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Sample records for mir-17-5p promotes migration

  1. MiR-17-5p regulates cell proliferation and migration by targeting transforming growth factor-β receptor 2 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Deng, Ting; Bai, Ming; Huang, Dingzhi; Li, Hongli; Ning, Tao; Zhang, Le; Wang, Xia; Ge, Shaohua; Zhou, Likun; Zhong, Benfu; Ying, Guoguang; Ba, Yi

    2016-01-01

    TGFBR2 serves as an initial regulator of the TGF-β signaling pathway, and loss or reduction of its expression leads to uncontrolled cell growth and invasion. TGFBR2 plays a crucial role in the carcinogenesis and malignant process of gastric cancer, but the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found that TGFBR2 protein levels were consistently upregulated in gastric cancer tissues, whereas TGFBR2 mRNA levels varied among these tissues, indicating that a post-transcriptional mechanism is involved in the regulation of TGFBR2. MiRNAs are known to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Therefore, we performed bioinformatics analyses to search for miRNAs potentially targeting TGFBR2. MiR-17-5p was found to bind to the 3′UTR of TGFBR2 mRNA, and further validation of this specific binding was performed through a reporter assay. An inverse correlation between miR-17-5p and TGFBR2 protein was observed in gastric cancer tissues. Cell studies revealed that miR-17-5p negatively regulated TGFBR2 expression by directly binding to the 3′UTR of TGFBR2 mRNA, thereby promoting cell growth and migration. We also validated the role of TGFBR2 using siRNA and an overexpression plasmid. The results of our study suggest a novel regulatory network in gastric cancer mediated by miR-17-5p and TGFBR2 and may indicate that TGFBR2 could serve as a new therapeutic target in gastric cancer. PMID:27120811

  2. Arginase II is a target of miR-17-5p and regulates miR-17-5p expression in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Youpeng; Jin, Yi; Chen, Bernadette; Tipple, Trent E; Nelin, Leif D

    2014-07-15

    Vascular remodeling and smooth muscle cell proliferation are hallmark pathogenic features of pulmonary artery hypertension. MicroRNAs, endogenously expressed small noncoding RNAs, regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. It has previously been shown that miR-17 overexpression in cultured human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (hPASMC) resulted in increased viable cell number. Previously, we have found that arginase II promotes hypoxia-induced proliferation in hPASMC. Therefore, we hypothesized that miR-17 would be upregulated by hypoxia in hPASMC and would result in greater arginase II expression. We found that levels of miR-17-5p and arginase II were significantly greater in cultured hPASMC exposed to 1% O2 for 48 h than in hPASMC exposed to 21% O2 for 48 h. Furthermore, inhibiting miR-17-5p expression decreased hypoxia-induced arginase II protein levels in hPASMC. Conversely, overexpressing miR-17-5p resulted in greater arginase II protein levels. Somewhat surprisingly, arginase II inhibition was associated with lower miR-17-5p expression in both normoxic and hypoxic hPASMC, whereas overexpressing arginase II resulted in greater miR-17-5p expression in hPASMC. These findings suggest that hypoxia-induced arginase II expression is not only regulated by miR-17-5p but also that there is a feedback loop between arginase II and miR-17-5p in hPASMC. We also found that the arginase II-mediated regulation of miR-17-5p was independent of either p53 or c-myc. We also found that l-arginine, the substrate for arginase II, and l-ornithine, the amino acid product of arginase II, were not involved in the regulation of miR-17-5p expression.

  3. MiR-17-5p up-regulates YES1 to modulate the cell cycle progression and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Lan; He, Li; Zhao, Jian-Li; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Min; Li, Xin; Tang, Hua

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that participate in the regulation of gene expression. Although many studies have demonstrated the involvement of miR-17-5p in different cancers, little is known to its function in ovarian cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR-17-5p was able to enhance cell proliferation by promoting G1/S transition of the cell cycle and suppressing apoptosis in ES-2 and OVCAR3 cell lines, whereas inhibition of miR-17-5p yielded the reverse phenotype. YES1 was identified as a novel target gene of miR-17-5p. Moreover, miR-17-5p was found to directly bind to the 3'UTR of YES1 mRNA and up-regulated its expression. Furthermore, knockdown of YES1 led to the suppression of proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in ES-2 and OVCAR3 cells. Ectopic expression of YES1 was able to reverse the effects of miR-17-5p inhibition. Collectively, our results indicated that miR-17-5p might play a role in human ovarian cancer by up-regulating YES1 expression. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 1050-1059, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. miR-17-5p inhibitor enhances chemosensitivity to gemcitabine via upregulating Bim expression in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hai-Jiao; Liu, Wen-Song; Sun, Wen-Hui; Wu, Jun; Ji, Mei; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Xiao; Jiang, Jing-Ting; Wu, Chang-Ping

    2012-12-01

    miR-17-5p is reported to be overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, and it plays an important role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Gemcitabine is the standard first-line chemotherapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer, however the chemoresistance limits the curative effect. In the present study, we investigated whether inhibition of miR-17-5p could enhance chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cells. miR-17-5p inhibitor was transfected to pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1 and BxPC3, and then cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, and chemosensitivity to gemcitabine were measured in vitro. Our data showed that Panc-1 and BxPC3 cells transfected with miR-17-5p inhibitor showed growth inhibition, spontaneous apoptosis, higher caspase-3 activation, and increased chemosensitivity to gemcitabine. In addition, miR-17-5p inhibitor upregulated Bim protein expression in a dose-dependent manner without changing the Bim mRNA level, and it increased the activity of a luciferase reporter construct containing the Bim-3' untranslated region. These results prove that miR-17-5p negatively regulates Bim at the posttranscriptional level. We suggest that miR-17-5p inhibitor gene therapy would be a novel approach to chemosensitization for human pancreatic cancer.

  5. Repression of miR-17-5p with elevated expression of E2F-1 and c-MYC in non-metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma and enhancement of cell growth upon reversing this expression pattern

    SciTech Connect

    El Tayebi, H.M.; Omar, K.; Hegy, S.; El Maghrabi, M.; El Brolosy, M.; Hosny, K.A.; Esmat, G.; Abdelaziz, A.I.

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •The oncogenic miR-17-5p is downregulated in non-metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma patients. •E2F-1 and c-MYC transcripts are upregulated in non-metastatic HCC patients. •miR-17-5p forced overexpression inhibited E2F-1 and c-MYC expression in HuH-7 cells. •miR-17-5p mimicking increased HuH-7 cell growth, proliferation, migration and colony formation. •miR-17-5p is responsible for HCC progression among the c-MYC/E2F-1/miR-17-5p triad members. -- Abstract: E2F-1, c-MYC, and miR-17-5p is a triad of two regulatory loops: a negative and a positive loop, where c-MYC induces the expression of E2F-1 that induces the expression of miR-17-5p which in turn reverses the expression of E2F-1 to close the loop. In this study, we investigated this triad for the first time in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), where miR-17-5p showed a significant down-regulation in 23 non-metastatic HCC biopsies compared to 10 healthy tissues; however, E2F-1 and c-MYC transcripts were markedly elevated. Forced over-expression of miR-17-5p in HuH-7 cells resulted in enhanced cell proliferation, growth, migration and clonogenicity with concomitant inhibition of E2F-1 and c-MYC transcripts expressions, while antagomirs of miR-17-5p reversed these events. In conclusion, this study revealed a unique pattern of expression for miR-17-5p in non-metastatic HCC patients in contrast to metastatic HCC patients. In addition we show that miR-17-5p is the key player among the triad that tumor growth and spread.

  6. Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR inhibits miR-17-5p to regulate osteogenic differentiation and proliferation in non-traumatic osteonecrosis of femoral head

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baoxiang; Guo, Xiaxia; Liu, Song

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim The biological functions of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been widely identified in many human diseases. In the present study, the relationship between long non-coding RNA HOTAIR and microRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) and their roles in osteogenic differentiation and proliferation in non-traumatic osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) were investigated. Methods The expression levels of HOTAIR and miR-17-5p in the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from patients with non-traumatic ONFH and osteoarthritis (OA) were examined by real-time PCR. BMP-2 induced human MSCs from bone marrow (hMSC-BM) were used for osteogenic differentiation. Results It was observed that the expression level of miR-17-5p was lower and the level of HOTAIR was higher in samples of non-traumatic ONFH compared with OA. HOTAIR downregulation induced by si-HOTAIR led to the increase of miR-17-5p expression and the decrease of miR-17-5p target gene SMAD7 expression. The values of osteogenic differentiation markers, including RUNX2 and COL1A1 mRNA expression and ALP activity, were also elevated by si-HOTAIR. However, the increase of these values was canceled by miR-17-5p inhibitor or SMAD7 upregulation. Conclusion HOTAIR played a role in regulating osteogenic differentiation and proliferation through modulating miR-17-5p and its target gene SMAD7 in non-traumatic ONFH. PMID:28207735

  7. Mature miR-17-5p and passenger miR-17-3p induce hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting PTEN, GalNT7 and vimentin in different signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Shan, Sze Wan; Fang, Ling; Shatseva, Tatiana; Rutnam, Zina Jeyapalan; Yang, Xiangling; Du, William; Lu, Wei-Yang; Xuan, Jim W; Deng, Zhaoqun; Yang, Burton B

    2013-03-15

    To study the physiological role of a single microRNA (miRNA), we generated transgenic mice expressing the miRNA precursor miR-17 and found that the mature miR-17-5p and the passenger strand miR-17-3p were abundantly expressed. We showed that mature miR-17-5p and passenger strand miR-17-3p could synergistically induce the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mature miR-17-5p exerted this function by repressing the expression of PTEN. In contrast, the passenger strand miR-17-3p repressed expression of vimentin, an intermediate filament with the ability to modulate metabolism, and GalNT7, an enzyme that regulates metabolism of liver toxin galactosamine. Hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HepG2, transfected with miR-17 formed larger tumors with more blood vessels and less tumor cell death than mock-treated cells. Expression of miR-17 precursor modulated HepG2 proliferation, migration, survival, morphogenesis and colony formation and inhibited endothelial tube formation. Silencing of PTEN, vimentin or GalNT7 with their respective siRNAs enhanced proliferation and migration. Re-expressing these molecules reversed their roles in proliferation, migration and tumorigenesis. Further experiments indicated that these three molecules do not interact with each other, but appear to function in different signaling pathways. Our results demonstrated that a mature miRNA can function synergistically with its passenger strand leading to the same phenotype but by regulating different targets located in different signaling pathways. We anticipate that our assay will serve as a helpful model for studying miRNA regulation.

  8. Association of the miR-17-5p variants with susceptibility to cervical cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Liu, Ming; He, Yongjun; He, Xue; Shi, Xugang; Wang, Fengjiao; Du, Shuli; Ma, Yajuan; Bao, Shan; Yuan, Dongya

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression; however, the extent to which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) interfere with miRNA gene regulation and affect cervical cancer (CC) susceptibility remains largely unknown. Here, we systematically analyzed miRNA-related SNPs and their association with CC risk, and performed a case-control study of miR-17-5p SNPs and CC risk in a Chinese population. Sixteen SNPs were genotyped in 247 CC cases and 285 controls. Three were associated with CC risk (p < 0.05): the minor allele (A) of rs217727 in H19 increased risk (OR = 1.53, p = 0.002), while the minor alleles (T) of rs9931702 and (T) of rs9302648 in AKTIP decreased CC risk (p = 0.018, p = 0.014). Analysis of the SNPs after stratification based on CC clinical stage and subtype revealed that rs1048512, rs6659346, rs217727, rs9931702, and rs9302648 were associated with CC risk in clinical stages I-II; rs2862833, rs2732044, rs1030389, and rs1045935 were associated with CC risk in clinical stages III-IV; and rs217727, rs9931702, and rs9302648 were associated with CC risk in squamous carcinomas. These data could serve as a useful resource for understanding the miR-17 function, identification of miRNAs associated with CC, and development of better CC screening strategies. PMID:27765929

  9. miR-17-5p downregulation contributes to paclitaxel resistance of lung cancer cells through altering beclin1 expression.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Abhisek; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Chakrabarti, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Paclitaxel based combination therapies have long been used as a standard treatment in aggressive NSCLCs. But paclitaxel resistance has emerged as a major clinical problem in combating non-small-cell lung cancer and autophagy is one of the important mechanisms involved in this phenomenon. In this study, we used microRNA (miRNA) arrays to screen differentially expressed miRNAs between paclitaxel sensitive lung cancer cells A549 and its paclitaxel-resistant cell variant (A549-T24). We identified miR-17-5p was one of most significantly downregulated miRNAs in paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer cells compared to paclitaxel sensitive parental cells. We found that overexpression of miR-17-5p sensitized paclitaxel resistant lung cancer cells to paclitaxel induced apoptotic cell death. Moreover, in this report we demonstrated that miR-17-5p directly binds to the 3'-UTR of beclin 1 gene, one of the most important autophagy modulator. Overexpression of miR-17-5p into paclitaxel resistant lung cancer cells reduced beclin1 expression and a concordant decease in cellular autophagy. We also observed similar results in another paclitaxel resistant lung adenosquamous carcinoma cells (H596-TxR). Our results indicated that paclitaxel resistance of lung cancer is associated with downregulation of miR-17-5p expression which might cause upregulation of BECN1 expression.

  10. miR-17-5p Downregulation Contributes to Paclitaxel Resistance of Lung Cancer Cells through Altering Beclin1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Abhisek; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Chakrabarti, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Non- small- cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Paclitaxel based combination therapies have long been used as a standard treatment in aggressive NSCLCs. But paclitaxel resistance has emerged as a major clinical problem in combating non-small-cell lung cancer and autophagy is one of the important mechanisms involved in this phenomenon. In this study, we used microRNA (miRNA) arrays to screen differentially expressed miRNAs between paclitaxel sensitive lung cancer cells A549 and its paclitaxel-resistant cell variant (A549-T24). We identified miR-17-5p was one of most significantly downregulated miRNAs in paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer cells compared to paclitaxel sensitive parental cells. We found that overexpression of miR-17-5p sensitized paclitaxel resistant lung cancer cells to paclitaxel induced apoptotic cell death. Moreover, in this report we demonstrated that miR-17-5p directly binds to the 3′-UTR of beclin 1 gene, one of the most important autophagy modulator. Overexpression of miR-17-5p into paclitaxel resistant lung cancer cells reduced beclin1 expression and a concordant decease in cellular autophagy. We also observed similar results in another paclitaxel resistant lung adenosquamous carcinoma cells (H596-TxR). Our results indicated that paclitaxel resistance of lung cancer is associated with downregulation of miR-17-5p expression which might cause upregulation of BECN1 expression. PMID:24755562

  11. Non-Specific Blocking of miR-17-5p Guide Strand in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells by Amplifying Passenger Strand Activity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuan-Yuan; Andrade, Jade; Wickstrom, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that only one of the two strands in a micro ribonucleic acid (miRNA) precursor duplex is selected as the active miRNA guide strand. The complementary miRNA passenger strand, however, is thought to be inactive. High levels of the oncogenic miRNA (oncomiR) guide strand called miR-17-5p is overexpressed in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and can inhibit ribosomal translation of tumor suppressor gene mRNAs, such as programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) or phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). We hypothesized that knocking down the oncogenic microRNA (oncomiR) miR-17-5p might restore the expression levels of PDCD4 and PTEN tumor suppressor proteins, illustrating a route to oligonucleotide therapy of TNBC. Contrary to conventional wisdom, antisense knockdown of oncomiR miR-17-5p guide strand reduced PDCD4 and PTEN proteins by 1.8±0.3 fold in human TNBC cells instead of raising them. Bioinformatics analysis and folding energy calculations revealed that mRNA targets of miR-17-5p guide strand, such as PDCD4 and PTEN, could also be regulated by miR-17-3p passenger strand. Due to high sequence homology between the antisense molecules and miR-17-3p passenger strand, as well as the excess binding sites for the passenger strand on the 3'UTR of PDCD4 and PTEN mRNAs, introducing a miR-17-3p DNA-LNA mimic to knock down miR-17-5p reduced PDCD4 and PTEN protein expression instead of raising them. Our results imply that therapeutic antisense sequences against miRNAs should be designed to target the miRNA strand with the greatest number of putative binding sites in the target mRNAs, while minimizing affinity for the minor strand.

  12. Non-Specific Blocking of miR-17-5p Guide Strand in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells by Amplifying Passenger Strand Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuan-Yuan; Andrade, Jade; Wickstrom, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that only one of the two strands in a micro ribonucleic acid (miRNA) precursor duplex is selected as the active miRNA guide strand. The complementary miRNA passenger strand, however, is thought to be inactive. High levels of the oncogenic miRNA (oncomiR) guide strand called miR-17-5p is overexpressed in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and can inhibit ribosomal translation of tumor suppressor gene mRNAs, such as programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) or phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). We hypothesized that knocking down the oncogenic microRNA (oncomiR) miR-17-5p might restore the expression levels of PDCD4 and PTEN tumor suppressor proteins, illustrating a route to oligonucleotide therapy of TNBC. Contrary to conventional wisdom, antisense knockdown of oncomiR miR-17-5p guide strand reduced PDCD4 and PTEN proteins by 1.8±0.3 fold in human TNBC cells instead of raising them. Bioinformatics analysis and folding energy calculations revealed that mRNA targets of miR-17-5p guide strand, such as PDCD4 and PTEN, could also be regulated by miR-17-3p passenger strand. Due to high sequence homology between the antisense molecules and miR-17-3p passenger strand, as well as the excess binding sites for the passenger strand on the 3’UTR of PDCD4 and PTEN mRNAs, introducing a miR-17-3p DNA-LNA mimic to knock down miR-17-5p reduced PDCD4 and PTEN protein expression instead of raising them. Our results imply that therapeutic antisense sequences against miRNAs should be designed to target the miRNA strand with the greatest number of putative binding sites in the target mRNAs, while minimizing affinity for the minor strand. PMID:26629823

  13. Curcumin represses mouse 3T3-L1 cell adipogenic differentiation via inhibiting miR-17-5p and stimulating the Wnt signalling pathway effector Tcf7l2.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lili; Song, Zhuolun; Shao, Weijuan; Du, William W; Zhao, Lisa R; Zeng, Kejing; Yang, Burton B; Jin, Tianru

    2017-01-19

    Understanding mechanisms underlying adipogenic differentiation may lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for obesity. Wnt signalling pathway activation leads to repressed adipogenic differentiation while certain microRNAs may regulate pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. We show here that in mouse white adipose tissue, miR-17-5p level is elevated after high fat diet consumption. miR-17-5p upregulates adipogenic differentiation, as its over-expression increased while its inhibition repressed 3T3-L1 differentiation. The Tcf7l2 gene encodes a key Wnt signalling pathway effector, and its human homologue TCF7L2 is a highly regarded diabetes risk gene. We found that Tcf7l2 is an miR-17-5p target and confirmed the repressive effect of Tcf7l2 on 3T3-L1 adipogenic differentiation. The natural plant polyphenol compound curcumin possesses the body weight lowering effect. We observed that curcumin attenuated miR-17-5p expression and stimulated Tcf7l2 expression in 3T3-L1 cells. These, along with the elevation of miR-17-5p expression in mouse epididymal fat tissue in response to high fat diet consumption, allowed us to suggest that miR-17-5p is among central switches of adipogenic differentiation. It activates adipogenesis via repressing the Wnt signalling pathway effector Tcf7l2, and its own expression is likely nutritionally regulated in health and disease.

  14. Curcumin represses mouse 3T3-L1 cell adipogenic differentiation via inhibiting miR-17-5p and stimulating the Wnt signalling pathway effector Tcf7l2

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lili; Song, Zhuolun; Shao, Weijuan; Du, William W; Zhao, Lisa R; Zeng, Kejing; Yang, Burton B; Jin, Tianru

    2017-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms underlying adipogenic differentiation may lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for obesity. Wnt signalling pathway activation leads to repressed adipogenic differentiation while certain microRNAs may regulate pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. We show here that in mouse white adipose tissue, miR-17-5p level is elevated after high fat diet consumption. miR-17-5p upregulates adipogenic differentiation, as its over-expression increased while its inhibition repressed 3T3-L1 differentiation. The Tcf7l2 gene encodes a key Wnt signalling pathway effector, and its human homologue TCF7L2 is a highly regarded diabetes risk gene. We found that Tcf7l2 is an miR-17-5p target and confirmed the repressive effect of Tcf7l2 on 3T3-L1 adipogenic differentiation. The natural plant polyphenol compound curcumin possesses the body weight lowering effect. We observed that curcumin attenuated miR-17-5p expression and stimulated Tcf7l2 expression in 3T3-L1 cells. These, along with the elevation of miR-17-5p expression in mouse epididymal fat tissue in response to high fat diet consumption, allowed us to suggest that miR-17-5p is among central switches of adipogenic differentiation. It activates adipogenesis via repressing the Wnt signalling pathway effector Tcf7l2, and its own expression is likely nutritionally regulated in health and disease. PMID:28102847

  15. Diosmin attenuates radiation-induced hepatic fibrosis by boosting PPAR-γ expression and hampering miR-17-5p-activated canonical Wnt-β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Hesham Farouk; Abdel-Rafei, Mohamed Khairy; Galal, Shereen Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Liver fibrosis is one of the major complications from upper right quadrant radiotherapy. MicroRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) is hypothesized to act as a regulator of hepatic stellate cell (HSCs) activation by activation of the canonical Wnt-β-catenin pathway. Diosmin (Dios), a citrus bioflavonoid, is known to possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. To explore the molecular mechanisms that underlie radiation-induced liver fibrosis, and to evaluate the possible influence of Dios on the miR-17-5p-Wnt-β-catenin signaling axis during fibrogenesis provoked by irradiation (IRR) in rats. Also, the effect of Dios on hepatic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) expression as a regulator for HSC activation was considered. We administered 100 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1) (per oral) of Dios were administered to IRR-exposed rats (overall dose of 12 Gy on 6 fractions of 2 Gy each) for 6 successive weeks. Data analysis revealed that Dios treatment mitigated oxidative stress, enhanced antioxidant defenses, alleviated hepatic inflammatory responses, abrogated pro-fibrogenic cytokines, and stimulated PPAR-γ expression. Dios treatment repressed the miR-17-5p activated Wnt-β-catenin signaling induced by IRR. Moreover, Dios treatment restored the normal hepatic architecture and reversed pathological alterations induced by IRR. We hypothesize that the stimulation of PPAR-γ expression and interference with miR-17-5p activated Wnt-β-catenin signaling mediates the antifibrotic properties of Dios.

  16. Brown Seaweed Fucoidan Inhibits Cancer Progression by Dual Regulation of mir-29c/ADAM12 and miR-17-5p/PTEN Axes in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Szu-Yuan; Yan, Ming-De; Wu, Alexander T.H.; Yuan, Kevin Sheng-Po; Liu, Shing Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we observed that brown seaweed fucoidan inhibited human breast cancer progression by upregulating microRNA (miR)-29c and downregulating miR-17-5p, thereby suppressing their target genes, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), respectively. Moreover, fucoidan reduced the luciferase activity of 3'-untranslated region reporter; treatment of cells with the miR-29c mimic or miR-17-5p inhibitor also produced similar results. These effects of fucoidan inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells, as evidenced by an increase in E-cadherin and a drop in N-cadherin, and inhibited breast cancer cell survival, as evidenced by the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that fucoidan inhibits breast cancer progression by regulating the miR-29c/ADAM12 and miR-17-5p/PTEN axes. Fucoidan is a potential chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer. PMID:27994679

  17. Brown Seaweed Fucoidan Inhibits Cancer Progression by Dual Regulation of mir-29c/ADAM12 and miR-17-5p/PTEN Axes in Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Szu-Yuan; Wu, Alexander T H; Yuan, Kevin Sheng-Po; Liu, Shing Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we observed that brown seaweed fucoidan inhibited human breast cancer progression by upregulating microRNA (miR)-29c and downregulating miR-17-5p, thereby suppressing their target genes, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), respectively. Moreover, fucoidan reduced the luciferase activity of 3'-untranslated region reporter; treatment of cells with the miR-29c mimic or miR-17-5p inhibitor also produced similar results. These effects of fucoidan inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells, as evidenced by an increase in E-cadherin and a drop in N-cadherin, and inhibited breast cancer cell survival, as evidenced by the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that fucoidan inhibits breast cancer progression by regulating the miR-29c/ADAM12 and miR-17-5p/PTEN axes. Fucoidan is a potential chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer.

  18. Stress Response of Glioblastoma Cells Mediated by miR-17-5p Targeting PTEN and the Passenger Strand miR-17-3p Targeting MDM2

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haoran; Yang, Burton B

    2012-01-01

    Tumor development not only destroys the homeostasis of local tissues but also the whole body, and thus the tumor cells have to face the body's defense system, a shortage of nutrition and oxygen, and chemotherapeutic drug treatment. In response to these stresses, tumor cells often alter gene expression and microRNA levels to facilitate survival. We have demonstrated that glioblastoma cells deprived of nutrition or treated with chemotherapeutics drugs expressed increased levels of miR-17. Ectopic transfection of miR-17 prolonged glioblastoma cell survival when the cells were deprived with nutrition or treated with chemotherapeutic drugs. Expression of miR-17 also promoted cell motility, invasion, and tube-like structure formation. We found that these phenotypes were the results of miR-17 targeting PTEN. As a consequence, HIF1α and VEGF were up-regulated. Ectopic expression of miR-17 was found to facilitate enrichment of stem-like tumor cells, since the cells became drug-resistant, showed increased capacity to form colonies and neurospheres, and expressed higher levels of CD133, a phenotype similar to ectopic expression of HIF1α. To further confirm the phenotypic property of stem cells, we demonstrated that glioblastoma cells transfected with miR-17 proliferated slower in different nutritional conditions by facilitating more cells staying in the G1 phase than the control cells. Finally, we demonstrated that miR-17 could repress MDM2 levels, resulting in decreased cell proliferation and drug-resistance. Our results added a new layer of functional mechanism for the well-studied miRNA miR-17. PMID:23391506

  19. Galectin-1 promotes human neutrophil migration.

    PubMed

    Auvynet, Constance; Moreno, Samadhi; Melchy, Erika; Coronado-Martínez, Iris; Montiel, Jose Luis; Aguilar-Delfin, Irma; Rosenstein, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    An important step of innate immune response is the recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to injured tissues through chemotactic molecules. Galectins, a family of endogenous lectins, participate in numerous functions such as lymphoid cell migration, homing, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Particularly, galectin-3 (Gal-3) and -9 have been implicated in the modulation of acute and chronic inflammation by inducing the directional migration of monocytes/macrophages and eosinophils, whereas Gal-1 is considered to function as an anti-inflammatory molecule, capable of inhibiting the influx of PMN to the site of injury. In this study, we assessed the effect of Gal-1 on neutrophil recruitment, in the absence of additional inflammatory insults. Contrasting with its capacity to inhibit cell trafficking and modulate the release of mediators described in models of acute inflammation and autoimmunity, we evidenced that Gal-1 has the capacity to induce neutrophil migration both in vitro and in vivo. This effect is not mediated through a G-protein-coupled receptor but potentially through the sialoglycoprotein CD43, via carbohydrate binding and through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These results suggest a novel biological function for CD43 on neutrophils and highlight that depending on the environment, Gal-1 can act either as chemoattractant or, as a molecule that negatively regulates migration under acute inflammatory conditions, underscoring the potential of Gal-1 as a target for innovative drug development.

  20. Human Growth Hormone Promotes Corneal Epithelial Cell Migration in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Wirostko, Barbara; Sullivan, David A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Corneal wound healing is a highly regulated process that requires the proliferation and migration of epithelial cells and interactions between epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts. Compounds that can be applied topically to the ocular surface and that have the capability of activating corneal epithelial cells to proliferate and/or migrate would be useful to promote corneal wound healing. We hypothesize that human growth hormone (HGH) will activate Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription-5 (STAT5) signaling and promote corneal wound healing by enhancing corneal epithelial cell and fibroblast proliferation and/or migration in vitro. The purpose of this study is to test these hypotheses. Methods We studied cell signaling, proliferation and migration using an immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line and primary human corneal fibroblasts in vitro. We also examined whether insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a hormone known to mediate many of HGH’s growth promoting actions, may play a role in this effect. Results We show that HGH activates STAT5 signaling and promotes corneal epithelial cell migration in vitro. The migratory effect requires an intact communication between corneal epithelia and fibroblasts, and is not mediated by IGF-1. Conclusion HGH may represent a topical therapeutic to promote corneal epithelial wound healing. This warrants further investigation. PMID:25782399

  1. Necdin promotes tangential migration of neocortical interneurons from basal forebrain.

    PubMed

    Kuwajima, Takaaki; Hasegawa, Koichi; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki

    2010-03-10

    Necdin is a pleiotropic protein that promotes neuronal differentiation and survival. In mammals, the necdin gene on the maternal chromosome is silenced by genomic imprinting, and only the paternal necdin gene is expressed in virtually all postmitotic neurons. Necdin forms a complex with the homeodomain protein Dlx2 to enhance its transcriptional activity. Dlx2 plays a major role in controlling tangential migration of GABAergic interneurons from the basal forebrain to the neocortex. Here, we examined whether Dlx2-expressing interneurons migrate properly in vivo in mutant mice lacking the paternal necdin gene. In necdin-deficient mice at birth, the population of Dlx2-expressing cells significantly decreased in the neocortex but increased in the preoptic area. DiI-labeled cell migration assay using organotypic forebrain slice cultures revealed that the number of cells migrating from the medial ganglionic eminence into the neocortex was significantly reduced in necdin-deficient embryos. Furthermore, necdin-deficient mice had a decreased population of neocortical GABA-containing neurons and were highly susceptible to pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. These results suggest that necdin promotes tangential migration of neocortical GABAergic interneurons during mammalian forebrain development.

  2. Rad54 protein promotes branch migration of Holliday junctions.

    PubMed

    Bugreev, Dmitry V; Mazina, Olga M; Mazin, Alexander V

    2006-08-03

    Homologous recombination has a crucial function in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks and in faithful chromosome segregation. The mechanism of homologous recombination involves the search for homology and invasion of the ends of a broken DNA molecule into homologous duplex DNA to form a cross-stranded structure, a Holliday junction (HJ). A HJ is able to undergo branch migration along DNA, generating increasing or decreasing lengths of heteroduplex. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the physical evidence for HJs, the key intermediate in homologous recombination, was provided by electron microscopy. In bacteria there are specialized enzymes that promote branch migration of HJs. However, in eukaryotes the identity of homologous recombination branch-migration protein(s) has remained elusive. Here we show that Rad54, a Swi2/Snf2 protein, binds HJ-like structures with high specificity and promotes their bidirectional branch migration in an ATPase-dependent manner. The activity seemed to be conserved in human and yeast Rad54 orthologues. In vitro, Rad54 has been shown to stimulate DNA pairing of Rad51, a key homologous recombination protein. However, genetic data indicate that Rad54 protein might also act at later stages of homologous recombination, after Rad51 (ref. 13). Novel DNA branch-migration activity is fully consistent with this late homologous recombination function of Rad54 protein.

  3. Muc1 promotes migration and lung metastasis of melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Lan, Hongwen; Li, Jun; Su, Yushu; Xu, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Early stages of melanoma can be successfully treated by surgical resection of the tumor, but there is still no effective treatment once it is progressed to metastatic phases. Although growing family of both melanoma metastasis promoting and metastasis suppressor genes have been reported be related to metastasis, the molecular mechanisms governing melanoma metastatic cascade are still not completely understood. Therefore, defining the molecules that govern melanoma metastasis may aid the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for combating melanoma. In the present study, we found that muc1 is involved in the metastasis of melanoma cells and demonstrated that muc1 disruption impairs melanoma cells migration and metastasis. The requirement of muc1 in the migration of melanoma cells was further confirmed by gene silencing in vitro. In corresponding to this result, over-expression of muc1 significantly promoted the migratory of melanoma cells. Moreover, down-regulation of muc1 expression strikingly inhibits melanoma cellular metastasis in vivo. Finally, we found that muc1 promotes melanoma migration through the protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway. To conclude, our findings suggest a novel mechanism underlying the metastasis of melanoma cells which might serve as a new intervention target for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:26609470

  4. Rapamycin promotes Schwann cell migration and nerve growth factor secretion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Haiwei; Zhang, Kaiming; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Shipu; Yin, Yixia

    2014-01-01

    Rapamycin, similar to FK506, can promote neural regeneration in vitro. We assumed that the mechanisms of action of rapamycin and FK506 in promoting peripheral nerve regeneration were similar. This study compared the effects of different concentrations of rapamycin and FK506 on Schwann cells and investigated effects and mechanisms of rapamycin on improving peripheral nerve regeneration. Results demonstrated that the lowest rapamycin concentration (1.53 nmol/L) more significantly promoted Schwann cell migration than the highest FK506 concentration (100μmol/L). Rapamycin promoted the secretion of nerve growth factors and upregulated growth-associated protein 43 expression in Schwann cells, but did not significantly affect Schwann cell proliferation. Therefore, rapamycin has potential application in peripheral nerve regeneration therapy. PMID:25206862

  5. Insulin promotes cell migration by regulating PSA-NCAM.

    PubMed

    Monzo, Hector J; Coppieters, Natacha; Park, Thomas I H; Dieriks, Birger V; Faull, Richard L M; Dragunow, Mike; Curtis, Maurice A

    2017-06-01

    Cellular interactions with the extracellular environment are modulated by cell surface polysialic acid (PSA) carried by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA-NCAM is involved in cellular processes such as differentiation, plasticity, and migration, and is elevated in Alzheimer's disease as well as in metastatic tumour cells. Our previous work demonstrated that insulin enhances the abundance of cell surface PSA by inhibiting PSA-NCAM endocytosis. In the present study we have identified a mechanism for insulin-dependent inhibition of PSA-NCAM turnover affecting cell migration. Insulin enhanced the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase leading to dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters, and promoted cell migration. Our results show that αv-integrin plays a key role in the PSA-NCAM turnover process. αv-integrin knockdown stopped PSA-NCAM from being endocytosed, and αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters co-labelled intracellularly with Rab5, altogether indicating a role for αv-integrin as a carrier for PSA-NCAM during internalisation. Furthermore, inhibition of p-FAK caused dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters and counteracted the insulin-induced accumulation of PSA at the cell surface and cell migration was impaired. Our data reveal a functional association between the insulin/p-FAK-dependent regulation of PSA-NCAM turnover and cell migration through the extracellular matrix. Most importantly, they identify a novel mechanism for insulin-stimulated cell migration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Senescent fibroblast-derived Chemerin promotes squamous cell carcinoma migration

    PubMed Central

    Gatzka, Martina; Treiber, Nicolai; Schneider, Lars A.; Mulaw, Medhanie A.; Lucas, Tanja; Kochanek, Stefan; Dummer, Reinhard; Levesque, Mitchell P.; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a rising incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), an aggressive skin cancer with the potential for local invasion and metastasis. Acquisition of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in dermal fibroblasts has been postulated to promote skin cancer progression in elderly individuals. The underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unexplored. We show that Chemerin, a previously unreported SASP factor released from senescent human dermal fibroblasts, promotes cSCC cell migration, a key feature driving tumor progression. Whereas the Chemerin abundance is downregulated in malignant cSCC cells, increased Chemerin transcripts and protein concentrations are detected in replicative senescent fibroblasts in vitro and in the fibroblast of skin sections from old donors, indicating that a Chemerin gradient is built up in the dermis of elderly. Using Transwell® migration assays, we show that Chemerin enhances the chemotaxis of different cSCC cell lines. Notably, the Chemerin receptor CCRL2 is remarkably upregulated in cSCC cell lines and human patient biopsies. Silencing Chemerin in senescent fibroblasts or the CCRL2 and GPR1 receptors in the SCL-1 cSCC cell line abrogates the Chemerin-mediated chemotaxis. Chemerin triggers the MAPK cascade via JNK and ERK1 activation, whereby the inhibition impairs the SASP- or Chemerin-mediated cSCC cell migration. Taken together, we uncover a key role for Chemerin, as a major factor in the secretome of senescent fibroblasts, promoting cSCC cell migration and possibly progression, relaying its signals through CCRL2 and GPR1 receptors with subsequent MAPK activation. These findings might have implications for targeted therapeutic interventions in elderly patients. PMID:27907906

  7. Nifedipine Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong-Qing; Zhang, Hao; Tan, Sheng-Jiang; Gu, Yu-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Nifedipine is widely used as a calcium channel blocker (CCB) to treat angina and hypertension,but it is controversial with respect the risk of stimulation of cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that nifedipine promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells both invivo and invitro. However, verapamil, another calcium channel blocker, didn’t exert the similar effects. Nifedipine and high concentration KCl failed to alter the [Ca2+]i in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that such nifedipine effect was not related with calcium channel. Moreover, nifedipine decreased miRNA-524-5p, resulting in the up-regulation of brain protein I3 (BRI3). Erk pathway was consequently activated and led to the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Silencing BRI3 reversed the promoting effect of nifedipine on the breast cancer. In a summary, nifedipine stimulated the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells via the axis of miRNA-524-5p-BRI3–Erk pathway independently of its calcium channel-blocking activity. Our findings highlight that nifedipine but not verapamil is conducive for breast cancer growth and metastasis, urging that the caution should be taken in clinic to prescribe nifedipine to women who suffering both hypertension and breast cancer, and hypertension with a tendency in breast cancers. PMID:25436889

  8. Nifedipine promotes the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong-Qing; Zhang, Hao; Tan, Sheng-Jiang; Gu, Yu-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Nifedipine is widely used as a calcium channel blocker (CCB) to treat angina and hypertension,but it is controversial with respect the risk of stimulation of cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that nifedipine promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells both invivo and invitro. However, verapamil, another calcium channel blocker, didn't exert the similar effects. Nifedipine and high concentration KCl failed to alter the [Ca2+]i in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that such nifedipine effect was not related with calcium channel. Moreover, nifedipine decreased miRNA-524-5p, resulting in the up-regulation of brain protein I3 (BRI3). Erk pathway was consequently activated and led to the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Silencing BRI3 reversed the promoting effect of nifedipine on the breast cancer. In a summary, nifedipine stimulated the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells via the axis of miRNA-524-5p-BRI3-Erk pathway independently of its calcium channel-blocking activity. Our findings highlight that nifedipine but not verapamil is conducive for breast cancer growth and metastasis, urging that the caution should be taken in clinic to prescribe nifedipine to women who suffering both hypertension and breast cancer, and hypertension with a tendency in breast cancers.

  9. Promotion of cooperation by payoff-driven migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ya-Shan; Yang, Han-Xin; Guo, Wen-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Migration plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation. Previous studies concerning mobile population often assumed that all agents move with the identical velocity. In this paper, we propose a payoff-driven migration in which the velocity of an agent depends on his/her payoff. A parameter α is introduced to adjust the influence of payoff, when α = 0 means that agents all move with the identical velocity while α > 0 means that the lower the payoff is, the faster the moving speed is, and vice versa. For the prisoner's dilemma game, we find that in comparison with the case that agents all move with the same speed, cooperation could be promoted strongly when payoff-dependent velocity is considered. Remarkably, the cooperation level is not a monotonic function of α, and there exists an optimal value of α which can lead to the maximum cooperation level. For the snowdrift game, the cooperation level increases with α.

  10. LIN28B Promotes Colon Cancer Migration and Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Minghui; Wu, Gang; Hou, Xiaolin; Hou, Nengyi; Liang, Liqin; Jia, Guiqing; Shuai, Ping; Luo, Bin; Wang, Kang; Li, Guoxin

    2014-01-01

    LIN28B is involved in “stemness” and tumourigenesis by negatively regulating the maturation of let-7 microRNA family members. In this study, we showed that LIN28B expression promotes migration and recurrence of colon cancer. Immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions were performed to detect LIN28B expression in colon cancer tissue microarrays, paraffin-embedded surgical resected tissues and cancer cells. Loss-of-function, migration and proliferation analyses were performed to delineate the potential roles of LIN28B in colon cancer. LIN28B was upregulated in colon cancer tissue compared to normal mucosa, and its overexpression correlated with reduced patient survival and increased tumour recurrence. LIN28B suppression inhibited the migration of SW480 colon cancer cells and facilitated the cytotoxicity induced by oxaliplatin in SW480 and HCT116 colon cancer cells. In conclusion, LIN28B overexpression contributes to colon tumourigenesis, and LIN28B may serve as a diagnostic tool and therapeutic target for colon cancer. PMID:25360631

  11. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Promotes the Migration of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells Through TRPC Channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Teng, Hong-Lin; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Fan; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Huang, Zhi-Hui

    2016-12-01

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a unique type of glial cells with axonal growth-promoting properties in the olfactory system. Organized migration of OECs is essential for neural regeneration and olfactory development. However, the molecular mechanism of OEC migration remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on OEC migration. Initially, the "scratch" migration assay, the inverted coverslip and Boyden chamber migration assays showed that BDNF could promote the migration of primary cultured OECs. Furthermore, BDNF gradient attracted the migration of OECs in single-cell migration assays. Mechanistically, TrkB receptor expressed in OECs mediated BDNF-induced OEC migration, and BDNF triggered calcium signals in OECs. Finally, transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPCs) highly expressed in OECs were responsible for BDNF-induced calcium signals, and required for BDNF-induced OEC migration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that BDNF promotes the migration of cultured OECs and an unexpected finding is that TRPCs are required for BDNF-induced OEC migration. GLIA 2016;64:2154-2165.

  12. ARID1A gene knockdown promotes neuroblastoma migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Xu, Z; Zhao, Z; An, Q; Wang, L; Yu, Y; Piao, D

    2017-03-03

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood which often acquires drug resistance and becomes aggressive phenotypes. The high-risk patients suffer from high mortality due to the limitation of the treatment strategies. ARID1A (AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A), a subunit of SWI/SNF complexes, is considered as a tumor suppressor in many cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ARID1A on migration and invasion in neuroblastoma cells. The shRNA targeting ARID1A was designed and delivered into SK-N-SH cells to knock down ARID1A expression. Knockdown of ARID1A by shRNA significantly increased the viability and invasion ability, and caused G1 arrest inhibition and DNA synthesis increase in SK-N-SH cells. Moreover, Knockdown of ARID1A increased the activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in SK-N-SH cells. Furthermore, ARID1A knockdown caused diminished expression of E-cadherin, enhanced expression of N-cadherin and β-catenin nuclear translocation in SK-N-SH cells. These results suggest that loss of ARID1A may associate with the promotion of invasion and metastasis of neuroblastoma. Our findings indicate ARID1A is a tumor suppressor in neuroblastoma.

  13. Reduction in gap junction intercellular communication promotes glioma migration

    PubMed Central

    Aftab, Qurratulain; Sin, Wun-Chey; Naus, Christian C.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), an aggressive form of adult brain tumor, is difficult to treat due to its invasive nature. One of the molecular changes observed in GBM is a decrease in the expression of the gap junction protein Connexin43 (Cx43); however, how a reduction in Cx43 expression contributes to glioma malignancy is still unclear. In this study we examine whether a decrease in Cx43 protein expression has a role in enhanced cell migration, a key feature associated with increased tumorigenicity. We used a 3D spheroid migration model that mimics the in vivo architecture of tumor cells to quantify migration changes. We found that down-regulation of Cx43 expression in the U118 human glioma cell line increased migration by reducing cell-ECM adhesion, and changed the migration pattern from collective to single cell. In addition gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) played a more prominent role in mediating migration than the cytoplasmic interactions of the C-terminal tail. Live imaging revealed that reducing Cx43 expression enhanced relative migration by increasing the cell speed and affecting the direction of migration. Taken together our findings reveal an unexplored role of GJIC in facilitating collective migration. PMID:25926558

  14. The planar polarity pathway promotes coordinated cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bastock, Rebecca; Strutt, David

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Cell migration is fundamental in both animal morphogenesis and disease. The migration of individual cells is relatively well-studied, however in vivo cells often remain joined by cell-cell junctions and migrate in cohesive groups. How such groups of cells coordinate their migration is poorly understood. The planar polarity pathway coordinates the polarity of non-migrating cells in epithelial sheets and is required for cell rearrangements during vertebrate morphogenesis. It is therefore a good candidate to play a role in collective migration of groups of cells. Drosophila border cell migration is a well-characterised and genetically tractable model of collective cell migration, during which a group of about 6-10 epithelial cells detaches from the anterior end of the developing egg chamber and migrates invasively towards the oocyte. We find that the planar polarity pathway promotes this invasive migration, acting both in the migrating cells themselves and in the non-migratory polar follicle cells they carry along. Disruption of planar polarity signalling causes abnormalities in actin rich processes on the cell surface and leads to less efficient migration. This is apparently due in part to loss of regulation of Rho GTPase activity by the planar polarity receptor Frizzled, which itself becomes localised to the migratory edge of the border cells. We conclude that during collective cell migration the planar polarity pathway can mediate communication between motile and non-motile cells, which enhances the efficiency of migration via the modulation of actin dynamics. PMID:17652348

  15. The planar polarity pathway promotes coordinated cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bastock, Rebecca; Strutt, David

    2007-09-01

    Cell migration is fundamental in both animal morphogenesis and disease. The migration of individual cells is relatively well-studied; however, in vivo, cells often remain joined by cell-cell junctions and migrate in cohesive groups. How such groups of cells coordinate their migration is poorly understood. The planar polarity pathway coordinates the polarity of non-migrating cells in epithelial sheets and is required for cell rearrangements during vertebrate morphogenesis. It is therefore a good candidate to play a role in the collective migration of groups of cells. Drosophila border cell migration is a well-characterised and genetically tractable model of collective cell migration, during which a group of about six to ten epithelial cells detaches from the anterior end of the developing egg chamber and migrates invasively towards the oocyte. We find that the planar polarity pathway promotes this invasive migration, acting both in the migrating cells themselves and in the non-migratory polar follicle cells that they carry along. Disruption of planar polarity signalling causes abnormalities in actin-rich processes on the cell surface and leads to less-efficient migration. This is apparently due, in part, to a loss of regulation of Rho GTPase activity by the planar polarity receptor Frizzled, which itself becomes localised to the migratory edge of the border cells. We conclude that, during collective cell migration, the planar polarity pathway can mediate communication between motile and non-motile cells, which enhances the efficiency of migration via the modulation of actin dynamics.

  16. Semaphorin 7A Promotes Chemokine-Driven Dendritic Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Anoek; Paulis, Leonie; te Riet, Joost; Vasaturo, Angela; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; van der Schaaf, Alie; Kuipers, Arthur J; Schulte, Luuk P; Jongbloets, Bart C; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Figdor, Carl G; van Spriel, Annemiek B; Buschow, Sonja I

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) migration is essential for efficient host defense against pathogens and cancer, as well as for the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapies. However, the molecules that induce the migratory phenotype of DCs are poorly defined. Based on a large-scale proteome analysis of maturing DCs, we identified the GPI-anchored protein semaphorin 7A (Sema7A) as being highly expressed on activated primary myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs in human and mouse. We demonstrate that Sema7A deficiency results in impaired chemokine CCL21-driven DC migration in vivo. Impaired formation of actin-based protrusions, resulting in slower three-dimensional migration, was identified as the mechanism underlying the DC migration defect. Furthermore, we show, by atomic force microscopy, that Sema7A decreases adhesion strength to extracellular matrix while increasing the connectivity of adhesion receptors to the actin cytoskeleton. This study demonstrates that Sema7A controls the assembly of actin-based protrusions that drive DC migration in response to CCL21. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Bradykinin promotes migration and invasion of human immortalized trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Having demonstrated that the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) is expressed in cells that participate in trophoblast invasion in humans and guinea-pigs, we investigated the role of bradykinin (BK) on cell migration and invasion in the HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cell line using wound healing and invasion assays. First, we documented that HTR-8/SVneo cells expressed kallikrein, B2R, B1R, MMP-2 and MMP-9 using immunocytochemistry. Incubation with BK (10.0 microMol/L) for 18 hours increased the migration index 3-fold in comparison to controls or to cells preincubated with the B2R antagonist HOE-140. BK (10.0 microMol/L) incubation yielded a similar number of proliferating and viable cells as controls, therefore the enhanced closure of the wound cannot be attributed to proliferating cells. Incubation with BK (10.0 microMol/L) for 18 hours increased the invasion index 2-fold in comparison to controls or to cells preincubated with the antagonist of the B2R. Neither the B1R ligand Lys-des-Arg9 BK, nor its antagonist Lys-(des-Arg9-Leu8), modified migration and invasion. Further support for the stimulatory effect of B2R activation on migration and invasion is provided by the 3-fold increase in the number of filopodia per cell versus controls or cells preincubated with the B2R antagonist. Bradykinin had no effect on the cellular protein content of the B2R, nor the MMP-9 and MMP-2 gelatinase activity in the culture media varied after incubation with BK. This study adds bradykinin-acting on the B2R-to the stimuli of trophoblast migration and invasion, an effect that should be integrated to other modifications of the kallikrein-kinin system in normal and pathological pregnancies. PMID:21729302

  18. β1 integrin signaling promotes neuronal migration along vascular scaffolds in the post-stroke brain.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Teppei; Kaneko, Naoko; Ajioka, Itsuki; Nakaguchi, Kanako; Omata, Taichi; Ohba, Honoka; Fässler, Reinhard; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2017-02-01

    Cerebral ischemic stroke is a main cause of chronic disability. However, there is currently no effective treatment to promote recovery from stroke-induced neurological symptoms. Recent studies suggest that after stroke, immature neurons, referred to as neuroblasts, generated in a neurogenic niche, the ventricular-subventricular zone, migrate toward the injured area, where they differentiate into mature neurons. Interventions that increase the number of neuroblasts distributed at and around the lesion facilitate neuronal repair in rodent models for ischemic stroke, suggesting that promoting neuroblast migration in the post-stroke brain could improve efficient neuronal regeneration. To move toward the lesion, neuroblasts form chain-like aggregates and migrate along blood vessels, which are thought to increase their migration efficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating these migration processes are largely unknown. Here we studied the role of β1-class integrins, transmembrane receptors for extracellular matrix proteins, in these migrating neuroblasts. We found that the neuroblast chain formation and blood vessel-guided migration critically depend on β1 integrin signaling. β1 integrin facilitated the adhesion of neuroblasts to laminin and the efficient translocation of their soma during migration. Moreover, artificial laminin-containing scaffolds promoted neuroblast chain formation and migration toward the injured area. These data suggest that laminin signaling via β1 integrin supports vasculature-guided neuronal migration to efficiently supply neuroblasts to injured areas. This study also highlights the importance of vascular scaffolds for cell migration in development and regeneration. Copyright © 2017 3-V Biosciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. miR-21 promotes keratinocyte migration and re-epithelialization during wound healing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Wang, Jun; Guo, Shui-Long; Fan, Kai-Ji; Li, Jun; Wang, You-Liang; Teng, Yan; Yang, Xiao

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs involved in keratinocyte migration and wound healing are largely unknown. Here, we revealed the indispensable role of miR-21 in keratinocyte migration and in re-epithelialization during wound healing in mice. In HaCaT cell, miR-21 could be upregulated by TGF-β1. Similar to the effect of TGF-β1, miR-21 overexpression promoted keratinocyte migration. Conversely, miR-21 knockdown attenuated TGF-β1-induced keratinocyte migration, suggesting that miR-21 was essential for TGF-β-driven keratinocyte migration. Furthermore, we found that miR-21 was upregulated during wound healing, coincident with the temporal expression pattern of TGF-β1. Consistently, knockdown of endogenous miR-21 using a specific antagomir dramatically delayed re-epithelialization possibly due to the reduced keratinocyte migration. TIMP3 and TIAM1, direct targets of miR-21, were verified to be regulated by miR-21 in vitro and in vivo, indicating that these two molecules might contribute to miR-21-induced keratinocyte migration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-21 promotes keratinocyte migration and boosts re-epithelialization during skin wound healing.

  20. Microgrooved Polymer Substrates Promote Collective Cell Migration To Accelerate Fracture Healing in an in Vitro Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Dong, Hua; Li, Yuli; Zhu, Ye; Zeng, Lei; Gao, Huichang; Yuan, Bo; Chen, Xiaofeng; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-10-21

    Surface topography can affect cell adhesion, morphology, polarity, cytoskeleton organization, and osteogenesis. However, little is known about the effect of topography on the fracture healing in repairing nonunion and large bone defects. Microgrooved topography on the surface of bone implants may promote cell migration into the fracture gap to accelerate fracture healing. To prove this hypothesis, we used an in vitro fracture (wound) healing assay on the microgrooved polycaprolactone substrates to study the effect of microgroove widths and depths on the osteoblast-like cell (MG-63) migration and the subsequent healing. We found that the microgrooved substrates promoted MG-63 cells to migrate collectively into the wound gap, which serves as a fracture model, along the grooves and ridges as compared with the flat substrates. Moreover, the groove widths did not show obvious influence on the wound healing whereas the smaller groove depths tended to favor the collective cell migration and thus subsequent healing. The microgrooved substrates accelerated the wound healing by facilitating the collective cell migration into the wound gaps but not by promoting the cell proliferation. Furthermore, microgrooves were also found to promote the migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to heal the fracture model. Though osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was not improved on the microgrooved substrate, collagen I and minerals deposited by hMSCs were organized in a way similar to those in the extracellular matrix of natural bone. These findings suggest the necessity in using microgrooved implants in enhancing fracture healing in bone repair.

  1. RLIM interacts with Smurf2 and promotes TGF-{beta} induced U2OS cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yongsheng; Yang, Yang; Gao, Rui; Yang, Xianmei; Yan, Xiaohua; Wang, Chenji; Jiang, Sirui; Yu, Long

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} RLIM directly binds to Smurf2. {yields} RLIM enhances TGF-{beta} responsiveness in U2OS cells. {yields} RLIM promotes TGF-{beta} driven migration of osteosarcoma U2OS cells. -- Abstract: TGF-{beta} (transforming growth factor-{beta}), a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates diverse cellular processes, has been suggested to play critical roles in cell proliferation, migration, and carcinogenesis. Here we found a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase RLIM which can directly bind to Smurf2, enhancing TGF-{beta} responsiveness in osteosarcoma U2OS cells. We constructed a U2OS cell line stably over-expressing RLIM and demonstrated that RLIM promoted TGF-{beta}-driven migration of U2OS cells as tested by wound healing assay. Our results indicated that RLIM is an important positive regulator in TGF-{beta} signaling pathway and cell migration.

  2. Cinnamtannin B-1 Promotes Migration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Accelerates Wound Healing in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kosuke; Kuge, Katsunori; Ozawa, Noriyasu; Sahara, Shunya; Zaiki, Kaori; Nakaoji, Koichi; Hamada, Kazuhiko; Takenaka, Yukiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Tamai, Katsuto; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Maeda, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Substances that enhance the migration of mesenchymal stem cells to damaged sites have the potential to improve the effectiveness of tissue repair. We previously found that ethanol extracts of Mallotus philippinensis bark promoted migration of mesenchymal stem cells and improved wound healing in a mouse model. We also demonstrated that bark extracts contain cinnamtannin B-1, a flavonoid with in vitro migratory activity against mesenchymal stem cells. However, the in vivo effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on the migration of mesenchymal stem cells and underlying mechanism of this action remain unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on in vivo migration of mesenchymal stem cells and wound healing in mice. In addition, we characterized cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells pharmacologically and structurally. The mobilization of endogenous mesenchymal stem cells into the blood circulation was enhanced in cinnamtannin B-1-treated mice as shown by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood cells. Whole animal imaging analysis using luciferase-expressing mesenchymal stem cells as a tracer revealed that cinnamtannin B-1 increased the homing of mesenchymal stem cells to wounds and accelerated healing in a diabetic mouse model. Additionally, the cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells was pharmacologically susceptible to inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phospholipase C, lipoxygenase, and purines. Furthermore, biflavonoids with similar structural features to cinnamtannin B-1 also augmented the migration of mesenchymal stem cells by similar pharmacological mechanisms. These results demonstrate that cinnamtannin B-1 promoted mesenchymal stem cell migration in vivo and improved wound healing in mice. Furthermore, the results reveal that cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells may be mediated by specific signaling pathways, and the flavonoid skeleton may be relevant to its effects on

  3. Cinnamtannin B-1 Promotes Migration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Accelerates Wound Healing in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Kosuke; Kuge, Katsunori; Ozawa, Noriyasu; Sahara, Shunya; Zaiki, Kaori; Nakaoji, Koichi; Hamada, Kazuhiko; Takenaka, Yukiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Tamai, Katsuto; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Maeda, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Substances that enhance the migration of mesenchymal stem cells to damaged sites have the potential to improve the effectiveness of tissue repair. We previously found that ethanol extracts of Mallotus philippinensis bark promoted migration of mesenchymal stem cells and improved wound healing in a mouse model. We also demonstrated that bark extracts contain cinnamtannin B-1, a flavonoid with in vitro migratory activity against mesenchymal stem cells. However, the in vivo effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on the migration of mesenchymal stem cells and underlying mechanism of this action remain unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on in vivo migration of mesenchymal stem cells and wound healing in mice. In addition, we characterized cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells pharmacologically and structurally. The mobilization of endogenous mesenchymal stem cells into the blood circulation was enhanced in cinnamtannin B-1-treated mice as shown by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood cells. Whole animal imaging analysis using luciferase-expressing mesenchymal stem cells as a tracer revealed that cinnamtannin B-1 increased the homing of mesenchymal stem cells to wounds and accelerated healing in a diabetic mouse model. Additionally, the cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells was pharmacologically susceptible to inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phospholipase C, lipoxygenase, and purines. Furthermore, biflavonoids with similar structural features to cinnamtannin B-1 also augmented the migration of mesenchymal stem cells by similar pharmacological mechanisms. These results demonstrate that cinnamtannin B-1 promoted mesenchymal stem cell migration in vivo and improved wound healing in mice. Furthermore, the results reveal that cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells may be mediated by specific signaling pathways, and the flavonoid skeleton may be relevant to its effects on

  4. Pancreatic tumor cell secreted CCN1/Cyr61 promotes endothelial cell migration and aberrant neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Maity, Gargi; Mehta, Smita; Haque, Inamul; Dhar, Kakali; Sarkar, Sandipto; Banerjee, Sushanta K; Banerjee, Snigdha

    2014-05-16

    The complex signaling networks between cancer cells and adjacent endothelial cells make it challenging to unravel how cancer cells send extracellular messages to promote aberrant vascularization or tumor angiogenesis. Here, in vitro and in vivo models show that pancreatic cancer cell generated unique microenvironments can underlie endothelial cell migration and tumor angiogenesis. Mechanistically, we find that pancreatic cancer cell secreted CCN1/Cyr61 matricellular protein rewires the microenvironment to promote endothelial cell migration and tumor angiogenesis. This event can be overcome by Sonic Hedgehog (SHh) antibody treatment. Collectively, these studies identify a novel CCN1 signaling program in pancreatic cancer cells which activates SHh through autocrine-paracrine circuits to promote endothelial cell migration and tumor angiogenesis and suggests that CCN1 signaling of pancreatic cancer cells is vital for the regulation of tumor angiogenesis. Thus CCN1 signaling could be an ideal target for tumor vascular disruption in pancreatic cancer.

  5. Histidine provides long-term neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia through promoting astrocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ru-jia; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Rong-rong; Zhao, Hua-wei; Chen, Ying; Li, Ya; Wang, Lu; Jie, Li-Yong; Zhou, Yu-dong; Zhang, Xiang-nan; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei-wei

    2015-10-20

    The formation of glial scar impedes the neurogenesis and neural functional recovery following cerebral ischemia. Histamine showed neuroprotection at early stage after cerebral ischemia, however, its long-term effect, especially on glial scar formation, hasn't been characterized. With various administration regimens constructed for histidine, a precursor of histamine, we found that histidine treatment at a high dose at early stage and a low dose at late stage demonstrated the most remarkable long-term neuroprotection with decreased infarct volume and improved neurological function. Notably, this treatment regimen also robustly reduced the glial scar area and facilitated the astrocyte migration towards the infarct core. In wound-healing assay and transwell test, histamine significantly promoted astrocyte migration. H2 receptor antagonists reversed the promotion of astrocyte migration and the neuroprotection provided by histidine. Moreover, histamine upregulated the GTP-bound small GTPase Rac1, while a Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766, abrogated the neuroprotection of histidine and its promotion of astrocyte migration. Our data indicated that a dose/stage-dependent histidine treatment, mediated by H2 receptor, promoted astrocyte migration towards the infarct core, which benefited long-term post-cerebral ischemia neurological recovery. Therefore, targeting histaminergic system may be an effective therapeutic strategy for long-term cerebral ischemia injury through its actions on astrocytes.

  6. Histidine provides long-term neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia through promoting astrocyte migration

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ru-jia; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Rong-rong; Zhao, Hua-wei; Chen, Ying; Li, Ya; Wang, Lu; Jie, Li-Yong; Zhou, Yu-dong; Zhang, Xiang-nan; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei-wei

    2015-01-01

    The formation of glial scar impedes the neurogenesis and neural functional recovery following cerebral ischemia. Histamine showed neuroprotection at early stage after cerebral ischemia, however, its long-term effect, especially on glial scar formation, hasn’t been characterized. With various administration regimens constructed for histidine, a precursor of histamine, we found that histidine treatment at a high dose at early stage and a low dose at late stage demonstrated the most remarkable long-term neuroprotection with decreased infarct volume and improved neurological function. Notably, this treatment regimen also robustly reduced the glial scar area and facilitated the astrocyte migration towards the infarct core. In wound-healing assay and transwell test, histamine significantly promoted astrocyte migration. H2 receptor antagonists reversed the promotion of astrocyte migration and the neuroprotection provided by histidine. Moreover, histamine upregulated the GTP-bound small GTPase Rac1, while a Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766, abrogated the neuroprotection of histidine and its promotion of astrocyte migration. Our data indicated that a dose/stage-dependent histidine treatment, mediated by H2 receptor, promoted astrocyte migration towards the infarct core, which benefited long-term post-cerebral ischemia neurological recovery. Therefore, targeting histaminergic system may be an effective therapeutic strategy for long-term cerebral ischemia injury through its actions on astrocytes. PMID:26481857

  7. Lipid raft association restricts CD44-ezrin interaction and promotion of breast cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Donatello, Simona; Babina, Irina S; Hazelwood, Lee D; Hill, Arnold D K; Nabi, Ivan R; Hopkins, Ann M

    2012-12-01

    Cancer cell migration is an early event in metastasis, the main cause of breast cancer-related deaths. Cholesterol-enriched membrane domains called lipid rafts influence the function of many molecules, including the raft-associated protein CD44. We describe a novel mechanism whereby rafts regulate interactions between CD44 and its binding partner ezrin in migrating breast cancer cells. Specifically, in nonmigrating cells, CD44 and ezrin localized to different membranous compartments: CD44 predominantly in rafts, and ezrin in nonraft compartments. After the induction of migration (either nonspecific or CD44-driven), CD44 affiliation with lipid rafts was decreased. This was accompanied by increased coprecipitation of CD44 and active (threonine-phosphorylated) ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins in nonraft compartments and increased colocalization of CD44 with the nonraft protein, transferrin receptor. Pharmacological raft disruption using methyl-β-cyclodextrin also increased CD44-ezrin coprecipitation and colocalization, further suggesting that CD44 interacts with ezrin outside rafts during migration. Conversely, promoting CD44 retention inside lipid rafts by pharmacological inhibition of depalmitoylation virtually abolished CD44-ezrin interactions. However, transient single or double knockdown of flotillin-1 or caveolin-1 was not sufficient to increase cell migration over a short time course, suggesting complex crosstalk mechanisms. We propose a new model for CD44-dependent breast cancer cell migration, where CD44 must relocalize outside lipid rafts to drive cell migration. This could have implications for rafts as pharmacological targets to down-regulate cancer cell migration.

  8. Modeling keratinocyte wound healing dynamics: Cell-cell adhesion promotes sustained collective migration.

    PubMed

    Nardini, John T; Chapnick, Douglas A; Liu, Xuedong; Bortz, David M

    2016-07-07

    The in vitro migration of keratinocyte cell sheets displays behavioral and biochemical similarities to the in vivo wound healing response of keratinocytes in animal model systems. In both cases, ligand-dependent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) activation is sufficient to elicit collective cell migration into the wound. Previous mathematical modeling studies of in vitro wound healing assays assume that physical connections between cells have a hindering effect on cell migration, but biological literature suggests a more complicated story. By combining mathematical modeling and experimental observations of collectively migrating sheets of keratinocytes, we investigate the role of cell-cell adhesion during in vitro keratinocyte wound healing assays. We develop and compare two nonlinear diffusion models of the wound healing process in which cell-cell adhesion either hinders or promotes migration. Both models can accurately fit the leading edge propagation of cell sheets during wound healing when using a time-dependent rate of cell-cell adhesion strength. The model that assumes a positive role of cell-cell adhesion on migration, however, is robust to changes in the leading edge definition and yields a qualitatively accurate density profile. Using RNAi for the critical adherens junction protein, α-catenin, we demonstrate that cell sheets with wild type cell-cell adhesion expression maintain migration into the wound longer than cell sheets with decreased cell-cell adhesion expression, which fails to exhibit collective migration. Our modeling and experimental data thus suggest that cell-cell adhesion promotes sustained migration as cells pull neighboring cells into the wound during wound healing.

  9. Cathepsin L derived from skeletal muscle cells transfected with bFGF promotes endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ji Hyung; Im, Eun Kyoung; Jin, Tae Won; Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, Soo Hyuk; Choi, Eun Young; Shin, Min-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Hye; Jang, Yangsoo

    2011-04-30

    Gene transfer of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been shown to induce significant endothelial migration and angiogenesis in ischemic disease models. Here, we investigate what factors are secreted from skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs) transfected with bFGF gene and whether they participate in endothelial cell migration. We constructed replication-defective adenovirus vectors containing the human bFGF gene (Ad/bFGF) or a control LacZ gene (Ad/LacZ) and obtained conditioned media, bFGF-CM and LacZ-CM, from SkMCs infected by Ad/bFGF or Ad/LacZ, respectively. Cell migration significantly increased in HUVECs incubated with bFGF-CM compared to cells incubated with LacZ-CM. Interestingly, HUVEC migration in response to bFGF-CM was only partially blocked by the addition of bFGF-neutralizing antibody, suggesting that bFGF-CM contains other factors that stimulate endothelial cell migration. Several proteins, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and cathepsin L, increased in bFGF-CM compared to LacZ-CM; based on 1-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Their increased mRNA and protein levels were confirmed by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. The recombinant human bFGF protein induced MMP-1, PAI-1, and cathepsin L expression in SkMCs. Endothelial cell migration was reduced in groups treated with bFGF-CM containing neutralizing antibodies against MMP-1 or PAI-1. In particular, HUVECs treated with bFGF-CM containing cell-impermeable cathepsin L inhibitor showed the most significant decrease in cell migration. Cathepsin L protein directly promotes endothelial cell migration through the JNK pathway. These results indicate that cathepsin L released from SkMCs transfected with the bFGF gene can promote endothelial cell migration.

  10. MicroRNA-17-5p induces drug resistance and invasion of ovarian carcinoma cells by targeting PTEN signaling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ying; Xu, Changyan; Fu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    The miR-17-5p was overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells, and those cells were treated with paclitaxel. The proliferation of ovarian cancer cells was assessed by MTT assay. The Caspase-Glo3/7 and TUNEL assay were used to examine the effect of miR-17-5p on paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. The migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells were analyzed by BD matrigel assays. Western blot was performed to evaluate the expression of apoptotic proteins and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in ovarian cancer cells. The survival rate of ovarian cancer cells was increased after overexpression of miR-17-5p. The apoptosis decreased in miR-17-5p overexpressed ovarian cancer cells. Altered miR-17-5p expression affected migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. The overexpression of miR-17-5p altered the expression of EMT markers. miR-17-5p activates AKT by downregulation of PTEN in ovarian cancer cells. Our results indicate that miR-17-5p might serve as potential molecular therapeutic target.

  11. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes clearance of pneumococcal colonization.

    PubMed

    Das, Rituparna; LaRose, Meredith I; Hergott, Christopher B; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Weiser, Jeffrey N

    2014-07-15

    Human genetic polymorphisms associated with decreased expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) have been linked to the risk of community-acquired pneumonia. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and nasal carriage is a precursor to invasive disease, we explored the role of MIF in the clearance of pneumococcal colonization in a mouse model. MIF-deficient mice (Mif(-/-)) showed prolonged colonization with both avirulent (23F) and virulent (6A) pneumococcal serotypes compared with wild-type animals. Pneumococcal carriage led to both local upregulation of MIF expression and systemic increase of the cytokine. Delayed clearance in the Mif(-/-) mice was correlated with reduced numbers of macrophages in upper respiratory tract lavages as well as impaired upregulation of MCP-1/CCL2. We found that primary human monocyte-derived macrophages as well as THP-1 macrophages produced MIF upon pneumococcal infection in a pneumolysin-dependent manner. Pneumolysin-induced MIF production required its pore-forming activity and phosphorylation of p38-MAPK in macrophages, with sustained p38-MAPK phosphorylation abrogated in the setting of MIF deficiency. Challenge with pneumolysin-deficient bacteria demonstrated reduced MIF upregulation, decreased numbers of macrophages in the nasopharynx, and less effective clearance. Mif(-/-) mice also showed reduced Ab response to pneumococcal colonization and impaired ability to clear secondary carriage. Finally, local administration of MIF was able to restore bacterial clearance and macrophage accumulation in Mif(-/-) mice. Our work suggests that MIF is important for innate and adaptive immunity to pneumococcal colonization and could be a contributing factor in genetic differences in pneumococcal disease susceptibility.

