. We measure the full orbital parameters of the system using its light curve, which shows ellipsoidal variations, Doppler boosting, and primary and secondary eclipses. The primary is a 0.25 M{sub sun} tidally distorted helium WD, only the second tidally distorted WD known. The unseen secondary is a 0.55 M{sub sun} carbon-oxygen WD. The two WDs will come into contact in 0.9 Myr due to loss of energy and angular momentum via gravitational wave radiation. Upon contact the systems may merge (yielding a rapidly spinning massive WD), form a stable interacting binary, or possibly explode as an underluminous Type Ia supernova. The system currently has a gravitational wave strain of 10{sup -22}, about 10,000 times larger than the Hulse-Taylor pulsar; this system would be detected by the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna gravitational wave mission in the first week of operation. This system's rapid change in orbital period will provide a fundamental test of general relativity.

  5. Minutes of the CAALS Workshop on modularity and communications standards

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.W.

    1991-12-31

    This Workshop was organized similarly to the previous meeting. After a presentation by Scott Tilden on Instrument Interfacing, three of the four Working Groups met individually. The Strategic Planning Committee did not meet at this Workshop, but it held a meeting in April; the minutes of that meeting are included. The Physical link and Transport Committee has defined the requirements for the link connecting modules to their controller, examined a new ASTM standard for low-level communication, and is determining what fits into to the various layers of the ISO model. The Module Requirements Group has proposed a process control model, has defined the core functionality, and has listed the requirements for a Standard Laboratory Module. The Software Engineering Group proposed that a document detailing the CAALS Modularity Architectural Specification be prepared and presented a working outline. The future structure and charters of the committees and the decision making criteria of the Workshop itself were questioned. These items will be examined in greater detail at the next Workshop.

  6. 2D DIGE saturation labeling for minute sample amounts.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Georg J; Fröhlich, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The 2D DIGE technique, based on fluorophores covalently linked to amino acid side chain residues and the concept of an internal standard, has significantly improved reproducibility, sensitivity, and the dynamic range of protein quantification. In saturation DIGE, sulfhydryl groups of cysteines are labeled with cyanine dyes to completion, providing a so far unraveled sensitivity for protein detection and quantification in 2D gel-based proteomic experiments. Only a few micrograms of protein per 2D gel facilitate the analysis of about 2,000 analytes from complex mammalian cell or tissue samples. As a consequence, 2D saturation DIGE is the method of choice when only minute sample amounts are available for quantitative proteome analysis at the level of proteins rather than peptides. Since very low amounts of samples have to be handled in a reproducible manner, saturation DIGE-based proteomic experiments are technically demanding. Moreover, successful saturation DIGE approaches require a strict adherence to adequate reaction conditions at each step. This chapter is dedicated to colleagues already experienced in 2D PAGE protein separation and intends to support the establishment of this ultrasensitive technique in proteomic workgroups. We provide basic guidelines for the experimental design and discuss crucial aspects concerning labeling chemistry, sample preparation, and pitfalls caused by labeling artifacts. A detailed step-by-step protocol comprises all aspects from initial sample preparation to image analysis and statistical evaluation. Furthermore, we describe the generation of preparative saturation DIGE gels necessary for mass spectrometry-based spot identification.

  7. [Comparing the activity of multiple sclerosis (MS) at the minute and at 20 minutes of gadolinium application in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain?

    PubMed

    Saldívar-Uribe, Christina; de la Portilla-Villanueva, Mario Alberto; Esau-Mendoza-García, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to compare active disease in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, brain by MRI after gadolinium application at one minute and 20 minutes. A longitudinal, prospective, observational, analytical and comparative study was conducted in 18 patients over 18 years of age diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). An analysis was made for each patient, watching for inflammatory activity in MS lesions, comparing the results to one minute and 20 minutes after the application of gadolinium. For the descriptive analysis, absolute frequencies and percentages were used, as well as means and standard deviations or medians with ranges for the inferential analysis comparing the presence or absence of enhancement in lesions at one minute and 20 minutes; the exact probability test used was Fisher. Finally, the results were analyzed, looking at the gender distribution: 14 (77.8%) were female. The average age was 36.2 ± 9.5 years, with a minimum age of 18 years and a maximum of 55 years; four patients (22.2%) presented further highlight active lesions at 20 minutes, and two patients (11.1%) presented enhancement at one minute. Concluding that MRI in the diagnosis of MS is very important for the detection of activity in lesions caused by the disease, it is evident that the optimum time for evaluation of postcontrast sequences is 20 minutes.

  8. 90 Minutes of Moderate-Intensity Exercise does not Attenuate Postprandial Triglycerides in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    BODELL, NATHANIEL G.; GILLUM, TREVOR

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, prior to a high fat meal, attenuates postprandial triglycerides (PPT) in older adults. Eight sedentary older adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 58 ± 8 years, BMI 26.5 ± 4.2); completed two trials consisting of exercise and a no-exercise control. Exercise trials involved 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise 60% heart rate reserve (HRR). Following exercise, an overnight fast of 12–16 hours was performed. Participants were given a high fat meal that consisted of 146 grams of CHO, and 92 grams of fat and instructed to rest. Lipid levels were collected at pre-feeding, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours post feeding. The control trial involved no exercise, performed an overnight fast of 12–16 hours, and was given the high fat meal followed by four hours of rest and data collection. There was no difference in PPT between the control and exercise trials (p < 0.05). Triglycerides (TG) increased in both trials over pre-feeding values (pre-feeding 123.13 ± 65.03 con. 111 ± 53.9 ex., 1hr 161.50 ± 83.77 con. 149 ± 71.03 ex., 2hrs 208.25 ± 120.69 con. 177 ± 97.29 ex., 3hrs 228 ± 146.99 con. 147.25 ± 87.64 ex., 4hrs 211.75 ± 140.15 con. 169.5 ± 68.14 ex). No difference in triglycerides over time was observed among older adults between the exercise and control trials. PMID:27990228

  9. 90 Minutes of Moderate-Intensity Exercise does not Attenuate Postprandial Triglycerides in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Bodell, Nathaniel G; Gillum, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, prior to a high fat meal, attenuates postprandial triglycerides (PPT) in older adults. Eight sedentary older adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 58 ± 8 years, BMI 26.5 ± 4.2); completed two trials consisting of exercise and a no-exercise control. Exercise trials involved 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise 60% heart rate reserve (HRR). Following exercise, an overnight fast of 12-16 hours was performed. Participants were given a high fat meal that consisted of 146 grams of CHO, and 92 grams of fat and instructed to rest. Lipid levels were collected at pre-feeding, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours post feeding. The control trial involved no exercise, performed an overnight fast of 12-16 hours, and was given the high fat meal followed by four hours of rest and data collection. There was no difference in PPT between the control and exercise trials (p < 0.05). Triglycerides (TG) increased in both trials over pre-feeding values (pre-feeding 123.13 ± 65.03 con. 111 ± 53.9 ex., 1hr 161.50 ± 83.77 con. 149 ± 71.03 ex., 2hrs 208.25 ± 120.69 con. 177 ± 97.29 ex., 3hrs 228 ± 146.99 con. 147.25 ± 87.64 ex., 4hrs 211.75 ± 140.15 con. 169.5 ± 68.14 ex). No difference in triglycerides over time was observed among older adults between the exercise and control trials.

  10. Controlled Study of Correlation of Biomechanical Profile of Hemiparetic Patients with Distance Travelled in Six Minutes

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Laís Moreira; Quintão, Mônica Maria Pena; de Carvalho, Karen Santos R.; Carrapatoso, Beatriz Cantanhede; Malfacini, Sabrina Lindenberg L.; da Silva, André Custódio; Orsini, Marco; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Chermont, Sergio S.M.C.

    2015-01-01

    The six-minute walking test (6MWT) is used to assess exercise tolerance that is associated with motor function of the lower limbs in hemiparetic patients. It is suggested that, for post-stroke subjects, performance in the 6MWT may be limited by biomechanical and cardiovascular factors. Our aim is to determine the correlation between the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) and the biomechanical profile of hemiparetic patients. During this cross-sectional controlled study, 10 hemiparetic patients with heart failure underwent 6MWT (ATS protocol). Tonus (Ashworth Scale) and goniometry of the lower limbs were measured. The average of 6MWD in two tests was 279±8 m. There was a negative correlation between the degree of spasticity for both the sural triceps (r=–0.57, P<0.05), quadriceps (r=–0.58, P<0.05) and the limitation in ankle dorsiflexion and the 6MWD (r=–0.76, P<0.05). Also, there was correlation between hip extension and ankle dorsiflexion limitations with 6MWD (r=0.66, P<0.05), (r=0.77, P<0.05). The negative correlation between the highest spasticity in paretic limb and the 6MWD and the correlation between the lower movement range of paretic hip and ankle suggest association with these factors and gait velocity in 6MWT. Loss percentage represents the percentage calculation between distance traveled and the distance predicted achieved by patients. In this study, the negative correlation between the percentage of loss of 6MWD and the limitation in the ankle dorsiflexion movement suggests that for a minor motion arch of the ankle, there is a higher percentage of walking distance loss foretold. PMID:26487924

  11. Controlled Study of Correlation of Biomechanical Profile of Hemiparetic Patients with Distance Travelled in Six Minutes.

    PubMed

    Moura, Laís Moreira; Quintão, Mônica Maria Pena; de Carvalho, Karen Santos R; Carrapatoso, Beatriz Cantanhede; Malfacini, Sabrina Lindenberg L; da Silva, André Custódio; Orsini, Marco; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Chermont, Sergio S M C

    2015-09-24

    The six-minute walking test (6MWT) is used to assess exercise tolerance that is associated with motor function of the lower limbs in hemiparetic patients. It is suggested that, for post-stroke subjects, performance in the 6MWT may be limited by biomechanical and cardiovascular factors. Our aim is to determine the correlation between the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) and the biomechanical profile of hemiparetic patients. During this cross-sectional controlled study, 10 hemiparetic patients with heart failure underwent 6MWT (ATS protocol). Tonus (Ashworth Scale) and goniometry of the lower limbs were measured. The average of 6MWD in two tests was 279±8 m. There was a negative correlation between the degree of spasticity for both the sural triceps (r=-0.57, P<0.05), quadriceps (r=-0.58, P<0.05) and the limitation in ankle dorsiflexion and the 6MWD (r=-0.76, P<0.05). Also, there was correlation between hip extension and ankle dorsiflexion limitations with 6MWD (r=0.66, P<0.05), (r=0.77, P<0.05). The negative correlation between the highest spasticity in paretic limb and the 6MWD and the correlation between the lower movement range of paretic hip and ankle suggest association with these factors and gait velocity in 6MWT. Loss percentage represents the percentage calculation between distance traveled and the distance predicted achieved by patients. In this study, the negative correlation between the percentage of loss of 6MWD and the limitation in the ankle dorsiflexion movement suggests that for a minor motion arch of the ankle, there is a higher percentage of walking distance loss foretold.

  12. Oxygen desaturation during the six-minute walk test in COPD patients*

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Maria Ângela Fontoura; de Medeiros, Gabriel Arriola; Boeno, Francesco Pinto; Sanches, Paulo Roberto Stefani; da Silva, Danton Pereira; Müller, André Frotta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the behavior of oxygen saturation curves throughout the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with COPD. Methods: We included 85 patients, all of whom underwent spirometry and were classified as having moderate COPD (modCOPD, n = 30) or severe COPD (sevCOPD, n = 55). All of the patients performed a 6MWT, in a 27-m corridor with continuous SpO2 and HR monitoring by telemetry. We studied the SpO2 curves in order to determine the time to a 4% decrease in SpO2, the time to the minimum SpO2 (Tmin), and the post-6MWT time to return to the initial SpO2, the last designated recovery time (RT). For each of those curves, we calculated the slope. Results: The mean age in the modCOPD and sevCOPD groups was 66 ± 10 years and 62 ± 11 years, respectively. At baseline, SpO2 was > 94% in all of the patients; none received supplemental oxygen during the 6MWT; and none of the tests were interrupted. The six-minute walk distance did not differ significantly between the groups. The SpO2 values were lowest in the sevCOPD group. There was no difference between the groups regarding RT. In 71% and 63% of the sevCOPD and modCOPD group patients, respectively, a ≥ 4% decrease in SpO2 occurred within the first minute. We found that FEV1% correlated significantly with the ΔSpO2 (r = −0.398; p < 0.001), Tmin (r = −0.449; p < 0.001), and minimum SpO2 (r = 0.356; p < 0.005). Conclusions: In the sevCOPD group, in comparison with the modCOPD group, SpO2 was lower and the Tmin was greater, suggesting a worse prognosis in the former. PMID:25029644

  13. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    PubMed

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success.

  14. Global Marine Gravity and Bathymetry at 1-Minute Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandwell, D. T.; Smith, W. H.

    2008-12-01

    We have developed global gravity and bathymetry grids at 1-minute resolution. Three approaches are used to reduce the error in the satellite-derived marine gravity anomalies. First, we have retracked the raw waveforms from the ERS-1 and Geosat/GM missions resulting in improvements in range precision of 40% and 27%, respectively. Second, we have used the recently published EGM2008 global gravity model as a reference field to provide a seamless gravity transition from land to ocean. Third we have used a biharmonic spline interpolation method to construct residual vertical deflection grids. Comparisons between shipboard gravity and the global gravity grid show errors ranging from 2.0 mGal in the Gulf of Mexico to 4.0 mGal in areas with rugged seafloor topography. The largest errors occur on the crests of narrow large seamounts. The bathymetry grid is based on prediction from satellite gravity and available ship soundings. Global soundings were assembled from a wide variety of sources including NGDC/GEODAS, NOAA Coastal Relief, CCOM, IFREMER, JAMSTEC, NSF Polar Programs, UKHO, LDEO, HIG, SIO and numerous miscellaneous contributions. The National Geospatial-intelligence Agency and other volunteering hydrographic offices within the International Hydrographic Organization provided global significant shallow water (< 300 m) soundings derived from their nautical charts. All soundings were converted to a common format and were hand-edited in relation to a smooth bathymetric model. Land elevations and shoreline location are based on a combination SRTM30, GTOPO30, and ICESAT data. A new feature of the bathymetry grid is a matching grid of source identification number that enables one to establish the origin of the depth estimate in each grid cell. Both the gravity and bathymetry grids are freely available.

  15. [Xenon CT CBF mapping derived from two minutes inhalation].

    PubMed

    Toshima, R; Toyohara, K; Ebisawa, T; Ishikawa, K; Karashima, H; Shimojo, S; Miyahara, T

    1988-04-01

    Although xenon enhanced CT method for local cerebral blood flow measurement has been brought into a clinical practice, the technique has inherent limitations including anesthetic effects and expensive cost of xenon by a large consumption. To overcome these problems a modified method with a short-duration inhalation was developed and its validity was attested. Siemens Somatom SF with a resolution of 256 X 256 pixels and a scan time of 10 seconds was used. The subjects inhaled 50% Xe/O2 gas mixture from an apparatus consisted of Douglas bag and an open circuit. Xenon concentration in the expired gas was continuously monitored and estimated for arterial blood concentration by using a hematocrit correction. PaCO2 was monitored throughout the study. At the starting point and the endpoint of the inhalation two scans were performed respectively. Thus obtained four images were processed for CT noise cancellation, summation and subtraction to produce an in vivo autoradiography image. Local CBF was calculated from equations derived from the autoradiographic technique with a fixed partition coefficient of lambda = 1. Computer simulation studies were performed to find the optimal scan point to obtain an autoradiographic image and to estimate the calculation errors of this method. One minute and forty-five seconds was found to be the optimal scan point to gain an autoradiographic image in view of a balance between linearity of CBF/enhancement curve and total amount of tissue enhancement. The theoretical errors due to the assumption for a fixed partition coefficient were calculated to be 8% underestimation for gray matter and 5% overestimation for white matter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Database for the geologic map of the Sauk River 30-minute by 60-minute quadrangle, Washington (I-2592)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.W.; Booth, D.B.; Vance, J.A.; Ford, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    This digital map database has been prepared by R.W. Tabor from the published Geologic map of the Sauk River 30- by 60 Minute Quadrangle, Washington. Together with the accompanying text files as PDF, it provides information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The authors mapped most of the bedrock geology at 1:100,000 scale, but compiled most Quaternary units at 1:24,000 scale. The Quaternary contacts and structural data have been much simplified for the 1:100,000-scale map and database. The spatial resolution (scale) of the database is 1:100,000 or smaller. This database depicts the distribution of geologic materials and structures at a regional (1:100,000) scale. The report is intended to provide geologic information for the regional study of materials properties, earthquake shaking, landslide potential, mineral hazards, seismic velocity, and earthquake faults. In addition, the report contains information and interpretations about the regional geologic history and framework. However, the regional scale of this report does not provide sufficient detail for site development purposes.

  17. Database for the geologic map of the Chelan 30-minute by 60-minute quadrangle, Washington (I-1661)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.W.; Frizzell, V.A.; Whetten, J.T.; Waitt, R.B.; Swanson, D.A.; Byerly, G.R.; Booth, D.B.; Hetherington, M.J.; Zartman, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    This digital map database has been prepared by R. W. Tabor from the published Geologic map of the Chelan 30-Minute Quadrangle, Washington. Together with the accompanying text files as PDF, it provides information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The authors mapped most of the bedrock geology at 1:100,000 scale, but compiled Quaternary units at 1:24,000 scale. The Quaternary contacts and structural data have been much simplified for the 1:100,000-scale map and database. The spatial resolution (scale) of the database is 1:100,000 or smaller. This database depicts the distribution of geologic materials and structures at a regional (1:100,000) scale. The report is intended to provide geologic information for the regional study of materials properties, earthquake shaking, landslide potential, mineral hazards, seismic velocity, and earthquake faults. In addition, the report contains information and interpretations about the regional geologic history and framework. However, the regional scale of this report does not provide sufficient detail for site development purposes.

  18. 40 CFR 1603.12 - Availability of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of § 1603.7. Copies of the nonexempt portions of the transcript or minutes, or transcription of such... transcription or duplication. Requests for transcripts, recordings, or minutes shall be made in writing to...

  19. 40 CFR 1603.12 - Availability of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of § 1603.7. Copies of the nonexempt portions of the transcript or minutes, or transcription of such... transcription or duplication. Requests for transcripts, recordings, or minutes shall be made in writing to...

  20. 29 CFR 1209.08 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meetings; retention; public availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552b(c), copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of electronic recordings... transcription. Requests for copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of electronic recordings...

  1. 29 CFR 1209.08 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meetings; retention; public availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552b(c), copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of electronic recordings... transcription. Requests for copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of electronic recordings...

  2. 40 CFR 1603.12 - Availability of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of § 1603.7. Copies of the nonexempt portions of the transcript or minutes, or transcription of such... transcription or duplication. Requests for transcripts, recordings, or minutes shall be made in writing to...

  3. 40 CFR 1603.12 - Availability of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of § 1603.7. Copies of the nonexempt portions of the transcript or minutes, or transcription of such... transcription or duplication. Requests for transcripts, recordings, or minutes shall be made in writing to...

  4. 29 CFR 1209.08 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meetings; retention; public availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552b(c), copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of electronic recordings... transcription. Requests for copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of electronic recordings...

  5. 29 CFR 1209.08 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meetings; retention; public availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552b(c), copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of electronic recordings... transcription. Requests for copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of electronic recordings...

  6. 29 CFR 1209.08 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meetings; retention; public availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552b(c), copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of electronic recordings... transcription. Requests for copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of electronic recordings...

  7. [Sincerity of effort: isokinetic evaluation of knee extension].

    PubMed

    Colombo, R; Demaiti, G; Sartorio, F; Orlandini, D; Vercelli, S; Ferriero, G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find a reliable method to evaluate the sincerity of the muscular maximal effort performed in a dynamometric isokinetic test of knee flexion-extension. The coefficient of variation of the peak torque (CV) and 3 new indices were analysed: (1) the average coefficient of variation calculated on the complete peak torque curve (CVM); (2) the slope of the regression line in an endurance test (PRR); (3) the correlation coefficient of the peak torques in the same endurance test (CCR). Twenty healthy subjects underwent assessment in two different trials, maximal (MX) and 50% submaximal (SMX), with 20 minutes of rest between trials. Each trial consisted of 4 tests, each of 3 repetitions, at angular speed of 30, 180, 30, and 180 degrees/s, respectively, and 1 test of 15 repetitions at 240 degrees/s. Our findings confirmed the ability of CV to detect a high percentage of sincere efforts: at 30 degrees/s Sensibility (Sns)=100% and Specificity (Spc)=70%; at 180 degrees/s Sns=75%, Spc=95%. The 3 new indices here proposed showed high characteristics of Sns and Spc, generally better than those of CV. CVM showed at 180 degrees/s Sns=90% and Spc=100%, while at 30 degrees/s Sns=90%, Spc=75%. PRR was the best index identifying all the efforts, except one (Sns=100%, Spc=95%). The CCR coefficient showed Sns and Spc values both of 90%.

  8. 12 CFR 261b.12 - Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of transcriptions and minutes. 261b.12 Section 261b.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... § 261b.12 Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes. (a) Any person may inspect or copy a transcript, a recording or transcription of a recording, or minutes described...

  9. 5 CFR 1632.11 - Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... copies of transcriptions and minutes. 1632.11 Section 1632.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT... inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes. (a) Any person may inspect or copy a transcript, a recording or transcription, or minutes described in § 1632.10(c) of this part. (b) Requests...

  10. 5 CFR 1632.11 - Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... copies of transcriptions and minutes. 1632.11 Section 1632.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT... inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes. (a) Any person may inspect or copy a transcript, a recording or transcription, or minutes described in § 1632.10(c) of this part. (b) Requests...

  11. 5 CFR 1632.11 - Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... copies of transcriptions and minutes. 1632.11 Section 1632.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT... inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes. (a) Any person may inspect or copy a transcript, a recording or transcription, or minutes described in § 1632.10(c) of this part. (b) Requests...

  12. Modelling 1-minute directional observations of the global irradiance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thejll, Peter; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Direct and diffuse irradiances from the sky has been collected at 1-minute intervals for about a year from the experimental station at the Technical University of Denmark for the IEA project "Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting". These data were gathered by pyrheliometers tracking the Sun, as well as with apertured pyranometers gathering 1/8th and 1/16th of the light from the sky in 45 degree azimuthal ranges pointed around the compass. The data are gathered in order to develop detailed models of the potentially available solar energy and its variations at high temporal resolution in order to gain a more detailed understanding of the solar resource. This is important for a better understanding of the sub-grid scale cloud variation that cannot be resolved with climate and weather models. It is also important for optimizing the operation of active solar energy systems such as photovoltaic plants and thermal solar collector arrays, and for passive solar energy and lighting to buildings. We present regression-based modelling of the observed data, and focus, here, on the statistical properties of the model fits. Using models based on the one hand on what is found in the literature and on physical expectations, and on the other hand on purely statistical models, we find solutions that can explain up to 90% of the variance in global radiation. The models leaning on physical insights include terms for the direct solar radiation, a term for the circum-solar radiation, a diffuse term and a term for the horizon brightening/darkening. The purely statistical model is found using data- and formula-validation approaches picking model expressions from a general catalogue of possible formulae. The method allows nesting of expressions, and the results found are dependent on and heavily constrained by the cross-validation carried out on statistically independent testing and training data-sets. Slightly better fits -- in terms of variance explained -- is found using the purely

  13. Six-Minute Walk Test in Evaluation of Children with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Malgorzata; Migdal, Anna; Jagiellowicz-Kowalska, Dorota; Mazurkiewicz, Katarzyna; Sadel-Wieczorek, Anna; Brzezinska-Rajszys, Grazyna

    2017-04-01

    Six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a submaximal exercise test applied for evaluation of adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It was widely used as an endpoint in the clinical trials. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of 6MWT in management of children with PAH and to establish correlations with other clinical features. 164 6MWT were performed in 15 children between 5 and 18 years with PAH confirmed by right heart catheterization (102 in patients with shunt, 62 without shunt). Distance in 6MWT (6MWD)-% of predicted for age and gender, desaturation at the maximum effort, peak heart rate (HR)-% of maximal HR, were compared to the level of NTproBNP, WHO-FC, echocardiography parameters, and events of PAH treatment intensification. 6MWD had low negative correlation with peak HR (τ -0.1 p = 0,03), negative correlation with NTproBNP (τ -0.17 p = 0.002), and no dependence on echocardiography parameters. The presence of shunt was associated with lower 6MWD, lower blood saturation at rest, and higher desaturation after effort. Patients in III/IV WHO-FC achieved higher rest HR and maximal HR in comparison to patients in I/II WHO-FC (63.1 vs. 55.2% p < 0.01) and lower 6MWD (64.3 vs. 77.5% p < 0.01). In 14 out of 20 6MWT performed after treatment intensification, increase of distance was observed. The results of 6MWT were consistent with clinical status (WHO-FC, NTproBNP) but not with echocardiography parameters. 6MWT may be the source of additional information in management of children with PAH.

  14. RBANS embedded measures of suboptimal effort in dementia: effort scale has a lower failure rate than the effort index.

    PubMed

    Burton, Rachel L; Enright, Joe; O'Connell, Megan E; Lanting, Shawnda; Morgan, Debra

    2015-02-01

    The importance of evaluating effort in neuropsychological assessments has been widely acknowledged, but measuring effort in the context of dementia remains challenging due to the impact of dementia severity on effort measure scores. Two embedded measures have been developed for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS; Randolph, C., Tierney, M. C., Mohr, E., & Chase, T. N. (1998). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS): Preliminary clinical validity. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20 (3), 310-319): the Effort Index (EI; Silverberg, N. D., Wertheimer, J. C., & Fichtenberg, N. L. (2007). An effort index for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS). Clinical Neuropsychologist, 21 (5), 841-854) and the Effort Scale (ES; Novitski, J., Steele, S., Karantzoulis, S., & Randolph, C. (2012). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status effort scale. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27 (2), 190-195). We explored failure rates on these effort measures in a non-litigating mixed dementia sample (N = 145). Failure rate on the EI was high (48%) and associated with dementia severity. In contrast, failure on the ES was 14% but differed based on type of dementia. ES failure was low (4%) when dementia was due to Alzheimer disease (AD), but high (31%) for non-AD dementias. These data raise concerns about use of the RBANS embedded effort measures in dementia evaluations.

  15. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    PubMed

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed.

  16. Detection of Bacillus spores within 15 minutes by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Chetan; Inscore, Frank; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart; Sengupta, Atanu

    2012-06-01

    Since the distribution of Bacillus anthracis causing spores through the US Postal System, there has been a persistent fear that biological warfare agents (BWAs) will be used by terrorists against our military abroad and our civilians at home. Despite the substantial effort to develop BWA analyzers, they remain either too slow, produce high falsealarm rates, lack sensitivity, or cannot be fielded. Consequently there remains a need for a portable analyzer that can overcome these limitations as expressed at the 2011 Biological Weapons Convention. To meet this need we have been developing a sample system that selectively binds BWAs and produce surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra using portable Raman spectrometers. Here we describe the use of a short peptide ligand functionalized on silver nanoparticles to selectively capture Bacillus cereus spores (a surrogate of B. anthracis) and their subsequent detection by SER spectroscopy. This technique was used to specifically detect B. cereus spores over closely related species like B. subtilis belonging to the same genus within 15 minutes. Sensitivity of the method was demonstrated by detecting 104 B. cereus spores/mL of water. The technology, once developed should prove invaluable for rapid monitoring of BWAs, which will immensely help first responders and emergency personnel in implementing appropriate counter measures.

  17. Isostatic Gravity Map of the Battle Mountain 30 x 60 Minute Quadrangle, North Central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, D.A.; Morin, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction Gravity investigations of the Battle Mountain 30 x 60 minute quadrangle were begun as part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Land Management to help characterize the geology, mineral resources, hydrology, and ecology of the Humboldt River Basin in north-central Nevada. The Battle Mountain quadrangle is located between 40?30' and 41?N. lat. and 116? and 117?W. long. This isostatic gravity map of the Battle Mountain quadrangle was prepared from data from about 1,180 gravity stations. Most of these data are publicly available on a CD-ROM of gravity data of Nevada (Ponce, 1997) and in a published report (Jewel and others, 1997). Data from about 780 gravity stations were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1996; data from about 245 of these are unpublished (USGS, unpub. data, 1998). Data collected from the 400 gravity stations prior to 1996 are a subset of a gravity data compilation of the Winnemucca 1:250,000-scale quadrangle described in great detail by Wagini (1985) and Sikora (1991). This detailed information includes gravity meters used, dates of collection, sources, descriptions of base stations, plots of data, and a list of principal facts. A digital version of the entire data set for the Battle Mountain quadrangle is available on the World Wide Web at: http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/docs/gump/gump.html

  18. One minute, sub-one-watt photothermal tumor ablation using porphysomes, intrinsic multifunctional nanovesicles.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng S; Lovell, Jonathan F; Zheng, Gang

    2013-09-17

    We recently developed porphysomes as intrinsically multifunctional nanovesicles. A photosensitizer, pyropheophorbide α, was conjugated to a phospholipid and then self-assembled to liposome-like spherical vesicles. Due to the extremely high density of porphyrin in the porphyrin-lipid bilayer, porphysomes generated large extinction coefficients, structure-dependent fluorescence self-quenching, and excellent photothermal efficacy. In our formulation, porphysomes were synthesized using high pressure extrusion, and displayed a mean particle size around 120 nm. Twenty-four hr post-intravenous injection of porphysomes, the local temperature of the tumor increased from 30 °C to 62 °C rapidly upon one minute exposure of 750 mW (1.18 W/cm(2)), 671 nm laser irradiation. Following the complete thermal ablation of the tumor, eschars formed and healed within 2 weeks, while in the control groups the tumors continued to grow and all reached the defined end point within 3 weeks. These data show how porphysomes can be used as potent photothermal therapy (PTT) agents.

  19. ATR NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC USER FACILITY INSTRUMENTATION ENHANCEMENT EFFORTS

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2009-04-01

    A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to enhance instrumentation techniques available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing ‘real-time’ measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to offer increased fidelity data and reduced post-test examination costs. This paper describes the strategy for identifying new instrumentation needed for ATR irradiations and the program underway to develop and evaluate new sensors to address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing several new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide users improved in-pile instrumentation.

  20. Savings from Four Transport Safety Efforts in Native America

    PubMed Central

    Zaloshnja, Eduard; Miller, Ted R.; Lawrence, Bruce; Hicks, Kenny R.; Keiffer, Michael; Bill, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents cost-outcome analyses of four transportation injury prevention efforts in Native American jurisdictions. Pre- and post-intervention data were analyzed to estimate projects’ impact on injury reduction. Projects’ costs were amortized over the time period covered by the evaluation or over the useful life of physical capital invested. Projects’ savings were calculated based on estimated reduction in medical and public program expenses, on estimated decrease in lost productivity, and on estimated quality adjusted life years saved. All four projects yielded positive benefit-cost ratios. The net cost per quality adjusted life years was less than zero for all the projects. PMID:11558093

  1. Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

  2. Prostatron 30-minute update: where do we stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulchaker, James C.; Albani, Justin

    2003-06-01

    The urologic management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) beyond pharmaco-therapy has changed dramatically over the last decade. Open prostatectomy and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) have been the mainstays of surgical intervention for BPH. These procedures were initially reserved for patients with obstructive uropathy, prostatic bleeding, or bladder calculi. With improved techniques and lower morbidity, TURP is currently the "gold standard" of treatment for patients with BPH and troubling lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and patients are being treated prior to the development of these adverse sequelae. Nevertheless, TURP is still major surgery, requiring either a spinal or general anesthetic and an inpatient hospital stay. Furthermore, TURP is not uniformly successful. Up to 30% of patients report dissatisfaction from the procedure. Complications have been well described and include bleeding, bladder-neck contracture, erectile dysfunction retrograde ejaculation, urinary incontinence, and fluid/electrolyte imbalance (post-TUR syndrome). The mortality rate for TURP is approx. 2 - 10/1000 cases. Over the past decade, the number of TURPs being performed has been decreasing as minimally invasive therapies, including alpha-adrenergic blockers, are being used as "first-line" management with increasing frequency and success. In addition, urologists no longer just treat ill patients in urinary retention. The treatment paradigm has evolved to include patients with persistently troubling symptoms of bladder-outlet obstruction, prior to the development of such adverse sequelae. Furthermore, patients see the care of a urologist on an elective basis, and they frequently wish to avoid surgery. As described in prior chapters, advancements in our understanding of the pathophysiology of BPH have led toimprovements in its medical management and have delayed or precluded surgery in many patients. However, when pharmacotherapy fails, further treatment options

  3. Database for the Geologic Map of the Skykomish River 30-Minute by 60-Minute Quadrangle, Washington (I-1963)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.W.; Frizzell, V.A.; Booth, D.B.; Waitt, R.B.; Whetten, J.T.; Zartman, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    This digital map database has been prepared from the published geologic map of the Skykomish River 30- by 60-minute quadrangle by the senior author. Together with the accompanying text files as PDF, it provides information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The authors mapped most of the bedrock geology at 1:100,000 scale, but compiled Quaternary units at 1:24,000 scale. The Quaternary contacts and structural data have been much simplified for the 1:100,000-scale map and database. The spatial resolution (scale) of the database is 1:100,000 or smaller. From the eastern-most edges of suburban Seattle, the Skykomish River quadrangle stretches east across the low rolling hills and broad river valleys of the Puget Lowland, across the forested foothills of the North Cascades, and across high meadowlands to the bare rock peaks of the Cascade crest. The Straight Creek Fault, a major Pacific Northwest structure which almost bisects the quadrangle, mostly separates unmetamorphosed and low-grade metamorphic Paleozoic and Mesozoic oceanic rocks on the west from medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks on the east. Within the quadrangle the lower grade rocks are mostly Mesozoic melange units. To the east, the higher-grade terrane is mostly the Chiwaukum Schist and related gneisses of the Nason terrane and invading mid-Cretaceous stitching plutons. The Early Cretaceous Easton Metamorphic Suite crops out on both sides of the Straight Creek fault and records it's dextral displacement. On the south margin of the quadrangle, the fault separates the lower Eocene Swauk Formation on the east from the upper Eocene and Oligocene(?) Naches Formation and, farther north, its correlative Barlow Pass Volcanics the west. Stratigraphically equivalent rocks of the Puget Group crop out farther to the west. Rocks of

  4. One-Minute Quasi-Periodic Pulsations Seen in a Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Z.

    2017-01-01

    We study quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in the SOL2014-09-10 event that was detected by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) onboard the Fermi satellite. Previous studies have found that this flare displays four-minute QPPs in a broad range of wavelengths. In this article, we find that this event also shows QPPs with a period of around one minute. Using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method, the light curves are decomposed into fast- and slowly varying components with a separation at {≈} 100 seconds. The four-minute QPPs are in the slowly varying component, and the one-minute QPPs are identified with the fast-varying components in the impulsive and maximum phases. Similarly as the four-minute QPPs, the one-minute QPPs are simultaneously found in soft X-rays (SXR), extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and hard X-ray (HXR) emission. High correlations are found between the fast-varying components at the different wavelengths, especially between SXR and HXR. The spatial location of the sources of one-minute QPPs differ from those of the four-minute QPPs. The four-minute QPPs appear in the whole flare region, while the one-minute QPPs tend to originate from the flare loop footpoints. This finding provides an observational constraint for the physical origin of the QPPs.

  5. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  6. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  7. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  8. NASA cryogenic fluid management space experiment efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    A history of technological development for subcritical cryogenic fluid management (CFM) through space experiments is given for the period 1960 to 1990. Space experiments with liquid hydrogen were conducted in the early 1960s. Efforts since then have consisted of studies and designs of potential space experiments. A chronology of CFM space experiments and design efforts is included.

  9. Patterns of Research Effort in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Between species differences in research effort can lead to biases in our global view of evolution, ecology and conservation. The increase in meta-taxonomic comparative analyses on birds underlines the need to better address how research effort is distributed in this class. Methods have been developed to choose which species should be studied to obtain unbiased comparative data sets, but a precise and global knowledge of research effort is required to be able to properly apply them. We address this issue by providing a data set of research effort (number of papers from 1978 to 2008 in the Zoological Record database) estimates for the 10 064 species of birds. We then test whether research effort is associated with phylogeny, geography and eleven different life history and ecological traits. We show that phylogeny accounts for a large proportion of the variance, while geographic range and all the tested traits are also significant contributors to research effort variance. We identify avian taxa that are under- and overstudied and address the importance of research effort biases in evaluating vulnerability to extinction, with non-threatened species studied twice as much as threatened ones. Our research effort data set covering the entire class Aves provides a tool for researchers to incorporate this potential confounding variable in comparative analyses. PMID:24587149

  10. Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

  11. Motor effort alters changes of mind in sensorimotor decision making.

    PubMed

    Burk, Diana; Ingram, James N; Franklin, David W; Shadlen, Michael N; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    After committing to an action, a decision-maker can change their mind to revise the action. Such changes of mind can even occur when the stream of information that led to the action is curtailed at movement onset. This is explained by the time delays in sensory processing and motor planning which lead to a component at the end of the sensory stream that can only be processed after initiation. Such post-initiation processing can explain the pattern of changes of mind by asserting an accumulation of additional evidence to a criterion level, termed change-of-mind bound. Here we test the hypothesis that physical effort associated with the movement required to change one's mind affects the level of the change-of-mind bound and the time for post-initiation deliberation. We varied the effort required to change from one choice target to another in a reaching movement by varying the geometry of the choice targets or by applying a force field between the targets. We show that there is a reduction in the frequency of change of mind when the separation of the choice targets would require a larger excursion of the hand from the initial to the opposite choice. The reduction is best explained by an increase in the evidence required for changes of mind and a reduced time period of integration after the initial decision. Thus the criteria to revise an initial choice is sensitive to energetic costs.

  12. New Mexico district work-effort analysis computer program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hiss, W.L.; Trantolo, A.P.; Sparks, J.L.

    1972-01-01

    The computer program (CAN 2) described in this report is one of several related programs used in the New Mexico District cost-analysis system. The work-effort information used in these programs is accumulated and entered to the nearest hour on forms completed by each employee. Tabulating cards are punched directly from these forms after visual examinations for errors are made. Reports containing detailed work-effort data itemized by employee within each project and account and by account and project for each employee are prepared for both current-month and year-to-date periods by the CAN 2 computer program. An option allowing preparation of reports for a specified 3-month period is provided. The total number of hours worked on each account and project and a grand total of hours worked in the New Mexico District is computed and presented in a summary report for each period. Work effort not chargeable directly to individual projects or accounts is considered as overhead and can be apportioned to the individual accounts and projects on the basis of the ratio of the total hours of work effort for the individual accounts or projects to the total New Mexico District work effort at the option of the user. The hours of work performed by a particular section, such as General Investigations or Surface Water, are prorated and charged to the projects or accounts within the particular section. A number of surveillance or buffer accounts are employed to account for the hours worked on special events or on those parts of large projects or accounts that require a more detailed analysis. Any part of the New Mexico District operation can be separated and analyzed in detail by establishing an appropriate buffer account. With the exception of statements associated with word size, the computer program is written in FORTRAN IV in a relatively low and standard language level to facilitate its use on different digital computers. The program has been run only on a Control Data Corporation

  13. Microbiological Study of Cast Posts before Cementation

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda-Garces, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This study identifies the most common microorganisms present in type III gold cast posts related to pulpal disease and evaluates the sterilization/disinfection method before cementation in the root canal. Forty-five type III gold cast posts were aseptically collected in sterile sealed plastic bags and taken to the microbiology laboratory to carry out the study: fifteen cast posts had no treatment, fifteen were disinfected (immersion in 70% alcohol during 15 minutes), and fifteen were autoclaved at 121°C for 15 minutes by using saturated steam under 15 psi pressure. By using a two-proportion z-test, the difference was statistically significant (p > 0.05) and demonstrates that, in spite of the aseptic pattern used in the cast post collection and laboratory procedures, some cast posts arrive contaminated at the consulting office. The disinfection process worked out in a high percentage and demonstrated that the sterilization by autoclaving eliminated completely the pathogenic microbiota without affecting the cast post shape and integrity that could compromise their final fitting. PMID:28316625

  14. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  15. Team building and perceived effort in an exercise setting: gender effects.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Mark W; Spink, Kevin S

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the moderating role of gender on the team building (TB)/perceived effort relationship in an exercise setting. Youths (n=100) who participated in either a TB or control group exercise setting completed a measure of perceived effort prior to and following a TB intervention. A 2 (group)×2 (gender) ANCOVA controlling for baseline perceived effort revealed a significant interaction, F (1, 95)=4.50, p<.05. The interaction revealed that females in the TB condition reported significantly more perceived effort at the post-assessment than did those in the control condition whereas the perceived effort reported by males did not differ between conditions. These results provide preliminary evidence that gender may need to be considered in future TB investigations that include perceived effort as a dependent measure.

  16. Providing Students with Foundational Field Instruction within a 50 Minute Class Period: A Practical Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, M.

    2014-12-01

    There is a growing recognition among secondary educators and administrators that students need to have a science education that provides connections between familiar classes like biology, chemistry, and physics. Because of this waxing interest in an integrative approach to the sciences, there is a broader push for school districts to offer classes geared towards the earth sciences, a field that incorporates knowledge and skills gleaned from the three core science subjects. Within the contexts of a regular secondary school day on a traditional schedule (45- to 50-minute long classes), it is challenging to engage students in rigorous field-based learning, critical for students to develop a deeper understanding of geosciences content, without requiring extra time outside of the regular schedule. We suggest instruction using common, manmade features like drainage retention ponds to model good field practices and provide students with the opportunity to calculate basic hydrologic budgets, take pH readings, and, if in an area with seasonal rainfall, make observations regarding soils by way of trenching, and near-surface processes, including mass wasting and the effects of vegetation on geomorphology. Gains in student understanding are discussed by analyzing the difference in test scores between exams provided to the students after they had received only in-class instruction, and after they had received field instruction in addition to the in-class lectures. In an advanced setting, students made measurements regarding ion contents and pollution that allowed the classes to practice lab skills while developing a data set that was analyzed after field work was completed. It is posited that similar fieldwork could be an effective approach at an introductory level in post-secondary institutions.

  17. A metabolic measure of mental effort.

    PubMed

    Fairclough, Stephen H; Houston, Kim

    2004-04-01

    Previous studies have operationalised mental effort via various indices of psychophysiology, particularly cardiovascular measures. Metabolic measures represent a complementary approach wherein mental effort investment is explicitly linked to the process of energy mobilisation. The purpose of this study was to contrast cardiovascular variables (heart rate, 0.1 Hz component of heart rate variability) with a metabolic measure (blood glucose) of mental effort. Twenty-nine participants were exposed to Stroop stimuli over a 45 min period under two conditions: (a) congruent (i.e. 100% congruent Stroop stimuli); and (b) incongruent (i.e. 100% incongruent Stroop stimuli). Performance, blood glucose, cardiovascular activity and subjective mood were measured. The results indicated that blood glucose levels were sensitive to both Stroop and time-on-task variables, whilst cardiovascular measures were only sensitive to the latter. There was also evidence of an association between blood glucose levels and response accuracy. The implications of these findings for the operationalisation of mental effort are discussed.

  18. UV RESEARCH - FUNDED AND IN HOUSE EFFORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management research Laboratory (NRMRL) has performed or funded limited in-house and extramural research on the disinfection of CCL listed organisms using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. In addition, multiple extramural efforts have been funded to assess operation...

  19. Council Coordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Chris Dionigi, Assistant Director, Domestic Policy National Invasive Species Council Coordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts Report...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CouncilCoordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...ADDRESS(ES) National Invasive Species Council (NISC) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS

  20. Disrupting the supplementary motor area makes physical effort appear less effortful.

    PubMed

    Zénon, Alexandre; Sidibé, Mariam; Olivier, Etienne

    2015-06-10

    The perception of physical effort is relatively unaffected by the suppression of sensory afferences, indicating that this function relies mostly on the processing of the central motor command. Neural signals in the supplementary motor area (SMA) correlate with the intensity of effort, suggesting that the motor signal involved in effort perception could originate from this area, but experimental evidence supporting this view is still lacking. Here, we tested this hypothesis by disrupting neural activity in SMA, in primary motor cortex (M1), or in a control site by means of continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation, while measuring effort perception during grip forces of different intensities. After each grip force exertion, participants had the opportunity to either accept or refuse to replicate the same effort for varying amounts of reward. In addition to the subjective rating of perceived exertion, effort perception was estimated on the basis of the acceptance rate, the effort replication accuracy, the influence of the effort exerted in trial t on trial t+1, and pupil dilation. We found that disruption of SMA activity, but not of M1, led to a consistent decrease in effort perception, whatever the measure used to assess it. Accordingly, we modeled effort perception in a structural equation model and found that only SMA disruption led to a significant alteration of effort perception. These findings indicate that effort perception relies on the processing of a signal originating from motor-related neural circuits upstream of M1 and that SMA is a key node of this network.

  1. 17 CFR 147.8 - Public availability of transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., the transcript, electronic recording or set of minutes of the discussion of any item on the agenda of... discussion or testimony that are determined, in accordance with the procedure set forth in paragraph (b) of... transcripts, recordings or sets of minutes of closed meetings or closed portions thereof are exempt...

  2. 7 CFR 1600.8 - Transcript, recording or minutes; availability to the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... certification required by § 1600.7; (2) A copy of a statement from the presiding officer which sets forth the... Board will maintain either a transcript, electronic recording, or a complete set of minutes. Such..., transcription of the recording, or minutes of the discussion of any item on the agenda of a Board...

  3. 12 CFR 261b.12 - Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of transcriptions and minutes. 261b.12 Section 261b.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... OF MEETINGS § 261b.12 Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes. (a) Any person may inspect or copy a transcript, a recording or transcription of a recording,...

  4. 12 CFR 261b.12 - Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of transcriptions and minutes. 261b.12 Section 261b.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... OF MEETINGS § 261b.12 Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes. (a) Any person may inspect or copy a transcript, a recording or transcription of a recording,...

  5. 7 CFR 1600.8 - Transcript, recording or minutes; availability to the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., transcription of the recording, or minutes of the discussion of any item on the agenda of a Board meeting..., minutes, or transcriptions of electronic recordings of a Board meeting will disclose the identity of each speaker, and will be furnished to any person at the actual cost of transcription or duplication....

  6. 7 CFR 1600.8 - Transcript, recording or minutes; availability to the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., transcription of the recording, or minutes of the discussion of any item on the agenda of a Board meeting..., minutes, or transcriptions of electronic recordings of a Board meeting will disclose the identity of each speaker, and will be furnished to any person at the actual cost of transcription or duplication....

  7. 12 CFR 261b.12 - Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes. 261b.12 Section 261b.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... § 261b.12 Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes. (a) Any...

  8. Minutes of the fifth annual meeting of the panel on reference nuclear data

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, T.W.; Coyne, J.J.; Brenner, D.S.

    1981-04-01

    The minutes include: approval of agenda and minutes of the fourth meeting; elections; reactor physics data needs; fusion data needs; biomedical data needs; status of international and national cooperation; status and availability of data files; status of transfer of responsibilities from NDP to NNDC; status of publications; on-line data base systems; and summary of recommendations and actions. (GHT)

  9. 12 CFR 701.3 - Member inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Member inspection of credit union books... inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes. (a) Member inspection rights. A group of members of a...) Accounting books and records; and (2) Minutes of the proceedings of the credit union's members, board...

  10. 12 CFR 701.3 - Member inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Member inspection of credit union books... inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes. (a) Member inspection rights. A group of members of a...) Accounting books and records; and (2) Minutes of the proceedings of the credit union's members, board...

  11. 12 CFR 701.3 - Member inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Member inspection of credit union books... inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes. (a) Member inspection rights. A group of members of a...) Accounting books and records; and (2) Minutes of the proceedings of the credit union's members, board...

  12. 12 CFR 701.3 - Member inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Member inspection of credit union books... inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes. (a) Member inspection rights. A group of members of a...) Accounting books and records; and (2) Minutes of the proceedings of the credit union's members, board...

  13. 28 CFR 16.206 - Transcripts, minutes, and miscellaneous documents concerning Commission meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and interpretations adopted by it: 18 U.S.C. 4203(d). (b) The Commission shall maintain a complete... transcript or recording described above, or a set of minutes unless a recording is required by title 18 U.S.C. 4208(f). The minutes required by this section shall fully and clearly describe all matters...

  14. 28 CFR 16.206 - Transcripts, minutes, and miscellaneous documents concerning Commission meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and interpretations adopted by it: 18 U.S.C. 4203(d). (b) The Commission shall maintain a complete... transcript or recording described above, or a set of minutes unless a recording is required by title 18 U.S.C. 4208(f). The minutes required by this section shall fully and clearly describe all matters...

  15. 28 CFR 16.206 - Transcripts, minutes, and miscellaneous documents concerning Commission meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and interpretations adopted by it: 18 U.S.C. 4203(d). (b) The Commission shall maintain a complete... transcript or recording described above, or a set of minutes unless a recording is required by title 18 U.S.C. 4208(f). The minutes required by this section shall fully and clearly describe all matters...

  16. 28 CFR 16.206 - Transcripts, minutes, and miscellaneous documents concerning Commission meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and interpretations adopted by it: 18 U.S.C. 4203(d). (b) The Commission shall maintain a complete... transcript or recording described above, or a set of minutes unless a recording is required by title 18 U.S.C. 4208(f). The minutes required by this section shall fully and clearly describe all matters...

  17. 28 CFR 16.206 - Transcripts, minutes, and miscellaneous documents concerning Commission meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and interpretations adopted by it: 18 U.S.C. 4203(d). (b) The Commission shall maintain a complete... transcript or recording described above, or a set of minutes unless a recording is required by title 18 U.S.C. 4208(f). The minutes required by this section shall fully and clearly describe all matters...

  18. 47 CFR 0.607 - Transcript, recording or minutes; availability to the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transcript, recording or minutes; availability to the public. 0.607 Section 0.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Meeting Procedures § 0.607 Transcript, recording or minutes; availability to...

  19. Stretching-induced deficit of maximal isometric torque is restored within 10 minutes.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Takamasa; Matsumoto, Minoru; Umemura, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the time course of the stretching-induced decrease in maximal isometric plantar flexion torque. Nineteen women participated in 2 randomly ordered experimental trials: static 5-minute stretching or control with no stretching. The participants performed isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the right plantar flexor muscles, whereas electromyographic (EMG) amplitude (root mean square) was calculated for the medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles. Measurements were conducted preintervention; immediately after intervention; and 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes postintervention. The static 5-minute stretching trial consisted of dorsiflexion to the end range of motion and holding that position for 1 minute, 5 times, whereas the control trial consisted of 5 minutes of resting. As a result, the MVC torque was significantly decreased immediately after, and 5 minutes after the static 5-minute stretching intervention compared with the preintervention value (p < 0.05), and this change recovered within 10 minutes. However, the EMG amplitude did not change from preintervention to postintervention under any conditions. These results suggest that the deficits of static stretching are disabled in a short time after static stretching.

  20. Variable Seed Viability of Mile-a-Minute Weed (Devil's Tearthumb, Persicaria perfoliata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mile-a-minute weed or devil's tearthumb is an invasive annual vine in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States. It reproduces solely through seeds, and therefore a key aspect of mile-a-minute weed biology and control concerns the production of viable seed. Our study aimed to identify how seed...

  1. 10 CFR 1704.8 - Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings... IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1704.8 Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings. Along with the... shall maintain a complete transcript or electronic recording adequate to record fully the proceedings...

  2. 29 CFR 2203.7 - Transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed meetings..., recordings and minutes of closed meetings. (a) Record of meeting. The Commission will make a complete transcript or electronic recording adequate to record fully the proceedings of each meeting, or portion of...

  3. 29 CFR 2203.7 - Transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed meetings..., recordings and minutes of closed meetings. (a) Record of meeting. The Commission will make a complete transcript or electronic recording adequate to record fully the proceedings of each meeting, or portion of...

  4. 49 CFR 804.9 - Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed... Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings. Along with the General Counsel's certification and... electronic recording adequate to record fully the proceedings of each meeting, or a portion thereof,...

  5. Ten Minutes Wide: Human Walking Capacities and the Experiential Quality of Campus Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, David

    2011-01-01

    Whether a campus is large or small, the idea of a 10-minute walk is an important human-scaled design standard that affects an institution in significant ways beyond just getting students to class on time. Designing a 10-minute walk seems like a simple exercise. Based on earlier information, all one needs to do is provide a walking surface and make…

  6. 12 CFR 701.3 - Member inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member inspection of credit union books... inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes. (a) Member inspection rights. A group of members of a...) Accounting books and records; and (2) Minutes of the proceedings of the credit union's members, board...

  7. 32 CFR 242a.7 - Transcripts, recordings, and minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transcripts, recordings, and minutes of closed meetings. 242a.7 Section 242a.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242a.7 Transcripts, recordings, and minutes of closed...

  8. 10 CFR 1704.8 - Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings. 1704.8 Section 1704.8 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD RULES IMPLEMENTING THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1704.8 Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings. Along with...

  9. 10 CFR 1704.8 - Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings. 1704.8 Section 1704.8 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD RULES IMPLEMENTING THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1704.8 Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings. Along with...

  10. 10 CFR 1704.8 - Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings. 1704.8 Section 1704.8 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD RULES IMPLEMENTING THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1704.8 Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings. Along with...

  11. 10 CFR 1704.8 - Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings. 1704.8 Section 1704.8 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD RULES IMPLEMENTING THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1704.8 Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings. Along with...

  12. 47 CFR 69.154 - Per-minute carrier common line charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Per-minute carrier common line charge. 69.154 Section 69.154 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... carrier common line charge. (a) Local exchange carriers may recover a per-minute carrier common...

  13. Effect of split exercise sessions on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Kaminsky, L A; Padjen, S; LaHam-Saeger, J

    1990-01-01

    In this study the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), and related metabolic measures, following a 50 minute run compared to two 25 minute runs all at 70 per cent of peak VO2 in six women were investigated. Open-circuit spirometry procedures were used and appropriate control conditions were maintained for all trials. Following exercise, VO2 returned to baseline within 30 minutes for all three exercise trials. Magnitude of EPOC was also similar after all runs. However, the combined magnitude (expressed in kcals) of the two 25 minute runs was significantly greater than the continuous 50 minute run (13.88 vs 6.39). Heart rate remained elevated above baseline, and respiratory exchange ratio was lower than baseline 30 minutes after exercise. It is concluded that split exercise sessions can significantly increase post-exercise caloric expenditure. However, the overall magnitude of the increase is small. PMID:2265322

  14. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis.

  15. The special effort processing of FGGE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The basic FGGE level IIb data set was enhanced. It focused on removing deficiencies in the objective methods of quality assurance, removing efficiencies in certain types of operationally produced satellite soundings, and removing deficiencies in certain types of operationally produced cloud tracked winds. The Special Effort was a joint NASA-NOAA-University of Wisconsin effort. The University of Wisconsin installed an interactive McIDAS capability on the Amdahl computer at the Goddard Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) with one interactive video terminal at Goddard and the other at the World Weather Building. With this interactive capability a joint processing effort was undertaken to reprocess certain FGGE data sets. NOAA produced a specially edited data set for the special observing periods (SOPs) of FGGE. NASA produced an enhanced satellite sounding data set for the SOPs while the University of Wisconsin produced an enhanced cloud tracked wind set from the Japanese geostationary satellite images.

  16. The 30-minute decision-to-incision interval for emergency cesarean delivery: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Nasrallah, Fayez K; Harirah, Hassan M; Vadhera, Rakesh; Jain, Venu; Franklin, Letitia T; Hankins, Gary D V

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the current guideline of 30-minute decision-to-incision interval (D-I) in emergent cesarean delivery (ECD) on neonatal and maternal outcomes. A retrospective chart review was conducted of pregnant women who underwent ECDs between January 1999 and December 2001. The overall median D-I was 20 minutes (range, 5 to 57 minutes). In 83 women (group I), D-I was < or = 30 minutes, and in 28 women (group II), it exceeded 30 minutes. Group I had more neonates with cord pH < 7.00, seizures, encephalopathy, and lower Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes than group II, but were not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in neonatal admission to the neonatal intensive care unit or length of stay between the two groups. Maternal complications were higher in group I, but not statistically significant. Although it was achieved in most of the ECDs, the guideline of 30-minute D-I does not seem to improve neonatal nor worsen maternal outcomes.

  17. Update on research software citation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Research software citation has received a lot of attention the past few years, as evidenced by numerous efforts that have discussed it, including WSSSPE, Force11 Software Citation Working Group, the Center for Open Science's Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines, a workshop on Engineering Academic Software, and the CodeMeta project. This presentation briefly covers recent broad efforts to improve research transparency across disciplines through software availability and citation, and the Software Citation Principles that have recently been published as a result of the work done through Force11.

  18. C3-1: Footprints in the Sand: Tracking Physician Work Efforts in Primary Care Using Access Logs in an Electronic Health Record

    PubMed Central

    Tai-Seale, Ming; Wilson, Caroline; Olson, Cliff; Durbin, Meg; Morikawa, Criss; Luft, Hal

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Using EpicCare Electronic Health Record (EHR) data in a large multispecialty ambulatory delivery system, we explore a unique opportunity in which existing EHR data may offer clues on how clinicians use time, a scarce yet critical resource in health services delivery. Traditional means of studying physician time use during clinical encounters (e.g., direct observation) are costly and ignore pre-service and post-service work of physicians’ services. The EpicCare EHR offers an alternative, unobtrusive portal to study time use through analysis of access logs. Methods We used EHR access log data for one month in 2013 from 49 physicians in two primary care departments who cared for 22,174 patients in a large multispecialty ambulatory delivery system. Over 3 million EHR transactions are examined to explore individual physicians’ style of time use on different tasks, as reflected by the access log. In-depth key informant interviews are used to complement the access log data on how physicians use the EHR and the activities that are more or less likely to be captured by the access log. Results About 43.7% of physicians’ total time for the month involved in-person face-to-face visits, 33.8% involved pre and post visit time, 11.4% telephone calls, 5.6% secure messaging to patients, 2.6% prescription refills, and 1.6% on orders for labs, medications or referrals. The earliest EHR access in the office occurred at 12:00 am and the latest logging out time in the office was at 11:59 am the following day. For each patient visit, an average of 16.7 minutes was logged in the exam room and 7.9 minutes logged outside of the exam room. Conclusions The access log is a valuable tool for studying physician work efforts. Our findings highlight the significant amount of time clinicians spend outside of office visits. Unless there is a fixed ratio of in-office to total time, visit-centric FFS payment may undercompensate the significant efforts outside of visits. As

  19. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  20. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort.