  12. The oncoprotein HBXIP promotes migration of breast cancer cells via GCN5-mediated microtubule acetylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Leilei; Liu, Bowen; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2015-03-13

    We have documented that the oncoprotein hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) is able to promote migration of breast cancer cells. A subset of acetylated microtubules that accumulates in the cell leading edge is necessary for cell polarization and directional migration. In this study, we explored the hypothesis that HBXIP contributes to migration of breast cancer cells by supporting microtubule acetylation in breast cancer cells. We found that HBXIP could induce acetylated microtubules accumulating into the leading protrusion in wound-induced directional migration in breast cancer cells by immunofluorescence staining analysis. Interestingly, HBXIP was able to increase the acetylation of α-tubulin in the cells by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, we observed that acetyltransferase GCN5 was involved in the event that HBXIP induced increase of acetylated microtubules and their expansion in protrusions in breast cancer cells by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. Moreover, GCN5 was required for the HBXIP-enhanced migration of breast cancer cells by wound healing assay. Thus, we conclude that HBXIP promotes the migration of breast cancer cells through modulating microtubule acetylation mediated by GCN5. Therapeutically, HBXIP may serve as a novel target in breast cancer.

  13. miR-155 promotes cutaneous wound healing through enhanced keratinocytes migration by MMP-2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Longlong; Zheng, Zhao; Zhou, Qin; Bai, Xiaozhi; Fan, Lei; Yang, Chen; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai

    2017-04-01

    Inflammation, re-epithelization and tissue remodeling are three essential steps during wound healing. The re-epithelization process plays the most important role which mainly involves keratinocyte proliferation and migration. miR-155 has been reported to participate in cell migration and transformation, however, its function in skin wound healing is largely unknown. Here we hypothesize that overexpression of miR-155 at wound edges could accelerate wound healing mediated by enhanced keratinocyte migration. To test this hypothesis, direct local injection of miR-155 expression plasmid to wound edges was conducted to overexpress miR-155 in vivo. Results shown that miR-155 significantly promoted wound healing and re-epithelization compared to control, while did not affect wound contraction. Also, miR-155 overexpression accelerated primarily cultured keratinocyte migration in vitro, but had no effect on cell proliferation. Importantly, western blot analysis shown that MMP-2 was significantly upregulated whiles its inhibitor TIMP-1 downregulated after miR-155 treatment. Moreover, the use of ARP-101, an MMP-2 inhibitor, effectively attenuated the accelerative effects on cell migration induced by miR-155. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-155 has the promote effect on wound healing that is probably mediated by accelerating keratinocyte migration via upregulated MMP-2 level. This study provides a rationale for the therapeutic effect of miR-155 on wound healing.

  14. GMF promotes leading-edge dynamics and collective cell migration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Poukkula, Minna; Hakala, Markku; Pentinmikko, Nalle; Sweeney, Meredith O; Jansen, Silvia; Mattila, Jaakko; Hietakangas, Ville; Goode, Bruce L; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2014-11-03

    Lamellipodia are dynamic actin-rich cellular extensions that drive advancement of the leading edge during cell migration. Lamellipodia undergo periodic extension and retraction cycles, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these dynamics and their role in cell migration have remained obscure. We show that glia-maturation factor (GMF), which is an Arp2/3 complex inhibitor and actin filament debranching factor, regulates lamellipodial protrusion dynamics in living cells. In cultured S2R(+) cells, GMF silencing resulted in an increase in the width of lamellipodial actin filament arrays. Importantly, live-cell imaging of mutant Drosophila egg chambers revealed that the dynamics of actin-rich protrusions in migrating border cells is diminished in the absence of GMF. Consequently, velocity of border cell clusters undergoing guided migration was reduced in GMF mutant flies. Furthermore, genetic studies demonstrated that GMF cooperates with the Drosophila homolog of Aip1 (flare) in promoting disassembly of Arp2/3-nucleated actin filament networks and driving border cell migration. These data suggest that GMF functions in vivo to promote the disassembly of Arp2/3-nucleated actin filament arrays, making an important contribution to cell migration within a 3D tissue environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. GOLPH3 drives cell migration by promoting Golgi reorientation and directional trafficking to the leading edge

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mengke; Peterman, Marshall C.; Davis, Robert L.; Oegema, Karen; Shiau, Andrew K.; Field, Seth J.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of directional cell migration remains an important problem, with relevance to cancer invasion and metastasis. GOLPH3 is a common oncogenic driver of human cancers, and is the first oncogene that functions at the Golgi in trafficking to the plasma membrane. Overexpression of GOLPH3 is reported to drive enhanced cell migration. Here we show that the phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate/GOLPH3/myosin 18A/F-actin pathway that is critical for Golgi–to–plasma membrane trafficking is necessary and limiting for directional cell migration. By linking the Golgi to the actin cytoskeleton, GOLPH3 promotes reorientation of the Golgi toward the leading edge. GOLPH3 also promotes reorientation of lysosomes (but not other organelles) toward the leading edge. However, lysosome function is dispensable for migration and the GOLPH3 dependence of lysosome movement is indirect, via GOLPH3’s effect on the Golgi. By driving reorientation of the Golgi to the leading edge and driving forward trafficking, particularly to the leading edge, overexpression of GOLPH3 drives trafficking to the leading edge of the cell, which is functionally important for directional cell migration. Our identification of a novel pathway for Golgi reorientation controlled by GOLPH3 provides new insight into the mechanism of directional cell migration with important implications for understanding GOLPH3’s role in cancer. PMID:27708138

  16. Interactions between CXCR4 and CXCL12 promote cell migration and invasion of canine hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Im, K S; Graef, A J; Breen, M; Lindblad-Toh, K; Modiano, J F; Kim, J-H

    2017-06-01

    The CXCR4/CXCL12 axis plays an important role in cell locomotion and metastasis in many cancers. In this study, we hypothesized that the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis promotes migration and invasion of canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cells. Transcriptomic analysis across 12 HSA cell lines and 58 HSA whole tumour tissues identified heterogeneous expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12, which was associated with cell movement. In vitro, CXCL12 promoted calcium mobilization, cell migration and invasion that were directly proportional to surface expression of CXCR4; furthermore, these responses proved sensitive to the CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, in HSA cell lines. These results indicate that CXCL12 potentiates migration and invasion of canine HSA cells through CXCR4 signalling. The direct relationship between these responses in HSA cells suggests that the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis contributes to HSA progression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. FNDC3B promotes cell migration and tumor metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chin-Hui; Lin, Yao-Wen; Chen, Ying-Chun; Liao, Chen-Chung; Jou, Yuh-Shan; Hsu, Ming-Ta; Chen, Chian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Recurrence and metastasis are common in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and correlate with poor prognosis. We investigated the role of fibronectin type III domain containing 3B (FNDC3B) in HCC metastasis. Overexpression of FNDC3B in HCC cell lines enhanced cell migration and invasion. On the other hand, knockdown of FNDC3B using short-hairpin RNA reduced tumor nodule formation in both intra- and extra-hepatic metastasis. High levels of FNDC3B were observed in metastatic HCCs and correlated with poor patient survival and shorter recurrence time. Mutagenesis and LC-MS/MS analyses showed that FNDC3B promotes cell migration by cooperating with annexin A2 (ANXA2). Furthermore, FNDC3B and ANXA2 expression correlated negatively with patient survival. Our results indicate that FNDC3B behaves like an oncogene by promoting cell migration. This suggests FNDC3B could serve as a biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC metastasis. PMID:27385217

  18. MiR-451 suppresses proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis of the human osteosarcoma by targeting macrophage migration inhibitory factor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Sheng-Yao; He, Yong-Bin; Huang, Rui-Liang; Deng, Song-Yun; Ni, Guo-Xin; Yu, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that MiR-451 plays an important role in human osteosarcoma carcinogenesis, but the underlying mechanism by which MiR-451 affects the osteosarcoma has not been fully understood. This study intends to uncover the mechanism by which MiR-451 functions as a tumor suppressor. The expression of MiR-451 in osteosarcoma tissues and osteosarcoma cell lines was monitored by real-time PCR. The proliferation ability was examined by MTT and cell cycle assay. The migration and apoptosis of cells were monitored by migration assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Moreover, the angiogenesis of HUVEC cells transfected with MiR-451 mimics was examined by tube formation assay. The effect of MiR-451 on MIF was determined by luciferase assays and Western blot assay. The results showed that MiR-451 expression level was significantly reduced in the osteosarcoma compared with normal bone tissues. Overexpression of MiR-451 significantly attenuated the proliferation and migration, and induced the apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, the angiogenesis of HUVEC cells transfected with MiR-451 mimics was assayed and the decreased angiogenic ability was detected compared to the controls. Finally, we demonstrated that MiR-451 overexpression inhibited the malignant behavior of osteosarcoma by downregulating MIF. These findings suggest that MiR-451 may act as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma. MiR-451 inhibited cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis and promoted apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells, at least partially, by inhibiting the expression of MIF. MiR-451/MIF may be a novel therapeutic target in treatment of osteosarcoma.

  19. A synthetic isoflavone, DCMF, promotes human keratinocyte migration by activating Src/FAK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sophors, Phorl; Kim, Young Mee; Seo, Ga Young; Huh, Jung-Sik; Lim, Yoongho; Koh, Dong Soo; Cho, Moonjae

    2016-04-01

    Flavonoids are plant secondary compounds with various pharmacological properties. We previously showed that one flavonoid, trimethoxyisoflavone (TMF), could promote wound healing by inducing keratinocyte migration. Here, we screened TMF derivatives for enhanced activity and identified one compound, 2',6 Dichloro-7-methoxyisoflavone (DCMF), as most effective at promoting migration in a scratch wound assay. Using the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line, we found DCMF treatment induced phosphorylation of both FAK and Src, and increased keratinocyte migration. DCMF-induced Src kinase could promote activation of ERK, AKT, and p38 signaling pathways, and DCMF-induced secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereas Src inhibition abolished DCMF-induced EMT. Using an in vivo excisional wound model, we observed improved wound closure and re-epithelialization in DCMF-treated mice, as compared to controls. Collectively, our data demonstrate that DCMF induces cell migration and promotes wound healing through activation of Src/FAK, ERK, AKT, and p38 MAPK signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hippo signaling promotes JNK-dependent cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xianjue; Wang, Hongxiang; Ji, Jiansong; Xu, Wenyan; Sun, Yihao; Li, Wenzhe; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Juxiang; Xue, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Overwhelming studies show that dysregulation of the Hippo pathway is positively correlated with cell proliferation, growth, and tumorigenesis. Paradoxically, the detailed molecular roles of the Hippo pathway in cell invasion remain debatable. Using a Drosophila invasion model in wing epithelium, we show herein that activated Hippo signaling promotes cell invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition through JNK, as inhibition of JNK signaling dramatically blocked Hippo pathway activation-induced matrix metalloproteinase 1 expression and cell invasion. Furthermore, we identify bantam-Rox8 modules as essential components downstream of Yorkie in mediating JNK-dependent cell invasion. Finally, we confirm that YAP (Yes-associated protein) expression negatively regulates TIA1 (Rox8 ortholog) expression and cell invasion in human cancer cells. Together, these findings provide molecular insights into Hippo pathway-mediated cell invasion and also raise a noteworthy concern in therapeutic interventions of Hippo-related cancers, as simply inhibiting Yorkie or YAP activity might paradoxically accelerate cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:28174264

  1. Hypoxia promotes Rab5 activation, leading to tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patricio; Mendoza, Pablo; Rivas, Solange; Díaz, Jorge; Moraga, Carolina; Quest, Andrew F G; Torres, Vicente A

    2016-05-17

    Hypoxia, a common condition of the tumor microenvironment, is associated with poor patient prognosis, tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Recent evidence suggests that hypoxia alters endosome dynamics in tumor cells, leading to augmented cell proliferation and migration and this is particularly relevant, because endosomal components have been shown to be deregulated in cancer. The early endosome protein Rab5 is a small GTPase that promotes integrin trafficking, focal adhesion turnover, Rac1 activation, tumor cell migration and invasion. However, the role of Rab5 and downstream events in hypoxia remain unknown. Here, we identify Rab5 as a critical player in hypoxia-driven tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Exposure of A549 human lung carcinoma, ZR-75, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer and B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells to hypoxia increased Rab5 activation, followed by its re-localization to the leading edge and association with focal adhesions. Importantly, Rab5 was required for hypoxia-driven cell migration, FAK phosphorylation and Rac1 activation, as shown by shRNA-targeting and transfection assays with Rab5 mutants. Intriguingly, the effect of hypoxia on both Rab5 activity and migration was substantially higher in metastatic B16-F10 cells than in poorly invasive B16-F0 cells. Furthermore, exogenous expression of Rab5 in B16-F0 cells predisposed to hypoxia-induced migration, whereas expression of the inactive mutant Rab5/S34N prevented the migration of B16-F10 cells induced by hypoxia. Finally, using an in vivo syngenic C57BL/6 mouse model, Rab5 expression was shown to be required for hypoxia-induced metastasis. In summary, these findings identify Rab5 as a key mediator of hypoxia-induced tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis.

  2. Hypoxia promotes Rab5 activation, leading to tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patricio; Mendoza, Pablo; Rivas, Solange; Díaz, Jorge; Moraga, Carolina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Torres, Vicente A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia, a common condition of the tumor microenvironment, is associated with poor patient prognosis, tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Recent evidence suggests that hypoxia alters endosome dynamics in tumor cells, leading to augmented cell proliferation and migration and this is particularly relevant, because endosomal components have been shown to be deregulated in cancer. The early endosome protein Rab5 is a small GTPase that promotes integrin trafficking, focal adhesion turnover, Rac1 activation, tumor cell migration and invasion. However, the role of Rab5 and downstream events in hypoxia remain unknown. Here, we identify Rab5 as a critical player in hypoxia-driven tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Exposure of A549 human lung carcinoma, ZR-75, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer and B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells to hypoxia increased Rab5 activation, followed by its re-localization to the leading edge and association with focal adhesions. Importantly, Rab5 was required for hypoxia-driven cell migration, FAK phosphorylation and Rac1 activation, as shown by shRNA-targeting and transfection assays with Rab5 mutants. Intriguingly, the effect of hypoxia on both Rab5 activity and migration was substantially higher in metastatic B16-F10 cells than in poorly invasive B16-F0 cells. Furthermore, exogenous expression of Rab5 in B16-F0 cells predisposed to hypoxia-induced migration, whereas expression of the inactive mutant Rab5/S34N prevented the migration of B16-F10 cells induced by hypoxia. Finally, using an in vivo syngenic C57BL/6 mouse model, Rab5 expression was shown to be required for hypoxia-induced metastasis. In summary, these findings identify Rab5 as a key mediator of hypoxia-induced tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. PMID:27121131

  3. α3β1 integrin promotes radiation-induced migration of meningioma cells.

    PubMed

    Gogineni, Venkateswara Rao; Nalla, Arun Kumar; Gupta, Reshu; Gujrati, Meena; Klopfenstein, Jeffrey D; Mohanam, Sanjeeva; Rao, Jasti S

    2011-06-01

    Cell motility is influenced by the microenvironment, signal transduction and cytoskeleton rearrangement. Cancer cells become resistant to these control mechanisms and gain the ability to move throughout the body and invade healthy tissues, which leads to metastatic disease. Integrins respond to context-dependent cues and promote cell migration and survival in cancer cells. In the present study, we analyzed the role of integrins in radiation-induced migration of meningioma cells. Migration and cell proliferation assays revealed that radiation treatment (7 Gy) significantly increased migration and decreased proliferation in two cell lines, IOMM-Lee and CH-157-MN. α3 and β1 integrins were overexpressed at both the protein and transcript levels after radiation treatment and a function-blocking α3β1 antibody inhibited the radiation-induced migration. Immunofluorescence studies illustrated the localization of α3 integrin and F-actin at the migration front of irradiated cells. Further, an increase in phosphorylation of FAK and ERK was observed, while both FAK phosphorylation inhibitor and FAK shRNA inhibited ERK phosphorylation and downregulated uPA and vinculin. In addition to the co-localization of FAK and ERK at the migration front, these FAK-inhibition results link the downstream effects of ERK to FAK. Correspondingly, U0126 quenched ERK phosphorylation and reduced the expression of molecules involved in migration. Furthermore, brain sections of the animals implanted with tumors followed by radiation treatment showed elevated levels of α3 integrin and active ERK. Taken together, our results show that radiation treatment enhances the migration of meningioma cells with the involvement of α3β1 integrin-mediated signaling via FAK and ERK.

  4. SDN-1/Syndecan Acts in Parallel to the Transmembrane Molecule MIG-13 to Promote Anterior Neuroblast Migration

    PubMed Central

    Sundararajan, Lakshmi; Norris, Megan L.; Lundquist, Erik A.

    2015-01-01

    The Q neuroblasts in Caenorhabditis elegans display left-right asymmetry in their migration, with QR and descendants on the right migrating anteriorly, and QL and descendants on the left migrating posteriorly. Initial QR and QL migration is controlled by the transmembrane receptors UNC-40/DCC, PTP-3/LAR, and the Fat-like cadherin CDH-4. After initial migration, QL responds to an EGL-20/Wnt signal that drives continued posterior migration by activating MAB-5/Hox activity in QL but not QR. QR expresses the transmembrane protein MIG-13, which is repressed by MAB-5 in QL and which drives anterior migration of QR descendants. A screen for new Q descendant AQR and PQR migration mutations identified mig-13 as well as hse-5, the gene encoding the glucuronyl C5-epimerase enzyme, which catalyzes epimerization of glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in the heparan sulfate side chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Of five C. elegans HSPGs, we found that only SDN-1/Syndecan affected Q migrations. sdn-1 mutants showed QR descendant AQR anterior migration defects, and weaker QL descendant PQR migration defects. hse-5 affected initial Q migration, whereas sdn-1 did not. sdn-1 and hse-5 acted redundantly in AQR and PQR migration, but not initial Q migration, suggesting the involvement of other HSPGs in Q migration. Cell-specific expression studies indicated that SDN-1 can act in QR to promote anterior migration. Genetic interactions between sdn-1, mig-13, and mab-5 suggest that MIG-13 and SDN-1 act in parallel to promote anterior AQR migration and that SDN-1 also controls posterior migration. Together, our results indicate previously unappreciated complexity in the role of multiple signaling pathways and inherent left-right asymmetry in the control of Q neuroblast descendant migration. PMID:26022293

  5. SDN-1/Syndecan Acts in Parallel to the Transmembrane Molecule MIG-13 to Promote Anterior Neuroblast Migration.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Lakshmi; Norris, Megan L; Lundquist, Erik A

    2015-05-28

    The Q neuroblasts in Caenorhabditis elegans display left-right asymmetry in their migration, with QR and descendants on the right migrating anteriorly, and QL and descendants on the left migrating posteriorly. Initial QR and QL migration is controlled by the transmembrane receptors UNC-40/DCC, PTP-3/LAR, and the Fat-like cadherin CDH-4. After initial migration, QL responds to an EGL-20/Wnt signal that drives continued posterior migration by activating MAB-5/Hox activity in QL but not QR. QR expresses the transmembrane protein MIG-13, which is repressed by MAB-5 in QL and which drives anterior migration of QR descendants. A screen for new Q descendant AQR and PQR migration mutations identified mig-13 as well as hse-5, the gene encoding the glucuronyl C5-epimerase enzyme, which catalyzes epimerization of glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in the heparan sulfate side chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Of five C. elegans HSPGs, we found that only SDN-1/Syndecan affected Q migrations. sdn-1 mutants showed QR descendant AQR anterior migration defects, and weaker QL descendant PQR migration defects. hse-5 affected initial Q migration, whereas sdn-1 did not. sdn-1 and hse-5 acted redundantly in AQR and PQR migration, but not initial Q migration, suggesting the involvement of other HSPGs in Q migration. Cell-specific expression studies indicated that SDN-1 can act in QR to promote anterior migration. Genetic interactions between sdn-1, mig-13, and mab-5 suggest that MIG-13 and SDN-1 act in parallel to promote anterior AQR migration and that SDN-1 also controls posterior migration. Together, our results indicate previously unappreciated complexity in the role of multiple signaling pathways and inherent left-right asymmetry in the control of Q neuroblast descendant migration. Copyright © 2015 Sundararajan et al.

  6. Co-culture with Sertoli cells promotes proliferation and migration of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fenxi; Hong, Yan; Liang, Wenmei; Ren, Tongming; Jing, Suhua; Lin, Juntang

    2012-10-12

    Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been recently used in transplant therapy. The proliferation and migration of MSCs are the determinants of the efficiency of MSC transplant therapy. Sertoli cells are a kind of "nurse" cells that support the development of sperm cells. Recent studies show that Sertoli cells promote proliferation of endothelial cells and neural stem cells in co-culture. We hypothesized that co-culture of UCMSCs with Sertoli cells may also promote proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated UCMSCs from human cords and Sertoli cells from mouse testes, and co-cultured them using a Transwell system. We found that UCMSCs exhibited strong proliferation ability and potential to differentiate to other cell lineages such as osteocytes and adipocytes. The presence of Sertoli cells in co-culture significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration potential of UCMSCs (P<0.01). Moreover, these phenotypic changes were accompanied with upregulation of multiple genes involved in cell proliferation and migration including phospho-Akt, Mdm2, phospho-CDC2, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3 as well as CXCR4, phospho-p44 MAPK and phospho-p38 MAPK. These findings indicate that Sertoli cells boost UCMSC proliferation and migration potential. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ADAM13 cleavage of cadherin-11 promotes CNC migration independently of the homophilic binding site

    PubMed Central

    Kashef, Jubin; Alfandari, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) is a highly motile population of cells that is responsible for forming the face and jaw in all vertebrates and perturbing their migration can lead to craniofacial birth defects. Cell motility requires a dynamic modification of cell–cell and cell-matrix adhesion. In the CNC, cleavage of the cell adhesion molecule cadherin-11 by ADAM13 is essential for cell migration. This cleavage generates a shed extracellular fragment of cadherin-11 (EC1-3) that possesses pro-migratory activity via an unknown mechanism. Cadherin-11 plays an important role in modulating contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) in the CNC to regulate directional cell migration. Here, we show that while the integral cadherin-11 requires the homophilic binding site to promote CNC migration in vivo, the EC1-3 fragment does not. In addition, we show that increased ADAM13 activity or expression of the EC1-3 fragment increases CNC invasiveness in vitro and blocks the repulsive CIL response in colliding cells. This activity requires the presence of an intact homophilic binding site on the EC1-3 suggesting that the cleavage fragment may function as a competitive inhibitor of cadherin-11 adhesion in CIL but not to promote cell migration in vivo. PMID:26206614

  8. ADAM13 cleavage of cadherin-11 promotes CNC migration independently of the homophilic binding site.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Becker, Sarah F; Kashef, Jubin; Alfandari, Dominique

    2016-07-15

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) is a highly motile population of cells that is responsible for forming the face and jaw in all vertebrates and perturbing their migration can lead to craniofacial birth defects. Cell motility requires a dynamic modification of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. In the CNC, cleavage of the cell adhesion molecule cadherin-11 by ADAM13 is essential for cell migration. This cleavage generates a shed extracellular fragment of cadherin-11 (EC1-3) that possesses pro-migratory activity via an unknown mechanism. Cadherin-11 plays an important role in modulating contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) in the CNC to regulate directional cell migration. Here, we show that while the integral cadherin-11 requires the homophilic binding site to promote CNC migration in vivo, the EC1-3 fragment does not. In addition, we show that increased ADAM13 activity or expression of the EC1-3 fragment increases CNC invasiveness in vitro and blocks the repulsive CIL response in colliding cells. This activity requires the presence of an intact homophilic binding site on the EC1-3 suggesting that the cleavage fragment may function as a competitive inhibitor of cadherin-11 adhesion in CIL but not to promote cell migration in vivo. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Increasing doublecortin expression promotes migration of human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Radmila; Santhosh Kumar, Saranya; Fiondella, Chris; Loturco, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Human embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal progenitors (hNPs) provide a potential source for cellular replacement following neurodegenerative diseases. One of the greatest challenges for future neuron replacement therapies will be to control extensive cell proliferation and stimulate cell migration of transplanted cells. The doublecortin (DCX) gene encodes the protein DCX, a microtubule-associated protein essential for the migration of neurons in the human brain. In this study, we tested whether increasing the expression of DCX in hNPs would favorably alter their proliferation and migration. Migration and proliferation of hNPs was compared between hNPs expressing a bicistronic DCX/IRES-GFP transgene and those expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene introduced by piggyBac-mediated transposition. The DCX-transfected hNPs showed a significant decrease in their proliferation and migrated significantly further on two different substrates, Matrigel and brain slices. Additionally, a dense network of nestin-positive (+) and vimentin+ fibers were found to extend from neurospheres transplanted onto brain slices, and this fiber growth was increased from neurospheres containing DCX-transfected hNPs. In summary, our results show that increased DCX expression inhibits proliferation and promotes migration of hNPs.

  10. Nitric oxide promotes epidermal stem cell migration via cGMP-Rho GTPase signalling

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Rixing; He, Weifeng; Wang, Fan; Yao, Zhihui; Tan, Jianglin; Xu, Rui; Zhou, Junyi; Wang, Yuzhen; Li, Haisheng; Wu, Jun; LUO, Gaoxing

    2016-01-01

    The migration and reepithelization of epidermal stem cells (ESCs) are the most critical processes in wound healing. The gaseous messenger nitric oxide (NO) has multiple biological effects, but its actions on ESCs are poorly understood. In this study, an NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), was found to facilitate the in vitro migration of human ESCs (huESCs) in both live-imaging and scratch models. In addition, pull-down assays demonstrated that SNAP could activate the small GTPases RhoA and Rac1 of the Rho family, but not Cdc42. Moreover, the effects of SNAP on the migration and F-actin polymerization of ESCs could be blocked by inhibitors of cGMP, PKG, RhoA or Rac1, and by a specific siRNA of RhoA or Rac1, but not by a Cdc42 inhibitor or siRNA. Furthermore, the roles of NO in ESC migration via cGMP-Rho GTPase signalling in vivo were confirmed by tracing 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labelled cells in a superficial, partial-thickness scald mouse model. Thus, the present study demonstrated that the NO donor SNAP could promote huESC migration in vitro. Furthermore, NO was found to induce ESC migration via cGMP-Rho GTPase RhoA and Rac1 signalling, but not Cdc42 signalling, both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:27469024

  11. Similarity in viral and host promoters couples viral reactivation with host cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Bohn-Wippert, Kathrin; Tevonian, Erin N.; Megaridis, Melina R.; Dar, Roy D.

    2017-01-01

    Viral–host interactomes map the complex architecture of an evolved arms race during host cell invasion. mRNA and protein interactomes reveal elaborate targeting schemes, yet evidence is lacking for genetic coupling that results in the co-regulation of promoters. Here we compare viral and human promoter sequences and expression to test whether genetic coupling exists and investigate its phenotypic consequences. We show that viral–host co-evolution is imprinted within promoter gene sequences before transcript or protein interactions. Co-regulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human C-X-C chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) facilitates migration of infected cells. Upon infection, HIV can actively replicate or remain dormant. Migrating infected cells reactivate from dormancy more than non-migrating cells and exhibit differential migration–reactivation responses to drugs. Cells producing virus pose a risk for reinitiating infection within niches inaccessible to drugs, and tuning viral control of migration and reactivation improves strategies to eliminate latent HIV. Viral–host genetic coupling establishes a mechanism for synchronizing transcription and guiding potential therapies. PMID:28462923

  12. FMN2 Makes Perinuclear Actin to Protect Nuclei during Confined Migration and Promote Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Skau, Colleen T; Fischer, Robert S; Gurel, Pinar; Thiam, Hawa Racine; Tubbs, Anthony; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael W; Piel, Matthieu; Alushin, Gregory M; Nussenzweig, Andre; Steeg, Patricia S; Waterman, Clare M

    2016-12-01

    Cell migration in confined 3D tissue microenvironments is critical for both normal physiological functions and dissemination of tumor cells. We discovered a cytoskeletal structure that prevents damage to the nucleus during migration in confined microenvironments. The formin-family actin filament nucleator FMN2 associates with and generates a perinuclear actin/focal adhesion (FA) system that is distinct from previously characterized actin/FA structures. This system controls nuclear shape and positioning in cells migrating on 2D surfaces. In confined 3D microenvironments, FMN2 promotes cell survival by limiting nuclear envelope damage and DNA double-strand breaks. We found that FMN2 is upregulated in human melanomas and showed that disruption of FMN2 in mouse melanoma cells inhibits their extravasation and metastasis to the lung. Our results indicate a critical role for FMN2 in generating a perinuclear actin/FA system that protects the nucleus and DNA from damage to promote cell survival during confined migration and thus promote cancer metastasis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. PDGFBB promotes PDGFR{alpha}-positive cell migration into artificial bone in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Shigeyuki; Iwasaki, Ryotaro; Kawana, Hiromasa; Miyauchi, Yoshiteru; Hoshi, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Hiroya; Mori, Tomoaki; Kanagawa, Hiroya; Katsuyama, Eri; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Hao, Wu; and others

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined effects of PDGFBB in PDGFR{alpha} positive cell migration in artificial bones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB was not expressed in osteoblastic cells but was expressed in peripheral blood cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB promoted PDGFR{alpha} positive cell migration into artificial bones but not osteoblast proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB did not inhibit osteoblastogenesis. -- Abstract: Bone defects caused by traumatic bone loss or tumor dissection are now treated with auto- or allo-bone graft, and also occasionally by artificial bone transplantation, particularly in the case of large bone defects. However, artificial bones often exhibit poor affinity to host bones followed by bony union failure. Thus therapies combining artificial bones with growth factors have been sought. Here we report that platelet derived growth factor bb (PDGFBB) promotes a significant increase in migration of PDGF receptor {alpha} (PDGFR{alpha})-positive mesenchymal stem cells/pre-osteoblastic cells into artificial bone in vivo. Growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF{beta}) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) reportedly inhibit osteoblast differentiation; however, PDGFBB did not exhibit such inhibitory effects and in fact stimulated osteoblast differentiation in vitro, suggesting that combining artificial bones with PDGFBB treatment could promote host cell migration into artificial bones without inhibiting osteoblastogenesis.

  14. Plectin deficiency in liver cancer cells promotes cell migration and sensitivity to sorafenib treatment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chiung-Chi; Chao, Wei-Ting; Liao, Chen-Chun; Tseng, Yu-Hui; Lai, Yen-Chang Clark; Lai, Yih-Shyong; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Liu, Yi-Hsiang

    2017-02-17

    Plectin involved in activation of kinases in cell signaling pathway and plays important role in cell morphology and migration. Plectin knockdown promotes cell migration by activating focal adhesion kinase and Rac1-GTPase activity in liver cells. Sorafenib is a multi-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor that improves patient survival on hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the expression of plectin and cell migration as well as the sensitivity of hepatoma cell lines exposing to sorafenib. Hepatoma cell lines PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2 were used to examine the level of plectin expression and cell migration in comparison with Chang liver cell line. In addition, sensitivity of the 3 cell lines to sorafenib treatment was also measured. Expression of plectin was lower in PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2 hepatoma cells than that of Chang liver cells whereas HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells exhibit higher rate of cell migration in trans-well migration assay. Immunohistofluorecent staining on E-cadherin revealed the highest rate of collective cell migration in HepG2 cells and the lowest was found in Chang liver cells. Likewise, HepG2 cell line was most sensitive to sorafenib treatment and Chang liver cells exhibited the least sensitivity. The drug sensitivity to sorafenib treatment showed inverse correlation with the expression of plectin. We suggest that plectin deficiency and increased E-cadherin in hepatoma cells were associated with higher rates of cell motility, collective cell migration as well as higher drug sensitivity to sorafenib treatment.

  15. Lipid Raft Association Restricts CD44-Ezrin Interaction and Promotion of Breast Cancer Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Donatello, Simona; Babina, Irina S.; Hazelwood, Lee D.; Hill, Arnold D.K.; Nabi, Ivan R.; Hopkins, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell migration is an early event in metastasis, the main cause of breast cancer-related deaths. Cholesterol-enriched membrane domains called lipid rafts influence the function of many molecules, including the raft-associated protein CD44. We describe a novel mechanism whereby rafts regulate interactions between CD44 and its binding partner ezrin in migrating breast cancer cells. Specifically, in nonmigrating cells, CD44 and ezrin localized to different membranous compartments: CD44 predominantly in rafts, and ezrin in nonraft compartments. After the induction of migration (either nonspecific or CD44-driven), CD44 affiliation with lipid rafts was decreased. This was accompanied by increased coprecipitation of CD44 and active (threonine-phosphorylated) ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins in nonraft compartments and increased colocalization of CD44 with the nonraft protein, transferrin receptor. Pharmacological raft disruption using methyl-β-cyclodextrin also increased CD44-ezrin coprecipitation and colocalization, further suggesting that CD44 interacts with ezrin outside rafts during migration. Conversely, promoting CD44 retention inside lipid rafts by pharmacological inhibition of depalmitoylation virtually abolished CD44-ezrin interactions. However, transient single or double knockdown of flotillin-1 or caveolin-1 was not sufficient to increase cell migration over a short time course, suggesting complex crosstalk mechanisms. We propose a new model for CD44-dependent breast cancer cell migration, where CD44 must relocalize outside lipid rafts to drive cell migration. This could have implications for rafts as pharmacological targets to down-regulate cancer cell migration. PMID:23031255

  16. CtBP2 Promotes Human Cancer Cell Migration by Transcriptional Activation of Tiam1.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Seema; Ho, Ngoc; Parker, Daniel; Grossman, Steven R

    2012-07-01

    The mammalian COOH-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) CtBP1 and CtBP2 are metabolically regulated transcriptional co-repressors that are degraded upon acute exposure to the alternative reading frame (ARF) tumor suppressor. We reported previously that CtBP stimulates cell migration in certain contexts via repression of PTEN transcription and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. We have now identified an additional and direct mechanism for CtBP stimulation of cell migration via regulation of T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) protein. Tiam1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rac GTPase that plays a critical role in regulating cell adhesion, invasion, and migration and has been directly implicated in the promotion of cancer progression and metastasis. We noted a strict positive correlation between CtBP2 and Tiam1 expression levels and that CtBP promotion of cell migration required CtBP-dependent transcriptional activation of Tiam1. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of CtBP2 in human colon or lung carcinoma cells led to decreased Tiam1 protein and mRNA expression, while overexpression of CtBP2 increased Tiam1 expression levels. RNAi and overexpression studies also demonstrated that Tiam1 is a key downstream mediator of CtBP2-mediated cell migration. An analysis of the Tiam1 promoter revealed binding sites for the CtBP-interacting Kruppel-like factor 8 (KLF8), and a Tiam1 promoter luciferase reporter was induced in the presence of both KLF8 and CtBP2, consistent with KLF8-dependent CtBP transactivation of Tiam1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated CtBP2 occupancy of the Tiam1 promoter that was dependent on the presence of KLF8. Our results indicate that Tiam1 is a transcriptional activation target of CtBP2 and that this interaction promotes the pro-oncogenic function of CtBP2 leading to cancer cell migration. Transcriptional activation thus plays a role in CtBP pro-oncogenic functions along

  17. CtBP2 Promotes Human Cancer Cell Migration by Transcriptional Activation of Tiam1

    PubMed Central

    Paliwal, Seema; Ho, Ngoc; Parker, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian COOH-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) CtBP1 and CtBP2 are metabolically regulated transcriptional co-repressors that are degraded upon acute exposure to the alternative reading frame (ARF) tumor suppressor. We reported previously that CtBP stimulates cell migration in certain contexts via repression of PTEN transcription and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. We have now identified an additional and direct mechanism for CtBP stimulation of cell migration via regulation of T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) protein. Tiam1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rac GTPase that plays a critical role in regulating cell adhesion, invasion, and migration and has been directly implicated in the promotion of cancer progression and metastasis. We noted a strict positive correlation between CtBP2 and Tiam1 expression levels and that CtBP promotion of cell migration required CtBP-dependent transcriptional activation of Tiam1. RNA interference (RNAi)–mediated knockdown of CtBP2 in human colon or lung carcinoma cells led to decreased Tiam1 protein and mRNA expression, while overexpression of CtBP2 increased Tiam1 expression levels. RNAi and overexpression studies also demonstrated that Tiam1 is a key downstream mediator of CtBP2-mediated cell migration. An analysis of the Tiam1 promoter revealed binding sites for the CtBP-interacting Kruppel-like factor 8 (KLF8), and a Tiam1 promoter luciferase reporter was induced in the presence of both KLF8 and CtBP2, consistent with KLF8-dependent CtBP transactivation of Tiam1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated CtBP2 occupancy of the Tiam1 promoter that was dependent on the presence of KLF8. Our results indicate that Tiam1 is a transcriptional activation target of CtBP2 and that this interaction promotes the pro-oncogenic function of CtBP2 leading to cancer cell migration. Transcriptional activation thus plays a role in CtBP pro-oncogenic functions

  18. The Circular RNA Interacts with STAT3, Increasing Its Nuclear Translocation and Wound Repair by Modulating Dnmt3a and miR-17 Function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen-Guo; Awan, Faryal Mehwish; Du, William W; Zeng, Yan; Lyu, Juanjuan; Wu, De; Gupta, Shaan; Yang, Weining; Yang, Burton B

    2017-09-06

    Delayed or impaired wound healing is a major health issue worldwide, especially in patients with diabetes and atherosclerosis. Here we show that expression of the circular RNA circ-Amotl1 accelerated healing process in a mouse excisional wound model. Further studies showed that ectopic circ-Amotl1 increased protein levels of Stat3 and Dnmt3a. The increased Dnmt3a then methylated the promoter of microRNA miR-17, decreasing miR-17-5p levels but increasing fibronectin expression. We found that Stat3, similar to Dnmt3a and fibronectin, was a target of miR-17-5p. Decreased miR-17-5p levels would increase expression of fibronectin, Dnmt3a, and Stat3. All of these led to increased cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, survival, and wound repair. Furthermore, we found that circ-Amotl1 not only increased Stat3 expression but also facilitated Stat3 nuclear translocation. Thus, the ectopic expressed circ-Amotl1 and Stat3 were mainly translocated to nucleus. In the presence of circ-Amotl1, Stat3 interacted with Dnmt3a promoter with increased affinity, facilitating Dnmt3a transcription. Ectopic application of circ-Amotl1 accelerating wound repair may shed light on skin wound healing clinically. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Bm-TFF2, a toad trefoil factor, promotes cell migration, survival and wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Xiang, Yang; Wu, Jianbo; Jiang, Ping; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} Bm-TFF2 binds to epithelial cells and induces cell migration and wound healing. {yields} Bm-TFF2 suppresses cell apoptosis. {yields} Bm-TFF2 has no effect on cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Toad skin is naked and continually confronted by various injurious factors. Constant skin renewal and repairs occur frequently. However, the mechanisms of the renewal and repair have not clearly elucidated. In our previous work, a trefoil factor (TFF), Bm-TFF2, has been purified from the Bombina maxima skin and characterized as a platelet agonist. The mRNA of TFFs in toad skin was up-regulated greatly during the metamorphosis, indicating a pivotal role of TFFs in amphibian skin. Here, we presented the effects of Bm-TFF2 on the cell migration, apoptosis and proliferation. Bm-TFF2 bound to epithelial cells and showed strong cell motility activity. At the concentrations of 1-100 nM, Bm-TFF2-induced migration of human epithelial AGS and HT-29 cells, and rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cell lines. The in vitro wound healing assay also verified the activity of Bm-TFF2. Bm-TFF2 could also inhibit cell apoptosis induced by ceramide and sodium butyrate. The cell migration-promoting activity was abolished by MEK1 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for Bm-TFF2 to stimulate cell migration. Taken together, Bm-TFF2 promoted wound healing by stimulating cell migration via MAPK pathway and preventing cell apoptosis. The potent biological activity of Bm-TFF2 makes it a useful molecular tool for further studies of structure-function relationship of the related human TFFs.

  20. Co-culture with Sertoli cells promotes proliferation and migration of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fenxi; Hong, Yan; Liang, Wenmei; Ren, Tongming; Jing, Suhua; Lin, Juntang

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-culture of Sertoli cells (SCs) with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of SCs dramatically increased proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of SCs stimulated expression of Mdm2, Akt, CDC2, Cyclin D, CXCR4, MAPKs. -- Abstract: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been recently used in transplant therapy. The proliferation and migration of MSCs are the determinants of the efficiency of MSC transplant therapy. Sertoli cells are a kind of 'nurse' cells that support the development of sperm cells. Recent studies show that Sertoli cells promote proliferation of endothelial cells and neural stem cells in co-culture. We hypothesized that co-culture of UCMSCs with Sertoli cells may also promote proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated UCMSCs from human cords and Sertoli cells from mouse testes, and co-cultured them using a Transwell system. We found that UCMSCs exhibited strong proliferation ability and potential to differentiate to other cell lineages such as osteocytes and adipocytes. The presence of Sertoli cells in co-culture significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration potential of UCMSCs (P < 0.01). Moreover, these phenotypic changes were accompanied with upregulation of multiple genes involved in cell proliferation and migration including phospho-Akt, Mdm2, phospho-CDC2, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3 as well as CXCR4, phospho-p44 MAPK and phospho-p38 MAPK. These findings indicate that Sertoli cells boost UCMSC proliferation and migration potential.

  1. GOLPH3 drives cell migration by promoting Golgi reorientation and directional trafficking to the leading edge.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mengke; Peterman, Marshall C; Davis, Robert L; Oegema, Karen; Shiau, Andrew K; Field, Seth J

    2016-12-01

    The mechanism of directional cell migration remains an important problem, with relevance to cancer invasion and metastasis. GOLPH3 is a common oncogenic driver of human cancers, and is the first oncogene that functions at the Golgi in trafficking to the plasma membrane. Overexpression of GOLPH3 is reported to drive enhanced cell migration. Here we show that the phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate/GOLPH3/myosin 18A/F-actin pathway that is critical for Golgi-to-plasma membrane trafficking is necessary and limiting for directional cell migration. By linking the Golgi to the actin cytoskeleton, GOLPH3 promotes reorientation of the Golgi toward the leading edge. GOLPH3 also promotes reorientation of lysosomes (but not other organelles) toward the leading edge. However, lysosome function is dispensable for migration and the GOLPH3 dependence of lysosome movement is indirect, via GOLPH3's effect on the Golgi. By driving reorientation of the Golgi to the leading edge and driving forward trafficking, particularly to the leading edge, overexpression of GOLPH3 drives trafficking to the leading edge of the cell, which is functionally important for directional cell migration. Our identification of a novel pathway for Golgi reorientation controlled by GOLPH3 provides new insight into the mechanism of directional cell migration with important implications for understanding GOLPH3's role in cancer. © 2016 Xing, Peterman, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. Cyclic mechanical stretching promotes migration but inhibits invasion of rat bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bingyu; Luo, Qing; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Jinghui; Xu, Baiyao; Ju, Yang; Song, Guanbin

    2015-03-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also broadly known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) are multipotent stem cells that have a self-renewal capacity and multilineage differentiation potential. Mechanical stretching plays a vital role in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs. However, little is known about the effects of cyclic stretching on BMSC migration and invasion. In this study, using a custom-made cell-stretching device, we studied the effects of cyclic mechanical stretching on rat BMSC migration and invasion using a Transwell Boyden Chamber. The protein secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was detected by gelatin zymography, and the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) was measured by western blot. We found that cyclic mechanical stretching with 10% amplitude at 1Hz frequency for 8h promotes BMSC migration, but reduces BMSC invasion. FAK and ERK1/2 signals were activated in BMSCs after exposure to cyclic stretching. In the presence of the FAK phosphorylation blocker PF573228 or the ERK1/2 phosphorylation blocker PD98059, the cyclic-stretch-promoted migration of BMSCs was completely suppressed. On the other hand, cyclic mechanical stretching reduced the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in BMSCs, and PF573228 suppressed the cyclic-stretch-reduced secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9. The decrease of BMSC invasion induced by mechanical stretching is partially restored by PF573228 but remained unaffected by PD98059. Taken together, these data show that cyclic mechanical stretching promotes BMSC migration via the FAK-ERK1/2 signalling pathway, but reduces BMSC invasion by decreasing secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 via FAK, independent of the ERK1/2 signal.

  3. Heat shock transcription factor 1 promotes the proliferation, migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenhua; Li, Yan; Jia, Qi; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xudong; Hu, Jingjing; Xiao, Jianru

    2017-08-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most commonly diagnosed primary malignancy of bone and its overall survival rate is still very low. The molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of osteosarcoma have not been clearly illuminated. Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) is a key regulator of the heat shock response and also plays important roles in many cancers, but its function in osteosarcoma remains unexplored. In this study, the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assays and colony formation assays. Transwell assays were used to demonstrate the migration and invasion abilities of osteosarcoma cells. A tumour formation assay in a nude mouse model was performed to assess the effect of HSF1 on osteosarcoma cell growth in vivo. The protein levels of HSF1 were analysed with immunohistochemical staining in samples from osteosarcoma patients. We demonstrated that knockdown of HSF1 reduced the proliferation, migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells, while overexpression of HSF1 promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, HSF1 promoted the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells in vivo. In addition, high levels of HSF1 were associated with a poor prognosis in osteosarcoma. These data highlight an important role of HSF1 in proliferation, migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. Moreover, the expression of HSF1 was associated with prognosis in osteosarcoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Downregulation of esophageal cancer-related gene 4 promotes proliferation and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shujian; Xu, Yali; Wang, Hongliang; Sun, Yaxin; Tian, Xiangguo; Cao, Zhixin; Lin, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jiawen; Wang, Qiangxiu

    2017-09-01

    Esophageal cancer-related gene 4 (ECRG4) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene, which is involved in cell apoptosis, migration, infection and inflammation responsiveness; however, its expression level and clinical significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In the present study, the authors aim to evaluate the clinical significance and potential role of ECRG4 in HCC. Level of ECRG4 protein expression in HCC and peripheral tissues was investigated in tissue specimens obtained from 56 consecutive HCC patients by immunohistochemistry. Cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion regulations were examined by MTT curves, flow cytometry, Transwell assays and western blotting. ECRG4 expression was weak positive in normal liver cells but was downregulated in HCC cells in vivo or in vitro. A decreased expression of ECRG4 was associated with the age of the patients, metastasis and Ki-67 proliferation index. However, decreased ECRG4 expression was not associated with differentiation, tumor size, the presence of portal vein tumor thrombosis, satellite lesions, tumor relapse or mortality. Further investigations revealed that ectopic expression of ECRG4 inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion and promoted cell apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells, which was mediated by the regulation of BAX and B cell lymphoma-2, in addition to the upregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that ECRG4 was downregulated in HCC and served important roles in promoting cell proliferation and migration.

  5. miR-532 promoted gastric cancer migration and invasion by targeting NKD1.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaobo; Zheng, Qichang; Wu, Heshui; Wang, Chunyou; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Wei

    2017-03-26

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common human malignant neoplasms, especially in China, its regulatory mechanism is important to develop new therapy approaches. miRNAs have been demonstrated to regulate gastric cancer progression. We found miR-532 was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues and cells, Wound healing and transwell assay revealed that its overexpression promoted gastric cancer cell migration and invasion, its knockdown inhibited gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. Wnt/β-catenin antagonist naked cuticle homolog 1 (NKD1) was the target of miR-532, miR-532 inhibited NKD1 expression. TOP/FOP luciferase activity analysis suggested miR-532 also increased Wnt/β-catenin pathway activity. Overexpression miR-532 and NKD1 inhibited gastric cancer cell migration and invasion, consistent with miR-532 knockdown. These findings revealed miR-532 promoted gastric cancer cell migration and invasion through inhibiting NKD1 and activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway. We provide a potential target for gastric cancer therapy.

  6. MYC-nick promotes cell migration by inducing fascin expression and Cdc42 activation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Sarah; Poudel, Kumud Raj; Roh-Johnson, Minna; Brabletz, Thomas; Yu, Ming; Borenstein-Auerbach, Nofit; Grady, William N.; Bai, Jihong; Moens, Cecilia B.; Eisenman, Robert N.; Conacci-Sorrell, Maralice

    2016-01-01

    MYC-nick is a cytoplasmic, transcriptionally inactive member of the MYC oncoprotein family, generated by a proteolytic cleavage of full-length MYC. MYC-nick promotes migration and survival of cells in response to chemotherapeutic agents or withdrawal of glucose. Here we report that MYC-nick is abundant in colonic and intestinal tumors derived from mouse models with mutations in the Wnt, TGF-β, and PI3K pathways. Moreover, MYC-nick is elevated in colon cancer cells deleted for FBWX7, which encodes the major E3 ligase of full-length MYC frequently mutated in colorectal cancers. MYC-nick promotes the migration of colon cancer cells assayed in 3D cultures or grown as xenografts in a zebrafish metastasis model. MYC-nick accelerates migration by activating the Rho GTPase Cdc42 and inducing fascin expression. MYC-nick, fascin, and Cdc42 are frequently up-regulated in cells present at the invasive front of human colorectal tumors, suggesting a coordinated role for these proteins in tumor migration. PMID:27566402

  7. The reorientation of cell nucleus promotes the establishment of front-rear polarity in migrating fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Maninová, Miloslava; Klímová, Zuzana; Parsons, J Thomas; Weber, Michael J; Iwanicki, Marcin P; Vomastek, Tomáš

    2013-06-12

    The establishment of cell polarity is an essential step in the process of cell migration. This process requires precise spatiotemporal coordination of signaling pathways that in most cells create the typical asymmetrical profile of a polarized cell with nucleus located at the cell rear and the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) positioned between the nucleus and the leading edge. During cell polarization, nucleus rearward positioning promotes correct microtubule organizing center localization and thus the establishment of front-rear polarity and directional migration. We found that cell polarization and directional migration require also the reorientation of the nucleus. Nuclear reorientation is manifested as temporally restricted nuclear rotation that aligns the nuclear axis with the axis of cell migration. We also found that nuclear reorientation requires physical connection between the nucleus and cytoskeleton mediated by the LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex. Nuclear reorientation is controlled by coordinated activity of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-mediated activation of GTPase Rho and the activation of integrin, FAK (focal adhesion kinase), Src, and p190RhoGAP signaling pathway. Integrin signaling is spatially induced at the leading edge as FAK and p190RhoGAP are predominantly activated or localized at this location. We suggest that integrin activation within lamellipodia defines cell front, and subsequent FAK, Src, and p190RhoGAP signaling represents the polarity signal that induces reorientation of the nucleus and thus promotes the establishment of front-rear polarity.

  8. SRPK2 promotes the growth and migration of the colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Wu, Hai-Feng; Shen, Wei; Xu, Dong-Yan; Ruan, Ting-Yan; Tao, Guo-Qing; Lu, Pei-Hua

    2016-07-15

    Colon cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related death in the world. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying this malignancy will facilitate the diagnosis and treatment. Serine-arginine protein kinase 2 (SRPK2) has been reported to be upregulated in several cancer types. However, its expression and functions in colon cancer remains unknown. In this study, it was found that the expression of SRPK2 was up-regulated in the clinical colon cancer samples. Overexpression of SRPK2 promoted the growth and migration of colon cancer cells, while knocking down the expression of SRPK2 inhibited the growth, migration and tumorigenecity of colon cancer cells. Molecular mechanism studies revealed that SRPK2 activated ERK signaling in colon cancer cells. Taken together, our study demonstrated the tumor promoting roles of SRPK2 in colon cancer cells and SRPK2 might be a promising therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  9. Loss of RUNX3 increases osteopontin expression and promotes cell migration in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hui-Chuan; Liu, Yu-Peng; Shan, Yan-Shen; Huang, Chi-Ying; Lin, Forn-Chia; Lin, Li-Ching; Lee, Ling; Tsai, Chen-Hsun; Hsiao, Michael; Lu, Pei-Jung

    2013-11-01

    Loss of RUNX3 expression is frequently observed in gastric cancer and is highly associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of gastric cancer remain unknown. In this study, we found that the protein levels of RUNX3 and osteopontin (OPN) are inversely correlated in gastric cancer clinical specimens and cell lines. Furthermore, similar inverse trends between RUNX3 and OPN messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were demonstrated in six out of seven normal-tumor-paired gastric cancer clinical specimens. In addition, low RUNX3 and high OPN expression were associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Ectopic expression of green fluorescent protein-RUNX3 reduced OPN protein and mRNA expression in the AGS and SCM-1 gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, knockdown of RUNX3 in GES-1, a normal gastric epithelial cell line, increased OPN expression. Although three RUNX3-binding sequences have been identified in the OPN promoter region, direct binding of RUNX3 to the specific binding site, -142 to -137bp, was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The binding of RUNX3 to the OPN promoter significantly decreased OPN promoter activity. The knockdown of OPN or overexpression of RUNX3 inhibited cell migration in AGS and SCM-1 cells; however, the coexpression of RUNX3 and OPN reversed the RUNX3-reduced migration ability in AGS and SCM-1 cells. In contrast, the knockdown of both RUNX3 and OPN inhibited RUNX3-knockdown-induced migration of GES-1 cells. Together, our data demonstrated that RUNX3 is a transcriptional repressor of OPN and that loss of RUNX3 upregulates OPN, which promotes migration in gastric cancer cells.

  10. Nectin-3 (CD113) interacts with Nectin-2 (CD112) to promote lymphocyte transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Devilard, Elisabeth; Xerri, Luc; Dubreuil, Patrice; Lopez, Marc; Reymond, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Lymphocyte trafficking and migration through vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in secondary lymphoid tissues is critical for immune protection. In the present study, we investigate the role of nectin cell adhesion molecules for the migration of lymphocytes through ECs. Nectins are key players for the establishment of homotypic and heterotypic cell to cell contacts; they are required for cell to cell adherens junction formation and take part in the transendothelial migration of monocytes during the step of diapedesis, when monocytes migrate through EC junctions. We first show that Nectin-3 (CD113) is the only nectin expressed by T lymphocytes and since nectins are expressed on ECs we explored Nectin-3 potential functions in lymphocyte: EC interactions. We demonstrate that Nectin-2, expressed on ECs, is the major counter-receptor of Nectin-3. A soluble form of Nectin-3 binds to Nectin-2 localized at EC junctions and blocking Nectin-2 trans-interactions with monoclonal antibodies abolishes the binding of soluble Nectin-3 to ECs. Nectin-2 is expressed on High Endothelial venules (HEVs), where lymphocyte homing occurs in vivo. Finally, we show that Nectin-3 trans-interaction with Nectin-2 is essential for the process of lymphocyte transendothelial migration in vitro as targeting with blocking monoclonal antibodies either Nectin-3, expressed on lymphocytes, or Nectin-2, expressed on ECs, inhibits lymphocyte extravasation. The nectin family of CAMs is important for the regulation of endothelial barrier functions and transendothelial migration of immune cells. Our results demonstrate for the first time that Nectin-3 trans-interacts with Nectin-2 to promote lymphocyte and monocyte extravasation.

  11. A Low-Level Carbon Dioxide Laser Promotes Fibroblast Proliferation and Migration through Activation of Akt, ERK, and JNK

    PubMed Central

    Shingyochi, Yoshiaki; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Tajima, Satoshi; Tanaka, Rica; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Tobita, Morikuni

    2017-01-01

    Background Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with various types of lasers promotes fibroblast proliferation and migration during the process of wound healing. Although LLLT with a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser was also reported to promote wound healing, the underlying mechanisms at the cellular level have not been previously described. Herein, we investigated the effect of LLLT with a CO2 laser on fibroblast proliferation and migration. Materials and Methods Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were prepared. MTS and cell migration assays were performed with fibroblasts after LLLT with a CO2 laser at various doses (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 5.0 J/cm2) to observe the effects of LLLT with a CO2 laser on the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts. The non-irradiated group served as the control. Moreover, western blot analysis was performed using fibroblasts after LLLT with a CO2 laser to analyze changes in the activities of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which are signaling molecules associated with cell proliferation and migration. Finally, the MTS assay, a cell migration assay, and western blot analysis were performed using fibroblasts treated with inhibitors of Akt, ERK, or JNK before LLLT with a CO2 laser. Results In MTS and cell migration assays, fibroblast proliferation and migration were promoted after LLLT with a CO2 laser at 1.0 J/cm2. Western blot analysis revealed that Akt, ERK, and JNK activities were promoted in fibroblasts after LLLT with a CO2 laser at 1.0 J/cm2. Moreover, inhibition of Akt, ERK, or JNK significantly blocked fibroblast proliferation and migration. Conclusions These findings suggested that LLLT with a CO2 laser would accelerate wound healing by promoting the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts. Activation of Akt, ERK, and JNK was essential for CO2 laser-induced proliferation and migration of fibroblasts. PMID:28045948

  12. A Low-Level Carbon Dioxide Laser Promotes Fibroblast Proliferation and Migration through Activation of Akt, ERK, and JNK.

    PubMed

    Shingyochi, Yoshiaki; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Tajima, Satoshi; Tanaka, Rica; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Tobita, Morikuni

    2017-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with various types of lasers promotes fibroblast proliferation and migration during the process of wound healing. Although LLLT with a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser was also reported to promote wound healing, the underlying mechanisms at the cellular level have not been previously described. Herein, we investigated the effect of LLLT with a CO2 laser on fibroblast proliferation and migration. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were prepared. MTS and cell migration assays were performed with fibroblasts after LLLT with a CO2 laser at various doses (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 5.0 J/cm2) to observe the effects of LLLT with a CO2 laser on the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts. The non-irradiated group served as the control. Moreover, western blot analysis was performed using fibroblasts after LLLT with a CO2 laser to analyze changes in the activities of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which are signaling molecules associated with cell proliferation and migration. Finally, the MTS assay, a cell migration assay, and western blot analysis were performed using fibroblasts treated with inhibitors of Akt, ERK, or JNK before LLLT with a CO2 laser. In MTS and cell migration assays, fibroblast proliferation and migration were promoted after LLLT with a CO2 laser at 1.0 J/cm2. Western blot analysis revealed that Akt, ERK, and JNK activities were promoted in fibroblasts after LLLT with a CO2 laser at 1.0 J/cm2. Moreover, inhibition of Akt, ERK, or JNK significantly blocked fibroblast proliferation and migration. These findings suggested that LLLT with a CO2 laser would accelerate wound healing by promoting the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts. Activation of Akt, ERK, and JNK was essential for CO2 laser-induced proliferation and migration of fibroblasts.

  13. Regulation of tensin-promoted cell migration by its focal adhesion binding and Src homology domain 2.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaiyang; Lo, Su Hao

    2003-01-01

    Tensin1 is an actin- and phosphotyrosine-binding protein that localizes to focal adhesions. Recently, we have shown that both tensin1 and a new family member, tensin2, promote cell migration [Chen, Duncan, Bozorgchami and Lo (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 733-738]. Since localization of proteins to particular intracellular compartments often regulates their functions, and Src homology domain 2 may mediate signals related to cell migration, we hypothesize that tensin-mediated cell migration is regulated by the focal adhesion localization and the Src homology domain 2 of tensin. To test this hypothesis, we have analysed the effects of a series of tensin1 mutants on cell migration. Our results have shown that (1) tensin1 contains two focal adhesion-binding sites, (2) the wild-type tensin1 significantly promotes cell migration, (3) mutants with one focal adhesion-binding site do not promote cell migration, (4) the non-focal adhesion localized mutant suppresses cell migration and (5) the mutant that is not able to bind to phosphotyrosine-containing proteins has no effect on cell migration. These results have indicated that focal adhesion localization of tensin1 and the phosphotyrosine-binding activity are two critical factors in regulating tensin-mediated cell migration. PMID:12495434

  14. Dynamic myosin activation promotes collective morphology and migration by locally balancing oppositional forces from surrounding tissue.

    PubMed

    Aranjuez, George; Burtscher, Ashley; Sawant, Ketki; Majumder, Pralay; McDonald, Jocelyn A

    2016-06-15

    Migrating cells need to overcome physical constraints from the local microenvironment to navigate their way through tissues. Cells that move collectively have the additional challenge of negotiating complex environments in vivo while maintaining cohesion of the group as a whole. The mechanisms by which collectives maintain a migratory morphology while resisting physical constraints from the surrounding tissue are poorly understood. Drosophila border cells represent a genetic model of collective migration within a cell-dense tissue. Border cells move as a cohesive group of 6-10 cells, traversing a network of large germ line-derived nurse cells within the ovary. Here we show that the border cell cluster is compact and round throughout their entire migration, a shape that is maintained despite the mechanical pressure imposed by the surrounding nurse cells. Nonmuscle myosin II (Myo-II) activity at the cluster periphery becomes elevated in response to increased constriction by nurse cells. Furthermore, the distinctive border cell collective morphology requires highly dynamic and localized enrichment of Myo-II. Thus, activated Myo-II promotes cortical tension at the outer edge of the migrating border cell cluster to resist compressive forces from nurse cells. We propose that dynamic actomyosin tension at the periphery of collectives facilitates their movement through restrictive tissues.

  15. Par3 controls neural crest migration by promoting microtubule catastrophe during contact inhibition of locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Rachel; Theveneau, Eric; Pozzi, Sara; Alexandre, Paula; Richardson, Joanna; Merks, Anne; Parsons, Maddy; Kashef, Jubin; Linker, Claudia; Mayor, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is essential for morphogenesis and its failure is thought to be responsible for cancer invasion; however, the molecular bases of this phenomenon are poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of the polarity protein Par3 in CIL during migration of the neural crest, a highly migratory mesenchymal cell type. In epithelial cells, Par3 is localised to the cell-cell adhesion complex and is important in the definition of apicobasal polarity, but the localisation and function of Par3 in mesenchymal cells are not well characterised. We show in Xenopus and zebrafish that Par3 is localised to the cell-cell contact in neural crest cells and is essential for CIL. We demonstrate that the dynamics of microtubules are different in different parts of the cell, with an increase in microtubule catastrophe at the collision site during CIL. Par3 loss-of-function affects neural crest migration by reducing microtubule catastrophe at the site of cell-cell contact and abrogating CIL. Furthermore, Par3 promotes microtubule catastrophe by inhibiting the Rac-GEF Trio, as double inhibition of Par3 and Trio restores microtubule catastrophe at the cell contact and rescues CIL and neural crest migration. Our results demonstrate a novel role of Par3 during neural crest migration, which is likely to be conserved in other processes that involve CIL such as cancer invasion or cell dispersion. PMID:24173803

  16. Par3 controls neural crest migration by promoting microtubule catastrophe during contact inhibition of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Moore, Rachel; Theveneau, Eric; Pozzi, Sara; Alexandre, Paula; Richardson, Joanna; Merks, Anne; Parsons, Maddy; Kashef, Jubin; Linker, Claudia; Mayor, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    There is growing evidence that contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is essential for morphogenesis and its failure is thought to be responsible for cancer invasion; however, the molecular bases of this phenomenon are poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of the polarity protein Par3 in CIL during migration of the neural crest, a highly migratory mesenchymal cell type. In epithelial cells, Par3 is localised to the cell-cell adhesion complex and is important in the definition of apicobasal polarity, but the localisation and function of Par3 in mesenchymal cells are not well characterised. We show in Xenopus and zebrafish that Par3 is localised to the cell-cell contact in neural crest cells and is essential for CIL. We demonstrate that the dynamics of microtubules are different in different parts of the cell, with an increase in microtubule catastrophe at the collision site during CIL. Par3 loss-of-function affects neural crest migration by reducing microtubule catastrophe at the site of cell-cell contact and abrogating CIL. Furthermore, Par3 promotes microtubule catastrophe by inhibiting the Rac-GEF Trio, as double inhibition of Par3 and Trio restores microtubule catastrophe at the cell contact and rescues CIL and neural crest migration. Our results demonstrate a novel role of Par3 during neural crest migration, which is likely to be conserved in other processes that involve CIL such as cancer invasion or cell dispersion.

  17. β-Catenin promotes cell proliferation, migration, and invasion but induces apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun-ming; Ji, Shan; Li, Yan; Fu, Li-ye; Jiang, Tao; Meng, Fan-dong

    2017-01-01

    β-Catenin (CTNNB1 gene coding protein) is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway that has been shown to play an important role in the formation of certain cancers. Abnormal accumulation of CTNNB1 contributes to most cancers. This research studied the involvement of β-catenin in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. Proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were analyzed by using Cell Counting Kit-8 and by flow cytometry. Migration and invasion assays were measured by transwell analysis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of CTNNB1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, CXCR4, and CCL18 in RCC cell lines. It was found that CTNNB1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and induced apoptosis of A-498 cells. CTNNB1 overexpression promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and inhibited apoptosis of 786-O cells. Moreover, knockdown of CTNNB1 decreased the levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, CXCR4, and CCL18 expression, but CTNNB1 overexpression increased the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, CXCR4, and CCL18. Further in vivo tumor formation study in nude mice indicated that inhibition of CTNNB1 delayed the progress of tumor formation through inhibiting PCNA and Ki67 expression. These results indicate that CTNNB1 could act as an oncogene and may serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for RCC. PMID:28260916

  18. Dynamic myosin activation promotes collective morphology and migration by locally balancing oppositional forces from surrounding tissue

    PubMed Central

    Aranjuez, George; Burtscher, Ashley; Sawant, Ketki; Majumder, Pralay; McDonald, Jocelyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Migrating cells need to overcome physical constraints from the local microenvironment to navigate their way through tissues. Cells that move collectively have the additional challenge of negotiating complex environments in vivo while maintaining cohesion of the group as a whole. The mechanisms by which collectives maintain a migratory morphology while resisting physical constraints from the surrounding tissue are poorly understood. Drosophila border cells represent a genetic model of collective migration within a cell-dense tissue. Border cells move as a cohesive group of 6−10 cells, traversing a network of large germ line–derived nurse cells within the ovary. Here we show that the border cell cluster is compact and round throughout their entire migration, a shape that is maintained despite the mechanical pressure imposed by the surrounding nurse cells. Nonmuscle myosin II (Myo-II) activity at the cluster periphery becomes elevated in response to increased constriction by nurse cells. Furthermore, the distinctive border cell collective morphology requires highly dynamic and localized enrichment of Myo-II. Thus, activated Myo-II promotes cortical tension at the outer edge of the migrating border cell cluster to resist compressive forces from nurse cells. We propose that dynamic actomyosin tension at the periphery of collectives facilitates their movement through restrictive tissues. PMID:27122602

  19. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Lysate Increases Re-Epithelialization of Keratinocyte Scratch Assays by Promoting Migration.

    PubMed

    Mohammedsaeed, Walaa; Cruickshank, Sheena; McBain, Andrew J; O'Neill, Catherine A

    2015-11-05

    A limited number of studies have investigated the potential of probiotics to promote wound healing in the digestive tract. The aim of the current investigation was to determine whether probiotic bacteria or their extracts could be beneficial in cutaneous wound healing. A keratinocyte monolayer scratch assay was used to assess re-epithelialization; which comprises keratinocyte proliferation and migration. Primary human keratinocyte monolayers were scratched then exposed to lysates of Lactobacillus (L) rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, L. plantarum or L. fermentum. Re-epithelialization of treated monolayers was compared to that of untreated controls. Lysates of L. rhamnosus GG and L. reuteri significantly increased the rate of re-epithelialization, with L. rhamnosus GG being the most efficacious. L. reuteri increased keratinocyte proliferation while L. rhamnosus GG lysate significantly increased proliferation and migration. Microarray analysis of L. rhamnosus GG treated scratches showed increased expression of multiple genes including the chemokine CXCL2 and its receptor CXCR2. These are involved in normal wound healing where they stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and/or migration. Increased protein expression of both CXCL2 and CXCR2 were confirmed by ELISA and immunoblotting. These data demonstrate that L. rhamnosus GG lysate accelerates re-epithelialization of keratinocyte scratch assays, potentially via chemokine receptor pairs that induce keratinocyte migration.

  20. Interleukin-8 promotes cell migration through integrin αvβ6 upregulation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi; Sun, Fengkai; Wang, Ben; Liu, Song; Niu, Weibo; Liu, Enyu; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Jiayong; Gao, Huijie; Liang, Benjia; Niu, Zhengchuan; Zou, Xueqing; Niu, Jun

    2014-11-28

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), which is notorious for high morbidity and mortality around the world, shows a predilection for metastasis to liver. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), a chemokine with a defining CXC amino acid motif, has been reported to promote CRC cell migration and is associated with poor prognosis of CRC. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of IL-8-mediated migration remains obscure. In this study, we first demonstrated the cross talk between IL-8 and integrin αvβ6. We analyzed 139 human CRC samples, and found that the immunohistochemical expression of αvβ6 was significantly correlated with expression of IL-8. Furthermore, IL-8 increased the migration through integrin αvβ6 in human CRC cells, and both CXCR1 and CXCR2 were primarily involved during the process. IL-8 upregulated αvβ6 expression in a dose-dependent manner through activation of ERK and Ets-1 signaling pathway. Taken together, our results indicated that IL-8 enhances the migration of CRC cells by increasing αvβ6 integrin expression through the ERK/Ets-1 pathway. Targeting integrin αvβ6 in IL-8 expressing tumors might be a potential therapeutic strategy for CRC patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. COPD promotes migration of A549 lung cancer cells: the role of chemokine CCL21

    PubMed Central

    Kuźnar-Kamińska, Barbara; Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Sosińska, Patrycja; Książek, Krzysztof; Batura-Gabryel, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Patients with COPD develop lung cancer more frequently than healthy smokers. At the same time, molecular mediators promoting various aspects of cancer cell progression are still elusive. In this report, we examined whether COPD can be coupled with increased migration of non-small-cell lung cancer cells A549 and, if so, whether this effect may be related to altered production and activity of chemokines CCL21, CXCL5, and CXCL12. The study showed that the migration of A549 cells through the polycarbonate membrane and basement membrane extract toward a chemotactic gradient elicited by serum from patients with COPD was markedly higher as compared with serum from healthy donors. The concentration of CCL21 and CXCL12, but not CXCL5, in serum from patients with COPD was also increased. Experiments in which CCL21- and CXCL12-dependent signaling was blocked revealed that increased migration of the cancer cells upon treatment with serum from patients with COPD was mediated exclusively by CCL21. Collectively, our results indicate that COPD may contribute to the progression of lung cancer via CCL21-dependent intensification of cancer cell migration. PMID:27307721

  2. Electric fields guide migration of epidermal stem cells and promote skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Gu, Wei; Du, Juan; Reid, Brian; Deng, Xianjian; Liu, Zhidai; Zong, Zhaowen; Wang, Haiyan; Yao, Bo; Yang, Ce; Yan, Jun; Zeng, Ling; Chalmers, Laura; Zhao, Min; Jiang, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    Migration of epidermal stem cells (EpSCs) into wounds may play an important role in wound healing. Endogenous electric fields (EFs) arise naturally at wounds. Consistent with previous reports, we measured outward electric currents at rat skin wounds using vibrating probes. Topical use of prostaglandin E2 significantly promoted wound healing. However, it is not known whether EpSCs respond to EFs. We first isolated and characterized EpSCs from rat skin. We then demonstrated that EpSCs isolated from the epidermis migrated directionally toward the cathode in EFs of 50-400 mV/mm. The directedness values increased in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. The migration speed of EpSCs was significantly increased in EFs. EFs induced asymmetric polymerization of intracellular F-actin and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B pathways. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, or PI3K significantly inhibited the cathodal distribution of F-actin and the electrotactic response of EpSCs. These data for the first time show that EpSCs possess obvious electrotaxis, in which the epidermal growth factor receptor-mitogen activated protein kinase-PI3K pathways are involved. These data thus suggest a novel aspect of electric signaling in wound healing-to stimulate and guide migration of EpSCs and to regulate wound healing.