    PubMed

    Friman, P C

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort.

  1. Statistical Modeling Efforts for Headspace Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Brian Phillip

    2016-03-17

    The purpose of this document is to describe the statistical modeling effort for gas concentrations in WIPP storage containers. The concentration (in ppm) of CO2 in the headspace volume of standard waste box (SWB) 68685 is shown. A Bayesian approach and an adaptive Metropolis-Hastings algorithm were used.

  2. Effort, success, and nonuse determine arm choice.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Xiao, Yupeng; Kim, Sujin; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Gordon, James; Osu, Rieko

    2015-07-01

    How do humans choose one arm or the other to reach single targets in front of the body? Current theories of reward-driven decisionmaking predict that choice results from a comparison of "action values," which are the expected rewards for possible actions in a given state. In addition, current theories of motor control predict that in planning arm movements, humans minimize an expected motor cost that balances motor effort and endpoint accuracy. Here, we test the hypotheses that arm choice is determined by comparison of action values comprising expected effort and expected task success for each arm, as well as a handedness bias. Right-handed subjects, in either a large or small target condition, were first instructed to use each hand in turn to shoot through an array of targets and then to choose either hand to shoot through the same targets. Effort was estimated via inverse kinematics and dynamics. A mixed-effects logistic-regression analysis showed that, as predicted, both expected effort and expected success predicted choice, as did arm use in the preceding trial. Finally, individual parameter estimation showed that the handedness bias correlated with mean difference between right- and left-arm success, leading to overall lower use of the left arm. We discuss our results in light of arm nonuse in individuals' poststroke.

  3. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  4. Mental Effort in Mobility Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Harald; Tellevik, Jon Magne; Elmerskog, Bengt; Storlilokken, Magnar

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the mental effort required to monitor landmarks and the effect of the type of route on mobility-route training. The results revealed that the features of landmarks and competence in travel were significantly related, indicating that some environmental factors related to height and width are more easily learned when people can…

  5. Revolutionary Educational Reform Efforts in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    1975-01-01

    The author briefly examines how educational reform attempts in Cuba since 1959 have taken place and how they have been related to social, economic, and political change efforts in the society at large. The Cuban educational system makes a significant contrast against the failure which characterizes the other Latin American educational systems.…

  6. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  7. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  8. Philanthropies Add Weight to "i3" Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.; McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on a new effort by 12 major education philanthropies that aims to dovetail with the Education Department's "i3" agenda, raising complex issues. The decision by a dozen major education grantmakers to team up on an initiative designed to dovetail with the federal "Investing in Innovation" grant competition is being seen by…

  9. Report: hospitals need more sophisticated planning efforts.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H J

    1990-09-20

    Sophisticated planning efforts are increasing among hospitals. However, hospital planners and marketers still have far to go before they can match their counterparts in industry. This is according to a report on hospital planning recently released by the Society for Healthcare Planning and Marketing of the American Hospital Association, Chicago.

  10. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    PubMed

    Muller, Martin N

    2016-09-08

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition.

  11. Economic Woes May Hurt Colleges' Green Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Recent events on Wall Street raise a complicated question: Will the financial crisis help or hurt colleges' sustainability efforts? Both are possible. In this article, the author discusses how the Wall Street meltdown may hurt colleges' green initiatives. However, advocates of sustainability see an opportunity to change the conversation. A…

  12. Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) spending and tobacco control efforts.

    PubMed

    Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W David; Jones, Walter; Nietert, Paul J; Silvestri, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the distributions to the states from the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) in 1998 is associated with stronger tobacco control efforts. We use state level data from 50 states and the District of Columbia from four time periods post MSA (1999, 2002, 2004, and 2006) for the analysis. Using fixed effect regression models, we estimate the relationship between MSA disbursements and a new aggregate measure of strength of state tobacco control known as the Strength of Tobacco Control (SoTC) Index. Results show an increase of $1 in the annual per capita MSA disbursement to a state is associated with a decrease of -0.316 in the SoTC mean value, indicating higher MSA payments were associated with weaker tobacco control measures within states. In order to achieve the initial objectives of the MSA payments, policy makers should focus on utilizing MSA payments strictly on tobacco control activities across states.

  13. The road to heaven is paved with effort: Perceived effort amplifies moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Bigman, Yochanan E; Tamir, Maya

    2016-12-01

    If good intentions pave the road to hell, what paves the road to heaven? We propose that moral judgments are based, in part, on the degree of effort exerted in performing the immoral or moral act. Because effort can serve as an index of goal importance, greater effort in performing immoral acts would lead to more negative judgments, whereas greater effort in performing moral acts would lead to more positive judgments. In support of these ideas, we found that perceived effort intensified judgments of both immoral (Studies 1-2) and moral (Studies 2-7) agents. The effect of effort on judgment was independent of the outcome (Study 3) and of perceptions of the outcome extremity (Study 6). Furthermore, the effect of effort on judgment was mediated by perceived goal importance (Studies 4-6), even when controlling for perceived intentions (Studies 5-6). Finally, we demonstrate that perceived effort can influence actual behavior, such as the assignment of monetary rewards (Study 7). We discuss the possible implications of effort as a causal motivational factor in moral judgment and social retribution. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Measurement of 100 B. anthracis Ames spores within 15 minutes by SERS at the US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Ctr.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Shende, Chetan; Smith, Wayne; Huang, Hermes; Sperry, Jay; Sickler, Todd; Prugh, Amber; Guicheteau, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Since the distribution of Bacillus anthracis-Ames spores through the US Postal System, there has been a persistent fear that biological warfare agents will be used by terrorists against our military abroad and our civilians at home. While there has been substantial effort since the anthrax attack of 2001 to develop analyzers to detect this and other biological warfare agents, the analyzers remain either too slow, lack sensitivity, produce high false-positive rates, or cannot be fielded. In an effort to overcome these limitations we have been developing a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy system. Here we describe the use of silver nanoparticles functionalized with a short peptide to selectively capture Bacillus anthracis spores and produce SER scattering. Specifically, measurements of 100 B. anthracis-Ames spores/mL in ~25 minutes performed at the US Army's Edgewood Chemical Biological Center are presented. The measurements provide a basis for the development of systems that can detect spores collected from the air or water supplies with the potential of saving lives during a biological warfare attack.

  15. Playing Exergames in the Classroom: Pre-Service Teachers' Motivation, Passion, Effort, and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Zhang, Tao

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service teachers' experience, motivation, passion, effort, and perspectives in playing exergames in the classroom using the self-determination theory as the main theoretical framework. One hundred forty preservice teachers participated in the study. A mixed method was used. Data included pre-survey and post-survey…

  16. "A Layin' on of Hands": Organizational Efforts among Black American Women, 1790-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Farah Jasmine

    1988-01-01

    Organizational efforts of Black women from the post- revolutionary period to the depression are examined. Informal community organizations of slaves led to benevolent and self-improvement organizations among free women. Major concerns were the family and the uplifting of the race. (VM)

  17. 22 CFR 1413.7 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meeting; public availability; retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pursuant to the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552b(c). Copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of... transcription. (c) The agency shall maintain a complete verbatim copy of the transcript, a complete copy of...

  18. 49 CFR 804.10 - Availability and retention of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... transcript or minutes, or transcription of such recordings disclosing the identity of each speaker, shall be furnished to any person at the actual cost of transcription or duplication. the NTSB shall maintain...

  19. 49 CFR 804.10 - Availability and retention of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transcript or minutes, or transcription of such recordings disclosing the identity of each speaker, shall be furnished to any person at the actual cost of transcription or duplication. the NTSB shall maintain...

  20. 10 CFR 1704.9 - Availability and retention of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of § 1704.4. Copies of the nonexempt portions of the transcript or minutes, or transcription of such... transcription or duplication. If at some later time the Board determines that there is no further...

  1. 22 CFR 1413.7 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meeting; public availability; retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pursuant to the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552b(c). Copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of... transcription. (c) The agency shall maintain a complete verbatim copy of the transcript, a complete copy of...

  2. 49 CFR 804.10 - Availability and retention of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transcript or minutes, or transcription of such recordings disclosing the identity of each speaker, shall be furnished to any person at the actual cost of transcription or duplication. the NTSB shall maintain...

  3. 10 CFR 1704.9 - Availability and retention of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of § 1704.4. Copies of the nonexempt portions of the transcript or minutes, or transcription of such... transcription or duplication. If at some later time the Board determines that there is no further...

  4. 10 CFR 1704.9 - Availability and retention of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of § 1704.4. Copies of the nonexempt portions of the transcript or minutes, or transcription of such... transcription or duplication. If at some later time the Board determines that there is no further...

  5. 49 CFR 804.10 - Availability and retention of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transcript or minutes, or transcription of such recordings disclosing the identity of each speaker, shall be furnished to any person at the actual cost of transcription or duplication. the NTSB shall maintain...

  6. 22 CFR 1413.7 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meeting; public availability; retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pursuant to the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552b(c). Copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of... transcription. (c) The agency shall maintain a complete verbatim copy of the transcript, a complete copy of...

  7. 22 CFR 1413.7 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meeting; public availability; retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pursuant to the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552b(c). Copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of... transcription. (c) The agency shall maintain a complete verbatim copy of the transcript, a complete copy of...

  8. 10 CFR 1704.9 - Availability and retention of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of § 1704.4. Copies of the nonexempt portions of the transcript or minutes, or transcription of such... transcription or duplication. If at some later time the Board determines that there is no further...

  9. 49 CFR 804.10 - Availability and retention of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transcript or minutes, or transcription of such recordings disclosing the identity of each speaker, shall be furnished to any person at the actual cost of transcription or duplication. the NTSB shall maintain...

  10. 25. FOLSOM, CALIFORNIA, 15 MINUTE QUADRANGLE. 1941. Scale 1:62,500. United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. FOLSOM, CALIFORNIA, 15 MINUTE QUADRANGLE. 1941. Scale 1:62,500. United States Geological Survey. - Natomas Ditch System, Rhodes Ditch, West of Bidwell Street, north of U.S. Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  11. Minutes of the meeting - pennsylvania electric association, engineering section, structures and hydraulics committee, spring, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The minutes contains 6 papers dealing with structures and hydraulics. Topics include: rehabilitation of small hydro projects; enviromental impact of hydroelectric projects; and pumped storage. 5 papers are indexed separately.

  12. NASA Now Minute: States of Matter: Finding and Using Water on the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Ed Ethridge explains how NASA can use water found on the moon’ssurface or other bodies in the solar system to reduce the cost ofexploration. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly curr...

  13. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  14. Effect of the 6-minute walk test on plantar loading and capability to produce ankle plantar flexion forces.

    PubMed

    Vie, Bruno; Griffon, Patricia; Bijoux, Audrey; Cadiere, Julie; Weber, Jean Paul; Jammes, Yves

    2016-09-01

    The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is used to evaluate the ambulatory capacity of patients suffering from respiratory disorders, obesity or neuromuscular diseases. Our primary aim was to evaluate the effects of the 6MWT on the postural sway and the ankle plantar flexion forces in healthy subjects. We measured the ankle plantar flexion forces and the plantar contact area before and after a 6MWT in normal weight and overweight subjects with no history of respiratory, cardiac, and neuromuscular disorders. A post-6MWT sensation of bodily fatigue was evaluated by Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) and Pichot fatigue scales. A computerized pedobarographic platform was used to collect the mean plantar contact area, the changes of the center of pressure (CoP) surface and its medial and lateral deviations. In a limited number of subjects, the reproducibility of all the measurements was explored. In both groups, the 6MWT elicited a sensation of bodily fatigue. It also significantly reduced the ankle plantar flexion forces, and increased both the mean plantar contact area and the CoP surface, the changes being not apparent after 10min. The post-6MWT lateral CoP deviations were accentuated in normal weight subjects, while an increase in medial CoP deviations occurred in overweight ones. The 6MWT-induced changes in the plantar flexion force and pedobarographic variables were reproducible. Because this study clearly showed some post-6MWT alterations of the subjects' posture sway of our subjects, we questioned the possible mechanisms occurring that could explain the altered muscle force and the transient destabilization of posture after the 6MWT.

  15. New technology emphasizes international offshore effort

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    While the offshore industry is focusing its major development efforts on the deeper waters of the US Gulf, West Africa and Brazil, technology has not stood still in the world`s many other established and frontier offshore development areas. These selected items drawn from contributions by UK companies and a major joint-venture development in Eastern Canada emphasize this effort. Included here are: (1) announcement of a major six-field, 3 Tcf gas development off Nova Scotia`s Sable Island and award of two drilling contracts; (2) a comprehensive study of mobile production units in the UK by Smith Rea Energy Analysts; (3) four applications of an option to high-pressure swivels on an FPSO with multiple subsea inlet lines; (4) a contract to supply a DC bus drive for 17 ESPs on Texaco`s Captain field; and (5) review of an environmental study of the Falkland Islands in preparation for exploration activity.

  16. Does software design complexity affect maintenance effort?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epping, Andreas; Lott, Christopher M.

    1994-01-01

    The design complexity of a software system may be characterized within a refinement level (e.g., data flow among modules), or between refinement levels (e.g., traceability between the specification and the design). We analyzed an existing set of data from NASA's Software Engineering Laboratory to test whether changing software modules with high design complexity requires more personnel effort than changing modules with low design complexity. By analyzing variables singly, we identified strong correlations between software design complexity and change effort for error corrections performed during the maintenance phase. By analyzing variables in combination, we found patterns which identify modules in which error corrections were costly to perform during the acceptance test phase.

  17. Final Report on the NCAR VTMX Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, David; Pinto, James; Brown, William; Cohen, Stephen; Morley, Bruce

    2007-02-13

    The NCAR effort is primarily focused on the analysis of a diverse suite of measurements taken at the southern end of the Salt Lake City Valley within the Jordan Narrows. These measurements include wind profiler, surface, lidar, radiosonde, multi-layered tether-sonde and sodar measurements. We are also collaborating with other VTMX investigators through linking our measurements within the Jordan Narrows with their investigations. The instrumentation was provided to interested VTMX investigators and was used extensively. Thus the NCAR data set played a large role in the results of the overall experiment. Our work under this proposal includes analysis of the observations, mesoscale modeling efforts in support of our VTMX analysis and general instrumentation development aimed at improving the measurement of vertical transport and mixing under stable conditions. This report is subdivided by research objectives.

  18. Combining "real effort" with induced effort costs: the ball-catching task.

    PubMed

    Gächter, Simon; Huang, Lingbo; Sefton, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the "ball-catching task", a novel computerized task, which combines a tangible action ("catching balls") with induced material cost of effort. The central feature of the ball-catching task is that it allows researchers to manipulate the cost of effort function as well as the production function, which permits quantitative predictions on effort provision. In an experiment with piece-rate incentives we find that the comparative static and the point predictions on effort provision are remarkably accurate. We also present experimental findings from three classic experiments, namely, team production, gift exchange and tournament, using the task. All of the results are closely in line with the stylized facts from experiments using purely induced values. We conclude that the ball-catching task combines the advantages of real effort tasks with the use of induced values, which is useful for theory-testing purposes as well as for applications.

  19. Counternarcotic Efforts in the Southern Cone: Argentina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-15

    in supporting international counter- narcotic actions. The epilogue stresses the need to change some aspects of the U.S. life-style to avoid losing the...Argentina is giving its best effort in supporting international countornarcotic actions. The epilogue in Chapter IV, stresses the need to change sono...International Narcotics Convention of 1961 which calls for the prohibition on coca chewing, but did not change its policy concerning the implemontation

  20. NRC; Smog control efforts off mark

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-06

    This paper reports that the National Research Council says the U.S. regulatory programs to control smog may have been misdirected the past 20 years, and more emphasis needs to be placed on limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. An NRC study the ozone control efforts have focused mainly on controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. However, in many parts of the country controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides would be more effective, it the, noting VOCs and nitrogen oxides are precursors of ozone.

  1. Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Danford

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

  2. Qualitative Evaluation of Health Information Exchange Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan S.; Guappone, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    Because most health information exchange (HIE) initiatives are as yet immature, formative evaluation is recommended so that what is learned through evaluation can be immediately applied to assist in HIE development efforts. Qualitative methods can be especially useful for formative evaluation because they can guide ongoing HIE growth while taking context into consideration. This paper describes important HIE-related research questions and outlines appropriate qualitative research techniques for addressing them. PMID:17904914

  3. Post-crisis efforts towards recovery and resilience after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-08-01

    One of the well-known radiation-associated late-onset cancers is childhood thyroid cancer as demonstrated around Chernobyl apparently from 1991. Therefore, immediately after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 2011, iodine thyroid blocking was considered regardless of its successful implementation or not at the indicated timing and places as one of the radiation protection measurements, in addition to evacuation and indoor sheltering, because a short-lived radioactive iodine was massively released into the environment which might crucially affect thyroid glands through inhalation and unrestricted consumption of contaminated food and milk. However, very fortunately, it is now increasingly believed that the exposure doses on the thyroid as well as whole body are too low to detect any radiation-associated cancer risk in Fukushima. Although the risk of radiation-associated health consequences of residents in Fukushima is quite different from that of Chernobyl and is considerably low based on the estimated radiation doses received during the accident for individuals, a large number of people have received psychosocial and mental stresses aggravated by radiation fear and anxiety, and remained in indeterminate and uncertain situation having been evacuated but not relocated. It is, therefore, critically important that best activities and practices related to recovery and resilience should be encouraged, supported and implemented at local and regional levels. Since psychosocial well-being of individuals and communities is the core element of resilience, local individuals, health professionals and authorities are uniquely positioned to identify and provide insight into what would provide the best resolution for their specific needs.

  4. A MULTI-MODEL ANALYSIS OF POST-2020 MITIGATION EFFORTS OF FIVE MAJOR ECONOMIES

    SciTech Connect

    van Sluisveld, Mariesse; Gernaat, David; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine V.; Garg, Amit; Isaac, Morna; Lucas, Paul; Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Otto, Sander A.; Rao, Shilpa; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.; Van Vliet, Jasper; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2013-11-01

    This paper looks into the regional mitigation strategies of five major economies (China, EU, India, Japan, and USA) in the context of the 2°C target, using a multi-model comparison. In order to stay in line with the 2°C target, a tripling or quadrupling of mitigation ambitions is required in all regions by 2050, employing vigorous decarbonization of the energy supply system and achieving negative emissions during the second half of the century. In all regions looked at, decarbonization of energy supply (and in particular power generation) is more important than reducing energy demand. Some differences in abatement strategies across the regions are projected: In India and the USA the emphasis is on prolonging fossil fuel use by coupling conventional technologies with carbon storage, whereas the other main strategy depicts a shift to carbon-neutral technologies with mostly renewables (China, EU) or nuclear power (Japan). Regions with access to large amounts of biomass, such as the USA, China, and the EU, can make a trade-off between energy related emissions and land related emissions, as the use of bioenergy can lead to a net increase in land use emissions. After supply-side changes, the most important abatement strategy focuses on end-use efficiency improvements, leading to considerable emission reductions in both the industry and transport sectors across all regions. Abatement strategies for non-CO2 emissions and land use emissions are found to have a smaller potential. Inherent model, as well as collective, biases have been observed affecting the regional response strategy or the available reduction potential in specific (end-use) sectors.

  5. Evaluation of Freshwater Mussel (Mollusca: Unionoidea) Fitness Pre- and Post- Relocation Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, H. E.; Farris, J. L.; Christian, A. D.

    2005-05-01

    Freshwater mussels are often displaced by human activities. Construction of bridges that offer potential impact to large numbers mussels often results in a relocation strategy to minimize loss. While this may reduce mortality, the metabolic consequences of relocation have not been evaluated. In this study we measured glycogen and lipid concentrations and RNA to DNA ratios to determine fitness impairments on relocated mussels. We hypothesize that organisms subjected to continuous stress should first use stored glycogen, followed by growth cessation measured as a reduction of RNA in relation to the DNA present, and finally a mobilization of tissue lipids, measured as a decrease in tissue lipid concentrations. We collected mantle snips from three surrogate species of mussels from four sites on the White River in eastern Arkansas during late summer, to establish expected glycogen, lipid, and RNA:DNA levels. Mean tissue lipids concentrations (μg/g) were 63.09, 67.96, and 50.46 for Quadrula quadrula, Q. pustulosa and Obliquaria reflexa, respectively. Mean tissue glycogen concentrations (μg/g) were 346.66, 592.26, and 336.58 for Q. quadrula, Q. pustulosa, and O. reflexa, respectively. This study can provide response information on relocated individuals as well as provide estimation of sufficient time required for mussel adaptation to novel environments.

  6. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-War Governance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-10

    Kurds Tell of Atrocities.” New York Times, December 6, 2002. 5 “U.S. Uncertain About Northern Iraq Group’s Link to Al Qaida.” Dow Jones Newswire...included an attempted assassination of senior Iraqi leader Tariq Aziz. Da’wa’s spokesman, Ibrahim Jafari, and its leader in Basra, Abd al Zahra Othman...2003) and Sabawi al -Tikriti, both other half brothers of Saddam and former leaders of regime intelligence bureaus; Tariq Aziz, deputy Prime Minister and

  7. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-War Governance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-22

    December 6, 2002. 5 “U.S. Uncertain About Northern Iraq Group’s Link to Al Qaida.” Dow Jones Newswire, March 18, 2002. 6 Finn, Peter and Susan...included an attempted assassination of senior Iraqi leader Tariq Aziz. Da’wa’s spokesman, Ibrahim Jafari, and its leader in Basra, Abd al Zahra Othman, are...4 Ansar al -Islam/ Al Qaeda

  8. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-18

    there under varying degrees of official restriction. CRS-6 5 “U.S. Uncertain About Northern Iraq Group’s Link to Al Qaida.” Dow Jones Newswire...including Tariq Aziz. Baqr Al Sadr and his sister were hung by the Iraqi regime in 1980 for the unrest, and many other Da’wa activists were killed or...Tikriti (captured in April 2003) and Sabawi al -Tikriti, both other half brothers of Saddam and former leaders of regime intelligence bureaus; Tariq

  9. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-25

    Iraqi Kurds Tell of Atrocities.” New York Times, December 6, 2002. 5 “U.S. Uncertain About Northern Iraq Group’s Link to Al Qaida.” Dow Jones Newswire...including Tariq Aziz. Baqr Al Sadr and his sister were hung by the Iraqi regime in 1980 for the unrest, and many other Da’wa activists were killed or...3 The Kurds/KDP and PUK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Ansar al -Islam/ Al Qaeda/Zarqawi

  10. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-07

    5 “U.S. Uncertain About Northern Iraq Group’s Link to Al Qaida.” Dow Jones Newswire, March 18, 2002. 6 Finn, Peter and Susan Schmidt. “ Al Qaeda Plans...assassinations of senior Iraqi leaders, including Tariq Aziz. Baqr Al Sadr and his sister were hung by the Iraqi regime in 1980 for the unrest, and many other...Sabawi al -Tikriti, both other half brothers of Saddam and former leaders of regime intelligence bureaus; Tariq Aziz, deputy Prime Minister and foremost

  11. Ribosomal protein insufficiency and the minute syndrome in Drosophila: a dose-response relationship.

    PubMed Central

    Saebøe-Larssen, S; Lyamouri, M; Merriam, J; Oksvold, M P; Lambertsson, A

    1998-01-01

    Minutes comprise > 50 phenotypically similar mutations scattered throughout the genome of Drosophila, many of which are identified as mutations in ribosomal protein (rp) genes. Common traits of the Minute phenotype are short and thin bristles, slow development, and recessive lethality. By mobilizing a P element inserted in the 5' UTR of M(3)95A, the gene encoding ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), we have generated two homozygous viable heteroalleles that are partial revertants with respect to the Minute phenotype. Molecular characterization revealed both alleles to be imprecise excisions, leaving 40 and 110 bp, respectively, at the P-element insertion site. The weaker allele (40 bp insert) is associated with a approximately 15% decrease in RPS3 mRNA abundance and displays a moderate Minute phenotype. In the stronger allele (110 bp insert) RPS3 mRNA levels are reduced by approximately 60%, resulting in an extreme Minute phenotype that includes many morphological abnormalities as well as sterility in both males and females due to disruption of early gametogenesis. The results show that there is a correlation between reduced RPS3 mRNA levels and the severity of the Minute phenotype, in which faulty differentiation of somatic tissues and arrest of gametogenesis represent the extreme case. That heteroalleles in M(3)95A can mimic the phenotypic variations that exist between different Minute/rp-gene mutations strongly suggests that all phenotypes primarily are caused by reductions in maximum protein synthesis rates, but that the sensitivity for reduced levels of the individual rp-gene products is different. PMID:9539436

  12. Crosstalk between above- and belowground herbivores is mediated by minute metabolic responses of the host Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Plants are frequently under attack by multiple herbivores and can be infested at their shoots as well as their roots. As a consequence, plant metabolites are readily induced, mediated by phytohormones such as salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Thereby, cross-talk between signal transduction pathways may occur if different herbivores attack the plant simultaneously. In turn, modifications in the plant metabolic pattern can affect herbivores infesting local and systemic tissue. Here, an integrative approach combining metabolomics and performance experiments was used to study the induction of plant metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana by the specialist aphid Brevicoryne brassicae feeding on shoots and the generalist nematode Heterodera schachtii infesting root tissue. In contrast to most other studies, low infestation rates typical for the decisive early stages of infestation were used. Moreover, the consequences of induction responses on plant-mediated indirect interactions between these herbivores were investigated. In aphid-treated plants, several metabolites including glucosinolates, important defence compounds of Brassicaceae, were reduced in the shoot, but only minute changes took part in the systemic root tissue. Primary metabolites as well as phytohormones were not altered 3 days post infestation. In contrast, nematodes did not evoke significant metabolic alterations locally or systemically. In accordance, nematode presence did not affect aphid population growth, whereas aphids mediated a considerably reduced nematode infestation. These results demonstrate that plants respond in a very fine-tuned way to different challenges. Although they show only minute systemic responses to low herbivore stress, these changes can have pronounced effects on plant-mediated interactions between herbivores. PMID:23045608

  13. Physical Activity Patterns of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2008-01-01

    Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of young women, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per…

  14. IVGEN Post Flight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquillen, John; Brown, Dan; Hussey, Sam; Zoldak, John

    2014-01-01

    The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment was a technology demonstration experiment that purified ISS potable water, mixed it with salt, and transferred it through a sterilizing filter. On-orbit performance was verified as appropriate and two 1.5 l bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA certified laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopiea (USP) standards. Salt concentration deviated from required values and an analysis identified probable causes. Current efforts are focused on Total Organic Content (TOC) testing, and shelf life.The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment demonstrated the purification of ISS potable water, the mixing of the purified water with sodium chloride, and sterilization of the solution via membrane filtration. On-orbit performance was monitored where feasible and two 1.5-liter bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA-registered laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopeia (USP)standards [1]. Current efforts have been focused on challenge testing with identified [2] impurities (total organic-carbon), and shelf life testing. The challenge testing flowed known concentrations of contaminants through the IVGEN deionizing cartridge and membrane filters to test their effectiveness. One finding was that the filters and DI-resin themselves contribute to the contaminant load during initial startup, suggesting that the first 100 ml of fluid be discarded. Shelf life testing is ongoing and involves periodic testing of stored DI cartridges and membrane filters that are capped and sealed in hermetic packages. The testing is conducted at six month intervals measuring conductivity and endotoxins in the effluent. Currently, the packaging technique has been successfully demonstrated for one year of storage testing. The USP standards specifies that the TOC be conducted at point of generation as opposed to point of

  15. Determinants of 6-minute walk distance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing lung transplant evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Lebron, Belinda N.; Kreider, Maryl; Lee, James; Kawut, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the physiologic determinants of 6-minute walk distance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated the demographic, pulmonary function, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic determinants of 6-minute walk distance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis evaluated for lung transplantation. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 130 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who completed a lung transplantation evaluation at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 2005 and 2010. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to generate an explanatory model for 6-minute walk distance. After adjustment for age, sex, race, height, and weight, the presence of right ventricular dilation was associated with a decrease of 50.9 m (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.4–93.3) in 6-minute walk distance (P=0.02). For each 200-mL reduction in forced vital capacity, the walk distance decreased by 15.0 m (95% CI, 9.0–21.1; P<0.001). For every increase of 1 Wood unit in pulmonary vascular resistance, the walk distance decreased by 17.3 m (95% CI, 5.1–29.5; P=0.006). Six-minute walk distance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis depends in part on circulatory impairment and the degree of restrictive lung disease. Future trials that target right ventricular morphology, pulmonary vascular resistance, and forced vital capacity may potentially improve exercise capacity in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27076905

  16. Implementing Successful Geoscience Education and Outreach Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    Successful geoscience Education and Outreach (E&O) efforts associated with a research program benefit from effective planning and a commitment by scientists/researchers to become more knowledgeable about and involved in education. Several suggested strategies have evolved based on experience in Earth science E&O with K-16 educators and students during the past 10 years. E&O programs and materials should be developed at appropriate levels ("start from where they're at") and utilize information, skills and topics that are most relevant to students and teachers. Hands-on and inquiry-based activities that teach or reinforce fundamental science understanding and skills, while introducing new topics, results and discoveries, are particularly effective. It is useful to design materials that can provide for a range of time commitment, level of technical skills, and effort, so that introductory to in-depth curriculum units can be implemented. Use of the Internet and working with teachers can be effective methods for dissemination and taking advantage of a "multiplying factor". Obtaining feedback and evaluation of the programs and developed materials, and connecting the materials to national or state education standards are also highly recommended. Most importantly, scientists should become more involved in the science education community. Attending and presenting papers at appropriate science education sessions or workshops, or state or national science teacher meetings (the annual National Science Teachers Association convention is an excellent place to start) can be a significant educational experience for the scientist/researcher. Effective geoscience E&O programs have significant potential for enhancing K-16 education and scientific literacy, and can help attract students to the sciences. Perhaps surprisingly, these efforts have substantial positive impact on the scientist/researcher as well.

  17. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    2014-06-15

    Isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. This effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  18. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N. E.

    2014-06-01

    We found that isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. Our effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  19. Multipartite Entanglement Detection with Minimal Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knips, Lukas; Schwemmer, Christian; Klein, Nico; Wieśniak, Marcin; Weinfurter, Harald

    2016-11-01

    Certifying entanglement of a multipartite state is generally considered a demanding task. Since an N qubit state is parametrized by 4N-1 real numbers, one might naively expect that the measurement effort of generic entanglement detection also scales exponentially with N . Here, we introduce a general scheme to construct efficient witnesses requiring a constant number of measurements independent of the number of qubits for states like, e.g., Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and Dicke states. For four qubits, we apply this novel method to experimental realizations of the aforementioned states and prove genuine four-partite entanglement with two measurement settings only.

  20. MEMS packaging efforts at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, Jonathan Sloane

    2003-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has programs covering a broad range of MEMS technologies from LIGA to bulk to surface micromachining. These MEMS technologies are being considered for an equally broad range of applications, including sensors, actuators, optics, and microfluidics. As these technologies have moved from the research to the prototype product stage, packaging has been required to develop new capabilities to integrated MEMS and other technologies into functional microsystems. This paper discusses several of Sandia's MEMS packaging efforts, focusing mainly on inserting Sandia's SUMMIT V (5-level polysilicon) surface micromachining technology into fieldable microsystems.

  1. Coercion and polio eradication efforts in Moradabad

    PubMed Central

    Rentmeester, Christy A; Dasgupta, Rajib; Feemster, Kristen A; Packard, Randall M

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the problem of vaccine coercion as reported in Moradabad, India. We offer commentary and critical analysis on ethical complexities at the intersection of global public health and regional political strife and relate them to broader vaccine goals. We draw upon a historical example from malaria vaccine efforts, focusing specifically on ethical and health justice issues expressed through the use of coercion in vaccine administration. We suggest how coercion is indicative of failed leadership in public health and consider community-based collaborations as models for cultivating local investment and trust in vaccination campaigns and for success in global public health initiatives. PMID:24401293

  2. Soldier Data Tag Study Effort. Appendices,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-10

    84-C-0146 on ,.a. SOLDIER DATA TAG " -:.,r .* STUDY EFFORT I T IT t APPENDICES to U.S. Army Soldier Support Center ATZI /ODS (Mr. Occhialini) Fort...SUPPORT CENTER * P2 DEN HARRISON, IN 46216 11 -:NG QVFZF N UAE AND ADORESS i REPORT DATE ATZI --DDS (MR. OCCHIALINI) JN 13 WAMSEROF PAGES 7-4 .’,kT N...Memorandum ATZI -DDS (14 Sep. 83) Subject: Input Requirements for SDT Cost/Benefits Analysis (CBA) , To Ch, Ofc of Analysis Spt From C, SDT, Date 5 Oct. 83

  3. Social facilitation in virtual reality-enhanced exercise: competitiveness moderates exercise effort of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Snyder, Amanda L; Nimon, Joseph P; Arciero, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a “cybercycle;” a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts) was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness) × time (pre- to post-avatar) interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003). Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness may maximize exercise effort. PMID:22087067

  4. Potential for temperature change during application of ultrasonic vibration to intra-radicular posts.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, Julian D; Stokes, Alastair N; Frankel, Nicholas T N

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential for heat production when intra-radicular posts were subjected to ultrasonic vibration. Thirty zirconium ceramic posts and thirty stainless steel posts were luted into canine roots. Ultrasonic vibration was applied to the top of each post for thirty minutes and temperature change on the root surface was measured. The mean peak temperature rise from baseline was 18.7 degrees C. Post type had no influence on peak temperature. Temperature increase on the external root surfaces increased as the thickness of dentine between post and root surface reduced.

  5. Language Situation in Post-War Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiek, Ahmed Gumaa

    2010-01-01

    The theme behind this paper is to review the language policy and language planning in the Sudan, after the institutionalization of peace; by exploring the recent policy of political factions in the North and the South towards languages in post-war Sudan. This effort aims at encouraging non-Arabic speaking-ethnic-groups to accept the Arabic…

  6. Respiration and Reproductive Effort in Xanthium canadense

    PubMed Central

    KINUGASA, TOSHIHIKO; HIKOSAKA, KOUKI; HIROSE, TADAKI

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The proportion of resources devoted to reproduction in the plant is called the reproductive effort (RE), which is most commonly expressed as the proportion of reproductive biomass to total plant biomass production (REW). Reproductive yield is the outcome of photosynthates allocated to reproductive structures minus subsequent respiratory consumption for construction and maintenance of reproductive structures. Thus, REW can differ from RE in terms of photosynthates allocated to reproductive structures (REP). • Methods Dry mass growth and respiration of vegetative and reproductive organs were measured in Xanthium canadense and the amount of photosynthates and its partitioning to dry mass growth and respiratory consumption were determined. Differences between REW and REP were analysed in terms of growth and maintenance respiration. • Key Results The fraction of allocated photosynthates that was consumed by respiration was smaller in the reproductive organ than in the vegetative organs. Consequently, REP was smaller than REW. The smaller respiratory consumption in the reproductive organ resulted from its shorter period of existence and a seasonal decline in temperature, as well as a slower rate of maintenance respiration, although the fraction of photosynthates consumed by growth respiration was larger than in the vegetative organs. • Conclusions Reproductive effort in terms of photosynthates (REP) was smaller than that in terms of biomass (REW). This difference resulted from respiratory consumption for maintenance, which was far smaller in the reproductive organ than in vegetative organs. PMID:15837721

  7. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  8. Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2005-01-01

    A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

  9. The STAFF studies of the first 5 minutes of percutaneous coronary angioplasty balloon occlusion in man.

    PubMed

    Warren, Stafford G; Wagner, Galen S

    2014-01-01

    The Staff Studies comprise a database of 228 patients undergoing elective 5 minute coronary artery balloon occlusion angioplasty at a single center in the pre-stent era in whom standard and high-frequency electrocardiographic and nuclear information was obtained immediately before, during and after balloon occlusion. The data were then analyzed by multiple investigators at different international academic centers from different perspectives. Simulating in a clinical setting the first 5 minutes of a heart attack, this database, now in digital format, is the largest database to date documenting standard and high-frequency ECG changes from the onset and for 5 minutes during acute coronary artery occlusion, with resting and occlusion imaging in a subset of these patients. The history, methodology, and legacy of these studies are discussed in this paper.

  10. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was

  11. Thunderstorm-associated cloud motions as computed from 5-minute SMS pictures. [Synchronous Meteorological Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tecson, J. J.; Umenhofer, T. A.; Fujita, T. T.

    1977-01-01

    The five-minute rapid-scan imagery from the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite is employed to study cloud motions associated with the Omaha tornado of May 6, 1975. Cloud-motion vectors derived from automated and man-machine interactive systems provide an account of the mesoscale phenomena. In addition to the geostationary satellite data, aerial photography obtained during a cloud-truth mission is used in the severe storm investigation. For tracking overland cumuli with short half-lives, a three-minute scan interval appears necessary for the satellite imagery.

  12. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale

    2004-02-01

    On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced

  13. The power of competition: Effects of social motivation on attention, sustained physical effort, and learning.

    PubMed

    DiMenichi, Brynne C; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Competition has often been implicated as a means to improve effort-based learning and attention. Two experiments examined the effects of competition on effort and memory. In Experiment 1, participants completed a physical effort task in which they were rewarded for winning an overall percentage, or for winning a competition they believed was against another player. In Experiment 2, participants completed a memory task in which they were rewarded for remembering an overall percentage of shapes, or more shapes than a "competitor." We found that, in the physical effort task, participants demonstrated faster reaction times (RTs)-a previous indicator of increased attention-in the competitive environment. Moreover, individual differences predicted the salience of competition's effect. Furthermore, male participants showed faster RTs and greater sustained effort as a result of a competitive environment, suggesting that males may be more affected by competition in physical effort tasks. However, in Experiment 2, participants remembered fewer shapes when competing, and later recalled less of these shapes during a post-test, suggesting that competition was harmful in our memory task. The different results from these two experiments suggest that competition can improve attention in a physical effort task, yet caution the use of competition in memory tasks.

  14. The power of competition: Effects of social motivation on attention, sustained physical effort, and learning

    PubMed Central

    DiMenichi, Brynne C.; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Competition has often been implicated as a means to improve effort-based learning and attention. Two experiments examined the effects of competition on effort and memory. In Experiment 1, participants completed a physical effort task in which they were rewarded for winning an overall percentage, or for winning a competition they believed was against another player. In Experiment 2, participants completed a memory task in which they were rewarded for remembering an overall percentage of shapes, or more shapes than a “competitor.” We found that, in the physical effort task, participants demonstrated faster reaction times (RTs)—a previous indicator of increased attention—in the competitive environment. Moreover, individual differences predicted the salience of competition’s effect. Furthermore, male participants showed faster RTs and greater sustained effort as a result of a competitive environment, suggesting that males may be more affected by competition in physical effort tasks. However, in Experiment 2, participants remembered fewer shapes when competing, and later recalled less of these shapes during a post-test, suggesting that competition was harmful in our memory task. The different results from these two experiments suggest that competition can improve attention in a physical effort task, yet caution the use of competition in memory tasks. PMID:26388801

  15. Piezoelectric and electromagnetic respiratory effort energy harvesters.

    PubMed

    Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Padasdao, Bryson; Romine, R; Stickley, C; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The movements of the torso due to normal breathing could be harvested as an alternative, and renewable power source for an ultra-low power electronic device. The same output signal could also be recorded as a physiological signal containing information about breathing, thus enabling self-powered wearable biosensors/harvesters. In this paper, the selection criteria for such a biosensor, optimization procedure, trade-offs, and challenges as a sensor and harvester are presented. The empirical data obtained from testing different modules on a mechanical torso and a human subject demonstrated that an electromagnetic generator could be used as an unobtrusive self-powered medical sensor by harvesting more power, offering reasonable amount of output voltage for rectification purposes, and detecting respiratory effort.

  16. Reminiscing about 15 years of interoperability efforts

    DOE PAGES

    Van de Sompel, Herbert; Nelson, Michael L.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past fifteen years, our perspective on tackling information interoperability problems for web-based scholarship has evolved significantly. In this opinion piece, we look back at three efforts that we have been involved in that aptly illustrate this evolution: OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE, and Memento. Understanding that no interoperability specification is neutral, we attempt to characterize the perspectives and technical toolkits that provided the basis for these endeavors. With that regard, we consider repository-centric and web-centric interoperability perspectives, and the use of a Linked Data or a REST/HATEAOS technology stack, respectively. In addition, we lament the lack of interoperability across nodes thatmore » play a role in web-based scholarship, but end on a constructive note with some ideas regarding a possible path forward.« less

  17. Reminiscing about 15 years of interoperability efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Sompel, Herbert; Nelson, Michael L.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past fifteen years, our perspective on tackling information interoperability problems for web-based scholarship has evolved significantly. In this opinion piece, we look back at three efforts that we have been involved in that aptly illustrate this evolution: OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE, and Memento. Understanding that no interoperability specification is neutral, we attempt to characterize the perspectives and technical toolkits that provided the basis for these endeavors. With that regard, we consider repository-centric and web-centric interoperability perspectives, and the use of a Linked Data or a REST/HATEAOS technology stack, respectively. In addition, we lament the lack of interoperability across nodes that play a role in web-based scholarship, but end on a constructive note with some ideas regarding a possible path forward.

  18. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement.

    PubMed

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M

    2001-06-01

    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  19. The NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Conkright, Margarita E.; OReilly, John E.; Patt, Frederick S.; Wang, Meng-Hua; Yoder, James; Casey-McCabe, Nancy; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite observations of global ocean chlorophyll span over two decades. However, incompatibilities between processing algorithms prevent us from quantifying natural variability. We applied a comprehensive reanalysis to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) archive, called the NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis (NCR) Effort. NCR consisted of 1) algorithm improvement (AI), where CZCS processing algorithms were improved using modernized atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms, and 2) blending, where in situ data were incorporated into the CZCS AI to minimize residual errors. The results indicated major improvement over the previously available CZCS archive. Global spatial and seasonal patterns of NCR chlorophyll indicated remarkable correspondence with modern sensors, suggesting compatibility. The NCR permits quantitative analyses of interannual and interdecadal trends in global ocean chlorophyll.

  20. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, P.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  1. Two groups challenge US acid rain efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    In its report, Acid Rain Invades Our National Parks, the National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA) says acid rain is being detected at all 27 national park monitoring sites. In 1980, 87 national parks expressed concern in a NPCA survey over acid rain. Repolled in 1986, more than half of the respondents reported that no research on acid rain was under way. The NPCA report concludes that the alarm that was sounded in 1980 fell largely on deaf ears, and calls for the structural and scientific reorganization of the National Park Service. The National Audubon Society shares NPCA's dissatisfaction with federal efforts to tackle the problem of acid rain and has taken testing into its own hands. Through its Citizens Acid Rain Monitoring Network, Audubon volunteers have collected readings of acidity at 64 monitoring stations in 31 states since July.

  2. Analyzing and Predicting Effort Associated with Finding and Fixing Software Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Maggie; Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Context: Software developers spend a significant amount of time fixing faults. However, not many papers have addressed the actual effort needed to fix software faults. Objective: The objective of this paper is twofold: (1) analysis of the effort needed to fix software faults and how it was affected by several factors and (2) prediction of the level of fix implementation effort based on the information provided in software change requests. Method: The work is based on data related to 1200 failures, extracted from the change tracking system of a large NASA mission. The analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics. Predictions are made using three supervised machine learning algorithms and three sampling techniques aimed at addressing the imbalanced data problem. Results: Our results show that (1) 83% of the total fix implementation effort was associated with only 20% of failures. (2) Both safety critical failures and post-release failures required three times more effort to fix compared to non-critical and pre-release counterparts, respectively. (3) Failures with fixes spread across multiple components or across multiple types of software artifacts required more effort. The spread across artifacts was more costly than spread across components. (4) Surprisingly, some types of faults associated with later life-cycle activities did not require significant effort. (5) The level of fix implementation effort was predicted with 73% overall accuracy using the original, imbalanced data. Using oversampling techniques improved the overall accuracy up to 77%. More importantly, oversampling significantly improved the prediction of the high level effort, from 31% to around 85%. Conclusions: This paper shows the importance of tying software failures to changes made to fix all associated faults, in one or more software components and/or in one or more software artifacts, and the benefit of studying how the spread of faults and other factors affect the fix implementation

  3. 12 CFR 407.6 - Transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... is closed pursuant to paragraphs (8), (9)(i) or (10) of § 407.2(a), Eximbank may maintain a set of..., electronic recording or set of minutes of a meeting will be made promptly available to the public for... any item on the agenda of such meeting which contains information of the kind described in §...

  4. The first three minutes - 1990 version. [of early universe after Big Bang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    The present state of understanding of what occurred in the universe's first three minutes is reviewed. Emphasis is on the events that lead to potentially observable consequences and that are model-independent or at least generic to broad classes of models. Inflation, phase transitions, dark matter, and nucleosynthesis are summarized.

  5. "My Mom and Her Boyfriend Fuss": A Five-Minute RAP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.; Whindleton, Kendra

    2012-01-01

    Unresolved issues from home often spill over into behavior problems at school. This article discusses the five-minute RAP techniques: (1) connect; (2) clarify; and (3) restore. The authors present a case study wherein this brief restorative intervention had been a successful alternative to punishment and exclusion.

  6. State Policies about Physical Activity Minutes in Physical Education or during School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Sallis, James F.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Schneider, Linda; McDermid, Lindsey C.; Agron, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Background: School policies can change practices on a relatively permanent basis. This study investigated adoption and implementation of state-level policies specifying minutes (or percent) of physical activity in physical education (PE) or during school. Methods: Policies were identi?ed from existing databases and rated as having weak, moderate,…

  7. How Long Is a Minute? The Importance of a Measured Plan of Response to Crisis Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Perry S.

    2010-01-01

    Physical interventions for special education students in crisis remains a controversial concept. The first minute of a crisis situation represents the most crucial time to prevent injury or the exacerbation of injury. Although preventing violence and escalation of negative emotions is the first step in crisis management, school staff also must be…

  8. Two Parts Reflection, One Part Selfie: A Visual Alternative to the Minute Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehlhause, Kellie

    2016-01-01

    For almost 40 years, the Minute Paper has been a quick and easy means of learning assessment, both in the college classroom and in library instruction. More recently, the use of social media, particularly selfies, has gained popularity by connecting with students through the technology with which they are most familiar. This article makes the case…

  9. 5 CFR 2413.7 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meeting; public availability; retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pursuant to the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552b(c). Copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of... schedule of fees set forth in § 2411.10 of this subchapter and the actual cost of transcription. (c)...

  10. 17 CFR 147.9 - Requests for copies of transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., recordings or minutes of closed meetings. (a) Copies of a transcript transcription of an electronic recording... § 147.8(a), shall be furnished to any person at the actual cost of duplication or transcription pursuant...)(9), (d) and (e). (b) Requests for copies of transcripts, transcriptions of electronic recordings...

  11. 5 CFR 2413.7 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meeting; public availability; retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pursuant to the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552b(c). Copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of... schedule of fees set forth in § 2411.10 of this subchapter and the actual cost of transcription. (c)...

  12. 17 CFR 147.9 - Requests for copies of transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., recordings or minutes of closed meetings. (a) Copies of a transcript transcription of an electronic recording... § 147.8(a), shall be furnished to any person at the actual cost of duplication or transcription pursuant...)(9), (d) and (e). (b) Requests for copies of transcripts, transcriptions of electronic recordings...

  13. 5 CFR 2413.7 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meeting; public availability; retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pursuant to the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552b(c). Copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of... schedule of fees set forth in § 2411.10 of this subchapter and the actual cost of transcription. (c)...

  14. 5 CFR 2413.7 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meeting; public availability; retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pursuant to the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552b(c). Copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of... schedule of fees set forth in § 2411.10 of this subchapter and the actual cost of transcription. (c)...

  15. 17 CFR 147.9 - Requests for copies of transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., recordings or minutes of closed meetings. (a) Copies of a transcript transcription of an electronic recording... § 147.8(a), shall be furnished to any person at the actual cost of duplication or transcription pursuant...)(9), (d) and (e). (b) Requests for copies of transcripts, transcriptions of electronic recordings...

  16. 17 CFR 147.9 - Requests for copies of transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meetings. (a) Copies of a transcript transcription of an... pursuant to § 147.8(a), shall be furnished to any person at the actual cost of duplication or transcription...), (a)(9), (d) and (e). (b) Requests for copies of transcripts, transcriptions of electronic...

  17. 17 CFR 147.9 - Requests for copies of transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., recordings or minutes of closed meetings. (a) Copies of a transcript transcription of an electronic recording... § 147.8(a), shall be furnished to any person at the actual cost of duplication or transcription pursuant...)(9), (d) and (e). (b) Requests for copies of transcripts, transcriptions of electronic recordings...

  18. 5 CFR 2413.7 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meeting; public availability; retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pursuant to the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552b(c). Copies of transcripts or minutes, or transcriptions of... schedule of fees set forth in § 2411.10 of this subchapter and the actual cost of transcription. (c)...

  19. One minute after the detonation of the atomic bomb: the erased effects of residual radiation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Government's official narrative denies the effects of residual radiation which appeared one minute after the atomic bomb detonations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This paper explores declassified documents from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the Atomic Bomb Casualties Commission, and others and shows that these documents actually suggested the existence of serious effects from residual radiation.

  20. 40 CFR 1603.11 - Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transcripts, recordings, or minutes of closed meetings. 1603.11 Section 1603.11 Protection of Environment CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARD RULES IMPLEMENTING THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1603.11 Transcripts, recordings,...

  1. 40 CFR 1603.12 - Availability of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees. 1603.12 Section 1603.12 Protection of Environment CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARD RULES IMPLEMENTING THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT §...

  2. YouTube Fridays: Engaging the Net Generation in 5 Minutes a Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2010-01-01

    YouTube Fridays is a teaching tool that devotes the first five minutes of class each Friday to a YouTube video related to the course. Students select the videos, which expand the class's educational content in courses such as thermodynamics and material and energy balances. From assessments of two pilot studies using YouTube Fridays in Chemical…

  3. Words Correct per Minute: The Variance in Standardized Reading Scores Accounted for by Reading Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jacqueline L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Floyd, Randy G.; Hale, Andrea D.; Neddenriep, Christine; Kirk, Emily P.

    2011-01-01

    The measure words correct per minute (WC/M) incorporates a measure of accurate aloud word reading and a measure of reading speed. The current article describes two studies designed to parse the variance in global reading scores accounted for by reading speed. In Study I, reading speed accounted for more than 40% of the reading composite score…

  4. 12 CFR 261b.12 - Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes. 261b.12 Section 261b.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... OF MEETINGS § 261b.12 Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and...

  5. "60 Minutes" as Pseudo-Event: The Social Deflection of Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryski, Bruce G.

    The formal and substantive traits of the television program, "60 Minutes" reflect characteristics manifest in Daniel Boorstin's conception of the "pseudo-event." Through both the verbal and visual imagery presented in the context of a narrative format, this television news magazine illustrates the significance of mass media…

  6. 29 CFR 102.142 - Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meetings; public availability; retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; public availability; retention. 102.142 Section 102.142 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Open Meetings § 102.142 Transcripts, recordings or minutes of closed meetings; public availability; retention. (a) For every meeting or portion...

  7. Formative Assessment: The One-Minute Paper vs. the Daily Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Regular assessment is a vital part of effective teaching and learning. For this, the "one-minute paper" has been popular among faculty. While many teachers who have used it find huge benefits from it, there are also several weaknesses of this tool that are commonly reported by its users. This paper suggests the "daily quiz" as…

  8. 17 CFR 147.8 - Public availability of transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Commodity Futures Trading Commission, Three Lafayette Centre, 1155 21st Street, NW., Washington, DC 20581... Commission shall maintain a complete verbatim copy of the transcript, a complete electronic recording or a complete copy of the minutes of each meeting or portion of a meeting closed to the public, which are...

  9. Effects of a 10-Minutes Peer Education Protocol to Reduce Binge Drinking among Adolescents during Holidays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planken, Martijn J. E.; Boer, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…

  10. Application of the One-Minute Preceptor Technique by Novice Teachers in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lap Ki; Yang, Jian; Irby, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The one-minute preceptor (OMP) was originally developed in the ambulatory care setting as a time-efficient teaching technique for learner-centered clinical training. There are also possible advantages of using the OMP in the gross anatomy laboratory. However, in a previous study it was found that providing training to experienced gross anatomy…

  11. Leadership Training: Putting the One Minute Manager to Work in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard L.

    The Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education selected material produced by Ken Blanchard, co-author of "The One Minute Manager," as the basis for a series of 4-day workshops on situational leadership for school personnel. Among the concepts brought to bear in situational leadership training are that (1) concern for…

  12. 5 CFR 1632.11 - Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD RULES REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 1632.11 Procedures for... writing to the Secretary of the Board, Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board, 1250 H Street NW., Washington, DC 20005. Copies of documents identified in minutes may be made available to the public...

  13. 5 CFR 1632.11 - Procedures for inspection and obtaining copies of transcriptions and minutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD RULES REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 1632.11 Procedures for... writing to the Secretary of the Board, Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board, 1250 H Street NW., Washington, DC 20005. Copies of documents identified in minutes may be made available to the public...

  14. 17 CFR 147.7 - Maintenance of transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., recordings and minutes of closed meetings. 147.7 Section 147.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OPEN COMMISSION MEETINGS § 147.7 Maintenance of transcripts, recordings and... recording adequate to record fully the proceedings of each meeting or portion of meeting closed to...

  15. Double minute chromosomes in mouse methotrexate-resistant cells studied by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Xinyu; Zhang Liangyu; Zhang Yu; Yan Yongda; Xu Zongwei; Dong Shen; Fu Songbin . E-mail: fusb@ems.hrbmu.edu.cn

    2006-08-11

    Double minute chromosomes (DMs) are acentric, autonomously replicating extra-chromosomes and frequently mediate gene amplification in tumor and drug resistant cells. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful tool in microbiology. We used AFM to explore the ultrastructure of DMs in mouse fibroblasts 3T3R500. DMs in various phases of cell cycle were also studied in order to elucidate the mechanisms of their duplication and separation. Metaphase spread and induced premature condensed chromosomes (PCCs) were observed under the AFM. DMs were detected to be composed of two compact spheres linked by fibers. The fibers of DMs directly connected with metaphase chromosomes were observed. Many single-minutes and few DMs were detected in G1 PCCs, while more DMs were detected in S PCCs than in G1 PCCs. Besides, all of the DMs in G2 PCCs were coupled. Our present results suggested that DMs might divide into single-minutes during or before G1-phase, followed by duplication of the single-minutes in S-phase. Moreover, we introduced a new powerful tool to study DMs and got some ideal results.

  16. Comparison of 7.5-minute and 1-degree digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaacson, Dennis L.; Ripple, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Two digital elevation models are compared for the Echo Mountain SE quadrangle in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Comparisons were made between 7.5-minute (1:24,000-scale) and 1-degree (1:250,000-scale) images using the variables of elevation, slope aspect, and slope gradient. Both visual and statistical differences are presented.

  17. Comparison of 7.5-minute and 1-degree digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaacson, Dennis L.; Ripple, William J.

    1995-01-01

    We compared two digital elevation models (DEM's) for the Echo Mountain SE quadrangle in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Comparisons were made between 7.5-minute (1:24,000-scale) and 1-degree (1:250,000-scale) images using the variables of elevation, slope aspect, and slope gradient. Both visual and statistical differences are presented.

  18. A simple semipaced 3-minute chair rise test for routine exercise tolerance testing in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Aguilaniu, Bernard; Roth, Hubert; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jesus; Jondot, Marie; Maitre, Jocelyne; Denis, François; Similowski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The functional work capacity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is usually assessed with walk tests such as the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) or the shuttle test. Because these exercise modalities require a controlled environment which limits their use by pulmonologists and severely restricts their use among general practitioners, different modalities of a short (1 minute or less) sit-to-stand test were recently proposed. In this study, we evaluated a new modality of a semipaced 3-minute chair rise test (3CRT) in 40 patients with COPD, and compared the reproducibility of physiological responses and symptoms during the 3CRT and their interchangeability with the 6MWT. The results demonstrate that physiological variables, heart rate, pulse oxygen saturation, work done, and symptoms (Borg dyspnea and fatigue scores), during the 3CRT were highly reproducible, and that the physiological responses and symptoms obtained during the 3CRT and the 6MWT were interchangeable for most patients. Moreover, these preliminary data suggest that patients able to perform more than 50 rises during 3 minutes had no significant disability. The simplicity and ease of execution of the 3CRT will facilitate the assessment of exercise symptoms and disability in COPD patients during routine consultations with pulmonologists and general practitioners, and will thus contribute to the improved management of COPD patients. PMID:25285001

  19. 10 CFR 1704.9 - Availability and retention of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability and retention of transcripts, recordings, and minutes, and applicable fees. 1704.9 Section 1704.9 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD RULES IMPLEMENTING THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1704.9 Availability and retention of transcripts,...