  3. COPD promotes migration of A549 lung cancer cells: the role of chemokine CCL21.

    PubMed

    Kuźnar-Kamińska, Barbara; Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Sosińska, Patrycja; Książek, Krzysztof; Batura-Gabryel, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Patients with COPD develop lung cancer more frequently than healthy smokers. At the same time, molecular mediators promoting various aspects of cancer cell progression are still elusive. In this report, we examined whether COPD can be coupled with increased migration of non-small-cell lung cancer cells A549 and, if so, whether this effect may be related to altered production and activity of chemokines CCL21, CXCL5, and CXCL12. The study showed that the migration of A549 cells through the polycarbonate membrane and basement membrane extract toward a chemotactic gradient elicited by serum from patients with COPD was markedly higher as compared with serum from healthy donors. The concentration of CCL21 and CXCL12, but not CXCL5, in serum from patients with COPD was also increased. Experiments in which CCL21- and CXCL12-dependent signaling was blocked revealed that increased migration of the cancer cells upon treatment with serum from patients with COPD was mediated exclusively by CCL21. Collectively, our results indicate that COPD may contribute to the progression of lung cancer via CCL21-dependent intensification of cancer cell migration.

  4. Downregulation of SOK1 promotes the migration of MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xu-Dong; Cho, Chien-Yu

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} SOK1 is a member of GCK-III subfamily. It is activated by oxidative stress or chemical anoxia. {yields} Barr's group have found that autophosphorylation of SOK1 is triggered by binding to the Golgi matrix protein GM130 and made the cells migration through dimeric adaptor protein 14-3-3. {yields} But what we found is that downregulation of SOK1 promotes cell migration and leads to the upregulation of GM130 and Tyr861 of FAK in MCF-7 cells. -- Abstract: SOK1 is a member of the germinal center kinase (GCK-III) subfamily but little is known about it, particularly with respect to its role in signal transduction pathways relative to tumor metastasis. By stably transfecting SOK1 siRNA into the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line we found that SOK1 promotes the migration of MCF-7 cells, as determined using wound-healing and Boyden chamber assays. However, cell proliferation assays revealed that silencing SOK1 had no effect on cell growth relative to the normal cells. Silencing SOK1 also had an effect on the expression and phosphorylation status of a number of proteins in MCF-7 cells, including FAK and GM130, whereby a decrease in SOK1 led to an increase in the expression of these proteins.

  5. P2Y12 Promotes Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Through Cofilin Dephosphorylation During Atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xuan; Pi, Shu-Lan; Baral, Suraj; Xia, Yuan-Peng; He, Quan-Wei; Li, Ya-Nan; Jin, Hui-Juan; Li, Man; Wang, Meng-Die; Mao, Ling; Hu, Bo

    2017-03-01

    P2Y12 is a well-recognized receptor expressed on platelets and the target of thienopyridine-type antiplatelet drugs. However, recent evidence suggests that P2Y12 expressed in vessel wall plays a role in atherogenesis, but the mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms of how vessel wall P2Y12 mediates vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migration and promotes the progression of atherosclerosis. Using a high-fat diet-fed apolipoprotein E-deficient mice model, we found that the expression of P2Y12 in VSMCs increased in a time-dependent manner and had a linear relationship with the plaque area. Moreover, administration of P2Y12 receptor antagonist for 12 weeks caused significant reduction in atheroma and decreased the abundance of VSMCs in plaque. In cultured VSMCs, we found that activation of P2Y12 receptor inhibited cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway, which induced cofilin dephosphorylation and filamentous actin disassembly, thereby enhancing VSMCs motility and migration. In addition, the number of P2Y12-positive VSMCs was decreased in the carotid artery plaque from patients receiving clopidogrel. Vessel wall P2Y12 receptor, which promotes VSMCs migration through cofilin dephosphorylation, plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerotic lesion and may be used as a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Proepithelin Regulates Prostate Cancer Cell Biology by Promoting Cell Growth, Migration, and Anchorage-Independent Growth

    PubMed Central

    Monami, Giada; Emiliozzi, Velia; Bitto, Alessandro; Lovat, Francesca; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Goldoni, Silvia; Fassan, Matteo; Serrero, Ginette; Gomella, Leonard G.; Baffa, Raffaele; Iozzo, Renato V.; Morrione, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The growth factor proepithelin has recently emerged as an important regulator of transformation in several physiological and pathological systems. In this study, we determined the biological roles of proepithelin in prostate cancer cells using purified human recombinant proepithelin as well as proepithelin-depletion strategies. Proepithelin promoted the migration of androgen-dependent and -independent human prostate cancer cells; androgen-independent DU145 cells were the more responsive. In these cells, proepithelin additionally stimulated wound closure, invasion, and promotion of cell growth in vitro. These effects required the activation of both the Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. We have analyzed proepithelin expression levels in different available prostate cancer microarray studies using the Oncomine database and found a statistically significant increase in proepithelin mRNA expression levels in prostate cancers compared with nonneoplastic controls. Notably, depletion of endogenous proepithelin by siRNA and antisense strategies impaired the ability of DU145 cells to grow and migrate after serum withdrawal and inhibited anchorage-independent growth. Our results provide the first evidence for a role of proepithelin in stimulating the migration, invasion, proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. This study supports the hypothesis that proepithelin may play a critical role as an autocrine growth factor in the establishment and initial progression of prostate cancer. Furthermore, proepithelin may prove to be a useful clinical marker for the diagnosis of prostate tumors. PMID:19179604

  7. Tangentially migrating neurons assemble a primary cilium that promotes their reorientation to the cortical plate.

    PubMed

    Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Viou, Lucie; Launay, Pierre-Serge; Luccardini, Camilla; Espeso Gil, Sergio; Kiyasova, Vera; Irinopoulou, Théano; Alvarez, Chantal; Rio, Jean-Paul; Boudier, Thomas; Lechaire, Jean-Pierre; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Spassky, Nathalie; Métin, Christine

    2012-12-20

    In migrating neurons, the centrosome nucleates and anchors a polarized network of microtubules that directs organelle movements. We report here that the mother centriole of neurons migrating tangentially from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) assembles a short primary cilium and exposes this cilium to the cell surface by docking to the plasma membrane in the leading process. Primary cilia are built by intraflagellar transport (IFT), which is also required for Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction in vertebrates. We show that Shh pathway perturbations influenced the leading process morphology and dynamics of MGE cells. Whereas Shh favored the exit of MGE cells away from their tangential migratory paths in the developing cortex, cyclopamine or invalidation of IFT genes maintained MGE cells in the tangential paths. Our findings show that signals transmitted through the primary cilium promote the escape of future GABAergic interneurons from their tangential routes to colonize the cortical plate.

  8. Soluble bone-derived osteopontin promotes migration and stem-like behavior of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pio, Graciella M.; Xia, Ying; Piaseczny, Matthew M.; Chu, Jenny E.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women, with the majority of these deaths caused by metastasis to distant organs. The most common site of breast cancer metastasis is the bone, which has been shown to provide a rich microenvironment that supports the migration and growth of breast cancer cells. Additionally, growing evidence suggests that breast cancer cells that do successfully metastasize have a stem-like phenotype including high activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and/or a CD44+CD24- phenotype. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that these ALDHhiCD44+CD24- breast cancer cells interact with factors in the bone secondary organ microenvironment to facilitate metastasis. Specifically, we focused on bone-derived osteopontin and its ability to promote the migration and stem-like phenotype of breast cancer cells. Our results indicate that bone-derived osteopontin promotes the migration, tumorsphere-forming ability and colony-forming ability of whole population and ALDHhiCD44+CD24- breast cancer cells in bone marrow-conditioned media (an ex vivo representation of the bone microenvironment) (p≤0.05). We also demonstrate that CD44 and RGD-dependent cell surface integrins facilitate this functional response to bone-derived osteopontin (p≤0.05), potentially through activation of WNK-1 and PRAS40-related pathways. Our findings suggest that soluble bone-derived osteopontin enhances the ability of breast cancer cells to migrate to the bone and maintain a stem-like phenotype within the bone microenvironment, and this may contribute to the establishment and growth of bone metastases. PMID:28498874

  9. Interaction with neutrophils promotes gastric cancer cell migration and invasion by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Gu, Jianmei; Chen, Jingyan; Zhang, Peng; Ji, Runbi; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong; Zhang, Xu

    2017-09-06

    Emerging evidence has revealed that neutrophils have phenotypic and functional plasticity. Neutrophils could be polarized towards a pro-tumor phenotype by tumor-derived factors. In the present study, we investigated the role of the interaction with neutrophils on the functions of gastric cancer cells in vitro. Human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells were induced to differentiate into neutrophil-like cells (HL-60N) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Human gastric cancer cells were co-cultured with HL-60N cells or treated with the conditioned medium (CM) of cancer-activated HL-60N cells. The migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells were significantly enhanced while their proliferation was minimally altered. The expression of pro-inflammatory factors including IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and TNFα was significantly increased in cancer-activated HL-60N cells, which induced the activation of the ERK pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gastric cancer cells. Blocking the ERK pathway activation reversed the promoting effects of cancer-activated HL-60N cells on gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. In addition, mouse gastric cancer cell derived CM could also increase the expression of pro-inflammatory factors in mouse bone marrow neutrophils, which in turn enhanced the migration and invasion of mouse gastric cancer cells. Collectively, our findings revealed that the interaction with neutrophils promoted gastric cancer cell migration and invasion through the activation of the ERK pathway and the induction of EMT, indicating that neutrophils may play an important role in gastric cancer metastasis. Therefore, targeting neutrophil-cancer cell interaction may provide a new strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  10. [β-Glucan promotes the maturation and migration of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells].

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongqin; Zhang, Xiaohang; Wang, Yong; Ning, Yongling; Ding, Jun; Qian, Keqing; Qi, Chunjian

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of β-glucan on the maturation and migration of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). BMDCs were isolated from mouse bone marrow cells in vitro and induced by β-glucan for maturation. The expressions of cell surface markers were detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The cytokines (IL-6, IL-12p40, tumor necrosis factor α) in the supernatants were measured by ELISA, and the expressions of intracellular CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1), CCR2, CCR5, CCR7 were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Furthermore, the chemotactic response to CC chemokine ligand 19 (CCLl9) and CCL21, i.e. CCR7-1igands, was measured by Transwell(TM) migration assay. Moreover, the number of migrated cells in the draining lymph nodes was analyzed by FCM. Compared with the control group, the expressions of co-stimulation molecules (MHC II, CD40, CD80, CD86) on BMDCs were up-regulated in the presence of β-glucan. Furthermore, β-glucan could prompt BMDCs to secret high levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12 p40 and increase the production of CCR7 mRNA. After β-glucan treatment, BMDCs were more sensitive to CCL19/CCL21. The number of BMDCs migrated from subcutaneous injection site into the draining lymph nodes significantly increased in β-glucan group. β-glucan can promote the maturation of BMDCs and enhance the migration ability of BMDCs in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Gcsf-Chr19 promotes neutrophil migration to damaged tissue through blood vessels in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Galdames, Jorge A; Zuñiga-Traslaviña, Constanza; Reyes, Ariel E; Feijóo, Carmen G

    2014-07-01

    G-CSF is an essential cytokine that regulates proliferation and differentiation of granulocytes from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. In mammals G-CSF has been identified as a key factor that promotes the release of neutrophils from the bone marrow into the blood circulation. In silico analysis indicates that zebrafish has two gcsf genes, gcsf-chr12 in chromosome 12 and gcsf-chr19 in chromosome 19. Gcsf-Chr12 participates in emergency myelopoiesis, but, in contrast to its mammalian orthologue, is not involved in neutrophil migration toward damaged tissue. In turn, the function of Gcsf-Chr19 has not been examined yet. In this study, we analyzed the role of Gcsf-Chr19 in regulating neutrophil migration toward the wound. Our results indicated that during the first h after caudal fin transection, neutrophils migrate from the hematopoietic tissue toward the injury, using the extracellular matrix as a substrate. Later, between 3 and 4 h postdamage, the recruitment mainly occurs through the bloodstream, and only a few neutrophils still use the extracellular matrix to migrate. During this process, the transcriptional levels of gcsf-chr19 are considerably increased, reaching a peak 1 h postdamage. The knockdown of Gcsf-chr19 indicated that the percentage of neutrophils that reach the wound decreased after the first h postinjury, suggesting that the knockdown specifically affects neutrophils that travel to the wound through blood vessels. Together, our data provide novel information about the regulation of neutrophil migration in zebrafish, positioning Gcsf-Chr19 as a key signal during the course of an inflammatory process triggered by severe damage. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. CD44 promotes the migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells toward glioma

    PubMed Central

    YIN, QIANG; ZHOU, YANG-YANG; WANG, PENG; MA, LI; LI, PENG; WANG, XIAO-GUANG; SHE, CHUN-HUA; LI, WEN-LIANG

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit tropism for gliomas. However, the mechanism underlying this directed migration remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanism underlying platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced chemotactic migration of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) toward glioma. Rat glioma C6 cell-conditioned medium was utilized to evaluate the chemotactic response of BMSCs toward glioma using an in vitro migration assay. Recombinant rat PDGF-BB was added to C6 cell-conditioned medium to assess its effect on the tropism of BMSCs. The effect of PDGF-BB on the expression levels of cluster of differentiation (CD)44 in BMSCs was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence assays. The results revealed that chemotactic migration was induced in BMSCs by rat glioma C6 cell-conditioned medium, which was enhanced by PDGF-BB treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence assays showed that CD44 expression was upregulated in BMSCs following treatment with 40 ng/ml PDGF-BB for 12 h. Additionally, 3-h pretreatment with the anti-CD44 neutralizing antibody OX-50 was observed to attenuate the tropism of BMSCs toward glioma in the presence or absence of PDGF-BB. The results of the present study indicate that CD44 mediates the tropism of BMSCs toward glioma, and PDGF-BB promotes the migration of BMSCs toward glioma via the upregulation of CD44 expression in BMSCs. These findings suggest CD44 inhibition may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma. PMID:27073479

  13. EDTA conditioning of dentine promotes adhesion, migration and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Galler, K M; Widbiller, M; Buchalla, W; Eidt, A; Hiller, K-A; Hoffer, P C; Schmalz, G

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of dentine conditioning on migration, adhesion and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells. Dentine discs prepared from extracted human molars were pre-treated with EDTA (10%), NaOCl (5.25%) or H2 O. Migration of dental pulp stem cells towards pre-treated dentine after 24 and 48 h was assessed in a modified Boyden chamber assay. Cell adhesion was evaluated indirectly by measuring cell viability. Expression of mineralization-associated genes (COL1A1, ALP, BSP, DSPP, RUNX2) in cells cultured on pre-treated dentine for 7 days was determined by RT-qPCR. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed for cell migration and cell viability data to compare different groups and time-points (Mann-Whitney U-test, α = 0.05). Treatment of dentine with H2 O or EDTA allowed for cell attachment, which was prohibited by NaOCl with statistical significance (P = 0.000). Furthermore, EDTA conditioning induced cell migration towards dentine. The expression of mineralization-associated genes was increased in dental pulp cells cultured on dentine after EDTA conditioning compared to H2 O-pre-treated dentine discs. EDTA conditioning of dentine promoted the adhesion, migration and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells towards or onto dentine. A pre-treatment with EDTA as the final step of an irrigation protocol for regenerative endodontic procedures has the potential to act favourably on new tissue formation within the root canal. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Macrophage-derived microvesicles promote proliferation and migration of Schwann cell on peripheral nerve repair

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Chuan Ma, Cheng-bin; Yuan, Hong-mou; Cao, Bao-yuan; Zhu, Jia-jun

    2015-12-04

    Background: Macrophages have been implicated in peripheral nerve regeneration. However, whether macrophages-derived microvesicles (MVs) are involved in this process remains unknown. In the present study, the effects of macrophages-derived MVs on proliferation and migration of Schwann cells (SCs) were evaluated in both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Human monocytic leukaemia cell line (THP-1) was successfully driven to M1 and M2 phenotypes by delivery of either IFN-γ or IL-4, respectively. SCs incubated with M1 or M2 macrophages-derived MVs, the cell migration and proliferation were assessed, and expression levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and Laminin were measured. A rat model of sciatic nerve was established and the effects of macrophages-derived MVs on nerve regeneration were investigated. Results: M2-derived MVs elevated migration, proliferation, NFG and Laminin protein levels of SCs compared with M1-or M0-derived MVs. The relative expression levels of miR-223 were also increased in M2 macrophages and M2-derived MVs. Transfected M2 macrophages with miR-223 inhibitor then co-incubated with SCs, an inhibition of cell migration and proliferation and a down-regulated levels of NFG and Laminin protein expression were observed. In vivo, M2-derived MVs significantly increased the infiltration and axon number of SCs. Conclusion: M2-derived MVs promoted proliferation and migration of SCs in vitro and in vivo, which provided a therapeutic strategy for nerve regeneration. - Highlights: • M2 macrophages-derived MVs elevated migration and proliferation of SCs. • M2 macrophages-derived MVs up-regulated NFG and Laminin expression of SCs. • MiR-223 expression was increased in M2 macrophages-derived MVs. • MiR-223 inhibitor reduced migration and proliferation of SCs co-incubated with MVs. • MiR-223 inhibitor down-regulated NFG and Laminin levels of SCs co-incubated with MVs.

  15. MAGE-A1 promotes melanoma proliferation and migration through C-JUN activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Junyun; Ding, Nan; Li, Yongjun; Yang, Yaran; Fang, Xiangdong; Zhao, Hua

    2016-05-13

    MAGE-A1 belongs to the chromosome X-clustered genes of cancer-testis antigen family and is normally expressed in the human germ line but is also overexpressed in various tumors. Previous studies of MAGE-A1 in melanoma mainly focused on methylation changes or its role in immunotherapy, however, its biological functions in melanoma have remained unknown. In order to determine the role of MAGE-A1 in melanoma growth and metastasis, we manipulated melanoma cell lines with overexpression and knockdown of MAGE-A1. Integration of cell proliferation assays, transwell migration and invasion assays, and RNA-Seq analysis revealed that up-regulation of MAGE-A1 dramatically promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion of human melanoma cell lines in vitro, while down-regulation of MAGE-A1 inhibited those characteristics associated with tumor cells. Furthermore, transcriptome sequencing revealed that MAGE-A1 exerts its tumor promoting activity by activating p-C-JUN directly or through ERK-MAPK signaling pathways. Based on our findings, we propose that MAGE-A1 may be a potential therapeutic target for melanoma patients. - Highlights: • MAGE-A1 promotes proliferation and clone formation in melanoma cell lines. • MAGE-A1 enhances tumor cell migration and invasion in melanoma cell lines. • Network including C-JUN, IL8, and ARHGAP29 play critical role in malignant melanoma. • Oncogenic MAGE-A1 increases p-C-JUN levels, possibly via ERK-MAPK signaling pathway.

  16. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Promotes Proliferation, Differentiation, and Migration of Neural Stem Cells via BDNF Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Di; Wang, Kuo-Chuan; Tsai, Yi-Fen; Chou, Pin-Chun; Tsai, Li-Kai; Chien, Chung-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Patients who suffer from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) usually have long-term neurological impairments. Endogenous neurogenesis might play a potential role in functional recovery after SAH; however, the underlying neurogenesis mechanism is still unclear. We assessed the extent of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) to better understand the neurogenesis mechanism after SAH. We performed a rat model of SAH to examine the extent of neurogenesis in the SVZ and assessed functional effects of the neurotrophic factors in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on neural stem cells (NSCs) after SAH. In this study, the proliferation, differentiation, and migratory capacities of NSCs in the SVZ were significantly increased on days 5 and 7 post SAH. Furthermore, treatment of cultured rat fetal NSCs with the CSF collected from rats on days 5 and 7 post SAH enhanced their proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of the CSF detected a marked increase in the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Treating the cultured NSCs with recombinant BDNF (at the same concentration as that in the CSF) or with CSF from SAH rats, directly, stimulated proliferation, differentiation, and migration to a similar extent. BDNF expression was upregulated in the SVZ of rats on days 5 and 7 post SAH, and BDNF release occurred from NSCs, astrocytes, and microglia in the SVZ. These results indicate that SAH triggers the expression of BDNF, which promotes the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of NSCs in the SVZ after SAH. PMID:27832087

  17. Mango extracts and the mango component mangiferin promote endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Daud, Noor Huda; Aung, Cho Sanda; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Wilkinson, Ashley S; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J; Parat, Marie-Odile

    2010-04-28

    This study tested the hypothesis that mango extracts contain bioactive molecules capable of modulating endothelial cell migration, an essential step in the formation of new blood vessels or angiogenesis. The formation of new blood vessels is an important therapeutic target for diseases such as limb ischemia, coronary infarction or stroke. We examined the effect of mango peel and flesh extracts as well as the individual polyphenolic molecules, mangiferin and quercetin, on bovine aortic cell migration using a modified Boyden chamber assay. Our results show that mangiferin, and extracts rich in mangiferin, increase endothelial cell migration. The dose-effect relationship for various extracts further suggests that this action of mangiferin is modulated by other components present in the extracts. The promigratory effect of mango extracts or mangiferin was unrelated to an effect on cell proliferation, and did not involve a change in the production of matrix metalloprotease-2 or -9 by the endothelial cells. Taken together, these results suggest that mangiferin present in mango extracts may have health promoting effects in diseases related to the impaired formation of new blood vessels.

  18. Testosterone promotes vascular endothelial cell migration via upregulation of ROCK-2/moesin cascade.

    PubMed

    Liao, Weiyong; Huang, Wenjun; Guo, Yanhong; Xin, Min; Fu, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated a reverse relationship between serum level of testosterone (T) and the incidence rate of cardiovascular disease in men, indicating that T exerts beneficial effects in cardiovascular system. However, the endothelial effects of T are poorly understood. Actin remodeling is essential for endothelial cell movement and vascular repair and this process is controlled by the actin-binding protein moesin. In the present study, we studied the effects of T on actin remodeling, moesin expression and phosphorylation, as well as cell migration in cultured human umbilical endothelial cells (hUVECs). We found that T provoked the formation of cortical actin complexes and membrane protrusions in endothelial cells. Treatment with T induced dose- and time-dependent increase of moesin expression and phosphorylation, which was inhibited by the addition of androgen receptor antagonist hydroxyflutamide (HF). Moreover, T enhanced ROCK-2 activity. The ROCK-2 inhibitor Y27632 or the transfection of ROCK-2 siRNA largely inhibited T-induced moesin expression and phosphorylation, indicating that ROCK-2 pathway is crucial for these effects. T promoted endothelial cell migration, which was inhibited by the addition of HF or Y27632. In conclusion, T induces actin cytoskeleton remodeling by regulating moesin expression and activation, resulting in enhanced endothelial cell migration. Our work adds new insights into endothelial mechanisms of T, which is relevant for its vascular actions.

  19. PFTK1 Promotes Gastric Cancer Progression by Regulating Proliferation, Migration and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhu, Jia; Huang, Hua; Yang, Qichang; Cai, Jing; Wang, Qiuhong; Zhu, Junya; Shao, Mengting; Xiao, Jinzhang; Cao, Jie; Gu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Shusen; Wang, Yingying

    2015-01-01

    PFTK1, also known as PFTAIRE1, CDK14, is a novel member of Cdc2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. Recent studies show that PFTK1 is highly expressed in several malignant tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma, esophageal cancer, breast cancer, and involved in regulation of cell cycle, tumors proliferation, migration, and invasion that further influence the prognosis of tumors. However, the expression and physiological significance of PFTK1 in gastric cancer remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed the expression and clinical significance of PFTK1 by Western blot in 8 paired fresh gastric cancer tissues, nontumorous gastric mucosal tissues and immunohistochemistry on 161 paraffinembedded slices. High PFTK1 expression was correlated with the tumor grade, lymph node invasion as well as Ki-67. Through Cell Counting Kit (CCK)-8 assay, flow cytometry, colony formation, wound healing and transwell assays, the vitro studies demonstrated that PFTK1 overexpression promoted proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells, while PFTK1 knockdown led to the opposite results. Our findings for the first time supported that PFTK1 might play an important role in the regulation of gastric cancer proliferation, migration and would provide a novel promising therapeutic strategy against human gastric cancer.

  20. [Promoting effect of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection on human laryngeal carcinoma HEp-2 cell adhesion and migration].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Jun; Hong, Li; Chen, Ning; Shen, Bing-Ling; Deng, Yan-Qiu; Quan, Wei; Wang, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Li-Jun

    2011-01-01

    To explore the effect of Chlamydia pneumoniae (C.pn) infection on human laryngeal carcinoma cell line HEp-2 cell adhesion and migration, to further clarify the role and mechanism of C.pn infection in tumor metastasis. HEp-2 cells were infected with C.pn after the culture and propagation of C.pn. The cytopathic effect was observed by microscopy. Morphological characteristics of C.pn inclusions in HEp-2 cells were examined by fluorescence microscopy and acridine orange staining. The ultrastructural changes of C.pn inclusions in the HEp-2 cells were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cell adhesion assay was performed to investigate the effect of C.pn infection on the adhesion of HEp-2 cells to collagen I. Wound-healing assay and transwell assay were performed to explore the effect of C.pn infection on HEp-2 cell migration. At 72 h post-infection, C.pn infected-HEp-2 cells were swollen and partially desquamated. Numerous vacuoles (inclusions) were observed and C.pn inclusions occupied almost the whole cytoplasm of the HEp-2 cells. Grape-like C.pn inclusions were observed in the HEp-2 cells stained with acridine orange under a fluorescence microscope at 72 h after infection. Under TEM, there were more mature pear-shaped elementary bodies, but less larger and round reticulate bodies in the HEp-2 cells infected with C.pn for 72 h. In the cell adhesion assay, the A value in C.pn infection group was 0.669 ± 0.011, significantly higher than that in the control group (0.558 ± 0.005) at 2 h after infection (P < 0.001). The cell adhesion ratio in the C.pn infection group was 119.89%. The migration distance of C.pn infected-HEp-2 cells in the wound-healing assay was significantly longer than that of control cells at 24 h after infection (P < 0.05). HEp-2 cells infected with C.pn for 12 h migrated more than the control cells in the transwell assay (23.40 ± 2.41 vs 10.40 ± 1.67) (P < 0.001). C.pn infection can significantly promote HEp-2 cell adhesion to

  1. Galectin-8 promotes migration and proliferation and prevents apoptosis in U87 glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Metz, Claudia; Döger, Remziye; Riquelme, Elizabeth; Cortés, Priscilla; Holmes, Christopher; Shaughnessy, Ronan; Oyanadel, Claudia; Grabowski, Catalina; González, Alfonso; Soza, Andrea

    2016-07-27

    to be more sensitive than migration to Gal-8 expression levels. Gal-8, either secreted or exogenously enriched in the media, and acting through extracellular glycan interactions, constitutes a strong stimulus of directional migration in glioblastoma U87 cells and for the first time emerges as a factor that promotes proliferation and prevents apoptosis in cancerous cells. These properties could potentially contribute to the exaggerated malignancy of glioblastoma cells.

  2. Chemotactic Migration of T Cells towards Dendritic Cells Promotes the Detection of Rare Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Vroomans, Renske M. A.; Marée, Athanasius F. M.; de Boer, Rob J.; Beltman, Joost B.

    2012-01-01

    In many immunological processes chemoattraction is thought to play a role in guiding cells to their sites of action. However, based on in vivo two-photon microscopy experiments in the absence of cognate antigen, T cell migration in lymph nodes (LNs) has been roughly described as a random walk. Although it has been shown that dendritic cells (DCs) carrying cognate antigen in some circumstances attract T cells chemotactically, it is currently still unclear whether chemoattraction of T cells towards DCs helps or hampers scanning. Chemoattraction towards DCs could on the one hand help T cells to rapidly find DCs. On the other hand, it could be deleterious if DCs become shielded by a multitude of attracted yet non-specific T cells. Results from a recent simulation study suggested that the deleterious effect dominates. We re-addressed the question whether T cell chemoattraction towards DCs is expected to promote or hamper the detection of rare antigens using the Cellular Potts Model, a formalism that allows for dynamic, flexible cellular shapes and cell migration. Our simulations show that chemoattraction of T cells enhances the DC scanning efficiency, leading to an increased probability that rare antigen-specific T cells find DCs carrying cognate antigen. Desensitization of T cells after contact with a DC further improves the scanning efficiency, yielding an almost threefold enhancement compared to random migration. Moreover, the chemotaxis-driven migration still roughly appears as a random walk, hence fine-tuned analysis of cell tracks will be required to detect chemotaxis within microscopy data. PMID:23166480

  3. Chemotactic migration of T cells towards dendritic cells promotes the detection of rare antigens.

    PubMed

    Vroomans, Renske M A; Marée, Athanasius F M; de Boer, Rob J; Beltman, Joost B

    2012-01-01

    In many immunological processes chemoattraction is thought to play a role in guiding cells to their sites of action. However, based on in vivo two-photon microscopy experiments in the absence of cognate antigen, T cell migration in lymph nodes (LNs) has been roughly described as a random walk. Although it has been shown that dendritic cells (DCs) carrying cognate antigen in some circumstances attract T cells chemotactically, it is currently still unclear whether chemoattraction of T cells towards DCs helps or hampers scanning. Chemoattraction towards DCs could on the one hand help T cells to rapidly find DCs. On the other hand, it could be deleterious if DCs become shielded by a multitude of attracted yet non-specific T cells. Results from a recent simulation study suggested that the deleterious effect dominates. We re-addressed the question whether T cell chemoattraction towards DCs is expected to promote or hamper the detection of rare antigens using the Cellular Potts Model, a formalism that allows for dynamic, flexible cellular shapes and cell migration. Our simulations show that chemoattraction of T cells enhances the DC scanning efficiency, leading to an increased probability that rare antigen-specific T cells find DCs carrying cognate antigen. Desensitization of T cells after contact with a DC further improves the scanning efficiency, yielding an almost threefold enhancement compared to random migration. Moreover, the chemotaxis-driven migration still roughly appears as a random walk, hence fine-tuned analysis of cell tracks will be required to detect chemotaxis within microscopy data.

  4. The Netrin-4/ Neogenin-1 axis promotes neuroblastoma cell survival and migration.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Andrea A; Falcón, Paulina; Espinoza, Natalie; R, Luis Solano; Milla, Luis A; Hernandez-SanMiguel, Esther; Torres, Vicente A; Sanchez-Gomez, Pilar; Palma, Verónica

    2017-02-07

    Neogenin-1 (NEO1) is a transmembrane receptor involved in axonal guidance, angiogenesis, neuronal cell migration and cell death, during both embryonic development and adult homeostasis. It has been described as a dependence receptor, because it promotes cell death in the absence of its ligands (Netrin and Repulsive Guidance Molecule (RGM) families) and cell survival when they are present. Although NEO1 and its ligands are involved in tumor progression, their precise role in tumor cell survival and migration remain unclear. Public databases contain extensive information regarding the expression of NEO1 and its ligands Netrin-1 (NTN1) and Netrin-4 (NTN4) in primary neuroblastoma (NB) tumors. Analysis of this data revealed that patients with high expression levels of both NEO1 and NTN4 have a poor survival rate. Accordingly, our analyses in NB cell lines with different genetic backgrounds revealed that knocking-down NEO1 reduces cell migration, whereas silencing of endogenous NTN4 induced cell death. Conversely, overexpression of NEO1 resulted in higher cell migration in the presence of NTN4, and increased apoptosis in the absence of ligand. Increased apoptosis was prevented when utilizing physiological concentrations of exogenous Netrin-4. Likewise, cell death induced after NTN4 knock-down was rescued when NEO1 was transiently silenced, thus revealing an important role for NEO1 in NB cell survival. In vivo analysis, using the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model, showed that NEO1 and endogenous NTN4 are involved in tumor extravasation and metastasis. Our data collectively demonstrate that endogenous NTN4/NEO1 maintain NB growth via both pro-survival and pro-migratory molecular signaling.

  5. Ixodes scapularis dystroglycan-like protein promotes Borrelia burgdorferi migration from the gut.

    PubMed

    Coumou, Jeroen; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Trentelman, Jos J; Wagemakers, Alex; Koetsveld, Joris; Ersoz, Jasmin I; Oei, Anneke; Fikrig, Erol; Hovius, Joppe W

    2016-03-01

    The causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks. During tick feeding, B. burgdorferi migrates from the tick gut to the salivary glands from where transmission to the host occurs. B. burgdorferi-interacting tick proteins might serve as vaccine targets to thwart B. burgdorferi transmission. A previous screening for B. burgdorferi-interacting Ixodes scapularis gut proteins identified an I. scapularis putative dystroglycan protein (ISCW015049). Here, we describe the ISCW015049's protein structure and its cellular location in the tick gut in relation to B. burgdorferi migration. Secondly, in vivo B. burgdorferi-tick attachment murine models were performed to study the role of ISCW015049 during B. burgdorferi migration and transmission. In silico analysis confirmed that ISCW015049 is similar to dystroglycan and was named I. scapularis dystroglycan-like protein (ISDLP). Confocal microscopy of gut tissue showed that ISDLP is expressed on the surface of gut cells, is upregulated during tick feeding, and is expressed significantly higher in infected ticks compared to uninfected ticks. Inhibition of ISDLP by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in lower B. burgdorferi transmission to mice. In conclusion, we have identified a dystroglycan-like protein in I. scapularis gut that can bind to B. burgdorferi and promotes B. burgdorferi migration from the tick gut. Key messages: B. burgdorferi exploits tick proteins to orchestrate its transmission to the host. B. burgdorferi is able bind to an I. scapularis dystroglycan-like protein (ISDLP). Inhibition of ISDLP in ticks results in lower B. burgdorferi transmission to mice. ISDLP is a potential target to prevent Lyme borreliosis.

  6. Pin1 promotes transforming growth factor-beta-induced migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Isao; Chiang, Keng-Nan; Lai, Chen-Yu; He, Dongming; Wang, Guannan; Ramkumar, Romila; Uchida, Takafumi; Ryo, Akihide; Lu, Kunping; Liu, Fang

    2010-01-15

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates a wide variety of biological activities. It induces potent growth-inhibitory responses in normal cells but promotes migration and invasion of cancer cells. Smads mediate the TGF-beta responses. TGF-beta binding to the cell surface receptors leads to the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in their C terminus as well as in the proline-rich linker region. The serine/threonine phosphorylation sites in the linker region are followed by the proline residue. Pin1, a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase, recognizes phosphorylated serine/threonine-proline motifs. Here we show that Smad2/3 interacts with Pin1 in a TGF-beta-dependent manner. We further show that the phosphorylated threonine 179-proline motif in the Smad3 linker region is the major binding site for Pin1. Although epidermal growth factor also induces phosphorylation of threonine 179 and other residues in the Smad3 linker region the same as TGF-beta, Pin1 is unable to bind to the epidermal growth factor-stimulated Smad3. Further analysis suggests that phosphorylation of Smad3 in the C terminus is necessary for the interaction with Pin1. Depletion of Pin1 by small hairpin RNA does not significantly affect TGF-beta-induced growth-inhibitory responses and a number of TGF-beta/Smad target genes analyzed. In contrast, knockdown of Pin1 in human PC3 prostate cancer cells strongly inhibited TGF-beta-mediated migration and invasion. Accordingly, TGF-beta induction of N-cadherin, which plays an important role in migration and invasion, is markedly reduced when Pin1 is depleted in PC3 cells. Because Pin1 is overexpressed in many cancers, our findings highlight the importance of Pin1 in TGF-beta-induced migration and invasion of cancer cells.

  7. Cyclophosphamide promotes breast cancer cell migration through CXCR4 and matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lee, Mon-Juan

    2017-03-01

    Cyclophosphamide is indicated for the treatment of cancerous diseases such as breast cancer and cervical cancer. Recent studies have shown that cyclophosphamide may induce cancer metastasis, but the cause of this unexpected adverse effect is not fully understood. In this study, we investigate the effect of cyclophosphamide on cancer cell migration and its correlation to chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4), a biomarker for cancer metastasis. Two human cancer cell lines with significant difference in endogenous CXCR4 expression, the breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and the melanoma cell line, MDA-MB-435S, were treated with various concentrations of cyclophosphamide, followed by the assessment of CXCR4 expression and cell migration. We found that the migration ability of MDA-MB-231 cells was enhanced with increasing concentrations of cyclophosphamide, which induced the cell-surface expression of CXCR4, but had no effect on the overall amount of CXCR4. In MDA-MB-435S cells, in which CXCR4 was barely detectable, cyclophosphamide was unable to activate cell-surface CXCR4, and did not promote cell migration. Studies on the mRNA expression profile of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in MDA-MB-231 cells further indicate that MMP9 and MMP13 may be involved in the action of cyclophosphamide. The protein expression of both MMP9 and MMP13 was increased in the presence of cyclophosphamide. Results from this study provide the molecular basis for the possible pathway of cyclophosphamide to induce cancer metastasis. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  8. Chronic pepsin exposure promotes anchorage-independent growth, and migration of a hypopharyngeal squamous cell line

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Samuels, Tina L.; Johnston, Nikki

    2015-01-01

    Outcome Objectives 1.Investigate the role of reflux, specifically pepsin, in laryngopharyngeal carcinogenesis. 2.Evaluate effects of chronic pepsin exposure on cell migration, apoptosis, and colony forming ability in hypopharyngeal cells. Study Design Translation research. Setting Academic research laboratory. Methods Human hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma FaDu cells were chronically exposed to nonacidic pepsin (exposed for 24 hours, 4 times over 2 weeks at the following concentrations: 0.01mg/ml, 0.1 mg/ml, or 1mg/ml). Precise wounds were created in confluent cell plates and rates of cell migration into wounds were quantified. Separately, cell viability of chronic pepsin exposed FaDu cells acutely treated with paclitaxel was measured. Finally, a clonogenic assay was performed on these cells to measure effects of chronic pepsin exposure on colony forming ability. Results An increased rate of relative wound density was observed in chronic pepsin treated (0.01mg/ml, 0.1mg/ml) cells compared to control (P<0.001), suggesting greater rates of cell migration. Pepsin treated (0.1 mg/ml) cells demonstrated on average, greater cell viability compared to control after exposure to paclitaxel suggesting possible apoptotic resistance, however this was not statistically significant. Chronic pepsin exposure (0.1mg/ml, 1mg/ml) was associated with dose dependent increase in colony forming ability relative to control (P<0.001). Conclusion Hypopharyngeal squamous cell line chronically exposed to pepsin demonstrated increased cell migration, and colony forming ability relative to control cells. These experiments indicate that chronic pepsin exposure acts as a promoter of tumorigenesis and metastasis of airway epithelium, suggesting a role for pepsin in laryngopharyngeal carcinogenesis attributed to gastric reflux. PMID:24376122

  9. Chronic pepsin exposure promotes anchorage-independent growth and migration of a hypopharyngeal squamous cell line.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Elizabeth A; Samuels, Tina L; Johnston, Nikki

    2014-04-01

    (1) Investigate the role of reflux, specifically pepsin, in laryngopharyngeal carcinogenesis. (2) Evaluate effects of chronic pepsin exposure on cell migration, apoptosis, and colony-forming ability in hypopharyngeal cells. Translation research. Academic research laboratory. Human hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma FaDu cells were chronically exposed to nonacidic pepsin (exposed for 24 hours, 4 times over 2 weeks at the following concentrations: 0.01 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL, or 1 mg/mL). Precise wounds were created in confluent cell plates, and rates of cell migration into wounds were quantified. Separately, cell viability of chronic pepsin-exposed FaDu cells acutely treated with paclitaxel was measured. Finally, a clonogenic assay was performed on these cells to measure effects of chronic pepsin exposure on colony-forming ability. An increased rate of relative wound density was observed in chronic pepsin-treated (0.01 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL) cells compared with control (P < .001), suggesting greater rates of cell migration. Pepsin-treated (0.1 mg/mL) cells demonstrated on average greater cell viability compared with control after exposure to paclitaxel, suggesting possible apoptotic resistance; however, this was not statistically significant. Chronic pepsin exposure (0.1 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL) was associated with a dose-dependent increase in colony-forming ability relative to control (P < .001). Hypopharyngeal squamous cell line chronically exposed to pepsin demonstrated increased cell migration and colony-forming ability relative to control cells. These experiments indicate that chronic pepsin exposure acts as a promoter of tumorigenesis and metastasis of airway epithelium, suggesting a role for pepsin in laryngopharyngeal carcinogenesis attributed to gastric reflux.

  10. The Netrin-4/ Neogenin-1 axis promotes neuroblastoma cell survival and migration

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Andrea A.; Falcón, Paulina; Espinoza, Natalie; Luis, Solano R.; Milla, Luis A.; Hernandez-SanMiguel, Esther; Torres, Vicente A.; Sanchez-Gomez, Pilar; Palma, Verónica

    2017-01-01

    Neogenin-1 (NEO1) is a transmembrane receptor involved in axonal guidance, angiogenesis, neuronal cell migration and cell death, during both embryonic development and adult homeostasis. It has been described as a dependence receptor, because it promotes cell death in the absence of its ligands (Netrin and Repulsive Guidance Molecule (RGM) families) and cell survival when they are present. Although NEO1 and its ligands are involved in tumor progression, their precise role in tumor cell survival and migration remain unclear. Public databases contain extensive information regarding the expression of NEO1 and its ligands Netrin-1 (NTN1) and Netrin-4 (NTN4) in primary neuroblastoma (NB) tumors. Analysis of this data revealed that patients with high expression levels of both NEO1 and NTN4 have a poor survival rate. Accordingly, our analyses in NB cell lines with different genetic backgrounds revealed that knocking-down NEO1 reduces cell migration, whereas silencing of endogenous NTN4 induced cell death. Conversely, overexpression of NEO1 resulted in higher cell migration in the presence of NTN4, and increased apoptosis in the absence of ligand. Increased apoptosis was prevented when utilizing physiological concentrations of exogenous Netrin-4. Likewise, cell death induced after NTN4 knock-down was rescued when NEO1 was transiently silenced, thus revealing an important role for NEO1 in NB cell survival. In vivo analysis, using the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model, showed that NEO1 and endogenous NTN4 are involved in tumor extravasation and metastasis. Our data collectively demonstrate that endogenous NTN4/NEO1 maintain NB growth via both pro-survival and pro-migratory molecular signaling. PMID:28038459

  11. Hyperexpressed Netrin-1 Promoted Neural Stem Cells Migration in Mice after Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haiyan; Song, Xiaoyan; Wang, Feng; Wang, Guodong; Wu, Yuncheng; Wang, Qiaoshu; Wang, Yongting; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous Netrin-1 (NT-1) protein was significantly increased after cerebral ischemia, which may participate in the repair after transient cerebral ischemic injury. In this work, we explored whether NT-1 can be steadily overexpressed by adeno-associated virus (AAV) and the exogenous NT-1 can promote neural stem cells migration from the subventricular zone (SVZ) region after cerebral ischemia. Adult CD-1 mice were injected stereotacticly with AAV carrying NT-1 gene (AAV-NT-1). Mice underwent 60 min of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion 1 week after injection. We found that NT-1 mainly expressed in neuron and astrocyte, and the expression level of NT-1 significantly increased 1 week after AAV-NT-1 gene transfer and lasted for 28 days, even after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) as well (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry results showed that the number of neural stem cells was greatly increased in the SVZ region of AAV-NT-1-transduced mice compared with control mice. Our study showed that overexpressed NT-1 promoted neural stem cells migration from SVZ. This result suggested that NT-1 is a promising factor for repairing and remodeling after focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:27746720

  12. Promoting MPhi transepithelial migration by stimulating the epithelial cell P2Y(2) receptor.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Christine; Gendron, Fernand-Pierre

    2009-10-01

    In intestine, neutrophils are recruited in response to bacterial infiltration and their anti-cellular activities contribute to inflammatory bowel diseases. In contrast, little is known regarding the recruitment of MPhi to the intestinal epithelium. Extracellular adenosine and uridine 5'-triphosphate (ATP and UTP) can function as leukocyte chemoattractants. We investigated the effects of these nucleotides on the ability of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) to promote MPhi transepithelial migration and adhesion. ATP and UTP promoted the migration of neutrophil-like PLB-985 cells and MPhi across a Caco-2 monolayer. The MPhi-like U-937 cells adhered to nucleotide-stimulated IEC monolayers. In mice with intestinal inflammation, there were infiltrating CD68(+) MPhi in the colonic epithelium and CD68(+) MPhi present at the apical surface of colonocytes. We determined that ATP and UTP activated the P2Y(2) receptor P (P2Y(2)R) to increase ICAM-1 expression, which mediated the adhesion of MPhi to the apical surface of IEC. Intriguingly, stimulation of IEC with nucleotides did not increase the adhesion of neutrophils. However, in the presence of adherent MPhi, there was adhesion of neutrophils, suggesting that MPhi may serve as anchors for neutrophil adhesion. These studies provide insight into the inflammatory mechanisms that contribute to inflammatory bowel diseases and identify potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

  13. Ezrin promotes invasion and migration of the MG63 osteosarcoma cell.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Zuo, Jianhong; Lei, Mingsheng; Wu, Song; Zang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Chaoyue

    2014-01-01

    Evidence shows that ezrin plays an important role in the development of some human malignancies. But the mechanism by which ezrin may affect tumor cell invasion and metastasis remains unclear. In this study, the expression of ezrin was verified in osteosarcoma (OS) cells and tissues by comparison with normal bone cells and tissues using Western blotting. OS-MG63 were transfected with pcDNA3.1-ezrin or pGenesil-1/shRNA-ezrin and the stably transfected cells were selected with G418 to yield the ezrin cell line. The OS-MG63 tumor cells were delivered by tail vein to female BALB/c to develop pulmonary metastasis model in vivo. Ezrin was identified as a direct target of miR-183 via a luciferase reporter carrying the 3'-untranslated region of ezrin. Migration assays and invasion assays were done with the transwells. Signaling pathway was studied by Western blotting and/or inhibitor. Ectopic overexpression of ezrin in OS cell line MG63 promoted tumor cell invasion and migration. Consistent with this, knockdown of ezrin inhibited tumor cell invasion and migration. Similar results were obtained in the experimental metastasis model in vivo. We identified ezrin as a direct target of miR-183. What is more, ectopic expression of ezrin could induce the expression of N-cadherin and enhance the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. Collectively, these results suggest that ezrin as a direct target of miR-183 promotes the aggressiveness of OS via increased N-cadherin and activating ERK signaling.

  14. MiR-9-5p promotes MSC migration by activating β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianyang; He, Lihong; Yue, Qing; Lu, Junhou; Kang, Naixin; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Huihui; Zhang, Huanxiang

    2017-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to treat various tissue damages, but the very limited number of cells that migrate to the damaged region strongly restricts their therapeutic applications. Full understanding of mechanisms regulating MSC migration will help to improve their migration ability and therapeutic effects. Increasing evidence shows that microRNAs play important roles in the regulation of MSC migration. In the present study, we reported that miR-9-5p was upregulated in hepatocyte growth factor -treated MSCs and in MSCs with high migration ability. Overexpression of miR-9-5p promoted MSC migration, whereas inhibition of endogenous miR-9-5p decreased MSC migration. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we screened the target genes of miR-9-5p and report for the first time that CK1α and GSK3β, two inhibitors of β-catenin signaling pathway, were direct targets of miR-9-5p in MSCs and that overexpression of miR-9-5p upregulated β-catenin signaling pathway. In line with these data, inhibition of β-catenin signaling pathway by FH535 decreased the miR-9-5p-promoted migration of MSCs, while activation of β-catenin signaling pathway by LiCl rescued the impaired migration of MSCs triggered by miR-9-5p inhibitor. Furthermore, the formation and distribution of focal adhesions as well as the reorganization of F-actin were affected by the expression of miR-9-5p. Collectively, these results demonstrate that miR-9-5p promotes MSC migration by upregulating β-catenin signaling pathway, shedding light on the optimization of MSCs for cell replacement therapy through manipulating the expression level of miR-9-5p. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes vasculature-associated migration of neuronal precursors toward the ischemic striatum.

    PubMed

    Grade, Sofia; Weng, Yuan C; Snapyan, Marina; Kriz, Jasna; Malva, João O; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2013-01-01

    Stroke induces the recruitment of neuronal precursors from the subventricular zone (SVZ) into the ischemic striatum. In injured areas, de-routed neuroblasts use blood vessels as a physical scaffold to their migration, in a process that resembles the constitutive migration seen in the rostral migratory stream (RMS). The molecular mechanism underlying injury-induced vasculature-mediated migration of neuroblasts in the post-stroke striatum remains, however, elusive. Using adult mice we now demonstrate that endothelial cells in the ischemic striatum produce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin that promotes the vasculature-mediated migration of neuronal precursors in the RMS, and that recruited neuroblasts maintain expression of p75NTR, a low-affinity receptor for BDNF. Reactive astrocytes, which are widespread throughout the damaged area, ensheath blood vessels and express TrkB, a high-affinity receptor for BDNF. Despite the absence of BDNF mRNA, we observed strong BDNF immunolabeling in astrocytes, suggesting that these glial cells trap extracellular BDNF. Importantly, this pattern of expression is reminiscent of the adult RMS, where TrkB-expressing astrocytes bind and sequester vasculature-derived BDNF, leading to the entry of migrating cells into the stationary phase. Real-time imaging of cell migration in acute brain slices revealed a direct role for BDNF in promoting the migration of neuroblasts to ischemic areas. We also demonstrated that cells migrating in the ischemic striatum display higher exploratory behavior and longer stationary periods than cells migrating in the RMS. Our findings suggest that the mechanisms involved in the injury-induced vasculature-mediated migration of neuroblasts recapitulate, at least partially, those observed during constitutive migration in the RMS.

  16. HTLV-1 Viral Factor HBZ Induces CCR4 to Promote T-cell Migration and Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sugata, Kenji; Yasunaga, Jun-Ichirou; Kinosada, Haruka; Mitobe, Yuichi; Furuta, Rie; Mahgoub, Mohamed; Onishi, Chiho; Nakashima, Kazutaka; Ohshima, Koichi; Matsuoka, Masao

    2016-09-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) and other inflammatory diseases in infected individuals. However, a complete understanding of how HTLV-1 transforms T cells is lacking. Expression of the chemokine receptor CCR4 on ATL cells and HTLV-1-infected cells suggested the hypothesis that CCR4 may mediate features of ATL and inflammatory diseases caused by HTLV-1. In this study, we show that the constitutively expressed HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) encoded by HTLV-1 is responsible for inducing CCR4 and its ability to promote T-cell proliferation and migration. Ectopic expression of HBZ was sufficient to stimulate expression of CCR4 in human and mouse T cells. Conversely, HBZ silencing in ATL cell lines was sufficient to inhibit CCR4 expression. Mechanistic investigations showed that HBZ induced GATA3 expression in CD4(+) T cells, thereby activating transcription from the CCR4 promoter. In an established air pouch model of ATL, we observed that CD4(+) T cells of HBZ transgenic mice (HBZ-Tg mice) migrated preferentially to the pouch, as compared with those in nontransgenic mice. Migration of CD4(+) T cells in HBZ-Tg mice was inhibited by treatment with a CCR4 antagonist. Proliferating (Ki67(+)) CD4(+) T cells were found to express high levels of CCR4 and CD103. Further, CD4(+) T-cell proliferation in HBZ-Tg mice was enhanced by coordinate treatment with the CCR4 ligands CCL17 and 22 and with the CD103 ligand E-cadherin. Consistent with this finding, we found that ATL cells in clinical skin lesions were frequently positive for CCR4, CD103, and Ki67. Taken together, our results show how HBZ activates CCR4 expression on T cells to augment their migration and proliferation, two phenomena linked to HTLV-1 pathogenesis. Cancer Res; 76(17); 5068-79. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Stimulus-dependent dissociation between XB130 and Tks5 scaffold proteins promotes airway epithelial cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Serisha; Derouet, Mathieu; Bai, Xiao Hui; Xu, Feng; Kapus, Andras; Yang, Burton B.; Liu, Mingyao

    2016-01-01

    Repair of airway epithelium after injury requires migration of neighboring epithelial cells to injured areas. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating airway epithelial cell migration is not well defined. We have previously shown that XB130, a scaffold protein, is required for airway epithelial repair and regeneration in vivo, and interaction between XB130 and another scaffold protein, Tks5, regulates cell proliferation and survival in human bronchial epithelial cells. The objective of the present study was to determine the role of XB130 and Tks5 interaction in airway epithelial cell migration. Interestingly, we found that XB130 only promotes lateral cell migration, whereas, Tks5 promotes cell migration/invasion via proteolysis of extracellular matrix. Upon stimulation with EGF, PKC activator phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate or a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand, XB130 and Tks5 translocated to the cell membrane in a stimulus-dependent manner. The translocation and distribution of XB130 is similar to lamellipodial marker, WAVE2; whereas Tks5 is similar to podosome marker, N-WASP. Over-expression of XB130 or Tks5 alone enhances cell migration, whereas co-expression of both XB130 and Tks5 inhibits cell migration processes and signaling. Furthermore, XB130 interacts with Rac1 whereas Tks5 interacts with Cdc42 to promote Rho GTPase activity. Our results suggest that dissociation between XB130 and Tks5 may facilitate lateral cell migration via XB130/Rac1, and vertical cell migration via Tks5/Cdc42. These molecular mechanisms will help our understanding of airway epithelial repair and regeneration. PMID:27835612

  18. Wnt2 and WISP-1/CCN4 Induce Intimal Thickening via Promotion of Smooth Muscle Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Williams, Helen; Mill, Carina A E; Monk, Bethan A; Hulin-Curtis, Sarah; Johnson, Jason L; George, Sarah J

    2016-07-01

    Increased vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration leads to intimal thickening which acts as a soil for atherosclersosis, as well as causing coronary artery restenosis after stenting and vein graft failure. Investigating factors involved in VSMC migration may enable us to reduce intimal thickening and improve patient outcomes. In this study, we determined whether Wnt proteins regulate VSMC migration and thereby intimal thickening. Wnt2 mRNA and protein expression were specifically increased in migrating mouse aortic VSMCs. Moreover, VSMC migration was induced by recombinant Wnt2 in vitro. Addition of recombinant Wnt2 protein increased Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 (WISP-1) mRNA by ≈1.7-fold, via β-catenin/T-cell factor signaling, whereas silencing RNA knockdown of Wnt-2 reduced WISP-1 mRNA by ≈65%. Treatment with rWISP-1 significantly increased VSMC migration by ≈1.5-fold, whereas WISP-1 silencing RNA knockdown reduced migration by ≈40%. Wnt2 and WISP-1 effects were integrin-dependent and not additive, indicating that Wnt2 promoted VSMC migration via WISP-1. Additionally, Wnt2 and WISP-1 were significantly increased and colocated in human coronary arteries with intimal thickening. Reduced Wnt2 and WISP-1 levels in mouse carotid arteries from Wnt2(+/-) and WISP-1(-/-) mice, respectively, significantly suppressed intimal thickening in response to carotid artery ligation. In contrast, elevation of plasma WISP-1 via an adenovirus encoding WISP-1 significantly increased intimal thickening by ≈1.5-fold compared with mice receiving control virus. Upregulation of Wnt2 expression enhanced WISP-1 and promoted VSMC migration and thereby intimal thickening. As novel regulators of VSMC migration and intimal thickening, Wnt2 or WISP-1 may provide a potential therapy for restenosis and vein graft failure. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells in part through regulating AQP5 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Kai; Jin, Faguang

    2015-09-25

    The osmoregulated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5(NFAT5), has been found to play important roles in the development of many kinds of human cancers, including breast cancer, colon carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether NFAT5 is involved in the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that NFAT5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of NFAT5 decreased proliferation and migration of the cells, accompanied by a significant reduction in the expression of AQP5. AQP5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of AQP5 also inhibited proliferation and migration of the cells as knockdown of NFAT5 did. Moreover, overexpression of NFAT5 promoted proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells, accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of AQP5. These results indicate that NFAT5 plays important roles in proliferation and migration of human lung adenocarcinoma cells through regulating AQP5 expression, providing a new therapeutic option for lung adenocarcinoma therapy. - Highlights: • NFAT5 expression is higher in lung adenocarcinoma cells compared with normal cells. • NFAT5 knockdown decreases proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Knockdown of NFAT5 reduces AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 increases AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  20. Osteonectin promotes prostate cancer cell migration and invasion: a possible mechanism for metastasis to bone.

    PubMed

    Jacob, K; Webber, M; Benayahu, D; Kleinman, H K

    1999-09-01

    The mechanism underlying the "organ-specific" metastasis of prostate cancer cells to the bone is still poorly understood. It is not clear whether the cells only invade the bone and proliferate there or whether they invade many tissues but survive mainly in the bone ("seed and soil"). Extracts from various organs were used as chemoattractants in the in vitro chemotaxis and invasion assays. Results show that, in comparison with extracts of other tissues, bone extracts promote a 2- to 4-fold increase in chemotaxis by human prostate epithelial cells and a 4-fold increase in the invasive ability of human prostate carcinoma cells. The purified active factor from bone and from marrow stromal-cell-conditioned medium is a low glycosylated osteonectin that specifically promotes the invasive ability of bone-metastasizing prostate (and breast) cancer cells but not that of non-bone-metastasizing tumor cells. It does not stimulate the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro or in vivo. Because osteonectin specifically enhances matrix metalloprotease activity in prostate and breast cancer cells (and not in other tumor cell types), we conclude that prostate cancer cell metastasis to the bone is, in part, mediated by the ability of osteonectin to promote migration, protease activity, and invasion.

  1. ARMc8 indicates aggressive colon cancers and promotes invasiveness and migration of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guiyang; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xiupeng; Fan, Chuifeng; Wang, Liang; Xu, Hongtao; Yu, Juanhan; Wang, Enhua

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have implicated ARMc8 in promoting tumor formation in non-small cell lung cancer and breast cancer; however, so far, no studies have revealed the expression pattern or cellular function of ARMc8 in colon cancer. In this study, we used immunohistochemical staining to measure ARMc8 expression in 206 cases of colon cancer and matched adjacent normal colon tissue. Clinically important behaviors of cells, including invasiveness and migration, were evaluated after upregulation of ARMc8 expression in HT29 cells through gene transfection or downregulation of expression in LoVo cells using RNAi. We found that ARMc8 was primarily located in the membrane and cytoplasm of tumor cells, and its expression level was significantly higher in colon cancer in comparison to that in the adjacent normal colon tissues (p < 0.001). ARMc8 expression was closely related to TNM stage (p = 0.006), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.001), and poor prognosis (p = 0.002) of colon cancer. The invasiveness and migration capacity of HT29 cells transfected with ARMc8 were significantly greater than those of control cells (p < 0.001), while ARMc8 siRNA treatment significantly reduced cell invasion and migration in LoVo cells (p < 0.001). Furthermore, we demonstrated that ARMc8 could upregulate the expression of MMP7 and snail and downregulate the expression of p120ctn and α-catenin. Therefore, ARMc8 probably enhanced invasiveness and metastatic capacity by affecting these tumor-associated factors, thereby playing a role in enhancing the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. ARMc8 is likely to become a potential therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  2. Wnt5b-associated exosomes promote cancer cell migration and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Harada, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideki; Kishida, Shosei; Kishida, Michiko; Awada, Chihiro; Takao, Toshifumi; Kikuchi, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Wnt5b is a member of the same family of proteins as Wnt5a, the overexpression of which is associated with cancer aggressiveness. Wnt5b is also suggested to be involved in cancer progression, however, details remain unclarified. We analyzed the biochemical properties of purified Wnt5b and the mode of secretion of Wnt5b by cancer cells. Wnt5b was glycosylated at three asparagine residues and lipidated at one serine residue, and these post-translational modifications of Wnt5b were essential for secretion. Purified Wnt5b showed Dvl2 phosphorylation and Rac activation abilities to a similar extent as Wnt5a. In cultured-cell conditioned medium, Wnt5b was detected in supernatant or precipitation fractions that were separated by centrifugation at 100 000 g. In PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells, 55% of secreted endogenous Wnt5b was associated with exosomes. Exosomes from wild-type PANC-1 cells, but not those from Wnt5b-knockout PANC-1 cells, activated Wnt5b signaling in CHO cells and stimulated migration and proliferation of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, suggesting that endogenous, Wnt5b-associated exosomes are active. The exosomes were taken up by CHO cells and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that Wnt5b is indeed associated with exosomes. In Caco-2 colon cancer cells, most Wnt5b was recovered in precipitation fractions when Wnt5b was ectopically expressed (Caco-2/Wnt5b cells). Knockdown of TSG101, an exosome marker, decreased the secretion of Wnt5b-associated exosomes from Caco-2/Wnt5b cells and inhibited Wnt5b-dependent cell proliferation. Exosomes secreted from Caco-2/Wnt5b cells stimulated migration and proliferation of A549 cells. These results suggest that Wnt5b-associated exosomes promote cancer cell migration and proliferation in a paracrine manner.

  3. P-cadherin promotes collective cell migration via a Cdc42-mediated increase in mechanical forces

    PubMed Central

    Plutoni, Cédric; Bazellieres, Elsa; Le Borgne-Rochet, Maïlys; Comunale, Franck; Brugues, Agusti; Séveno, Martial; Planchon, Damien; Thuault, Sylvie; Morin, Nathalie; Bodin, Stéphane; Trepat, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Collective cell migration (CCM) is essential for organism development, wound healing, and metastatic transition, the primary cause of cancer-related death, and it involves cell–cell adhesion molecules of the cadherin family. Increased P-cadherin expression levels are correlated with tumor aggressiveness in carcinoma and aggressive sarcoma; however, how P-cadherin promotes tumor malignancy remains unknown. Here, using integrated cell biology and biophysical approaches, we determined that P-cadherin specifically induces polarization and CCM through an increase in the strength and anisotropy of mechanical forces. We show that this mechanical regulation is mediated by the P-cadherin/β-PIX/Cdc42 axis; P-cadherin specifically activates Cdc42 through β-PIX, which is specifically recruited at cell–cell contacts upon CCM. This mechanism of cell polarization and migration is absent in cells expressing E- or R-cadherin. Thus, we identify a specific role of P-cadherin through β-PIX–mediated Cdc42 activation in the regulation of cell polarity and force anisotropy that drives CCM. PMID:26783302

  4. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes cell death and aggravates neurologic deficits after experimental stroke

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, Ana R; Ruscher, Karsten; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Deierborg, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms contribute to tissue demise and functional recovery after stroke. We studied the involvement of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in cell death and development of neurologic deficits after experimental stroke. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is upregulated in the brain after cerebral ischemia, and disruption of the Mif gene in mice leads to a smaller infarct volume and better sensory-motor function after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). In mice subjected to tMCAo, we found that MIF accumulates in neurons of the peri-infarct region, particularly in cortical parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Likewise, in cultured cortical neurons exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation, MIF levels increase, and inhibition of MIF by (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester (ISO-1) protects against cell death. Deletion of MIF in Mif−/− mice does not affect interleukin-1β protein levels in the brain and serum after tMCAo. Furthermore, disruption of the Mif gene in mice does not affect CD68, but it is associated with higher galectin-3 immunoreactivity in the brain after tMCAo, suggesting that MIF affects the molecular/cellular composition of the macrophages/microglia response after experimental stroke. We conclude that MIF promotes neuronal death and aggravates neurologic deficits after experimental stroke, which implicates MIF in the pathogenesis of neuronal injury after stroke. PMID:21063426

  5. ARHGEF39 promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration via Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haixiao; Li, Miaomiao; Tao, Xiaobao; Qian, Yan; Chen, Linfang; Tao, Guoquan

    2017-09-04

    Dbl-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) can activate RhoGTPases by facilitating the exchange of GDP for GTP, the aberrant expression of which has been implicated in tumorigenicity and metastasis of human cancers. ARHGEF39, as a member of Dbl-family GEFs, was reported to be a potential oncogene in human hepatocellular carcinoma previously. However, the role of ARHGEF39 in gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear so far. In the current study, we demonstrated that ARHGEF39 expression was significantly upregulated in GC tissues compared with paired adjacent normal tissues by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Functional analyses revealed that ARHGEF39 overexpression could promote proliferation, colony formation, and migration of GC cells in vitro, whereas ARHGEF39 knockdown markedly suppressed these phenotypes. Moreover, ARHGEF39 enhanced tumorigenicity and lung metastasis potential of GC cells in nude mice model. Mechanistically, we found that overexpressed ARHGEF39 significantly increased the phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt), and its effect on cell proliferation was attenuated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Thus, our findings suggest that ARHGEF39 may contribute to cell proliferation and migration in GC via a possible mechanism involving Akt signaling.

  6. Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor enhances angiogenesis by promoting proliferation and migration of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Qiangsong; Zheng Liduan; Li Bo; Wang Danming; Huang Chuanshu; Matuschak, George M.; Li Dechun . E-mail: dli2@slu.edu

    2006-11-01

    Our previous studies have indicated that hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF) has angiogenic properties in an in vivo matrigel plug model and HIMF upregulates expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse lungs and cultured lung epithelial cells. However, whether HIMF exerts angiogenic effects through modulating endothelial cell function remains unknown. In this study, mouse aortic rings cultured with recombinant HIMF protein resulted in enhanced vascular sprouting and increased endothelial cell spreading as confirmed by Dil-Ac-LDL uptake, von Willebrand factor and CD31 staining. In cultured mouse endothelial cell line SVEC 4-10, HIMF dose-dependently enhanced cell proliferation, in vitro migration and tubulogenesis, which was not attenuated by SU1498, a VEGFR2/Flk-1 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Moreover, HIMF stimulation resulted in phosphorylation of Akt, p38 and ERK1/2 kinases in SVEC 4-10 cells. Treatment of mouse aortic rings and SVEC 4-10 cells with LY294002, but not SB203580, PD098059 or U0126, abolished HIMF-induced vascular sprouting and angiogenic responses. In addition, transfection of a dominant-negative mutant of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), {delta}p85, blocked HIMF-induced phosphorylation of Akt, endothelial activation and tubulogenesis. These results indicate that HIMF enhances angiogenesis by promoting proliferation and migration of endothelial cells via activation of the PI-3K/Akt pathways.

  7. Electrical stimulation by enzymatic biofuel cell to promote proliferation, migration and differentiation of muscle precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Ho; Jeon, Won-Yong; Kim, Hyug-Han; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is a very important biophysical cue for skeletal muscle maintenance and myotube formation. The absence of electrical signals from motor neurons causes denervated muscles to atrophy. Herein, we investigate for the first time the utility of an enzymatic biofuel cell (EBFC) as a promising means for mimicking native electrical stimulation. EBFC was set up using two different enzymes: one was glucose oxidase (GOX) used for the generation of anodic current followed by the oxidation of glucose; the other was Bilirubin oxidase (BOD) for the generation of cathodic current followed by the reduction of oxygen. We studied the behaviors of muscle precursor cells (MPCs) in terms of proliferation, migration and differentiation under different electrical conditions. The EBFC electrical stimulations significantly increased cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, the electrical stimulations promoted the differentiation of cells into myotube formation based on expressions at the gene and protein levels. The EBFC set up, with its free forms adjustable to any implant design, was subsequently applied to the nanofiber scaffolding system. The MPCs were demonstrated to be stimulated in a similar manner as the 2D culture conditions, suggesting potential applications of the EBFC system for muscle repair and regeneration.

  8. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes cell death and aggravates neurologic deficits after experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Ana R; Ruscher, Karsten; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Deierborg, Tomas

    2011-04-01

    Multiple mechanisms contribute to tissue demise and functional recovery after stroke. We studied the involvement of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in cell death and development of neurologic deficits after experimental stroke. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is upregulated in the brain after cerebral ischemia, and disruption of the Mif gene in mice leads to a smaller infarct volume and better sensory-motor function after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). In mice subjected to tMCAo, we found that MIF accumulates in neurons of the peri-infarct region, particularly in cortical parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Likewise, in cultured cortical neurons exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation, MIF levels increase, and inhibition of MIF by (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester (ISO-1) protects against cell death. Deletion of MIF in Mif(-/-) mice does not affect interleukin-1β protein levels in the brain and serum after tMCAo. Furthermore, disruption of the Mif gene in mice does not affect CD68, but it is associated with higher galectin-3 immunoreactivity in the brain after tMCAo, suggesting that MIF affects the molecular/cellular composition of the macrophages/microglia response after experimental stroke. We conclude that MIF promotes neuronal death and aggravates neurologic deficits after experimental stroke, which implicates MIF in the pathogenesis of neuronal injury after stroke.

  9. CCL25/CCR9 Signal Promotes Migration and Invasion in Hepatocellular and Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziqi; Sun, Tong; Chen, Yuxi; Gong, Shu; Sun, Xiye; Zou, Fangdong; Peng, Rui

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is one of the most lethal diseases worldwide, and metastasis is the most common cause of patients' deaths. Identification and inhibition of markers involved in metastasis process in cancer cells are promising works to block metastasis and improve prognoses of patients. Chemokines are a superfamily of small, chemotactic cytokines, whose functions are based on interaction with corresponding receptors. It has been found that one of the functions of chemokines is to regulate migration and invasion abilities of lymphocytes, as well as cancer cells. Chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) regulates trafficking of lymphocytes and cancer cell lines when interacting with its exclusive ligand chemokine 25 (CCL25). However, the mechanisms of CCL25/CCR9 signal that regulates metastasis of cancer cells are not completely known yet. In this study, we stimulated or inhibited CCL25/CCR9 signal in breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and hepatocellular cancer cell lines (HepG2 and HUH7), and found that CCL25/CCR9 signal resulted in different promotion of migration and invasion in different cell lines. These phenomena could be explained by selective regulation of several markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our findings suggested that CCL25/CCR9 signal may provide cancer cells with chemotactic abilities through influencing several EMT markers.