  20. Evaluation of model-based methods in estimating respiratory mechanics in the presence of variable patient effort.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Daniel P; Chiew, Yeong Shiong; Major, Vincent; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2016-09-23

    Monitoring of respiratory mechanics is required for guiding patient-specific mechanical ventilation settings in critical care. Many models of respiratory mechanics perform poorly in the presence of variable patient effort. Typical modelling approaches either attempt to mitigate the effect of the patient effort on the airway pressure waveforms, or attempt to capture the size and shape of the patient effort. This work analyses a range of methods to identify respiratory mechanics in volume controlled ventilation modes when there is patient effort. The models are compared using 4 Datasets, each with a sample of 30 breaths before, and 2-3 minutes after sedation has been administered. The sedation will reduce patient efforts, but the underlying pulmonary mechanical properties are unlikely to change during this short time. Model identified parameters from breathing cycles with patient effort are compared to breathing cycles that do not have patient effort. All models have advantages and disadvantages, so model selection may be specific to the respiratory mechanics application. However, in general, the combined method of iterative interpolative pressure reconstruction, and stacking multiple consecutive breaths together has the best performance over the Dataset. The variability of identified elastance when there is patient effort is the lowest with this method, and there is little systematic offset in identified mechanics when sedation is administered.

  1. Is there a conflict between minimizing effort and energy expenditure with increasing velocities of muscle contraction in humans?

    PubMed

    Chen, B; Jones, N L; Killian, K J

    1999-08-01

    1. The present study examined the possibility that minimizing effort conflicts with minimizing energy expenditure at different velocities of muscle contraction during cycling. 2. Six normal subjects underwent incremental exercise on an electrically stabilized cycle ergometer. Power output increased by 45 W every 3 min to exhaustion at pedalling frequencies of 40, 60, 80 and 100 r.p.m. on separate days. Energy expenditure (oxygen uptake), leg effort and dyspnoea (Borg 0-10 scale) were measured in parallel at the end of each minute. 3. All six subjects completed 10 min of exercise achieving 180 W for all four pedalling frequencies. Two-way analysis of variance indicated that oxygen uptake (P < 0.0001), leg effort (P < 0.0001) and dyspnoea (P < 0.0001) increased with duration of exercise and power output; oxygen uptake (P < 0.0001) and leg effort (P < 0.05) were significantly different between pedalling frequencies; the interactions were not significant. Oxygen uptake was minimal at 60 r.p.m., and increased at both higher and lower pedalling frequencies. Both leg effort and dyspnoea were minimal at 80 r.p.m.; leg effort intensified at higher and lower pedalling frequencies; and dyspnoea was most intense at 100 r.p.m. 4. There was a conflict between minimization of energy expenditure and leg effort at power outputs less than 180 W. Minimizing effort occurred at the expense of an increase in energy expenditure.

  2. Two new genera of big-eyed minute litter bugs (Hemiptera, Schizopteridae, Hypselosomatinae) from Brazil and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Hoey-Chamberlain, Rochelle; Weirauch, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Charismatic Hypselosomatinae (currently 14 extant and fossil genera; 72 species), the “big-eyed minute litter bugs”, are characterized among Schizopteridae (Dipsocoromorpha) by the large eyes, four-segmented labium, and distinctive wing venation. A recent molecular phylogenetic analysis confirmed the monophyly of Hypselosomatinae that were recovered as the sister taxon to the Ogeriinae + Schizopterinae (Weirauch and Štys 2014). Hypselosomatinae occur in the Old and New Worlds, but described species diversity is biased towards the Oriental and Australian regions: only three monotypic genera are currently known from the New World (Glyptocombus Heidemann, Ommatides Uhler, and Williamsocoris Carpintero & Dellapé). Based on 28 male, female, and juvenile specimens from Cuba and the Dominican Republic and a single male specimen from Brazil we here describe two new monotypic genera of Hypselosomatinae, Hypselosomops pecki gen. n. and sp. n., and Hypsohapsis takiyae gen. n. and sp. n. We provide habitus images, digital illustrations (light, scanning electron, and/or confocal microscope) of wing and male genitalic structures, line drawings of genitalic structures, and distribution maps. Bizarre morphologies, a worldwide distribution with small endemic species ranges, and a fossil record that dates back to the mid-Cretaceous make the Hypselosomatinae a fascinating group to explore in an effort to understand the evolutionary history of Dipsocoromorpha. PMID:28138288

  3. Investigating desorption of native pyrene from sediment on minute- to month-timescales by time-gated fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Dave T F; Adams, Rachel G; Rudnick, Steven M; Chen, Robert F; Gschwend, Philip M

    2007-11-15

    We investigated desorption of native pyrene from field-aged sediments using time-gated, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. LIF is superior to conventional analytical methods for the measurement of quickly changing dissolved pyrene because it allows observations at minute-scale resolution, has a low detection limit (approximately 1 ng/L), and minimizes sample loss and disturbance since it requires no system subsampling and chemical analysis. The efficacy of LIF was demonstrated in studies of pyrene desorption from Boston Harbor sediment segregated into different size-fractions (38-75, 75-106, and 180-250 microm diameter) and used in varying solid-to-water ratios (20, 70, and 280 mg(solid)/L). The effects of particle size and solid loading on desorption were consistent with diffusion physics. For suspension conditions between 20 and 280 mg(solids)/L, we observed desorption continuing toward an apparent plateau level over the course of weeks to months. This implies that the characteristic desorption time of pyrene from fine sediments and, by inference, other sediment-bound hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) of similar hydrophobicity, exceeds the typical characteristic times for pore water flushing and resuspension events. Consequently, the assumption of local sorption equilibrium in modeling efforts would be inappropriate.

  4. PTF1 J082340.04+081936.5: A Hot Subdwarf B Star with a Low-mass White Dwarf Companion in an 87-minute Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupfer, Thomas; van Roestel, Jan; Brooks, Jared; Geier, Stephan; Marsh, Tom R.; Groot, Paul J.; Bloemen, Steven; Prince, Thomas A.; Bellm, Eric; Heber, Ulrich; Bildsten, Lars; Miller, Adam A.; Dyer, Martin J.; Dhillon, Vik S.; Green, Matthew; Irawati, Puji; Laher, Russ; Littlefair, Stuart P.; Shupe, David L.; Steidel, Charles C.; Rattansoon, Somsawat; Pettini, Max

    2017-02-01

    We present the discovery of the hot subdwarf B star (sdB) binary PTF1 J082340.04+081936.5. The system has an orbital period of {P}{orb} = 87.49668(1) minutes (0.060761584(10) days), making it the second-most compact sdB binary known. The light curve shows ellipsoidal variations. Under the assumption that the sdB primary is synchronized with the orbit, we find a mass of {M}{sdB}={0.45}-0.07+0.09 {M}ȯ , a companion white dwarf mass of {M}{WD}={0.46}-0.09+0.12 {M}ȯ , and a mass ratio of q=\\tfrac{{M}{WD}}{{M}{sdB}}={1.03}-0.08+0.10. The future evolution was calculated using the MESA stellar evolution code. Adopting a canonical sdB mass of {M}{sdB}=0.47 {M}ȯ , we find that the sdB still burns helium at the time it will fill its Roche lobe if the orbital period was less than 106 minutes at the exit from the last common envelope (CE) phase. For longer CE exit periods, the sdB will have stopped burning helium and turned into a C/O white dwarf at the time of contact. Comparing the spectroscopically derived {log}g and {T}{eff} with our MESA models, we find that an sdB model with a hydrogen envelope mass of 5× {10}-4 {M}ȯ matches the measurements at a post-CE age of 94 Myr, corresponding to a post-CE orbital period of 109 minutes, which is close to the limit to start accretion while the sdB is still burning helium.

  5. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  6. Regionally Applied Research Efforts (RARE) Report titled " ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life. The objectives of this Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) study were to: (1) Develop culturally sensitive methodologies for assessing the potential level of exposure to contaminants that Penobscot Indian Nation tribal members may have from maintaining tribal sustenance practices; (2) Conduct field surveys and laboratory analysis on targeted flora and fauna for chemical expo

  7. STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

  8. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign’s strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  9. NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lammers, H.

    2012-02-01

    Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal and economic impacts of federal research investments. The president's call to action includes efforts to establish technology transfer goals and to measure progress, to engage in efforts to increase the speed of technology transfer and to enhance local and regional innovation partnerships. But, even before the White House began its initiative to restructure the commercialization process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory had a major effort underway designed to increase the speed and impact of technology transfer activities and had already made sure its innovations had a streamlined path to the private sector. For the last three years, NREL has been actively setting commercialization goals and tracking progress against those goals. For example, NREL sought to triple the number of innovations over a five-year period that began in 2009. Through best practices associated with inventor engagement, education and collaboration, NREL quadrupled the number of innovations in just three years. Similar progress has been made in patenting, licensing transactions, income generation and rewards to inventors. 'NREL is known nationally for our cutting-edge research and companies know to call us when they are ready to collaborate,' William Farris, vice president for commercialization and technology transfer, said. 'Once a team is ready to dive in, they don't want be mired in paperwork. We've worked to make our process for licensing NREL technology faster; it now takes less than 60 days for us to come to an agreement and start work with a company interested in our research.' While NREL maintains a robust patent

  10. Assessing effort: differentiating performance and symptom validity.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Sarah A; Millis, Scott R; Axelrod, Bradley N; Hanks, Robin A

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to clarify the relationship among the constructs involved in neuropsychological assessment, including cognitive performance, symptom self-report, performance validity, and symptom validity. Participants consisted of 120 consecutively evaluated individuals from a veteran's hospital with mixed referral sources. Measures included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Full Scale IQ (WAIS-IV FSIQ), California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), Trail Making Test Part B (TMT-B), Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT), WAIS-IV Reliable Digit Span (RDS), Post-traumatic Check List-Military Version (PCL-M), MMPI-2 F scale, MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale (FBS), MMPI-2 Response Bias Scale (RBS), and the Postconcussive Symptom Questionnaire (PCSQ). Six different models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine the factor model describing the relationships between cognitive performance, symptom self-report, performance validity, and symptom validity. The strongest and most parsimonious model was a three-factor model in which cognitive performance, performance validity, and self-reported symptoms (including both standard and symptom validity measures) were separate factors. The findings suggest failure in one validity domain does not necessarily invalidate the other domain. Thus, performance validity and symptom validity should be evaluated separately.

  11. 24 CFR 103.325 - Termination of conciliation efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of conciliation efforts... conciliation efforts. (a) HUD may terminate its efforts to conciliate the complaint if the respondent fails or refuses to confer with HUD; the aggrieved person or the respondent fail to make a good faith effort...

  12. Cortical functional connectivity under different auditory attentional efforts.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiangfei; Tong, Shanbao

    2012-01-01

    Auditory attentional effort (AAE) could be tuned to different levels in a top-down manner, while its neural correlates are still poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate the cortical connectivity under different levels of AAE. Multichannel EEG signals were recorded from nine subjects (male/female=6=3) in an auditory discrimination task under low or high AAE. Behavioral results showed that subjects paid more attention under high AAE and detected the probe stimuli better than low AAE. Partial directed coherence (PDC) was used to study the cortical functional connectivity within the first 300 ms post-stimulus period which includes the N100 and P200 components in the event-related potential (ERP). Majority of the cortical connections were strengthened with the increase of AAE. The right hemispheric dominance of connectivity in maintaining auditory attention was found under low AAE, which disappeared when the AAE was increased, indicating that the right hemispheric dominance previously reported might be due to a relatively lower AAE. Besides, most cortical connections under high AAE were found to be from the parietal cortex to the prefrontal cortex, which suggested the initiative role of parietal cortex in maintaining a high AAE.

  13. NEWS: Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    (post16) Making physics connect Doesn't Melvyn Bragg do a wonderful job, engaging both scientists and artists in sensitive discussion on Radio 4 about their methods and their purposes? But every week teachers have the chance to show their students that physics is a way of seeing the world that is well-connected with other aspects of knowledge and culture. The stakes are high: students who fail to appreciate this generally choose not to study the subject beyond GCSE. Most students find our preoccupation with technical detail off-putting. Accepting that we have a syllabus to cover, it's still a question of balance. In our teaching we should aim for variety in order to find ways to connect with every student's interests. Also, we can show that we (the nearest embodiment of a physicist some students will experience) are multidimensional and so fully human. Most important, teachers need flexibility to both encourage and respond to student comment and questions. The first booklet in the discussion series Shaping the Future takes up these themes. Rich in ideas for both immediate use and the longer term, it aims to stimulate debate and improve teaching. Copies cost £5.50 including postage and are available from Ingrid Ebeyer, Post-16 Initiative, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH. How far is it? This question is asked in many family cars and school minibuses at the start of a journey, and answered by most in terms of hours and minutes rather than miles. What a good idea for introducing a social and historical perspective to a lesson on distance, velocity and time. How far can you actually get in a day? What is the range of human activity? Walking for eight hours will get many people about 25 miles. A pack horse will progress at much the same rate, but fast riding or a coach and team of horses will get further. Motorway driving (when the cones are on holiday) would take you nearly 500 miles. The 05.15 am train from Penzance arrives in Inverness at 7

  14. Comparison of cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, J.; McKillip, J.; Savin, W.; Magder, S.; Kraus, R.; Houston, N.; Goris, M.; Haskell, W.; DeBusk, R.

    1982-06-01

    The cardiovascular responses to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone were evaluated by upright bicycle ergometry during equilibrium-gated blood pool scintigraphy in 24 men, mean age 59 +/- 8 years, with chronic ischemic heart disease. Combined static-dynamic effort and the postprandial state elicited a peak cardiovascular response similar to that of dynamic effort alone. Heart rate, intraarterial systolic and diastolic pressures, rate-pressure product and ejection fraction were similar for the three test conditions at the onset of ischemia and at peak effort. The prevalence and extent of exercise-induced ischemic left ventricular dysfunction, ST-segment depression, angina pectoris and ventricular ectopic activity were also similar during the three test conditions. Direct and indirect measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were highly correlated. The onset of ischemic ST-segment depression and angina pectoris correlated as strongly with heart rate alone as with the rate-pressure product during all three test conditions. The cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort and to postprandial dynamic effort becomes more similar to that of dynamic effort alone as dynamic effort reaches a symptom limit. If significant ischemic and arrhythmic abnormalities are absent during symptom-limited dynamic exercise testing, they are unlikely to appear during combined static-dynamic or postprandial dynamic effort.

  15. Database development in toxicogenomics: issues and efforts.

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, William B; Pettit, Syril D; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Bushel, Pierre R; Waters, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    The marriage of toxicology and genomics has created not only opportunities but also novel informatics challenges. As with the larger field of gene expression analysis, toxicogenomics faces the problems of probe annotation and data comparison across different array platforms. Toxicogenomics studies are generally built on standard toxicology studies generating biological end point data, and as such, one goal of toxicogenomics is to detect relationships between changes in gene expression and in those biological parameters. These challenges are best addressed through data collection into a well-designed toxicogenomics database. A successful publicly accessible toxicogenomics database will serve as a repository for data sharing and as a resource for analysis, data mining, and discussion. It will offer a vehicle for harmonizing nomenclature and analytical approaches and serve as a reference for regulatory organizations to evaluate toxicogenomics data submitted as part of registrations. Such a database would capture the experimental context of in vivo studies with great fidelity such that the dynamics of the dose response could be probed statistically with confidence. This review presents the collaborative efforts between the European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute ArrayExpress, the International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Science Institute, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Center for Toxigenomics Chemical Effects in Biological Systems knowledge base. The goal of this collaboration is to establish public infrastructure on an international scale and examine other developments aimed at establishing toxicogenomics databases. In this review we discuss several issues common to such databases: the requirement for identifying minimal descriptors to represent the experiment, the demand for standardizing data storage and exchange formats, the challenge of creating standardized nomenclature

  16. VLTI-UT vibrations effort and performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupar, Sébastien; Haguenauer, Pierre; Alonso, Jaime; Schuhler, Nicolas; Henriquez, Juan-Pablo; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bourget, Pierre; Brillant, Stephane; Castillo, Roberto; Gitton, Philippe; Gonte, Frederic; Di Lieto, Nicola; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Merand, Antoine; Woillez, Julien

    2014-07-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) using the Unit Telescope (UT) was strongly affected by vibrations since the first observations. Investigation by ESO on that subject had started in 2007, with a considerable effort since mid 2008. An important number of investigations on various sub-systems (On telescope: Guiding, Passive supports, Train Coude, insulation of electronics cabinets; On Instruments: dedicated campaign on each instruments with a special attention on the ones equipped with Close Cycle Cooler) were realized. Vibrations were not only recorded and analyzed using the usual accelerometers but also using on use sub-systems as InfRared Image Sensor (IRIS) and Multiple Applications Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) and using a specific tool developed for vibrations measurements Mirror vibrAtion Metrology systeM for the Unit Telescope (MAMMUT). Those tools and systems have been used in order to improve the knowledge on telescope by finding sources. The sources whenever it was possible were damped. As known for years, instruments are still the principal sources of vibrations, for the majority of the UT. A special test in which 2 UTs instruments were completely shut down was realized to determine the minimum Optical Path Length (OPL) achievable. Vibrations is now a part of the instruments interface document and during the installation of any new instrument (KMOS) or system (AOF) a test campaign is realized. As a result some modifications (damping of CCC) can be asked in case of non-compliance. To ensure good operational conditions, levels of vibrations are regularly recorded to control any environmental change.

  17. Holographic data storage: rebirthing a commercialization effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ken; Ayres, Mark; Sissom, Brad; Askham, Fred

    2014-02-01

    The realization of a commercial holographic data storage device has remained elusive for many decades. The most recent efforts were by InPhase Technologies between 2001 and 2009 resulting in 52 functioning prototypes capable of 300GB/disk and 20MB/s transfer rates. Despite being the world's first fully functional holographic drives, the primary competitor to holographic archive storage at that time, LTO, had already achieved 800GB and 120MB/in 2008; and by 2010, LTO had achieved 1.5TB and 140MB/s. This left InPhase at a competitive disadvantage to LTO archive solutions despite other strengths such as robustness, random access, and longer-term archive lifetime. Looking into the future, holographic data storage must be highly competitive with tape in three critical areas: cost/TB, capacity/footprint, and transfer rate. If this can be achieved, holographic data storage would become a superior solution given the low latencies and overall robustness to propel it into being the archive storage front-runner. New technology advancements by Akonia Holographics have enabled the potential for ultra-high capacity holographic storage devices that are capable of world record bit densities of over 2Tbit/in2, 200-300MB/s transfer rates, and a media cost less than $10/TB in the next 5 years. A demonstration platform based on these new advances has been designed and is currently being built by Akonia to progressively demonstrate bit densities of 2Tb/in2, 4Tb/in2, and 8Tb/in2 over the next year.

  18. Information Management System for Site Remediation Efforts.

    PubMed

    Laha; Mukherjee; Nebhrajani

    2000-05-01

    / Environmental regulatory agencies are responsible for protecting human health and the environment in their constituencies. Their responsibilities include the identification, evaluation, and cleanup of contaminated sites. Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) constitute a major source of subsurface and groundwater contamination. A significant portion of a regulatory body's efforts may be directed toward the management of UST-contaminated sites. In order to manage remedial sites effectively, vast quantities of information must be maintained, including analytical dataon chemical contaminants, remedial design features, and performance details. Currently, most regulatory agencies maintain such information manually. This makes it difficult to manage the data effectively. Some agencies have introduced automated record-keeping systems. However, the ad hoc approach in these endeavors makes it difficult to efficiently analyze, disseminate, and utilize the data. This paper identifies the information requirements for UST-contaminated site management at the Waste Cleanup Section of the Department of Environmental Resources Management in Dade County, Florida. It presents a viable design for an information management system to meet these requirements. The proposed solution is based on a back-end relational database management system with relevant tools for sophisticated data analysis and data mining. The database is designed with all tables in the third normal form to ensure data integrity, flexible access, and efficient query processing. In addition to all standard reports required by the agency, the system provides answers to ad hoc queries that are typically difficult to answer under the existing system. The database also serves as a repository of information for a decision support system to aid engineering design and risk analysis. The system may be integrated with a geographic information system for effective presentation and dissemination of spatial data.

  19. 1996 Design effort for IFMIF HEBT

    SciTech Connect

    Blind, B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper details the 1996 design effort for the IFMIF HEBT. Following a brief overview, it lists the primary requirements for the beam at the target, describes the design approach and design tools used, introduces the beamline modules, gives the results achieved with the design at this stage, points out possible improvements and gives the names and computer locations of the TRACE3-D and PARMILA files that sum up the design work. The design does not fully meet specifications in regards to the flatness of the distribution at the target. With further work, including if necessary some backup options, the flatness specifications may be realized. It is not proposed that the specifications, namely flatness to {+-}5% and higher-intensity ridges that are no more than 15% above average, be changed at this time. The design also does not meet the requirement that the modules of all beamlines should operate at the same settings. However, the goal of using identical components and operational procedures has been met and only minor returning is needed to produce very similar beam distributions from all beamlines. Significant further work is required in the following areas: TRACE3-D designs and PARMILA runs must be made for the beams coming from accelerators No. 3 and No. 4. Transport of 30-MeV and 35-MeV beams to the targets and beam dump must be studied. Comprehensive error studies must be made. These must result in tolerance specifications and may require design iterations. Detailed interfacing with target-spot instrumentation is required. This instrumentation must be able to check all aspects of the specifications.

  20. Would You Recommend Your Institution's Effort-Reporting Process to Others? Determining Best Practices in Effort-Reporting Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    Effort-reporting compliance at higher education institutions was examined to discern best practices from those that would recommend their effort-reporting process. Data were derived from a survey of effort administrators--the research administrators responsible for the effort-reporting compliance program at their respective higher education…

  1. Post-Nasal Drip

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Post-Nasal Drip Post-Nasal Drip Patient Health Information News media ... guaifenesin (Humibid®, Robitussin®) may also thin secretions. Nasal irrigations may alleviate thickened secretions. These can be performed ...

  2. Reducing statistics anxiety and enhancing statistics learning achievement: effectiveness of a one-minute strategy.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Chei-Chang; Wang, Yu-Min; Lee, Li-Tze

    2014-08-01

    Statistical knowledge is widely used in academia; however, statistics teachers struggle with the issue of how to reduce students' statistics anxiety and enhance students' statistics learning. This study assesses the effectiveness of a "one-minute paper strategy" in reducing students' statistics-related anxiety and in improving students' statistics-related achievement. Participants were 77 undergraduates from two classes enrolled in applied statistics courses. An experiment was implemented according to a pretest/posttest comparison group design. The quasi-experimental design showed that the one-minute paper strategy significantly reduced students' statistics anxiety and improved students' statistics learning achievement. The strategy was a better instructional tool than the textbook exercise for reducing students' statistics anxiety and improving students' statistics achievement.

  3. Double minute chromosomes can be produced from precursors derived from a chromosomal deletion.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, S M; DeRose, M L; Gaudray, P; Moore, C M; Needham-Vandevanter, D R; Von Hoff, D D; Wahl, G M

    1988-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that gene amplification can be mediated by submicroscopic, autonomously replicating, circular extrachromosomal molecules. We refer to those molecules as episomes (S. Carroll, P. Gaudray, M. L. DeRose, J. F. Emery, J. L. Meinkoth, E. Nakkim, M. Subler, D. D. Von Hoff, and G. M. Wahl, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:1740-1750, 1987). The experiments reported in this paper explore the way episomes are formed and their fate in the cell over time. The data reveal that in our system the episomes are initially 250 kilobases, but gradually enlarge until they become double minute chromosomes. In addition, we show that episomes or double minute chromosomes can integrate into chromosomes. Our results also suggest that episomes can be produced by deletion of the corresponding sequences from the chromosome. Images PMID:2898098

  4. Identification and characterization of a protein covalently bound to DNA of minute virus of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, M; Bodnar, J W; Polvino-Bodnar, M; Ward, D C

    1986-01-01

    We identified a protein which is covalently linked to a fraction of the DNA synthesized in cells infected with minute virus of mice. This protein is specifically bound to the 5' terminus of the extended terminal conformers of the minute virus of mice replicative-form DNA species and of a variable fraction of single-stranded viral DNA. The chemical stability of the protein-DNA linkage is characteristic of a phosphodiester bond between a tyrosine residue in the protein and the 5' end of the DNA. The terminal protein (TP) bound on all DNA forms has a relative molecular weight of 60,000; it is also seen free in extracts from infected cells. Immunologic comparison of the TP with the other known viral proteins suggests that the TP is not related to the capsid proteins or NS-1. Images PMID:2936897

  5. Trisomy 6 and double minute chromosomes in a case of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sambani, C; Trafalis, D T; Vessalas, G; Politis, G; Peristeris, P; Nakopoulou, L; Giannopoulou, J; Michaelidis, C; Ayoutantis, M; Pantelias, G E

    1998-10-15

    A 65-year-old woman with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia was shown to have trisomy 6 and multiple double minute chromosomes. The patient had no history of prior exposure to any mutagenic or carcinogenic agents. To our knowledge, this is the first report for presence of only these two aberrations. The expression of several oncoproteins and onco-related proteins was detected immunohistochemically in bone marrow cells. Among them, only the bcl-2 oncoprotein was positively stained in 100% of myeloblasts. Although the c-myc oncogene is frequently reported to be overexpressed in myeloid disorders with double minutes and associated with chemotherapy resistance and disease aggressiveness, in our case, the c-myc oncoprotein was not positively expressed. The patient received chemotherapy and complete hematological remission was successfully achieved.

  6. Minute pulmonary meningothelial-like nodules coexisting with pulmonary cryptococcosis mimicking lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kazunori; Yoshizu, Akira; Kashizaki, Fumihiro; Hida, Naoya; Hayashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-11-01

    A 68-year-old woman was found to have an abnormal shadow on chest X-ray. Computed tomography showed some small ground-glass opacities in the bilateral lung field and also a 22-mm tumor in the left lower lobe, which showed high accumulation on (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Each of them was difficult to distinguish from lung cancer clinically. Preoperative localization of a small ground-glass opacity nodule with computed tomography-guided lipiodol marking and resection of each using a fluoroscopic unit was performed. Pathological findings from the small nodule showed minute pulmonary meningothelial-like nodule, and those from the tumor and fungal culture showed pulmonary cryptococcosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of coexisting minute pulmonary meningothelial-like nodules and pulmonary cryptococcosis mimicking lung cancer. Thoracoscopy assisted by computed tomography-guided lipiodol marking enabled us to diagnose them.

  7. Uncontrolled Donors with Controlled Reperfusion after Sixty Minutes of Asystole: A Novel Reliable Resource for Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Reznik, Oleg N.; Skvortsov, Andrei E.; Reznik, Alexander O.; Ananyev, Alexey N.; Tutin, Alexey P.; Kuzmin, Denis O.; Bagnenko, Sergey F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Organ shortage leads to usage of kidneys from donors after sudden cardiac death, or uncontrolled donors (UDCD). Ischemic injury due to cessation of circulation remains a crucial problem that limits adoption of UDCD. Our clinical investigation was to determine the applicability of kidneys obtained from UDCD and resuscitated by extracorporeal perfusion in situ after 60 minutes of asystole. Methods In 2009–2011, organ procurement service of St. Petersburg, obtained kidneys from 22 UDCD with critically expanded warm ischemic time (WIT). No patients were considered as potential organ donors initially. All donors died after sudden irreversible cardiac arrest. Mean WIT was 61.4±4.5 minutes. For kidney resuscitation, the subnormothermic extracorporeal abdominal perfusion with thrombolytics and leukocyte depletion was employed. Grafts were transplanted into 44 recipients. The outcomes of transplantation of resuscitated kidneys were compared to outcomes of 87 KTx from 74 brain death donors (BDDs). Results Immediate functioning of kidney grafts was observed in 21 of the 44 recipients, with no cases of primary non function. By the end of the first post-transplant year there was an acute rejection rate of 9.1% (4 episodes of rejection) in the UDCD group versus 14.2% (13 episodes of rejection) in the BDD group. The actual 1-year graft survival rate was 95.5% (n = 42) in UDCD group, and 94.6% (n = 87) in BDD group. Creatinine levels at the end of the first year were 0.116±0.008 and 0.115±0.004 mmol/l in UDCD and BDD groups, respectively. Conclusions UDCD kidneys with critically expanded WIT could be succefully used for transplantation if in situ organ “resuscitation” perfusion is included into procurement protocol. The results of 1-year follow-up meet the generally accepted criteria for graft survival and function. In situ reperfusion may exert a therapeutic effect on grafts before procurement. This approach could substantially expand the organ donors

  8. Minutes of the workshop on off-site release criteria for contaminated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.

    1989-11-01

    A one and one-half-day workshop was held May 2-3, 1989, at the Pollard Auditorium in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with the objective of formulating a strategy for developing reasonable and uniform criteria for releasing radioactively contaminated materials from the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. This report contains the minutes of the workshop. At the conclusion of the workshop, a plan was formulated to facilitate the development of the above-mentioned off-site release criteria.

  9. The First 109 Minutes: 9/11 and the U.S. Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    forced its pilot to divert it to New York after a refueling stop in Hanover, Germany. After the plane landed at John F. Kennedy International Airport...assumed, would be transmitted by the pilot.63 In the words of Cleveland Center air traffic controller John Werth, the thirty-year FAA veteran who han...as the situation escalated during what would be the missing aircraft’s last six or seven minutes of flight, John Hartling, Zalewski’s colleague and

  10. Ten minutes of dynamic stretching is sufficient to potentiate vertical jump performance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Turki, Olfa; Chaouachi, Anis; Drinkwater, Eric J; Chtara, Moktar; Chamari, Karim; Amri, Mohamed; Behm, David G

    2011-09-01

    The current literature recommends dynamic rather than static stretching for the athletic warm-up. Dynamic stretching and various conditioning stimuli are used to induce potentiation in subsequent athletic performance. However, it is unknown as to which type of activity in conjunction with dynamic stretching within a warm-up provides the optimal potentiation of vertical jump performance. It was the objective of the study to examine the possible potentiating effect of various types of conditioning stimuli with dynamic stretching. Twenty athletes participated in 6 protocols. All the experimental protocols included 10 minutes of dynamic stretching. After the dynamic stretching, the subjects performed a (a) concentric (DS/CON): 3 sets of 3 repetition maximum deadlift exercise; (b) isometric (DS/ISOM): 3 sets of 3-second maximum voluntary contraction back squats; (c) plyometric (DS/PLYO): 3 sets of 3 tuck jumps; (d) eccentric (DS/ECC): 3 modified drop jumps; (e) dynamic stretching only (DS), and (f) control protocol (CON). Before the intervention and at recovery periods of 15 seconds, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 minutes, the participants performed 1-2 maximal countermovement jumps. The DS and DS/CON protocols generally had a 95-99% likelihood of exceeding the smallest worthwhile change for vertical jump height, peak power, velocity and force. However, the addition of the deadlift to the DS did not augment the potentiating effect. Time-to-peak potentiation was variable between individuals but was most consistent between 3 and 5 minutes. Thus, the volume and the intensity associated with 10 minutes of dynamic stretching were sufficient to provide the potentiation of vertical jump characteristics. Additional conditioning activities may promote fatigue processes, which do not permit further potentiation.

  11. STS-47 Pilot Brown on OV-105's flight deck ten minutes after SSME cutoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr, is photographed at Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, pilot station about ten minutes after space shuttle main engine (SSME) cutoff on launch day. Brown smiles from inside the launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH). In the background are the flight mirror assembly silhouetted against forward window W5, control panels, and a checklist.

  12. Color enhancement of ten-minute far ultraviolet exposure of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An artifically reproduced color enhancement of a ten-minute far-ultraviolet exposure of the Earth, taken with a filter which blocks the glow cause by atomic hydrogen but which transmits the glow caused by atomic oxygen and molecular nitrogen. Note that airglow emission bands are visible on the night side of the Earth, one roughly centered between the two polar auroral zones and one at an angle to this extending northward toward the sunlit side of the Earth.

  13. Trisomy 4 associated with double minute chromosomes and MYC amplification in acute myeloblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Receveur, Aline; Ong, Jeanne; Merlin, Laurent; Azgui, Zahia; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Berger, Roland; Nguyen-Khac, Florence

    2004-01-01

    A case of de novo acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) M2, with trisomy 4 and double minute (dmin) chromosomes is reported. Amplification of the MYC gene ascertained by FISH was associated with dmin. A review of the literature of trisomy 4-dmin-associated AML shows that this entity preferentially occurs in elderly women and is not always associated with previously identified exposition to mutagens.

  14. Inter-individual differences in the initial 80 minutes of motor learning of handrim wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    Vegter, Riemer J K; Lamoth, Claudine J; de Groot, Sonja; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2014-01-01

    Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a cyclic skill that needs to be learned during rehabilitation. Yet it is unclear how inter-individual differences in motor learning impact wheelchair propulsion practice. Therefore we studied how early-identified motor learning styles in novice able-bodied participants impact the outcome of a low-intensity wheelchair-practice intervention. Over a 12-minute pre-test, 39 participants were split in two groups based on a relative 10% increase in mechanical efficiency. Following the pretest the participants continued one of four different low-intensity wheelchair practice interventions, yet all performed in the same trial-setup with a total 80-minute dose at 1.11 m/s at 0.20 W/kg. Instead of focusing on the effect of the different interventions, we focused on differences in motor learning between participants over the intervention. Twenty-six participants started the pretest with a lower mechanical efficiency and a less optimal propulsion technique, but showed a fast improvement during the first 12 minutes and this effect continued over the 80 minutes of practice. Eventually these initially fast improvers benefitted more from the given practice indicated by a better propulsion technique (like reduced frequency and increased stroke angle) and a higher mechanical efficiency. The initially fast improvers also had a higher intra-individual variability in the pre and posttest, which possibly relates to the increased motor learning of the initially fast improvers. Further exploration of the common characteristics of different types of learners will help to better tailor rehabilitation to the needs of wheelchair-dependent persons and improve our understanding of cyclic motor learning processes.

  15. Pseudomonas natriegens, a marine bacterium with a generation time of less than 10 minutes.

    PubMed

    EAGON, R G

    1962-04-01

    Eagon, R. G. (University of Georgia, Athens). Pseudomonas natriegens, a marine bacterium with a generation time of less than 10 minutes. J. Bacteriol. 83:736-737. 1962.-Pseudomonas natriegens, a marine microorganism, was demonstrated to have a generation time of 9.8 min. This is the shortest generation time reported to date. Optimal growth occurred at 37 C in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 1.5% sea salt.

  16. Do non-shared environmental influences persist over time? An examination of days and minutes.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra; Klahr, Ashlea M; Klump, Kelly L

    2015-01-01

    Non-shared environmental influences show only minimal stability over time prior to adulthood. The long assessment lags (typically 3-5 years) that characterize most longitudinal twin studies, however, make it difficult to interpret these results. To more rigorously evaluate non-shared environmental stability prior to adulthood, we fitted biometric correlated factors models to (1) seven consecutive days of self-reported negative and positive affect in 239 twin pairs aged 16-25 years and (2) seven consecutive minutes of observer rated warmth and control in 687 twin pairs aged 6-10 years. We then empirically examined patterns of etiologic stability over time using a mixed effects analog to the one-way ANOVA. Genetic and shared environmental correlations were found to be highly stable over both days and minutes. By contrast, non-shared environmental correlations decreased monotonically with increasing lag length, and moreover, were small-to moderate in magnitude when examining intervals longer than a few minutes. Such findings imply that the non-shared environment may be comprised primarily of transient and idiosyncratic effects prior to adulthood.

  17. Simulation of one-minute power output from utility-scale photovoltaic generation systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2011-08-01

    We present an approach to simulate time-synchronized, one-minute power output from large photovoltaic (PV) generation plants in locations where only hourly irradiance estimates are available from satellite sources. The approach uses one-minute irradiance measurements from ground sensors in a climatically and geographically similar area. Irradiance is translated to power using the Sandia Array Performance Model. Power output is generated for 2007 in southern Nevada are being used for a Solar PV Grid Integration Study to estimate the integration costs associated with various utility-scale PV generation levels. Plant designs considered include both fixed-tilt thin-film, and single-axis-tracked polycrystalline Si systems ranging in size from 5 to 300 MW{sub AC}. Simulated power output profiles at one-minute intervals were generated for five scenarios defined by total PV capacity (149.5 MW, 222 WM, 292 MW, 492 MW, and 892 MW) each comprising as many as 10 geographically separated PV plants.

  18. The six-minute walk--an adequate exercise test for pacemaker patients?

    PubMed

    Langenfeld, H; Schneider, B; Grimm, W; Beer, M; Knoche, M; Riegger, G; Kochsiek, K

    1990-12-01

    In many pacemaker patients bicycle and treadmill ergometry are not practicable. As an alternative, we performed a 6-minute walk on a 20-m corridor in 97 pacemaker patients, who were asked to walk as far as possible determining their speed by themselves. Results were compared with those of bicycle ergometry in 42 of these patients and with treadmill exercise of a group of 92 other pacemaker patients. In the 6-minute walk, performance and maximal heart rate were slightly lower (49 +/- 18 W; 96 +/- 23 beats/min) than in bicycle (57 +/- 16 W; 110 +/- 26 beats/min) and treadmill ergometry (50 +/- 37 W; 102 +/- 35 beats/min). A good correlation was found between walking and bicycling (r = 0.74) and in subgroups of patients with different pacemaker indications. All patients preferred the walk to bicycle ergometry considering it to be more related to daily physical activity. In conclusion, a 6-minute walk is a simple and physiological exercise test for nearly all pacemaker patients with good correlation to other types of exercise. It seems to be preferable to other tests because of its better acceptance and practicability.

  19. A Systematic Search for Naked-Eye Astronomical Optical Transients Lasting Minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, L.

    2007-12-01

    How often do bright optical transients occur on the sky but go unreported? Anecdotal evidence of these is not uncommon, yet few have been discussed in the literature. Possible progenitor objects include supernovae, novae, highly variable stars, optical counterparts to gamma-ray bursts, massive stellar flares, and even extremely bright microlensing events. To search for such transients and constrain the bright end of the astronomical transient function, a systematic search for bright transients was conducted using the fisheye continuous cameras (CONCAMs) of the Night Sky Live network. Two fisheye cameras operating most clear nights over three years searched for transients that appeared in time-contiguous three-minute CCD frames. A single candidate transient was found, the possible nature of which was discussed elsewhere (Shamir and Nemiroff 2006, PASP, 118, 1108). The data are used here to deduce upper limits to the frequency of bright transients on the time scales of minutes to days. In sum, at the short duration end, the number of transients on the sky brighter than visual magnitude $\\sim$5.5 at any one time, lasting between 8 minute and four hours, is less than 0.002.

  20. Reliability and feasibility of the six minute walk test in subjects with myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Marie; Tollbäck, Anna

    2007-12-01

    The objective was to describe test-retest reliability and feasibility of the six minute walk test in adult subjects with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Twelve subjects (28-68 years, mean 44) performed three six minute walk tests on two occasions, one week apart. Relative reliability was high (ICC(2.1)=0.99) and absolute reliability values were low (standard error of measurement 12 m, repeatability 33 m). Feasibility was investigated in a sample of 64 subjects (19-70 years, mean 43). Fifty-two subjects were able to perform two tests on the same day. Subjects with severe proximal weakness had difficulties performing repeated tests. A practice trial followed by a second test on the same day can be recommended for most subjects, and the best test should be used for evaluations. In conclusion, even though the study sample was small, the present study indicates that the six minute walk test is reliable and feasible in subjects with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

  1. It takes some effort. How minimal physical effort reduces consumption volume.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Thomas A

    2013-12-01

    Plenty of studies have demonstrated that effort influences food choice. However, few have been conducted to analyze the effect of effort on consumption volume. Moreover, the few studies that have measured consumption volume all have strong limitations. The goal of the present paper is to disentangle confounding variables in earlier research and to rule out various alternative explanations. In a tasting setting focusing on snacking behavior, either unwrapping a food product or grabbing it with sugar tongs was enough to significantly reduce consumption, regardless of whether an unhealthy or healthy food item was used. Hardly any cognitive resources seem to be necessary for the effect to occur, as cognitive load did not affect the findings. In light of obesity being a pressing concern, these findings might be valuable for individuals as well as for the food industry.

  2. Trisomy 4 and double minutes in acute myeloid leukemia: further evidence that double minutes can occur as the primary cytogenetic abnormality.

    PubMed

    Govberg, I J; Wolf, J L; Cotter, P D

    2000-09-01

    The specific association of trisomy 4 and double minutes (dmin) is rare and is usually reported in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), primarily M2 and M4 subtypes. Several previous reports describing this combination suggested that trisomy 4 was the primary cytogenetic abnormality, and that the presence of the dmin was secondary. We describe a 79-year-old male who presented with myelodysplasia, transforming to AML-M2. Cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow aspirate cultures showed a 46,XY,dmin[12]/47,XY,+4,dmin[7]/46, XY[6] karyotype. The number of dmin ranged from 1 to 150. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that the dmin were derived from amplification of the MYC oncogene. Dual-color interphase FISH analysis was performed with D4Z1 and MYC probes and showed no evidence of a clone containing trisomy 4 without dmin. These data suggest that dmin may also occur as the primary cytogenetic abnormality in patients with trisomy 4 and dmin.

  3. Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    . It requires good use of computers. Other examples: use modern imaging methods to teach information processing and optics; study `designer materials' to reflect both the inventiveness and the curiosity of physicists. Tell stories from fundamental efforts to understand the world: forces and motion, waves and photons, the structure of the Universe, a hint of relativity. The new AS course has to fit QCA criteria, but should also look beyond them to suggest how to shape the future of A-level physics. Jon Ogborn Director, Institute of Physics Post-16 Initiative The study of matter The study of matter is as central to pure physics as it is to technological applications. Currently Advanced GNVQ Science requires much more detailed knowledge of materials than most A-level courses. But in every case, what 16 - 19 year-old students experience is a rather dated study of engineering materials, with an emphasis on mechanical properties. Almost entirely absent is the notion of our new ability to design materials. Recently, new techniques of visualization, modelling the hierarchy of structures inside a material and simulating the resulting changes in properties, have all dramatically changed the nature of materials science. Post-16 physics courses should mention some new classes of materials responsible for major industrial and social changes. For example, let's look at `soft matter' such as polymers, liquid crystals and emulsions. These are the stuff of Nature, which we are only now learning to imitate. The continuing miniaturization of computer chips and sensors is based on functional properties - optical, electrical, thermal or magnetic. If students are to understand and perhaps later to contribute to developments such as these, they deserve a better introduction. Careful thinking needs to go into deciding what a basic course might entail. But what topic could be better suited to coursework in the form of student research? Teaching about matter in an up-to-date way may sound too

  4. A Long-Range Video Observation Post

    SciTech Connect

    Arlowe, D.

    1995-07-01

    The Long Range Video Observation Post (LRVOP) Project is a cooperative effort between the US and a Middle Eastern country to develop an improved version of their current video observation post. This project is part of a larger effort to cooperatively develop anti-terrorist technology. This particular equipment is required to facilitate the recording and identification of humans at a range of 1000 meters in day-light and 500 meters at night. The project objective was to take advantage of recent advances in camera technology, recorders, and image processing to provide an significant increase in performance with only a minimum increase in size, weight, and cost. The goal of the project was to convert the users general needs and desires into specific requirements that could be bid on by several companies. This paper covers the specific performance requirements, generally describe the components that might be used, and concentrate on describing the more difficult issues and technical challenges.

  5. Geologic map of the Scotts Mills, Silverton, and Stayton Northeast 7.5 minute quadrangles, Northwest Oregon: a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tolan, Terry; Beeson, Marvin; Wheeler, Karen L.

    1999-01-01

    The Scotts Mills, Silverton, and Stayton NE 7.5 minute quadrangles are situated along the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and adjacent lower foothills (Waldo and Silverton Hills) of the Cascade Range (Fig. 1). The terrain within this area is of low to moderate relief, ranging from 100 to more than 1000 ft above sea level. This area is largely rural, with most of the valley floor and low-relief foothills under cultivation. In the last decade, the rural areas outside the boundaries of established towns have experienced significant growth in new homes built and the expansion of housing subdivisions. This growth has placed an increased demand on existing geologic resources (e.g., groundwater, sand and gravel, crushed stone) and the need to better understand potential geologic hazards within this region. Previous geologic mapping by Piper (1942), Peck and others (1964), Newton (1969), Hampton (1972), Miller and Orr (1984), Orr and Miller (1984), and Miller and Orr (1986, 1988) established and refined the general stratigraphic framework of this region. This mapping identified few faults or folds; earlier investigators were hindered by the lack of reliably identifiable marker horizons within the stratigraphic section. Werner (1991), using available seismic profile lines and well data in the Willamette Valley to locate the top of the Columbia River Basalt Group, was able to identify and map faults within the subsurface. Reconnaissance mapping of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) units in this region in the early 1980’s indicated that these stratigraphic units could serve as a series of unique reference horizons for identifying post-Miocene folding and faulting (Beeson and others, 1985, 1989; Beeson and Tolan, 1990). The major emphasis of this investigation was to identify and map CRBG units within the Scotts Mills, Silverton, and Stayton NE quadrangles and to utilize this detailed CRBG stratigraphy to identify and characterize structural features.

  6. Estradiol modulates effort-based decision making in female rats.

    PubMed

    Uban, Kristina A; Rummel, Julia; Floresco, Stan B; Galea, Liisa A M

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of the dopamine system, such as schizophrenia or stimulant addiction, are associated with impairments in different forms of cost/benefit decision making. The neural circuitry (ie amygdala, prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens) underlying these functions receives dopamine input, which is thought to have a central role in mediating cost/benefit decisions. Estradiol modulates dopamine activity, and estrogen receptors (ERs) are found within this neurocircuitry, suggesting that decision making may be influenced by estradiol. The present study examined the contribution of estradiol and selective ERα and β agonists on cost/benefit decision making in adult female Long-Evans rats. An effort-discounting task was utilized, where rats could either emit a single response on a low-reward lever to receive two pellets, or make 2, 5, 10, or 20 responses on a high-reward lever to obtain four pellets. Ovariectomy increased the choice on the high-reward lever, whereas replacement with high (10 μg), but not low (0.3 μg), levels of estradiol benzoate reduced the choice on the high-reward lever. Interestingly, both an ERα agonist (propyl-pyrazole triol (PPT)) and an ERβ agonist (diarylpropionitrile (DPN)) increased choice on the high-reward lever when administered independently, but when these two agonists were combined, a decrease in choice for the high-reward lever was observed. The effects of estradiol, PPT, and DPN were more pronounced 24 h post-administration, suggesting that these effects may be genomic in nature. Together, these results demonstrate that estradiol modulates cost/benefit decision making in females, whereby concomitant activation of ERα and β receptors shifts the decision criteria and reduces preference for larger, yet more costly rewards.

  7. The moderating effects of school climate on bullying prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs.

  8. Conservation Efforts May Increase Malaria Burden in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Denis; Clark, James

    2013-01-01

    Background Large-scale forest conservation projects are underway in the Brazilian Amazon but little is known regarding their public health impact. Current literature emphasizes how land clearing increases malaria incidence, leading to the conclusion that forest conservation decreases malaria burden. Yet, there is also evidence that proximity to forest fringes increases malaria incidence, which implies the opposite relationship between forest conservation and malaria. We compare the effect of these environmental factors on malaria and explore its implications. Methods and Findings Using a large malaria dataset (∼1,300,000 positive malaria tests collected over ∼4.5 million km2), satellite imagery, permutation tests, and hierarchical Bayesian regressions, we show that greater forest cover (as a proxy for proximity to forest fringes) tends to be associated with higher malaria incidence, and that forest cover effect was 25 times greater than the land clearing effect, the often cited culprit of malaria in the region. These findings have important implications for land use/land cover (LULC) policies in the region. We find that cities close to protected areas (PA’s) tend to have higher malaria incidence than cities far from PA’s. Using future LULC scenarios, we show that avoiding 10% of deforestation through better governance might result in an average 2-fold increase in malaria incidence by 2050 in urban health posts. Conclusions Our results suggest that cost analysis of reduced carbon emissions from conservation efforts in the region should account for increased malaria morbidity, and that conservation initiatives should consider adopting malaria mitigation strategies. Coordinated actions from disparate science fields, government ministries, and global initiatives (e.g., Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation; Millenium Development Goals; Roll Back Malaria; and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria), will be required to decrease

  9. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic planning efforts. 622.31 Section 622.31..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon... the need for planning effort. Once planning is authorized by the Chief of NRCS, a watershed...

  10. Measuring Developmental Levels of Understanding of Ability and Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arden T.; Nicholls, John G.

    Discussed are research methods used to measure developmental changes in children's reasoning about ability. While adults generally differentiate ability, effort, luck, and task difficulty as causes for success and failure, children progressively think that effort or outcome is ability (level 1), that effort is the cause of performance outcomes…

  11. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Basic planning efforts. 622.31 Section 622.31... the need for planning effort. Once planning is authorized by the Chief of NRCS, a watershed...

  12. Assessing Organizational Efforts to Mobilize Research Knowledge in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Levin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating efforts by organizations to share research as exemplified on their websites, then reports the result of an evaluation of these efforts in 100 organizations. The result shows that the overall research sharing efforts of these organizations are modest and not well aligned to evidence on effective…

  13. 45 CFR 152.39 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance of effort. 152.39 Section 152.39... of effort. (a) General. A State that enters into a contract with HHS under this part must demonstrate... the contract is entered. (b) Failure to maintain efforts. In situations where a State enters into...

  14. 48 CFR 2052.216-70 - Level of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Level of effort. 2052.216... Level of effort. As prescribed at 2016.307-70(a) the contracting officer shall insert the following..., time and materials, or labor hours basis. Level of Effort (JAN 1993) The NRC's estimate of the...

  15. 20 CFR 327.15 - Reasonable efforts to obtain work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable efforts to obtain work. 327.15... INSURANCE ACT AVAILABLE FOR WORK § 327.15 Reasonable efforts to obtain work. (a) Requirement. A claimant may... efforts to obtain work which he professes to be willing to accept and perform, unless he has...

  16. 24 CFR 245.205 - Efforts to obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Efforts to obtain assistance. 245... AUTHORITIES TENANT PARTICIPATION IN MULTIFAMILY HOUSING PROJECTS Efforts To Obtain Assistance § 245.205 Efforts to obtain assistance. (a) Mortgagors subject to the requirements of this subpart shall...

  17. 42 CFR 441.180 - Maintenance of effort: General rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance of effort: General rule. 441.180... § 441.180 Maintenance of effort: General rule. FFP is available only if the State maintains fiscal effort as prescribed under this subpart....

  18. 48 CFR 1511.011-73 - Level of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Level of effort. 1511.011... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-73 Level of effort. The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause at 1552.211-73, Level of Effort, in term form contracts....

  19. 48 CFR 1331.205-70 - Duplication of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duplication of effort....205-70 Duplication of effort. The Department will not pay any costs for work that is duplicative of..., Duplication of Effort, in all cost-reimbursement, time and materials, and labor hour solicitations...

  20. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit the... set for the mediation conference. (b) Secretarial mediation efforts shall last only so long as...

  1. Salivary cortisol results obtainable within minutes of sample collection correspond with traditional immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliff, E.A.; Buck, R.L.; Laughlin, M.; Hart, T.; Cole, C.R.; Slowey, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cortisol is frequently assayed as a stress-responsive biomarker which changes over the course of minutes to meet the demands of an individual’s social context. Salivary cortisol is often utilized as a non-invasive sampling methodology which possesses important health implications. A critical barrier to psychobiological research involving salivary cortisol is a time-delay of days to months before cortisol results are obtained via immunoassay, long after the individual is no longer proximate to the social context in which they provided the sample. The current study was designed to address this critical barrier through creation of a lateral flow technology (LFT) cortisol device capable of measuring salivary cortisol within minutes of sample collection. LFT is frequently used within commercial point-of-care settings to obtain rapid answers to the presence/absence of a biomarker. The present study extends LFT into the research domain by presenting performance characteristics of a quantitative LFT which measures salivary cortisol within 20 minutes of sample collection. Methods Saliva samples on N=29 adults (15 males) were obtained in the morning and afternoon using Passive Drool and then the Super•SAL™ Extra Collection Device (hereafter Super•SAL™) and later assayed with LFT and a commercially available enzyme-immunoassay. Findings Results show LFT correlated well with these collection methods (R=.872 with Super•SAL™; R=.739 with Passive Drool, p-values<.0001) and at comparable levels to correspondence of Super•SAL™ with Passive Drool (R=.798, p<.0001) which were measured with the same assay. Implications These results open up an exciting new possibility to integrate this technological advance into stress research, including knowing and potentially changing the individual’s social context in a time-sensitive manner. Methodological improvements such as this have the possibility of refining conceptual models of stress reactivity and regulation

  2. Dialysis access venous stenosis: treatment with balloon angioplasty 30-second vs. 1-minute inflation times.

    PubMed

    Elramah, Mohsen; Boujelbane, Lamya; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Wakeen, Maureen; Astor, Brad C; Chan, Micah R

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous balloon angioplasty is the standard of care in the endovascular treatment of dialysis access venous stenosis. The significance of balloon inflation times in the treatment of these stenoses is not well defined. Our objective was to examine the outcomes of 30-second vs. 1-minute balloon inflation times on primary-assisted patency of arteriovenous fistulae and grafts. Using a prospectively collected vascular access database, we identified a total of 75 patients referred for access dysfunction during a 5-year period. These patients received 223 interventions (178 with 30-second inflations and 45 with 1-minute inflations). We compared primary-assisted patency during the subsequent 9 months across groups defined by inflation times. Demographics and baseline characteristics were similar across groups. Immediate technical success and patency in the first 3 months were similar across groups (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34-2.20). After 3 months, however, a 1-minute inflation time was associated with greater incidence of access failure (adjusted HR [aHR] = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.09-2.79). Other predictors of access failure included age over 60 (aHR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), central location of the lesion (aHR = 2.49; CI: 1.27-4.89), and three or more prior procedures (aHR 2.48; CI: 1.19-5.16). Our data suggest that shorter balloon inflation times may be associated with improved longer term access patency, although the benefit was not observed until after 3 months. Given the increasing demands of maintaining access patency in the era of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative and Fistula First, the role of angioplasty times requires further study.

  3. Three-minute constant rate step test for detecting exertional dyspnea relief after bronchodilation in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Benoit; Wilkinson-Maitland, Courtney A; Hamilton, Alan; Bourbeau, Jean; Perrault, Hélène; Jensen, Dennis; Maltais, François

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the 3-minute constant rate step test (3-MST) to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea (respiratory discomfort) after acute bronchodilation in COPD patients. Patients and methods A total of 40 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 45.7 (±14.7), % predicted) performed four 3-MSTs at randomly assigned stepping rates of 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min after inhalation of nebulized ipratropium bromide (500 µg)/salbutamol (2.5 mg) and saline placebo, which were randomized to order. Patients rated their intensity of perceived dyspnea at the end of each 3-MST using Borg 0–10 category ratio scale. Results A total of 37 (92.5%), 36 (90%), 34 (85%) and 27 (67.5%) patients completed all 3 minutes of exercise at 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min under both treatment conditions, respectively. Compared with placebo, ipratropium bromide/salbutamol significantly decreased dyspnea at the end of the third minute of exercise at 14 steps/min (by 0.6±1.0 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01) and 16 steps/min (by 0.7±1.3 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01); however, no statically significant differences were observed between treatments at 20 and 24 steps/min (both P>0.05). Conclusion The 3-MST, when performed at 14 and 16 steps/min, was responsive to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea after acute bronchodilation in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. PMID:27942208

  4. Comparing Two Conditions of Administering the Six-Minute Walk Test in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sandroff, Brian M.; Pilutti, Lara A.; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Pula, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine whether differences existed in the total distance walked and energy expended between two conditions of administering the 6-Minute Walk test (6MW) across different levels of disability in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: The sample comprised 160 individuals with MS. One group of participants (n = 82) completed a 6MW while wearing a portable metabolic unit (K4b2, Cosmed, Italy) in a square hallway with four corridors and performing 90° turns. Another group (n = 78) completed a 6MW while wearing the same metabolic unit in a single corridor and performing 180° turns. Main outcome measures included total distance walked (in feet) and oxygen consumption (in milliliters per minute) expressed as 30-second averages for 1 minute before the 6MW and over the entire 6MW. Disability status was assessed using the Patient-Determined Disease Steps scale. Results: Participants undertaking the 6MW in a single corridor (1412 ft) walked 37 ft (2.7%) farther than those undertaking the test in a square hallway (1375 ft), but this difference was not statistically significant (F = 0.45, P = .51). Those completing the 6MW in a single corridor expended more energy than those completing the 6MW in the square hallway with four corridors (F = 3.41, P < .01). Conclusions: Either protocol is acceptable, but researchers should be aware of the additional physiological demands when administering the 6MW in a single corridor with 180° turns. PMID:24688354

  5. The Nature of the Enigmatic 10-Minute Accreting Binary System ES CET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steeghs, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    ES Cet is one of the most compact binary systems known with an orbital period of only 10.3 minutes. Our allocated observations with the XMM-Newton X-ray satellite were performed in January and July 2004, with the data being delivered to the PI in August 2004. Preliminary results were presented by the PI in September 2004 and January 2005. We have also secured supporting optical observations of ES Ceti using the Magellan telescopes (November 2004). The team is currently performing a thorough and final analysis of the X-ray, UV and optical data sets with the latest XMM pipeline software and our own analysis packages.