  10. P-cadherin promotes collective cell migration via a Cdc42-mediated increase in mechanical forces.

    PubMed

    Plutoni, Cédric; Bazellieres, Elsa; Le Borgne-Rochet, Maïlys; Comunale, Franck; Brugues, Agusti; Séveno, Martial; Planchon, Damien; Thuault, Sylvie; Morin, Nathalie; Bodin, Stéphane; Trepat, Xavier; Gauthier-Rouvière, Cécile

    2016-01-18

    Collective cell migration (CCM) is essential for organism development, wound healing, and metastatic transition, the primary cause of cancer-related death, and it involves cell-cell adhesion molecules of the cadherin family. Increased P-cadherin expression levels are correlated with tumor aggressiveness in carcinoma and aggressive sarcoma; however, how P-cadherin promotes tumor malignancy remains unknown. Here, using integrated cell biology and biophysical approaches, we determined that P-cadherin specifically induces polarization and CCM through an increase in the strength and anisotropy of mechanical forces. We show that this mechanical regulation is mediated by the P-cadherin/β-PIX/Cdc42 axis; P-cadherin specifically activates Cdc42 through β-PIX, which is specifically recruited at cell-cell contacts upon CCM. This mechanism of cell polarization and migration is absent in cells expressing E- or R-cadherin. Thus, we identify a specific role of P-cadherin through β-PIX-mediated Cdc42 activation in the regulation of cell polarity and force anisotropy that drives CCM. © 2016 Plutoni et al.

  11. CTGF is overexpressed in malignant melanoma and promotes cell invasion and migration

    PubMed Central

    Braig, S; Wallner, S; Junglas, B; Fuchshofer, R; Bosserhoff, A-K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Malignant melanoma cells are known to have altered expression of growth factors compared with normal human melanocytes. These changes most likely favour tumour growth and progression, and influence tumour environment. The induction of transforming growth factor beta1, 2 and 3 as well as BMP4 and BMP7 expression in malignant melanoma has been reported before, whereas the expression of an important modulator of these molecules, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), has not been investigated in melanomas until now. Methods: Expression of CTGF was analysed in melanoma cell lines and tissue samples by qRT–PCR and immunohistochemistry. To determine the regulation of CTGF expression in malignant melanoma, specific siRNA was used. Additionally, migration, invasion and attachment assays were carried out. Results: We were able to demonstrate that CTGF expression is upregulated in nine melanoma cell lines and in primary and metastatic melanoma in situ. The transcription factor HIF-1α was revealed as a positive regulator for CTGF expression. Melanoma cells, in which CTGF expression is diminished, show a strong reduction of migratory and invasive properties when compared with controls. Further, treatment of normal human epidermal melanocytes with recombinant CTGF leads to an increase of migratory and invasive behaviour of these cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that CTGF promotes melanoma cell invasion and migration and, therefore, has an important role in the progression of malignant melanoma. PMID:21673687

  12. Overexpression of miR-21 promotes the proliferation and migration of cervical cancer cells via the inhibition of PTEN.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingjie; Zhang, Wei; Lv, Qiongying; Zhu, Dingjun

    2015-06-01

    The oncogenic miR-21 has been widely recognized to promote the development and progression of various types of malignant tumors, but not cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of miR-21 and PTEN in cervical cancer specimens using quantitative PCR. The miR-21 level was then manipulated in the cervical cancer lines and the regulation of miR-21 on the proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells was determined. Additionally, we determined the role of PTEN in the miR-21-regulated proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells. miR-21 was upregulated in the cervical cancer specimens, negatively correlating with the PTEN mRNA level. Transfection of the miR-21 mimics was markedly promoted, whereas the miR-21 inhibitor suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells, with a significant inhibition of PTEN expression. In addition, the overexpression of PTEN markedly inhibited the proliferation and migration of the cervical cancer cells. The present study showed the upregulation of miR-21 in invasive cervical cancers, and confirmed the promotion of miR-21 with regard to the proliferation, migration and invasion in cervical cancer cells via inhibiting the PTEN expression. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to confirm that the miR-21/PTEN pathway promotes cervical cancer.

  13. FGF19 Contributes to Tumor Progression in Gastric Cancer by Promoting Migration and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Zhao, Daqi; Tian, Ruihua; Shi, Hailong; Chen, Xiangming; Liu, Wenzhi; Wei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Since patients are often diagnosed at a late stage, very few effective therapies are left in the arsenal. FGF19, as a hormone, has been reported to promote tumor growth in various types of cancer; however, its function in gastric cancer remains unknown. In the current study, we showed that FGF19 is overexpressed in gastric cancer and is associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage. In addition, in vitro experiments demonstrated that FGF19 is able to enhance migration and invasion abilities of gastric cancer cells. Given its great potency in gastric cancer progression, FGF19 may be an effective target of treatment for advanced gastric cancer patients.

  14. Pim Kinases Promote Migration and Metastatic Growth of Prostate Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Santio, Niina M.; Eerola, Sini K.; Paatero, Ilkka; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Anizon, Fabrice; Moreau, Pascale; Tuomela, Johanna; Härkönen, Pirkko; Koskinen, Päivi J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and methods Pim family proteins are oncogenic kinases implicated in several types of cancer and involved in regulation of cell proliferation, survival as well as motility. Here we have investigated the ability of Pim kinases to promote metastatic growth of prostate cancer cells in two xenograft models for human prostate cancer. We have also evaluated the efficacy of Pim-selective inhibitors to antagonize these effects. Results We show here that tumorigenic growth of both subcutaneously and orthotopically inoculated prostate cancer xenografts is enhanced by stable overexpression of either Pim-1 or Pim-3. Moreover, Pim-overexpressing orthotopic prostate tumors are highly invasive and able to migrate not only to the nearby prostate-draining lymph nodes, but also into the lungs to form metastases. When the xenografted mice are daily treated with the Pim-selective inhibitor DHPCC-9, both the volumes as well as the metastatic capacity of the tumors are drastically decreased. Interestingly, the Pim-promoted metastatic growth of the orthotopic xenografts is associated with enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, forced Pim expression also increases phosphorylation of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, which may enable the tumor cells to migrate towards tissues such as the lungs that express the CXCL12 chemokine ligand. Conclusions Our results indicate that Pim overexpression enhances the invasive properties of prostate cancer cells in vivo. These effects can be reduced by the Pim-selective inhibitor DHPCC-9, which can reach tumor tissues without serious side effects. Thus, Pim-targeting therapies with DHPCC-9-like compounds may help to prevent progression of local prostate carcinomas to fatally metastatic malignancies. PMID:26075720

  15. TRIM11 overexpression promotes proliferation, migration and invasion of lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Shi, Weiping; Shi, Hongcan; Lu, Shichun; Wang, Kang; Sun, Chao; He, Jiansheng; Jin, Weiguo; Lv, Xiaoxia; Zou, Hui; Shu, Yusheng

    2016-06-21

    Tripartite Motif Containing 11 (TRIM11), a member of TRIM proteins, is overexpressed in high-grade gliomas and plays an oncogenic function in glioma biology. However, little is known about the role of TRIM11 in lung cancer. We analyzed TRIM11 mRNA expression in lung cancer tissues and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues by real-time PCR. We then explored the function of TRIM11 in lung cancer cells by small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of this protein followed by analyses of cell proliferation, migration and invasion. TRIM11 was highly expressed in lung cancer tissues and lung cancer cell lines. The higher expression of TRIM11 was correlated with the poorer prognosis of patients. Suppressing of TRIM11 expression in lung cancer cells with higher expression of TRIM11 (A549 and NCI-H446 cells) significantly reduced cell growth, motility and invasiveness. We further demonstrated that knockdown of TRIM11 affected the expression of cell proliferation-related proteins (Cyclin D1 and PCNA), and epithelial-mesenchymal transformation-related proteins (VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-9, Twist1, Snail and E-cadherin). The activity of ERK and PI3K/AKT was also suppressed in TRIM11 knocked down cells. Further experiments in lung cells with lower expression of TRIM11 (NCI-H460 and NCI-H1975 cells) with AKT inhibitor suggested that TRIM11 may promote cell motility and invasiveness through AKT pathway. Our results indicate that TRIM11 acts as an oncogene in lung cancer through promoting cell growth, migration and invasion. Our findings may have important implication for the detection and treatment of lung cancer.

  16. Bif-1 promotes tumor cell migration and metastasis via Cdc42 expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cunzhen; Liu, Fenghua; Chen, Haiyang; Li, Nan; Luo, Zaili; Guo, Weixing; Huang, Dandan; Tang, Shanhua; Wang, Honggang; Cheng, Shuqun; Li, Zhong; Wang, Hongyang

    2017-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is the process by which tumor cells disseminate from tumors and enter nearby and distant microenvironments for new colonization. Bif-1 (BAX-interacting factor 1), which has a BAR domain and an SH3 domain, has been reported to be involved in cell growth, apoptosis and autophagy. However, the influence of Bif-1 on metastasis has been less studied. To understand the role of Bif-1 in metastasis, we studied the expression levels of Bif-1 in human HCC specimens using immunohistochemistry, a tissue microarray and quantitative PCR. The function of Bif-1 was assessed in migration and translocation assays and the pulmonary metastatic animal model. The relationship between Bif-1 and the Rho family was determined using immunoblot analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation. The results showed that the expression of Bif-1 was higher in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than matched adjacent non-tumor liver tissues. Increased Bif-1 expression was associated with tumor size and the intercellular spread and metastasis of HCC. Analysis of the relationship between Bif-1 expression and patients' clinical characteristics revealed that patients with higher levels of Bif-1 had shorter disease-free and overall survival rates. Knockdown of Bif-1 with RNAi suppressed the migration of HCC cells and pulmonary metastasis and decreased the expression of Cdc42, a member of the Rho family. Bif-1 localized to the cytosol and nucleus and interacted with the promoter transcription region of Cdc42, which may regulate Cdc42 expression. Our results demonstrate a novel role of Bif-1 in HCC, in which Bif-1 promotes cell metastasis by regulating Cdc42 expression and activity.

  17. Overexpression of CPEB4 in glioma indicates a poor prognosis by promoting cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Zhijun, Liu; Dapeng, Wu; Hong, Jing; Guicong, Wang; Bingjian, Yuan; Honglin, Liu

    2017-04-01

    Glioma is an aggressive malignancy with limited effective treatment and poor prognosis. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 is a regulator of gene transcription and has been reported to be associated with biological malignancy in cancers. However, the mechanisms that cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 contributes to tumor migration and invasion remain unknown. Here, cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry, and the results were compared with clinicopathological parameters, including survival. Using glioma cell lines (SKMG-4 and T98G), we measured cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 messenger RNA and protein expression and studied the effects of cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 expression on cell migration and invasion. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 expression was significantly higher in tumor tissues than that in normal brain tissues. Clinicopathological analysis showed that cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 expression was significantly correlated with advanced World Health Organization grade ( p < 0.001) and lower Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score ( p = 0.001). Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 positive as opposed to the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 negative patients had lower overall survival ( p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis suggested that cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 expression might be an independent prognostic indicator (hazard ratio = 2.091, 95% confidence interval: 1.093-3.999, p = 0.026) for glioma patients. Moreover, upregulated cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 expression could promote T98G cell migration and invasion, and downregulated cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 expression could inhibit SKMG-4 cell migration and invasion

  18. Soluble L1CAM promotes breast cancer cell adhesion and migration in vitro, but not invasion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Neural recognition molecule L1CAM, which is a key protein involved in early nervous system development, is known to be abnormally expressed and shed in several types of cancers where it participates in metastasis and progression. The distinction of L1CAM presence in cancerous vs. normal tissues has suggested it to be a new target for cancer treatment. Our current study focused on the potential role of soluble L1CAM in breast cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins, migration, and invasion. Results We found L1 expression levels were correlated with breast cancer stage of progression in established data sets of clinical samples, and also were high in more metastatic breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, but low in less migratory MDA-MB-468 cells. Proteolysis of L1 into its soluble form (sL1) was detected in cell culture medium from all three above cell lines, and can be induced by PMA activation. Over-expression of the L1 ectodomain in MDA-MB-468 cells by using a lentiviral vector greatly increased the amount of sL1 released by those cells. Concomitantly, cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and cell transmigration ability were significantly promoted, while cell invasion ability through Matrigel™ remained unaffected. On the other hand, attenuating L1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells by using a shRNA lentiviral vector resulted in reduced cell-matrix adhesion and transmigration. Similar effects were also shown by monoclonal antibody blocking of the L1 extracellular region. Moreover, sL1 in conditioned cell culture medium induced a directional migration of MDA-MB-468 cells, which could be neutralized by antibody treatment. Conclusions Our data provides new evidence for the function of L1CAM and its soluble form in promoting cancer cell adhesion to ECM and cell migration. Thus, L1CAM is validated further to be a potential early diagnostic marker in breast cancer progression and a target for breast cancer therapy. PMID:20840789

  19. Soluble L1CAM promotes breast cancer cell adhesion and migration in vitro, but not invasion.

    PubMed

    Li, Yupei; Galileo, Deni S

    2010-09-15

    Neural recognition molecule L1CAM, which is a key protein involved in early nervous system development, is known to be abnormally expressed and shed in several types of cancers where it participates in metastasis and progression. The distinction of L1CAM presence in cancerous vs. normal tissues has suggested it to be a new target for cancer treatment. Our current study focused on the potential role of soluble L1CAM in breast cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins, migration, and invasion. We found L1 expression levels were correlated with breast cancer stage of progression in established data sets of clinical samples, and also were high in more metastatic breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, but low in less migratory MDA-MB-468 cells. Proteolysis of L1 into its soluble form (sL1) was detected in cell culture medium from all three above cell lines, and can be induced by PMA activation. Over-expression of the L1 ectodomain in MDA-MB-468 cells by using a lentiviral vector greatly increased the amount of sL1 released by those cells. Concomitantly, cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and cell transmigration ability were significantly promoted, while cell invasion ability through Matrigel™ remained unaffected. On the other hand, attenuating L1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells by using a shRNA lentiviral vector resulted in reduced cell-matrix adhesion and transmigration. Similar effects were also shown by monoclonal antibody blocking of the L1 extracellular region. Moreover, sL1 in conditioned cell culture medium induced a directional migration of MDA-MB-468 cells, which could be neutralized by antibody treatment. Our data provides new evidence for the function of L1CAM and its soluble form in promoting cancer cell adhesion to ECM and cell migration. Thus, L1CAM is validated further to be a potential early diagnostic marker in breast cancer progression and a target for breast cancer therapy.

  20. CCL18 from ascites promotes ovarian cancer cell migration through proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Lane, Denis; Matte, Isabelle; Laplante, Claude; Garde-Granger, Perrine; Carignan, Alex; Bessette, Paul; Rancourt, Claudine; Piché, Alain

    2016-09-09

    Ovarian cancer (OC) ascites consist in a proinflammatory tumor environment that is characterized by the presence of various cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. The presence of these inflammatory-related factors in ascites is associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype. CCL18 is a member of CCL chemokines and its expression has been associated with poor prognosis in some cancers. However, its role in OC progression has not been established. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to elucidate the role of ascites CCL18 in OC progression. ELISA and tissue microarrays were used to assess CCL18 in ascites and phospho-Pyk2 expression in cancer tissues respectively. Cell migration was assessed using Boyden chambers. CCL18 and ascites signaling was examined in ovarian cancer cells utilizing siRNA and exogenous gene expression. Here, we show that CCL18 levels are markedly increased in advanced serous OC ascites relative to peritoneal effusions from women with benign conditions. Ascites and CCL18 dose-dependently enhanced the migration of OC cell lines CaOV3 and OVCAR3. CCL18 levels in ascites positively correlated with the ability of ascites to promote cell migration. CCL18 blocking antibodies significantly attenuated ascites-induced cell migration. Ascites and CCL18 stimulated the phosphorylation of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) in CaOV3 and OVCAR3 cells. Most importantly, the expression of phosphorylated Pyk2 in serous OC tumors was associated with shorter progression-free survival. Furthermore, enforced expression of Pyk2 promoted tumor cell migration while siRNA-mediated downregulation of Pyk2 attenuated cell migration. Downregulation of Pyk2 markedly inhibited ascites and CCL18-induced cell migration. Taken together, our findings establish an important role for CCL18, as a component of ascites, in the migration of tumor cells and identify Pyk2 as prognostic factor and a critical downstream signaling pathway for ascites-induced OC cell migration.

  1. A novel role of microRNA 17-5p in the modulation of circadian rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qian; Zhou, Lan; Yang, Su-Yu; Cao, Ji-Min

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock helps living organisms to adjust their physiology and behaviour to adapt environmental day-night cycles. The period length of circadian rhythm reflects the endogenous cycle transition rate and is modulated by environmental cues or internal molecules, and the latter are of substantial importance but remain poorly revealed. Here, we demonstrated that microRNA 17-5p (miR-17-5p), which has been associated with tumours, was an important factor in controlling the circadian period. MiR-17-5p was rhythmically expressed in synchronised fibroblasts and mouse master clock suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). MiR-17-5p and the gene Clock exhibited a reciprocal regulation: miR-17-5p inhibited the translation of Clock by targeting the 3′UTR (untranslated region) of Clock mRNA, whereas the CLOCK protein directly bound to the promoter of miR-17 and enhanced its transcription and production of miR-17-5p. In addition, miR-17-5p suppressed the expression of Npas2. At the cellular level, bidirectional changes in miR-17-5p or CLOCK resulted in CRY1 elevation. Accordingly, in vivo, both increase and decrease of miR-17-5p in the mouse SCN led to an increase in CRY1 level and shortening of the free-running period. We conclude that miR-17-5p has an important role in the inspection and stabilisation of the circadian-clock period by interacting with Clock and Npas2 and potentially via the output of CRY1. PMID:27440219

  2. Regenerating gene family member 4 promotes growth and migration of gastric cancer through protein kinase B pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiamiao; Yang, Ya; Yang, Jian; Li, Xian

    2014-01-01

    Regenerating gene family member 4 (REG4), a secreted protein, is overexpressed in several cancers, including gastric cancer. The present study was undertaken to determine the roles of REG4 in the growth of gastric cancer in the nude mice and in the proliferation and migration in human gastric cancer cell line and its downstream signaling pathway. Gastric cancer models were elicited by intraperitoneally injecting MKN45 human gastric cancer cells and the tumor size was measured every other day. The expressions of REG4 mRNA and protein were increased in the gastric cancer tissues from gastric cancer patients. REG4 increased the gastric tumor weight and size in the nude mice, and promoted the proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cells MKN45. Adeno-associated viral (AAV)-mediated knockdown of REG4 decreased the gastric tumor weight and size in the nude mice, and suppressed the proliferation and migration of MKN45 cells. REG4 increased the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt). Triciribine hydrate (TCN), the inhibitor of Akt, decreased the gastric tumor weight and size in the nude mice and abolished REG4-induced weight and size increase of the tumor. TCN also inhibited proliferation and migration and abolished REG4-induced proliferation and migration increase of human gastric cell line MKN45. These results indicate that REG4 promotes the growth, proliferation and migration of gastric cancer through Akt pathway.

  3. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Zhou, Xia; Fan, Lucy X.; Yao, Ying; Swenson-Fields, Katherine I.; Gadjeva, Mihaela; Wallace, Darren P.; Peters, Dorien J.M.; Yu, Alan; Grantham, Jared J.; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by renal cyst formation, inflammation, and fibrosis. Macrophages infiltrate cystic kidneys, but the role of these and other inflammatory factors in disease progression are poorly understood. Here, we identified macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as an important regulator of cyst growth in ADPKD. MIF was upregulated in cyst-lining epithelial cells in polycystin-1–deficient murine kidneys and accumulated in cyst fluid of human ADPKD kidneys. MIF promoted cystic epithelial cell proliferation by activating ERK, mTOR, and Rb/E2F pathways and by increasing glucose uptake and ATP production, which inhibited AMP-activated protein kinase signaling. MIF also regulated cystic renal epithelial cell apoptosis through p53-dependent signaling. In polycystin-1–deficient mice, MIF was required for recruitment and retention of renal macrophages, which promoted cyst expansion, and Mif deletion or pharmacologic inhibition delayed cyst growth in multiple murine ADPKD models. MIF-dependent macrophage recruitment was associated with upregulation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. TNF-α induced MIF expression, and MIF subsequently exacerbated TNF-α expression in renal epithelial cells, suggesting a positive feedback loop between TNF-α and MIF during cyst development. Our study indicates MIF is a central and upstream regulator of ADPKD pathogenesis and provides a rationale for further exploration of MIF as a therapeutic target for ADPKD. PMID:25961459

  4. A novel strategy to enhance mesenchymal stem cell migration capacity and promote tissue repair in an injury specific fashion.

    PubMed

    Xinaris, C; Morigi, M; Benedetti, V; Imberti, B; Fabricio, A S; Squarcina, E; Benigni, A; Gagliardini, E; Remuzzi, G

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of bone marrow origin appear to be an attractive candidate for cell-based therapies. However, the major barrier to the effective implementation of MSC-based therapies is the lack of specific homing of exogenously infused cells and overall the inability to drive them to the diseased or damaged tissue. In order to circumvent these limitations, we developed a preconditioning strategy to optimize MSC migration efficiency and potentiate their beneficial effect at the site of injury. Initially, we screened different molecules by using an in vitro injury-migration setting, and subsequently, we evaluated the effectiveness of the different strategies in mice with acute kidney injury (AKI). Our results showed that preconditioning of MSCs with IGF-1 before infusion improved cell migration capacity and restored normal renal function after AKI. The present study demonstrates that promoting migration of MSCs could increase their therapeutic potential and indicates a new therapeutic paradigm for organ repair.

  5. Relationship between neuronal migration and cell-substratum adhesion: laminin and merosin promote olfactory neuronal migration but are anti- adhesive

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Regulation by the extracellular matrix (ECM) of migration, motility, and adhesion of olfactory neurons and their precursors was studied in vitro. Neuronal cells of the embryonic olfactory epithelium (OE), which undergo extensive migration in the central nervous system during normal development, were shown to be highly migratory in culture as well. Migration of OE neuronal cells was strongly dependent on substratum- bound ECM molecules, being specifically stimulated and guided by laminin (or the laminin-related molecule merosin) in preference to fibronectin, type I collagen, or type IV collagen. Motility of OE neuronal cells, examined by time-lapse video microscopy, was high on laminin-containing substrata, but negligible on fibronectin substrata. Quantitative assays of adhesion of OE neuronal cells to substrata treated with different ECM molecules demonstrated no correlation, either positive or negative, between the migratory preferences of cells and the strength of cell-substratum adhesion. Moreover, measurements of cell adhesion to substrata containing combinations of ECM proteins revealed that laminin and merosin are anti-adhesive for OE neuronal cells, i.e., cause these cells to adhere poorly to substrata that would otherwise be strongly adhesive. The evidence suggests that the anti- adhesive effect of laminin is not the result of interactions between laminin and other ECM molecules, but rather an effect of laminin on cells, which alters the way in which cells adhere. Consistent with this view, laminin was found to interfere strongly with the formation of focal contacts by OE neuronal cells. PMID:1918163

  6. GOLPH3 promotes glioblastoma cell migration and invasion via the mTOR-YB1 pathway in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Ding, Zhijun; Mo, Jianbing; Sang, Ben; Shi, Qiong; Hu, Jinxia; Xie, Shao; Zhan, Wenjian; Lu, Dong; Yang, Minglin; Bian, Wenbin; Zhou, Xiuping; Yu, Rutong

    2015-11-01

    The identification of genes involved in carcinogenesis and tumor progression is of great interest, since these genes might be possible as candidates for new tumor targeted therapy strategies. Our previous study shows that Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) is involved in glioma cell migration and invasion, the critical characteristics of malignant gliomas. In this study, we explored the mechanism of GOLPH3 affecting cell migration and invasion and found that GOLPH3 promotes glioblastoma (GBM) cell migration and invasion via the mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR)-Y-box binding protein-1 (YB1) pathway in vitro. Both the protein levels of GOLPH3 and YB1 were up-regulated in human glioma tissues and they exhibited direct correlation with each other. In addition, down-regulation of GOLPH3 inhibited glioma cell migration and invasion, while over-expression of GOLPH3 enhanced them. Meanwhile, GOLPH3 down-regulation led to a significant decrease of YB1 level as well as mTOR activity, both required for glioma cell migration and invasion. On the contrary, YB1 level and mTOR activity increased after GOLPH3 over-expression. YB1 down-regulation or mTOR ATP site inhibitor INK128 treatment inhibited cell migration and invasion, similar to the effect of GOLPH3 down-regulation. Furthermore, over-expression of GOLPH3 induced glioma cell migration and invasion was blocked by INK128 and YB1 down-regulation. Taken together, these results show that GOLPH3 promotes glioblastoma cell migration and invasion via the mTOR-YB1pathway, indicating that GOLPH3-mTOR-YB1 pathway might be a new therapeutic target for glioma treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The branched actin nucleator Arp2/3 promotes nuclear migrations and cell polarity in the C. elegans zygote

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Huajiang; Mohler, William A.; Soto, Martha C.

    2012-01-01

    Regulated movements of the nucleus are essential during zygote formation, cell migrations, and differentiation of neurons. The nucleus moves along microtubules (MTs) and is repositioned on F-actin at the cellular cortex. Two families of nuclear envelope proteins, SUN and KASH, link the nucleus to the actin and MT cytoskeletons during nuclear movements. However, the role of actin nucleators in nuclear migration and positioning is poorly understood. We show that the branched actin nucleator, Arp2/3, affects nuclear movements throughout embryonic and larval development in C. elegans, including nuclear migrations in epidermal cells and neuronal precursors. In one-cell embryos the migration of the male pronucleus to meet the female pronucleus after fertilization requires Arp2/3. Loss of Arp2/3 or its activators changes the dynamics of non-muscle myosin, NMY-2, and alters the cortical accumulation of posterior PAR proteins. Reduced establishment of the posterior microtubule cytoskeleton in Arp2/3 mutants correlates with reduced male pronuclear migration. The UNC-84/SUN nuclear envelope protein that links the nucleus to the MT and actin cytoskeleton is known to regulate later nuclear migrations. We show here it also positions the male pronucleus. These studies demonstrate a global role for Arp2/3 in nuclear migrations. In the C. elegans one-cell embryo Arp2/3 promotes the establishment of anterior/posterior polarity and promotes MT growth that propels the anterior migration of the male pronucleus. In contrast with previous studies emphasizing pulling forces on the male pronucleus, we propose that robust MT nucleation pushes the male pronucleus anteriorly to join the female pronucleus. PMID:21798253

  8. The branched actin nucleator Arp2/3 promotes nuclear migrations and cell polarity in the C. elegans zygote.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Huajiang; Mohler, William A; Soto, Martha C

    2011-09-15

    Regulated movements of the nucleus are essential during zygote formation, cell migrations, and differentiation of neurons. The nucleus moves along microtubules (MTs) and is repositioned on F-actin at the cellular cortex. Two families of nuclear envelope proteins, SUN and KASH, link the nucleus to the actin and MT cytoskeletons during nuclear movements. However, the role of actin nucleators in nuclear migration and positioning is poorly understood. We show that the branched actin nucleator, Arp2/3, affects nuclear movements throughout embryonic and larval development in C. elegans, including nuclear migrations in epidermal cells and neuronal precursors. In one-cell embryos the migration of the male pronucleus to meet the female pronucleus after fertilization requires Arp2/3. Loss of Arp2/3 or its activators changes the dynamics of non-muscle myosin, NMY-2, and alters the cortical accumulation of posterior PAR proteins. Reduced establishment of the posterior microtubule cytoskeleton in Arp2/3 mutants correlates with reduced male pronuclear migration. The UNC-84/SUN nuclear envelope protein that links the nucleus to the MT and actin cytoskeleton is known to regulate later nuclear migrations. We show here it also positions the male pronucleus. These studies demonstrate a global role for Arp2/3 in nuclear migrations. In the C. elegans one-cell embryo Arp2/3 promotes the establishment of anterior/posterior polarity and promotes MT growth that propels the anterior migration of the male pronucleus. In contrast with previous studies emphasizing pulling forces on the male pronucleus, we propose that robust MT nucleation pushes the male pronucleus anteriorly to join the female pronucleus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lamellipodin promotes invasive 3D cancer cell migration via regulated interactions with Ena/VASP and SCAR/WAVE

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Guillaume; Perera, Upamali; Gillett, Cheryl; Naba, Alexandra; Law, Ah-Lai; Sharma, Ved P.; Wang, Jian; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Balsamo, Michele; Mosis, Fuad; De Piano, Mario; Monypenny, James; Woodman, Natalie; McConnell, Russell E.; Mouneimne, Ghassan; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Cao, Yihai; Condeelis, John; Hynes, Richard O.; Gertler, Frank B.; Krause, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Cancer invasion is a hallmark of metastasis. The mesenchymal mode of cancer cell invasion is mediated by elongated membrane protrusions driven by the assembly of branched F-actin networks. How deregulation of actin regulators promotes cancer cell invasion is still enigmatic. We report that increased expression and membrane localization of the actin regulator Lamellipodin correlates with reduced metastasis-free survival and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. In agreement we find that Lamellipodin depletion reduced lung metastasis in an orthotopic mouse breast cancer model. Invasive 3D cancer cell migration as well as invadopodia formation, and matrix degradation were impaired upon Lamellipodin depletion. Mechanistically, we show that Lamellipodin promotes invasive 3D cancer cell migration via both actin-elongating Ena/VASP proteins and the Scar/WAVE complex, which stimulates actin branching. In contrast, Lamellipodin interaction with Scar/WAVE but not Ena/VASP is required for random 2D cell migration. We identify a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism that regulates selective recruitment of these effectors to Lamellipodin: Abl-mediated Lamellipodin phosphorylation promotes its association with both Scar/WAVE and Ena/VASP, while Src-dependent phosphorylation enhances binding to Scar/WAVE but not Ena/VASP. Through these selective, regulated interactions Lamellipodin mediates directional sensing of EGF gradients and invasive 3D migration of breast cancer cells. Our findings imply that increased Lamellipodin levels enhance Ena/VASP and Scar/WAVE activities at the plasma membrane to promote 3D invasion and metastasis. PMID:26996666

  10. New Wnt/β-catenin target genes promote experimental metastasis and migration of colorectal cancer cells through different signals.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jingjing; Yu, Yong; Akilli Öztürk, Özlem; Holland, Jane D; Besser, Daniel; Fritzmann, Johannes; Wulf-Goldenberg, Annika; Eckert, Klaus; Fichtner, Iduna; Birchmeier, Walter

    2016-10-01

    We have previously identified a 115-gene signature that characterises the metastatic potential of human primary colon cancers. The signature included the canonical Wnt target gene BAMBI, which promoted experimental metastasis in mice. Here, we identified three new direct Wnt target genes from the signature, and studied their functions in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell migration and experimental metastasis. We examined experimental liver metastases following injection of selected tumour cells into spleens of NOD/SCID mice. Molecular and cellular techniques were used to identify direct transcription target genes of Wnt/β-catenin signals. Microarray analyses and experiments that interfered with cell migration through inhibitors were performed to characterise downstream signalling systems. Three new genes from the colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis signature, BOP1, CKS2 and NFIL3, were identified as direct transcription targets of β-catenin/TCF4. Overexpression and knocking down of these genes in CRC cells promoted and inhibited, respectively, experimental metastasis in mice, EMT and cell motility in culture. Cell migration was repressed by interfering with distinct signalling systems through inhibitors of PI3K, JNK, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and/or mTOR. Gene expression profiling identified a series of migration-promoting genes, which were induced by BOP1, CKS2 and NFIL3, and could be repressed by inhibitors that are specific to these pathways. We identified new direct Wnt/β-catenin target genes, BOP1, CKS2 and NFIL3, which induced EMT, cell migration and experimental metastasis of CRC cells. These genes crosstalk with different downstream signalling systems, and activate migration-promoting genes. These pathways and downstream genes may serve as therapeutic targets in the treatment of CRC metastasis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Monocyte ADAM17 promotes diapedesis during transendothelial migration: identification of steps and substrates targeted by metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, Yoshiaki; Frey, Jeremy M; Tai, Phillip W L; Welikson, Robert E; Raines, Elaine W

    2013-04-15

    Despite expanded definition of the leukocyte adhesion cascade and mechanisms underlying individual steps, very little is known about regulatory mechanisms controlling sequential shifts between steps. We tested the hypothesis that metalloproteinases provide a mechanism to rapidly transition monocytes between different steps. Our study identifies diapedesis as a step targeted by metalloproteinase activity. Time-lapse video microscopy shows that the presence of a metalloproteinase inhibitor results in a doubling of the time required for human monocytes to complete diapedesis on unactivated or inflamed human endothelium, under both static and physiological-flow conditions. Thus, diapedesis is promoted by metalloproteinase activity. In contrast, neither adhesion of monocytes nor their locomotion over the endothelium is altered by metalloproteinase inhibition. We further demonstrate that metalloproteinase inhibition significantly elevates monocyte cell surface levels of integrins CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1), specifically during transendothelial migration. Interestingly, such alterations are not detected for other endothelial- and monocyte-adhesion molecules that are presumed metalloproteinase substrates. Two major transmembrane metalloproteinases, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)17 and ADAM10, are identified as enzymes that control constitutive cleavage of Mac-1. We further establish that knockdown of monocyte ADAM17, but not endothelial ADAM10 or ADAM17 or monocyte ADAM10, reproduces the diapedesis delay observed with metalloproteinase inhibition. Therefore, we conclude that monocyte ADAM17 facilitates the completion of transendothelial migration by accelerating the rate of diapedesis. We propose that the progression of diapedesis may be regulated by spatial and temporal cleavage of Mac-1, which is triggered upon interaction with endothelium.

  12. Senescent human hepatocytes express a unique secretory phenotype and promote macrophage migration

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Katharine M; Skoien, Richard; Bokil, Nilesh J; Melino, Michelle; Thomas, Gethin P; Loo, Dorothy; Gabrielli, Brian; Hill, Michelle M; Sweet, Matthew J; Clouston, Andrew D; Powell, Elizabeth E

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To develop a model of stress-induced senescence to study the hepatocyte senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP). METHODS: Hydrogen peroxide treatment was used to induce senescence in the human HepG2 hepatocyte cell line. Senescence was confirmed by cytochemical staining for a panel of markers including Ki67, p21, heterochromatin protein 1β, and senescence-associated-β-galactosidase activity. Senescent hepatocytes were characterised by gene expression arrays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and conditioned media was used in proteomic analyses, a human chemokine protein array, and cell migration assays to characterise the composition and function of the hepatocyte SASP. RESULTS: Senescent hepatocytes induced classical markers of senescence (p21, heterochromatin protein 1β, and senescence-associated-β-galactosidase activity); and downregulated the proliferation marker, Ki67. Hepatocyte senescence induced a 4.6-fold increase in total secreted protein (P = 0.06) without major alterations in the protein profile. Senescence-induced genes were identified by microarray (Benjamini Hochberg-corrected P < 0.05); and, consistent with the increase in secreted protein, gene ontology analysis revealed a significant enrichment of secreted proteins among inducible genes. The hepatocyte SASP included characteristic factors such as interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6, as well as novel components such as SAA4, IL-32 and Fibrinogen, which were validated by qPCR and/or chemokine protein array. Senescent hepatocyte-conditioned medium elicited migration of inflammatory (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, GM-CSF-derived), but not non-inflammatory (CSF-1-derived) human macrophages (P = 0.022), which could contribute to a pro-inflammatory microenvironment in vivo, or facilitate the clearance of senescent cells. CONCLUSION: Our novel model of hepatocyte senescence provides insights into mechanisms by which senescent hepatocytes may promote chronic

  13. Splicing factors PTBP1 and PTBP2 promote proliferation and migration of glioma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Hannah C.; Hai, Tao; Zhu, Wen; Baggerly, Keith A.; Tsavachidis, Spiridon; Krahe, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) is a multi-functional RNA-binding protein that is aberrantly overexpressed in glioma. PTBP1 and its brain-specific homologue polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 2 (PTBP2) regulate neural precursor cell differentiation. However, the overlapping and non-overlapping target transcripts involved in this process are still unclear. To determine why PTBP1 and not PTBP2 would promote glial cell-derived tumours, both PTBP1 and PTBP2 were knocked down in the human glioma cell lines U251 and LN229 to determine the role of these proteins in cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion. Surprisingly, removal of both PTBP1 and PTBP2 slowed cell proliferation, with the double knockdown having no additive effects. Decreased expression of both proteins individually and in combination inhibited cell migration and increased adhesion of cells to fibronectin and vitronectin. A global survey of differential exon expression was performed following PTBP1 knockdown in U251 cells using the Affymetrix Exon Array to identify PTBP1-specific splicing targets that enhance gliomagenesis. In the PTBP1 knockdown, previously determined targets were unaltered in their splicing patterns. A single gene, RTN4 (Nogo) had significantly enhanced inclusion of exon 3 when PTBP1 was removed. Overexpression of the splice isoform containing exon 3 decreased cell proliferation to a similar degree as the removal of PTBP1. These results provide the first evidence that RNA-binding proteins affect the invasive and rapid growth characteristics of glioma cell lines. Its actions on proliferation appear to be mediated, in part, through alternative splicing of RTN4. PMID:19506066

  14. Ena/VASP proteins regulate activated T-cell trafficking by promoting diapedesis during transendothelial migration

    PubMed Central

    Estin, Miriam L.; Thompson, Scott B.; Traxinger, Brianna; Fisher, Marlie H.; Friedman, Rachel S.; Jacobelli, Jordan

    2017-01-01

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and Ena-VASP–like (EVL) are cytoskeletal effector proteins implicated in regulating cell morphology, adhesion, and migration in various cell types. However, the role of these proteins in T-cell motility, adhesion, and in vivo trafficking remains poorly understood. This study identifies a specific role for EVL and VASP in T-cell diapedesis and trafficking. We demonstrate that EVL and VASP are selectively required for activated T-cell trafficking but are not required for normal T-cell development or for naïve T-cell trafficking to lymph nodes and spleen. Using a model of multiple sclerosis, we show an impairment in trafficking of EVL/VASP-deficient activated T cells to the inflamed central nervous system of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Additionally, we found a defect in trafficking of EVL/VASP double-knockout (dKO) T cells to the inflamed skin and secondary lymphoid organs. Deletion of EVL and VASP resulted in the impairment in α4 integrin (CD49d) expression and function. Unexpectedly, EVL/VASP dKO T cells did not exhibit alterations in shear-resistant adhesion to, or in crawling on, primary endothelial cells under physiologic shear forces. Instead, deletion of EVL and VASP impaired T-cell diapedesis. Furthermore, T-cell diapedesis became equivalent between control and EVL/VASP dKO T cells upon α4 integrin blockade. Overall, EVL and VASP selectively mediate activated T-cell trafficking by promoting the diapedesis step of transendothelial migration in a α4 integrin-dependent manner. PMID:28320969

  15. Tumor associated CD70 expression is involved in promoting tumor migration and macrophage infiltration in GBM.

    PubMed

    Ge, Haitao; Mu, Luyan; Jin, Linchun; Yang, Changlin; Chang, Yifan Emily; Long, Yu; DeLeon, Gabriel; Deleyrolle, Loic; Mitchell, Duane A; Kubilis, Paul S; Lu, Dunyue; Qi, Jiping; Gu, Yunhe; Lin, Zhiguo; Huang, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    Tumor migration/metastasis and immunosuppression are major obstacles in effective cancer therapy. Incidentally, these 2 hurdles usually coexist inside tumors, therefore making therapy significantly more complicated, as both oncogenic mechanisms must be addressed for successful therapeutic intervention. Our recent report highlights that the tumor expression of a TNF family member, CD70, is correlated with poor survival for primary gliomas. In this study, we investigated how CD70 expression by GBM affects the characteristics of tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. We found that the ablation of CD70 in primary GBM decreased CD44 and SOX2 gene expression, and inhibited tumor migration, growth and the ability to attract monocyte-derived M2 macrophages in vitro. In the tumor microenvironment, CD70 was associated with immune cell infiltrates, such as T cells; myeloid-derived suppressor cells; and monocytes/macrophages based on the RNA-sequencing profile. The CD163+ macrophages were far more abundant than T cells were. This overwhelming level of macrophages was identified only in GBM and not in low-grade gliomas and normal brain specimens, implying their tumor association. CD70 was detected only on tumor cells, not on macrophages, and was highly correlated with CD163 gene expression in primary GBM. Additionally, the co-expression of the CD70 and CD163 genes was found to correlate with decreased survival for patients with primary GBM. Together, these data suggest that CD70 expression is involved in promoting tumor aggressiveness and immunosuppression via tumor-associated macrophage recruitment/activation. Our current efforts to target this molecule using chimeric antigen receptor T cells hold great potential for treating patients with GBM. © 2017 UICC.

  16. Ena/VASP proteins regulate activated T-cell trafficking by promoting diapedesis during transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Estin, Miriam L; Thompson, Scott B; Traxinger, Brianna; Fisher, Marlie H; Friedman, Rachel S; Jacobelli, Jordan

    2017-04-04

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and Ena-VASP-like (EVL) are cytoskeletal effector proteins implicated in regulating cell morphology, adhesion, and migration in various cell types. However, the role of these proteins in T-cell motility, adhesion, and in vivo trafficking remains poorly understood. This study identifies a specific role for EVL and VASP in T-cell diapedesis and trafficking. We demonstrate that EVL and VASP are selectively required for activated T-cell trafficking but are not required for normal T-cell development or for naïve T-cell trafficking to lymph nodes and spleen. Using a model of multiple sclerosis, we show an impairment in trafficking of EVL/VASP-deficient activated T cells to the inflamed central nervous system of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Additionally, we found a defect in trafficking of EVL/VASP double-knockout (dKO) T cells to the inflamed skin and secondary lymphoid organs. Deletion of EVL and VASP resulted in the impairment in α4 integrin (CD49d) expression and function. Unexpectedly, EVL/VASP dKO T cells did not exhibit alterations in shear-resistant adhesion to, or in crawling on, primary endothelial cells under physiologic shear forces. Instead, deletion of EVL and VASP impaired T-cell diapedesis. Furthermore, T-cell diapedesis became equivalent between control and EVL/VASP dKO T cells upon α4 integrin blockade. Overall, EVL and VASP selectively mediate activated T-cell trafficking by promoting the diapedesis step of transendothelial migration in a α4 integrin-dependent manner.

  17. Cadherin-12 contributes to tumorigenicity in colorectal cancer by promoting migration, invasion, adhersion and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cadherin 12 (CDH12), which encodes a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily, may mediate calcium-dependent cell adhesion. It has been demonstrated that CDH12 could play an important role in the invasion and metastasis of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma. We decided to investigate the relationship between CDH12 expression level and clinicopathologic variables in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients and to explore the functions of CDH12 in tumorigenesis in CRC. Methods The expression levels of CDH12 in colorectal carcinoma tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Real-time PCR and Western Blot were used to screen CDH12 high-expression cell lines. CCK-8 assay was used to detect the proliferation ability of CRC cells being transfected by shRNAs against CDH12. The wound assay and transwell assay were performed to test migration and invasion ability. The importance of CDH12 in cell-cell junctions was detected by cell adhesion assay and cell aggregation assay. Endothelial tube formation assay was used to test the influence of CDH12 on angiogenesis. Results Statistical analysis of clinical cases revealed that the positive rate of CDH12 was higher in the CRC tumor tissues compared with the adjacent non-tumor tissues. The expression levels of CDH12 in CRC patients are significantly correlated with invasion depth. Consistently, the ability of proliferation, migration and invasion were suppressed when CDH12 was decreased in CRC cells transfected with shRNAs. Cell adhesion assay and cell aggregation assay presented that tumor cells tend to disperse with the lack of CDH12. Endothelial tube formation assay showed that down-regulation of CDH12 could obviously inhibit the process of angiogenesis, implying that CDH12 may play an important role in tumor metastasis Conclusion Our results showed that CDH12 promotes proliferation, migration, invasion, adhesion and angiogenesis, suggesting that CDH12 may be an oncogene in colorectal cancer. CDH12 is

  18. 1-integrin and MT1-MMP promote tumor cell migration in 2D but not in 3D fibronectin microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corall, Silke; Haraszti, Tamas; Bartoschik, Tanja; Spatz, Joachim Pius; Ludwig, Thomas; Cavalcanti-Adam, Elisabetta Ada

    2014-03-01

    Cell migration is a crucial event for physiological processes, such as embryonic development and wound healing, as well as for pathological processes, such as cancer dissemination and metastasis formation. Cancer cell migration is a result of the concerted action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), expressed by cancer cells to degrade the surrounding matrix, and integrins, the transmembrane receptors responsible for cell binding to matrix proteins. While it is known that cell-microenvironment interactions are essential for migration, the role of the physical state of such interactions remains still unclear. In this study we investigated human fibrosarcoma cell migration in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) fibronectin (FN) microenvironments. By using antibody blocking approach and cell-binding site mutation, we determined that -integrin is the main mediator of fibrosarcoma cell migration in 2D FN, whereas in 3D fibrillar FN, the binding of - and -integrins is not necessary for cell movement in the fibrillar network. Furthermore, while the general inhibition of MMPs with GM6001 has no effect on cell migration in both 2D and 3D FN matrices, we observed opposing effect after targeted silencing of a membrane-bound MMP, namely MT1-MMP. In 2D fibronectin, silencing of MT1-MMP results in decreased migration speed and loss of directionality, whereas in 3D FN matrices, cell migration speed is increased and integrin-mediated signaling for actin dynamics is promoted. Our results suggest that the fibrillar nature of the matrix governs the migratory behavior of fibrosarcoma cells. Therefore, to hinder migration and dissemination of diseased cells, matrix molecules should be directly targeted, rather than specific subtypes of receptors at the cell membrane.

  19. Ascl1 promotes tangential migration and confines migratory routes by induction of Ephb2 in the telencephalon

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan-Hsuan; Tsai, Jin-Wu; Chen, Jia-Long; Yang, Wan-Shan; Chang, Pei-Ching; Cheng, Pei-Lin; Turner, David L.; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Wang, Tsu-Wei; Yu, Jenn-Yah

    2017-01-01

    During development, cortical interneurons generated from the ventral telencephalon migrate tangentially into the dorsal telencephalon. Although Achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 1 (Ascl1) plays important roles in the developing telencephalon, whether Ascl1 regulates tangential migration remains unclear. Here, we found that Ascl1 promoted tangential migration along the ventricular zone/subventricular zone (VZ/SVZ) and intermediate zone (IZ) of the dorsal telencephalon. Distal-less homeobox 2 (Dlx2) acted downstream of Ascl1 in promoting tangential migration along the VZ/SVZ but not IZ. We further identified Eph receptor B2 (Ephb2) as a direct target of Ascl1. Knockdown of EphB2 disrupted the separation of the VZ/SVZ and IZ migratory routes. Ephrin-A5, a ligand of EphB2, was sufficient to repel both Ascl1-expressing cells in vitro and tangentially migrating cortical interneurons in vivo. Together, our results demonstrate that Ascl1 induces expression of Dlx2 and Ephb2 to maintain distinct tangential migratory routes in the dorsal telencephalon. PMID:28276447

  20. R-Ras Signals through Specific Integrin α Cytoplasmic Domains to Promote Migration and Invasion of Breast Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Keely, Patricia J.; Rusyn, Elena V.; Cox, Adrienne D.; Parise, Leslie V.

    1999-01-01

    Specificity and modulation of integrin function have important consequences for cellular responses to the extracellular matrix, including differentiation and transformation. The Ras-related GTPase, R-Ras, modulates integrin affinity, but little is known of the signaling pathways and biological functions downstream of R-Ras. Here we show that stable expression of activated R-Ras or the closely related TC21 (R-Ras 2) induced integrin-mediated migration and invasion of breast epithelial cells through collagen and disrupted differentiation into tubule structures, whereas dominant negative R-Ras had opposite effects. These results imply novel roles for R-Ras and TC21 in promoting a transformed phenotype and in the basal migration and polarization of these cells. Importantly, R-Ras induced an increase in cellular adhesion and migration on collagen but not fibronectin, suggesting that R-Ras signals to specific integrins. This was further supported by experiments in which R-Ras enhanced the migration of cells expressing integrin chimeras containing the α2, but not the α5, cytoplasmic domain. In addition, a transdominant inhibition previously noted only between integrin β cytoplasmic domains was observed for the α2 cytoplasmic domain; α2β1-mediated migration was inhibited by the expression of excess α2 but not α5 cytoplasmic domain-containing chimeras, suggesting the existence of limiting factors that bind the integrin α subunit. Using pharmacological inhibitors, we found that R-Ras induced migration on collagen through a combination of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C, but not MAPK, which is distinct from the other Ras family members, Rac, Cdc42, and N- and K-Ras. Thus, R-Ras communicates with specific integrin α cytoplasmic domains through a unique combination of signaling pathways to promote cell migration and invasion. PMID:10352023

  1. Lipopolysaccharide promotes adhesion and migration of murine dental papilla-derived MDPC-23 cells via TLR4.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Kwon, Seong-Min; Yoon, Hyo-Eun; Kim, Soo-A; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2011-02-01

    Odontoblasts and/or dental pulp cells are responsible for tooth repair and dentin formation. Furthermore, adhesion and migration are critical processes for tissue regeneration. This study was performed to clarify whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modulates adhesion and migration of the murine odontoblast-like cell line MDPC-23, and whether Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is engaged in this process. TLR4 expression in MDPC-23 cells was examined by RT-PCR. Adhesion assay was performed using type I collagen-coated plates. Migration ability was determined by a commercial assay kit. Phosphorylation of IκB-α, FAK, AKT, and ERK was examined by Western blot analysis. TLR4 was functionally expressed in MDPC-23 cells. LPS treatment enhanced adhesion and migration of MDPC-23 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Blockade of TLR4 using its antibody restored LPS-induced adhesion and migration of MDPC-23 cells. These findings indicate that LPS, an immune activator from Gram-negative bacteria, can promote the adhesion and migration ability of MDPC-23 cells via TLR4.

  2. Cell-permeable p38 MAP kinase promotes migration of adult neural stem/progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamanoue, Makoto; Morioka, Kazuhito; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Ohsawa, Keiko; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Tsuburaya, Kayo; Akasaka, Yoshikiyo; Mikami, Tetsuo; Ogata, Toru; Takamatsu, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) can migrate toward sites of injury, but the migration activity of NPCs is insufficient to regenerate damaged brain tissue. In this study, we showed that p38 MAP kinase (p38) is expressed in doublecortin-positive adult NPCs. Experiments using the p38 inhibitor SB203580 revealed that endogenous p38 participates in NPC migration. To enhance NPC migration, we generated a cell-permeable wild-type p38 protein (PTD-p38WT) in which the HIV protein transduction domain (PTD) was fused to the N-terminus of p38. Treatment with PTD-p38WT significantly promoted the random migration of adult NPCs without affecting cell survival or differentiation; this effect depended on the cell permeability and kinase activity of the fusion protein. These findings indicate that PTD-p38WT is a novel and useful tool for unraveling the roles of p38, and that this protein provides a reasonable approach for regenerating the injured brain by enhancing NPC migration. PMID:27067799

  3. SIRT 1 Overexpression is Associated with Metastasis of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and Promotes Migration and Growth of PDAC Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Siqin; Hong, Hua; Lv, Huicheng; Wu, Guozhu; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-05-12

    BACKGROUND SIRT 1, as a class III histone deacetylase (HDAC), is implicated in the initiation and progression of malignancies. However, the association of SIRT 1 with tumorigenesis or progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is not clear. MATERIAL AND METHODS In our study we investigated SIRT 1 expression in PDAC samples and evaluated the association of SIRT 1 level with the clinical and pathological characteristics of PDAC patients. We investigated the role of SIRT 1 in the migration and growth of PDAC PANC-1 or BxPC-3 cells using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approach. RESULTS We demonstrated that SIRT 1 mRNA level was significantly promoted in intra-tumor tissues compared to peri-tumor tissues of PDAC; and SIRT 1 overexpression was markedly associated with distant or lymph node (LN) metastasis of these PDAC tissues. Moreover, the in vitro wound healing assay demonstrated that SIRT 1 overexpression with lentivirus vector markedly promoted the migration of PANC-1 or BxPC-3 cells, whereas SIRT 1 knockdown using SIRT 1 specific siRNA transfection significantly inhibited the migration of PDAC cells. The colony forming assay confirmed SIRT 1 promotion of the growth of PANC-1 or BxPC-3 cells. CONCLUSIONS In summary, SIRT 1 overexpression is significantly associated with metastasis of PDAC, and overexpressed SIRT 1 plays an important role in pancreatic cancer cell migration and growth. Our data warrants further studies on SIRT 1 as a novel chemotherapeutic target in PDAC.

  4. EGFL6 Promotes Endothelial Cell Migration and Angiogenesis through the Activation of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Chim, Shek Man; Qin, An; Tickner, Jennifer; Pavlos, Nathan; Davey, Tamara; Wang, Hao; Guo, Yajun; Zheng, Ming Hao; Xu, Jiake

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis is required for bone development, growth, and repair. It is influenced by the local bone environment that involves cross-talks between endothelial cells and adjacent bone cells. However, data regarding factors that directly contribute to angiogenesis by bone cells remain poorly understood. Here, we report that EGFL6, a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat superfamily proteins, induces angiogenesis by a paracrine mechanism in which EGFL6 is expressed in osteoblastic-like cells but promotes migration and angiogenesis of endothelial cells. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that EGFL6 is secreted in culture medium as a homodimer protein. Using scratch wound healing and transwell assays, we found that conditioned medium containing EGFL6 potentiates SVEC (a simian virus 40-transformed mouse microvascular endothelial cell line) endothelial cell migration. In addition, EGFL6 promotes the endothelial cell tube-like structure formation in Matrigel assays and angiogenesis in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. Furthermore, we show that EGFL6 recombinant protein induces phosphorylation of ERK in SVEC endothelial cells. Inhibition of ERK impaired EGFL6-induced ERK activation and endothelial cell migration. Together, these results demonstrate, for the first time, that osteoblastic-like cells express EGFL6 that is capable of promoting endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis via ERK activation. Thus, the EGLF6 mediates a paracrine mechanism of cross-talk between vascular endothelial cells and osteoblasts and might offer an important new target for the potential treatment of bone diseases, including osteonecrosis, osteoporosis, and fracture healing. PMID:21531721

  5. EGFL6 promotes endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis through the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

    PubMed

    Chim, Shek Man; Qin, An; Tickner, Jennifer; Pavlos, Nathan; Davey, Tamara; Wang, Hao; Guo, Yajun; Zheng, Ming Hao; Xu, Jiake

    2011-06-24

    Angiogenesis is required for bone development, growth, and repair. It is influenced by the local bone environment that involves cross-talks between endothelial cells and adjacent bone cells. However, data regarding factors that directly contribute to angiogenesis by bone cells remain poorly understood. Here, we report that EGFL6, a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat superfamily proteins, induces angiogenesis by a paracrine mechanism in which EGFL6 is expressed in osteoblastic-like cells but promotes migration and angiogenesis of endothelial cells. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that EGFL6 is secreted in culture medium as a homodimer protein. Using scratch wound healing and transwell assays, we found that conditioned medium containing EGFL6 potentiates SVEC (a simian virus 40-transformed mouse microvascular endothelial cell line) endothelial cell migration. In addition, EGFL6 promotes the endothelial cell tube-like structure formation in Matrigel assays and angiogenesis in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. Furthermore, we show that EGFL6 recombinant protein induces phosphorylation of ERK in SVEC endothelial cells. Inhibition of ERK impaired EGFL6-induced ERK activation and endothelial cell migration. Together, these results demonstrate, for the first time, that osteoblastic-like cells express EGFL6 that is capable of promoting endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis via ERK activation. Thus, the EGLF6 mediates a paracrine mechanism of cross-talk between vascular endothelial cells and osteoblasts and might offer an important new target for the potential treatment of bone diseases, including osteonecrosis, osteoporosis, and fracture healing.

  6. A secretion of the mollusc Cryptomphalus aspersa promotes proliferation, migration and survival of keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cruz, M C Iglesias-de la; Sanz-Rodríguez, F; Zamarrón, A; Reyes, E; Carrasco, E; González, S; Juarranz, A

    2012-04-01

    Regenerative properties of skin decrease with age, and thus, the search for substances that minimize cutaneous ageing has increased in the last few years. The secretion of the mollusc Cryptomphalus Aspersa (SCA) is a natural product that bears regenerative properties when applied topically. The purpose of this work is to study the in vitro effects of SCA on cell proliferation and migration, as well as on cell-cell (E-cadherin and β-catenin) and cell-substrate (vinculin and β1-integrin) adhesion proteins expression, using a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT cells) and primary dermal fibroblasts (HF). We tested the effects of SCA on cell proliferation using a colorimetric assay. In addition, SCA-induced changes on cell migration were studied by wound-healing assays. Besides, Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy were carried out to test the expression of different cell adhesion proteins. We found that SCA promotes proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, treatment with SCA increases the migratory behaviour and the expression of adhesion molecules in both HaCaT and HF. Finally, SCA also improves cell survival and promotes phosphorylation of FAK and nuclear localization of β-catenin. These results shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the regenerative properties of SCA, based on its promoting effect on skin cell migration, proliferation and survival. Moreover, these results support future clinical uses of SCA in the regeneration of wounded tissues.

  7. XCR1 promotes cell growth and migration and is correlated with bone metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ting; Han, Shuai; Wu, Zhipeng; Han, Zhitao; Yan, Wangjun; Liu, Tielong; Wei, Haifeng; Song, Dianwen; Zhou, Wang Yang, Xinghai Xiao, Jianru

    2015-08-21

    Bone metastasis occurs in approximately 30–40% patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the mechanism underlying this bone metastasis remains poorly understood. The chemokine super family is believed to play an important role in tumor metastasis in lung cancer. The chemokine receptor XCR1 has been identified to promote cell proliferation and migration in oral cancer and ovarian carcinoma, but the role of XCR1 in lung cancer has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that XCR1 was overexpressed in lung cancer bone metastasis as compared with that in patients with primary lung cancer. In addition, the XCR1 ligand XCL1 promoted the proliferation and migration of lung cancer cells markedly, and knockdown of XCR1 by siRNA abolished the effect of XCL1 in cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, we identified JAK2/STAT3 as a novel downstream pathway of XCR1, while XCL1/XCR1 increased the mRNA level of the downstream of JAK2/STAT3 including PIM1, JunB, TTP, MMP2 and MMP9. These results indicate that XCR1 is a new potential therapeutic target for the treatment of lung cancer bone metastasis. - Highlights: • XCR1 is overexpressed in bone metastasis compared with primary NSCLC. • XCR1 activation by XCL1 promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and migration. • JAK2/STAT3 is a novel potential downstream pathway of XCR1.

  8. Diacylglycerol kinase α controls RCP-dependent integrin trafficking to promote invasive migration.

    PubMed

    Rainero, Elena; Caswell, Patrick T; Muller, Patricia A J; Grindlay, Joan; McCaffrey, Mary W; Zhang, Qifeng; Wakelam, Michael J O; Vousden, Karen H; Graziani, Andrea; Norman, Jim C

    2012-01-23

    Inhibition of αvβ3 integrin or expression of oncogenic mutants of p53 promote invasive cell migration by enhancing endosomal recycling of α5β1 integrin under control of the Rab11 effector Rab-coupling protein (RCP). In this paper, we show that diacylglycerol kinase α (DGK-α), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid (PA), was required for RCP to be mobilized to and tethered at the tips of invasive pseudopods and to allow RCP-dependent α5β1 recycling and the resulting invasiveness of tumor cells. Expression of a constitutive-active mutant of DGK-α drove RCP-dependent invasion in the absence of mutant p53 expression or αvβ3 inhibition, and conversely, an RCP mutant lacking the PA-binding C2 domain was not capable of being tethered at pseudopod tips. These data demonstrate that generation of PA downstream of DGK-α is essential to connect expression of mutant p53s or inhibition of αvβ3 to RCP and for this Rab11 effector to drive the trafficking of α5β1 that is required for tumor cell invasion through three-dimensional matrices.

  9. Contact-dependent promotion of cell migration by the OL-protocadherin-Nap1 interaction.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Shinsuke; Platek, Anna; Hirano, Shinji; Takeichi, Masatoshi

    2008-07-28

    OL-protocadherin (OL-pc) is a transmembrane protein belonging to the cadherin superfamily, which has been shown to accumulate at cell-cell contacts via its homophilic interaction, but its molecular roles remain elusive. In this study, we show that OL-pc bound Nck-associated protein 1 (Nap1), a protein that regulates WAVE-mediated actin assembly. In astrocytoma U251 cells not expressing OL-pc, Nap1 was localized only along the lamellipodia. However, exogenous expression of OL-pc in these cells recruited Nap1 as well as WAVE1 to cell-cell contact sites. Although OL-pc expression had no effect on the motility of solitary U251 cells, it accelerated their movement when they were in contact with one another, causing concomitant reorganization of F-actin and N-cadherin at cell junctions. OL-pc mutants lacking the Nap1-binding site exhibited no such effect. N-cadherin knockdown mimicked OL-pc expression in enhancing cell movement. These results suggest that OL-pc remodels the motility and adhesion machinery at cell junctions by recruiting the Nap1-WAVE1 complex to these sites and, in turn, promotes the migration of cells.

  10. Lib, transcriptionally induced in senile plaque-associated astrocytes, promotes glial migration through extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kazuki; Hata, Mitsumi; Shimizu, Tomoko; Yokota, Hiroshi; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Kosaka, Kenji; Yamada, Tatsuo

    2005-09-23

    In an effort to identify astrocyte-derived molecules that may be intimately associated with progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lib, a type I transmembrane protein belonging to leucine-rich repeat superfamily, has been identified as a distinctly inducible gene, responsive to beta-amyloid as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines in astrocytes. To evaluate the roles of Lib in AD, we investigated Lib expression in AD brain. In non-AD brain, Lib mRNA has been detected in neurons but not in quiescent astrocytes. On the contrary, in AD brain, Lib mRNA is expressed in activated astrocytes associated with senile plaques, but not expressed in neurons around lesions. Lib-expressing glioma cells displayed promotion of migration ability through reconstituted extracellular matrix and recombinant Lib protein bound to constituents of extracellular matrix. These observations suggest that Lib may contribute to regulation of cell-matrix adhesion interactions with respect to astrocyte recruitment around senile plaques in AD brain.

  11. P300 promotes migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in a nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zhi-Wei; Zhao, Lei; Cai, Mu-Yan; Xi, Mian; He, Li-Ru; Yu, Fang; Zhou, Tong-Chong; Liu, Meng-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that p300 is overexpressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and that its expression is an independent prognostic factor. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of p300 in human NPC development. A small hairpin (sh) RNA lentiviral expression vector targeting the p300 gene was constructed to suppress the expression of p300 in NPC cells. Knockdown of p300 was verified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Wound-healing, invasion, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation assays were performed to assess the influence of p300 on nasopharyngeal tumorigenesis and metastasis in vitro. The expression of p300 was upregulated in NPC cell lines. After knockdown of p300, the migration and invasion ability of shp300 cells were significantly inhibited (P<0.05). Furthermore, the depletion of p300 expression in NPC cell lines resulted in the upregulation of epithelial phenotype marker E-cadherin and α-catenin, and downregulation of mesenchymal phenotype markers N-cadherin and vimentin. p300 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the acetylation of Smad2 and Smad3 in the tumor growth factor-β signaling pathway. In conclusion, p300 may be involved in the invasion and metastasis of NPC through the induction of EMT. PMID:28356956

  12. Diacylglycerol kinase α controls RCP-dependent integrin trafficking to promote invasive migration

    PubMed Central

    Rainero, Elena; Caswell, Patrick T.; Muller, Patricia A.J.; Grindlay, Joan; McCaffrey, Mary W.; Zhang, Qifeng; Wakelam, Michael J.O.; Vousden, Karen H.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of αvβ3 integrin or expression of oncogenic mutants of p53 promote invasive cell migration by enhancing endosomal recycling of α5β1 integrin under control of the Rab11 effector Rab-coupling protein (RCP). In this paper, we show that diacylglycerol kinase α (DGK-α), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid (PA), was required for RCP to be mobilized to and tethered at the tips of invasive pseudopods and to allow RCP-dependent α5β1 recycling and the resulting invasiveness of tumor cells. Expression of a constitutive-active mutant of DGK-α drove RCP-dependent invasion in the absence of mutant p53 expression or αvβ3 inhibition, and conversely, an RCP mutant lacking the PA-binding C2 domain was not capable of being tethered at pseudopod tips. These data demonstrate that generation of PA downstream of DGK-α is essential to connect expression of mutant p53s or inhibition of αvβ3 to RCP and for this Rab11 effector to drive the trafficking of α5β1 that is required for tumor cell invasion through three-dimensional matrices. PMID:22270919

  13. Promotion of PDGF-induced endothelial cell migration by phosphorylated VASP depends on PKA anchoring via AKAP.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deling; Ouyang, Jingping; Wang, Nian; Zhang, Yahui; Bie, Jinghua; Zhang, Yemin

    2010-02-01

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), an important substrate of PKA, plays a critical role in remodeling of actin cytoskeleton and actin-based cell motility. However, how PKA accurately transfers extracellular signals to VASP and then how phosphorylation of VASP regulates endothelial cell migration have not been clearly defined. Protein kinase A anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are considered to regulate intracellular-specific signal targeting of PKA via AKAP-mediated PKA anchoring. Thus, our study investigated the relationship among AKAP anchoring of PKA, PKA activity, and VASP phosphorylation, which is to clarify the exact role of VASP and its upstream regulatory mechanism in PKA-dependent migration. Our results show that chemotactic factor PDGF activated PKA, increased phosphorylation of VASP at Ser157, and enhanced ECV304 endothelial cell migration. However, phosphorylation site-directed mutation of VASP at Ser157 attenuated the chemotactic effect of PDGF on endothelial cells, suggesting phosphorylation of VASP at Ser157 promotes PKA-mediated endothelial cell migration. Furthermore, disrupting PKA anchoring to AKAP or PKA activity significantly attenuated the PKA activity, VASP phosphorylation, and subsequent cell migration. Meanwhile, disrupting PKA anchoring to AKAP abolished PDGF-induced lamellipodia formation and special VASP accumulation at leading edge of lamellipodia. These results indicate that PKA activation and PKA-mediated substrate responses in VASP phosphorylation and localization depend on PKA anchoring via AKAP in PDGF-induced endothelial cell migration. In conclusion, AKAP anchoring of PKA is an essential upstream event in regulation of PKA-mediated VASP phosphorylation and subsequent endothelial cell migration, which contributes to explore new methods for controlling endothelial cell migration related diseases and angiogenesis.

  14. Decreased nuclear stiffness via FAK-ERK1/2 signaling is necessary for osteopontin-promoted migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingling; Luo, Qing; Sun, Jinghui; Wang, Aoli; Shi, Yisong; Ju, Yang; Morita, Yasuyuki; Song, Guanbin

    2017-04-06

    Migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, including wound healing. During the migration of BMSCs through interstitial tissues, the movement of the nucleus must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics, which in turn affects the cell migration efficiency. Our previous study indicated that osteopontin (OPN) significantly promotes the migration of rat BMSCs. However, the nuclear behaviors and involved molecular mechanisms in OPN-mediated BMSC migration are largely unclear. In the present study, using an atomic force microscope (AFM), we found that OPN could decrease the nuclear stiffness of BMSCs and reduce the expression of lamin A/C, which is the main determinant of nuclear stiffness. Increased lamin A/C expression attenuates BMSC migration by increasing nuclear stiffness. Decreased lamin A/C expression promotes BMSC migration by decreasing nuclear stiffness. Furthermore, OPN promotes BMSC migration by diminishing lamin A/C expression and decreasing nuclear stiffness via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. This study provides strong evidence for the role of nuclear mechanics in BMSC migration as well as new insight into the molecular mechanisms of OPN-promoted BMSC migration.

  15. The histone demethylase KDM3A, and its downstream target MCAM, promote Ewing Sarcoma cell migration and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Sechler, M; Parrish, J K; Birks, D K; Jedlicka, P

    2017-07-20

    Ewing Sarcoma is the second most common solid pediatric malignant neoplasm of bone and soft tissue. Driven by EWS/Ets, or rarely variant, oncogenic fusions, Ewing Sarcoma is a biologically and clinically aggressive disease with a high propensity for metastasis. However, the mechanisms underpinning Ewing Sarcoma metastasis are currently not well understood. In the present study, we identify and characterize a novel metastasis-promotional pathway in Ewing Sarcoma, involving the histone demethylase KDM3A, previously identified by our laboratory as a new cancer-promoting gene in this disease. Using global gene expression profiling, we show that KDM3A positively regulates genes and pathways implicated in cell migration and metastasis, and demonstrate, using functional assays, that KDM3A promotes migration in vitro and experimental, post-intravasation, metastasis in vivo. We further identify the melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) as a novel KDM3A target gene in Ewing Sarcoma, and an important effector of KDM3A pro-metastatic action. Specifically, we demonstrate that MCAM depletion, like KDM3A depletion, inhibits cell migration in vitro and experimental metastasis in vivo, and that MCAM partially rescues impaired migration due to KDM3A knock-down. Mechanistically, we show that KDM3A regulates MCAM expression both through a direct mechanism, involving modulation of H3K9 methylation at the MCAM promoter, and an indirect mechanism, via the Ets1 transcription factor. Finally, we identify an association between high MCAM levels in patient tumors and poor survival, in two different Ewing Sarcoma clinical cohorts. Taken together, our studies uncover a new metastasis-promoting pathway in Ewing Sarcoma, with therapeutically targetable components.