  6. Geology of the Southeast Durham and Southwest Durham 7. 5-minute Quadrangles, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, C.W.; Gallagher, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Southeast Durham and Southwest Durham 7.5-minute Quadrangles include a 26 kilometer transect of the Durham Triassic basin from the Jonesboro fault on the southeastern side of this half-graben structure to a bounding unconformity on the northwestern side. The basin is filled with non-marine, primarily fluvial, clastic deposits of the Late Triassic Chatham Group. The Chatham Group rocks are intruded by Early Jurassic diabase as dikes and sheets. Bordering rocks are pre-Mesozoic intrusive, metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks of the Carolina slate belt. This paper discusses the geology of the Southeast Durham and Southwest Durham Quadrangles. 37 refs., 17 figs.

  7. "Yes board" facilitates rapid sharing of key data, trims LOS in the ED by 40 minutes.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    A practicing emergency medicine physician who is also a computer engineer has helped Mayo Clinic sites in Rochester, MN, and Phoenix, AZ, develop a web-based ED monitoring system that is responsive to the needs of clinicians. Data suggest that the innovation, called a Yes Board, has sliced LOS by as much as 40 minutes, and it is constantly being tweaked with changes and new functionality. Data flows automatically into the Yes Board from as many as 15 different data systems the hospital is already using. The Yes Board conveys the status of tests and procedures, clinical results, vital sign information, and where patients are in the admissions or discharge process.

  8. Twelve important minutes: introducing enhanced online materials about elder abuse to nursing assistants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mary K; Davis, Boyd H; Blowers, Anita; Shenk, Dena; Jackson, Kina; Kalaw, Karel

    2010-06-01

    A pilot project introduced 12 minutes of text and video materials and a reflective online interaction about elder abuse into the online component of a hybrid course in nursing assistant training leading to certification. Didactic presentations on issues of ethics and standards had been given in two different units of the face-to-face component of the course using both the course textbook and an online module keyed to state certification standards. However, student responses suggested that their online writing to each other about the new materials brought issues of elder abuse to the forefront in ways that they could finally internalize.

  9. Reorientation of the Stripe Phase of 2D Electrons by a Minute Density Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueed, M. A.; Hossain, Md. Shafayat; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.; Shayegan, M.

    2016-08-01

    Interacting two-dimensional electrons confined in a GaAs quantum well exhibit isotropic transport when the Fermi level resides in the first excited (N =1 ) Landau level. Adding an in-plane magnetic field (B||) typically leads to an anisotropic, stripelike (nematic) phase of electrons with the stripes oriented perpendicular to the B|| direction. Our experimental data reveal how a periodic density modulation, induced by a surface strain grating from strips of negative electron-beam resist, competes against the B||-induced orientational order of the stripe phase. Even a minute (<0.25 %) density modulation is sufficient to reorient the stripes along the direction of the surface grating.

  10. Minute Current Detection during Anodic Oxidation by Atomic Force Microscope At High Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramochi, Hiromi; Ando, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2003-09-01

    The faradaic current during anodic oxidation has been detected using an atomic force microscope with intent to study the meniscus formation process and the oxidation mechanism. The faradaic current is of the order of pA for a Si sample, which is at the same level as the leakage current noise; there are problems in detecting, such as sensitivity limits and poor reproducibility. These problems occurred due to high humidity. We could overcome these problems by hermetically sealing the entire electronic parts in the unit to avoid the humidity effects and achieved the detection of a minute current of the sub-pA order even at high humidity.

  11. Dermabrasion by diamond fraises revolving at 85,000 revolutions per minute.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E

    1978-10-01

    Use of a high-speed, air-driven turbo-grinder equipped with diamond fraises that revolve at 85,000 revolutions per minute has improved results in dermabrasions on the face by, it is estimated, 50%. Dermabrasions have been done with this turbo-grinder for scarring from acne, actinic damage, syringomata, lesions of adenoma sebaceum and some other facial conditions. The rapid evaporation, nonimflammability, nonnarcotic, and excellent freezing properties of Freon 12 eliminate the necessity for auxiliary cooling fans. It is thought too that the incidence of secondary infections and keloids have been decreased by use of an ointment of erythromycin (1%) topically during the healing period.

  12. Efficacy of two iso-propanol-based skin antiseptics applied to human skin with many sebaceous glands for 2 and 10 minutes

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Sammann, Andreas; Pitten, Frank-Albert; Christiansen, Bärbel; Heeg, Peter; Nowak, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent research suggests that specific ethanol-based skin antiseptics exhibit their efficacy on the resident skin flora of the forehead in only 2.5 minutes. We have now looked at the efficacy of two skin antiseptics based on 63% (w/w) propan-2-ol (iso-propanol) and applied for 10 and 2 minutes on skin with a high density of sebaceous glands. Methods: Each experiment was performed in a reference-controlled cross-over design with at least 20 participants. Application of isopropanol (70%, v/v) for 10 minutes to the forehead served as the reference treatment. Pre-values and post-values (immediately after the application and after 30 min) were obtained by swabbing a marked area of 5 cm2 for about 10 s. Swabs were vortexed in tryptic soy broth containing valid neutralizing agents. After serial dilution aliquots were spread on tryptic soy agar. Colonies were counted after incubation of plates at 36°C for 48 h. The mean log10 reduction of bacteria was calculated. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was used for a comparison of treatments. Results: Skin antiseptic A applied for 10 min (one experiment) was equally effective to the reference treatment. When applied for 2 min (two experiments) it was still equally effective to the reference treatment immediately after application (e.g. 1.6 versus 1.4 log10 reduction) and after 30 min (1.7 versus 1.4 log10 reduction). Skin antiseptic B applied for 10 and 2 min (one experiment each) was also equally effective to the reference treatment both immediately after application and after 30 min. Conclusions: The clear and coloured skin antiseptics applied for 2 min on the skin of the forehead fulfilled the national efficacy requirements for skin antisepsis. The shorter application time on skin with a high density of sebaceous glands will allow acting more efficiently in clinical practice. PMID:24653974

  13. Utility of fractional anisotropy imaging analyzed by statistical parametric mapping for detecting minute brain lesions in chronic-stage patients who had mild or moderate traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Asano, Yoshitaka; Shinoda, Jun; Okumura, Ayumi; Aki, Tatsuki; Takenaka, Shunsuke; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Mikito; Ito, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has recently evolved as valuable technique to investigate diffuse axonal injury (DAI). This study examined whether fractional anisotropy (FA) images analyzed by statistical parametric mapping (FA-SPM images) are superior to T(2)*-weighted gradient recalled echo (T2*GRE) images or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images for detecting minute lesions in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. DTI was performed in 25 patients with cognitive impairments in the chronic stage after mild or moderate TBI. The FA maps obtained from the DTI were individually compared with those from age-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based analysis and FA-SPM images (p < 0.001). Abnormal low-intensity areas on T2*GRE images (T2* lesions) were found in 10 patients (40.0%), abnormal high-intensity areas on FLAIR images in 4 patients (16.0%), and areas with significantly decreased FA on FA-SPM image in 16 patients (64.0%). Nine of 10 patients with T2* lesions had FA-SPM lesions. FA-SPM lesions topographically included most T2* lesions in the white matter and the deep brain structures, but did not include T2* lesions in the cortex/near-cortex or lesions containing substantial hemosiderin regardless of location. All 4 patients with abnormal areas on FLAIR images had FA-SPM lesions. FA-SPM imaging is useful for detecting minute lesions because of DAI in the white matter and the deep brain structures, which may not be visualized on T2*GRE or FLAIR images, and may allow the detection of minute brain lesions in patients with post-traumatic cognitive impairment.

  14. Post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Men with post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) become ill rather immediately after ejaculation, whether spontaneously at night, during sexual intercourse or masturbation. Two subtypes are distinguished: primary and secondary POIS. It also occurs before or after a man has been sterilized. POIS is an invalidating most probably auto-immune disease leading to much distress in males and their partners. It is characterized by five criteria. Its symptoms are described by seven clusters. However, the manifestation of these symptoms varies from one male to the other but is relatively constant in the person himself. Among men the symptoms vary in intensity, durations and sort of symptoms. POIS is a chronic disorder that manifests itself in POIS “attacks” that occur within a few minutes to a few hours after ejaculation, and disappear spontaneously after 3 to 7 days. POIS is not associated with increased total serum IgE concentrations. On the contrary, there are indications that POIS is triggered by specific cytokines that are released by an auto-immune reaction to the man’s seminal fluid. Indirect clinical evidence suggests that the antigen (Ag) triggering the POIS systemic reaction is not bound to spermatozoa but to seminal fluid produced by prostatic tissue. In addition, POIS may also occur—although rarely—in females. In those cases, it is hypothesized that the Ag is associated with female prostatic tissue around the vagina. PMID:27652231

  15. Post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS).

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2016-08-01

    Men with post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) become ill rather immediately after ejaculation, whether spontaneously at night, during sexual intercourse or masturbation. Two subtypes are distinguished: primary and secondary POIS. It also occurs before or after a man has been sterilized. POIS is an invalidating most probably auto-immune disease leading to much distress in males and their partners. It is characterized by five criteria. Its symptoms are described by seven clusters. However, the manifestation of these symptoms varies from one male to the other but is relatively constant in the person himself. Among men the symptoms vary in intensity, durations and sort of symptoms. POIS is a chronic disorder that manifests itself in POIS "attacks" that occur within a few minutes to a few hours after ejaculation, and disappear spontaneously after 3 to 7 days. POIS is not associated with increased total serum IgE concentrations. On the contrary, there are indications that POIS is triggered by specific cytokines that are released by an auto-immune reaction to the man's seminal fluid. Indirect clinical evidence suggests that the antigen (Ag) triggering the POIS systemic reaction is not bound to spermatozoa but to seminal fluid produced by prostatic tissue. In addition, POIS may also occur-although rarely-in females. In those cases, it is hypothesized that the Ag is associated with female prostatic tissue around the vagina.

  16. Mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata) and weevil (Rhinoncomimus latipes) response to varying moisture and temperature conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combined effects of herbivory and water stress on growth and reproduction of mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross) were investigated in greenhouse trials over two years, with well-watered or water-limited plants either exposed or not exposed to herbivory by the mile-a-minute w...

  17. Effects of post surface conditioning before silanization on bond strength between fiber post and resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbarian, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Post surface conditioning is necessary to expose the glass fibers to enable bonding between fiber post and resin cement. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different surface conditioning on tensile bond strength (TBS) of a glass fiber reinforced post to resin cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this in vitro study, 40 extracted single canal central incisors were endodontically treated and post spaces were prepared. The teeth were divided into four groups according to the methods of post surface treatment (n=10): 1) Silanization after etching with 20% H2O2, 2) Silanization after airborne-particle abrasion, 3) Silanization, and 4) No conditioning (Control). Adhesive resin cement (Panavia F 2.0) was used for cementation of the fiber posts to the root canal dentin. Three slices of 3 mm thick were obtained from each root. A universal testing machine was used with a cross-head speed of 1 mm/minute for performing the push-out tests. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used for analyzing data (α=0.05). RESULTS It is revealed that different surface treatments and root dentin regions had significant effects on TBS, but the interaction between surface treatments and root canal regions had no significant effect on TBS. There was significant difference among H2O2 + Silane Group and other three groups. CONCLUSION There were significant differences among the mean TBS values of different surface treatments. Application of hydrogen peroxide before silanization increased the bond strength between resin cements and fiber posts. The mean TBS mean values was significantly greater in the coronal region of root canal than the middle and apical thirds. PMID:23755337

  18. Relationship of amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes to double minute chromosomes in unstably resistant mouse fibroblast cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, P C; Beverley, S M; Schimke, R T

    1981-01-01

    Murine 3T6 selected in increasing concentrations of methotrexate were unstable with respect to dihydrofolate reductase overproduction and methotrexate resistance when they are cultured in the absence of methotrexate. An analysis of the karyotypes of these resistant cells revealed the presence of numerous double minute chromosomes. We observed essentially identical kinetics of loss of dihydrofolate reductase gene sequences in total deoxyribonucleic acid and in deoxyribonucleic acid from fractions enriched in double minute chromosomes and in the numbers of double minute chromosomes per cell during reversion to methotrexate sensitivity, and this suggested that unstably amplified gene sequences were localized on double minute chromosomes. This conclusion ws also supported by an analysis of cell populations sorted according to dihydrofolate reductase enzyme contents, in which relative gene amplification and double minute chromosome content were related proportionally. Images PMID:6287217

  19. Strong correlation between the 6-minute walk test and accelerometry functional outcomes in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Zoe E; Ryan, Monique M; Kornberg, Andrew J; Walker, Karen Z; Truby, Helen

    2015-03-01

    Accelerometry provides information on habitual physical capability that may be of value in the assessment of function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This preliminary investigation describes the relationship between community ambulation measured by the StepWatch activity monitor and the current standard of functional assessment, the 6-minute walk test, in ambulatory boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 13). All participants completed a 6-minute walk test and wore the StepWatch™ monitor for 5 consecutive days. Both the 6-minute walk test and StepWatch accelerometry identified a decreased capacity for ambulation in boys with Duchenne compared to healthy controls. There were strong, significant correlations between 6-minute walk distance and all StepWatch parameters in affected boys only (r = 0.701-0.804). These data proffer intriguing observations that warrant further exploration. Specifically, accelerometry outcomes may compliment the 6-minute walk test in assessment of therapeutic interventions for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  20. Core temperature changes and sprint performance of elite female soccer players after a 15-minute warm-up in a hot-humid environment.

    PubMed

    Somboonwong, Juraiporn; Chutimakul, Ladawan; Sanguanrungsirikul, Sompol

    2014-11-25

    Warm-up session should be modified according to the environmental conditions. However, there is limited evidence regarding the proper soccer warm-up time for female players in the heat. The purpose of the present study was to examine the rise in core body temperature and the sprint performance after a 15-minute warm-up in a hot-humid environment using female soccer players during different phases of their menstrual cycle. Thirteen eumenorrheic national female soccer players (aged 18.8±1.3years, VO2max53.05±6.66 mL·kg·min) performed a 15-minute warm-up protocol at an ambient temperature of 32.5±1.6C with a relative humidity of 53.6±10.2% during their early follicular and mid-luteal phases of their cycle. The warm-up protocol is composed of jogging, skipping by moving the legs in various directions, and sprinting alternated with jogging, followed by a 45-minute recovery period. Rectal temperatures were recorded during the rest period and every 5 minutes throughout the warm-up and recovery phases of the study. Heart rate was monitored at rest and every 5 minutes during warm-up. Forty-yard sprint time was assessed immediately after the completion of warm-up which was later compared to the time at baseline. The value for the baseline was obtained at least 2 days prior to the experiment. During the early follicular and mid-luteal phases, the rectal temperatures obtained at the end of the warm-up period were significantly (P<0.05) higher by 1.26C (95% CI = +0.46 to +2.06C) and 1.18 C (95% CI = +0.53 to +1.83C) whereas the heart rates increased to 153.67±20.34 and 158.38±15.19 beats per mins, respectively. After 20 minutes of the recovery period, the rectal temperature decreased by approximately 50%. The sprint times were significantly (P<0.05) faster post-warm-up during both the early follicular (5.52 s; 95% CI = 5.43-5.60 s) and mid-luteal phases (5.51 s; 95% CI = 5.41-5.60 s) compared to the baseline time (5.66 s; 95% CI = 5.58-5.74 s). There were no significant

  1. Core temperature changes and sprint performance of elite female soccer players after a 15-minute warm-up in a hot-humid environment.

    PubMed

    Somboonwong, Juraiporn; Chutimakul, Ladawan; Sanguanrungsirikul, Sompol

    2015-01-01

    Warm-up session should be modified according to the environmental conditions. However, there is limited evidence regarding the proper soccer warm-up time for female players in the heat. The purpose of this study was to examine the rise in core body temperature and the sprint performance after a 15-minute warm-up in a hot-humid environment using female soccer players during the different phases of their menstrual cycle. Thirteen eumenorrheic national female soccer players (aged 18.8 ± 1.3 years, (Equation is included in full-text article.)53.05 ± 6.66 ml·kg·min) performed a 15-minute warm-up protocol at an ambient temperature of 32.5 ± 1.6° C with a relative humidity of 53.6 ± 10.2% during their early follicular and midluteal phases of their cycle. The warm-up protocol is composed of jogging, skipping by moving the legs in various directions, and sprinting alternated with jogging, followed by a 45-minute recovery period. Rectal temperatures were recorded during the rest period and every 5 minutes throughout the warm-up and recovery phases of the study. Heart rate was monitored at rest and every 5 minutes during the warm-up. Forty-yard sprint time was assessed immediately after the completion of warm-up, which was later compared with the time at baseline. The value for the baseline was obtained at least 2 days before the experiment. During the early follicular and midluteal phases, the rectal temperatures obtained at the end of the warm-up period were significantly (p < 0.05) higher by 1.26° C (95% confidence interval [CI] = +0.46 to +2.06° C) and 1.18° C (95% CI = +0.53 to +1.83° C), whereas the heart rates increased to 153.67 ± 20.34 and 158.38 ± 15.19 b·min, respectively. After 20 minutes of the recovery period, the rectal temperature decreased by approximately 50%. The sprint times were significantly (p < 0.05) faster post-warm-up during both the early follicular (5.52 seconds; 95% CI = 5.43-5.60 seconds) and midluteal phases (5.51 seconds; 95% CI

  2. Advanced-Level Testing of Foreign Language Proficiency: An Interim Report of the Post A-Level Spanish Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ife, Anne E.; Standish, Peter

    This is a preliminary report concerning the development of tests which measure the linguistic ability in Spanish of English students at the beginning of their post A-level courses. The Palspan (Post A-level Spanish project) pilot test battery is comprised of five sub-tests of between 45 and 90 minutes in length which test for speaking, listening,…

  3. Modulation of ventral striatal activity by cognitive effort.

    PubMed

    Dobryakova, Ekaterina; Jessup, Ryan K; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2017-02-15

    Effort discounting theory suggests that the value of a reward should be lower if it was effortful to obtain, whereas contrast theory suggests that the contrast between the costly effort and the reward makes the reward seem more valuable. To test these alternative hypotheses, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as participants engaged in feedback-based learning that required low or high cognitive effort to obtain positive feedback, while the objective amount of information provided by feedback remained constant. In the low effort condition, a single image was presented with four response options. In the high effort condition, two images were presented, each with two response options, and correct feedback was presented only when participants responded correctly to both of the images. Accuracy was significantly lower for the high effort condition, and all participants reported that the high effort condition was more difficult. A region of the ventral striatum selected for sensitivity to feedback value also showed increased activation to feedback presentation associated with the high effort condition relative to the low effort condition, when controlling for activation from corresponding control conditions where feedback was random. These results suggest that increased cognitive effort produces corresponding increases in positive feedback-related ventral striatum activity, in line with the predictions made by contrast theory. The accomplishment of obtaining a hard-earned intrinsic reward, such as positive feedback, may be particularly likely to promote reward-related brain activity.

  4. NEWS: Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Peter

    2000-07-01

    post16.gif As a teacher of physics it is very easy to become preoccupied with particulars of courses, or topics or even single concepts. Concerned with imminent student audiences and desired learning outcomes, the daily challenge is to summon satisfactory teaching approaches and resources for the job at hand. For the conscientious teacher, assessment outcomes may too often seem a judgment on our own efforts rather than those of our students. From time to time we may step back and think bigger, for example while planning a recruitment event, or while away from work on holiday. We may be successful locally. But why, at a time when books and television documentaries popularizing science have a large following, has physics education been facing declining numbers? Many recognize that physics has an essential contribution to make to the training of science or engineering specialists, but we know that it is also important for the skilled worker, the informed citizen and, in fact, for anyone trying to make sense of the world. So what are the best ways forward for post-16 physics? To make any impact on the bigger picture requires organization, thinking and meeting time among people in diverse roles: teachers and curriculum managers; university lecturers; employers and professional bodies; unitary awarding bodies; regulatory and funding agencies; and even Government. For the past few years, the Institute of Physics post-16 Initiative has created an unrivalled opportunity to address the wider issues. Its Shaping the Future booklets series was designed to stimulate informed discussion and debate, by providing background information and analysis. Taken together, the booklets should help all those concerned with physics education to understand where we are now, and why. Literally dozens of people have contributed to a review and analysis of physics education. Each booklet is a 48-page smorgasbord in A4 landscape format, containing many examples of good practice, basic but

  5. 206. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 20 March 1954 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    206. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 20 March 1954 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). WORKERS USE AIRTIGHT SUITS, GLOVES AND MASKS TO WORK WITH DEADLY GB NERVE GAS. WORKERS ARE NOT PERMITTED TO STAY IN THE BLENDING CHAMBER FOR MORE THAN 20 MINUTES AT A TIME, EVEN WITH THESE PRECAUTIONS. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. Disability and breathlessness in asthmatic patients--a scoring method by repetitive inspiratory effort.

    PubMed

    Loh, Li-Cher; Puah, Ser-Hon; Ho, Chiak Vun; Chow, Chong Yeow; Chua, Chui Yin; Jayaram, Jacynta; Kavetha, Clarence; Wong, Sue Jiun

    2005-12-01

    Measurement of disability and breathlessness in asthma is important to guide treatment. Using an incentive spirometer, Triflo II (Tyco Healthcare, Mansfield, MA, USA), we developed a three-minute respiratory exercise test (3-MRET) to score the maximal breathing capacity (MBC) and perception of dyspnea (POD) index by means of repetitive inspiratory efforts achieved within 3 minutes. POD index was calculated based on the ratio of breathlessness on visual analogue scale over MBC score. In 175 normal healthy subjects and 158 asthmatic patients of mild (n = 26), moderate (n = 78), and severe (n = 54), severity, the mean (95% CI) MBC scores in mild, moderate, and severe asthma patients were 168 (145-192), 153 (136-169), and 125 (109-142) respectively, and 202 (191-214) in normal subjects (p < 0.001). The mean POD index in mild, moderate, and severe asthma patients was 16 (9-23), 25 (14-37), and 57 (14-100), respectively, and 6 (4-7) in normal subjects (p < 0.001). Intraclass correlation coefficients for MBC score and POD index in 17 asthmatic and 20 normal subjects were high. In 14 asthmatic patients randomized to receiving nebulized beta2-agonist or saline in a cross-over, double-blind study, % forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) change correlated with % change in MBC score [r(s) = 0.49, p < 0.01] and POD index [r(s)-0.46, p = 0.012]. In 21 asthmatic and 26 normal subjects, the MBC score and POD index correlated with the walking distance and walking POD index of the six-minute walking test (6MWT). We conclude that 3MRET is discriminative between asthmatic patients of varying severity and normal subjects, is reproducible, is responsive to bronchodilator effect, and is comparable with 6MWT. Taken together, it has the potential to score disability and POD in asthma simply and effectively.

  7. The 6 minute walk test and performance of upper limb in ambulant duchenne muscular dystrophy boys.

    PubMed

    Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena Stacy; Sivo, Serena; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; D'Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Bianco, Flaviana; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gian Luca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Busato, Fabio; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Bonetti, Annamaria; Palermo, Concetta; Graziano, Alessandra; D'Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Corlatti, Alice; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Antonaci, Laura; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2014-10-07

    The Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) test was specifically developed for the assessment of upper limbs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The first published data have shown that early signs of involvement can also be found in ambulant DMD boys. The aim of this longitudinal Italian multicentric study was to evaluate the correlation between the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and the PUL in ambulant DMD boys. Both 6MWT and PUL were administered to 164 ambulant DMD boys of age between 5.0 and 16.17 years (mean 8.82). The 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) ranged between 118 and 557 (mean: 376.38, SD: 90.59). The PUL total scores ranged between 52 and 74 (mean: 70.74, SD: 4.66). The correlation between the two measures was 0.499. The scores on the PUL largely reflect the overall impairment observed on the 6MWT but the correlation was not linear. The use of the PUL appeared to be less relevant in the very strong patients with 6MWD above 400 meters, who, with few exceptions had near full scores. In patients with lower 6MWD the severity of upper limb involvement was more variable and could not always be predicted by the 6MWD value or by the use of steroids. Our results confirm that upper limb involvement can already be found in DMD boys even in the ambulant phase.

  8. The 6 Minute Walk Test and Performance of Upper Limb in Ambulant Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Boys

    PubMed Central

    Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena Stacy; Sivo, Serena; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; D’Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Bianco, Flaviana; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gian Luca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Busato, Fabio; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Bonetti, Annamaria; Palermo, Concetta; Graziano, Alessandra; D’Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Corlatti, Alice; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Antonaci, Laura; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    The Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) test was specifically developed for the assessment of upper limbs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The first published data have shown that early signs of involvement can also be found in ambulant DMD boys. The aim of this longitudinal Italian multicentric study was to evaluate the correlation between the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and the PUL in ambulant DMD boys. Both 6MWT and PUL were administered to 164 ambulant DMD boys of age between 5.0 and 16.17 years (mean 8.82). The 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) ranged between 118 and 557 (mean: 376.38, SD: 90.59). The PUL total scores ranged between 52 and 74 (mean: 70.74, SD: 4.66). The correlation between the two measures was 0.499. The scores on the PUL largely reflect the overall impairment observed on the 6MWT but the correlation was not linear. The use of the PUL appeared to be less relevant in the very strong patients with 6MWD above 400 meters, who, with few exceptions had near full scores. In patients with lower 6MWD the severity of upper limb involvement was more variable and could not always be predicted by the 6MWD value or by the use of steroids. Our results confirm that upper limb involvement can already be found in DMD boys even in the ambulant phase. PMID:25642376

  9. Cardiac failure detection in 30 minutes: new approach based on gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Namdari, Mehrdad; Negahdari, Babak; Cheraghi, Mostafa; Aiyelabegan, Hammed T; Eatmadi, Ali

    2017-03-07

    Cardiac failure occurs when heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs. The aim of this work is to detect highly expressed genes: follistatin-related protein 1 (FSTL1) in heart failure within 30 minutes, using gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction of HAuCl4 3H2O; probe sequence was designed based on the FSTL1 gene region. Preparation of gold nanoprobes (AuNPs) proceeded by treating all the containers with DEPC-treated water, followed by reduction and conjugation. Transmission electron microscopy shows that AuNPs were 10-15 nm in size. The concentration of the nanoprobes was 2.1 nM, and they bind to target. Real-time PCR shows an over-expression of FSTL1 and FSTL3 in heart failure (p < .05). Our data showed that elevated expression of the FSTL1 and FSTL3 is a marker of heart failure as detected within 30 minutes by the synthesised AuNPs; the method is accurate and fast.

  10. The 6-minute walk: a new measure of exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Guyatt, Gordon H.; Sullivan, Michael J.; Thompson, Penelope J.; Fallen, Ernest L.; Pugsley, Stewart O.; Taylor, D. Wayne; Berman, Leslie B.

    1985-01-01

    Cycle and treadmill exercise tests are unsuitable for elderly, frail and severely limited patients with heart failure and may not reflect capacity to undertake day-to-day activities. Walking tests have proved useful as measures of outcome for patients with chronic lung disease. To investigate the potential value of the 6-minute walk as an objective measure of exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure, the test was administered six times over 12 weeks to 18 patients with chronic heart failure and 25 with chronic lung disease. The subjects also underwent cycle ergometer testing, and their functional status was evaluated by means of conventional measures. The walking test proved highly acceptable to the patients, and stable, reproducible results were achieved after the first two walks. The results correlated with the conventional measures of functional status and exercise capacity. The authors conclude that the 6-minute walk is a useful measure of functional exercise capacity and a suitable measure of outcome for clinical trials in patients with chronic heart failure. PMID:3978515

  11. Cardiorespiratory Mechanical Simulator for In Vitro Testing of Impedance Minute Ventilation Sensors in Cardiac Pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Emanuela; Cercenelli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We developed a cardiorespiratory mechanical simulator (CRMS), a system able to reproduce both the cardiac and respiratory movements, intended to be used for in vitro testing of impedance minute ventilation (iMV) sensors in cardiac pacemakers. The simulator consists of two actuators anchored to a human thorax model and a software interface to control the actuators and to acquire/process impedance signals. The actuators can be driven separately or simultaneously to reproduce the cardiac longitudinal shortening at a programmable heart rate and the diaphragm displacement at a programmable respiratory rate (RR). A standard bipolar pacing lead moving with the actuators and a pacemaker case fixed to the thorax model have been used to measure impedance (Z) variations during the simulated cardiorespiratory movements. The software is able to discriminate the low-frequency component because of respiration (Z(R)) from the high-frequency ripple because of cardiac effect (Z(C)). Impedance minute ventilation is continuously calculated from Z(R) and RR. From preliminary tests, the CRMS proved to be a reliable simulator for in vitro evaluation of iMV sensors. Respiration impedance recordings collected during cardiorespiratory movements reproduced by the CRMS were comparable in morphology and amplitude with in vivo assessments of transthoracic impedance variations.