  16. Soluble tissue factor has unique angiogenic activities that selectively promote migration and differentiation but not proliferation of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    He Yingbo; Chang Guodong; Zhan Shunli; Song Xiaomin; Wang Xiaofeng; Luo Yongzhang

    2008-06-06

    The level of circulating tissue factor (TF) is up-regulated in human angiogenesis-related malignancies. However, whether circulating TF has angiogenic activities has not been determined. Soluble TF (sTF) is the main domain of circulating TF. Here, using cell migration, wound healing, and tubule formation assays, human recombinant sTF was found to significantly promote the migration and differentiation of endothelial cells. The stress fiber formation and rearrangement induced by sTF observed through immunofluorescence microscope may be responsible for the stimulatory migration effect of sTF. Nevertheless, sTF had no effects on endothelial cell proliferation. Interestingly, sTF can be internalized by endothelial cells, which implies a novel mechanism for sTF in angiogenesis. These results suggest that sTF has unique angiogenic activities and may serve as a potential therapeutic target to treat diseases associated with angiogenesis such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 promotes migration of cells from the upper rhombic lip in cerebellar development.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Huang, Hai; Li, Hui-Fang

    2010-10-01

    During cerebellar development, the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1 alpha) has been shown to play an important role in recruiting cells from the upper rhombic lip (URL) and external granule cell layer (EGL). However, its function in cerebellar development is still poorly understood. Our results have demonstrated that SDF-1 is necessary for EGL development, and URL cells stream to the SDF-1 source in vitro. Results of embryonic URL explant assays and transwell assays indicated that SDF-1 induces neural cell migration from the URL region in chemotactic and chemokinetic responses. The time-lapse results showed that the migration speed of granule cell progenitors out of the URL was accelerated by the addition of recombinant SDF-1 alpha. Collectively, our study shows that SDF-1 increases the motility of URL cells in the absence of a gradient and promotes the migration of granule cell progenitors during cerebellar development.

  18. P311 Accelerates Skin Wound Reepithelialization by Promoting Epidermal Stem Cell Migration Through RhoA and Rac1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhihui; Li, Haisheng; He, Weifeng; Yang, Sisi; Zhang, Xiaorong; Zhan, Rixing; Xu, Rui; Tan, Jianglin; Zhou, Junyi; Wu, Jun; Luo, Gaoxing

    2017-03-15

    P311 is a newly discovered functional gene, and it has been proved to play a key role in blood pressure homeostasis, glioblastoma invasion, renal fibrosis, hypertrophic scar formation, and others. In this study, for the first time, we found that P311 could enhance reepithelialization during wound healing via promoting epidermal stem cell (EpSC) migration through Rho GTPases. P311 expression was highly increased in neo-epidermal cells during human and mouse skin wound healing, and P311was co-localized with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine positive label-retaining cells in a mouse superficial second-degree burn wound model. Furthermore, transfection of human EpSCs with adenovirus encoding P311 significantly accelerated the cell migration in vitro. Moreover, highly expressed P311 could enhance the activities of the Rho GTPases (RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42) in cultured human EpSCs. P311-knockout mouse EpSCs showed dramatically decreased cell migration and activities of Rho GTPases (RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42). Besides, both the RhoA-specific inhibitor and the Rac1 inhibitor, not the Cdc42 inhibitor, could significantly suppress P311-induced human EpSC migration. In vivo, the reepithelialization was markedly impaired during wound healing after P311 was knocked out. Together, our results suggested that P311 could accelerate skin wound reepithelialization by promoting the migration of EpSCs through RhoA and Rac1 activation. P311 could serve as a novel target for regulation of EpSC migration during cutaneous wound healing.

  19. TGF-α/HA complex promotes tympanic membrane keratinocyte migration and proliferation via ErbB1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Mei Teh, Bing; Redmond, Sharon L.; Shen, Yi; Atlas, Marcus D.; Marano, Robert J.; Dilley, Rodney J.

    2013-04-01

    Tympanic membrane perforations are common and represent a management challenge to clinicians. Current treatments for chronic perforations involve a graft surgery and require general anaesthesia, including associated costs and morbidities. Bioactive molecules (e.g. growth factors, cytokines) play an important role in promoting TM wound healing following perforation and the use of growth factors as a topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations has been suggested as an alternative to surgery. However, the choice of bioactive molecules best suited to promote wound healing has yet to be identified. We investigated the effects of hyaluronic acid, vitronectin, TGF-α, IL-24 and their combinations on migration, proliferation and adhesion of cultured human tympanic membrane-derived keratinocytes (hTM), in addition to their possible mechanisms of action. We found that TGF-α, TGF-α/HA and TGF-α/IL-24 promoted wound healing by significantly increasing both migration and proliferation. TGF-α and/or HA treated cells showed comparable cell–cell adhesion whilst maintaining an epithelial cell phenotype. With the use of receptor binding inhibitors for ErbB1 (AG1478) and CD44 (BRIC235), we revealed that the activation of ErbB1 is required for TGF-α/HA-mediated migration and proliferation. These results suggest factors that may be incorporated into a tissue-engineered membrane or directly as topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations and hence reduce the need for a surgery. - Highlights: ► TGF-α, TGF-α/HA and TGF-α/IL-24 improved hTM keratinocyte migration and proliferation. ► TGF-α and/or HA maintained epithelial cell phenotype. ► TGF-α/HA-mediated migration and proliferation requires activation of ErbB1 receptor.

  20. Laminins 411 and 421 differentially promote tumor cell migration via α6β1 integrin and MCAM (CD146).

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Taichi; Wondimu, Zenebech; Oikawa, Yuko; Gentilcore, Giusy; Kiessling, Rolf; Egyhazi Brage, Suzanne; Hansson, Johan; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    α4-laminins, such as laminins 411 and 421, are mesenchymal laminins expressed by blood and lymphatic vessels and some tumor cells. Laminin-411 promotes migration of leukocytes and endothelial cells, but the effect of this laminin and laminin-421 on tumor cells is poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that laminin-411 and, to a greater extent, laminin-421 significantly promote migration of tumor cells originated from melanomas, gliomas and different carcinomas via α6β1 integrin. In solid-phase binding assays, both laminins similarly bound α6β1 integrin but only laminin-421, among several laminin isoforms, readily bound MCAM (CD146), a cell-surface adhesion molecule strongly associated with tumor progression. Accordingly, a function-blocking mAb to MCAM inhibited tumor cell migration on laminin-421 but not on laminins 411 or 521. In tumor tissues, melanoma cells co-expressed MCAM, laminin α4, β1, β2 and γ1 chains, and integrin α6 and β1 chains. The present data highlight the novel role of α4-laminins in tumor cell migration and identify laminin-421 as a primary ligand for MCAM and a putative mediator of tumor invasion and metastasis.

  1. N-WASP promotes invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells through regulating p38 MAPKs signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jinxuan; Yang, Hui; Huang, Xin; Leng, Xiaohua; Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Yunfeng; Xu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) is an important member of the WASP family involved in the actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Recent evidence suggests that N-WASP may play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the contribution of N-WASP to cervical cancer is still unknown. The present study focused on elucidating the role of N-WASP in the malignant behavior of cervical cancer cells. We found that N-WASP overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues compared with paired paracancerous tissues and normal tissues, and similar results were observed in several cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of N-WASP facilitated migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells, while downregulation of N-WASP resulted in decreased cell migration and invasion. In addition, the data showed that N-WASP might promote invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells via regulating the activity of p38 MAPKs pathway. Altogether, the study suggested that N-WASP might serve as an oncogene in cervical cancer, and provided novel insights into the mechanism that how N-WASP promoted invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells. PMID:28337270

  2. Erk regulation of actin capping and bundling by Eps8 promotes cortex tension and leader bleb-based migration

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Jeremy S; Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael W; Chadwick, Richard S; Waterman, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Within the confines of tissues, cancer cells can use blebs to migrate. Eps8 is an actin bundling and capping protein whose capping activity is inhibited by Erk, a key MAP kinase that is activated by oncogenic signaling. We tested the hypothesis that Eps8 acts as an Erk effector to modulate actin cortex mechanics and thereby mediate bleb-based migration of cancer cells. Cells confined in a non-adhesive environment migrate in the direction of a very large ‘leader bleb.’ Eps8 bundling activity promotes cortex tension and intracellular pressure to drive leader bleb formation. Eps8 capping and bundling activities act antagonistically to organize actin within leader blebs, and Erk mediates this effect. An Erk biosensor reveals concentrated kinase activity within leader blebs. Bleb contents are trapped by the narrow neck that separates the leader bleb from the cell body. Thus, Erk activity promotes actin bundling by Eps8 to enhance cortex tension and drive the bleb-based migration of cancer cells under non-adhesive confinement. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08314.001 PMID:26163656

  3. Tamarind Seed Xyloglucans Promote Proliferation and Migration of Human Skin Cells through Internalization via Stimulation of Proproliferative Signal Transduction Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nie, W.; Deters, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Xyloglucans (XGs) of Tamarindus indica L. Fabaceae are used as drug vehicles or as ingredients of cosmetics. Two xyloglucans were extracted from T. indica seed with cold water (TSw) and copper complex precipitation (TSc). Both were analyzed in regard to composition and influence on cell viability, proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration, MAPK phosphorylation, and gene expression of human skin keratinocytes (NHEK and HaCaT) and fibroblasts (NHDF) in vitro. TSw and TSc differed in molecular weight, rhamnose content, and ratios of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and glucose. Both XGs improved keratinocytes and fibroblast proliferation, promoted the cell cycle, and stimulated migration and intracellular enzyme activity of NHDF after endosomal uptake. Only TSw significantly enhanced HaCaT migration and extracellular enzyme activity of NHDF and HaCaT. TSw and TSc predominantly enhanced the phosphorylation of molecules that referred to Erk signaling in NHEK. In NHDF parts of the integrin signaling and SAPK/JNK pathway were affected. Independent of cell type TSw marginally regulated the expression of genes, which referred to membrane proteins, cytoskeleton, cytokine signaling, and ECM as well as to processes of metabolism and transcription. Results show that T. indica xyloglucans promote skin regeneration by a direct influence on cell proliferation and migration. PMID:24106497

  4. Erk regulation of actin capping and bundling by Eps8 promotes cortex tension and leader bleb-based migration.

    PubMed

    Logue, Jeremy S; Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael W; Chadwick, Richard S; Waterman, Clare M

    2015-07-11

    Within the confines of tissues, cancer cells can use blebs to migrate. Eps8 is an actin bundling and capping protein whose capping activity is inhibited by Erk, a key MAP kinase that is activated by oncogenic signaling. We tested the hypothesis that Eps8 acts as an Erk effector to modulate actin cortex mechanics and thereby mediate bleb-based migration of cancer cells. Cells confined in a non-adhesive environment migrate in the direction of a very large 'leader bleb.' Eps8 bundling activity promotes cortex tension and intracellular pressure to drive leader bleb formation. Eps8 capping and bundling activities act antagonistically to organize actin within leader blebs, and Erk mediates this effect. An Erk biosensor reveals concentrated kinase activity within leader blebs. Bleb contents are trapped by the narrow neck that separates the leader bleb from the cell body. Thus, Erk activity promotes actin bundling by Eps8 to enhance cortex tension and drive the bleb-based migration of cancer cells under non-adhesive confinement.

  5. N-WASP promotes invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells through regulating p38 MAPKs signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jinxuan; Yang, Hui; Huang, Xin; Leng, Xiaohua; Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Yunfeng; Xu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) is an important member of the WASP family involved in the actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Recent evidence suggests that N-WASP may play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the contribution of N-WASP to cervical cancer is still unknown. The present study focused on elucidating the role of N-WASP in the malignant behavior of cervical cancer cells. We found that N-WASP overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues compared with paired paracancerous tissues and normal tissues, and similar results were observed in several cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of N-WASP facilitated migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells, while downregulation of N-WASP resulted in decreased cell migration and invasion. In addition, the data showed that N-WASP might promote invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells via regulating the activity of p38 MAPKs pathway. Altogether, the study suggested that N-WASP might serve as an oncogene in cervical cancer, and provided novel insights into the mechanism that how N-WASP promoted invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells.

  6. CDON PROMOTES NEURAL CREST MIGRATION BY REGULATING N-CADHERIN LOCALIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Davalyn R.; Williams, Jason S.; Hernandez-Lagunas, Laura; Salcedo, Ernesto; O’Brien, Jenean H.; Artinger, Kristin Bruk

    2015-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are essential embryonic progenitor cells that are unique to vertebrates and form a remarkably complex and coordinated system of highly motile cells. Migration of NCCs occurs along specific pathways within the embryo in response to both environmental cues and cell-cell interactions within the neural crest population. Here, we demonstrate a novel role for the putative Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor and cell adhesion regulator, cdon, in zebrafish neural crest migration. cdon is expressed in developing premigratory NCCs but is downregulated once the cells become migratory. Knockdown of cdon results in aberrant migration of trunk NCCs: crestin positive cells can emigrate out of the neural tube but stall shortly after the initiation of migration. Live cell imaging analysis demonstrates reduced directedness of migration, increased velocity and mispositioned cell protrusions. In addition, transplantation analysis suggests that cdon is required cell-autonomously for directed NCC migration in the trunk. Interestingly, N-cadherin is mislocalized following cdon knockdown suggesting that the role of cdon in NCCs is to regulate N-cadherin localization. Our results reveal a novel role for cdon in zebrafish neural crest migration, and suggest a mechanism by which Cdon is required to localize N-cadherin to the cell membrane in migratory NCCs for directed migration. PMID:26256768

  7. Cdon promotes neural crest migration by regulating N-cadherin localization.

    PubMed

    Powell, Davalyn R; Williams, Jason S; Hernandez-Lagunas, Laura; Salcedo, Ernesto; O'Brien, Jenean H; Artinger, Kristin Bruk

    2015-11-15

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are essential embryonic progenitor cells that are unique to vertebrates and form a remarkably complex and coordinated system of highly motile cells. Migration of NCCs occurs along specific pathways within the embryo in response to both environmental cues and cell-cell interactions within the neural crest population. Here, we demonstrate a novel role for the putative Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor and cell adhesion regulator, cdon, in zebrafish neural crest migration. cdon is expressed in developing premigratory NCCs but is downregulated once the cells become migratory. Knockdown of cdon results in aberrant migration of trunk NCCs: crestin positive cells can emigrate out of the neural tube but stall shortly after the initiation of migration. Live cell imaging analysis demonstrates reduced directedness of migration, increased velocity and mispositioned cell protrusions. In addition, transplantation analysis suggests that cdon is required cell-autonomously for directed NCC migration in the trunk. Interestingly, N-cadherin is mislocalized following cdon knockdown suggesting that the role of cdon in NCCs is to regulate N-cadherin localization. Our results reveal a novel role for cdon in zebrafish neural crest migration, and suggest a mechanism by which Cdon is required to localize N-cadherin to the cell membrane in migratory NCCs for directed migration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nicotine promotes cell migration through alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lien, Yung-Chang; Wang, Weu; Kuo, Li-Jen; Liu, Jun-Jen; Wei, Po-Li; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Ting, Wen-Chien; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Chang, Yu-Jia

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to study the mechanism of nicotine-enhanced migration of gastric cancer cells. Long-term cigarette smoking increases the risk of gastric cancer mortality. Tobacco-specific mitogen, nicotine, was reported to correlate with cancer progression on gastric cancer. Since metastasis is the major cause of cancer death, the influence of nicotine on the migration of gastric cancer cells remains to be determined. The influence of nicotine on migration of gastric cancer cells was evaluated by transwell assay and wound-healing migration assay. Receptor-mediated migration was studied by both inhibitor and small interfering RNA. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, alpha7-nAChR, was identified in gastric cancer cell lines, AGS cells. Nicotine enhanced AGS cell migration in transwell assay and wound-healing migration assay in a dose-dependent manner. We used inhibitor and siRNA to demonstrate that alpha7-nAChR mediated nicotine-enhanced gastric cancer cell migration through downregulation E-cadherin and upregulation ZEB-1 and snail. Tobacco-specific mitogen, nicotine, enhanced gastric cancer metastasis through alpha7-nAChR and suppression of E-cadherin level-one of the hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Therefore, patients with gastric cancer should avoid smoking.

  9. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide promotes the proliferation and migration of neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Baral, Samrat; Pariyar, Ramesh; Kim, Jaehyo; Lee, Ho-Sub; Seo, Jungwon

    2017-04-01

    Quercetin is a bioactive compound exerting therapeutic effects on in vivo animal models of neurodegeneration or neurotoxicity. However, the narrow therapeutic dose-range of quercetin has been a point of concern since previous studies have demonstrated that quercetin induces cytotoxicity in vitro. Quercetin is metabolized to quercetin glucuronates such as quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), primarily detected in the plasma and the brain. Here, we examined whether and how quercetin or Q3GA regulates neural stem cells (NSCs) in vivo and in vitro. Immunohistochemistry showed that oral administration of quercetin increased nestin-, DCX-, BrdU/DCX-, and BrdU/NeuN-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of mice. However, quercetin decreased the viability of human embryonic NSCs in culture, accompanied by decreased Akt phosphorylation and increased cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. In contrast, Q3GA increased BrdU-positive cell proliferation, Akt phosphorylation, and cyclin D1 expression. PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 reversed Q3GA-induced Akt phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression, thereby reducing Q3GA-induced proliferation. Furthermore, Q3GA increased the protein secretion of BDNF and its blockade using anti-BDNF antibody reversed Q3GA-induced proliferation. Under differentiation state, Q3GA promotes NSC migration, along with increased mRNA expression of CXCR4. Moreover, Q3GA significantly reversed scopolamine-induced reduction of Akt phosphorylation in the mouse hippocampus and ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairments. Our results demonstrate that quercetin and its metabolite Q3GA control NSC viability in a converse manner through contrary regulation of Akt, accounting for the conflicting effects of quercetin in vivo and in vitro. This study provides a novel mechanism for the positive effects of Q3GA on neurogenesis and suggests its therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Fibroblast-derived tenascin-C promotes Schwann cell migration through β1-integrin dependent pathway during peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhanhu; Yu, Bin; Gu, Yun; Zhou, Songlin; Qian, Tianmei; Wang, Yongjun; Ding, Guohui; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong

    2016-03-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration requires precise coordination and dynamic interaction among various types of cells in the tissue. It remains unclear, however, whether the cellular crosstalk between fibroblasts and Schwann cells (SCs) is related to phenotype modulation of SCs, a critical cellular process after peripheral nerve injury. In this study, microarray analysis revealed that a total of 6,046 genes were differentially expressed in the proximal nerve segment after sciatic nerve transection in rats, and bioinformatics analysis further identified tenascin-C (TNC), an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, as a key gene regulator. TNC was abundantly produced by nerve fibroblasts accumulating at the lesion site, rather than by SCs as usually expected. TNC significantly promoted SC migration without effects on SC proliferation in primary culture. In co-culture of fibroblasts and SCs, inhibition of TNC expression either by siRNA transfection or antibody blockade could suppress SC migration, while TNC-stimulated SC migration was mediated by TNC binding to β1-integrin receptor in SCs through activation of Rac1 effectors. The in vivo evidence showed that exogenous TNC protein enhanced SC migration and axonal regrowth. Our results highlight that TNC-mediated cellular interaction between fibroblasts and SCs may regulate SC migration through β1-integrin-dependent pathway during peripheral nerve regeneration.

  11. Optimization of electrospun TSF nanofiber alignment and diameter to promote growth and migration of mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Jing; Zhou, Dandan; Xu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Feng; He, Lihong; Ye, Rong; Zhu, Ziyu; Zuo, Baoqi; Zhang, Huanxiang

    2012-11-01

    Silk fibroin scaffolds are a naturally derived biocompatible matrix with the potential for reconstructive surgical applications. In this study, tussah silk fibroin (TSF) nanofiber with different diameters (400 nm, 800 nm and 1200 nm) and alignment (random and aligned) were prepared by electrospinning, then the growth and migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on these materials were further evaluated. CD90 immunofluorescence staining showed that fiber alignment exhibited a strong influence on the morphology of MSCs, indicating that the alignment of the scaffolds could determine the distribution of cells. Moreover, smaller diameter and aligned TSF scaffolds are more favorable to the growth of MSCs as compared with 800 nm and 1200 nm random TSF scaffolds. In addition, the increased migration speed and efficiency of MSCs induced by three-D TSF were verified, highlighting the guiding roles of TSF to the migrated MSCs. More importantly, 400 nm aligned TSF scaffolds dramatically improved cell migratory speed and further induced the most efficient migration of MSCs as compared with larger diameter TSF scaffolds. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that smaller diameter and aligned electrospun TSF represent valuable scaffolds for supporting and promoting MSCs growth and migration, thus raising the possibility of manipulating TSF scaffolds to enhance homing and therapeutic potential of MSCs in cellular therapy.

  12. Epidermal growth factor stimulates Rac activation through Src and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to promote colonic epithelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Dise, Rebecca S; Frey, Mark R; Whitehead, Robert H; Polk, D Brent

    2008-01-01

    Regulated intestinal epithelial cell migration plays a key role in wound healing and maintenance of a healthy gastrointestinal tract. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell migration and wound closure in intestinal epithelial cells through incompletely understood mechanisms. In this study we investigated the role of the small GTPase Rac in EGF-induced cell migration using an in vitro wound-healing assay. In mouse colonic epithelial (MCE) cell lines, EGF-stimulated wound closure was accompanied by a doubling of the number of cells containing lamellipodial extensions at the wound margin, increased Rac membrane translocation in cells at the wound margin, and rapid Rac activation. Either Rac1 small interfering (si)RNA or a Rac1 inhibitor completely blocked EGF-stimulated wound closure. Whereas EGF failed to activate Rac in colon cells from EGF receptor (EGFR) knockout mice, stable expression of wild-type EGFR restored EGF-stimulated Rac activation and migration. Pharmacological inhibition of either phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or Src family kinases reduced EGF-stimulated Rac activation. Cotreatment of cells with both inhibitors completely blocked EGF-stimulated Rac activation and localization to the leading edge of cells and lamellipodial extension. Our results present a novel mechanism by which the PI3K and Src signaling cascades cooperate to activate Rac and promote intestinal epithelial cell migration downstream of EGFR.

  13. G-Protein Signaling Protein-17 (RGS17) is Upregulated and Promotes Tumor Growth and Migration in Human Colorectal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Luo, He-Sheng

    2017-03-23

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths and has a high tendency for metastasis, which makes it a priority to find novel methods to diagnose and treat colorectal carcinoma in the very early stage. Herein, we studied the role of regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) family protein RGS17 in colorectal carcinoma growth and metastasis. We found that RGS17 was upregulated in both clinical colorectal carcinoma tissues and cultured colorectal carcinoma cells. Knockdown of RGS17 by specific siRNA decreased, whereas overexpression of RGS17 with expression plasmid increased cell proliferation rate in cultured cells. Consistently, a mouse model of colorectal carcinoma also showed that depletion of RGS17 significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, transwell assay showed that RGS17 promoted colorectal carcinoma cell migration and invasion abilities. These data suggest that RGS17 is overexpressed in colorectal carcinoma and promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

  14. CD147 promotes the proliferation, invasiveness, migration and angiogenesis of human lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaoxing; Qi, Fei; Tang, Chuanhao; Wang, Hong; Qin, Haifeng; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Jianjie; Wang, Weixia; Zhao, Changyun; Gao, Hongjun

    2017-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation (CD) 147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly expressed at the tumor cell surface, which stimulates fibroblasts to produce a large number of matrix metalloproteinases and promotes tumor invasion and metastasis and tumor-induced angiogenesis. The present study investigated the functions and the role of CD147 in the human lung carcinoma A549 cell line. The present study constructed expression and interference [small interfering (si) RNA] lentiviral vectors of CD147, which established stable overexpression and low expression of CD147 in the A549 cell line, named A549-CD147 and A549-siCD147, respectively. The differences in biological features between various levels of CD147 expression in A549 cells was investigated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), Transwell, scratch and lumen formation assays. The results of the CCK-8 assay revealed that A549-CD147 cell proliferation was significantly increased and A549-siCD147 cell proliferation was decreased compared with the control groups. The A549-CD147 cells had the largest number of cells penetrating the Matrigel in the Transwell assay, which indicates that upregulation of CD147 expression increases the infiltration capacity of cells. The scratch assay revealed that A549-CD147 cells have the highest capacity for migration, while A549-siCD147 cells have the lowest. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was proportional to the expression level of CD147 at the mRNA and protein level. The lumen formation assay revealed that the number of vessel lumens that human umbilical vein endothelial cells formed in the A549-CD147 cell supernatant was increased compared with the A549-siCD147 cells. Collectively, the present results suggest that CD147 is important in the promotion of lung carcinoma cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis and the upregulation of VEGF, which stimulates the angiogenesis of lung

  15. Lamellipodin promotes invasive 3D cancer cell migration via regulated interactions with Ena/VASP and SCAR/WAVE.

    PubMed

    Carmona, G; Perera, U; Gillett, C; Naba, A; Law, A-L; Sharma, V P; Wang, J; Wyckoff, J; Balsamo, M; Mosis, F; De Piano, M; Monypenny, J; Woodman, N; McConnell, R E; Mouneimne, G; Van Hemelrijck, M; Cao, Y; Condeelis, J; Hynes, R O; Gertler, F B; Krause, M

    2016-09-29

    Cancer invasion is a hallmark of metastasis. The mesenchymal mode of cancer cell invasion is mediated by elongated membrane protrusions driven by the assembly of branched F-actin networks. How deregulation of actin regulators promotes cancer cell invasion is still enigmatic. We report that increased expression and membrane localization of the actin regulator Lamellipodin correlate with reduced metastasis-free survival and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. In agreement, we find that Lamellipodin depletion reduced lung metastasis in an orthotopic mouse breast cancer model. Invasive 3D cancer cell migration as well as invadopodia formation and matrix degradation was impaired upon Lamellipodin depletion. Mechanistically, we show that Lamellipodin promotes invasive 3D cancer cell migration via both actin-elongating Ena/VASP proteins and the Scar/WAVE complex, which stimulates actin branching. In contrast, Lamellipodin interaction with Scar/WAVE but not with Ena/VASP is required for random 2D cell migration. We identified a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism that regulates selective recruitment of these effectors to Lamellipodin: Abl-mediated Lamellipodin phosphorylation promotes its association with both Scar/WAVE and Ena/VASP, whereas Src-dependent phosphorylation enhances binding to Scar/WAVE but not to Ena/VASP. Through these selective, regulated interactions Lamellipodin mediates directional sensing of epidermal growth factor (EGF) gradients and invasive 3D migration of breast cancer cells. Our findings imply that increased Lamellipodin levels enhance Ena/VASP and Scar/WAVE activities at the plasma membrane to promote 3D invasion and metastasis.

  16. Neuroprotective effect of buyang huanwu decoction on rat ischemic/reperfusion brain damage by promoting migration of neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangying; Su, Xiaohui; Zhu, Jia; Wang, Jianzhu; Wan, Hongye; Zhong, Micun; Li, Li; Lin, Na

    2014-06-01

    Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) is a classic formula widely used for treating stroke-induced disability, the highest morbidity of neurological disorders in China. However, the mechanism of its neuroprotection has not been fully clarified. Previous reports indicated that BYHWD may promote growth and differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs). The present study focused on the effects of BYHWD on migration of NPCs in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Rats were treated with different doses of BYHWD (12 and 24 grams/kg) from day 1 to day 21 after model building. BYHWD could increase the survival rate and decrease neurological scores and infarct volume as compared with the vehicle-treated MCAO rats. Moreover, BYHWD treatment significantly increased 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ), subgranular zone (SGZ), and corpus striatum (CS) of the infarct brain. Interestingly, BYHWD could markedly enhance BrdU(+)/doublecortin(+) cells not only in the SVZ and SGZ but also in CS, by up-regulating the protein expression of migration activators, including stromal cell derived factor-1, CXC chemokine receptor 4, vascular endothelial growth factor, Reelin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the ipsilateral infarct area after MCAO. In addition, BYHWD treatment was able to promote the neuronal differentiation, which was closely related to the migratory process of NPCs in MCAO rats. These findings offer evidence for the first time that BYHWD may exert its neuroprotective effects partially by promotion of NPCs migration to ischemic brain areas.

  17. WISP1 overexpression promotes proliferation and migration of human vascular smooth muscle cells via AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shun; Liu, Hao; Lu, Lihe; Wan, Heng; Lin, Zhiqi; Qian, Kai; Yao, Xingxing; Chen, Qing; Liu, Wenjun; Yan, Jianyun; Liu, Zhengjun

    2016-10-05

    Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play crucial roles in the development of vascular restenosis. Our previous study showed that CCN4, namely Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1), significantly promotes proliferation and migration of rat VSMCs, but its mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to investigate whether and how WISP1 stimulates proliferation and migration of human VSMCs. Western blot analysis showed that FBS treatment increased WISP1 protein levels in human VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of WISP1 using adenovirus encoding WISP1 (AD-WISP1) significantly increased proliferation rate of human VSMCs by 2.98-fold compared with empty virus (EV)-transfected cells, shown by EdU incorporation assay. Additionally, Scratch-induced wound healing assay revealed that adenovirus-mediated overexpression of WISP1 significantly increased cell migration compared with EV-transfected cells from 6h (4.56±1.14% vs. 11.23±2.25%, P<0.05) to 48h (25.25±5.51% vs. 97.54±13.12%, P<0.01) after injury. Transwell Migration Assay confirmed that WISP1 overexpression significantly promoted human VSMC migration by 2.25-fold compared with EV. Furthermore, WISP1 overexpression stimulated Akt signaling activation in human VSMCs. Blockage of Akt signaling by Akt inhibitor AZD5363 or PI3K inhibitor LY294002, led to an inhibitory effect of WISP1-induced proliferation and migration in human VSMCs. Moreover, we found that WISP1 overexpression stimulated GSK3α/β phosphorylation, and increased expression of cyclin D1 and MMP9 in human VSMCs, and this effect was abolished by AZD5363. Collectively, we demonstrated that Akt signaling pathway mediates WISP1-induced migration and proliferation of human VSMCs, suggesting that WISP1 may act as a novel potential therapeutic target for vascular restenosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prx1 promotes the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells in a TLR4-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhicheng; Zheng, Xiaomei; Li, Dan; Wang, Tiance; Xu, Rihao; Piao, Hulin; Liu, Kexiang

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of peroxiredocin 1 (Prx1) on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, invasion and migration abilities, and to examine the effect of Toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene silencing on VSMC proliferation, invasion and migration induced by the overexpression of Prx1. The expression of Prx1 in rats with vein graft intimal hyperplasia (IH) was detected using western blot analysis. In addition, VSMCs were retrovirally transfected to establish stable cell lines overexpressing Prx1. An MTT assay was used to determine the effect of the overexpression of Prx1 on VSMC proliferation. A Transwell assay was used to detect the effect of the overexpression of Prx1 on the invasion of VSMCs and a wound‑healing assay was used to determine the effect of the overexpression of Prx1 on the migration of VSMCs. The Prx1‑overexpressed cells were then transfected with interference plasmids of TLR4, to detect the effect of silencing the TLR4 gene on the proliferation and migration of VSMCs using MTT and wound‑healing assays. The results showed that the expression of Prx1 (1.067±0.03) in the IH group was significantly higher, compared with that in the control (0.677±0.05). The number of VSMCs able penetrated the membrane in Prx1-overexpressed group (150±17/visual field) was significantly higher, compared with that in the control (40±5/visual field). The VSMCs in the Prx1‑overexpressed group possessed significantly higher migration ability, compared with those in the control group. The numbers of viable cells in the Prx1‑overexpression groups were 5.625±0.1x105, 8.9±0.737x105 and 10.635±0.065x105, respectively, on days 1, 2 and 3 post‑transfetion, which were significantly higher, compared with those in the control group (3.0±0.025x105, 4.1±0.035x105 and 5.06±0.023x105. The overexpression of Prx1 promoted the proliferation, invasion and migration abilities of the VSMCs. Silencing of the TLR4 gene attenuated the Prx1

  19. Amoeboid-mesenchymal migration plasticity promotes invasion only in complex heterogeneous microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Talkenberger, Katrin; Ada Cavalcanti-Adam, Elisabetta; Voss-Böhme, Anja; Deutsch, Andreas

    2017-08-23

    During tissue invasion individual tumor cells exhibit two interconvertible migration modes, namely mesenchymal and amoeboid migration. The cellular microenvironment triggers the switch between both modes, thereby allowing adaptation to dynamic conditions. It is, however, unclear if this amoeboid-mesenchymal migration plasticity contributes to a more effective tumor invasion. We address this question with a mathematical model, where the amoeboid-mesenchymal migration plasticity is regulated in response to local extracellular matrix resistance. Our numerical analysis reveals that extracellular matrix structure and presence of a chemotactic gradient are key determinants of the model behavior. Only in complex microenvironments, if the extracellular matrix is highly heterogeneous and a chemotactic gradient directs migration, the amoeboid-mesenchymal migration plasticity allows a more widespread invasion compared to the non-switching amoeboid and mesenchymal modes. Importantly, these specific conditions are characteristic for in vivo tumor invasion. Thus, our study suggests that in vitro systems aiming at unraveling the underlying molecular mechanisms of tumor invasion should take into account the complexity of the microenvironment by considering the combined effects of structural heterogeneities and chemical gradients on cell migration.

  20. Lamellipodin and the Scar/WAVE complex cooperate to promote cell migration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Law, Ah-Lai; Vehlow, Anne; Kotini, Maria; Dodgson, Lauren; Soong, Daniel; Theveneau, Eric; Bodo, Cristian; Taylor, Eleanor; Navarro, Christel; Perera, Upamali; Michael, Magdalene; Dunn, Graham A; Bennett, Daimark; Mayor, Roberto; Krause, Matthias

    2013-11-25

    Cell migration is essential for development, but its deregulation causes metastasis. The Scar/WAVE complex is absolutely required for lamellipodia and is a key effector in cell migration, but its regulation in vivo is enigmatic. Lamellipodin (Lpd) controls lamellipodium formation through an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that Lpd directly binds active Rac, which regulates a direct interaction between Lpd and the Scar/WAVE complex via Abi. Consequently, Lpd controls lamellipodium size, cell migration speed, and persistence via Scar/WAVE in vitro. Moreover, Lpd knockout mice display defective pigmentation because fewer migrating neural crest-derived melanoblasts reach their target during development. Consistently, Lpd regulates mesenchymal neural crest cell migration cell autonomously in Xenopus laevis via the Scar/WAVE complex. Further, Lpd's Drosophila melanogaster orthologue Pico binds Scar, and both regulate collective epithelial border cell migration. Pico also controls directed cell protrusions of border cell clusters in a Scar-dependent manner. Taken together, Lpd is an essential, evolutionary conserved regulator of the Scar/WAVE complex during cell migration in vivo.

  1. Lamellipodin and the Scar/WAVE complex cooperate to promote cell migration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ah-Lai; Vehlow, Anne; Kotini, Maria; Dodgson, Lauren; Soong, Daniel; Theveneau, Eric; Bodo, Cristian; Taylor, Eleanor; Navarro, Christel; Perera, Upamali; Michael, Magdalene; Dunn, Graham A.; Bennett, Daimark; Mayor, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Cell migration is essential for development, but its deregulation causes metastasis. The Scar/WAVE complex is absolutely required for lamellipodia and is a key effector in cell migration, but its regulation in vivo is enigmatic. Lamellipodin (Lpd) controls lamellipodium formation through an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that Lpd directly binds active Rac, which regulates a direct interaction between Lpd and the Scar/WAVE complex via Abi. Consequently, Lpd controls lamellipodium size, cell migration speed, and persistence via Scar/WAVE in vitro. Moreover, Lpd knockout mice display defective pigmentation because fewer migrating neural crest-derived melanoblasts reach their target during development. Consistently, Lpd regulates mesenchymal neural crest cell migration cell autonomously in Xenopus laevis via the Scar/WAVE complex. Further, Lpd’s Drosophila melanogaster orthologue Pico binds Scar, and both regulate collective epithelial border cell migration. Pico also controls directed cell protrusions of border cell clusters in a Scar-dependent manner. Taken together, Lpd is an essential, evolutionary conserved regulator of the Scar/WAVE complex during cell migration in vivo. PMID:24247431

  2. Basic fibroblast growth factor promotes melanocyte migration via increased expression of p125(FAK) on melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Shuang; Lan, Cheng-Che E; Chiou, Min-Hsi; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2006-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder characterized by depigmentation of skin and hair. Melanocyte migration is an important event in re-pigmentation of vitiligo. We have demonstrated that narrow-band ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation stimulated cultured keratinocytes to release a significant amount of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Furthermore, narrow-band UVB enhanced migration of melanocytes via increased expression of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p125(FAK)) on melanocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recombinant human bFGF (rhbFGF) on melanocyte migration. The relationship between the expression of p125(FAK) and melanocyte migration induced by rhbFGF was also studied. Our results demonstrated that rhbFGF significantly enhanced migration of melanocytes and p125(FAK) expression on melanocytes. Herbimycin A, a potent p125(FAK) inhibitor, effectively abolished rhbFGF-induced melanocyte migration. The combined results indicated that p125(FAK) plays an important role in the signal transduction pathway of melanocyte migration induced by bFGF.

  3. Glycation of high-density lipoprotein triggers oxidative stress and promotes the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qian; Qian, Ming-Ming; Liu, Pin-Li; Zhang, Le; Wang, Yan; Liu, Dong-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) impairs its anti-atherogenic properties and even develops to a pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic phenotype because of abnormal compositions and modifications. In this study, we examined the effects and the related mechanisms of glycation of HDL on the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods & Results Glycated HDL (G-HDL) was modified with D-glucose (25 mmol/L) in vitro. Diabetic HDL (D-HDL) was isolated from T2DM patients. Rat VSMCs were isolated from the thoracic aortas. Human VSMCs were obtained from ScienCell Research Laboratories. Alpha-actin was detected through immunofluorescence. VSMC proliferation was assayed by Cell Count. VSMC migration was determined by transwell chamber and scratch-wound assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected based on ROS-mediated 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH-DA) fluorescence. Compared to native HDL (N-HDL), G-HDL remarkably promoted VSMC proliferation and migration in the dose and time-dependent manners. In addition, G-HDL enhanced ROS generation in VSMCs. However, the ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, efficiently decreased ROS production and subsequently inhibited the proliferation of VSMCs induced by G-HDL. Similarly, D-HDL from T2DM patients also promoted ROS release and VSMC proliferation and migration. Conclusions HDL either glycated in vitro or isolated from T2DM patients triggered VSMC proliferation, migration, and oxidative stress. These results might partly interpret the higher morbidity of cardiovascular disease in T2DM patients. PMID:28868076

  4. Extracellular calcium promotes the migration of breast cancer cells through the activation of the calcium sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    Saidak, Zuzana; Boudot, Cedric; Abdoune, Rachida; Petit, Laurent; Brazier, Michel; Mentaverri, Romuald; Kamel, Said

    2009-07-15

    Breast cancer is the most frequent form of cancer in women, with the highest incidence of metastasis to the bone. The reason for the preferential destination to the bone is believed to be due to chemoattractant factors released during bone resorption, which act on the cancer cells facilitating their metastasis. One of the factors released during osteolysis that may mediate breast cancer bone localization is Ca2+. Here, we show that extracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+(o)) acting via the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), greatly promotes the migration of bone-preferring breast cancer cells. In Boyden Chamber and Scratch Wound migration assays, an increase in breast cancer cell migration was observed at 2.5 mM and 5 mM Ca2+(o) compared to basal levels for three of the four breast cancer cell lines tested. However, a significantly greater migratory response was observed for the highly bone metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells, compared to the MCF7 and T47D, which have a lower metastatic potential in vivo. The BT474 cells, which do not metastasize to the bone, did not respond to elevated concentrations of Ca2+(o) in the migration assays. Inhibition of either ERK1/2 MAPK or phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta) led to an abolition of the Ca2+(o)-induced migration, implicating these pathways in the migratory response. Knockdown of the CaSR by siRNA resulted in an inhibition of the Ca2+(o)-induced migration, demonstrating the involvement of this receptor in the effect. These results suggest that the activation of the CaSR by elevated Ca2+(o) concentrations, such as those found near resorbing bone, produces an especially strong chemoattractant effect on bone metastatic breast cancer cells toward the Ca2+-rich environment.

  5. Interleukin-17-induced EMT promotes lung cancer cell migration and invasion via NF-κB/ZEB1 signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Kuo; Li, Ming-Ming; Shen, Jing; Liu, Fang; Cao, Jing-Yan; Jin, Shi; Yu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17) has been associated with the risk of progressive cancers including lung cancer. However, it remains unclear how IL-17 may contribute to the invasion and development of these inflammation-associated malignancies. Here we aimed to investigate the role of IL-17 in lung cancer cell development. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been recently proposed as a developmental process which plays an important role in cancer progression and metastases. Here we show that IL-17 might promote EMT in lung cancer cells by inducing the transcriptional repressor ZEB1. Exposure to IL-17 upregulated the signature EMT phenotypic markers vimentin and E-cadherin in lung cancer cells, and compared with controls, increased cell migration was observed in IL-17-treated lung cancer cells. ZEB1 mRNA and protein expression was induced by IL-17, and IL-17 stimulated nuclear localization of phosphorylated ZEB1. Conversely, suppressing ZEB1 expression by ZEB1 siRNA abrogated IL-17-stimulated vimentin expression and cell migration. Moreover, the phosphorylation of IκBα was required for IL-17-induced expression of ZEB1, suggesting the involvement of canonical NF-κB signaling. To check this hypothesis, we used IKK inhibitor BAY 11-7028 to block NF-κB activity. We found that BAY 11-7028 abrogated IL-17-induced ZEB1 expression, cell migration, and EMT, thus confirming that NF-κB is required for IL-17 to induce these aggressive phenotypes in lung cancer cells. Taken together, our data support the idea that IL-17-induced EMT promotes lung cancer cell migration and invasion via NF-κB-mediated upregulation of ZEB1. This study reveals a new signaling axis through which the tumor microenvironment causes ZEB1 expression to promote cancer metastasis. We suggest that targeting IL-17-induced ZEB1 expression may offer an effective therapeutic strategy for lung cancer treatment. PMID:26045995

  6. Stable and efficient Q-compensated least-squares migration with compressive sensing, sparsity-promoting, and preconditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Xintao; Wang, Shangxu; Tang, Genyang; Meng, Xiangcui

    2017-10-01

    The anelastic effects of subsurface media decrease the amplitude and distort the phase of propagating wave. These effects, also referred to as the earth's Q filtering effects, diminish seismic resolution. Ignoring anelastic effects during seismic imaging process generates an image with reduced amplitude and incorrect position of reflectors, especially for highly absorptive media. The numerical instability and the expensive computational cost are major concerns when compensating for anelastic effects during migration. We propose a stable and efficient Q-compensated imaging methodology with compressive sensing, sparsity-promoting, and preconditioning. The stability is achieved by using the Born operator for forward modeling and the adjoint operator for back propagating the residual wavefields. Constructing the attenuation-compensated operators by reversing the sign of attenuation operator is avoided. The method proposed is always stable. To reduce the computational cost that is proportional to the number of wave-equation to be solved (thereby the number of frequencies, source experiments, and iterations), we first subsample over both frequencies and source experiments. We mitigate the artifacts caused by the dimensionality reduction via promoting sparsity of the imaging solutions. We further employ depth- and Q-preconditioning operators to accelerate the convergence rate of iterative migration. We adopt a relatively simple linearized Bregman method to solve the sparsity-promoting imaging problem. Singular value decomposition analysis of the forward operator reveals that attenuation increases the condition number of migration operator, making the imaging problem more ill-conditioned. The visco-acoustic imaging problem converges slower than the acoustic case. The stronger the attenuation, the slower the convergence rate. The preconditioning strategy evidently decreases the condition number of migration operator, which makes the imaging problem less ill-conditioned and

  7. SIRT 1 Overexpression is Associated with Metastasis of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and Promotes Migration and Growth of PDAC Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Siqin; Hong, Hua; Lv, Huicheng; Wu, Guozhu; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Background SIRT 1, as a class III histone deacetylase (HDAC), is implicated in the initiation and progression of malignancies. However, the association of SIRT 1 with tumorigenesis or progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is not clear. Material/Methods In our study we investigated SIRT 1 expression in PDAC samples and evaluated the association of SIRT 1 level with the clinical and pathological characteristics of PDAC patients. We investigated the role of SIRT 1 in the migration and growth of PDAC PANC-1 or BxPC-3 cells using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approach. Results We demonstrated that SIRT 1 mRNA level was significantly promoted in intra-tumor tissues compared to peri-tumor tissues of PDAC; and SIRT 1 overexpression was markedly associated with distant or lymph node (LN) metastasis of these PDAC tissues. Moreover, the in vitro wound healing assay demonstrated that SIRT 1 overexpression with lentivirus vector markedly promoted the migration of PANC-1 or BxPC-3 cells, whereas SIRT 1 knockdown using SIRT 1 specific siRNA transfection significantly inhibited the migration of PDAC cells. The colony forming assay confirmed SIRT 1 promotion of the growth of PANC-1 or BxPC-3 cells. Conclusions In summary, SIRT 1 overexpression is significantly associated with metastasis of PDAC, and overexpressed SIRT 1 plays an important role in pancreatic cancer cell migration and growth. Our data warrants further studies on SIRT 1 as a novel chemotherapeutic target in PDAC. PMID:27170223

  8. ADAM-10-Mediated N-cadherin Cleavage is Protein Kinase C-α–Dependent and Promotes Glioblastoma Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Kohutek, Zachary A.; diPierro, Charles G.; Redpath, Gerard T.; Hussaini, Isa M.

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the related ‘a disintegrin and metalloproteinases’ (ADAMs) promote tumorigenesis by cleaving extracellular matrix and protein substrates, including N-cadherin. While N-cadherin is thought to regulate cell adhesion, migration and invasion, its role has not been characterized in glioblastomas (GBMs). In this study, we investigated the expression and function of post-translational N-cadherin cleavage in GBM cells as well as its regulation by protein kinase C (PKC). N-cadherin cleavage occurred at a higher level in glioblastoma cells than in non-neoplastic astrocytes. Treatment with the PKC-activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased N-cadherin cleavage, which was reduced by pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA specific for ADAM-10 or PKC-α. Furthermore, treatment of GBM cells with PMA induced the translocation of ADAM-10 to the cell membrane, the site where N-cadherin was cleaved, and this translocation was significantly reduced by the PKC-α inhibitor Gö6976 or PKC-α shRNA. In functional studies, N-cadherin cleavage was required for GBM cell migration, as depletion of N-cadherin cleavage by N-cadherin siRNA, ADAM-10 siRNA, or a cleavage-site mutant N-cadherin, decreased GBM cell migration. Taken together, these results suggest that N-cadherin cleavage is regulated by a PKC-α-ADAM-10 cascade in GBM cells and may be involved in mediating GBM cell migration. PMID:19357285

  9. Discoidin domain receptor 1 promotes Th17 cell migration by activating the RhoA/ROCK/MAPK/ERK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Azreq, Mohammed-Amine El; Kadiri, Maleck; Boisvert, Marc; Pagé, Nathalie; Tessier, Philippe A.; Aoudjit, Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    Effector T cell migration through the tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important step of the adaptive immune response and in the development of inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms involved in this process are still poorly understood. In this study, we addressed the role of a collagen receptor, the discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), in the migration of Th17 cells. We showed that the vast majority of human Th17 cells express DDR1 and that silencing DDR1 or using the blocking recombinant receptor DDR1:Fc significantly reduced their motility and invasion in three-dimensional (3D) collagen. DDR1 promoted Th17 migration by activating RhoA/ROCK and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways. Interestingly, the RhoA/ROCK signaling module was required for MAPK/ERK activation. Finally, we showed that DDR1 is important for the recruitment of Th17 cells into the mouse dorsal air pouch containing the chemoattractant CCL20. Collectively, our results indicate that DDR1, via the activation of RhoA/ROCK/MAPK/ERK signaling axis, is a key pathway of effector T cell migration through collagen of perivascular tissues. As such, DDR1 can contribute to the development of Th17-dependent inflammatory diseases. PMID:27391444

  10. EphA/ephrin A reverse signaling promotes the migration of cortical interneurons from the medial ganglionic eminence.

    PubMed

    Steinecke, André; Gampe, Christin; Zimmer, Geraldine; Rudolph, Judith; Bolz, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons control the flow of information and synchronization in the cerebral cortex at the circuit level. During embryonic development, multiple subtypes of cortical interneurons are generated in different regions of the ventral telencephalon, such as the medial and caudal ganglionic eminence (MGE and CGE), as well as the preoptic area (POA). These neurons then migrate over long distances towards their cortical target areas. Diverse families of diffusible and cell-bound signaling molecules, including the Eph/ephrin system, regulate and orchestrate interneuron migration. Ephrin A3 and A5, for instance, are expressed at the borders of the pathway of MGE-derived interneurons and prevent these cells from entering inappropriate regions via EphA4 forward signaling. We found that MGE-derived interneurons, in addition to EphA4, also express ephrin A and B ligands, suggesting Eph/ephrin forward and reverse signaling in the same cell. In vitro and in vivo approaches showed that EphA4-induced reverse signaling in MGE-derived interneurons promotes their migration and that this effect is mediated by ephrin A2 ligands. In EphA4 mutant mice, as well as after ephrin A2 knockdown using in utero electroporation, we found delayed interneuron migration at embryonic stages. Thus, besides functions in guiding MGE-derived interneurons to the cortex through forward signaling, here we describe a novel role of the ephrins in driving these neurons to their target via reverse signaling.

  11. Insulin resistance reduces sensitivity to Cis-platinum and promotes adhesion, migration and invasion in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Jing; Li, Guang-Di; Wei, Hu-Lai; Chen, Jing; Liu, Yu-Mei; Li, Fei; Xie, Bei; Wang, Bei; Li, Cai-Li

    2014-01-01

    The liver is normally the major site of glucose metabolism in intact organisms and the most important target organ for the action of insulin. It has been widely accepted that insulin resistance (IR) is closely associated with postoperative recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the relationship between IR and drug resistance in liver cancer cells is unclear. In the present study, IR was induced in HepG2 cells via incubation with a high concentration of insulin. Once the insulin-resistant cell line was established, the instability of HepG2/ IR cells was further tested via incubation in insulin-free medium for another 72h. Afterwards, the biological effects of insulin resistance on adhesion, migration, invasion and sensitivity to cis-platinum (DDP) of cells were determined. The results indicated that glucose consumption was reduced in insulin-resistant cells. In addition, the expression of the insulin receptor and glucose transportor-2 was downregulated. Furthermore, HepG2/IR cells displayed markedly enhanced adhesion, migration, and invasion. Most importantly, these cells exhibited a lower sensitivity to DDP. By contrast, HepG2/IR cells exhibited decreased adhesion and invasion after treatment with the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone hydrochloride. The results suggest that IR is closely related to drug resistance as well as adhesion, migration, and invasion in HepG2 cells. These findings may help explain the clinical observation of limited efficacy for chemotherapy on a background of IR, which promotes the invasion and migration of cancer cells.

  12. S100A7 promotes the migration, invasion and metastasis of human cervical cancer cells through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Li, Xukun; Hua, Zhen; Ma, Jianlin; Wu, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhihua; Chen, Hongyan; Cui, Zhumei

    2017-02-15

    S100A7 is an EF-hand calcium-binding protein that has been suggested to be implicated in cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tumor metastasis. However, its role in cervical cancer has not yet been fully clarified. The present study used immunohistochemistry analysis of S100A7 in clinical specimens of cervical cancer to show that S100A7 expression was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer tissues compared with normal cervical tissues and S100A7 expression in high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN) was significantly higher than cervical cancer. Statistical analysis showed that S100A7 expression was associated with tumor grade (P <0.01) and lymph node metastasis (P <0.05). Functional studies showed that overexpression of S100A7 in cervical cancer cells promoted migration, invasion and metastasis of cervical cancer cells without influencing cell proliferation. Furthermore, S100A7 was found to be secreted into the conditioned media and extracellular S100A7 enhanced cell migration and invasion. Mechanistically, S100A7 bound to RAGE and activated ERK signaling pathway. And S100A7 enhanced cell mesenchymal properties and induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In summary, these data reveal a crucial role for S100A7 in regulating cell migration, invasion, metastasis and EMT of cervical cancer and suggest that targeting S100A7 may offer a new targeted strategy for cervical cancer.

  13. Phosphorylation of BRN2 Modulates Its Interaction with the Pax3 Promoter To Control Melanocyte Migration and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Irina; Denat, Laurence; Steunou, Anne-Lise; Puig, Isabel; Champeval, Delphine; Colombo, Sophie; Roberts, Karen; Bonvin, Elise; Bourgeois, Yveline; Davidson, Irwin; Delmas, Véronique; Nieto, Laurence; Goding, Colin R.

    2012-01-01

    MITF-M and PAX3 are proteins central to the establishment and transformation of the melanocyte lineage. They control various cellular mechanisms, including migration and proliferation. BRN2 is a POU domain transcription factor expressed in melanoma cell lines and is involved in proliferation and invasion, at least in part by regulating the expression of MITF-M and PAX3. The T361 and S362 residues of BRN2, both in the POU domain, are conserved throughout the POU protein family and are targets for phosphorylation, but their roles in vivo remain unknown. To examine the role of this phosphorylation, we generated mutant BRN2 in which these two residues were replaced with alanines (BRN2TS→BRN2AA). When expressed in melanocytes in vitro or in the melanocyte lineage in transgenic mice, BRN2TS induced proliferation and repressed migration, whereas BRN2AA repressed both proliferation and migration. BRN2TS and BRN2AA bound and repressed the MITF-M promoter, whereas PAX3 transcription was induced by BRN2TS but repressed by BRN2AA. Expression of the BRN2AA transgene in a Mitf heterozygous background and in a Pax3 mutant background enhanced the coat color phenotype. Our findings show that melanocyte migration and proliferation are controlled both through the regulation of PAX3 by nonphosphorylated BRN2 and through the regulation of MITF-M by the overall BRN2 level. PMID:22290434

  14. M2 polarized macrophages induced by CSE promote proliferation, migration, and invasion of alveolar basal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao; Shi, Hengfei; Qi, Yue; Zhang, Weiyun; Dong, Ping

    2015-09-01

    Cigarette smoking plays an important role in the genesis of lung cancer, and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are believed to accelerate the process. We therefore sought to clarify the relationship between cigarette smoking, TAMs and tumorigenesis. We treated macrophages (THP-1) with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and found that the mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α decreased, while TGF-β mRNA levels increased. CSE significantly inhibited the phagocytic ability of macrophages, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of FITC-dextran internalization. JAK2/STAT3 was significantly activated by CSE, as determined by Western blot analysis. When the scavenger receptor CD163, a specific marker of M2 macrophages, was analyzed by flow cytometry, its expression was significantly increased. After inducing M2 polarization of THP-1 cells, we co-cultured macrophages and alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549). The proliferation of A549 cells was detected by the MTT assay and cell cycle analysis, while their migration and invasion were detected by scratch wound assay and transwell assay. The results showed that the proliferation, migration and invasion of A549 cells were significantly promoted by M2 macrophages but were slightly inhibited by CSE. In conclusion, we demonstrated that macrophage M2 polarization induced by CSE promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of alveolar basal epithelial cells.

  15. Homeodomain-containing gene 10 inhibits cell apoptosis and promotes cell invasion and migration in osteosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wen; Zhou, Quan; Liu, Gang; Liu, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Xin-Yu

    2017-05-01

    Homeodomain-containing gene 10 (HOXC10) belongs to the homeobox family, which encodes a highly conserved family of transcription factors that plays an important role in morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Altered expressions of HOXC10 have been reported in several malignancies. This study was aimed to reveal the expression profile of HOXC10 in osteosarcoma and evaluated whether HOXC10 is a molecular target for cancer therapy. We found that HOXC10 was up-regulated in osteosarcoma tissues compared with bone cyst specimens from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Osteosarcoma MG63 cells were infected with HOXC10 shRNA expressing vector, and 143B cells were infected with HOXC10 expressing vector. We found that reduced expression of HOXC10 markedly impaired the ability of proliferation, invasion, and migration, and promoted cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Up-regulated expression of HOXC10 promoted the proliferation, invasion, and migration, and inhibited apoptosis of 143B cells. Additionally, HOXC10 regulated apoptosis and migration via modulating expression of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-3, MMP-2/MMP-9, and E-cadherin in both MG63 and 143B cells and in vivo. These results indicated that HOXC10 might be a diagnostic marker for osteosarcoma and could be a potential molecular target for the therapy of osteosarcoma.

  16. miR-300 promotes proliferation and EMT-mediated colorectal cancer migration and invasion by targeting p53.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Yu, Peiwu

    2016-12-01

    p53 mutations in tumors can induce the loss of wild-type tumor-suppressing p53 function, which results in the increase in proliferation, migration and invasion ability in cancer cells. Studies have shown that the expression of p53 is regulated by several microRNAs (miRNAs). In the present study, we found that miR-300 and p53 were significantly increased in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues when compared with levels noted in adjacent colorectal tissues. Both miR-300 and p53 were significantly correlated with lymphatic metastasis and TNM stage. Both miR-300 and p53 promoted CRC cell (SW480 and HT29) proliferation, migration, and invasion, respectively, in vitro. In addition, we found that miR-300 is a direct positive regulator of p53 through binding to the binding site in the 3'UTR of the p53 gene in human CRC cells. Moreover, both miR-300 and p53 induced CRC cell epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) respectively. Taken together, we demonstrated that miR-300 promoted proliferation and EMT-mediated CRC migration and invasion by targeting p53. These findings provide a new theoretical basis and potential therapeutic targets, and thus lays the foundation for exploring the pathogenesis of CRC.

  17. Platelet-derived nucleotides promote tumor-cell transendothelial migration and metastasis via P2Y2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Dagmar; Strilic, Boris; Sivaraj, Kishor Kumar; Wettschureck, Nina; Offermanns, Stefan

    2013-07-08

    Tumor cells can activate platelets, which in turn facilitate tumor cell survival and dissemination. The exact mechanisms by which platelets promote metastasis have remained unclear. Here, we show that adenine nucleotides released from tumor cell-activated platelets induce opening of the endothelial barrier to allow transendothelial migration of tumor cells and thereby promote cancer cell extravasation. We identified the endothelial P2Y2 receptor, which is activated by ATP, as the primary mediator of this effect. Mice deficient in P2Y2 or lacking ATP secretion from platelets show strongly reduced tumor cell metastasis. These findings demonstrate a mechanism by which platelets promote cancer cell metastasis and suggest the P2Y2 receptor and its endothelial downstream signaling mechanisms as a target for antimetastatic therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Integration of ALV into CTDSPL and CTDSPL2 genes in B-cell lymphomas promotes cell immortalization, migration and survival.

    PubMed

    Winans, Shelby; Flynn, Alyssa; Malhotra, Sanandan; Balagopal, Vidya; Beemon, Karen L

    2017-08-22

    Avian leukosis virus induces tumors in chickens by integrating into the genome and altering expression of nearby genes. Thus, ALV can be used as an insertional mutagenesis tool to identify novel genes involved in tumorigenesis. Deep sequencing analysis of viral integration sites has identified CTDSPL and CTDSPL2 as common integration sites in ALV-induced B-cell lymphomas, suggesting a potential role in driving oncogenesis. We show that in tumors with integrations in these genes, the viral promoter is driving the expression of a truncated fusion transcript. Overexpression in cultured chick embryo fibroblasts reveals that CTDSPL and CTDSPL2 have oncogenic properties, including promoting cell migration. We also show that CTDSPL2 has a previously uncharacterized role in protecting cells from apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Further, the truncated viral fusion transcripts of both CTDSPL and CTDSPL2 promote immortalization in primary cell culture.

  19. RacGAP1-driven focal adhesion formation promotes melanoma transendothelial migration through mediating adherens junction disassembly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pu; Bai, Huiyuan; Fu, Changliang; Chen, Feng; Zeng, Panying; Wu, Chengxiang; Ye, Qichao; Dong, Cheng; Song, Yang; Song, Erqun

    2015-03-27

    Melanoma cell migration across vascular endothelial cells is an essential step of tumor metastasis. Here, we provide evidence that RacGAP1, a cytokinesis-related Rho GTPase-activating protein, contributed to this process. Depletion of RacGAP1 with RacGAP1-targeting siRNA or overexpression of RacGAP1 mutant (T249A) attenuated melanoma cell transendothelial migration and concomitant changes of adherens junctions. In addition, RacGAP1 promoted the activations of RhoA, FAK, paxillin and triggered focal adhesion formation and cytoskeletal rearrangement. By overexpressing FAK-related non-kinase (FRNK) in endothelium, we showed that RacGAP1 mediated endothelial barrier function loss and melanoma transmigration in a focal adhesion-dependent manner. These results suggest that endothelial RacGAP1 may play critical roles in pathogenic processes of cancer by regulating endothelial permeability.

  20. Chase-and-run between adjacent cell populations promotes directional collective migration

    PubMed Central

    Theveneau, Eric; Steventon, Benjamin; Scarpa, Elena; Garcia, Simon; Trepat, Xavier; Streit, Andrea; Mayor, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Collective cell migration in morphogenesis and cancer progression often involves the coordination of multiple cell types. How reciprocal interactions between adjacent cell populations lead to new emergent behaviours remains unknown. Here we studied the interaction between Neural Crest (NC) cells, a highly migratory cell population, and placodal cells, an epithelial tissue that contributes to sensory organs. We found that NC cells “chase” placodal cells by chemotaxis, while placodal cells “run” when contacted by NC. Chemotaxis to Sdf1 underlies the chase, while repulsion involving PCP and N-Cadherin signalling is responsible for the run. This “chase-and-run” requires the generation of asymmetric forces, which depend on local inhibition of focal adhesions. The cell interactions described here are essential for correct NC migration and for segregation of placodes in vivo and are likely to represent a general mechanism of coordinated migration. PMID:23770678

  1. Flight orientation behaviors promote optimal migration trajectories in high-flying insects.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jason W; Nesbit, Rebecca L; Burgin, Laura E; Reynolds, Don R; Smith, Alan D; Middleton, Douglas R; Hill, Jane K

    2010-02-05

    Many insects undertake long-range seasonal migrations to exploit temporary breeding sites hundreds or thousands of kilometers apart, but the behavioral adaptations that facilitate these movements remain largely unknown. Using entomological radar, we showed that the ability to select seasonally favorable, high-altitude winds is widespread in large day- and night-flying migrants and that insects adopt optimal flight headings that partially correct for crosswind drift, thus maximizing distances traveled. Trajectory analyses show that these behaviors increase migration distances by 40% and decrease the degree of drift from seasonally optimal directions. These flight behaviors match the sophistication of those seen in migrant birds and help explain how high-flying insects migrate successfully between seasonal habitats.

  2. CCN2 promotes keratinocyte adhesion and migration via integrin α5β1.

    PubMed

    Kiwanuka, Elizabeth; Andersson, Lauren; Caterson, Edward J; Junker, Johan Pe; Gerdin, Bengt; Eriksson, Elof

    2013-11-15

    CCN2, (a.k.a. connective tissue growth factor and CTGF) has emerged as a regulator of cell migration. While the importance of CCN2 for the fibrotic process in wound healing has been well studied, the effect of CCN2 on keratinocyte function is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism behind CCN2-driven keratinocyte adhesion and migration. Adhesion assays were performed by coating wells with 10 μg/ml fibronectin (FN) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Keratinocytes were seeded in the presence or absence of 200 ng/ml CCN2, 5 mmol/l ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 10 mmol/l cations, 500 μl arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD), 500 μM arginine-glycine-glutamate-serine (RGES), and 10 μg/ml anti-integrin blocking antibodies. Migration studies were performed using a modified Boyden chamber assay. Quantitative PCR was used to study the effect of CCN2 on integrin subunit mRNA expression. To block intracellular pathways, keratinocytes were pretreated with 20 μM PD98059 (MEK-1 inhibitor) or 20 μM PF573228 (FAK inhibitor) for 60 min prior the addition of CCN2. Western blot was used to measure CCN2, p-ERK1/2, and ERK1/2. CCN2 enhanced keratinocyte adhesion to fibronectin via integrin α5β1. The addition of anti-integrin α5β1 antibodies reduced CCN2-mediated keratinocyte migration. In addition, CCN2 regulated mRNA and protein expression of integrin subunits α5 and β1. CCN2 activated the FAK-MAPK signaling pathway, and pretreatment with MEK1-specific inhibitor PD98059 markedly reduced CCN2-induced keratinocyte migration. Our results demonstrate that CCN2 enhances keratinocyte adhesion and migration through integrin α5β1 and activation of the FAK-MAPK signaling cascade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transgelin is a marker of repopulating mesangial cells after injury and promotes their proliferation and migration.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Christoph; Lüdke, Andrea; Wagner, Andrea; Todorov, Vladimir T; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian

    2012-06-01

    Mesangial cell (MC) migration is essential during glomerular repair and kidney development. The aim of the study was to identify marker/player for glomerular progenitor/reserve cells migrating into the glomerulus after MC injury and during glomerulogenesis in the rat. Experimental mesangial proliferative nephritis was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by intravenous injection of OX-7 antibody. We investigated mRNA expression profiles in isolated glomeruli from on days 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5 after induction of anti-Thy1 nephritis using Affymetrix microarray technology. Using self-organizing maps, transgelin was identified as a new marker for repopulating glomerular cells. Expression of transgelin during anti-Thy1 nephritis was investigated by northern blot, real-time PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Migration and proliferation assays using isolated MCs after transgelin knockdown by siRNA were performed to investigate the potential role of transgelin during glomerular repopulation. Transgelin mRNA was not detected in healthy glomeruli. It was strongly upregulated during the repopulation process starting on day 1, continued to be increased until day 5 and disappeared on day 7. Transgelin was specifically expressed at the edge of the migratory front during glomerular repopulation as indicated by transgelin/OX-7 double staining. Transgelin expression was similar in migrating vs non-migrating MCs in vitro. Blocking of transgelin expression by siRNA treatment resulted in inhibition of MC migration and proliferation. Transgelin was also expressed in MCs during glomerulogenesis and in biopsies from patients with IgA nephritis. In conclusion, transgelin in the kidney is upregulated in repopulating MCs in vivo and supports their migratory and proliferative repair response after injury.

  4. The process of macrophage migration promotes matrix metalloproteinase-independent invasion by tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Guiet, Romain; Van Goethem, Emeline; Cougoule, Céline; Balor, Stéphanie; Valette, Annie; Al Saati, Talal; Lowell, Clifford A; Le Cabec, Véronique; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages are known to amplify the malignant potential of tumors by secreting a variety of cytokines and proteases involved in tumor cell invasion and metastasis, but how these macrophages infiltrate tumors and whether the macrophage migration process facilitates tumor cell invasion remain poorly documented. To address these questions, we used cell spheroids of breast carcinoma SUM159PT cells as an in vitro model of solid tumors. We found that macrophages used both the mesenchymal mode requiring matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the amoeboid migration mode to infiltrate tumor cell spheroids. Whereas individual SUM159PT cells invaded Matrigel using an MMP-dependent mesenchymal mode, when they were grown as spheroids, tumor cells were unable to invade the Matrigel surrounding spheroids. When spheroids were infiltrated or in contact with macrophages, tumor cell invasiveness was restored. It was dependent on the capacity of macrophages to remodel the matrix and migrate in an MMP-independent mesenchymal mode. This effect of macrophages was much reduced when spheroids were infiltrated by Matrigel migration-defective Hck(-/-) macrophages. In the presence of macrophages, SUM159PT migrated into Matrigel in the proximity of macrophages and switched from an MMP-dependent mesenchymal migration to an amoeboid mode resistant to protease inhibitors.Thus, in addition to the well-described paracrine loop between macrophages and tumor cells, macrophages can also contribute to the invasiveness of tumor cells by remodeling the extracellular matrix and by opening the way to exit the tumor and colonize the surrounding tissues in an MMP-dispensable manner.

  5. Alcohol promotes migration and invasion of triple-negative breast cancer cells through activation of p38 MAPK and JNK.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Howard, Erin W; Parris, Amanda B; Guo, Zhiying; Zhao, Qingxia; Yang, Xiaohe

    2017-03-01

    Although alcohol is an established breast cancer risk factor, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies examined the general association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk; however, the risk for different breast cancer subtypes has been rarely reported. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer lacking hormone receptors and HER2 expression, and having poor prognosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of TNBC etiology remains a significant challenge. In this study, we investigated cellular responses to alcohol in two TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468. Our results showed that alcohol at low concentrations (0.025-0.1% v/v) induced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in 1% FBS-containing medium. Molecular analysis indicated that these phenotypic changes were associated with alcohol-induced reactive oxygen species production and increased p38 and JNK phosphorylation. Likewise, p38 or JNK inhibition attenuated alcohol-induced cell migration and invasion. We revealed that alcohol treatment activated/phosphorylated NF-κB regulators and increased transcription of NF-κB-targeted genes. While examining the role of acetaldehyde, the major alcohol metabolite, in alcohol-associated responses in TNBC cells, we saw that acetaldehyde induced cell migration, invasion, and increased phospho-p38, phospho-JNK, and phospho-IκBα in a pattern similar to alcohol treatment. Taken together, we established that alcohol promotes TNBC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. The underlying mechanisms involve the induction of oxidative stress and the activation of NF-κB signaling. In particular, the activation of p38 and JNK plays a pivotal role in alcohol-induced cellular responses. These results will advance our understanding of alcohol-mediated development and promotion of TNBC. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. IFN-γ promotes transendothelial migration of CD4(+) T cells across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Sandip Ashok; Shaikh, Shagufta; Joshi, Nupura; Atre, Ashwini N; Lal, Girdhari

    2017-07-06

    Transendothelial migration (TEM) of Th1 and Th17 cells across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has a critical role in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). How cytokines produced by inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells damage the endothelial BBB and promote transendothelial migration of immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS) during autoimmunity is not understood. We therefore investigated the effect of various cytokines on brain endothelial cells. Among the various cytokines tested, such as Th1 (IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12), Th2 (IL-3, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-13), Th17 (IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, GM-CSF) and Treg-specific cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β), IFN-γ predominantly showed increased expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MAdCAM-1, H2-K(b) and I-A(b) molecules on brain endothelial cells. Furthermore, IFN-γ induced transendothelial migration of CD4(+) T cells from the apical (luminal side) to the basal side (abluminal side) of the endothelial monolayer to chemokine CCL21 in a STAT-1-dependent manner. IFN-γ also favored the transcellular route of TEM of CD4(+) T cells. Multicolor immunofluorescence and confocal microscopic analysis showed that IFN-γ induced relocalization of ICAM-1, PECAM-1, ZO-1 and VE-cadherin in the endothelial cells, which affected the migration of CD4(+) T cells. These findings reveal that the IFN-γ produced during inflammation could contribute towards disrupting the BBB and promoting TEM of CD4(+) T cells. Our findings also indicate that strategies that interfere with the activation of CNS endothelial cells may help in controlling neuroinflammation and autoimmunity.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 1 August 2017; doi:10.1038/icb.2017.56.

  7. MIG-15 and ERM-1 promote growth cone directional migration in parallel to UNC-116 and WVE-1

    PubMed Central

    Teulière, Jérôme; Gally, Christelle; Garriga, Gian; Labouesse, Michel; Georges-Labouesse, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Neurons require precise targeting of their axons to form a connected network and a functional nervous system. Although many guidance receptors have been identified, much less is known about how these receptors signal to direct growth cone migration. We used Caenorhabditis elegans motoneurons to study growth cone directional migration in response to a repellent UNC-6 (netrin homolog) guidance cue. The evolutionarily conserved kinase MIG-15 [homolog of Nck-interacting kinase (NIK)] regulates motoneuron UNC-6-dependent repulsion through unknown mechanisms. Using genetics and live imaging techniques, we show that motoneuron commissural axon morphology defects in mig-15 mutants result from impaired growth cone motility and subsequent failure to migrate across longitudinal obstacles or retract extra processes. To identify new genes acting with mig-15, we screened for genetic enhancers of the mig-15 commissural phenotype and identified the ezrin/radixin/moesin ortholog ERM-1, the kinesin-1 motor UNC-116 and the actin regulator WVE-1 complex. Genetic analysis indicates that mig-15 and erm-1 act in the same genetic pathway to regulate growth cone migration and that this pathway functions in parallel to the UNC-116/WVE-1 pathway. Further, time-lapse imaging of growth cones in mutants suggests that UNC-116 might be required to stimulate protrusive activity at the leading edge, whereas MIG-15 and ERM-1 maintain low activity at the rear edge. Together, these results support a model in which the MIG-15 kinase and the UNC-116–WVE-1 complex act on opposite sides of the growth cone to promote robust directional migration. PMID:21937599

  8. MIG-15 and ERM-1 promote growth cone directional migration in parallel to UNC-116 and WVE-1.

    PubMed

    Teulière, Jérôme; Gally, Christelle; Garriga, Gian; Labouesse, Michel; Georges-Labouesse, Elisabeth

    2011-10-01

    Neurons require precise targeting of their axons to form a connected network and a functional nervous system. Although many guidance receptors have been identified, much less is known about how these receptors signal to direct growth cone migration. We used Caenorhabditis elegans motoneurons to study growth cone directional migration in response to a repellent UNC-6 (netrin homolog) guidance cue. The evolutionarily conserved kinase MIG-15 [homolog of Nck-interacting kinase (NIK)] regulates motoneuron UNC-6-dependent repulsion through unknown mechanisms. Using genetics and live imaging techniques, we show that motoneuron commissural axon morphology defects in mig-15 mutants result from impaired growth cone motility and subsequent failure to migrate across longitudinal obstacles or retract extra processes. To identify new genes acting with mig-15, we screened for genetic enhancers of the mig-15 commissural phenotype and identified the ezrin/radixin/moesin ortholog ERM-1, the kinesin-1 motor UNC-116 and the actin regulator WVE-1 complex. Genetic analysis indicates that mig-15 and erm-1 act in the same genetic pathway to regulate growth cone migration and that this pathway functions in parallel to the UNC-116/WVE-1 pathway. Further, time-lapse imaging of growth cones in mutants suggests that UNC-116 might be required to stimulate protrusive activity at the leading edge, whereas MIG-15 and ERM-1 maintain low activity at the rear edge. Together, these results support a model in which the MIG-15 kinase and the UNC-116-WVE-1 complex act on opposite sides of the growth cone to promote robust directional migration.

  9. MiR-203 promotes the growth and migration of ovarian cancer cells by enhancing glycolytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiaohong, Zhao; Lichun, Fan; Na, Xie; Kejian, Zou; Xiaolan, Xiao; Shaosheng, Wang

    2016-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer. Previously, we have reported the dysregulation of miR-203 in the ovarian cancer tissues. However, the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of miR-203 in ovarian cancer remain unknown. Here, we showed that the expression of miR-203 was increased in ovarian cancer tissues compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues and the transcription of miR-203 was inhibited by P53. Forced expression of miR-203 in ovarian cancer promoted cell growth and migration, while depletion of miR-203 inhibited the growth and migration of ovarian cancer cells. In addition, miR-203 promoted the metastasis of ovarian cancer cells in vivo and shorted the survival of the nude mice. Mechanically, miR-203 targeted the 3'-UTR of pyruvate dehydrogenase B (PDHB) and increased the consumption of glucose and the production of lactate. Overexpression of PDHB abolished the oncogenic effects of miR-203 on the growth of ovarian cancer cells. Together, our data suggested the oncogenic roles of miR-203 in ovarian cancer by promoting glycolysis, and miR-203 might be a therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

  10. GPE Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of Mouse Embryonic Neural Stem Cells and Their Progeny In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Almengló, Cristina; Devesa, Pablo; Devesa, Jesús; Arce, Víctor M.

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate a possible role of the N-terminal tripeptide of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), Gly-Pro-Glu (GPE), physiologically generated in neurons following IGF-I-specific cleavage, in promoting neural regeneration after an injury. Primary cultures of mouse neural stem cells (NSCs), obtained from 13.5 Days post-conception (dpc) mouse embryos, were challenged with either GPE, growth hormone (GH), or GPE + GH and the effects on cell proliferation, migration, and survival were evaluated both under basal conditions and in response to a wound healing assay. The cellular pathways activated by GPE were also investigated by using specific chemical inhibitors. The results of the study indicate that GPE treatment promotes the proliferation and the migration of neural stem cells in vitro through a mechanism that involves the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase PI3K-Akt pathways. Intriguingly, both GPE effects and the signaling pathways activated were similar to those observed after GH treatment. Based upon the results obtained from this study, GPE, as well as GH, may be useful in promoting neural protection and/or regeneration after an injury. PMID:28621713

  11. Steroidal glycosides from the bulbs of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) promote dermal fibroblast migration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Debora; Munafo, John P; Lucibello, Teresa; Baldeon, Manuel; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2013-07-09

    Preparations derived from bulbs of various Lilium species have been used to promote the healing of skin abrasions, sores and burns and to aid in healing wounds in Traditional Chinese and Greco-Roman Medicine. To evaluate fractionated Easter lily bulb extracts and their steroidal glycosides (1-5) for the promotion of dermal fibroblast migration in vitro, a model for the early events in wound healing. An activity-guided screening approach was used by coupling sequential solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and semi-preparative reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with an in vitro dermal fibroblast migration assay. Cytotoxicity was evaluated with methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT). To gain insight into the mode of action of the steroidal glycosides, nitric oxide (NO) production, and expression of genes for transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β) and its receptors were evaluated. Fractionated bulb extracts and the two isolated steroidal glycoalkaloids (1) and (2) induced NO production and TGF-β receptor I mRNA expression in fibroblast cell culture. In a cytotoxicity assay, steroidal glycosides (1) and (3) had IC50 values of 8.2 and 8.7 µM, but the natural acetylation of the C-6″' hydroxy of the terminal glucose unit in (2) resulted in a 3-fold decrease in cell cytotoxicity when compared with (1). Results from the dermal fibroblast migration assay revealed that the steroidal glycoalkaloids (1) and (2), and the furostanol saponin (3) promoted fibroblast migration from the range of 23.7±5.7 to 37.7±5.1%, as compared with the control. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the steroidal glycosides present in Easter lily bulbs induce, at least in part, the observed dermal fibroblast migration activity of the bulb extracts. This is the first evidence that steroidal glycosides from Lilium longiflorum may potentially play a role in the wound healing process and may provide a scientific basis for the historical use of lily

  12. Stimulation of Na+/H+ Exchanger Isoform 1 Promotes Microglial Migration

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yejie; Yuan, Hui; Kim, Dong; Chanana, Vishal; Baba, Akemichi; Matsuda, Toshio; Cengiz, Pelin; Ferrazzano, Peter; Sun, Dandan

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of microglial migration is not well understood. In this study, we proposed that Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE-1) is important in microglial migration. NHE-1 protein was co-localized with cytoskeletal protein ezrin in lamellipodia of microglia and maintained its more alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). Chemoattractant bradykinin (BK) stimulated microglial migration by increasing lamellipodial area and protrusion rate, but reducing lamellipodial persistence time. Interestingly, blocking NHE-1 activity with its potent inhibitor HOE 642 not only acidified microglia, abolished the BK-triggered dynamic changes of lamellipodia, but also reduced microglial motility and microchemotaxis in response to BK. In addition, NHE-1 activation resulted in intracellular Na+ loading as well as intracellular Ca2+ elevation mediated by stimulating reverse mode operation of Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCXrev). Taken together, our study shows that NHE-1 protein is abundantly expressed in microglial lamellipodia and maintains alkaline pHi in response to BK stimulation. In addition, NHE-1 and NCXrev play a concerted role in BK-induced microglial migration via Na+ and Ca2+ signaling. PMID:23991215

  13. Paradoxes of Sahrawi Refugees' Educational Migration: Promoting Self-Sufficiency or Renewing Dependency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Education is often prioritised by refugee children and families, as well as by their political representatives and international actors alike. This article explores the specificities of the Sahrawi refugee education system, focusing in particular on the nature, motivations and implications of Sahrawi refugee youths' educational migration to Cuba…

  14. Paradoxes of Sahrawi Refugees' Educational Migration: Promoting Self-Sufficiency or Renewing Dependency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Education is often prioritised by refugee children and families, as well as by their political representatives and international actors alike. This article explores the specificities of the Sahrawi refugee education system, focusing in particular on the nature, motivations and implications of Sahrawi refugee youths' educational migration to Cuba…

  15. Heterotrimeric Gi Proteins Link Hedgehog Signaling to Activation of Rho Small GTPases to Promote Fibroblast Migration*

    PubMed Central

    Polizio, Ariel H.; Chinchilla, Pilar; Chen, Xiaole; Kim, Sangbumn; Manning, David R.; Riobo, Natalia A.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence supporting the functionality of Smoothened (SMO), an essential transducer in most pathways engaged by Hedgehog (Hh), as a Gi-coupled receptor contrasts with the lack of an apparently consistent requirement for Gi in Hh signal transduction. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the role of SMO-Gi coupling in fibroblast migration induced by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). Our results demonstrate an absolute requirement for Gi in Shh-induced fibroblast migration. We found that Shh acutely stimulates the small Rho GTPases Rac1 and RhoA via SMO through a Gi protein- and PI3K-dependent mechanism, and that these are required for cell migration. These responses were independent of transcription by Gli and of the C-terminal domain of SMO, as we show using a combination of molecular and genetic tools. Our findings provide a mechanistic model for fibroblast migration in response to Shh and underscore the role of SMO-Gi coupling in non-canonical Hh signaling. PMID:21474452

  16. YKL-40 promotes the migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells by regulating epithelial mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Hao, Hailong; Wang, Lei; Chen, Huiqing; Xie, Liwu; Bai, Tao; Liu, Hongyu; Wang, Dongwen

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to observe the expression of YKL-40 in prostate cancer and whether YKL-40 can affect the migration and invasion of tumor cells by regulating epithelial mesenchymal transition. We collected 14 cases of prostate cancer tissues and adjacent tissues in this study. The expression levels of YKL-40 in the tissues were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemical methods. The expression of YKL-40 in human prostate cancer cell line DU145 and PC3 was detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR and western blotting methods. The expression levels of YKL-40 in different cells were up-regulated or down- regulated by lentivirus to observe the changes of cell migration and invasion. The expression levels of EMT related genes were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting methods. The expression level of YKL-40 in prostate cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent tissues (P<0.01), and it was higher in DU145 cells than that in PC3 cells (P<0.05). The expression level of YKL-40 was positively correlated with cell migration and invasion. YKL-40 can regulate the expression of EMT related genes (Twist, Snail, Slug, N-cadherin, Vimentin and E-cadherin). The expression level of YKL-40 was positively correlated with the migration and invasion of prostate cells, it affects cancer metastasis by regulating EMT.

  17. Gold Nanorods Indirectly Promote Migration of Metastatic Human Breast Cancer Cells in Three-Dimensional Cultures.

    PubMed

    Grzincic, Elissa M; Murphy, Catherine J

    2015-07-28

    Gold nanomaterials are intensively studied for applications in disease detection, diagnosis and therapeutics, and this has motivated considerable research to determine their interaction with biomolecules, cells and cell behaviors. However, few studies look at how nanomaterials alter the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-ECM interactions. Nanomaterials in the body would interact with the entire cellular environment, and it is imperative to account for this when studying the impact of nanomaterials on living systems. Furthermore, recent evidence finds that migration rates of cells in 2D can be affected by nanomaterials, and uptake of the nanomaterials is not necessary to exert an effect. In this study, three-dimensional nested type I collagen matrices were utilized as a model ECM to study how gold nanorods affect the migration of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Spontaneous cell migration through collagen containing gold nanorods was found to increase with increasing concentrations of gold nanorods, independent of intracellular uptake of the nanorods. Gold nanorods in the collagen matrix were found to alter collagen mechanical properties and structure, molecular diffusion, cellular adhesion, cell morphology, mode of migration and protease expression. Correlation between decreased cellular adhesion and rounded cell morphology and locomotion in nanorod-containing collagen suggests the induction of an amoeboid-like migratory phenotype.

  18. Cadherin-11 endocytosis through binding to clathrin promotes cadherin-11-mediated migration in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Satcher, Robert L; Pan, Tianhong; Bilen, Mehmet A; Li, Xiaoxia; Lee, Yu-Chen; Ortiz, Angelica; Kowalczyk, Andrew P; Yu-Lee, Li-Yuan; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2015-12-15

    Cadherin-11 (Cad11) cell adhesion molecule plays a role in prostate cancer cell migration. Because disassembly of adhesion complexes through endocytosis of adhesion proteins has been shown to play a role in cell migration, we examined whether Cad11 endocytosis plays a role in Cad11-mediated migration. The mechanism by which Cad11 is internalized is unknown. Using a GST pulldown assay, we found that clathrin binds to the Cad11 cytoplasmic domain but not to that of E-cadherin. Using deletion analysis, we identified a unique sequence motif, VFEEE, in the Cad11 membrane proximal region (amino acid residues 11-15) that binds to clathrin. Endocytosis assays using K(+)-depletion buffer showed that Cad11 internalization is clathrin dependent. Proximity ligation assays showed that Cad11 colocalizes with clathrin, and immunofluorescence assays showed that Cad11 localizes in vesicles that stain for the early endosomal marker Rab5. Deletion of the VFEEE sequence from the Cad11 cytoplasmic domain (Cad11-cla-Δ5) leads to inhibition of Cad11 internalization and reduces Cad11-mediated cell migration in C4-2B and PC3-mm2 prostate cancer cells. These observations suggest that clathrin-mediated internalization of Cad11 regulates surface trafficking of Cad11 and that dynamic turnover of Cad11 regulates the migratory function of Cad11 in prostate cancer cells.

  19. [Overexpression of inhibitor of β-catenin and T cell factor (ICAT) promotes proliferation and migration of cervical cancer Caski cells].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yayun; Wang, Ting; Wang, Jinshu; Xia, Jing; Gou, Liyao; Liu, Mengyao; Zhang, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of overexpressed inhibitor of β-catenin and T cell factor (ICAT) on the proliferation and migration of human cervical cancer Caski cells. Methods Caski cells were transfected with ICAT recombinant adenovirus (AdICAT). The levels of ICAT mRNA and protein were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. Effect of ICAT overexpression on proliferation, cell cycle and migration in Caski cells was respectively evaluated by MTT assay, flow cytometry and Transwell(TM) migration assays. Results The expression of ICAT remarkably increased in Caski cells after AdICAT infection. Overexpression of ICAT promoted Caski cells' proliferation, arrested the cell cycle in the S phase and enhanced cell migration. Conclusion Overexpression of ICAT can promote the proliferation and migration of Caski cervical cancer cells.

  20. A tenascin-C mimetic peptide amphiphile nanofiber gel promotes neurite outgrowth and cell migration of neurosphere-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Berns, Eric J; Álvarez, Zaida; Goldberger, Joshua E; Boekhoven, Job; Kessler, John A; Kuhn, H Georg; Stupp, Samuel I

    2016-06-01

    Biomimetic materials that display natural bioactive signals derived from extracellular matrix molecules like laminin and fibronectin hold promise for promoting regeneration of the nervous system. In this work, we investigated a biomimetic peptide amphiphile (PA) presenting a peptide derived from the extracellular glycoprotein tenascin-C, known to promote neurite outgrowth through interaction with β1 integrin. The tenascin-C mimetic PA (TN-C PA) was found to self-assemble into supramolecular nanofibers and was incorporated through co-assembly into PA gels formed by highly aligned nanofibers. TN-C PA content in these gels increased the length and number of neurites produced from neurons differentiated from encapsulated P19 cells. Furthermore, gels containing TN-C PA were found to increase migration of cells out of neurospheres cultured on gel coatings. These bioactive gels could serve as artificial matrix therapies in regions of neuronal loss to guide neural stem cells and promote through biochemical cues neurite extension after differentiation. One example of an important target would be their use as biomaterial therapies in spinal cord injury. Tenascin-C is an important extracellular matrix molecule in the nervous system and has been shown to play a role in regenerating the spinal cord after injury and guiding neural progenitor cells during brain development, however, minimal research has been reported exploring the use of biomimetic biomaterials of tenascin-C. In this work, we describe a selfassembling biomaterial system in which peptide amphiphiles present a peptide derived from tenascin-C that promotes neurite outgrowth. Encapsulation of neurons in hydrogels of aligned nanofibers formed by tenascin-C-mimetic peptide amphiphiles resulted in enhanced neurite outgrowth. Additionally, these peptide amphiphiles promoted migration of neural progenitor cells cultured on nanofiber coatings. Tenascin-C biomimetic biomaterials such as the one described here have

  1. Platelet rich plasma promotes skeletal muscle cell migration in association with up-regulation of FAK, paxillin, and F-Actin formation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Chung; Yu, Tung-Yang; Lin, Li-Ping; Lin, Mioa-Sui; Tsai, Ting-Ta; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2017-02-24

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) contains various cytokines and growth factors which may be beneficial to the healing process of injured muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of PRP on migration of skeletal muscle cells. Skeletal muscle cells intrinsic to Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with PRP. The cell migration was evaluated by transwell filter migration assay and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. The spreading of cells was evaluated microscopically. The formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. The protein expressions of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were assessed by Western blot analysis. Transfection of paxillin small-interfering RNA (siRNAs) to muscle cells was performed to validate the role of paxillin in PRP-mediated promotion of cell migration. Dose-dependently PRP promotes migration of and spreading and muscle cells. Protein expressions of paxillin and FAK were up-regulated dose-dependently. F-actin formation was also enhanced by PRP treatment. Furthermore, the knockdown of paxillin expression impaired the effect of PRP to promote cell migration. It was concluded that PRP promoting migration of muscle cells is associated with up-regulation of proteins expression of paxillin and FAK as well as increasing F-actin formation. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cortactin involvement in the keratinocyte growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 10 promotion of migration and cortical actin assembly in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccarelli, Simona; Cardinali, Giorgia; Aspite, Nicaela; Picardo, Mauro; Marchese, Cinzia; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Mancini, Patrizia . E-mail: patrizia.mancini@uniroma1.it

    2007-05-15

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF/FGF7) and fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10/KGF2) regulate keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation by binding to the tyrosine kinase KGF receptor (KGFR). KGF induces keratinocyte motility and cytoskeletal rearrangement, whereas a direct role of FGF10 on keratinocyte migration is not clearly established. Here we analyzed the motogenic activity of FGF10 and KGF on human keratinocytes. Migration assays and immunofluorescence of actin cytoskeleton revealed that FGF10 is less efficient than KGF in promoting migration and exerts a delayed effect in inducing lamellipodia and ruffles formation. Both growth factors promoted phosphorylation and subsequent membrane translocation of cortactin, an F-actin binding protein involved in cell migration; however, FGF10-induced cortactin phosphorylation was reduced, more transient and delayed with respect to that promoted by KGF. Cortactin phosphorylation induced by both growth factors was Src-dependent, while its membrane translocation and cell migration were blocked by either Src and PI3K inhibitors, suggesting that both pathways are involved in KGF- and FGF10-dependent motility. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated downregulation of cortactin inhibited KGF- and FGF10-induced migration. These results indicate that cortactin is involved in keratinocyte migration promoted by both KGF and FGF10.

  3. Impaired SIRT1 promotes the migration of vascular smooth muscle cell-derived foam cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Jie; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xu; Pi, Yan; Long, Chun-Yan; Sun, Meng-Jiao; Chen, Xue; Gao, Chang-Yue; Li, Jing-Cheng; Zhang, Li-Li

    2016-07-01

    The formation of fat-laden foam cells, contributing to the fatty streaks of the plaques of atheroma, is the critical early process in atherosclerosis. The previous study demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contain a much larger burden of the excess cholesterol in comparison with monocyte-derived macrophages in human coronary atherosclerosis, as the main origin of foam cells. It is noteworthy that VSMC-derived foam cells are deposited in subintima but not media, where VSMCs normally deposit in. Therefore, migration from media to intima is an indispensable step for a VSMC to accrue neutral lipids and form foam cell. Whether this migration occurs paralleled with or prior to the formation of foam cell is still unclear. Herein, the present study was designed to test the VSMC migratory capability in the process of foam cell formation induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). In conclusion, we provide evidence that oxLDL induces the VSMC-derived foam cells formation with increased migration ability and MMP-9 expression, which were partly attributed to the impaired SIRT1 and enhanced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity. As activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) has been reported to have anti-atherosclerotic effects, we investigated its role in oxLDL-treated VSMC migration. It is found that activating TRPV1 by capsaicin inhibits VSMC foam cell formation and the accompanied migration through rescuing the SIRT1 and suppressing NF-κB signaling. The present study provides evidence that SIRT1 may be a promising intervention target of atherosclerosis, and raises the prospect of TRPV1 in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  4. Vincristine promotes migration and invasion of colorectal cancer HCT116 cells through RhoA/ROCK/ Myosin light chain pathway.

    PubMed

    Jin, X; Liu, K; Jiao, B; Wang, X; Huang, S; Ren, W; Zhao, K

    2016-10-31

    Vincristine is an antitumor vinca alkaloid isolated from vinca rosea, and is a medication used to treat a number of types of cancer. In this study, we investigated the impact of vincristine on oncogenic phenotypes of human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. MTT assay demonstrated that vincristine showed a obviously inhibitory effect on cell growth compared to non-treated cells. However, Transwell assay showed that vincristine promoted migration and invasion of HCT116 cells in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner between 0.5 and 15 μM vincristine treatment, whereas cell growth showed no remarkable difference within the same concentration range. Additionally, Western blot analysis showed that vincristine significantly elevated RhoA activity and Myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of RhoA/ROCK pathway in the vincristine-induced enhancement of cellular motility. Furthermore, we found that both the siRNA for RhoA and ROCK inhibitor Y27632 attenuated the phosphorylation of MLC, as well as vincristine-induced migration and invasion. These data indicate that vincristine enhanced migration and invasion of HCT116 cells possibly through stimulating RhoA/ROCK/MLC signaling pathway.

  5. Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside from Afgekia mahidoliae promotes keratinocyte migration through FAK and Rac1 activation.

    PubMed

    Petpiroon, Nareerat; Suktap, Chalermlat; Pongsamart, Sunanta; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Sukrong, Suchada

    2015-07-01

    The restoration of the epidermal epithelium through re-epithelialization is a critical process in wound healing. Directed keratinocyte migration to the wound is required, and the retardation of this process may result in a chronic, non-healing wound. The present study contributes to research aiming to identify promising compounds that promote wound healing using a human keratinocyte model. The effects of three kaempferol glycosides from an Afgekia mahidoliae leaf extract, kaempferol-3-O-arabinoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, on keratinocyte migration were determined. Interestingly, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside exhibited a pronounced effect on wound closure in comparison to the parental kaempferol and other glycosides. The mechanism by which kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside enhances cell migration involves the induction of filopodia and lamellipodia formation, increased cellular levels of phosphorylated FAK (Tyr 397) and phosphorylated Akt (Ser 473), and up-regulation of active Rac1-GTP. The data obtained in this study may support the development of this compound for use in wound healing therapies.

  6. The matrix protein CCN1 (CYR61) promotes proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Yang; Gao Yu; Wang, Hong; Huang Lan Qin Jun; Guo Ruiwei; Song Mingbao; Yu Shiyong; Chen Jianfei; Cui Bin; Gao Pan

    2008-10-15

    Neovascularization and re-endothelialization relies on circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), but their recruitment and angiogenic roles are subjected to regulation by the vascular microenvironment, which remains largely unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of mature ECs and matrix protein CCN1 on the properties of EPCs. In a coculture system, effects of ECs on proliferation, migration and participation in tube-like formation of EPCs were evaluated, and functional assays were employed to identify the exact role of CCN1 in EPCs vitality and function. We demonstrated that ECs, as an indispensable part of the cellular milieu, significantly promoted the proliferation, migration and tube formation activities of EPCs, and more importantly, CCN1 was potentially involved in such effects of ECs. Expression of CCN1 in EPCs was significantly increased by serum, VEGF, ECs-cocultivation and ECs conditioned medium. Moreover, Ad-CCN1-mediated overexpression of CCN1 directly enhanced migration and tube formation of EPCs, whereas silencing of endogenous CCN1 in EPCs inhibits cell functions. Furthermore, CCN1 induced the expressions of chemokines and growth factors, such as MCP-1 and VEGF, suggesting a complex interaction between those proangiogenic factors. Our data suggest that matrix protein CCN1 may play an important role in microenvironment-mediated biological properties of EPCs.

  7. The matrix protein CCN1 (CYR61) promotes proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Gao, Yu; Wang, Hong; Huang, Lan; Qin, Jun; Guo, Ruiwei; Song, Mingbao; Yu, Shiyong; Chen, Jianfei; Cui, Bin; Gao, Pan

    2008-10-15

    Neovascularization and re-endothelialization relies on circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), but their recruitment and angiogenic roles are subjected to regulation by the vascular microenvironment, which remains largely unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of mature ECs and matrix protein CCN1 on the properties of EPCs. In a coculture system, effects of ECs on proliferation, migration and participation in tube-like formation of EPCs were evaluated, and functional assays were employed to identify the exact role of CCN1 in EPCs vitality and function. We demonstrated that ECs, as an indispensable part of the cellular milieu, significantly promoted the proliferation, migration and tube formation activities of EPCs, and more importantly, CCN1 was potentially involved in such effects of ECs. Expression of CCN1 in EPCs was significantly increased by serum, VEGF, ECs-cocultivation and ECs conditioned medium. Moreover, Ad-CCN1-mediated overexpression of CCN1 directly enhanced migration and tube formation of EPCs, whereas silencing of endogenous CCN1 in EPCs inhibits cell functions. Furthermore, CCN1 induced the expressions of chemokines and growth factors, such as MCP-1 and VEGF, suggesting a complex interaction between those proangiogenic factors. Our data suggest that matrix protein CCN1 may play an important role in microenvironment-mediated biological properties of EPCs.

  8. HRG/HER2/HER3 signaling promotes AhR-mediated Memo-1 expression and migration in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bogoevska, V; Wolters-Eisfeld, G; Hofmann, B T; El Gammal, A T; Mercanoglu, B; Gebauer, F; Vashist, Y K; Bogoevski, D; Perez, D; Gagliani, N; Izbicki, J R; Bockhorn, M; Güngör, C

    2016-12-12

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex disease with still unsatisfactory prognosis even in western societies, although substantial progress has been made in pre-screening programs, surgical techniques and targeted therapy options. Mediator of motility-1 (Memo-1) was previously recognized as an important effector of cell migration downstream of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in breast cancer. This study identified Memo-1 as frequently overexpressed in CRC and established a close link between extracellular HER2 activation, AhR/ARNT transcriptional activity and Memo-1 expression. Dissection of the hMemo-1 gene promoter using reporter assays and chromatin IP techniques revealed recruitment of Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)/Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear-translocator (ARNT) complex, which positively influenced Memo-1 expression in cancer cells. We found that Memo-1 depletion negatively influenced the cellular actin network and that its expression is required for HER2-mediated cell migration and invasion. Moreover, analyses of Memo-1 expression in primary CRC revealed correlation with clinical parameters that point to Memo-1 as a new prognostic factor of aggressive disease in CRC patients. Altogether, these observations demonstrate that Memo-1 is an important downstream regulator of HER2-driven CRC cell migration and invasion through connecting extracellular signals from membrane to the cytoskeletal actin network.Oncogene advance online publication, 12 December 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.390.

  9. Fibronectin 1 promotes migration and invasion of papillary thyroid cancer and predicts papillary thyroid cancer lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shujun; Wang, Chuandong; Postma, Emily Louise; Yang, Yanhua; Ni, Xiaofeng; Zhan, Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is common in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and is an indicator of recurrence. The detailed molecular mechanism of LNM in PTC has not been well described. This study aimed to investigate the role of fibronectin 1 in PTC LNM and its clinical relevance. The expression of fibronectin 1 was confirmed in PTC tissues and cell lines. A correlation analysis was conducted and a receiver-operating characteristic curve obtained. The effect of fibronectin 1 on the proliferation of PTC cell lines was performed using a colony-formation assay and Cell Counting Kit 8. Cell-cycle analysis was performed with a flow-cytometry assay. Migration and invasion ability were evaluated by transwell and wound-healing assays. Fibronectin 1 was overexpressed in metastasized PTC. Overexpressed fibronectin 1 was positively correlated with PTC LNM. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that the diagnostic accuracy of fibronectin 1 was 81.1%, with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 82%. Overexpression of fibronectin 1 promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion in PTC. Fibronectin 1 plays a critical role in PTC metastasis by modulating the proliferation, migration, and invasion ability of PTC cells, and it is a valuable diagnostic biomarker for predicting PTC LNM. PMID:28367057

  10. CIZ1 is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes the growth and migration of the cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinsheng; Lei, Liu; Gu, Dianhua; Liu, Hui; Wang, Shaochuang

    2016-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world, and the prognosis for the HCC remains very poor. Although dys-regulation of CIZ1 (Cip1 interacting zinc finger protein 1) has been observed in various cancer types, its expression and functions in HCC remain unknown. In this study, the mRNA level of CIZ1 in the HCC tissues were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the effects of CIZ1 on the growth, migration, and metastasis of HCC cells were examined by crystal violet assay, Boyden chamber assay, and in vivo image system, respectively. In addition, the molecular mechanisms were investigated by luciferase assay. Upregulation of CIZ1 in the clinical HCC samples was observed. Forced expression of CIZ1 promoted the growth and migration of HCC cells, while knocking down the expression of CIZ1 inhibited the growth, migration, and metastasis of HCC cells. Molecular mechanism studies revealed that CIZ1 activated YAP/TAZ signaling in HCC cells. Taken together, our study demonstrated the oncogenic roles of CIZ1 in HCC cells and CIZ1 might be a promising therapeutic target for HCC.

  11. Synthetic antimicrobial and LPS-neutralising peptides suppress inflammatory and immune responses in skin cells and promote keratinocyte migration

    PubMed Central

    Pfalzgraff, Anja; Heinbockel, Lena; Su, Qi; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus; Weindl, Günther

    2016-01-01

    The stagnation in the development of new antibiotics and the concomitant high increase of resistant bacteria emphasize the urgent need for new therapeutic options. Antimicrobial peptides are promising agents for the treatment of bacterial infections and recent studies indicate that Pep19-2.5, a synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) peptide (SALP), efficiently neutralises pathogenicity factors of Gram-negative (LPS) and Gram-positive (lipoprotein/-peptide, LP) bacteria and protects against sepsis. Here, we investigated the potential of Pep19-2.5 and the structurally related compound Pep19-4LF for their therapeutic application in bacterial skin infections. SALPs inhibited LP-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK and reduced cytokine release and gene expression in primary human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. In LPS-stimulated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and Langerhans-like cells, the peptides blocked IL-6 secretion, downregulated expression of maturation markers and inhibited dendritic cell migration. Both SALPs showed a low cytotoxicity in all investigated cell types. Furthermore, SALPs markedly promoted cell migration via EGFR transactivation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and accelerated artificial wound closure in keratinocytes. Peptide-induced keratinocyte migration was mediated by purinergic receptors and metalloproteases. In contrast, SALPs did not affect proliferation of keratinocytes. Conclusively, our data suggest a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with acute and chronic skin infections. PMID:27509895

  12. Canine heat shock protein 27 promotes proliferation, migration, and doxorubicin resistance in the canine cell line DTK-F.

    PubMed

    Lin, An-Ci; Liao, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Sui-Wen; Huang, Chien-Yi; Liou, Chian-Jiun; Lai, Yu-Shen

    2015-08-01

    Canine mammary tumors (CMTs) are the most common type of tumors in female dogs. Heat shock proteins are highly expressed in many cancers and are involved in tumor progression and chemoresistance in CMTs; however, the biological role of canine heat shock protein 27 (cHSP27) in CMTs has not been thoroughly characterized. This study investigated the roles of cHSP27 in cell growth, migration, anchorage, and resistance to doxorubicin (DOX) using DTK-F cells, a CMT cell line that does not express cHSP27. DTK-F cells were transfected with cHSP27 and stable overexpression was established. A mouse monoclonal antibody against cHSP27 was also produced. The biological functions of cHSP27 in DTK-F cells were then evaluated using a variety of assays. Overexpression of cHSP27 was associated with increased cell proliferation, clone formation, migration, and decreased DOX sensitivity. In conclusion, these data provide evidence that cHSP27 overexpression can promote anchorage-independent growth, migration, and increased DOX resistance in CMT cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. MiR-21 promoted proliferation and migration in hepatocellular carcinoma through negative regulation of Navigator-3

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhipeng; Yang, Huan; Ren, Lei

    2015-09-04

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) has been well-established and found to be over-expressed in various human cancers and has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. However, the underlying mechanism of miR-21 involvement in the development and progression of HCC remains to be understood. In the present study, we firstly identified that the Navigator-3 (NAV-3) gene as a novel direct target of miR-21. Knock-down of NAV-3 using shRNA can rescue the effects of anti-miR-21 inhibitor in HCC cell lines, whereas re-expression of miR-21 using transfection with miR-21 mimics phenocopied the NAV-3 knock-down model. Additionally, miR-21 levels inversely correlated with NAV-3 both in HCC cells and tissues. Knock-down of NAV-3 promoted both the proliferation and migration in HCC cells. Together, our findings suggest an important role for miR-21 in the progression of HCC, which negatively regulated Navigator-3 in the migration of HCC. - Highlights: • Navigator-3 (NAV-3) suppresses proliferation, migration and tumorigenesis of HCC cells. • NAV-3 was a novel target of miR-21. • MiR-21 negatively regulates NAV-3 in HCC.

  14. Capture of microtubule plus-ends at the actin cortex promotes axophilic neuronal migration by enhancing microtubule tension in the leading process

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, B. Ian; Wray, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules are a critical part of neuronal polarity and leading process extension, thus microtubule movement plays an important role in neuronal migration. However, the dynamics of microtubules during the forward movement of the nucleus into the leading process (nucleokinesis) is unclear and may be dependent on the cell type and mode of migration used. In particular, little is known about cytoskeletal changes during axophilic migration, commonly used in anteroposterior neuronal migration. We recently showed that leading process actin flow in migrating GnRH neurons is controlled by a signaling cascade involving IP3 receptors, CaMKK, AMPK, and RhoA. In the present study, microtubule dynamics were examined in GnRH neurons. Failure of the migration of these cells leads to the neuroendocrine disorder Kallmann Syndrome. Microtubules translocated forward along the leading process shaft during migration, but reversed direction and moved toward the nucleus when migration stalled. Blocking calcium release through IP3 receptors halted migration and induced the same reversal of microtubule translocation, while blocking cortical actin flow prevented microtubules from translocating toward the distal leading process. Super-resolution imaging revealed that microtubule plus-end tips are captured at the actin cortex through calcium-dependent mechanisms. This work shows that cortical actin flow draws the microtubule network forward through calcium-dependent capture in order to promote nucleokinesis, revealing a novel mechanism engaged by migrating neurons to facilitate movement. PMID:25505874

  15. Capture of microtubule plus-ends at the actin cortex promotes axophilic neuronal migration by enhancing microtubule tension in the leading process.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, B Ian; Wray, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules are a critical part of neuronal polarity and leading process extension, thus microtubule movement plays an important role in neuronal migration. However, the dynamics of microtubules during the forward movement of the nucleus into the leading process (nucleokinesis) is unclear and may be dependent on the cell type and mode of migration used. In particular, little is known about cytoskeletal changes during axophilic migration, commonly used in anteroposterior neuronal migration. We recently showed that leading process actin flow in migrating GnRH neurons is controlled by a signaling cascade involving IP3 receptors, CaMKK, AMPK, and RhoA. In the present study, microtubule dynamics were examined in GnRH neurons. Failure of the migration of these cells leads to the neuroendocrine disorder Kallmann Syndrome. Microtubules translocated forward along the leading process shaft during migration, but reversed direction and moved toward the nucleus when migration stalled. Blocking calcium release through IP3 receptors halted migration and induced the same reversal of microtubule translocation, while blocking cortical actin flow prevented microtubules from translocating toward the distal leading process. Super-resolution imaging revealed that microtubule plus-end tips are captured at the actin cortex through calcium-dependent mechanisms. This work shows that cortical actin flow draws the microtubule network forward through calcium-dependent capture in order to promote nucleokinesis, revealing a novel mechanism engaged by migrating neurons to facilitate movement.

  16. Alpha-fetoprotein activates AKT/mTOR signaling to promote CXCR4 expression and migration of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingyue; Guo, Junli; Xia, Hua; Li, Wei; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Xie, Xieju; Fu, Shigan; Li, Mengsen

    2015-01-01

    CXCR4, stromal cell-derived factor-1α(SDF 1α) receptor, stimulates growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) governs the expression of some metastasis-related genes. Here we report that AFP and CXCR4 levels correlated in HCC tissues. AFP-expressing vectors induced CXCR4. In agreement, AFP depletion by siRNA decreased CXCR4. AFP co-localized and interacted with PTEN, thus inducing CXCR4 by activating AKT(Ser473) phosphorylation. In turn, phospho-mTOR(Ser2448) entered the nucleus and bound the CXCR4 gene promoter. Thus, AFP promoted migration of HCC cells. In concusion, AFP induced CXCR4 by activating the AKT/mTOR signal pathway.

  17. Alpha-fetoprotein activates AKT/mTOR signaling to promote CXCR4 expression and migration of hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Xie, Xieju; Fu, Shigan; Li, Mengsen

    2015-01-01

    CXCR4, stromal cell-derived factor-1α(SDF 1α) receptor, stimulates growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) governs the expression of some metastasis-related genes. Here we report that AFP and CXCR4 levels correlated in HCC tissues. AFP-expressing vectors induced CXCR4. In agreement, AFP depletion by siRNA decreased CXCR4. AFP co-localized and interacted with PTEN, thus inducing CXCR4 by activating AKT(Ser473) phosphorylation. In turn, phospho-mTOR(Ser2448) entered the nucleus and bound the CXCR4 gene promoter. Thus, AFP promoted migration of HCC cells. In concusion, AFP induced CXCR4 by activating the AKT/mTOR signal pathway. PMID:25815363

  18. Laser injury promotes migration and integration of retinal progenitor cells into host retina

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Caihui; Klassen, Henry; Zhang, Xinmei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The migration and integration of grafted cells into diseased host tissue remains a critical challenge, particularly in the field of retinal progenitor cell (RPC) transplantation. It seems that natural physical barriers at the outer retina can impede the migration of grafted RPCs into the host retina. The purpose of this study was to investigate the integration and differentiation of murine RPCs transplanted into the subretinal space of mice with laser-induced damage to the outer retina. Methods RPCs were harvested from the neural retinas of postnatal day 1 enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice. Retinal photocoagulation was performed using a diode laser. Two µl containing ~6×105 expanded RPCs in suspension were injected into the subretinal space of the recipient animals following laser treatment. Cell morphometry was performed to assess the integration of donor cells. Immunohistochemistry and western blot were performed on recipient retinas. Results Three weeks after transplantation, 1,158±320 cells per eye had migrated into the recipient outer nuclear layer (ONL). Most of these cells resided in the ONL around the retinal laser lesion. A subpopulation of these cells developed morphological features reminiscent of mature photoreceptors, expressed photoreceptor specific proteins including synaptic protein, and appeared to form synaptic connections with bipolar neurons. Retinal photocoagulation resulted in a significantly increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, and cluster differentiation 44 (CD44s), and a decreased expression of neurocan. Conclusions Transplanted RPCs migrate and integrate into the laser-injured ONL where they differentiate into photoreceptors with morphological features reminiscent of mature photoreceptors, express synaptic protein, and appear to form synaptic connections with retinal bipolar neurons. Following retinal photocoagulation, the enhanced level of integration of grafted RPCs is partially

  19. Random migration and signal integration promote rapid and robust T cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Textor, Johannes; Henrickson, Sarah E; Mandl, Judith N; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Westermann, Jürgen; de Boer, Rob J; Beltman, Joost B

    2014-08-01

    To fight infections, rare T cells must quickly home to appropriate lymph nodes (LNs), and reliably localize the antigen (Ag) within them. The first challenge calls for rapid trafficking between LNs, whereas the second may require extensive search within each LN. Here we combine simulations and experimental data to investigate which features of random T cell migration within and between LNs allow meeting these two conflicting demands. Our model indicates that integrating signals from multiple random encounters with Ag-presenting cells permits reliable detection of even low-dose Ag, and predicts a kinetic feature of cognate T cell arrest in LNs that we confirm using intravital two-photon data. Furthermore, we obtain the most reliable retention if T cells transit through LNs stochastically, which may explain the long and widely distributed LN dwell times observed in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that random migration, both between and within LNs, allows recruiting the majority of cognate precursors within a few days for various realistic infection scenarios. Thus, the combination of two-scale stochastic migration and signal integration is an efficient and robust strategy for T cell immune surveillance.

  20. Random Migration and Signal Integration Promote Rapid and Robust T Cell Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Textor, Johannes; Henrickson, Sarah E.; Mandl, Judith N.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Westermann, Jürgen; de Boer, Rob J.; Beltman, Joost B.

    2014-01-01

    To fight infections, rare T cells must quickly home to appropriate lymph nodes (LNs), and reliably localize the antigen (Ag) within them. The first challenge calls for rapid trafficking between LNs, whereas the second may require extensive search within each LN. Here we combine simulations and experimental data to investigate which features of random T cell migration within and between LNs allow meeting these two conflicting demands. Our model indicates that integrating signals from multiple random encounters with Ag-presenting cells permits reliable detection of even low-dose Ag, and predicts a kinetic feature of cognate T cell arrest in LNs that we confirm using intravital two-photon data. Furthermore, we obtain the most reliable retention if T cells transit through LNs stochastically, which may explain the long and widely distributed LN dwell times observed in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that random migration, both between and within LNs, allows recruiting the majority of cognate precursors within a few days for various realistic infection scenarios. Thus, the combination of two-scale stochastic migration and signal integration is an efficient and robust strategy for T cell immune surveillance. PMID:25102014

  1. Stress-induced CXCR4 Promotes Migration and Invasion of Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Krook, Melanie A.; Nicholls, Lauren A.; Scannell, Christopher A.; Chugh, Rashmi; Thomas, Dafydd G.

    2014-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer in pediatric patients. Although the primary cause of death in Ewing sarcoma is metastasis, the mechanism underlying tumor spread needs to be elucidated. To this end, the role of the CXCR4/SDF-1a chemokine axis as a mediator of Ewing sarcoma metastasis was investigated. CXCR4 expression status was measured in primary tumor specimens by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and in multiple cell lines by quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometry. Migration and invasion of CXCR4-positive Ewing sarcoma cells towards CXCL12/SDF-1a were also determined. Interestingly, while CXCR4 status was disparate among Ewing sarcoma cells, ranging from absent to high-level expression; its expression was found to be highly dynamic and responsive to changes in the microenvironment. In particular, up-regulation of CXCR4 occurred in cells that were subjected to growth factor deprivation, hypoxia, and space constraints. This up-regulation of CXCR4 was rapidly reversed upon removal of the offending cellular stress conditions. Functionally, CXCR4-positive cells migrated and invaded towards an SDF-1a gradient and these aggressive properties were impeded by both the CXCR4 small molecule inhibitor AMD3100, and by knockdown of CXCR4. In addition, CXCR4-dependent migration and invasion were inhibited by small molecule inhibitors of Cdc42 and Rac1, mechanistically implicating these Rho-GTPases as downstream mediators of the CXCR4-dependent phenotype. PMID:24651452

  2. Wnt11 Signaling Promotes Proliferation, Transformation, and Migration of IEC6 Intestinal Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ouko, Lillian; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Gu, Li H.; Eisenberg, Leonard M.; Yang, Vincent W.

    2005-01-01

    Wnts are morphogens with well recognized functions during embryogenesis. Aberrant Wnt signaling has been demonstrated to be important in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, the role of Wnt in regulating normal intestinal epithelial cell proliferation is not well established. Here we determine that Wnt11 is expressed throughout the mouse intestinal tract including the epithelial cells. Conditioned media from Wnt11-secreting cells stimulated proliferation and migration of IEC6 intestinal epithelial cells. Co-culture of Wnt11-secreting cells with IEC6 cells resulted in morphological transformation of the latter as evidenced by the formation of foci, a condition also accomplished by stable transfection of IEC6 with a Wnt11-expressing construct. Treatment of IEC6 cells with Wnt11 conditioned media failed to induce nuclear translocation of β-catenin but led to increased activities of protein kinase C and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Inhibition of protein kinase C resulted in a decreased ability of Wnt11 to induce foci formation in IEC6 cells. Finally, E-cadherin was redistributed in Wnt11-treated IEC6 cells, resulting in diminished E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contact. We conclude that Wnt11 stimulates proliferation, migration, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and contact-independent growth of IEC6 cells by a β-catenin-independent mechanism. These findings may help understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate proliferation and migration of intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:15084607

  3. Filamin A phosphorylation by Akt promotes cell migration in response to arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lingzhi; Lu, Yongju; Stemmer, Paul M.; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    We had previously reported that trivalent arsenic (As3+), a well-known environmental carcinogen, induces phosphorylation of several putative Akt substrates. In the present report, we characterized one of these substrates by immunoprecipitation and proteomics analysis. The results indicate that a cytoskeleton remodeling protein, filamin A, with a molecular weight around 280 kDa, is phosphorylated by Akt in HEK-293 cells treated with As3+, which was also confirmed in human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B cells. Additional biochemical and biological studies revealed that serine 2152 (S2152) of filamin A is phosphorylated by activated Akt in the cells treated with As3+. To further confirm the importance of Akt-dependent filamin A S2152 phosphorylation in As3+-induced cell migration, we over-expressed either wild type filamin A or the mutated filamin A in which the S2152 was substituted with alanine (S2152A). The capability of cell migration was reduced significantly in the cells expressing the mutated filamin A (S2152A). Clinically, we found that increased expression of filamin A predicts poorer overall survival of the lung cancer patients with adenocarcinoma. Thus, these data suggest that Akt dependent filamin A phosphorylation is one of the key events in mediating As3+-induced carcinogenesis. Antagonizing Akt signaling can ameliorate As3+-induced filamin A phosphorylation and cell migration, which may serve as a molecular targeting strategy for malignancies associated with environmental As3+ exposure. PMID:25944616

  4. Filamin A phosphorylation by Akt promotes cell migration in response to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingzhi; Lu, Yongju; Stemmer, Paul M; Chen, Fei

    2015-05-20

    We had previously reported that trivalent arsenic (As(3+)), a well-known environmental carcinogen, induces phosphorylation of several putative Akt substrates. In the present report, we characterized one of these substrates by immunoprecipitation and proteomics analysis. The results indicate that a cytoskeleton remodeling protein, filamin A, with a molecular weight around 280 kDa, is phosphorylated by Akt in HEK-293 cells treated with As(3+), which was also confirmed in human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B cells. Additional biochemical and biological studies revealed that serine 2152 (S2152) of filamin A is phosphorylated by activated Akt in the cells treated with As(3+). To further confirm the importance of Akt-dependent filamin A S2152 phosphorylation in As(3+)-induced cell migration, we over-expressed either wild type filamin A or the mutated filamin A in which the S2152 was substituted with alanine (S2152A). The capability of cell migration was reduced significantly in the cells expressing the mutated filamin A (S2152A). Clinically, we found that increased expression of filamin A predicts poorer overall survival of the lung cancer patients with adenocarcinoma. Thus, these data suggest that Akt dependent filamin A phosphorylation is one of the key events in mediating As(3+)-induced carcinogenesis. Antagonizing Akt signaling can ameliorate As(3+)-induced filamin A phosphorylation and cell migration, which may serve as a molecular targeting strategy for malignancies associated with environmental As(3+) exposure.

  5. The oncoprotein HBXIP up-regulates FGF4 through activating transcriptional factor Sp1 to promote the migration of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Li, Yinghui; Feng, Guoxing; Li, Leilei; Fang, Runping; Wang, Zhen; Qu, Jie; Ding, Peijian; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2016-02-26

    We have reported that the oncoprotein hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) is able to promote migration of breast cancer cells. Fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) is a multipotent growth factor and is highly expressed in various human cancers. However, the regulatory mechanism of FGF4 in breast cancer remains poorly understood. In the present study, we report that HBXIP is able to up-regulate FGF4 to enhance the migration of breast cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that HBXIP and FGF4 were highly expressed in clinical metastatic lymph nodes of breast tumor. The expression levels of HBXIP were positively related to those of FGF4 in clinical breast cancer tissues. Then, we validated that HBXIP up-regulated the expression of FGF4 at the levels of promoter, mRNA and protein by luciferase reporter gene assays, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Moreover, we found that HBXIP was able to activate FGF4 promoter through transcriptional factor Sp1 by luciferase reporter gene assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that HBXIP coactivated Sp1 to stimulate FGF4 promoter. In function, we showed that HBXIP promoted breast cancer cell migration through FGF4 by wound healing and transwell cell migration assays. Thus, we conclude that the oncoprotein HBXIP up-regulates FGF4 through activating transcriptional factor Sp1 to promote the migration of breast cancer cells. Therapeutically, HBXIP may serve as a novel target in breast cancer.

  6. SCF promotes dental pulp progenitor migration, neovascularization, and collagen remodeling - potential applications as a homing factor in dental pulp regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shuang; Dangaria, Smit; Gopinathan, Gokul; Yan, Xiulin; Lu, Xuanyu; Kolokythas, Antonia; Niu, Yumei; Luan, Xianghong

    2013-10-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) is a powerful chemokine that binds to the c-Kit receptor CD117 and has shown promise as a homing agent capable of progenitor cell recruitment. In the present study we have documented high levels of both SCF and its receptor c-Kit in differentiating dental pulp (DP) cells and in the sub-odontoblastic layer of Höhl. In vitro studies using human DP progenitors revealed a significant increase in cell proliferation after100 nM SCF application, explained by a 2-fold upregulation in cyclin D3 and FGF2 cell cycle regulators, and a 7-fold increase in CDK4 expression. DP cell migration in the presence of SCF was up-regulated 2.7-fold after a 24 h culture period, and this effect was accompanied by cytoskeletal rearrangement, a 1.5-fold increase in polymeric F-actin over G-actin, and a 1.8-fold increase in RhoA expression. Explaining the signaling effect of SCF on DP migration, PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathway inhibitors were demonstrated to significantly reduce DP cell migration, while SCF alone doubled the number of migrated cells. ERK and AKT phosphorylation were dramatically upregulated already 3-5 min after SCF addition to the culture medium and declined thereafter, classifying SCF as a fast acting chemokine. When applied as an agent to promote tissue regeneration in subcutaneously implanted collagen sponges, SCF resulted in a 7-fold increase in the cell number in the implanted tissue construct, a more than 9-fold increase in capillaries, as well as collagen sponge remodeling and collagen fiber neogenesis. Together, these studies demonstrate the suitability of SCF as a potent aid in the regeneration of dental pulp and other mesenchymal tissues, capable of inducing cell homing, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling.

  7. High-frequency low-level diode laser irradiation promotes proliferation and migration of primary cultured human gingival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ejiri, Kenichiro; Aoki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Izumi, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    In periodontal therapy, the use of low-level diode lasers has recently been considered to improve wound healing of the gingival tissue. However, its effects on human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine whether high-frequency low-level diode laser irradiation stimulates key cell responses in wound healing, proliferation and migration, in primary cultured HGECs in vitro. HGECs were derived from seven independent gingival tissue specimens. Cultured HGECs were exposed to a single session of high-frequency (30 kHz) low-level diode laser irradiation with various irradiation time periods (fluence 5.7-56.7 J/cm(2)). After 20-24 h, cell proliferation was evaluated by WST-8 assay and [(3)H]thymidine incorporation assay, and cell migration was monitored by in vitro wound healing assay. Further, phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways after irradiation was investigated by Western blotting. The high-frequency low-level irradiation significantly increased cell proliferation and [(3)H]thymidine incorporation at various irradiation time periods. Migration of the irradiated cells was significantly accelerated compared with the nonirradiated control. Further, the low-level diode laser irradiation induced phosphorylation of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) at 5, 15, 60, and 120 min after irradiation. Stress-activated protein kinases/c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK remained un-phosphorylated. The results show that high-frequency low-level diode laser irradiation promotes HGEC proliferation and migration in association with the activation of MAPK/ERK, suggesting that laser irradiation may accelerate gingival wound healing.

  8. Migration-promoting role of VEGF-C and VEGF-C binding receptors in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Timoshenko, A V; Rastogi, S; Lala, P K

    2007-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is a lymphangiogenic factor over-expressed in highly metastatic, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expressing breast cancer cells. We tested the hypothesis that tumour-derived VEGF-C may play an autocrine role in metastasis by promoting cellular motility through one or more VEGF-C-binding receptors VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, neuropilin (NRP)-1, NRP-2, and integrin α9β1. We investigated the expression of these receptors in several breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, Hs578T, SK-BR-3, T-47D, and MCF7) and their possible requirement in migration of two VEGF-C-secreting, highly metastatic lines MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T. While cell lines varied significantly in their expression of above VEGF-C receptors, migratory activity of MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells was linked to one or more of these receptors. Depletion of endogenous VEGF-C by treatments with a neutralising antibody, VEGF-C siRNA or inhibitors of Src, EGFR/Her2/neu and p38 MAP kinases which inhibited VEGF-C production, inhibited cellular migration, indicating the requirement of VEGF-C for migratory function. Migration was differentially attenuated by blocking or downregulation of different VEGF-C receptors, for example treatment with a VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, NRP-1 and NRP-2 siRNA or α9β1 integrin antibody, indicating the participation of one or more of the receptors in cell motility. This novel role of tumour-derived VEGF-C indicates that breast cancer metastasis can be promoted by coordinated stimulation of lymphangiogenesis and enhanced migratory activity of breast cancer cells. PMID:17912247

  9. miR-494 promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and increased sorafenib resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting PTEN.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Liu, Songyang; Zhang, Wei; Jia, Baoxing; Tan, Ludong; Jin, Zhe; Liu, Yahui

    2015-08-01

    MicroRNA-494 (miR-494) acts as an oncomiR and is involved in tumor development, progression and metastasis, and confers resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs by targeting a number of molecules in several human cancers. However, the function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-494 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been totally elucidated. In the present study, we determined the role played by miR-494 in HCC tissues and HCC cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). The results showed that, miR-494 was significantly upregulated in HCC tissues and HCC cell lines. Additionally, a high miR-494 expression positively correlated with tumor differentiation (P<0.01), TNM stage (P<0.01) and lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR-494 binds to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) mRNA and represses its translation. Functional analyses indicated that the upregulation of miR-494 promoted cell viability, migration and invasion, decreased cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 stage, and conferred sorafenib resistance to HCC cell lines. Underexpression of PTEN by siRNA significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of anti-miR-494 on the proliferation, migration and invasion of liver cancer cells. Mechanistic investigations revealed that miR-494 suppressed the expression of PTEN but increased the expression of PI3K and p-Akt, which contribute to the promotion of proliferation, migration and invasion, and increased sorafenib resistance to HCC cell lines. These findings suggested that miR-494 is a potential candidate for HCC therapeutics.

  10. MicroRNA-21 promotes bone mesenchymal stem cells migration in vitro by activating PI3K/Akt/MMPs pathway.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chen; Yang, Shengwu; Chen, Xin; Zhu, Xiongbai; Lin, Wenjun; Wang, Lu; Huang, Zhengxiang; Wang, Mingyue; Tu, Guanjun

    2017-08-24

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) contributes to anti-apoptosis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC), but its role in the migration of BMSCs remains vague. The aim of this study was to determine the possible effect of miR-21 on regulating BMSCs directional migration and the expression of MMP-2/MMP-9 in BMSCs in vitro. BMSCs were successfully infected with miR-21-up lentivirus. Cell migration using Transwell assay indicated that upregulated expression of miR-21 could significantly promote BMSCs migration. Western blot analysis indicated that miR-21 significantly upregulated the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, which were related to metastasis-associated genes. GM6001, the specific MMPs inhibitor, abrogated the upregulated expression of MMP-2/MMP-9 and abolished the positive effect of miR-21 on promoting BMSCs migration. Meanwhile, miR-21 significantly enhanced Akt phosphorylation, as measured by Western blot analysis. LY294002, an inhibitor of Akt activation, abrogated the phosphorylation of Akt and abolished the positive effect of miR-21 on promoting BMSCs migration and upregulating MMP-2/MMP-9 expression. These results suggest that miR-21 contributes to BMSCs migration by upregulating MMP-2/MMP-9, potentially via the PI3K/Akt pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Snail promotes cell migration through PI3K/AKT-dependent Rac1 activation as well as PI3K/AKT-independent pathways during prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Veronica; Smith, Basil; Burton, Liza J; Randle, Diandra; Morris, Marisha; Odero-Marah, Valerie A

    2015-01-01

    Snail, a zinc-finger transcription factor, induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is associated with increased cell migration and metastasis in cancer cells. Rac1 is a small G-protein which upon activation results in formation of lamellipodia, the first protrusions formed by migrating cells. We have previously shown that Snail promotes cell migration through down-regulation of maspin tumor suppressor. We hypothesized that Snail's regulation of cell migration may also involve Rac1 signaling regulated by PI3K/AKT and/or MAPK pathways. We found that Snail overexpression in LNCaP and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells increased Rac1 activity associated with increased cell migration, and the Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766, could inhibit Snail-mediated cell migration. Conversely, Snail downregulation using shRNA in the aggressive C4–2 prostate cancer cells decreased Rac1 activity and cell migration. Moreover, Snail overexpression increased ERK and PI3K/AKT activity in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. Treatment of Snail-overexpressing 22Rv1 cells with LY294002, PI3K/AKT inhibitor or U0126, MEK inhibitor, decreased cell migration significantly, but only LY294002 significantly reduced Rac1 activity, suggesting that Snail promotes Rac1 activation via the PI3K/AKT pathway. Furthermore, 22Rv1 cells overexpressing Snail displayed decreased maspin levels, while inhibition of maspin expression in 22Rv1 cells with siRNA, led to increased PI3K/AKT, Rac1 activity and cell migration, without affecting ERK activity, suggesting that maspin is upstream of PI3K/AKT. Overall, we have dissected signaling pathways by which Snail may promote cell migration through MAPK signaling or alternatively through PI3K/AKT-Rac1 signaling that involves Snail inhibition of maspin tumor suppressor. This may contribute to prostate cancer progression. PMID:26207671

  12. Bisphenol a exposure promotes the migration of NCM460 cells via estrogen receptor-mediated integrin β1/MMP-9 pathway.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tonglin; Zhao, Chao; Li, Zhuoyu; Zhang, Quanbin; Jin, Xiaoting

    2016-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used industrial chemical and also an environmental endocrine disruptor (EED), which serves as a monomer in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. BPA enters human body mainly through oral intake, and has been reported as being linked to oncogenesis in many tissues. However, the association of BPA intake with gastrointestinal cancer, such as colon cancer, has received less attention. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of BPA on the migration of normal colon epithelial cells (NCM460 cells) and further elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Our data showed that 1 × 10(-8) M (equivalent to environmental concentration) of BPA potently promoted the migration of NCM460 cells. Interestingly, BPA treatment induced an increase of integrin β1 expression, and the functional blocking of integrin β1 abolished the migration-promoting effects of BPA. Moreover, the results showed that it was estrogen receptor β but not estrogen receptor α that was involved in this migration promotion. In addition, cellular exposure of BPA stimulated the expression and activity of MMP-9, a well-known factor of cell migration. Taken together, these results indicate that environmental concentration of BPA exposure promotes cell migration through activating ERβ-mediated integrin β1/MMP-9 pathway, suggesting exposure to BPA in the colon may present a potential cancer risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 799-807, 2016.

  13. Atorvastatin Promotes Cytotoxicity and Reduces Migration and Proliferation of Human A172 Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Karen A; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Lopes, Flávia G; Ludka, Fabiana K; Nedel, Cláudia B; Tasca, Carla I

    2017-02-08

    Malignant gliomas have resistance mechanisms to chemotherapy that enable tumor invasiveness and aggressiveness. Alternative therapies in cancer treatment, as statins, have been suggested to decrease proliferation, inhibit cell migration, and induce cell death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin (ATOR) on cell viability, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy in A172 human glioma cells. Temozolomide (TMZ), a chemotherapic used to glioma treatment, was tested as a comparison to cytotoxic effects on gliomas. Cell viability was also assessed in primary culture of cortical astrocytes. ATOR treatment (0.1 to 20 μM) did not alter astrocytic viability. However, in glioma cells, ATOR showed cytotoxic effect at 10 and 20 μM concentrations. TMZ (500 μM) reduced cell viability similarly to ATOR, and drug association did not show additive effect on cell viability. ATOR, TMZ, and their association decreased cell migration. ATOR also decreased glioma cell proliferation. ATOR increased apoptosis, and TMZ association showed a potentiation effect, enhancing it. ATOR and TMZ treatment increased acidic vesicular organelle (AVO) presence in A172 cells, an indicative of autophagy. ATOR effect of reducing A172 cell viability did not alter glutamate transport and glutamine synthetase activity, but it was partially prevented through antagonism of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Our data shows a cytotoxic effect of ATOR on glioma cells, whereas no toxicity was observed to astrocytes. ATOR showed similar cytotoxic effect as TMZ to glioma cells, and it may be a safer drug, regarding side effect induction, than chemotherapic agents.

  14. Lower Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xian; Wang, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Yue, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background The incidence and death rates of endometrial cancer are alarmingly increasing. The diagnosis and treatment of endometrial cancer is crucial to decreasing mortality. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) belongs to the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter family and plays an essential role in anion regulation and tissue homeostasis of various epithelia. This study explored the expression of CFTR in endometrial carcinoma and the role of CFTR in proliferation and migration of endometrial carcinoma cells. Material/Methods Immunohistochemistry and real-time (RT)-PCR were used to test the expression of CFTR in normal endometrium and endometrial carcinoma. CFTR inhibitor was used to restrain the expression of CFTR on the endometrial carcinoma, the effects on the proliferation and migration of endometrial carcinoma cells were also studied. RT-PCR was performed to test the expression of mir-125b after restraining CFTR. Proliferation and migration capability of endometrial carcinoma cells were detected after transfection of endometrial carcinoma cells with mir-125b mimic. Results Compared with cells from normal endometrium, the expression of CFTR was significantly upregulated in endometrial carcinoma cells. After adding CFTR(inh)172, the capability for proliferation and transfer of endometrial carcinoma cells was strengthened, the expression of mir-125b was reduced, and after transfection with mir-125b mimics entering the endometrial carcinoma cells, the ability of the proliferation and transfer of endometrial carcinoma cells was also reduced. Conclusions The high expression of CFTR in the endometrial carcinoma cells played a pivotal role in restraining the proliferation and transfer of endometrial carcinoma cells. PMID:28225751

  15. Shootin1 acts in concert with KIF20B to promote polarization of migrating neurons.

    PubMed

    Sapir, Tamar; Levy, Talia; Sakakibara, Akira; Rabinkov, Aharon; Miyata, Takaki; Reiner, Orly

    2013-07-17

    Shootin1 has been ascribed a role in regulating polarization of primary hippocampal neurons. To better understand the possible role of Shootin1 in the developing brain, we identified a member of the kinesin superfamily, KIF20B, as a novel Shootin1 interacting protein and a potential mediator of Shootin1 interaction with microtubules. KIF20B/Shootin1 binding was mapped to a 57 aa KIF20B sequence, which was used as a dominant-negative fragment. Direct interaction between that peptide (MBD) and Shootin1 was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance-based technology and the affinity was determined in the 10⁻⁷ m range. The proteins are expressed in the developing brain and formed a complex in vivo based on coimmunoprecipitation experiments and coimmunostaining in primary neurons. In primary hippocampal neurons Kif20b knockdown reduced Shootin1 mobilization to the developing axon, as evidenced by immunostaining and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis, suggesting that Shootin1 is a novel KIF20B cargo. shRNA targeting of Shootin1 reduced PIP3 accumulation in the growth cone, as did Kif20b shRNA. In the developing mouse brain, Kif20b knockdown or expression of the KIF20B minimal binding domain inhibited neuronal migration, and in vivo migration assays suggested that Shootin1/Kif20b acts in the same genetic pathway. Time-lapse imaging of multipolar cells in the subventricular zone revealed that downregulating levels of either Shootin1 or Kif20b hindered the transition from multipolar to bipolar cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate the importance of the Shootin1/KIF20B interaction to the dynamic process of pyramidal neuronal polarization and migration.

  16. Activated protein C upregulates ovarian cancer cell migration and promotes unclottability of the cancer cell microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    ALTHAWADI, HAMDA; ALFARSI, HALEMA; BESBES, SAMAHER; MIRSHAHI, SHAHSOLTAN; DUCROS, ELODIE; RAFII, ARASH; POCARD, MARC; THERWATH, AMU; SORIA, JEANNETTE; MIRSHAHI, MASSOUD

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of activated protein C (aPC), known to be a physiological anticoagulant, in ovarian cancer cell activation as well as in loss of clotting of cancer ascitic fluid. The effect of aPC on an ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR-3) was tested in regards to i) cell migration and adhesion with the use of adhesion and wound healing assays as well as a droplet test; ii) protein phosphorylation, evaluated by cyto-ELISA; iii) cell cycle modification assessed by flow cytometric DNA quantification; and iv) anticoagulant activity evaluated by the prolongation of partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) of normal plasma in the presence or absence of aPC-treated ovarian cancer cells. In addition, the soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR) was quantified by ELISA in ascitic fluid of patients with ovarian cancer. Our results showed that in the OVCAR-3 aPC-induced cells i) an increase in cell migration was noted, which was inhibited when anti-endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) was added to the culture medium and which may act via MEK-ERK and Rho-GTPase pathways; ii) an increase in threonine, and to a lesser extent tyrosine phosphorylation; iii) cell cycle activation (G1 to S/G2); and iv) a 2-3-fold prolongation of aPTT of normal plasma. In the peritoneal fluid, the sEPCR concentration was 71±23 ng/ml. In conclusion, free aPC binds to membrane EPCR in ovarian cancer cells and induces cell migration via MEK-ERK and Rho-GTPase pathways. This binding could also explain the loss of clotting of peritoneal fluids. PMID:26082331

  17. Impaired immune tolerance to Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide promotes neutrophil migration and decreased apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zaric, Svetislav; Shelburne, Charles; Darveau, Richard; Quinn, Derek J; Weldon, Sinéad; Taggart, Clifford C; Coulter, Wilson A

    2010-10-01

    Periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the tissues supporting the teeth, is characterized by an exaggerated host immune and inflammatory response to periopathogenic bacteria. Toll-like receptor activation, cytokine network induction, and accumulation of neutrophils at the site of inflammation are important in the host defense against infection. At the same time, induction of immune tolerance and the clearance of neutrophils from the site of infection are essential in the control of the immune response, resolution of inflammation, and prevention of tissue destruction. Using a human monocytic cell line, we demonstrate that Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is a major etiological factor in periodontal disease, induces only partial immune tolerance, with continued high production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) but diminished secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) after repeated challenge. This cytokine response has functional consequences for other immune cells involved in the response to infection. Primary human neutrophils incubated with P. gingivalis LPS-treated naïve monocyte supernatant displayed a high migration index and increased apoptosis. In contrast, neutrophils treated with P. gingivalis LPS-tolerized monocyte supernatant showed a high migration index but significantly decreased apoptosis. Overall, these findings suggest that induction of an imbalanced immune tolerance in monocytes by P. gingivalis LPS, which favors continued secretion of IL-8 but decreased TNF-α production, may be associated with enhanced migration of neutrophils to the site of infection but also with decreased apoptosis and may play a role in the chronic inflammatory state seen in periodontal disease.