  12. FREQUENCY LIMITS ON NAKED-EYE OPTICAL TRANSIENTS LASTING FROM MINUTES TO YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamir, Lior; Nemiroff, Robert J. E-mail: nemiroff@mtu.edu

    2009-09-15

    How often do bright optical transients occur on the sky but go unreported? To constrain the bright end of the astronomical transient function, a systematic search for transients that become bright enough to be noticed by the unaided eye was conducted using the all-sky monitors of the Night Sky Live network. Two fisheye CONtinuous CAMeras operating over three years created a database that was searched for transients that appeared in time-contiguous CCD frames. Although a single candidate transient was found, the lack of more transients is used here to deduce upper limits to the general frequency of bright transients. To be detected, a transient must have increased by over three visual magnitudes to become brighter than visual magnitude 5.5 on the timescale of minutes to years. It is concluded that, on the average, fewer than 0.0040 (t {sub dur}/60 s) transients with duration t {sub dur} between minutes and hours, occur anywhere on the sky at any one time. For transients on the order of months to years, fewer than 160 (t {sub dur}/1 year) occur, while for transients on the order of years to millennia, fewer than 50 (t {sub dur}/1 year){sup 2} occur.

  13. The 6-minute walk test as a new outcome measure in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Craig M; Henricson, Erik K; Han, Jay J; Abresch, R Ted; Nicorici, Alina; Elfring, Gary L; Atkinson, Leone; Reha, Allen; Hirawat, Samit; Miller, Langdon L

    2010-04-01

    Walking abnormalities are prominent in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We modified the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) for use as an outcome measure in patients with DMD and evaluated its performance in 21 ambulatory boys with DMD and 34 healthy boys, ages 4 to 12 years. Boys with DMD were tested twice, approximately 1 week apart; controls were tested once. The groups had similar age, height, and weight. All tests were completed. Boys who fell recovered rapidly from falls without injury. Mean +/- SD [range] 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) was lower in boys with DMD than in controls (366 +/- 83 [125-481] m vs. 621 +/- 68 [479-754] m; P < 0.0001; unpaired t-test). Test-retest correlation for boys with DMD was high (r = 0.91). Stride length (R(2) = 0.89; P < 0.0001) was the major determinant of 6MWD for both boys with DMD and controls. A modified 6MWT is feasible and safe, documents disease-related limitations on ambulation, is reproducible, and offers a new outcome measure for DMD natural history and therapeutic trials.

  14. Percent-predicted 6-minute walk distance in duchenne muscular dystrophy to account for maturational influences.

    PubMed

    Henricson, Erik; Abresch, Richard; Han, Jay J; Nicorici, Alina; Goude Keller, Erica; Elfring, Gary; Reha, Allen; Barth, Jay; McDonald, Craig M

    2012-01-25

    We recently described a modified version of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) based partly on the American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines. This measure has shown reliability, validity and utility as a primary outcome measure in DMD clinical trials. Because loss of muscle function in DMD occurs against the background of normal childhood growth and development, younger children with DMD can show increase in distance walked during 6MWT over ~1 year despite progressive muscular impairment. In this study, we compare 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) data from DMD boys (n=17) and typically developing control subjects (n=22) to existing normative data from age- and sex-matched children and adolescents. An age- and height-based equation fitted to normative data by Geiger and colleagues was used to convert 6MWD to a percent-predicted (%-predicted) value in boys with DMD. Analysis of %-predicted 6MWD data represents a method to account for normal growth and development, and shows that gains in function at early ages represents stable rather than improving abilities in boys with DMD. Boys with DMD from 4-7 years of age maintain a stable 6MWD approximately 80% of that of typically developing peers, with the deficit progressing at a variable rate thereafter.

  15. Percent-Predicted 6-Minute Walk Distance in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy to Account for Maturational Influences

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, Erik; Abresch, Richard; Han, Jay J.; Nicorici, Alina; Goude Keller, Erica; Elfring, Gary; Reha, Allen; Barth, Jay; McDonald, Craig M.

    2012-01-01

    We recently described a modified version of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) based partly on the American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines. This measure has shown reliability, validity and utility as a primary outcome measure in DMD clinical trials. Because loss of muscle function in DMD occurs against the background of normal childhood growth and development, younger children with DMD can show increase in distance walked during 6MWT over ~1 year despite progressive muscular impairment. In this study, we compare 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) data from DMD boys (n=17) and typically developing control subjects (n=22) to existing normative data from age- and sex-matched children and adolescents. An age- and height-based equation fitted to normative data by Geiger and colleagues was used to convert 6MWD to a percent-predicted (%-predicted) value in boys with DMD. Analysis of %-predicted 6MWD data represents a method to account for normal growth and development, and shows that gains in function at early ages represents stable rather than improving abilities in boys with DMD. Boys with DMD from 4-7 years of age maintain a stable 6MWD approximately 80% of that of typically developing peers, with the deficit progressing at a variable rate thereafter. PMID:22306689

  16. Evaluation of Different Post Lengths’ Effect on Fracture Resistance of a Glass Fiber Post System

    PubMed Central

    Adanir, Necdet; Belli, Sema

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different post lengths upon root fracture resistance. Methods 78 maxillary central teeth with similar dimensions were mounted in acrylic blocks with artificial silicone periodontal ligaments. Combinations of post lengths of 6 mm (shorter than 1/1 clinical crown length), 9 mm (1/1 clinical crown length), and 12 mm (longer than 1/1 clinical crown length) made up 6 different groups consisting of 13 teeth each. The glass fiber posts (Snowpost) were cemented with Super-Bond C&B and Panavia F luting cement. Composite-resin cores were made with Clearfil PhotoCore. The specimens were tested in a universal test machine. The testing machine applied controlled loads to the core, 2 mm from its incisal edge, on the palatal side at an angle 135 degrees to the long axis of the root. The testing machine was set at a crosshead speed of 5mm per minute. All samples were loaded until failure. Results There was no statistically significant difference between cements (P>.05). Posts shorter than clinical crown length, demonstrated root fracture under significantly lower loading forces (P<.05). Conclusion Usage of posts shorter than clinical crowns should be avoided to eliminate clinical failure. PMID:19212505

  17. Effect of CPAP on intrinsic PEEP, inspiratory effort, and lung volume in severe stable COPD

    PubMed Central

    O'Donoghue, F; Catcheside, P; Jordan, A; Bersten, A; McEvoy, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: Intrinsic positive end expiratory pressure (PEEPi) constitutes an inspiratory threshold load on the respiratory muscles, increasing work of breathing. The role of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in alleviating PEEPi in patients with severe stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is uncertain. This study examined the effect of CPAP on the inspiratory threshold load, muscle effort, and lung volume in this patient group. Methods: Nine patients were studied at baseline and with CPAP increasing in increments of 1 cm H2O to a maximum of 10 cm H2O. Breathing pattern and minute ventilation (I), dynamic PEEPi, expiratory muscle activity, diaphragmatic (PTPdi/min) and oesophageal (PTPoes/min) pressure-time product per minute, integrated diaphragmatic (EMGdi) and intercostal EMG (EMGic) and end expiratory lung volume (EELV) were measured. Results: Expiratory muscle activity was present at baseline in one subject. In the remaining eight, PEEPi was reduced from a mean (SE) of 2.9 (0.6) cm H2O to 0.9 (0.1) cm H2O (p<0.05). In two subjects expiratory muscle activity contributed to PEEPi at higher pressures. There were no changes in respiratory pattern but I increased from 9.2 (0.6) l/min to 10.7 (1.1) l/min (p<0.05). EMGdi remained stable while EMGic increased significantly. PTPoes/min decreased, although this did not reach statistical significance. PTPdi/min decreased significantly from 242.1 (32.1) cm H2O.s/min to 112.9 (21.7) cm H2O.s/min). EELV increased by 1.1 (0.3) l (p<0.01). Conclusion: High levels of CPAP reduce PEEPi and indices of muscle effort in patients with severe stable COPD, but only at the expense of substantial increases in lung volume. PMID:12037230

  18. Evaluating cognitive effort in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Turner, Travis H; Renfroe, Jenna B; Morella, Kristen; Marriott, Bernadette P

    2016-09-01

    Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of neuropsychiatric conditions involve cognitive outcome measures; however, validity of cognitive data relies on adequate effort during testing, and such screening is seldom performed. Given well-established rates of 10 to 30% poor effort in clinical settings, this is not a trivial concern. This preliminary study evaluated effort during cognitive testing in an RCT of omega-3 supplementation to reduce suicidality in a high-risk psychiatric population. An interim analysis of sustained attentions measures from the Connors Performance Test (CPT-2) at baseline for the first 60 participants was conducted. Previously validated cut points to detect insufficient effort on the CPT-2 were applied. At baseline, 12% (7) were identified as giving poor effort. Follow-up analyses indicated less psychiatric distress and suicidality among those who gave poor effort. Results suggest comparable likelihood of a poor effort on cognitive testing in clinical and RCT participation. Reduced psychiatric distress in the poor effort group raises concern regarding interpretation of other measures. The importance of screening cognitive data for effort in RCTs is highlighted. Future studies will examine effort at follow-up visits, and explore relationships to attrition, adherence, and response to treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Initiating Student-Teacher Contact via Personalized Responses to One-Minute Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Gale M.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers have used many different techniques in efforts to augment engagement given the strong engagement-learning link. Teacher-student contact is one of the most effective tools for fostering engagement; however, some teachers find it hard to initiate contact in a way that seems natural. I present one method of initiating student-teacher…

  20. The Way We Educate: Twenty Million Miles for Some, a Twenty-Minute Walk for Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Grinell

    2012-01-01

    This article is about storytelling. In an effort to open opportunities similar to what we experienced while we were in school, many among the education professorate seem to have adopted well-used and familiar "academic" models of seminar instruction virtually unaltered from their experiences as graduate students. One suspects, however,…

  1. Homelessness as the Unforgiving Minute of the Present: The Rhetorical Tenses of Democratic Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loehwing, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Popular discourse and advocacy efforts characterize homelessness as a social problem bound by the present-centered concerns of physical affliction and material deprivation. Wayne Powers's documentary film "Reversal of Fortune" exemplifies this tendency by performing a "social experiment" to investigate how giving a homeless man $100,000 would…

  2. Neurocomputational mechanisms underlying subjective valuation of effort costs

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Kathrin; Sillence, Annie

    2017-01-01

    In everyday life, we have to decide whether it is worth exerting effort to obtain rewards. Effort can be experienced in different domains, with some tasks requiring significant cognitive demand and others being more physically effortful. The motivation to exert effort for reward is highly subjective and varies considerably across the different domains of behaviour. However, very little is known about the computational or neural basis of how different effort costs are subjectively weighed against rewards. Is there a common, domain-general system of brain areas that evaluates all costs and benefits? Here, we used computational modelling and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the mechanisms underlying value processing in both the cognitive and physical domains. Participants were trained on two novel tasks that parametrically varied either cognitive or physical effort. During fMRI, participants indicated their preferences between a fixed low-effort/low-reward option and a variable higher-effort/higher-reward offer for each effort domain. Critically, reward devaluation by both cognitive and physical effort was subserved by a common network of areas, including the dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the intraparietal sulcus, and the anterior insula. Activity within these domain-general areas also covaried negatively with reward and positively with effort, suggesting an integration of these parameters within these areas. Additionally, the amygdala appeared to play a unique, domain-specific role in processing the value of rewards associated with cognitive effort. These results are the first to reveal the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying subjective cost–benefit valuation across different domains of effort and provide insight into the multidimensional nature of motivation. PMID:28234892

  3. Neurocomputational mechanisms underlying subjective valuation of effort costs.

    PubMed

    Chong, Trevor T-J; Apps, Matthew; Giehl, Kathrin; Sillence, Annie; Grima, Laura L; Husain, Masud

    2017-02-01

    In everyday life, we have to decide whether it is worth exerting effort to obtain rewards. Effort can be experienced in different domains, with some tasks requiring significant cognitive demand and others being more physically effortful. The motivation to exert effort for reward is highly subjective and varies considerably across the different domains of behaviour. However, very little is known about the computational or neural basis of how different effort costs are subjectively weighed against rewards. Is there a common, domain-general system of brain areas that evaluates all costs and benefits? Here, we used computational modelling and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the mechanisms underlying value processing in both the cognitive and physical domains. Participants were trained on two novel tasks that parametrically varied either cognitive or physical effort. During fMRI, participants indicated their preferences between a fixed low-effort/low-reward option and a variable higher-effort/higher-reward offer for each effort domain. Critically, reward devaluation by both cognitive and physical effort was subserved by a common network of areas, including the dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the intraparietal sulcus, and the anterior insula. Activity within these domain-general areas also covaried negatively with reward and positively with effort, suggesting an integration of these parameters within these areas. Additionally, the amygdala appeared to play a unique, domain-specific role in processing the value of rewards associated with cognitive effort. These results are the first to reveal the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying subjective cost-benefit valuation across different domains of effort and provide insight into the multidimensional nature of motivation.

  4. Fence Posts and Rails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turton, Roger

    2016-01-01

    "Mathematical Lens" uses photographs as a springboard for mathematical inquiry and appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher." Recently while dismantling an old wooden post-and-rail fence, Roger Turton noticed something very interesting when he piled up the posts and rails together in the shape of a prism. The total number…

  5. Volcanic plumes: BrO formation during the first 100 minutes after emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, L.; Bobrowski, N.; Fickel, M.; Hoermann, C.; Kern, C.; von Glasow, R.; Platt, U.

    2012-04-01

    The main volatile species emitted by volcanoes are H2O, CO2 and SO2 in order of magnitude. Significant amounts of HCl are also emitted along with a minor fraction of other hydrogen halides (HX, X = F , Cl, Br, I). Halogen radicals can be formed in the plume from HX. E.g., BrO is produced in the volcanic plume from the emitted HBr in an auto-catalytic reaction cycle similar to the "Bromine-Explosion" known from the Arctic and Antarctic tropospheric chemistry. Reactive bromine species (and probably analogous chlorine species) are known to have a strong influence on the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere. The chemical abundance of BrO in volcanic plumes is commonly described by the BrO/SO2 ratio, as SO2 is chemically inert on time scales of hours, and can therefore be used as a tracer for dilution of volcanic gas. Based on measured BrO/SO2 ratios, improved numerical models of the chemical plume evolution could be used to estimate the total amount of bromine emitted by the volcano as well as the impact of volcanic emissions on the atmosphere. BrO/SO2 ratios will be presented which were measured at Mt. Etna during July 2008 and July 2009 with differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). These measurements were performed simultaneously with 1-3 stationary Multi-Axis DOAS instruments (MAX-DOAS) and car based traverses. They constitute the first capture of the evolution of BrO/SO2 ratios in a volcanic plume in the first two hours after emission, and are the hitherto most comprehensive data set of BrO/SO2 ratios from any single volcano. Different evolutions of ratios for both measurement campaigns are observed. During the July 2008 measurements, a small but consistent increase in BrO/SO2 with increasing plume age was observed in the first hour, with a maximum value of BrO/SO2 = 1.2 · 10-4 found after 60 minutes. In contrast, measurements during July 2009 generally show smaller BrO/SO2 ratios. After an initial increase from 0 to 0.65 · 10-4 during the first 5

  6. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Mount Hood 30- by 60-minute Quadrangle, Northern Cascade Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.

    1995-01-01

    This map shows the geology of the central and eastern parts of the Cascade Range in northern Oregon. The Quaternary andesitic stratovolcano of Mount Hood dominates the northwest quarter of the quadrangle, but nearly the entire area is underlain by arc-related volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Cascade Range. Most stratigraphic units were emplaced since middle Miocene time, and all are Oligocene or younger. Despite the proximity of the map area to the Portland metropolitan area, large parts remained virtually unstudied or known only from limited reconnaissance until the late 1970s. A notable exception is the area surrounding Mount Hood, where mapping and chemical analyses by Wise (1969) provided a framework for geologic interpretation. Mapping since 1975 was conducted first to understand the stratigraphy and structure of the Columbia River Basalt Group (Anderson, 1978; Vogt, 1981; J.L. Anderson, in Swanson and others, 1981; Vandiver-Powell, 1978; Burck, 1986) and later to examine the geothermal potential of Mount Hood (Priest and others, 1982). Additional mapping was completed in 1985 for a geologic map of the Cascade Range in Oregon (Sherrod and Smith, 1989). From 1987 to 1990, detailed mapping was conducted in three 15-minute quadrangles on a limited basis (D.R. Sherrod, unpublished mapping) (see fig. 1 for index to mapping). An ongoing volcanic hazards study of Mount Hood by the U.S. Geological Survey (Scott and others, 1994) has provided the catalyst for completing the geologic map of the Mount Hood 30-minute by 60-minute quadrangle. As of June 1994, only two broad areas still remain largely unmapped. One of these areas, labeled 'unmapped' on the geologic map, lies in the Salmon River valley south of Zigzag along the west margin of the quadrangle. Although strata of the Columbia River Basalt Group in the Salmon River valley were mapped in detail by Burck (1986), the overlying middle and upper(?) Miocene lava flows, volcaniclastic strata, and intrusions

  7. Evaluating rehabilitation efforts following the Milford Flat Fire: successes, failures, and controlling factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Palmquist, Emily C.; Miller, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    response to moister conditions, seeded forage species. These results suggest the post-fire rehabilitation efforts conducted in the lower elevation regions affected by the Milford Flat Fire were not generally successful. Though dry conditions are likely to blame for the lack of success, the low and variable precipitation characteristic of these regions suggest future post-fire rehabilitation decisions must assume that precipitation is going to be insufficient and plan rehabilitation efforts that are resilient to dry conditions.

  8. Operational Solar Forecasting System for DNI and GHI for Horizons Covering 5 Minutes to 72 Hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    I will describe the methodology used to develop and deploy operationally a comprehensive solar forecasting system for both concentrated and non-concentrated solar technologies. This operational forecasting system ingests data from local telemetry, remote sensing and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, processes all the diferent types of data (time series, sky images, satellite images, gridded data, etc.) to produce concatenated solar forecasts from 5 minutes out to 72 hours into the future. Each forecast is optimized with stochastic learning techniques that include input selection, model topology optimization, model output statistics, metric fitness optimization and machine learning. These forecasts are used by solar generators (plant managers), utilities and independent system operators for operations, scheduling, dispatching and market participation.

  9. The minute hand phenomenon in the Clock Test of patients with early Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Leyhe, Thomas; Milian, Monika; Müller, Stephan; Eschweiler, Gerhard W; Saur, Ralf

    2009-06-01

    Common scoring systems for the Clock Test do not sufficiently emphasize the correct time representation by the clock hands. We compared Clock Drawing, Clock Setting, and Clock Reading in healthy control persons, patients with mild cognitive impairment, early Alzheimer disease and progressed Alzheimer disease particularly analyzing clock time representation. We found that healthy control persons and participants with mild cognitive impairment did not show any impairment in Clock Test performance. Patients with early Alzheimer disease could be discriminated from healthy control persons and participants with mild cognitive impairment solely by misplacement of the minute hand in Clock Drawing and Clock Setting. The progressed Alzheimer disease group showed significantly more impairments in all Clock Test variants. It is assumed that early stage Alzheimer disease patient deficits in Clock Tests are mainly determined by a reduced access to semantic memory about the appearance and functionality of a clock.

  10. Selective detection of 1000 B. anthracis spores within 15 minutes using a peptide functionalized SERS assay.

    PubMed

    Farquharson, Stuart; Shende, Chetan; Smith, Wayne; Huang, Hermes; Inscore, Frank; Sengupta, Atanu; Sperry, Jay; Sickler, Todd; Prugh, Amber; Guicheteau, Jason

    2014-12-21

    A surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) assay has been designed to detect Bacillus anthracis spores. The assay consists of silver nanoparticles embedded in a porous glass structure that have been functionalized with ATYPLPIR, a peptide developed to discriminately bind B. anthracis versus other species of Bacillus. Once bound, acetic acid was used to release the biomarker dipicolinic acid from the spores, which was detected by SERS through the addition of silver colloids. This SERS assay was used to selectively bind B. anthracis with a 100-fold selectivity versus B. cereus, and to detect B. anthracis Ames at concentrations of 1000 spores per mL within 15 minutes. The SERS assay measurements provide a basis for the development of systems that can detect spores collected from the air or from water supplies.

  11. The 15-Minute Family Interview as a learning strategy for senior undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Holtslander, Lorraine; Solar, Jessica; Smith, Nicole R

    2013-05-01

    Nursing care of families continues to be a challenge within complex and demanding health-care systems. Educational strategies to bridge the theory-practice gap, connecting classroom learning with clinical experiences in undergraduate nursing education, enable students to develop the skills required to form meaningful partnerships with families. This article describes how undergraduate nursing students complete a 15-Minute Family Interview in a clinical practice setting, and document the interview process in a reflective major paper. Students integrate research and theory and identify ways to improve the care of families in the clinical setting while building communication skills and confidence in interacting with families in everyday practice. The implementation of the assignment and the evaluation of the process, including quotes from 10 student papers and 2 clinical faculty members, are discussed. Implications for education and ongoing research are offered.

  12. Effect of deep breathing at six breaths per minute on the frequency of premature ventricular complexes.

    PubMed

    Prakash, E Sankaranarayanan; Ravindra, Pattanashetty N; Madanmohan; Anilkumar, R; Balachander, J

    2006-08-28

    Although the effect of reflex increase in vagal tone on the frequency of premature ventricular complexes (PVC) is known, the effect of timed deep breathing on the frequency of PVC has not been reported. We serendipitously discovered that deep breathing at six breaths per minute abolished PVC in an 18-year-old female with frequent PVC, anxiety, and palpitations. In five of a series of 10 consecutive patients with frequent (> or = 10/min) unifocal PVC, deep breathing at 6 breaths/min reduced the frequency of PVC by at least 50%. This is possibly due to increased vagal modulation of sinoatrial and atrioventricular node. However, factors predicting the response to deep breathing, and the mechanisms involved need to be studied in a larger number of patients.

  13. Geochemical characterization of the Mt. Harvard 15-minute quadrangle, Colorado, using NURE data

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    The geochemical characteristics of the Mt. Harvard 15-minute quadrangle, Colorado, were identified using data from National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) detailed and reconnaissance geochemical and geophysical surveys. Statistical and cartographic techniques developed during the NURE program were applied to the data, and the results were compared with published geologic mapping, geologic studies, and mineral-occurrence information. Interpretations based on these comparisons resulted in the identification of distinct geochemical environments which represent differing rock types, geologic structures, and mineral-occurrence or -deposit areas. Fifteen areas that have geochemical characteristics indicative of mineral deposits were delineated in this study. Nine of the areas contain elemental data that indicate known and potential base- and precious-metal deposits; four of the areas contain elemental data indicative of uranium deposits; and two of the areas contain data indicative of pegmatite deposits.

  14. DNA extraction techniques for DNA barcoding of minute gall-inhabiting wasps.

    PubMed

    Dittrich-Schröder, Gudrun; Wingfield, Michael J; Klein, Hildegard; Slippers, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    DNA extraction from minute hymenopterans and their larvae is difficult and challenging because of their small size indicating a low amount of starting material. Hence, 11 DNA extraction methods were compared to determine their efficacy in isolating DNA. Success of each method was scored on a 2% agarose gel after PCR of the cox 1 mitochondrial locus. A silica-membrane-based approach was the most successful, followed by a method using a combination of incubation buffers and a method using magnetic beads. The method using buffers was the most cost- and time effective. Using this method, larvae from Eucalyptus seed capsule galls could be assigned a role (parasitoid, gall former or inquiline) in the gall-inhabiting complex.

  15. Realization of minute-long steady-state H-mode discharges on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianzu, GONG; Baonian, WAN; Jiangang, LI; Jinping, QIAN; Erzhong, LI; Fukun, LIU; Yanping, ZHAO; Mao, WANG; Handong, XU; A, M. GAROFALO; Annika, EKEDAH; Siye, DING; Juan, HUANG; Ling, ZHANG; Qing, ZANG; Haiqing, LIU; Long, ZENG; Shiyao, LIN; Biao, SHEN; Bin, ZHANG; Linming, SHAO; Bingjia, XIAO; Jiansheng, HU; Chundong, HU; Liqun, HU; Liang, WANG; Youwen, SUN; Guosheng, XU; Yunfeng, LIANG; Nong, XIANG; EAST Team

    2017-03-01

    In the 2016 EAST experimental campaign, a steady-state long-pulse H-mode discharge with an ITER-like tungsten divertor lasting longer than one minute has been obtained using only RF heating and current drive, through an integrated control of the wall conditioning, plasma configuration, divertor heat flux, particle exhaust, impurity management, and effective coupling of multiple RF heating and current drive sources at high injected power. The plasma current (I p ∼ 0.45 MA) was fully-noninductively driven (V loop < 0.0 V) by a combination of ∼2.5 MW LHW, ∼0.4 MW ECH and ∼0.8 MW ICRF. This result demonstrates the progress of physics and technology studies on EAST, and will benefit the physics basis for steady state operation of ITER and CFETR.

  16. Molecular characteristics of a novel strain of canine minute virus associated with hepatitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Jung, Ji-Youl; Lee, Jae-Il; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2016-08-01

    A 5-year-old female Yorkshire terrier dog died a few days following hernia and ovariohysterectomy surgeries. Necropsy performed on the dog revealed that the surgeries were not the cause of death; however, degenerative viral hepatitis, showing intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatic cells, was observed in histopathologic examination. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for the cause of disease, and minute virus of canines (MVC) was detected in all parenchymal organs, including the liver. Other pathogens that may cause degenerative viral hepatitis were not found. Infection with MVC was confirmed by in situ hybridization, which revealed the presence of MVC nucleic acid in the liver tissue of the dog. Through sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the nearly complete genome sequence, the strain was found to be distinct from other previously reported MVC strains. These results indicate that this novel MVC strain might be related to degenerative viral hepatitis in dogs.

  17. Geologic map of the Morena Reservoir 7.5-minute quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Victoria R.

    2016-06-01

    IntroductionMapping in the Morena Reservoir 7.5-minute quadrangle began in 1980, when the Hauser Wilderness Area, which straddles the Morena Reservoir and Barrett Lake quadrangles, was mapped for the U.S. Forest Service. Mapping was completed in 1993–1994. The Morena Reservoir quadrangle contains part of a regional-scale Late Jurassic(?) to Early Cretaceous tectonic suture that coincides with the western limit of Jurassic metagranites in this part of the Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB). This suture, and a nearly coincident map unit consisting of metamorphosed Cretaceous and Jurassic back-arc basinal volcanic and sedimentary rocks (unit KJvs), mark the boundary between western, predominantly metavolcanic rocks, and eastern, mainly metasedimentary, rocks. The suture is intruded and truncated by the western margin of middle to Late Cretaceous Granite Mountain and La Posta plutons of the eastern zone of the batholith.

  18. Locating very high energy gamma ray sources with arc minute accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akerlof, C. W.; Cawley, M. F.; Chantell, M.; Fegan, D. J.; Harris, K.; Hillas, A. M.; Jennings, D. G.; Lamb, R. C.; Lawrence, M. A.; Lang, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The angular accuracy of gamma-ray detectors is intrinsically limited by the physical processes involved in photon detection. Although a number of point-like sources were detected by the COS-B satellite, only two were unambiguously identified by time signature with counterparts at longer wavelengths. By taking advantage of the extended longitudinal structure of Very High Energy gamma-ray showers, measurements in the TeV energy range can pinpoint source coordinates to arc minute accuracy. This was demonstrated using Cerenkov air shower imaging techniques. With two telescopes in coincidence, the individual event circular probable error will be 0.13 deg. The half-cone angle of the field of view is effectively 1 deg.

  19. Short communication: Progressive motility of frozen-thawed canine semen is highest five minutes after thawing.

    PubMed

    Karger, S; Geiser, B; Grau, M; Heuwieser, W; Arlt, S P

    2017-04-01

    Progressive motility is usually estimated by visual inspection using a light contrast microscope at X 100 immediately after semen collection or immediately after thawing frozen semen. Standard operating procedures have never been established for this test. The objective of this experiment was to examine time-dependent changes of motility after thawing cryopreserved canine semen. Semen of 35 dogs was collected, and volume, concentration, progressive motility, morphology, membrane integrity and HOS test were evaluated. For cryopreservation, CaniPRO(®) Freeze A&B was used. Semen was thawed and diluted using CaniPRO(®) culture medium. After thawing, semen was evaluated as before. In addition, every sample was evaluated for progressively motile sperm cells 0, 5, 20 and 60 min after thawing. Progressive semen motility was significantly highest five minutes after thawing.

  20. Rapid fabrication of hierarchically structured supramolecular nanocomposite thin films in one minute

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ting; Kao, Joseph

    2016-11-08

    Functional nanocomposites containing nanoparticles of different chemical compositions may exhibit new properties to meet demands for advanced technology. It is imperative to simultaneously achieve hierarchical structural control and to develop rapid, scalable fabrication to minimize degradation of nanoparticle properties and for compatibility with nanomanufacturing. The assembly kinetics of supramolecular nanocomposite in thin films is governed by the energetic cost arising from defects, the chain mobility, and the activation energy for inter-domain diffusion. By optimizing only one parameter, the solvent fraction in the film, the assembly kinetics can be precisely tailored to produce hierarchically structured thin films of supramolecular nanocomposites in approximately one minute. Moreover, the strong wavelength dependent optical anisotropy in the nanocomposite highlights their potential applications for light manipulation and information transmission. The present invention opens a new avenue in designing manufacture-friendly continuous processing for the fabrication of functional nanocomposite thin films.