  18. Lower Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of Endometrial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xian; Wang, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Yue, Ming

    2017-02-22

    BACKGROUND The incidence and death rates of endometrial cancer are alarmingly increasing. The diagnosis and treatment of endometrial cancer is crucial to decreasing mortality. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) belongs to the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter family and plays an essential role in anion regulation and tissue homeostasis of various epithelia. This study explored the expression of CFTR in endometrial carcinoma and the role of CFTR in proliferation and migration of endometrial carcinoma cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS Immunohistochemistry and real-time (RT)-PCR were used to test the expression of CFTR in normal endometrium and endometrial carcinoma. CFTR inhibitor was used to restrain the expression of CFTR on the endometrial carcinoma, the effects on the proliferation and migration of endometrial carcinoma cells were also studied. RT-PCR was performed to test the expression of mir-125b after restraining CFTR. Proliferation and migration capability of endometrial carcinoma cells were detected after transfection of endometrial carcinoma cells with mir-125b mimic. RESULTS Compared with cells from normal endometrium, the expression of CFTR was significantly upregulated in endometrial carcinoma cells. After adding CFTR(inh)172, the capability for proliferation and transfer of endometrial carcinoma cells was strengthened, the expression of mir-125b was reduced, and after transfection with mir-125b mimics entering the endometrial carcinoma cells, the ability of the proliferation and transfer of endometrial carcinoma cells was also reduced. CONCLUSIONS The high expression of CFTR in the endometrial carcinoma cells played a pivotal role in restraining the proliferation and transfer of endometrial carcinoma cells.

  19. MiR-200c promotes bladder cancer cell migration and invasion by directly targeting RECK

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yidong; Zhang, Xiaolei; Li, Peng; Yang, Chengdi; Tang, Jinyuan; Deng, Xiaheng; Yang, Xiao; Tao, Jun; Lu, Qiang; Li, Pengchao

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that the dysregulation of certain microRNAs plays an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. MiR-200c exhibits a disordered expression in many tumors and presents dual roles in bladder cancer (BC). Therefore, the definite role of miR-200c in BC needs to be investigated further. Materials and methods Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to assess miR-200c expression. Cell invasion and migration were evaluated using wound healing and transwell assays. The luciferase reporter assay was used to identify the direct target of miR-200c. The expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK) in BC tissues and adjacent nontumor tissues, as well as in BC cell lines, was detected through quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot assay, and immunohistochemistry. Results The miR-200c expression was significantly upregulated in the BC tissues compared with the adjacent nontumor tissues. The downregulation of miR-200c significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion in the BC cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that RECK was a direct target of miR-200c. The knockdown of RECK in the BC cell lines treated with anti-miR-200c elevated the previously attenuated cell migration and invasion. Conclusion Our findings indicated that miR-200c functions as oncogenes in BC and may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of BC. PMID:27574450

  20. USP2 promotes cell migration and invasion in triple negative breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qing; Mao, Yan; Xiao, Gang; Fei, Xiaochun; Wang, Jinglong; Zhang, Yuzi; Liu, Junjun; Cheng, Guangcun; Chen, Xiaosong; Wang, Jianhua; Shen, Kunwei

    2015-07-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is often associated with a poor prognosis. The aim of our study was to identify biomarkers predictive of TNBC progression. Primary TNBC breast tissue samples including four with metastasis and six without metastasis were subjected to Affymetrix GeneChip® analysis (human genome U133). Ubiquitin-specific protease 2 (USP2) was identified as an upregulated gene in the metastatic group, and its expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 121 primary breast cancers, 13 paired normal tissues, and 13 paired metastatic lesions. Survival analysis was performed using the log-rank test and Cox regression hazard model. Matrigel migration and invasion assays in USP2-silenced and USP2-overexpressed breast cancer cell lines were used to investigate the mechanisms of USP2 in vitro. Positive immunostaining for USP2 was detected in breast tumors and was correlated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) statuses and TNBC subtype. USP2 was overexpressed in distant metastatic lesions compared with primary breast cancers. Survival analyses demonstrated that positive USP2 is a poor prognostic factor for disease-free survival. Silencing of USP2 expression decreased migration and invasion in LM2-4175 and SCP46 cells in association with the downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) expression, whereas overexpression of USP2 in MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 cells enhanced migration and invasion and upregulated the expression of MMP2. The present study showed that USP2 expression is associated with TNBC cell line's invasiveness and poor survival of breast cancer patients and may serve as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for TNBC.

  1. Multiple myeloma cells promote migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by altering their translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Dabbah, Mahmoud; Attar-Schneider, Oshrat; Zismanov, Victoria; Tartakover Matalon, Shelly; Lishner, Michael; Drucker, Liat

    2016-10-01

    The role of the bone marrow microenvironment in multiple myeloma pathogenesis and progression is well recognized. Indeed, we have shown that coculture of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from normal donors and multiple myeloma cells comodulated translation initiation. Here, we characterized the timeline of mesenchymal stem cells conditioning by multiple myeloma cells, the persistence of this effect, and the consequences on cell phenotype. Normal donor mesenchymal stem cells were cocultured with multiple myeloma cell lines (U266, ARP1) (multiple myeloma-conditioned mesenchymal stem cells) (1.5 h,12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 3 d) and were assayed for translation initiation status (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G; regulators: mechanistic target of rapamycin, MNK, 4EBP; targets: SMAD family 5, nuclear factor κB, cyclin D1, hypoxia inducible factor 1, c-Myc) (immunoblotting) and migration (scratch assay, inhibitors). Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases in mesenchymal stem cell conditioning and altered migration was also tested (immunoblotting, inhibitors). Multiple myeloma-conditioned mesenchymal stem cells were recultured alone (1-7 d) and were assayed for translation initiation (immunoblotting). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction of extracted ribonucleic acid was tested for microRNAs levels. Mitogen-activated protein kinases were activated within 1.5 h of coculture and were responsible for multiple myeloma-conditioned mesenchymal stem cell translation initiation status (an increase of >200%, P < 0.05) and elevated migration (16 h, an increase of >400%, P < 0.05). The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells conditioned by multiple myeloma cells were reversible after only 1 d of multiple myeloma-conditioned mesenchymal stem cell culture alone. Decreased expression of microRNA-199b and microRNA-125a (an increase of <140%, P < 0.05) in multiple myeloma-conditioned mesenchymal stem cells supported elevated

  2. Bmi-1 promotes the invasion and migration of colon cancer stem cells through the downregulation of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zefeng; Bu, Xiaoling; Chen, Hao; Wang, Qiyi; Sha, Weihong

    2016-10-01

    Metastasis and recurrence are the challenges of cancer therapy. Recently, mounting evidence has suggested that cancer stem cells (CSCs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are critical factors in tumor metastasis and recurrence. The oncogene, Bmi-1, promotes the development of hematologic malignancies and many solid tumors. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms through which Bmi-1 promotes the invasion and migration of colon CSCs (CCSCs) using the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Sphere formation medium and magnetic‑activated cell sorting were used to enrich and screen the CCSCs. CD133 and CD44 were regarded as markers of CCSCs and they were found to be co-expressed in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Colony formation assay, cell proliferation assay and viability assay using the Cell Counting Kit-8, and transplantation assay using nude mice injected with CCSCs were used to examine the CCSCs. The CD133+CD44+ HCT116 cells exhibited greater cloning efficiency, an enhanced proliferative ability, increased cell viability and stronger tumorigenicity; these cells were used as the CCSCs for subsequent experiments. In addition, the invasive and migratory abilities of the CD133+CD44+ HCT116 cells were markedly decreased when Bmi-1 was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results of RT-qPCR and western blot analysis suggested that Bmi-1 had a negative effect on E-cadherin expression. On the whole, our findings suggest that Bmi-1 promotes the invasion and migration of CCSCs through the downregulation of E-cadherin, possibly by inducing EMT. Our findings thus indicate that Bmi-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of colon cancer.

  3. The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL promotes migration and invasion in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Uribe, Diana J.; Mandell, Edward K.; Watson, Adam; Martinez, Jesse D.; Leighton, Jonathan A.; Ghosh, Sourav

    2017-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) TYRO3, AXL and MERTK (TAM) have well-described oncogenic functions in a number of cancers. Notwithstanding, TAM RTKs are also potent and indispensable inhibitors of inflammation. The combined deletion of Axl and Mertk in mice enhances chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, including increased inflammation in the gut and colitis-associated cancer. On the other hand, deletion of Tyro3 increases the risk of allergic responses. Therefore, the indiscriminate inhibition of these TAM RTKs could result in undesirable immunological diseases. Here we show that AXL, but not MERTK or TYRO3 expression is enhanced in late stage colorectal cancer (CRC) and AXL expression associates with a cell migration gene signature. Silencing AXL or the inhibition of AXL kinase activity significantly inhibits tumor cell migration and invasion. These results indicate that the selective inhibition of AXL alone might confer sufficient therapeutic benefit in CRC, while preserving at least some of the beneficial, anti-inflammatory effects of MERTK and TYRO3 RTKs. PMID:28727830

  4. Cryptic collagen IV promotes cell migration and adhesion in myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Favreau, Amanda J; Vary, Calvin P H; Brooks, Peter C; Sathyanarayana, Pradeep

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we showed that discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a class of collagen-activated receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) was highly upregulated on bone marrow (BM)-derived CD33+ leukemic blasts of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Herein as DDR1 is a class of collagen-activated RTK, we attempt to understand the role of native and remodeled collagen IV in BM microenvironment and its functional significance in leukemic cells. Exposure to denatured collagen IV significantly increased the migration and adhesion of K562 cells, which also resulted in increased activation of DDR1 and AKT. Further, levels of MMP9 were increased in conditioned media (CM) of denatured collagen IV exposed cells. Mass spectrometric liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry QSTAR proteomic analysis revealed exclusive presence of Secretogranin 3 and InaD-like protein in the denatured collagen IV CM. Importantly, BM samples of AML patients exhibited increased levels of remodeled collagen IV compared to native as analyzed via anti-HUIV26 antibody. Taken together, for the first time, we demonstrate that remodeled collagen IV is a potent activator of DDR1 and AKT that also modulates both migration and adhesion of myeloid leukemia cells. Additionally, high levels of the HUIV26 cryptic collagen IV epitope are expressed in BM of AML patients. Further understanding of this phenomenon may lead to the development of therapeutic agents that directly modulate the BM microenvironment and attenuate leukemogenesis.

  5. Activated protein C promotes breast cancer cell migration through interactions with EPCR and PAR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, Lea M.; Church, Frank C. . E-mail: fchurch@email.unc.edu

    2007-02-15

    Activated protein C (APC) is a serine protease that regulates thrombin (IIa) production through inactivation of blood coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. APC also has non-hemostatic functions related to inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis through various mechanisms. Using two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, we investigated the role of APC in cell chemotaxis and invasion. Treatment of cells with increasing APC concentrations (1-50 {mu}g/ml) increased invasion and chemotaxis in a concentration-dependent manner. Only the active form of APC increased invasion and chemotaxis of the MDA-MB-231 cells when compared to 3 inactive APC derivatives. Using a modified 'checkerboard' analysis, APC was shown to only affect migration when plated with the cells; therefore, APC is not a chemoattractant. Blocking antibodies to endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) attenuated the effects of APC on chemotaxis in the MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, treatment of the MDA-MB-231 cells with the proliferation inhibitor, Na butyrate, showed that APC did not increase migration by increasing cell number. Therefore, APC increases invasion and chemotaxis of cells by binding to the cell surface and activating specific signaling pathways through EPCR and PAR-1.

  6. Prospective isolation of late development multipotent precursors whose migration is promoted by EGFR.

    PubMed

    Ciccolini, Francesca; Mandl, Claudia; Hölzl-Wenig, Gabriele; Kehlenbach, Angelika; Hellwig, Andrea

    2005-08-01

    A simple procedure to isolate neural stem cells would greatly facilitate direct studies of their properties. Here, we exploited the increase in EGF receptor (EGFR) levels, that occurs in late development stem cells or in younger precursors upon exposure to FGF-2, to isolate cells expressing high levels of EGFR (EGFR(high)) from the developing and the adult brain. Independently of age and region of isolation, EGFR(high) cells were highly enriched in multipotent precursors and displayed similar antigenic characteristics, with the exception of GFAP and Lex/SSEA-1 that were mainly expressed in adult EGFR(high) cells. EGFR levels did not correlate with neurogenic potential, indicating that the increase in EGFR expression does not directly affect differentiation. Instead, in the brain, many EGFR(high) precursors showed tangential orientation and, whether isolated from the cortex or striatum, EGFR(high) precursors displayed characteristics of cells originating from the ventral GZ such as expression Dlx and Mash-1 and the ability to generate GABAergic neurons and oligodendrocytes. Moreover, migration of EGFR(high) cells on telencephalic slices required EGFR activity. Thus, the developmentally regulated increase in EGFR levels may affect tangential migration of multipotent precursors. In addition, it can be used as a marker to effectively isolate telencephalic multipotent precursors from embryonic and adult tissue.

  7. Promotion of Dental Pulp Cell Migration and Pulp Repair by a Bioceramic Putty Involving FGFR-mediated Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Zhu, L X; Cheng, X; Lin, Y; Yan, P; Peng, B

    2015-06-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate is the currently recommended material of choice for clinical pulp repair despite several disadvantages, including handling inconvenience. Little is known about the signaling mechanisms involved in bioceramic-mediated dental pulp repair-particularly, dental pulp cell (DPC) migration. This study evaluated the effects of iRoot BP Plus, a novel ready-to-use nanoparticulate bioceramic putty, on DPC migration in vitro and pulp repair in vivo, focusing on possible involvement of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-related signaling, including mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt pathways. Treatment with iRoot BP Plus extracts enhanced horizontal and vertical migration of DPCs, which was comparable with the effects induced by mineral trioxide aggregate extracts. The DPCs exposed to iRoot BP Plus extracts demonstrated no evident apoptosis. Importantly, treatment with iRoot BP Plus extracts resulted in rapid activation of FGFR, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), and Akt signaling in DPCs. Confocal immunofluorescence staining revealed that iRoot BP Plus stimulated focal adhesion formation and stress fiber assembly in DPCs, in addition to upregulating the expression of focal adhesion molecules, including p-focal adhesion kinase, p-paxillin, and vinculin. Moreover, activation of FGFR, ERK, JNK, and Akt were found to mediate the upregulated expression of focal adhesion molecules, stress fiber assembly, and enhanced DPC migration induced by iRoot BP Plus. Consistent with the in vitro results, we observed induction of homogeneous dentin bridge formation and expression of p-focal adhesion kinase, p-FGFR, p-ERK 1/2, p-JNK, and p-Akt near injury sites by iRoot BP Plus in an in vivo pulp repair model. These data demonstrate that iRoot BP Plus can promote DPC migration and pulp repair involving the FGFR-mediated ERK 1/2, JNK, and Akt pathways. These findings provide

  8. Interferon Gamma-treated Dental Pulp Stem Cells Promote Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Strojny, Chelsee; Boyle, Michael; Bartholomew, Amelia; Sundivakkam, Premanand; Alapati, Satish

    2015-08-01

    Chronic inflammation disrupts dental pulp regeneration by disintegrating the recruitment process of progenitors for repair. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) share the common features with dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). The aim of the study was to investigate the migration of BM-MSCs toward DPSCs in response to inflammatory chemoattractants. Additionally, our studies also delineated the signaling mechanisms from BM-MSCs in mediating the proliferation and differentiation of DPSCs in vitro. Human DPSCs and BM-MSCs between passages 2 and 4 were used and were grown in odontogenic differentiation medium. Mineralization was determined by alizarin red staining analysis. Migration was assessed using crystal violet staining in cells grown in Boyden chamber Transwell inserts (Corning Inc Foundation, Tewksbury, MA). The mineralization potential of DPSCs was evaluated using alkaline phosphatase activity assay. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to assess the gene expression profile of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (Cxcl) 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14, and 16; stromal cell-derived factor (SDF) α; vascular endothelial growth factor; and fibroblast growth factor. Interferon gamma (FN-γ) treatment significantly abrogated the differentiation potential of DPSCs as shown by using alizarin red and alkaline phosphatase activity analysis. An increase in the migration of BM-MSCs was documented when cocultured with IFN-γ-treated DPSCs. RNA expression studies showed an increase in the levels of Cxcl6 and Cxcl12 in BM-MSCs when cocultured with IFN-γ-treated DPSCs. Additionally, an up-regulation of proangiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor were observed in DPSCs exposed to IFN-γ. Our findings indicate that inflamed IFN-γ-treated DPSCs release factors (presumably Cxcl6 and 12) that contribute to the homing of MSCs. This model might provide a potential research tool for studying MSC-DPSC cross talk and

  9. Formation of a PKCζ/β-catenin complex in endothelial cells promotes angiopoietin-1–induced collective directional migration and angiogenic sprouting

    PubMed Central

    Oubaha, Malika; Lin, Michelle I.; Margaron, Yoran; Filion, Dominic; Price, Emily N.; Zon, Leonard I.; Côté, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenic sprouting requires that cell-cell contacts be maintained during migration of endothelial cells. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor act oppositely on endothelial cell junctions. We found that Ang-1 promotes collective and directional migration and, in contrast to VEGF, induces the formation of a complex formed of atypical protein kinase C (PKC)-ζ and β-catenin at cell-cell junctions and at the leading edge of migrating endothelial cells. This complex brings Par3, Par6, and adherens junction proteins at the front of migrating cells to locally activate Rac1 in response to Ang-1. The colocalization of PKCζ and β-catenin at leading edge along with PKCζ-dependent stabilization of cell-cell contacts promotes directed and collective endothelial cell migration. Consistent with these results, down-regulation of PKCζ in endothelial cells alters Ang-1–induced sprouting in vitro and knockdown in developing zebrafish results in intersegmental vessel defects caused by a perturbed directionality of tip cells and by loss of cell contacts between tip and stalk cells. These results reveal that PKCζ and β-catenin function in a complex at adherens junctions and at the leading edge of migrating endothelial cells to modulate collective and directional migration during angiogenesis. PMID:22936663

  10. The CXCL10/CXCR3 axis promotes cardiac microvascular endothelial cell migration via the p38/FAK pathway in a proliferation-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jing-Bo; Mao, Cheng-Zhou; Chen, Zhuo-Ying; Liu, Guang-Hui; Wu, Hai-Yan; Zhou, Deng-Cheng; Park, Kyu-Sang; Zhao, Hui; Kim, Soo-Ki; Cai, Dong-Qing; Qi, Xu-Feng

    2016-04-01

    CXCL10 is a chemokine with potent chemotactic activity for immune and non-immune cells expressing its receptor CXCR3. Previous studies have demonstrated that CXCL10 is involved in myocardial infarction. However, the role of CXCL10 in cardiac microvascular endothelial cell (CMEC) regulation and related mechanisms remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of CXCL10 on the CMEC migration and explored its potential molecular mechanism by wound healing, cell proliferation and viability analysis. Furthermore, migration-related signaling pathways, including FAK, Erk, p38 and Smad, were examined by Western blotting. We found that CXCL10 significantly promotes CMEC migration under normal conditions and during hypoxia/ischemia. However, no significant differences in CMEC proliferation and viability were observed with or without CXCL10 treatment. CXCL10-mediated CMEC migration was greatly blocked by treatment with an anti-CXCR3 antibody. Although CXCL10 treatment promoted phosphorylation and activation of the FAK, Erk, and p38 pathways during hypoxia/ischemia, CXCL10-mediated CMEC migration was significantly blocked by p38 and FAK inhibitors, but not by an Erk inhibitor. Furthermore, CXCL10-mediated FAK activation was suppressed by the p38 inhibitor. These findings indicated that the CXCL10/CXCR3 pathway promotes the migration of CMECs under normal conditions and during hypoxia/ischemia in a proliferation-independent manner, at least in part, through regulation of the p38/FAK pathways.

  11. TNFα promotes CAR-dependent migration of leukocytes across epithelial monolayers.

    PubMed

    Morton, Penny E; Hicks, Alexander; Ortiz-Zapater, Elena; Raghavan, Swetavalli; Pike, Rosemary; Noble, Alistair; Woodfin, Abigail; Jenkins, Gisli; Rayner, Emma; Santis, George; Parsons, Maddy

    2016-05-19

    Trans-epithelial migration (TEpM) of leukocytes during inflammation requires engagement with receptors expressed on the basolateral surface of the epithelium. One such receptor is Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) that binds to Junctional Adhesion Molecule-like (JAM-L) expressed on leukocytes. Here we provide the first evidence that efficient TEpM of monocyte-derived THP-1 cells requires and is controlled by phosphorylation of CAR. We show that TNFα acts in a paracrine manner on epithelial cells via a TNFR1-PI3K-PKCδ pathway leading to CAR phosphorylation and subsequent transmigration across cell junctions. Moreover, we show that CAR is hyper-phosphorylated in vivo in acute and chronic lung inflammation models and this response is required to facilitate immune cell recruitment. This represents a novel mechanism of feedback between leukocytes and epithelial cells during TEpM and may be important in controlling responses to pro-inflammatory cytokines in pathological settings.

  12. Modulation of integrin α4β1 by ADAM28 promotes lymphocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Owen J; English, William R; Roberts, Stephanie; Ager, Ann; Newham, Peter; Murphy, Gillian

    2011-10-01

    ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) are a family of type I transmembrane glycoproteins related to snake venom metalloproteases and disintegrins. They are regulatory proteins that modulate intercellular adhesion and the bioavailability of growth factors, and have been implicated in many disease states, including cancer, immunity and inflammation. One member of the ADAM family, ADAM28, has been reported to bind to the integrin α4β1 in humans; however, the distribution of ADAM28 and the biological consequences of ADAM28-α4β1 interactions are yet to be fully elucidated. The expression of ADAM28 in human and murine tissues was examined by multiple Affymetrix microarray analyses, real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining. We found that ADAM28 has a relatively restricted expression pattern in mouse and human and is highly expressed in the B-lymphocyte lineage, including chronic lymphocytic leukaemic B-cells. The murine B-lymphoma line L1-2 and recombinant soluble murine ADAM28 were used to investigate ADAM28-α4β1 interactions. Our data reveal that ADAM28 binding to α4β1 is typical of integrin-ligand interactions, since it is attenuated by anti-functional integrin antibodies, and is enhanced by Mn2+ and the integrin mAb (monoclonal antibody) 9EG7. However, a key finding was that soluble ADAM28 unexpectedly enhanced α4β1-dependent cell adhesion to VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1). In so doing ADAM28 was able to influence lymphocyte adhesion to, and migration through, endothelial monolayers, suggesting a physiological role for ADAM28 in regulating the specific spatial and temporal transendothelial migration of lymphocytes.

  13. Glioma-derived macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) promotes mast cell recruitment in a STAT5-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Põlajeva, Jelena; Bergström, Tobias; Edqvist, Per-Henrik; Lundequist, Anders; Sjösten, Anna; Nilsson, Gunnar; Smits, Anja; Bergqvist, Michael; Pontén, Fredrik; Westermark, Bengt; Pejler, Gunnar; Forsberg Nilsson, Karin; Tchougounova, Elena

    2014-02-01

    Recently, glioma research has increased its focus on the diverse types of cells present in brain tumors. We observed previously that gliomas are associated with a profound accumulation of mast cells (MCs) and here we investigate the underlying mechanism. Gliomas express a plethora of chemoattractants. First, we demonstrated pronounced migration of human MCs toward conditioned medium from cultures of glioma cell lines. Subsequent cytokine array analyses of media from cells, cultured in either serum-containing or -free conditions, revealed a number of candidates which were secreted in high amounts in both cell lines. Among these, we then focused on macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which has been reported to be pro-inflammatory and -tumorigenic. Infiltration of MCs was attenuated by antibodies that neutralized MIF. Moreover, a positive correlation between the number of MCs and the level of MIF in a large cohort of human glioma tissue samples was observed. Further, both glioma-conditioned media and purified MIF promoted differential phosphorylation of a number of signaling molecules, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), in MCs. Inhibition of pSTAT5 signaling significantly attenuated the migration of MCs toward glioma cell-conditioned medium shown to contain MIF. In addition, analysis of tissue microarrays (TMAs) of high-grade gliomas revealed a direct correlation between the level of pSTAT5 in MCs and the level of MIF in the medium. In conclusion, these findings indicate the important influence of signaling cascades involving MIF and STAT5 on the recruitment of MCs to gliomas.

  14. BlyS is up-regulated by hypoxia and promotes migration of human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS) in the survival of malignant B cells and the maintenance of normal B cell development and homeostasis has been intensively studied in the literature. However, the influence of BLyS on breast cancer progression remains unclear. The study aimed to investigate the effect of hypoxia on BLyS regulation, cell migratory response to BLyS and the possible molecular mechanisms. Methods In this study, we examined the role of BLyS in the migration of human breast cancer cells by transwell assay. We also explored whether BLyS and its receptors expressed in human breast cancer cell lines by immunofluorescence and Western Blotting. Then we detected the expression level of BLyS in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions by real time-PCR and Western Blotting. Pathways involved were confirmed by Western Blotting, immunofluorescence, transwell assay and luciferase assay. Results According to our study, the expression level of BlyS was increased in human breast cancer cell lines in hypoxic conditions. Up-regulation of this protein led to activation and nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B p65. We also found that the number of migrated cells was increased in the presence of BLyS and inhibition of phosphorylation of Akt attenuated the enhanced migratory response. Conclusions It suggested that better understanding of BLyS, an immunopotentiator, may offer a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human breast cancers. In addition, BLyS promoted breast cancer cells migration, underscoring the necessity of appropriate applications of immunopotentiators to cancer treatment. PMID:22463935

  15. Tenascin promotes cerebellar granule cell migration and neurite outgrowth by different domains in the fibronectin type III repeats.

    PubMed

    Husmann, K; Faissner, A; Schachner, M

    1992-03-01

    The extracellular matrix molecule tenascin has been implicated in neuron-glia recognition in the developing central and peripheral nervous system and in regeneration. In this study, its role in Bergmann glial process-mediated neuronal migration was assayed in vitro using tissue explants of the early postnatal mouse cerebellar cortex. Of the five mAbs reacting with nonoverlapping epitopes on tenascin, mAbs J1/tn1, J1/tn4, and J1/tn5, but not mAbs J1/tn2 and J1/tn3 inhibited granule cell migration. Localization of the immunoreactive domains by EM of rotary shadowed tenascin molecules revealed that the mAbs J1/tn4 and J1/tn5, like the previously described J1/tn1 antibody, bound between the third and fifth fibronectin type III homologous repeats and mAb J1/tn3 bound between the third and fifth EGF-like repeats. mAb J1/tn2 had previously been found to react between fibronectin type III homologous repeats 10 and 11 of the mouse molecule (Lochter, A., L. Vaughan, A. Kaplony, A. Prochiantz, M. Schachner, and A. Faissner. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 113:1159-1171). When postnatal granule cell neurons were cultured on tenascin adsorbed to polyornithine, both the percentage of neurite-bearing cells and the length of outgrowing neurites were increased when compared to neurons growing on polyornithine alone. This neurite outgrowth promoting effect of tenascin was abolished only by mAb J1/tn2 or tenascin added to the culture medium in soluble form. The other antibodies did not modify the stimulatory or inhibitory effects of the molecule. These observations indicate that tenascin influences neurite outgrowth and migration of cerebellar granule cells by different domains in the fibronectin type III homologous repeats.

  16. PREX2 promotes the proliferation, invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells by modulating the PI3K signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianyi; Gong, Xuejun; Ouyang, Lu; He, Wen; Xiao, Rou; Tan, Li

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchanger factor 2 (PREX2) is a novel regulator of the small guanosine triphosphatase Rac, and has been observed to be implicated in human cancer by inhibiting the activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), thus upregulating the activity of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. However, the exact role of PREX2 in pancreatic cancer has not been reported to date. In the present study, the expression levels of PREX2 were observed to be frequently increased in pancreatic cancer specimens compared with those in their matched adjacent normal tissues. In addition, PREX2 expression was also frequently upregulated in several pancreatic cancer cell lines, including AsPC-1, BxPC-3, PANC-1 and CFAPC-1, compared with that in the normal pancreatic epithelial cell line HPC-Y5. Overexpression of PREX2 significantly promoted the proliferation, invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells, while small interfering RNA-induced knockdown of PREX2 expression significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of these cells. Investigation of the molecular mechanism revealed that the overexpression of PREX2 upregulated the phosphorylation levels of PTEN, indicating that the activity of PTEN was reduced, which further increased the phosphorylation levels of AKT, which indicated that the activity of the PI3K signaling pathway was upregulated. By contrast, knockdown of PREX2 upregulated the activity of PTEN and inhibited the activity of the PI3K signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that PREX2 regulates the proliferation, invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells, probably at least via modulation of the activity of PTEN and the PI3K signaling pathway. PMID:27446408

  17. The promoting effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on tendon healing involves tendon outgrowth, cell survival, and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Hsun; Tsai, Wen-Chung; Lin, Miao-Sui; Hsu, Ya-Hui; Pang, Jong-Hwei Su

    2011-03-01

    Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, composed of 15 amino acids, is a partial sequence of body protection compound (BPC) that is discovered in and isolated from human gastric juice. Experimentally it has been demonstrated to accelerate the healing of many different wounds, including transected rat Achilles tendon. This study was designed to investigate the potential mechanism of BPC 157 to enhance healing of injured tendon. The outgrowth of tendon fibroblasts from tendon explants cultured with or without BPC 157 was examined. Results showed that BPC 157 significantly accelerated the outgrowth of tendon explants. Cell proliferation of cultured tendon fibroblasts derived from rat Achilles tendon was not directly affected by BPC 157 as evaluated by MTT assay. However, the survival of BPC 157-treated cells was significantly increased under the H(2)O(2) stress. BPC 157 markedly increased the in vitro migration of tendon fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as revealed by transwell filter migration assay. BPC 157 also dose dependently accelerated the spreading of tendon fibroblasts on culture dishes. The F-actin formation as detected by FITC-phalloidin staining was induced in BPC 157-treated fibroblasts. The protein expression and activation of FAK and paxillin were determined by Western blot analysis, and the phosphorylation levels of both FAK and paxillin were dose dependently increased by BPC 157 while the total amounts of protein was unaltered. In conclusion, BPC 157 promotes the ex vivo outgrowth of tendon fibroblasts from tendon explants, cell survival under stress, and the in vitro migration of tendon fibroblasts, which is likely mediated by the activation of the FAK-paxillin pathway.

  18. Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox interacting protein 1 is overexpressed in astrocytoma and promotes tumor cell growth and migration

    PubMed Central

    van Vuurden, Dannis G.; Aronica, Eleonora; Hulleman, Esther; Wedekind, Laurine E.; Biesmans, Dennis; Malekzadeh, Arjan; Bugiani, Marianna; Geerts, Dirk; Noske, David P.; Vandertop, W. Peter; Kaspers, Gertjan J.L.; Cloos, Jacqueline; Würdinger, Thomas; van der Stoop, Petra P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Glial brain tumors cause considerable mortality and morbidity in children and adults. Innovative targets for therapy are needed to improve survival and reduce long-term sequelae. The aim of this study was to find a candidate tumor-promoting protein, abundantly expressed in tumor cells but not in normal brain tissues, as a potential target for therapy. Methods In silico proteomics and genomics, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence microscopy validation were performed. RNA interference was used to ascertain the functional role of the overexpressed candidate target protein. Results In silico proteomics and genomics revealed pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox (PBX) interacting protein 1 (PBXIP1) overexpression in adult and childhood high-grade glioma and ependymoma compared with normal brain. PBXIP1 is a PBX-family interacting microtubule-binding protein with a putative role in migration and proliferation of cancer cells. Immunohistochemical studies in glial tumors validated PBXIP1 expression in astrocytoma and ependymoma but not in oligodendroglioma. RNAi-mediated PBXIP1-knockdown in glioblastoma cell lines strongly reduced proliferation and migration and induced morphological changes, indicating that PBXIP1 knockdown decreases glioma cell viability and motility through rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, expression of PBXIP1 was observed in radial glia and astrocytic progenitor cells in human fetal tissues, suggesting that PBXIP1 is an astroglial progenitor cell marker during human embryonic development. Conclusion PBXIP1 is a novel protein overexpressed in astrocytoma and ependymoma, involved in tumor cell proliferation and migration, that warrants further exploration as a novel therapeutic target in these tumors. PMID:24470547

  19. Versican G3 Promotes Mouse Mammary Tumor Cell Growth, Migration, and Metastasis by Influencing EGF Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Du, William Weidong; Yang, Burton B.; Shatseva, Tatiana A.; Yang, Bing L.; Deng, Zhaoqun; Shan, Sze Wan; Lee, Daniel Y.; Seth, Arun; Yee, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    Increased versican expression in breast tumors is predictive of relapse and has negative impact on survival rates. The C-terminal G3 domain of versican influences local and systemic tumor invasiveness in pre-clinical murine models. However, the mechanism(s) by which G3 influences breast tumor growth and metastasis is not well characterized. Here we evaluated the expression of versican in mouse mammary tumor cell lines observing that 4T1 cells expressed highest levels while 66c14 cells expressed low levels. We exogenously expressed a G3 construct in 66c14 cells and analyzed its effects on cell proliferation, migration, cell cycle progression, and EGFR signaling. Experiments in a syngeneic orthotopic animal model demonstrated that G3 promoted tumor growth and systemic metastasis in vivo. Activation of pERK correlated with high levels of G3 expression. In vitro, G3 enhanced breast cancer cell proliferation and migration by up-regulating EGFR signaling, and enhanced cell motility through chemotactic mechanisms to bone stromal cells, which was prevented by inhibitor AG 1478. G3 expressing cells demonstrated increased CDK2 and GSK-3β (S9P) expression, which were related to cell growth. The activity of G3 on mouse mammary tumor cell growth, migration and its effect on spontaneous metastasis to bone in an orthotopic model was modulated by up-regulating the EGFR-mediated signaling pathway. Taken together, EGFR-signaling appears to be an important pathway in versican G3-mediated breast cancer tumor invasiveness and metastasis. PMID:21079779

  20. 18ß-glycyrrhetinic acid derivative promotes proliferation, migration and aquaporin-3 expression in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Hsiao, Chien-Yu; Hsieh, Wen-Hao; Li, Hsin-Ju; Tsai, Yi-Ju; Lin, Chun-Nan; Chang, Hsun-Hsien; Wu, Nan-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza) species have been widely used as a traditional medicine and a natural sweetener in foods. The 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (18β-GA) is a bioactive compound in licorice that exhibits potential anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial activities. Many synthesized derivatives of 18β-GA have been reported to be cytotoxic and suggested for the treatment of malignant diseases. In this study, we explored the possible pharmacological roles of an 18β-GA derivative in skin biology using primary human dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes as cell models. We found that this 18β-GA derivative did not cause cell death, but significantly enhanced the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes. A scratch wound healing assay revealed that the 18β-GA derivative promoted the migration of fibroblasts. Due to the important role of aquaporin-3 in cell migration and proliferation, we also investigated the expression of aquaporin-3 and found this compound up-regulated the expression of aquaporin-3 in dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes. In dermal fibroblasts, the 18β-GA derivative induced the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, and p38. The inhibitor of Akt predominantly suppressed the 18β-GA derivative-induced expression of aquaporin-3. Collectively, this compound had a positive effect on the proliferation, migration, and aquaporin-3 expression of skin cells, implying its potential role in the treatment of skin diseases characterized by impaired wound healing or dermal defects.

  1. Tenascin promotes cerebellar granule cell migration and neurite outgrowth by different domains in the fibronectin type III repeats

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular matrix molecule tenascin has been implicated in neuron-glia recognition in the developing central and peripheral nervous system and in regeneration. In this study, its role in Bergmann glial process-mediated neuronal migration was assayed in vitro using tissue explants of the early postnatal mouse cerebellar cortex. Of the five mAbs reacting with nonoverlapping epitopes on tenascin, mAbs J1/tn1, J1/tn4, and J1/tn5, but not mAbs J1/tn2 and J1/tn3 inhibited granule cell migration. Localization of the immunoreactive domains by EM of rotary shadowed tenascin molecules revealed that the mAbs J1/tn4 and J1/tn5, like the previously described J1/tn1 antibody, bound between the third and fifth fibronectin type III homologous repeats and mAb J1/tn3 bound between the third and fifth EGF-like repeats. mAb J1/tn2 had previously been found to react between fibronectin type III homologous repeats 10 and 11 of the mouse molecule (Lochter, A., L. Vaughan, A. Kaplony, A. Prochiantz, M. Schachner, and A. Faissner. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 113:1159-1171). When postnatal granule cell neurons were cultured on tenascin adsorbed to polyornithine, both the percentage of neurite-bearing cells and the length of outgrowing neurites were increased when compared to neurons growing on polyornithine alone. This neurite outgrowth promoting effect of tenascin was abolished only by mAb J1/tn2 or tenascin added to the culture medium in soluble form. The other antibodies did not modify the stimulatory or inhibitory effects of the molecule. These observations indicate that tenascin influences neurite outgrowth and migration of cerebellar granule cells by different domains in the fibronectin type III homologous repeats. PMID:1371773

  2. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes osteosarcoma growth and lung metastasis through activating the RAS/MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Zhou, Xing; Li, Wentao; Li, Mingyue; Tu, Tingyue; Ba, Ximing; Wu, Yinyu; Huang, Zhen; Fan, Gentao; Zhou, Guangxin; Wu, Sujia; Zhao, Jianning; Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Jiangning

    2017-09-10

    Emerging evidence suggests that the tumour microenvironment plays a critical role in osteosarcoma (OS) development. Thus, cytokine immunotherapy could be a novel strategy for OS treatment. In this study, we explored the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an important cytokine in OS progression, and investigated the anti-tumour effects of targeting MIF in OS. The results showed that MIF significantly increased in the tissue and serum samples of OS patients and was associated with tumour size, pulmonary metastasis and the survival rate of OS patients. We verified a positive correlation between MIF and p-ERK1/2 in OS patients. The in vitro results indicated that MIF could activate the RAS/MAPK pathway in a time- and dose-dependent manner, thereby promoting cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, shRNA targeting MIF significantly inhibited tumour growth and lung metastasis in a mouse xenograft model and orthotopic model of OS. Additionally, inhibition of MIF significantly enhanced the sensitivity of OS cells to cisplatin and doxorubicin. Our findings suggest that immunotherapy targeting MIF to block the RAS/MAPK kinase cascade may represent a feasible and promising approach for OS treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. FGF-10 and specific structural elements of dermatan sulfate size and sulfation promote maximal keratinocyte migration and cellular proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Radek, Katherine A.; Taylor, Kristen R.; Gallo, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-10 (FGF-10) is essential for epithelial development, while other members of this family, such as FGF-7, are not. FGF-10 is abundantly released into wounds following injury, and likely an essential growth factor required for this process. To evaluate how activation of this growth factor is controlled, multiple glycosaminoglycans were combined with FGF-10 assayed by measurement of the proliferation of cell lines expressing FGF receptor-2-IIIb, or keratinocyte migration in an in vitro wound repair assay. Dermatan sulfate (DS) exhibited greater potency than heparan sulfate or other chondroitin sulfates found in wounds. Structural variants of DS between 10 and 20 disaccharides containing iduronic acid showed maximal capacity to enable FGF-10 receptor stimulation. Furthermore, FGF-10 and DS markedly enhanced migration of keratinocytes in an in vitro wound scratch assay, while FGF-7 or other glycosaminoglycans did not. These data strongly suggest that FGF-10 activity is uniquely important in wound repair and that specific DS structural properties are necessary to promote FGF-10 function. These observations identify a novel interplay between DS and FGF-10 in mediating wound repair. PMID:19152659

  4. Health-promotion in the context of ageing and migration: a call for person-centred integrated practice

    PubMed Central

    Lood, Qarin; Ivanoff, Synneve Dahlin; Dellenborg, Lisen; Mårtensson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Objective For the aim of improving the implementation of a health-promoting intervention for older persons who are born abroad, this study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of facilitators and barriers for their possibilities to support a healthy ageing in the context of migration. Methods Qualitative data were collected from four focus groups with health professionals who all had experience of working with older persons who are born abroad. Data were analysed with the guidance from the method developed by Krueger and Casey, progressing from an empirical to an abstract level. Results Five different conditions were found to influence supporting healthy ageing in the context of migration: Sense of belonging through significant others, Emotional bonds to a place called home, Expectations on health and support during the ageing process, Mutual understanding as a means for communication and Heterogeneity as a point of departure. The one comprehensive theme complexity describes how those aspects are interrelated in a complex and unpredictable way. Conclusions The results point at the need for focusing on each person's experiences and health expectations, and the study provides a foundation for future research on the integration of whole-system and person-centred practice. PMID:24605072

  5. The Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio controls leukocyte transendothelial migration by promoting docking structure formation.

    PubMed

    van Rijssel, Jos; Kroon, Jeffrey; Hoogenboezem, Mark; van Alphen, Floris P J; de Jong, Renske J; Kostadinova, Elena; Geerts, Dirk; Hordijk, Peter L; van Buul, Jaap D

    2012-08-01

    Leukocyte transendothelial migration involves the active participation of the endothelium through the formation of apical membrane protrusions that embrace adherent leukocytes, termed docking structures. Using live-cell imaging, we find that prior to transmigration, endothelial docking structures form around 80% of all neutrophils. Previously we showed that endothelial RhoG and SGEF control leukocyte transmigration. In this study, our data reveal that both full-length Trio and the first DH-PH (TrioD1) domain of Trio, which can activate Rac1 and RhoG, interact with ICAM-1 and are recruited to leukocyte adhesion sites. Moreover, upon clustering of ICAM-1, the Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio activates Rac1, prior to activating RhoG, in a filamin-dependent manner. We further show that docking structure formation is initiated by ICAM-1 clustering into ring-like structures, which is followed by apical membrane protrusion. Interestingly, we find that Rac1 is required for ICAM-1 clustering, whereas RhoG controls membrane protrusion formation. Finally, silencing endothelial Trio expression or reducing TrioD1 activity without affecting SGEF impairs both docking structure formation and leukocyte transmigration. We conclude that Trio promotes leukocyte transendothelial migration by inducing endothelial docking structure formation in a filamin-dependent manner through the activation of Rac1 and RhoG.

  6. Platelet-Rich Fibrin Facilitates Rabbit Meniscal Repair by Promoting Meniscocytes Proliferation, Migration, and Extracellular Matrix Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chin-Chean; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Tsuang, Yang-Hwei; Lin, Ming-Fang; Chang, Chung-Hsun; Lin, Yun-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Although platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been used in clinical practice for some time, to date, few studies reveal its role as a bioactive scaffold in facilitating meniscal repair. Here, the positive anabolic effects of PRF on meniscocytes harvested from the primary culture of a rabbit meniscus were revealed. The rabbit meniscocytes were cultured with different concentrations of PRF-conditioned medium, and were evaluated for their ability to stimulate cell migration, proliferation, and extracellular matrix formation. In vivo, meniscal defects were created via an established rabbit animal model and were evaluated by a histology-based four-stage scoring system to validate the treatment outcome three months postoperatively. The in vitro results showed that PRF could induce cellular migration and promote proliferation and meniscocyte extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis of cultured meniscocytes. In addition, PRF increased the formation and deposition of cartilaginous matrix produced by cultured meniscocytes. Morphological and histological evaluations demonstrated that PRF could facilitate rabbit meniscal repair. The data highlight the potential utility of using PRF in augmenting the healing of meniscal injuries. These advantages would benefit clinical translation, and are a potential new treatment strategy for meniscal repair. PMID:28783120

  7. Androgen receptor (AR) promotes male bladder cancer cell proliferation and migration via regulating CD24 and VEGF.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guoqing; Yu, Shicheng; Cheng, Sheng; Li, Gonghui; Yu, Yanlan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has proved the pivotal roles of androgen receptor in various diseases, including prostate cancer and bladder cancer. The CD24 has been proved to be correlated to bladder cancer metastasis and tumorigenesis in recent study. This study was aimed to investigate the roles of AR in bladder cell proliferation and metastasis and to explore its potential mechanism. Expressions of AR in two kinds of bladder tumor cells (T24 and UM-UC-3) were analyzed using the CRISPR Activation Plasmid transfection or siRNA-mediated gene. The effects of AR on tumor cell proliferation and migration were also analyzed. Moreover, the effects of CD24 and influence of AR on cell proliferation and metastasis-related protein were also analyzed. The results showed that AR was significantly down-regulated in T24 cells but was significantly overexpressed in UM-UC-3 cells. The up-regulated T24 promotes cell proliferation, but this enhance effect was blocked by silencing CD24. Additionally, the AR overexpression significantly increased the VEGF and CD24 expression. Besides, the migrated bladder cells was increased by the up-regulated AR, but was decreased by silencing CD24 or silencing VEGF. Taken together, our study suggested that the up-regulated AR enhances the male bladder tumor cell proliferation and metastasis via modulating the CD24 and VEGF. This study may provide theoretical basis for the possibility of AR to be a therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

  8. Cancer derived peptide of vacuolar ATPase ‘a2’ isoform promotes neutrophil migration by autocrine secretion of IL-8

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Safaa A.; Kulshrestha, Arpita; Katara, Gajendra K.; Amin, Magdy A.; Beaman, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play significant regulatory roles within the tumor microenvironment by directly promoting tumor progression that leads to poor clinical outcomes. Identifying the tumor associated molecules that regulate neutrophil infiltration into tumors may provide new and specific therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. The a2-isoform of vacuolar ATPase (a2V) is uniquely and highly expressed on cancer cell plasma membrane. Cancer cells secrete a peptide from a2V (a2NTD) that promotes the pro-tumorigenic properties of neutrophils. This provides a2V the propensity to control neutrophil migration. Here, we report that the treatment of human neutrophils with recombinant a2NTD leads to neutrophil adherence and polarization. Moreover, a2NTD treatment activates surface adhesion receptors, as well as FAK and Src kinases that are essential regulators of the migration process in neutrophils. Functional analysis reveals that a2NTD can act as a chemo-attractant and promotes neutrophil migration. In addition, a2Neuɸ secrete high levels of IL-8 via NF-κB pathway activation. Confirmatory assays demonstrate that the promoted migration of a2Neuɸ was dependent on the autocrine secretion of IL-8 from a2Neuɸ. These findings demonstrate for the first time the direct regulatory role of cancer associated a2-isoform V-ATPase on neutrophil migration, suggesting a2V as a potential target for cancer therapy. PMID:27845385

  9. Down-regulation of MUC1 in cancer cells inhibits cell migration by promoting E-cadherin/catenin complex formation

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Zhenglong; Wong, Sandy; Borrelli, Alexander; Chung, Maureen A.

    2007-10-26

    MUC1, a tumor associated glycoprotein, is over-expressed in most cancers and can promote proliferation and metastasis. The objective of this research was to study the role of MUC1 in cancer metastasis and its potential mechanism. Pancreatic (PANC1) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells with stable 'knockdown' of MUC1 expression were created using RNA interference. {beta}-Catenin and E-cadherin protein expression were upregulated in PANC1 and MCF-7 cells with decreased MUC1 expression. Downregulation of MUC1 expression also induced {beta}-catenin relocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, increased E-cadherin/{beta}-catenin complex formation and E-cadherin membrane localization in PANC1 cells. PANC1 cells with 'knockdown' MUC1 expression had decreased in vitro cell invasion. This study suggested that MUC1 may affect cancer cell migration by increasing E-cadherin/{beta}-catenin complex formation and restoring E-cadherin membrane localization.

  10. Down-regulation of MUC1 in cancer cells inhibits cell migration by promoting E-cadherin/catenin complex formation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhenglong; Wong, Sandy; Borrelli, Alexander; Chung, Maureen A

    2007-10-26

    MUC1, a tumor associated glycoprotein, is over-expressed in most cancers and can promote proliferation and metastasis. The objective of this research was to study the role of MUC1 in cancer metastasis and its potential mechanism. Pancreatic (PANC1) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells with stable 'knockdown' of MUC1 expression were created using RNA interference. beta-Catenin and E-cadherin protein expression were upregulated in PANC1 and MCF-7 cells with decreased MUC1 expression. Downregulation of MUC1 expression also induced beta-catenin relocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, increased E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex formation and E-cadherin membrane localization in PANC1 cells. PANC1 cells with 'knockdown' MUC1 expression had decreased in vitro cell invasion. This study suggested that MUC1 may affect cancer cell migration by increasing E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex formation and restoring E-cadherin membrane localization.

  11. Loss of p53 promotes RhoA-ROCK-dependent cell migration and invasion in 3D matrices.

    PubMed

    Gadea, Gilles; de Toledo, Marion; Anguille, Christelle; Roux, Pierre

    2007-07-02

    In addition to its role in controlling cell cycle progression, the tumor suppressor protein p53 can also affect other cellular functions such as cell migration. In this study, we show that p53 deficiency in mouse embryonic fibroblasts cultured in three-dimensional matrices induces a switch from an elongated spindle morphology to a markedly spherical and flexible one associated with highly dynamic membrane blebs. These rounded, motile cells exhibit amoeboid-like movement and have considerably increased invasive properties. The morphological transition requires the RhoA-ROCK (Rho-associated coil-containing protein kinase) pathway and is prevented by RhoE. A similar p53-mediated transition is observed in melanoma A375P cancer cells. Our data suggest that genetic alterations of p53 in tumors are sufficient to promote motility and invasion, thereby contributing to metastasis.

  12. Light-emitting conjugated polymers with microporous network architecture: interweaving scaffold promotes electronic conjugation, facilitates exciton migration, and improves luminescence.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanhong; Chen, Long; Guo, Zhaoqi; Nagai, Atsushi; Jiang, Donglin

    2011-11-09

    Herein we report a strategy for the design of highly luminescent conjugated polymers by restricting rotation of the polymer building blocks through a microporous network architecture. We demonstrate this concept using tetraphenylethene (TPE) as a building block to construct a light-emitting conjugated microporous polymer. The interlocked network successfully restricted the rotation of the phenyl units, which are the major cause of fluorescence deactivation in TPE, thus providing intrinsic luminescence activity for the polymers. We show positive "CMP effects" that the network promotes π-conjugation, facilitates exciton migration, and improves luminescence activity. Although the monomer and linear polymer analogue in solvents are nonemissive, the network polymers are highly luminescent in various solvents and the solid state. Because emission losses due to rotation are ubiquitous among small chromophores, this strategy can be generalized for the de novo design of light-emitting materials by integrating the chromophores into an interlocked network architecture.

  13. Body protective compound-157 enhances alkali-burn wound healing in vivo and promotes proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tonglie; Zhang, Kuo; Sun, Lijuan; Xue, Xiaochang; Zhang, Cun; Shu, Zhen; Mu, Nan; Gu, Jintao; Zhang, Wangqian; Wang, Yukun; Zhang, Yingqi; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical burns take up a high proportion of burns admissions and can penetrate deep into tissues. Various reagents have been applied in the treatment of skin chemical burns; however, no optimal reagent for skin chemical burns currently exists. The present study investigated the effect of topical body protective compound (BPC)-157 treatment on skin wound healing, using an alkali burn rat model. Topical treatment with BPC-157 was shown to accelerate wound closure following an alkali burn. Histological examination of skin sections with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showed better granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and a higher extent of collagen deposition when compared to the model control group on the 18th day postwounding. BPC-157 could promote vascular endothelial growth factor expression in wounded skin tissues. Furthermore, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and cell cycle analysis demonstrated that BPC-157 enhanced the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Transwell assay and wound healing assay showed that BPC-157 significantly promoted migration of HUVECs. We also observed that BPC-157 upregulated the expression of VEGF-a and accelerated vascular tube formation in vitro. Moreover, further studies suggested that BPC-157 regulated the phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) as well as its downstream targets, including c-Fos, c-Jun, and Egr-1, which are key molecules involved in cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis. Altogether, our results indicated that BPC-157 treatment may accelerate wound healing in a model of alkali burn-induced skin injury. The therapeutic mechanism may be associated with accelerated granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and collagen deposition through ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  14. Body protective compound-157 enhances alkali-burn wound healing in vivo and promotes proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tonglie; Zhang, Kuo; Sun, Lijuan; Xue, Xiaochang; Zhang, Cun; Shu, Zhen; Mu, Nan; Gu, Jintao; Zhang, Wangqian; Wang, Yukun; Zhang, Yingqi; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical burns take up a high proportion of burns admissions and can penetrate deep into tissues. Various reagents have been applied in the treatment of skin chemical burns; however, no optimal reagent for skin chemical burns currently exists. The present study investigated the effect of topical body protective compound (BPC)-157 treatment on skin wound healing, using an alkali burn rat model. Topical treatment with BPC-157 was shown to accelerate wound closure following an alkali burn. Histological examination of skin sections with hematoxylin–eosin and Masson staining showed better granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and a higher extent of collagen deposition when compared to the model control group on the 18th day postwounding. BPC-157 could promote vascular endothelial growth factor expression in wounded skin tissues. Furthermore, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and cell cycle analysis demonstrated that BPC-157 enhanced the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Transwell assay and wound healing assay showed that BPC-157 significantly promoted migration of HUVECs. We also observed that BPC-157 upregulated the expression of VEGF-a and accelerated vascular tube formation in vitro. Moreover, further studies suggested that BPC-157 regulated the phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) as well as its downstream targets, including c-Fos, c-Jun, and Egr-1, which are key molecules involved in cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis. Altogether, our results indicated that BPC-157 treatment may accelerate wound healing in a model of alkali burn-induced skin injury. The therapeutic mechanism may be associated with accelerated granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and collagen deposition through ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:25995620

  15. The NMDA receptor functions independently and as an LRP1 co-receptor to promote Schwann cell survival and migration

    PubMed Central

    Mantuano, Elisabetta; Lam, Michael S.; Shibayama, Masataka; Campana, W. Marie; Gonias, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors, which associate with LDL-receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) to trigger cell signaling in response to protein ligands in neurons. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the NMDA-R is expressed by rat Schwann cells and functions independently and with LRP1 to regulate Schwann cell physiology. The NR1 (encoded by GRIN1) and NR2b (encoded by GRIN2B) NMDA-R subunits were expressed by cultured Schwann cells and upregulated in sciatic nerves following crush injury. The ability of LRP1 ligands to activate ERK1/2 (also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, respectively) and promote Schwann cell migration required the NMDA-R. NR1 gene silencing compromised Schwann cell survival. Injection of the LRP1 ligands tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, also known as PLAT) or MMP9-PEX into crush-injured sciatic nerves activated ERK1/2 in Schwann cells in vivo, and the response was blocked by systemic treatment with the NMDA-R inhibitor MK801. tPA was unique among the LRP1 ligands examined because tPA activated cell signaling and promoted Schwann cell migration by interacting with the NMDA-R independently of LRP1, albeit with delayed kinetics. These results define the NMDA-R as a Schwann cell signaling receptor for protein ligands and a major regulator of Schwann cell physiology, which may be particularly important in peripheral nervous system (PNS) injury. PMID:26272917

  16. A novel signaling pathway of tissue kallikrein in promoting keratinocyte migration: Activation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 and epidermal growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Lin; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie

    2010-02-01

    Biological functions of tissue kallikrein (TK, KLK1) are mainly mediated by kinin generation and subsequent kinin B2 receptor activation. In this study, we investigated the potential role of TK and its signaling pathways in cultured human keratinocyte migration and in a rat skin wound healing model. Herein, we show that TK promoted cell migration and proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Inactive TK or kinin had no significant effect on cell migration. Interestingly, cell migration induced by active TK was not blocked by icatibant or L-NAME, indicating an event independent of kinin B2 receptor and nitric oxide formation. TK's stimulatory effect on cell migration was inhibited by small interfering RNA for proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR{sub 1}), and by PAR{sub 1} inhibitor. TK-induced migration was associated with increased phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which was blocked by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), Src, EGFR and ERK. TK-induced cell migration and EGFR phosphorylation were blocked by metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, heparin, and antibodies against EGFR external domain, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and amphiregulin (AR). Local application of TK promoted skin wound healing in rats, whereas icatibant and EGFR inhibitor blocked TK's effect. Skin wound healing was further delayed by aprotinin and neutralizing TK antibody. This study demonstrates a novel role of TK in skin wound healing and uncovers new signaling pathways mediated by TK in promoting keratinocyte migration through activation of the PAR{sub 1}-PKC-Src-MMP pathway and HB-EGF/AR shedding-dependent EGFR transactivation.

  17. The Proprotein Convertase Furin Contributes to Rhabdomyosarcoma Malignancy by Promoting Vascularization, Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Jaaks, Patricia; D’Alessandro, Valentina; Grob, Nicole; Büel, Sina; Hajdin, Katarina; Schäfer, Beat W.; Bernasconi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The proprotein convertase (PC) furin cleaves precursor proteins, an important step in the activation of many cancer-associated proteins. Substrates of furin and furin-like PCs play a role in proliferation, metastasis and invasion. Some of them are involved in the progression of the pediatric soft tissue sarcoma rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). In this study, we show that PCs, and in particular furin, are expressed in RMS cell lines. To investigate the functional role of furin, we generated RMS cell lines with modulated furin activity. Silencing or stable inhibition of furin delayed tumor growth in Rh30 and RD xenografts in vivo, and was correlated with lower microvessel density. Reduced furin activity also decreased migration and invasion abilities in vitro, and inhibition of furin in RMS cells diminished processing of IGF1R, VEGF-C, PDGF-B and MT1-MMP, leading to lower levels of mature proteins. Furthermore, we found that furin activity is required for proper IGF signaling in RMS cells, as furin silencing resulted in reduced phosphorylation of Akt upon IGF1 stimulation. Taken together, our results suggest that furin plays an important role in the malignant phenotype of RMS cells by activating proteins involved in tumor growth and vascularization, metastasis and invasion. PMID:27548722

  18. TNFα promotes CAR-dependent migration of leukocytes across epithelial monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Penny E.; Hicks, Alexander; Ortiz-Zapater, Elena; Raghavan, Swetavalli; Pike, Rosemary; Noble, Alistair; Woodfin, Abigail; Jenkins, Gisli; Rayner, Emma; Santis, George; Parsons, Maddy

    2016-01-01

    Trans-epithelial migration (TEpM) of leukocytes during inflammation requires engagement with receptors expressed on the basolateral surface of the epithelium. One such receptor is Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) that binds to Junctional Adhesion Molecule-like (JAM-L) expressed on leukocytes. Here we provide the first evidence that efficient TEpM of monocyte-derived THP-1 cells requires and is controlled by phosphorylation of CAR. We show that TNFα acts in a paracrine manner on epithelial cells via a TNFR1-PI3K-PKCδ pathway leading to CAR phosphorylation and subsequent transmigration across cell junctions. Moreover, we show that CAR is hyper-phosphorylated in vivo in acute and chronic lung inflammation models and this response is required to facilitate immune cell recruitment. This represents a novel mechanism of feedback between leukocytes and epithelial cells during TEpM and may be important in controlling responses to pro-inflammatory cytokines in pathological settings. PMID:27193388

  19. The widely expressed extracellular matrix protein SMOC-2 promotes keratinocyte attachment and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, Silke; Paulsson, Mats; Hartmann, Ursula

    2008-08-01

    SMOC-2 is a recently discovered member of the BM-40/SPARC/osteonectin family of extracellular multidomain proteins of so far unknown function. While we have shown earlier that the homologous protein SMOC-1 is associated with basement membranes, in this study we demonstrate that, in the mouse, SMOC-2 could be detected in a large number of non-basement membrane localizations, often showing a diffuse tissue distribution. A more distinct expression pattern was seen in skin where SMOC-2 is mainly present in the basal layers of the epidermis. Functionally, recombinant SMOC-2 stimulated attachment of primary epidermal cells as well as several epidermal-derived cell lines but had no effect on the attachment of non-epidermal cells. Inhibition experiments using blocking antibodies against individual integrin subunits allowed the identification of {alpha}v{beta}6 and {alpha}v{beta}1 integrins as important cellular receptors for SMOC-2. Cell attachment as well as the formation of focal adhesions could be attributed to the extracellular calcium-binding domain. The calcium-binding domain also stimulated migration, but not proliferation of keratinocyte-like HaCaT cells. We conclude that SMOC-2, like other members of the BM40/SPARC family, acts as a regulator of cell-matrix interactions.

  20. Cdc42 promotes transendothelial migration of cancer cells through β1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Nicolas; Im, Jae Hong; Garg, Ritu; Vega, Francisco M; Borda d'Agua, Barbara; Riou, Philippe; Cox, Susan; Valderrama, Ferran; Muschel, Ruth J; Ridley, Anne J

    2012-11-12

    Cancer cells interact with endothelial cells during the process of metastatic spreading. Here, we use a small interfering RNA screen targeting Rho GTPases in cancer cells to identify Cdc42 as a critical regulator of cancer cell-endothelial cell interactions and transendothelial migration. We find that Cdc42 regulates β1 integrin expression at the transcriptional level via the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF). β1 integrin is the main target for Cdc42-mediating interaction of cancer cells with endothelial cells and the underlying extracellular matrix, as exogenous β1 integrin expression was sufficient to rescue the Cdc42-silencing phenotype. We show that Cdc42 was required in vivo for cancer cell spreading and protrusion extension along blood vessels and retention in the lungs. Interestingly, transient Cdc42 depletion was sufficient to decrease experimental lung metastases, which suggests that its role in endothelial attachment is important for metastasis. By identifying β1 integrin as a transcriptional target of Cdc42, our results provide new insight into Cdc42 function.

  1. Pif1 helicase and Polδ promote recombination-coupled DNA synthesis via bubble migration.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Marenda A; Kwon, YoungHo; Xu, Yuanyuan; Chung, Woo-Hyun; Chi, Peter; Niu, Hengyao; Mayle, Ryan; Chen, Xuefeng; Malkova, Anna; Sung, Patrick; Ira, Grzegorz

    2013-10-17

    During DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR), DNA synthesis copies information from a template DNA molecule. Multiple DNA polymerases have been implicated in repair-specific DNA synthesis, but it has remained unclear whether a DNA helicase is involved in this reaction. A good candidate DNA helicase is Pif1, an evolutionarily conserved helicase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae important for break-induced replication (BIR) as well as HR-dependent telomere maintenance in the absence of telomerase found in 10-15% of all cancers. Pif1 has a role in DNA synthesis across hard-to-replicate sites and in lagging-strand synthesis with polymerase δ (Polδ). Here we provide evidence that Pif1 stimulates DNA synthesis during BIR and crossover recombination. The initial steps of BIR occur normally in Pif1-deficient cells, but Polδ recruitment and DNA synthesis are decreased, resulting in premature resolution of DNA intermediates into half-crossovers. Purified Pif1 protein strongly stimulates Polδ-mediated DNA synthesis from a D-loop made by the Rad51 recombinase. Notably, Pif1 liberates the newly synthesized strand to prevent the accumulation of topological constraint and to facilitate extensive DNA synthesis via the establishment of a migrating D-loop structure. Our results uncover a novel function of Pif1 and provide insights into the mechanism of HR.

  2. S100A8 promotes migration and infiltration of inflammatory cells in acute anterior uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuqin; Zhang, Zuhui; Zhang, Laihe; Li, Xinxin; Lu, Rui; Xu, Peipei; Zhang, Xuhong; Dai, Mali; Dai, Xiaodan; Qu, Jia; Lu, Fan; Chi, Zailong

    2016-01-01

    Uveitis, the pathologic condition of inflammation of the uvea, frequently leads to severe vision loss and blindness. S100A8 is a calcium-binding protein which mainly expresses in granulocytes and monocytes and plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. Here, we determined the role of S100A8-positive cells in acute anterior uveitis (AAU) and keratitis. In rat models of endotoxin (lipopolisaccharide, LPS) -induced uveitis (EIU) and keratitis, S100A8-positive granulocytes and monocytes increased significantly in the iris-ciliary body and cornea as well as in the blood. Interestingly, Glucocorticoids slightly increased S100A8 levels in leukocytes, but reduced its presence significantly in the iris-ciliary body after LPS injection. Moreover, inhibition of NF-kB activation remarkably suppressed both progression of AAU and total S100A8 levels in leukocytes and the iris-ciliary body after LPS administration. Additionally, S100A8 protein level was also found to be elevated in the serum of AAU patients parallel with the progression of AAU through the designated clinical stages. Thus, S100A8 plays a pivotal role in the processes of AAU through involvement in migration and infiltration of S100A8-positive cells. Our findings suggest that serum levels of S100A8 protein can be used to monitor inflammatory activity in AAU. PMID:27786310

  3. Association of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor promoter polymorphisms with benign lymphoepithelial lesion of lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin-Jian; Zhao, Peng-Xiang; Zhang, Xu-Juan; Yi, Yang; Cheng, Dan-Ying; Ma, Jian-Min; Ma, Xue-Mei

    2017-01-01

    To identify the association of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene polymorphism with the susceptibility of benign lymphoepithelial lesions (BLEL) of the lacrimal gland. A total of 40 BLEL of lacrimal gland cases were matched with 40 healthy subjects (HS). Extraction the plasma and whole blood DNA of patients of lacrimal gland BLEL and HS. Elisa and polymerase chain reaction was used to determine in plasma contents of MIF and MIF gene SNP-173G>C and STR -794 CATT(5-8) polymorphism, respectively. The MIF levels in plasma were significantly higher in patients with lacrimal gland BLEL versus HS (P<0.001). The -173 G>C MIF polymorphism was significantly associated with lacrimal gland BLEL, with a significantly higher frequency of the C allele in lacrimal gland BLEL patients compared with HS (OR=2.38, 95% CI=1.07-5.31, P=0.032), and the -173 C/x is more frequent in patients than in HS, P=0.037. Besides, we found that the carriage rate of the MIF -173C/x is associated with higher plasma levels of MIF in the BLEL of lacrimal gland. MIF -173G/C variants play an insidious role in susceptibility of BLEL of lacrimal gland. Otherwise, there is no statistically significant correlation exists between MIF-794 CATT (5-8) and BLEL of lacrimal gland.

  4. TNF-{alpha} promotes human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression through activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cheng-hu; Cao, Guo-Fan; Jiang, Qin; Yao, Jin

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression and secretion to promote RPE cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK activation is not critical for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt and mTORC1 signaling mediate TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIN1 knockdown showed no significant effect on MMP-9 expression by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) promotes in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration to initiate proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Here we report that TNF-{alpha} promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Inhibition of MMP-9 by its inhibitor or its neutralizing antibody inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced in vitro RPE cell migration. Reversely, exogenously-added active MMP-9 promoted RPE cell migration. Suppression Akt/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) activation by LY 294002 and rapamycin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-mediated MMP-9 expression. To introduce a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) in cultured RPE cells increased MMP-9 expression, and to block mTORC1 activation by rapamycin inhibited its effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), had no effect on MMP-9 expression or secretion. In conclusion, this study suggest that TNF-{alpha} promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP-9 expression through activation of Akt/ mTORC1, but not mTORC2 signaling.

  5. Down-regulation of NDRG1 promotes migration of cancer cells during reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Lai, Liang-Chuan; Su, Yi-Yu; Chen, Kuo-Chih; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Lu, Tzu-Pin; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Chuang, Eric Y

    2011-01-01

    One characteristic of tumor microenvironment is oxygen fluctuation, which results from hyper-proliferation and abnormal metabolism of tumor cells as well as disorganized neo-vasculature. Reoxygenation of tumors can induce oxidative stress, which leads to DNA damage and genomic instability. Although the cellular responses to hypoxia are well known, little is known about the dynamic response upon reoxygenation. In order to investigate the transcriptional responses of tumor adaptation to reoxygenation, breast cancer MCF-7 cells were cultured under 0.5% oxygen for 24 h followed by 24 h of reoxygenation in normoxia. Cells were harvested at 0, 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h during reoxygenation. The transcriptional profile of MCF-7 cells upon reoxygenation was examined using Illumina Human-6 v3 BeadChips. We identified 127 differentially expressed genes, of which 53.1% were up-regulated and 46.9% were down-regulated upon reoxygenation. Pathway analysis revealed that the HIF-1-alpha transcription factor network and validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation were significantly enriched in these differentially expressed genes. Among these genes, a subset of interest genes was further validated by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. In particular, human N-MYC down-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) was highly suppressed upon reoxygenation. NDRG1 is associated with a variety of stress and cell growth-regulatory conditions. To determine whether NDRG1 plays a role in reoxygenation, NDRG1 protein was overexpressed in MCF-7 cells. Upon reoxygenation, overexpression of NDRG1 significantly inhibited cell migration. Our results revealed the dynamic nature of gene expression in MCF-7 cells upon reoxygenation and demonstrated that NDRG1 is involved in tumor adaptation to reoxygenation.

  6. Increased cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CSE1L/CAS) protein expression promotes protrusion extension and enhances migration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Liao, Ching-Fong; Deng, Win-Ping; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Hsieh, Cheng-I; Tung, Jai-Nien; Chen, Ching-Shyang; Chiou, Jeng-Fong; Li, Li-Tzu; Lin, Chuang-Yu; Hsu, Chung-Huei; Jiang, Ming-Chung

    2010-10-15

    Microtubules are part of cell structures that play a role in regulating the migration of cancer cells. The cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CSE1L/CAS) protein is a microtubule-associated protein that is highly expressed in cancer. We report here that CSE1L regulates the association of {alpha}-tubulin with {beta}-tubulin and promotes the migration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. CSE1L was associated with {alpha}-tubulin and {beta}-tubulin in GST (glutathione S-transferase) pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays. CSE1L-GFP (green fluorescence protein) fusion protein experiments showed that the N-terminal of CSE1L interacted with microtubules. Increased CSE1L expression resulted in decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of {alpha}-tubulin and {beta}-tubulin, increased {alpha}-tubulin and {beta}-tubulin association, and enhanced assembly of microtubules. Cell protrusions or pseudopodia are temporary extensions of the plasma membrane and are implicated in cancer cell migration and invasion. Increased CSE1L expression increased the extension of MCF-7 cell protrusions. In vitro migration assay showed that enhanced CSE1L expression increased the migration of MCF-7 cells. Our results indicate that CSE1L plays a role in regulating the extension of cell protrusions and promotes the migration of cancer cells.

  7. TLR4 induces CREB-mediated IL-6 production via upregulation of F-spondin to promote vascular smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Guan-Lin; Wu, Jing-Yiing; Yeh, Chang-Ching; Kuo, Cheng-Chin

    2016-05-13

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is important in promoting inflammation and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, both of which contribute to atherosclerosis development and progression. But the mechanism underlying the regulation of TLR4 in VSMC migration remains unclear. Stimulation of VSMCs with LPS increased the cellular level of F-spondin which is associated with the regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. The LPS-induced F-spondin expression depended on TLR4-mediated PI3K/Akt pathway. Suppression of F-spondin level by siRNA inhibited not only F-spondin expression but also LPS-induced phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and IL-6 expression, VSMC migration and proliferation as well as MMP9 expression. Moreover, suppression of CREB level by siRNA inhibited TLR4-induced IL-6 production and VSMC migration. Inhibition of F-spondin siRNA on LPS-induced migration was restored by addition of exogenous recombinant mouse IL-6. We conclude that upon ligand binding, TLR4 activates PI3K/Akt signaling to induce F-spondin expression, subsequently control CREB-mediated IL-6 production to promote VSMC migration. These findings provide vital insights into the essential role of F-spondin in VSMC function and will be valuable for developing new therapeutic strategies against atherosclerosis.

  8. Increased cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CSE1L/CAS) protein expression promotes protrusion extension and enhances migration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Liao, Ching-Fong; Deng, Win-Ping; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Hsieh, Cheng-I; Tung, Jai-Nien; Chen, Ching-Shyang; Chiou, Jeng-Fong; Li, Li-Tzu; Lin, Chuang-Yu; Hsu, Chung-Huei; Jiang, Ming-Chung

    2010-10-15

    Microtubules are part of cell structures that play a role in regulating the migration of cancer cells. The cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CSE1L/CAS) protein is a microtubule-associated protein that is highly expressed in cancer. We report here that CSE1L regulates the association of α-tubulin with β-tubulin and promotes the migration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. CSE1L was associated with α-tubulin and β-tubulin in GST (glutathione S-transferase) pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays. CSE1L-GFP (green fluorescence protein) fusion protein experiments showed that the N-terminal of CSE1L interacted with microtubules. Increased CSE1L expression resulted in decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of α-tubulin and β-tubulin, increased α-tubulin and β-tubulin association, and enhanced assembly of microtubules. Cell protrusions or pseudopodia are temporary extensions of the plasma membrane and are implicated in cancer cell migration and invasion. Increased CSE1L expression increased the extension of MCF-7 cell protrusions. In vitro migration assay showed that enhanced CSE1L expression increased the migration of MCF-7 cells. Our results indicate that CSE1L plays a role in regulating the extension of cell protrusions and promotes the migration of cancer cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Leptin promotes human endometriotic cell migration and invasion by up-regulating MMP-2 through the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji-Hye; Choi, Youn Seok; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2015-10-01

    Despite evidence that leptin may play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, the specific function of leptin in the migration and invasion of endometriotic cells is not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of leptin on the migration, invasion and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression levels of human endometriotic cells. We found that leptin stimulated the migration and invasion of endometriotic cells (11Z, 12Z and 22B) in a dose-dependent manner. Leptin receptor (ObR) siRNA significantly inhibited the migration and invasion induced by leptin in 11Z and 12Z cells. Leptin-induced migration and invasion were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with SB-3CT, a specific gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) inhibitor. In addition, leptin-induced increases in the mRNA and protein expression and enzyme activity of MMP-2 in 11Z and 12Z cells. Selectively inhibiting MMP-2 using siRNA and an inhibitor (GM6003), impaired the ability of leptin to stimulate the migration and invasion of endometriotic cells, suggesting that MMP-2 plays an essential role in leptin-induced migration and invasion. Janus Kinase 2/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) inhibitor (AG490) significantly inhibited the migration, invasion and MMP-2 expression induced by leptin in endometriotic cells. Furthermore, the Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase inhibitor PD98059 neutralized the migration and invasion promoting effects of leptin. Taken together, these results suggest that leptin may contribute to the migration and invasion abilities of endometriotic cells via the up-regulation of MMP-2 through an ObR-dependent JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  10. MicroRNA-152 Targets Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog to Inhibit Apoptosis and Promote Cell Migration of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shunde; Li, Xiaohua; Zhu, Haotu

    2016-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a type of head and neck cancer with very high prevalence in southern China. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a tumor suppressor, was reported to be downregulated in NPC patients and correlated with pathological grade and clinical stage of NPC. Material/Methods Luciferase reporter assay, qPCR, and Western blot analysis were used to determine if PTEN is a target of miR-152. The function of miR-152 in cell apoptosis and cell proliferation was examined as well. Tissue samples from NPC patients were also analyzed for PTEN and miR-152 expressions. Results Reporter assay indicated miR-152 targets the 3′UTR of PTEN mRNA to inhibit PTEN expression. Transfection of the NPC-derived cell line with miR-152 mimic confirmed these findings. Overexpression of miRNA-152 inhibits apoptosis induced by Cisplatin in NPC cancer cells in vitro. Moreover, overexpression miR-152 also promotes NPC cancer cell invasion and proliferation. Samples from EBV-negative NPC patients demonstrated the down-regulated level of PTEN may be related with overexpression of miR-152. Conclusions The miR-152 targets PETN to inhibit cell apoptosis and promote cancer cell proliferation and migration in NPC development. PMID:27840403

  11. Circular RNA GLI2 promotes osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by targeting miR-125b-5p.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Feng; Song, Yu-Ze

    2017-07-01

    Circular RNAs are novel identified type of endogenous non-coding RNAs, which exert vital functions in human and animals. However, the in-depth role of circular RNAs in the progression of tumorigenesis, especially osteosarcoma, is still undefined. Our preliminary study had found that cir-GLI2 was significantly upregulated in osteosarcoma tissues compared to adjacent non-tumor tissue. Moreover, cir-GLI2 silencing could effectively suppress the proliferation, migration, and invasion capacity of osteosarcoma cells, indicating the tumor-promoting role. Besides, bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay predicted the direct binding to miR-125b-5p, which has been reported to function as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma. Furthermore, functional experiments validated that cir-GLI2 exerted the tumor-promoting effects on osteosarcoma cells via negatively targeting miR-125b-5p. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that cir-GLI2 acts as an oncogenic circular RNA in osteosarcoma genesis, providing a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for osteosarcoma.

  12. miR-96 promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting PTPN9 in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yeting; Liang, Hongwei; Uzair-ur-Rehman; Wang, Yanbo; Zhang, Weijie; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Song’an; Yu, Mengchao; Cui, Sufang; Liu, Minghui; Wang, Nan; Ye, Chao; Zhao, Chihao; Liu, Yanqing; Fan, Qian; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Sang, Jianfeng; Zen, Ke; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as major regulators of the initiation and progression of human cancers, including breast cancer. The aim of this study is to determine the expression pattern of miR-96 in breast cancer and to investigate its biological role during tumorigenesis. We showed that miR-96 was significantly upregulated in breast cancer. We then investigated its function and found that miR-96 significantly promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and enhanced tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, we explored the molecular mechanisms by which miR-96 contributes to breast cancer progression and identified PTPN9 (protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 9) as a direct target gene of miR-96. Finally, we showed that PTPN9 had opposite effects to those of miR-96 on breast cancer cells, suggesting that miR-96 may promote breast tumorigenesis by silencing PTPN9. Taken together, this study highlights an important role for miR-96 in the regulation of PTPN9 in breast cancer cells and may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis. PMID:27857177

  13. Phosphatidic acid-mediated activation and translocation to the cell surface of sialidase NEU3, promoting signaling for cell migration.

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Kohta; Hosono, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Hata, Keiko; Shiozaki, Momo; Bassi, Rosaria; Prinetti, Alessandro; Sonnino, Sandro; Nitta, Kazuo; Miyagi, Taeko

    2015-05-01

    The plasma membrane-associated sialidase NEU3 plays crucial roles in regulation of transmembrane signaling, and its aberrant up-regulation in various cancers contributes to malignancy. However, it remains uncertain how NEU3 is naturally activated and locates to plasma membranes, because of its Triton X-100 requirement for the sialidase activity in vitro and its often changing subcellular location. Among phospholipids examined, we demonstrate that phosphatidic acid (PA) elevates its sialidase activity 4 to 5 times at 50 μM in vitro at neutral pH and promotes translocation to the cell surface and cell migration through Ras-signaling in HeLa and COS-1 cells. NEU3 was found to interact selectively with PA as assessed by phospholipid array, liposome coprecipitation, and ELISA assays and to colocalize with phospholipase D (PLD) 1 in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) or serum stimulation. Studies using tagged NEU3 fragments with point mutations identified PA- and calmodulin (CaM)-binding sites around the N terminus and confirmed its participation in translocation and catalytic activity. EGF induced PLD1 activation concomitantly with enhanced NEU3 translocation to the cell surface, as assessed by confocal microscopy. These results suggest that interactions of NEU3 with PA produced by PLD1 are important for regulation of transmembrane signaling, this aberrant acceleration probably promoting malignancy in cancers.

  14. The apoptotic members CD95, BclxL, and Bcl-2 cooperate to promote cell migration by inducing Ca2+ flux from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Fouqué, A; Lepvrier, E; Debure, L; Gouriou, Y; Malleter, M; Delcroix, V; Ovize, M; Ducret, T; Li, C; Hammadi, M; Vacher, P; Legembre, P

    2016-01-01

    Metalloprotease-processed CD95L (cl-CD95L) is a soluble cytokine that implements a PI3K/Ca2+ signaling pathway in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Accordingly, high levels of cl-CD95L in TNBC women correlate with poor prognosis, and administration of this ligand in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model accelerates the metastatic dissemination of TNBC cells. The molecular mechanism underlying CD95-mediated cell migration remains unknown. Here, we present genetic and pharmacologic evidence that the anti-apoptotic molecules BclxL and Bcl-2 and the pro-apoptotic factors BAD and BID cooperate to promote migration of TNBC cells stimulated with cl-CD95L. BclxL was distributed in both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrion membranes. The mitochondrion-localized isoform promoted cell migration by interacting with voltage-dependent anion channel 1 to orchestrate Ca2+ transfer from the ER to mitochondria in a BH3-dependent manner. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter contributed to this flux, which favored ATP production and cell migration. In conclusion, this study reveals a novel molecular mechanism controlled by BclxL to promote cancer cell migration and supports the use of BH3 mimetics as therapeutic options not only to kill tumor cells but also to prevent metastatic dissemination in TNBCs. PMID:27367565

  15. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Small T Antigen Mediates Microtubule Destabilization To Promote Cell Motility and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Laura M.; Stakaityte, Gabriele; Wood, Jennifer, J.; Abdul-Sada, Hussein; Griffiths, David A.; Howell, Gareth J.; Wheat, Rachel; Blair, G. Eric; Steven, Neil M.; Macdonald, Andrew; Blackbourn, David J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer of neuroendocrine origin with a high propensity for recurrence and metastasis. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) causes the majority of MCC cases due to the expression of the MCPyV small and large tumor antigens (ST and LT, respectively). Although a number of molecular mechanisms have been attributed to MCPyV tumor antigen-mediated cellular transformation or replication, to date, no studies have investigated any potential link between MCPyV T antigen expression and the highly metastatic nature of MCC. Here we use a quantitative proteomic approach to show that MCPyV ST promotes differential expression of cellular proteins implicated in microtubule-associated cytoskeletal organization and dynamics. Intriguingly, we demonstrate that MCPyV ST expression promotes microtubule destabilization, leading to a motile and migratory phenotype. We further highlight the essential role of the microtubule-associated protein stathmin in MCPyV ST-mediated microtubule destabilization and cell motility and implicate the cellular phosphatase catalytic subunit protein phosphatase 4C (PP4C) in the regulation of this process. These findings suggest a possible molecular mechanism for the highly metastatic phenotype associated with MCC. IMPORTANCE Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) causes the majority of cases of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), an aggressive skin cancer with a high metastatic potential. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to virally induced cancer development have yet to be fully elucidated. In particular, no studies have investigated any potential link between the virus and the highly metastatic nature of MCC. We demonstrate that the MCPyV small tumor antigen (ST) promotes the destabilization of the host cell microtubule network, which leads to a more motile and migratory cell phenotype. We further show that MCPyV ST induces this process by regulating the phosphorylation status of the cellular microtubule

  16. Rac1-mediated indentation of resting neurons promotes the chain migration of new neurons in the rostral migratory stream of post-natal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Hikita, Takao; Ohno, Akihisa; Sawada, Masato; Ota, Haruko; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2014-03-01

    New neurons generated in the ventricular-subventricular zone in the post-natal brain travel toward the olfactory bulb by using a collective cell migration process called 'chain migration.' These new neurons show a saltatory movement of their soma, suggesting that each neuron cycles through periods of 'rest' during migration. Here, we investigated the role of the resting neurons in chain migration using post-natal mouse brain, and found that they undergo a dynamic morphological change, in which a deep indentation forms in the cell body. Inhibition of Rac1 activity resulted in less indentation of the new neurons in vivo. Live cell imaging using a Förster resonance energy transfer biosensor revealed that Rac1 was activated at the sites of contact between actively migrating and resting new neurons. On the cell surface of resting neurons, Rac1 activation coincided with the formation of the indentation. Furthermore, Rac1 knockdown prevented the indentation from forming and impaired migration along the resting neurons. These results suggest that Rac1 regulates a morphological change in the resting neurons, which allows them to serve as a migratory scaffold, and thereby non-cell-autonomously promotes chain migration. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Loss of tricellular tight junction protein LSR promotes cell invasion and migration via upregulation of TEAD1/AREG in human endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Hiroshi; Abe, Shyuetsu; Kohno, Takayuki; Satohisa, Seiro; Konno, Takumi; Takahashi, Syunta; Hatakeyama, Tsubasa; Arimoto, Chihiro; Kakuki, Takuya; Kaneko, Yakuto; Takano, Ken-ichi; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is a unique molecule of tricellular contacts of normal and cancer cells. We investigated how the loss of LSR induced cell migration, invasion and proliferation in endometrial cancer cell line Sawano. mRNAs of amphiregulin (AREG) and TEA domain family member 1 (TEAD1) were markedly upregulated by siRNA-LSR. In endometrial cancer tissues, downregulation of LSR and upregulation of AREG were observed together with malignancy, and Yes-associated protein (YAP) was present in the nuclei. siRNA-AREG prevented the cell migration and invasion induced by siRNA-LSR, whereas treatment with AREG induced cell migration and invasion. LSR was colocalized with TRIC, angiomotin (AMOT), Merlin and phosphorylated YAP (pYAP). siRNA-LSR increased expression of pYAP and decreased that of AMOT and Merlin. siRNA-YAP prevented expression of the mRNAs of AREG and TEAD1, and the cell migration and invasion induced by siRNA-LSR. Treatment with dobutamine and 2-deoxy-D-glucose and glucose starvation induced the pYAP expression and prevented the cell migration and invasion induced by siRNA-LSR. siRNA-AMOT decreased the Merlin expression and prevented the cell migration and invasion induced by siRNA-LSR. The loss of LSR promoted cell invasion and migration via upregulation of TEAD1/AREG dependent on YAP/pYAP and AMOT/Merlin in human endometrial cancer cells. PMID:28071680

  18. Rnd3 Regulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton Promotes Melanoma Migration and Invasive Outgrowth in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Klein, R. Matthew; Aplin, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    Depth of cell invasion into the dermis is a clinical determinant for poor prognosis in cutaneous melanoma. The signaling events that promote the switch from a non-invasive to invasive tumor phenotype remain obscure. Activating mutations in the serine/threonine kinase B-RAF are prevalent in melanoma. Mutant B-RAF is required for melanoma cell invasion. The expression of Rnd3, a Rho family GTPase, is regulated by mutant B-RAF, although its role in melanoma progression is unknown. In this study, we determined the functional contribution of Rnd3 to invasive melanoma. Endogenous Rnd3 was targeted for knockdown using a doxycyclineinducible shRNA system in invasive human melanoma cells. Depletion of Rnd3 promoted prominent actin stress fibers and enlarged focal adhesions. Mechanistically, stress fiber formation induced by Rnd3 knockdown required the specific involvement of RhoA and ROCK1/2 activity but not RhoB or RhoC. Rnd3 expression in human melanoma cell lines was strongly associated with elevated ERK phosphorylation and invasive behavior in a 3-D dermal-like environment. A functional role for Rnd3 was demonstrated in the invasive outgrowth of melanoma tumor spheroids. Knockdown of Rnd3 reduced invasive outgrowth of spheroids embedded in collagen gels. Additionally, Rnd3 depletion inhibited collective and border cell movement out from spheroids in a ROCK1/2-dependent manner. Collectively, these findings implicate Rnd3 as a major suppressor of RhoA mediated actin cytoskeletal organization and in the acquisition of an invasive melanoma phenotype. PMID:19244113

  19. Rnd3 regulation of the actin cytoskeleton promotes melanoma migration and invasive outgrowth in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Klein, R Matthew; Aplin, Andrew E

    2009-03-15

    The depth of cell invasion into the dermis is a clinical determinant for poor prognosis in cutaneous melanoma. The signaling events that promote the switch from a noninvasive to invasive tumor phenotype remain obscure. Activating mutations in the serine/threonine kinase B-RAF are prevalent in melanoma. Mutant B-RAF is required for melanoma cell invasion. The expression of Rnd3, a Rho family GTPase, is regulated by mutant B-RAF, although its role in melanoma progression is unknown. In this study, we determined the functional contribution of Rnd3 to invasive melanoma. Endogenous Rnd3 was targeted for knockdown using a doxycycline-inducible short hairpin RNA system in invasive human melanoma cells. Depletion of Rnd3 promoted prominent actin stress fibers and enlarged focal adhesions. Mechanistically, stress fiber formation induced by Rnd3 knockdown required the specific involvement of RhoA and ROCK1/2 activity but not RhoB or RhoC. Rnd3 expression in human melanoma cell lines was strongly associated with elevated extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and invasive behavior in a three-dimensional dermal-like environment. A functional role for Rnd3 was shown in the invasive outgrowth of melanoma tumor spheroids. Knockdown of Rnd3 reduced the invasive outgrowth of spheroids embedded in collagen gels. Additionally, Rnd3 depletion inhibited collective and border cell movement out from spheroids in a ROCK1/2-dependent manner. Collectively, these findings implicate Rnd3 as a major suppressor of RhoA-mediated actin cytoskeletal organization and in the acquisition of an invasive melanoma phenotype.

  20. Inhibition of sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase 1 promotes cancer cells migration in gastric cancer: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang Y; Li, Lin; Wang, Xiao H; Wen, Xian Z; Ji, Ke; Ye, Lin; Cai, Jun; Jiang, Wen G; Ji, Jia F

    2015-10-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays an important role in regulating many biological processes. Sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase 1 (SGPP1) can dephosphorylate S1P into sphingosine and tip the balance of sphingosine-S1P. Increased levels of sphingosine leads to a decrease in the ability of cell invasion as well as an increase in the ability of cell apoptosis. However, little is known regarding the effects of SGPP1 in gastric cancer. The present study examined the function of SGPP1 on gastric cancer cell lines as well as its clinical relevance in gastric cancer progression. Using immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR techniques, the clinical significance of SGPP1 expression was analyzed in 288 paraffin-embedded gastric tissue specimens and 219 fresh gastric tissues, respectively. Transgenes encoding ribozymes to specifically target human SGPP1 (pEF-SGPP1) was constructed. Human gastric cancer cell lines (AGS and HGC27) were transfected with pEF-SGPP1 transgene and examined by functional analysis. SGPP1 was downregulated in gastric cancer tissues, compared with adjacent normal gastric tissues (p=0.034). SGPP1 mRNA levels in gastric cancer tissues were significantly decreased when compared with their adjacent non-cancerous tissues (p<0.001). Weakly expressed SGPP1 was positively correlated with the lymph node metastasis (p=0.005) and distant metastasis (p=0.031). Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that patients with SGPP1 positive expression had a significant increase in overall survival (OS) (p=0.034) and progression-free survival (PFS) (p=0.041). Multivariate analysis indicated the expression of SGPP1 was an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer patients (p=0.041). In vitro experiments showed that knockdown of SGPP1 resulted in an increase in the invasion (2-fold) and migration (5-fold) of AGS and HGC27. The two gastric cancer cells transfected with pEF-SGPP1 exhibited a slower rate of growth with less adhesion. Thus, our findings provided evidence that

  1. Poly-L-ornithine enhances migration of neural stem/progenitor cells via promoting α-Actinin 4 binding to actin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Hongfei; Yu, Anyong; Chen, Jingyu; Yuan, Jichao; Yin, Yi; Duanmu, Wangsheng; Tan, Liang; Yang, Yang; Lan, Chuan; Chen, Weixiang; Feng, Hua; Hu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The recruitment of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) for brain restoration after injury is a promising regenerative therapeutic strategy. This strategy involves enhancing proliferation, migration and neuronal differentation of NSPCs. To date, the lack of biomaterials, which facilitate these processes to enhance neural regeneration, is an obstacle for the cell replacement therapies. Our previous study has shown that NSPCs grown on poly-L-ornithine (PO) could proliferate more vigorously and differentiate into more neurons than that on Poly-L-Lysine (PLL) and Fibronectin (FN). Here, we demonstrate that PO could promote migration of NSPCs in vitro, and the underlying mechanism is PO activates α-Actinins 4 (ACTN4), which is firstly certified to be expessed in NSPCs, to promote filopodia formation and therefore enhances NSPCs migration. Taken together, PO might serve as a better candidate for transplanted biomaterials in the regenerative therapeutic strategy, compared with PLL and FN. PMID:27874083

  2. Long non-coding RNA TUG1 can promote proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer via EMT pathway.

    PubMed

    Qin, C-F; Zhao, F-L

    2017-05-01

    This paper aimed to investigate the effect of long non-coding RNA TUG1 (lncRNA TUG1) on cell proliferation, as well as cell migration in pancreatic cancer. The mRNA levels of Taurine-up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) in three kinds of pancreatic cancer cells BxPC3, PaTu8988 and SW1990 was detected by RT-qPCR. Meantime, RT-qPCR was used to examine the mRNA levels of TUG1 in 20 cases of human pancreatic cancer tissues and its para-carcinoma tissues. pCDH-TUG1 plasmid and its empty plasmid pCDH were transfected into BxPC3 and PaTu8988 cells to up-regulate TUG1 expression. siRNA targeting TUG1 and the control siRNA were transfected into SW1990 cells to down-regulate TUG1 expression. Cell clone formation and CCK-8 assay were used to detect the cell proliferation capacity. Transwell assay was used to evaluate cell migration capacity. Western blot was applied to examine the protein expressions of MMP2, MMP9, E-cadherin, Smad 2, Smad 3, p-Smad 2, p-Smad 3, TGF-β and TGF-βR. RT-qPCR was used to detect the levels of MMP2 and MMP9. The results showed that TUG1 was differentially expressed in the three kinds of pancreatic cancer cells, among which the expression level of SW1990 was relatively high, and the expression levels of BxPC3 and PaTu8988 were relatively low. TUG1 had more expression in pancreatic cancer tissues than that in para-carcinoma tissues. After the up-regulation of TUG1, cell proliferation and migration capacities were increased, protein levels of MMP2 and MMP9 were increased and protein level of E-cadherin was declined. Conversely, after down-regulation of TUG1 expression, cell proliferation and migration capacities were weakened, protein levels of MMP2 and MMP9 were decreased and protein level of E-cadherin was increased. In addition, over-expressed TUG1 could promote Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation, but Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation were weakened after down-regulated expression of TUG1. The protein expression of TGF-β and TGF-β receptor were more in the TUG1

  3. TNF-α promotes survival and migration of MSCs under oxidative stress via NF-κB pathway to attenuate intimal hyperplasia in vein grafts.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiao; Xi, Jie; Bi, Yanwen; Zhao, Xin; Bing, Weidong; Meng, Xiangbin; Liu, Yimin; Zhu, Zhonglai; Song, Guangmin

    2017-03-07

    The oxidative stress caused by endothelial injury is involved in intimal hyperplasia (IH) in vein grafts. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can home to injured intima and promote endothelial repair. However, MSC apoptosis is increased accompanied by decreased functional activity under oxidative stress. Thus, we investigate whether tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) can promote the survival and activity of MSCs under oxidative stress to reduce IH more effectively, and establish what role the NF-κB pathway plays in this. In this study, we preconditioned MSCs with TNF-α ((TNF)(-α-PC) MSCs) for 24 hrs and measured the activation of the IKK/NF-κB pathway. EdU and transwell assays were performed to assess proliferation and migration of (TNF)(-α-PC) MSCs. Apoptosis and migration of (TNF)(-α-)(PC) MSCs were evaluated in conditions of oxidative stress by analysis of the expression of Bcl-2 and CXCR4 proteins. (TNF)(-α-)(PC) MSCs were transplanted into a vein graft model, so that cell homing could be tracked, and endothelial apoptosis and IH of vein grafts were measured. The results demonstrated that TNF-α promotes proliferation and migration of MSCs. Furthermore, survival and migration of (TNF)(-α-)(PC) MSCs under oxidative stress were both enhanced. A greater number of MSCs migrated to the intima of vein grafts after preconditioning with TNF-α, and the formation of neointima was significantly reduced. These effects could be partially abolished by IKK XII (NF-κB inhibitor). All these results indicate that preconditioning with TNF-α can promote survival and migration of MSCs under oxidative stress via the NF-κB pathway and thus attenuate IH of vein grafts.

  4. BioPEGylation of polyhydroxybutyrate promotes nerve cell health and migration.

    PubMed

    Chan, Rodman T H; Russell, Robert A; Marçal, Helder; Lee, Terry H; Holden, Peter J; Foster, L John R

    2014-01-13

    This study reports on the superior suitability of Polyhydroxybutyrate-polyethylene glycol hybrid polymers biosynthesised by Cupriavidus necator over PHB as biomaterials for tissue engineering. Incorporation of PEG106 (DEG) during PHB biosynthesis reduced crystallinity, molecular weight, and hydrophobicity while improving mechanical properties. In vitro olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) proliferation was enhanced by cultivation on PHB-b-DEG films. Cultivation on PHB and PHB-b-DEG films showed no cytotoxic responses and cell viability and membrane integrity was sustained. PHB-b-DEG films promoted OECs entering into the DNA replication (S) phase and mitotic (G2-M) phase during the cell growth cycle and apoptosis was low. This study also confirmed an association between the level of neurite-outgrowth inhibitory protein (Nogo) and receptor pair Ig-like receptor B (PirB) expression and cell proliferation, both being down-regulated in cells grown on hybrid films when compared with PHB and asynchronous growth. Thus, DEG-terminated PHB-based biomaterials have great potential as biological scaffolds supporting nerve repair.

  5. The sirtuins promote Dishevelled-1 scaffolding of TIAM1, Rac activation, and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Madhurima; Dykes, Samantha S.; Malyarchuk, Svitlana; Wang, Allison E.; Cardelli, James A.; Pruitt, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Rac1-GTPases serve as intermediary cellular switches which conduct transient and constitutive signals from upstream cues, including those from Ras oncoproteins. While the sirtuin1 (SIRT1) deacetylase is overexpressed in several human cancers and has recently been linked to cancer cell motility as a context-dependent regulator of multiple pathways, its role in Rac1 activation has not been reported. Likewise, SIRT2 has been demonstrated to be upregulated in some cancers; however, studies have also reported its role in tumor suppression. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT1 and SIRT2 positively regulate the levels of Rac1-GTP and the activity of T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (TIAM1), a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Transient inhibition of SIRT1 and SIRT2 resulted in increased acetylation of TIAM1 whereas chronic SIRT2 knockdown resulted in enhanced acetylation of TIAM1. SIRT1 regulates Dishevelled (DVL) protein levels in cancer cells and DVL along with TIAM1 are known to augment Rac activation; however, SIRT1 or 2 have not been previously linked with TIAM1. We found that diminished sirtuin activity led to the disruption of the DVL1-TIAM1 interaction. We hence propose a model for Rac activation where SIRT1/2 positively modulate the DVL/TIAM1/Rac axis and promote sustained pathway activation. PMID:24362520

  6. The sirtuins promote Dishevelled-1 scaffolding of TIAM1, Rac activation and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Saxena, M; Dykes, S S; Malyarchuk, S; Wang, A E; Cardelli, J A; Pruitt, K

    2015-01-08

    Rac1-GTPases serve as intermediary cellular switches, which conduct transient and constitutive signals from upstream cues, including those from Ras oncoproteins. Although the sirtuin1 (SIRT1) deacetylase is overexpressed in several human cancers and has recently been linked to cancer cell motility as a context-dependent regulator of multiple pathways, its role in Rac1 activation has not been reported. Similarly, SIRT2 has been demonstrated to be upregulated in some cancers; however, studies have also reported its role in tumor suppression. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT1 and SIRT2 positively regulate the levels of Rac1-GTP and the activity of T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (TIAM1), a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Transient inhibition of SIRT1 and SIRT2 resulted in increased acetylation of TIAM1, whereas chronic SIRT2 knockdown resulted in enhanced acetylation of TIAM1. SIRT1 regulates Dishevelled (DVL) protein levels in cancer cells, and DVL along with TIAM1 are known to augment Rac activation; however, SIRT1 or 2 has not been previously linked with TIAM1. We found that diminished sirtuin activity led to the disruption of the DVL1-TIAM1 interaction. We hence propose a model for Rac activation where SIRT1/2 positively modulates the DVL/TIAM1/Rac axis and promotes sustained pathway activation.

  7. Osteoclast-gene expression profiling reveals osteoclast-derived CCR2 chemokines promoting myeloma cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Moreaux, Jérôme; Hose, Dirk; Kassambara, Alboukadel; Rème, Thierry; Moine, Philippe; Requirand, Guilhem; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells (multiple myeloma cells, MMC), primarily in the bone marrow (BM). Osteolytic bone lesions are detected in 80% of patients, due to increased osteoclastic bone resorption and reduced osteoblastic bone formation. MMC are found closely associated to sites of increased bone resorption. Osteoclasts strongly support MMC survival and vice versa in vitro. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved in osteoclast/MMC interaction, we have identified 552 genes overexpressed in osteoclasts compared to other BM cell subpopulations. Osteoclasts express specifically genes coding for four CCR2-targeting chemokines, and genes coding for MMC growth factors (IGF-1, APRIL). An anti-CCR2 MoAb blocked osteoclast chemoattractant activity for MMC and CCR2-chemokines are also MMC growth factors, promoting MAPK activation in MMC. An anti-IGF-1 receptor MoAb completely blocked the osteoclast-induced survival of MMC suppressing both osteoclast and MMC survival. Specific APRIL or IL-6 inhibitors partially blocked osteoclast-induced MMC survival. These in-vitro data may explain why newly-diagnosed patients whose MMC express high levels of CCR2 present numerous bone lesions. Taken together, this study displays additional mechanisms involved in osteoclast/MMC interaction and suggests using CCR2 and/or IGF-1 targeting strategies to block this interaction and prevent drug resistance. PMID:21097672

  8. Axl promotes the proliferation, invasion and migration of Wilms’ tumor and can be used as a prognostic factor

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shibo; Liu, Guochang; Fu, Wen; Hu, Jinhua; Fu, Kai; Jia, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Overexpression of Axl has been reported in many tumors, where it promotes tumorigenesis and progression, as well as correlates with the prognosis of different malignancies. However, Axl expression and its function have rarely been reported in Wilms’ tumor (WT). This study aimed to reveal the clinical significance of Axl expression in patients with WT and determine its mechanisms. Materials and methods We analyzed the expression of Axl and its correlations with various clinicopathological features in 72 WT tissues and 72 adjacent non-cancerous tissues by immunohistochemistry. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the correlations between Axl expression and the prognosis of WT patients. Fresh frozen samples from 20 WT patients were examined using Western blotting (WB) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In WT cell line, after Axl knockdown by sh-Axl and growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) stimulation, the cell proliferation, migration and invasion abilities were detected by methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT), clone-forming, wound-healing and transwell assays. Meanwhile, the tumor-forming ability was tested on nude mice xenograft models. Finally, the expression of several proteins in signal pathways was quantified by WB assays. Results Compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues, the expression of Axl was significantly higher in WT tissues (P<0.05). High expression of Axl was associated with tumor recurrence or lung metastasis of WT patients and was a prognostic factor for WT patients (P<0.05). In vitro assays, the proliferation, migration and invasion of WT cells decreased with Axl knockdown and significantly increased with Axl activation by Gas6 (P<0.05). In vivo assays, the ability of tumorigenicity in WT cells reduced dramatically after Axl knockout (P<0.05). Moreover, PI3K–Akt pathway proteins decreased with Axl knockdown. Conclusion Our results suggest that Axl is highly expressed in WT and

  9. Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Promotes the Migration of Corneal Epithelial Stem/progenitor Cells by Up-regulation of MMPs through the Phosphorylation of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jialin; Chen, Peng; Backman, Ludvig J.; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    The migration of limbal epithelial stem cells is important for the homeostasis and regeneration of corneal epithelium. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been found to promote corneal epithelial wound healing by activating corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells. However, the possible effect of CNTF on the migration of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells is not clear. This study found the expression of CNTF in mouse corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells (TKE2) to be up-regulated after injury, on both gene and protein level. CNTF promoted migration of TKE2 in a dose-dependent manner and the peak was seen at 10 ng/ml. The phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt), and the expression of MMP3 and MMP14, were up-regulated after CNTF treatment both in vitro and in vivo. Akt and MMP3 inhibitor treatment delayed the migration effect by CNTF. Finally, a decreased expression of MMP3 and MMP14 was observed when Akt inhibitor was applied both in vitro and in vivo. This study provides new insights into the role of CNTF on the migration of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and its inherent mechanism of Up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases through the Akt signalling pathway. PMID:27174608

  10. The lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule promotes tumor cell migration by modulating integrin-mediated cell attachment to laminin-511 protein.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Ogawa, Takaho; Sudo, Ryo; Yamada, Yuji; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hozumi, Kentaro; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2013-10-25

    Cell-matrix interactions are critical for tumor cell migration. Lutheran (Lu), also known as basal cell adhesion molecule (B-CAM), competes with integrins for binding to laminin α5, a subunit of LM-511, a major component of basement membranes. Here we show that the preferential binding of Lu/B-CAM to laminin α5 promotes tumor cell migration. The attachment of Lu/B-CAM transfectants to LM-511 was slightly weaker than that of control cells, and this was because Lu/B-CAM disturbed integrin binding to laminin α5. Lu/B-CAM induced a spindle cell shape with pseudopods and promoted cell migration on LM-511. In addition, blocking with an anti-Lu/B-CAM antibody led to a flat cell shape and inhibited migration on LM-511, similar to the effects of an activating integrin β1 antibody. We conclude that tumor cell migration on LM-511 requires that Lu/B-CAM competitively modulates cell attachment through integrins. We suggest that this competitive interaction is involved in a balance between static and migratory cell behaviors.

  11. The Lutheran/Basal Cell Adhesion Molecule Promotes Tumor Cell Migration by Modulating Integrin-mediated Cell Attachment to Laminin-511 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Ogawa, Takaho; Sudo, Ryo; Yamada, Yuji; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hozumi, Kentaro; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-matrix interactions are critical for tumor cell migration. Lutheran (Lu), also known as basal cell adhesion molecule (B-CAM), competes with integrins for binding to laminin α5, a subunit of LM-511, a major component of basement membranes. Here we show that the preferential binding of Lu/B-CAM to laminin α5 promotes tumor cell migration. The attachment of Lu/B-CAM transfectants to LM-511 was slightly weaker than that of control cells, and this was because Lu/B-CAM disturbed integrin binding to laminin α5. Lu/B-CAM induced a spindle cell shape with pseudopods and promoted cell migration on LM-511. In addition, blocking with an anti-Lu/B-CAM antibody led to a flat cell shape and inhibited migration on LM-511, similar to the effects of an activating integrin β1 antibody. We conclude that tumor cell migration on LM-511 requires that Lu/B-CAM competitively modulates cell attachment through integrins. We suggest that this competitive interaction is involved in a balance between static and migratory cell behaviors. PMID:24036115

  12. Nerve growth factor regulates CD133 function to promote tumor cell migration and invasion via activating ERK1/2 signaling in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Xin, Beibei; He, Xiaodan; Wang, Juan; Cai, Jun; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Ti; Shen, Xiaohong

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is extremely high frequency among the various metastatic routes in pancreatic cancer. Nerve growth factor, secreted by astroglial cells, exerts effects on tumor invasion in some cancer cells, but its function on migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer is still unclear. In the present study, we determined the effects of NGF on modulating tumor cell metastatic potential and invasion activity and explored its mechanisms in pancreatic cancer. NGF and CD133 expression were detected in tumor tissues using immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting analysis. The effects of NGF on the regulation of CD133 expression and the promotion of cancer migration and invasion were investigated using wound healing and matrigel transwell assay. A related mechanism that NGF regulates CD133's function via activating ERK1/2 signaling also was observed. NGF/CD133 is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and promotes the migration and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells through the activation of the ERK/CD133 signaling cascade. NGF/ERK signaling modulates the cancer cell EMT process, migration and invasion through the regulation of CD133 expression and its subcellular localization. NGF/CD133 signaling initiated the migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. NGF/CD133 might be an effective and potent therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer metastasis, particularly in PNI. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. TLR4 induces CREB-mediated IL-6 production via upregulation of F-spondin to promote vascular smooth muscle cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Guan-Lin; Wu, Jing-Yiing; Yeh, Chang-Ching; Kuo, Cheng-Chin

    2016-05-13

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is important in promoting inflammation and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, both of which contribute to atherosclerosis development and progression. But the mechanism underlying the regulation of TLR4 in VSMC migration remains unclear. Stimulation of VSMCs with LPS increased the cellular level of F-spondin which is associated with the regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. The LPS-induced F-spondin expression depended on TLR4-mediated PI3K/Akt pathway. Suppression of F-spondin level by siRNA inhibited not only F-spondin expression but also LPS-induced phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and IL-6 expression, VSMC migration and proliferation as well as MMP9 expression. Moreover, suppression of CREB level by siRNA inhibited TLR4-induced IL-6 production and VSMC migration. Inhibition of F-spondin siRNA on LPS-induced migration was restored by addition of exogenous recombinant mouse IL-6. We conclude that upon ligand binding, TLR4 activates PI3K/Akt signaling to induce F-spondin expression, subsequently control CREB-mediated IL-6 production to promote VSMC migration. These findings provide vital insights into the essential role of F-spondin in VSMC function and will be valuable for developing new therapeutic strategies against atherosclerosis. -- Highlights: •LPS-induced F-spondin expression of VSMCs is via a TLR4/PI3K/Akt signaling. •F-spondin is pivotal for LPS-induced CREB-mediated IL-6 production. •F-spondin is required for LPS-induced VSMC migration and proliferation.

  14. Long non-coding RNA BCAR4 promotes chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and migration through activation of mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Shui, Xiaolong; Zhou, Chengwei; Lin, Wei; Yu, Yang; Feng, Yongzeng; Kong, Jianzhong

    2017-05-01

    Chondrosarcoma is one of the common malignant histologic tumors, very difficult to treat, but the concrete cause and mechanism have not yet been elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the functional involvement of BCAR4 in chondrosarcoma and its potentially underlying mechanism. QRT-PCR and western blot were used to determine the expression of BCAR4 and mTOR signaling pathway proteins both in chondrosarcoma tissues and cells. Chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and migration were assessed by MTT assay and transwell migration assay, respectively. The expression vectors were constructed and used to modulate the expression of BCAR4 and mTOR. Chondrosarcoma xenograft mouse model was established by subcutaneous injection with chondrosarcoma cell lines. The tumor volume was monitored to evaluate the effect of BCAR4 on chondrosarcoma cell tumorigenicity. The expressions of BCAR4, p-mTOR and p-P70S6K were up-regulated in chondrosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Moreover, BCAR4 overexpression had significant promoting effect on cell proliferation and migration in chondrosarcoma cells. Furthermore, mTOR signaling pathway was epigenetically activated by BCAR4-induced hyperacetylation of histone H3. We also found that mTOR overexpression abolished the decrease of chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and migration induced by BCAR4 knockdown. In vivo experiments confirmed that BCAR4 overexpression significantly accelerated tumor growth, while the knockdown of BCAR4 significantly inhibited tumor growth. BCAR4 promoted chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and migration through activation of mTOR signaling pathway, and thus contributed to chondrosarcoma progression. Impact statement LncRNA BCAR4 promoted chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and migration through activation of mTOR signaling pathway, and thus contributed to chondrosarcoma progression.

  15. Slit2-Robo1 signaling promotes the adhesion, invasion and migration of tongue carcinoma cells via upregulating matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, and downregulating E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Zhou, Feng-Li; Li, Wei-Ping; Wang, Jing; Wang, Li-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Whether Slit homologue 2 (Slit2) inhibits or promotes tumor cell migration remains controversial, and the role of Slit2-Roundabout 1 (Robo1) signaling in oral cancer remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Slit2-Robo1 signaling in the adhesion, invasion and migration of tongue carcinoma cells, and the mechanism by which Slit2-Robo1 signaling inhibits or promotes tumor cell migration. Tca8113 tongue carcinoma cells were treated with the monoclonal anti-human Robo1 antibody, R5, to inhibit the Slit2-Robo1 signaling pathway, with immunoglobulin (Ig)G2b treatment as a negative control. The expression levels of Slit2 and Robo1 were determined using flow cytometry. The effects of R5 on the adhesion, invasion and migration of Tca8113 tongue carcinoma cells were investigated. Gelatin zymography was used to investigate the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the expression levels of E-cadherin in Tca8113 cells treated with 10 µg/ml of either R5 or IgG2b. Slit2 and Robo1 proteins were found to be expressed in the Tca8113 cells. R5 significantly inhibited the adhesion, invasion and migration of Tca8113 cells in vitro. R5 also inhibited the activities of MMP2 and MMP9, and increased the expression of E-cadherin in the Tca8113 cells. These results suggested that Slit2-Robo1 signaling promoted the adhesion, invasion and migration of tongue carcinoma cells by upregulating the expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 and, downregulating the expression of E-cadherin. PMID:27431199

  16. TGF-β1-induced EMT promotes targeted migration of breast cancer cells through the lymphatic system by the activation of CCR7/CCL21-mediated chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Pang, M-F; Georgoudaki, A-M; Lambut, L; Johansson, J; Tabor, V; Hagikura, K; Jin, Y; Jansson, M; Alexander, J S; Nelson, C M; Jakobsson, L; Betsholtz, C; Sund, M; Karlsson, M C I; Fuxe, J

    2016-02-11

    Tumor cells frequently disseminate through the lymphatic system during metastatic spread of breast cancer and many other types of cancer. Yet it is not clear how tumor cells make their way into the lymphatic system and how they choose between lymphatic and blood vessels for migration. Here we report that mammary tumor cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1) become activated for targeted migration through the lymphatic system, similar to dendritic cells (DCs) during inflammation. EMT cells preferentially migrated toward lymphatic vessels compared with blood vessels, both in vivo and in 3D cultures. A mechanism of this targeted migration was traced to the capacity of TGF-β1 to promote CCR7/CCL21-mediated crosstalk between tumor cells and lymphatic endothelial cells. On one hand, TGF-β1 promoted CCR7 expression in EMT cells through p38 MAP kinase-mediated activation of the JunB transcription factor. Blockade of CCR7, or treatment with a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, reduced lymphatic dissemination of EMT cells in syngeneic mice. On the other hand, TGF-β1 promoted CCL21 expression in lymphatic endothelial cells. CCL21 acted in a paracrine fashion to mediate chemotactic migration of EMT cells toward lymphatic endothelial cells. The results identify TGF-β1-induced EMT as a mechanism, which activates tumor cells for targeted, DC-like migration through the lymphatic system. Furthermore, it suggests that p38 MAP kinase inhibition may be a useful strategy to inhibit EMT and lymphogenic spread of tumor cells.

  17. Glucose-derived AGEs promote migration and invasion of colorectal cancer by up-regulating Sp1 expression.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ruyuan; Wu, Huo; Ran, Hui; Kong, Xiang; Hu, Lei; Wang, Xiao; Su, Qing

    2017-02-22

    It is well established that the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is significantly increased in diabetic patients. As one of main forms of the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that accumulate in vivo, glucose-derived AGEs play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and may contribute to CRC progression. However, to date, both the contribution of glucose-derived AGEs to the course of CRC and the underlying mechanism are unclear. In the present study, the concentration of glucose-derived AGEs in the serum and tumor tissue of patients with CRC increased. A clinical data analysis demonstrated that the expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), Specificity Protein 1 (Sp1), and matrix metallopeptidase -2 (MMP2) was significantly higher in cancerous tissues compared with non-tumor tissue in Chinese Han patients with CRC and that RAGE expression was closely associated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that AGEs promoted invasion and migration of colorectal cancer, and the AGEs treatment increased the expression of RAGE, Sp1, and MMP2 in a dose-dependent manner. A RAGE blocking antibody and an Sp1-specific siRNA attenuated the AGE-induced effects. Moreover, the AGEs treatment increased the phosphorylation of ERK, and reducing the phosphorylation level of ERK by MEK1/2 inhibitor decreased the expression of Sp1. In conclusion, glucose-derived AGEs promote the invasion and metastasis of CRC partially through the RAGE/ERK/SP1/MMP2 cascade. These findings may provide an explanation for the poor prognoses of colorectal cancer in diabetic patients.

  18. Interleukin-9 Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Cells Proliferation and Migration via the miR-200a/Beta-Catenin Axis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bangli; Qiu-lan, Huang; Lei, Rong-e; Shi, Cheng; Jiang, Hai-xing

    2017-01-01

    Background. Both IL-9 and miR-200a are involved in the pathogenesis of cancers; however, the role of IL-9 in pancreatic cancer and the possible underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of IL-9 on pancreatic cancer cells and its interaction with miR-200a. Methods. Pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1 and AsPC-1) were treated with IL-9 and the expression of miR-200a and β-catenin in pancreatic cancer cells was measured. β-Catenin was examined as a target gene of miR-200a in pancreatic cancer cells. The interaction between IL-9 and miR-200a in pancreatic cancer cells was determined by infecting miR-200a mimics prior to IL-9 treatment and then measuring miR-200a and β-catenin expression. Results. IL-9 significantly promoted the proliferation, invasion, and migration of pancreatic cancer cells; however, the effect on pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis was insignificant. β-Catenin was verified as a target gene of miR-200a in pancreatic cancer cells. Overexpression of miR-200a in pancreatic cancer cells significantly attenuated proliferation and metastasis and reduced β-catenin expression. IL-9 treatment of pancreatic cancer cells decreased miR-200a expression and increased β-catenin expression. The effect of miR-200a on pancreatic cancer cells decreased following IL-9 treatment. Conclusions. IL-9 promotes proliferation and metastasis in pancreatic cancer cells; this effect may partly involve regulation of the miR-200a/β-catenin axis. PMID:28349057

  19. Boron promotes streptozotocin-induced diabetic wound healing: roles in cell proliferation and migration, growth factor expression, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Selami; Doğan, Ayşegül; Aydın, Safa; Dülger, Esra Çikler; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2016-06-01

    Acute wounds do not generally require professional treatment modalities and heal in a predictable fashion, but chronic wounds are mainly accompanied with infection and prolonged inflammation, leading to healing impairments and continuous tissue degradation. Although a vast amount of products have been introduced in the market, claiming to provide a better optimization of local and systemic conditions of patients, they do not meet the expectations due to being expensive and not easily accessible, requiring wound care facilities, having patient-specific response, low efficiency, and severe side-effects. In this sense, developing new, safe, self-applicable, effective, and cheap wound care products with broad-range antimicrobial activity is still an attractive area of international research. In the present work, boron derivatives [boric acid and sodium pentaborate pentahydrate (NaB)] were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, proliferation, migratory, angiogenesis, gene, and growth factor expression promoting effects on dermal cells in vitro. In addition, boron-containing hydrogel formulation was examined for its wound healing promoting potential using full-thickness wound model in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The results revealed that while both boron compounds significantly increased proliferation, migration, vital growth factor, and gene expression levels of dermal cells along with displaying remarkable antimicrobial effects against bacteria, yeast, and fungi, NaB displayed greater antimicrobial properties as well as gene and growth factor expression inductive effects. Animal studies proved that NaB-containing gel formulation enhanced wound healing rate of diabetic animals and histopathological scores. Overall data suggest a potential promising therapeutic option for the management of chronic wounds but further studies are highly warranted to determine signaling pathways and target metabolisms in which boron is involved to elucidate the limitations

  20. Periostin promotes migration and invasion of renal cell carcinoma through the integrin/focal adhesion kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Chuanyu, Sun; Yuqing, Zhu; Chong, Xu; Guowei, Xia; Xiaojun, Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Periostin (POSTN) is an extracellular matrix protein which is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and has been related to tumorigenesis of renal cell carcinoma. However, the involvement of POSTN in renal cell carcinoma migration, invasion, and their underlying mechanisms has not been established. In this study, renal cell carcinoma cell lines stably overexpressing POSTN were established using a lentiviral vector, and the effects of POSTN on renal cell carcinoma cell migration and invasion were investigated. POSTN overexpression increased the migration and invasion capabilities of renal cell carcinoma cell lines as well as activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Integrin αvβ3 and αvβ5 antibodies inhibited POSTN overexpression or recombinant POSTN-induced focal adhesion kinase activation, cell migration, and invasion. Furthermore, lentivirus-mediated focal adhesion kinase knockdown and c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor reduced POSTN-enhanced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expressions, cell migration, and invasion. Our research thus indicates that POSTN promotes renal cell carcinoma cell migration and invasion through interaction with integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5 and subsequent activation of the focal adhesion kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. These results suggest that POSTN plays a critical role in renal cell carcinoma metastasis and may represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches against renal cell carcinoma.

  1. Decrease of miR-622 expression promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells by targeting regulation of c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Fei; Li, Zhuo-Ri; Cheng, Zhi-Qi; Yin, Xin-Min; Wu, Jin-Shu

    2017-09-26

    To explore the mechanism of miR-622 in regulating the proliferation, migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells. Quantitative real-time PCR was conducted to measure the expression of miR-622 and c-Myc in CCA tissues and cell lines. Protein level of c-Myc was measured by Western blot. The effect of miR-622 on cell proliferation, migration and invasion was analyzed by MTT assay and Transwell chamber migration assay. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to measure the effect of miR-622 on c-Myc. miR-622 expression was downregulated in both CCA tissues and cell lines, while c-Myc expression was uregulated. Overexpression of miR-622 in CCA cells was statistically correlated with a decrease of cell proliferation, migration and invasion, while inhibition of miR-622 made an inverse result. We also proved c-Myc was identified as a target gene of miR-622 in CCA. Moreover, we found overexpression of c-Myc can strengthen the effects of miR-622 on the proliferation, migration and invasion of CCA cells. Decrease of miR-622 promotes the proliferation, migration and invasion of CCA cells by directly targeting c-Myc. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Down-regulation of cell adhesion via rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) pathway promotes tumor cell migration on laminin-511.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Harashima, Nozomi; Ikari, Kazuki; Fujii, Shogo; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hozumi, Kentaro; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2016-05-15

    Epithelial cells, both normal and precancerous, stably anchor to basement membranes, whereas malignant tumors pass through them to achieve metastasis. Of basement membrane components, laminin-511 (α5, β1, γ1; LM-511) has been found to be a major isoform in many adult basement membranes. Several studies have shown that LM-511 promotes not only cell adhesion but also tumor cell migration. Thus, LM-511 can be viewed like two distinct molecules in normal vs. tumor cells; tumor cells seem to be able to alter their response (adhesive vs. migratory) to LM-511. In this study we examined the effects of biologically active molecules on A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell adhesion to LM-511. Of them, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced transition to a rounded cell shape and significantly promoted cell migration on LM-511. The attachment of PMA-treated A549 cells to LM-511 was weaker than that of control cells. PMA-stimulated signaling pathway reduced the binding of integrin α3β1 to LM-511. Cell migration assays using inhibitors for signal transduction and cytoskeletal organization showed that suppression of cell adhesion via the rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) pathway promoted tumor cell migration on LM-511. Our results suggest that the ROCK pathway is involved in the transition from static to migratory cell behaviors on LM-511. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Migration-inducing gene 7 promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis and independently predicts poor prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bihui; Yin, Mingzhu; Li, Xia; Cao, Guosheng; Qi, Jin; Lou, Ge; Sheng, Shijie; Kou, Junping; Chen, Kang; Yu, Boyang

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) cause more mortality than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. New therapeutic approaches to reduce EOC mortality have been largely unsuccessful due to the poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying EOC proliferation and metastasis. Progress in EOC treatment is further hampered by a lack of reliable prognostic biomarkers for early risk assessment. In this study, we identify that Migration-Inducting Gene 7 (MIG-7) is specifically induced in human EOC tissues but not normal ovaries or ovarian cyst. Ovarian MIG-7 expression strongly correlated with EOC progression. Elevated MIG-7 level at the time of primary cytoreductive surgery was a strong and independent predictor of poor survival of EOC patients. Cell and murine xenograft models showed that MIG-7 was required for EOC proliferation and invasion, and MIG-7 enhanced EOC-associated angiogenesis by promoting the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Inhibiting MIG-7 by RNA interference in grafted EOC cells retarded tumor growth, angiogenesis and improved host survival, and suppressing MIG-7 expression with a small molecule inhibitor D-39 identified from the medicinal plant Liriope muscari mitigated EOC growth and invasion and specifically abrogated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Our data not only reveal a critical function of MIG-7 in EOC growth and metastasis and support MIG-7 as an independent prognostic biomarker for EOC, but also demonstrate that therapeutic targeting of MIG-7 is likely beneficial in the treatment of EOC. PMID:27050277

  4. Mena invasive (MenaINV) promotes multicellular streaming motility and transendothelial migration in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Roussos, Evanthia T; Balsamo, Michele; Alford, Shannon K; Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Wang, Yarong; Pozzuto, Maria; Stobezki, Robert; Goswami, Sumanta; Segall, Jeffrey E; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Bresnick, Anne R; Gertler, Frank B; Condeelis, John S

    2011-07-01

    We have shown previously that distinct Mena isoforms are expressed in invasive and migratory tumor cells in vivo and that the invasion isoform (Mena(INV)) potentiates carcinoma cell metastasis in murine models of breast cancer. However, the specific step of metastatic progression affected by this isoform and the effects on metastasis of the Mena11a isoform, expressed in primary tumor cells, are largely unknown. Here, we provide evidence that elevated Mena(INV) increases coordinated streaming motility, and enhances transendothelial migration and intravasation of tumor cells. We demonstrate that promotion of these early stages of metastasis by Mena(INV) is dependent on a macrophage-tumor cell paracrine loop. Our studies also show that increased Mena11a expression correlates with decreased expression of colony-stimulating factor 1 and a dramatically decreased ability to participate in paracrine-mediated invasion and intravasation. Our results illustrate the importance of paracrine-mediated cell streaming and intravasation on tumor cell dissemination, and demonstrate that the relative abundance of Mena(INV) and Mena11a helps to regulate these key stages of metastatic progression in breast cancer cells.

  5. Overexpression of LAMC2 predicts poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients and promotes cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dandan; Du, Changzheng; Ji, Dengbo; Xi, Jianzhong; Gu, Jin

    2017-06-01

    Laminin γ2 (LAMC2) has been reported to be involved in the development and progression of a variety of tumors. However, its function in human colorectal cancer is unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the role of laminin γ2 in colorectal cancer. We first performed the multiple Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of laminin γ2 in a cohort of Gene Expression Omnibus datasets and evaluated its relationship with clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer patients. Then, we established stable colorectal cancer cell lines with laminin γ2 overexpression and examined the functional assays in vitro. Finally the expression pattern of laminin γ2 in colorectal cancer clinical samples was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found that laminin γ2 was significantly correlated with poor clinical outcomes such as disease-specific, recurrence-free, disease-free, and overall survival in colorectal cancer. Moreover, stably overexpressing laminin γ2 promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion of colorectal cancer cells. In addition, overexpressed laminin γ2 was identified in tumor tissues compared with paired adjacent normal tissues and was related to tumor-node-metastasis stage (p = 0.001) and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001). In summary, our results strongly suggest that laminin γ2 may be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in colorectal cancer.

  6. Migration-inducing gene 7 promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis and independently predicts poor prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bihui; Yin, Mingzhu; Li, Xia; Cao, Guosheng; Qi, Jin; Lou, Ge; Sheng, Shijie; Kou, Junping; Chen, Kang; Yu, Boyang

    2016-05-10

    Epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) cause more mortality than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. New therapeutic approaches to reduce EOC mortality have been largely unsuccessful due to the poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying EOC proliferation and metastasis. Progress in EOC treatment is further hampered by a lack of reliable prognostic biomarkers for early risk assessment. In this study, we identify that Migration-Inducting Gene 7 (MIG-7) is specifically induced in human EOC tissues but not normal ovaries or ovarian cyst. Ovarian MIG-7 expression strongly correlated with EOC progression. Elevated MIG-7 level at the time of primary cytoreductive surgery was a strong and independent predictor of poor survival of EOC patients. Cell and murine xenograft models showed that MIG-7 was required for EOC proliferation and invasion, and MIG-7 enhanced EOC-associated angiogenesis by promoting the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Inhibiting MIG-7 by RNA interference in grafted EOC cells retarded tumor growth, angiogenesis and improved host survival, and suppressing MIG-7 expression with a small molecule inhibitor D-39 identified from the medicinal plant Liriope muscari mitigated EOC growth and invasion and specifically abrogated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Our data not only reveal a critical function of MIG-7 in EOC growth and metastasis and support MIG-7 as an independent prognostic biomarker for EOC, but also demonstrate that therapeutic targeting of MIG-7 is likely beneficial in the treatment of EOC.

  7. Osteoprotegerin regulates cancer cell migration through SDF-1/CXCR4 axis and promotes tumour development by increasing neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Benslimane-Ahmim, Zahia; Pereira, Jessica; Lokajczyk, Anna; Dizier, Blandine; Galy-Fauroux, Isabelle; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Heymann, Dominique; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    We previously reported that OPG is involved in ischemic tissue neovascularization through the secretion of SDF-1 by pretreated-OPG endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs). As the vascularization is one of the key factor influencing the tumour growth and cancer cell dissemination, we investigated whether OPG was able to modulate the invasion of human MNNG-HOS osteosarcoma and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Cell motility was analysed in vitro by using Boyden chambers. Human GFP-labelled MMNG-HOS cells were inoculated in immunodeficient mice and the tumour nodules formed were then injected with OPG and/or FGF-2, AMD3100 or 0.9% NaCl (control group). Tumour growth was manually followed and angiogenesis was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In vitro, SDF-1 released by OPG-pretreated ECFCs markedly attracted both MNNG-HOS and DU145 cells and induced spontaneous migration of cancer cells. In vivo, tumour volumes were significantly increased in OPG-treated group compared to the control group and OPG potentiated the effect of FGF-2. Concomitantly, OPG alone or combined with FGF-2 increased the number of new vasculature compared to the control group. Interestingly AMD3100, an inhibitor of SDF-1, prevented the in vivo effects of OPG induced by SDF-1 This study provides experimental evidence that OPG promotes tumour development trough SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

  8. Kca3.1 Activation Via P2y2 Purinergic Receptors Promotes Human Ovarian Cancer Cell (Skov-3) Migration.

    PubMed

    Robles-Martínez, L; Garay, E; Martel-Gallegos, M G; Cisneros-Mejorado, A; Pérez-Montiel, D; Lara, A; Arellano, R O

    2017-06-28

    Disorders in cell signaling mediated by ATP or histamine, activating specific membrane receptors, have been frequently associated with tumorigenesis. Among the elements of response to purinergic (and histaminergic) signaling, ion channel activation controls essential cellular processes in cancer, such as cell proliferation, motility, and death. Here, we studied the effects that ATP had on electrical properties of human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells named SKOV-3. ATP caused increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and, concurrently, it evoked a complex electrical response with a conspicuous outward component. This current was generated through P2Y2 receptor activation and opening of K(+) channels, KCa3.1, as indicated by electrophysiological and pharmacological analysis, as well as by immunodetection and specific silencing of P2Y2 or KCa3.1 gene by esiRNA transfection. Low µM ATP concentration increased SKOV-3 cell migration, which was strongly inhibited by KCa3.1 channel blockers and by esiRNA-generated P2Y2 or KCa3.1 downregulation. Finally, in human ovarian tumors, the P2Y2 and KCa3.1 proteins are expressed and co-localized in neoplastic cells. Thus, stimulation of P2Y2 receptors expressed in SKOV-3 cells promotes motility through KCa3.1 activation. Since P2Y2 and KCa3.1 are co-expressed in primary tumors, our findings suggest that they may play a role in cancer progression.

  9. Onco-miR-130 promotes cell proliferation and migration by targeting TGFβR2 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ting; Huang, Dingzhi; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Le; Bai, Ming; Zhou, Likun; Ying, Guoguang; Ba, Yi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been proved to play crucial roles in tumorigenesis. TGFβ signal pathway abnormality is found in various cancers and correlates with tumor proliferation and metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying the dys-regulation of TGFβR2 expression in GC have not been investigated yet. In this study, we found that the TGFβR2 protein was clearly repressed in tumor tissues, while miR-130 expression level was dramatically increased in GC tissues. Firefly luciferase activity assay revealed that miR-130 could directly bind to 3′UTR of TGFβR2 mRNA. Meanwhile, miR-130 mimics lead to the decreased TGFβR2 protein levels, while miR-130 inhibitors enhanced TGFβR2 expression in SGC7901 cells. Subsequent functional experiments showed that overexpressed miR-130 could promote proliferation and migration of SGC7901 cells. And siRNA-mediated TGFβR2 down-regulation could simulate the effects of miR-130 mimics on phenotypes of SGC7901 cells. Furthermore, there existed intense relationship between the expression level of miR-130 and epithelial-mesenchymal markers. Our results demonstrated that miR-130 was an oncogene by directly targeting TGFβR2 in GC. PMID:27304191

  10. MicroRNA-132 promotes fibroblast migration via regulating RAS p21 protein activator 1 in skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Li, Dongqing; Wikstrom, Jakob D; Pivarcsi, Andor; Sonkoly, Enikö; Ståhle, Mona; Landén, Ning Xu

    2017-08-10

    MicroRNA (miR)-132 has been identified as a top up-regulated miRNA during skin wound healing and its inhibition impairs wound repair. In a human in vivo surgical wound model, we showed that miR-132 was induced in epidermal as well as in dermal wound-edge compartments during healing. Moreover, in a panel of cells isolated from human skin wounds, miR-132 was found highly expressed in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). In HDFs, miR-132 expression was upregulated by TGF-β1. By overexpression or inhibition of miR-132, we showed that miR-132 promoted HDF migration. Mechanistically, global transcriptome analysis revealed that RAS signaling pathway was regulated by miR-132 in HDFs. We found that RAS p21 protein activator 1 (RASA1), a known target of miR-132, was downregulated in HDFs upon miR-132 overexpression. Silencing of RASA1 phenocopied the pro-migratory effect of miR-132. Collectively, our study reveals an important role for miR-132 in HDFs during wound healing and indicates a therapeutic potential of miR-132 in hard-to-heal skin wounds.

  11. Photobiomodulation with low-level diode laser promotes osteoblast migration in an in vitro micro wound model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschon, Matilde; Incerti-Parenti, Serena; Cepollaro, Simona; Checchi, Luigi; Fini, Milena

    2015-07-01

    Laser photobiomodulation can improve bone healing, but well-defined treatment parameters are lacking. Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells were subjected to an in vitro scratch-wound healing assay and irradiated by a 915-nm gallium-aluminum-arsenide diode laser for 0, 48, 96, and 144 s using doses of, respectively, 0, 5, 10, and 15 J/cm2. Wound area was measured after 4, 24, 48, and 72 h. Cell viability, DNA content, gene expression, and release of bone-related proteins were evaluated after 24, 48, and 72 h. Laser significantly improved wound healing compared with nonirradiated controls. Cells treated with laser doses of 5 and 10 J/cm2 reached wound closure after 72 h, followed by 15 J/cm2 after 96 h. With the cell proliferation inhibitor Mitomycin C, the doses of 10 and 15 J/cm2 maintained an improved wound healing compared with controls. Laser increased collagen type 1 gene expression with higher doses inducing a longer-lasting effect, whereas transforming growth factor-beta 1 showed comparable or decreased levels in irradiated versus nonirradiated groups, with no effect on protein release. This study demonstrated that laser photobiomodulation at 915 nm promoted wound healing mainly through stimulation of cell migration and collagen deposition by osteoblasts.

  12. Long noncoding RNA colon cancer associated transcript‑1 promotes the proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ligang; Zhang, Yuan; Tian, Fei; Chu, Zhaoping; Xin, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have revealed significant roles for long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in the tumorigenesis, metastasis and invasion of various tumors, including cervical cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the potential roles of lncRNA colon cancer associated transcript 1 (CCAT1) in the metastasis and invasion of cervical cancer, and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism. The mRNA expression of lncRNA CCAT1 in cervical cancer tissue was measured using the reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the association between lncRNA CCAT1 and the metastasis of cervical cancer was analyzed. The effects of lncRNA CCAT1 expression on HeLa cell viability, and migration and invasion were also analyzed by MTT and Transwell assays. The results demonstrated that lncRNA CCAT1 was highly expressed in the cervical cancer tissue compared with the adjacent normal tissue. High expression of lncRNA CCAT1 was positively associated with tumor size, and there was correlation between high lncRNA CCAT1 expression and a poor survival rate of cervical cancer. The cell viability, and migratory and invasive abilities were suppressed by silencing CCAT1. The results of the present study indicate that lncRNA CCAT1 was highly expressed in cervical cancer, and may serve important roles in promoting the progression and metastasis of cervical cancer.

  13. Exosome-shuttling microRNA-21 promotes cell migration and invasion-targeting PDCD4 in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Liao, Juan; Liu, Ran; Shi, Ya-Juan; Yin, Li-Hong; Pu, Yue-Pu

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence indicates that exosomes can mediate certain microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in a series of biological functions in tumor occurrence and development. Our previous studies showed that microRNA-21 (miR-21) was abundant in both esophageal cancer cells and their corresponding exosomes. The present study explored the function of exosome-shuttling miR-21 involved in esophageal cancer progression. We found that exosomes could be internalized from the extracellular space to the cytoplasm. The exosome-derived Cy3-labeled miR-21 mimics could be transported into recipient cells in a neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2)-dependent manner. miR-21 overexpression from donor cells significantly promoted the migration and invasion of recipient cells by targeting programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) and activating its downstream c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway after co-cultivation. Our population plasma sample analysis indicated that miR-21 was upregulated significantly in plasma from esophageal cancer patients and showed a significant risk association for esophageal cancer. Our data demonstrated that a close correlation existed between exosome-shuttling miR-21 and esophageal cancer recurrence and distant metastasis. Thus, exosome-shuttling miR-21 may become a potential biomarker for prognosis among esophageal cancer patients.

  14. Autocrine VEGF and IL-8 Promote Migration via Src/Vav2/Rac1/PAK1 Signaling in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Ju, Li; Zhou, Zhiwen; Jiang, Bo; Lou, Yue; Guo, Xirong

    2017-01-01

    Pro-angiogenic factors VEGF and IL-8 play a major role in modulating the migratory potential of endothelial cells. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of autocrine VEGF and IL-8 in the form of self-conditioned medium (CM) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) examined the automatic secretion of VEGF and IL-8 protein by HUVECs. Western blot, small interfering RNA (siRNA), pulldown and Transwell assays were used to explore the role and the mechanism of autocrine VEGF and IL-8 in migration of HUVECs. Neutralizing VEGF and IL-8 in CM significantly abrogated CM-induced migration of HUVECs. Autocrine VEGF and IL-8 increased Src phosphorylation, Rac1 activity and PAK1 phosphorylation in a time dependent manner. Additionally, blocking Rac1 activity with Rac1 siRNA largely abolished autocrine VEGF and IL-8-induced cell migration. Vav2 siRNA suppressed autocrine VEGF and IL-8-induced Rac1 activation and cell migration. Furthermore, blocking Src signaling with PP2, a specific inhibitor for Src, markedly prevented autocrine VEGF and IL-8-induced Vav2 and Rac1 activation as well as consequently cell migration. PAK1 siRNA also significantly abolished autocrine VEGF and IL-8-induced cell migration. We demonstrated for the first time that autocrine VEGF and IL-8 promoted endothelial cell migration via the Src/Vav2/Rac1/PAK1 signaling pathway. This finding reveals the molecular mechanism in the increase of endothelial cell migration induced by autocrine growth factors and cytokines, which is expected to provide a novel therapeutic target in vascular diseases. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Endothelin-1 promotes vascular smooth muscle cell migration across the artery wall: a mechanism contributing to vascular remodelling and intimal hyperplasia in giant-cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Planas-Rigol, Ester; Terrades-Garcia, Nekane; Corbera-Bellalta, Marc; Lozano, Ester; Alba, Marco A; Segarra, Marta; Espígol-Frigolé, Georgina; Prieto-González, Sergio; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Preciado, Sara; Lavilla, Rodolfo; Cid, Maria C

    2017-09-01

    Giant-cell arteritis (GCA) is an inflammatory disease of large/medium-sized arteries, frequently involving the temporal arteries (TA). Inflammation-induced vascular remodelling leads to vaso-occlusive events. Circulating endothelin-1 (ET-1) is increased in patients with GCA with ischaemic complications suggesting a role for ET-1 in vascular occlusion beyond its vasoactive function. To investigate whether ET-1 induces a migratory myofibroblastic phenotype in human TA-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) leading to intimal hyperplasia and vascular occlusion in GCA. Immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy showed increased ET-1 expression in GCA lesions compared with control arteries. In inflamed arteries, ET-1 was predominantly expressed by infiltrating mononuclear cells whereas ET receptors, particularly ET-1 receptor B (ETBR), were expressed by both mononuclear cells and VSMC. ET-1 increased TA-derived VSMC migration in vitro and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression and migration from the media to the intima in cultured TA explants. ET-1 promoted VSMC motility by increasing activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a crucial molecule in the turnover of focal adhesions during cell migration. FAK activation resulted in Y397 autophosphorylation creating binding sites for Src kinases and the p85 subunit of PI3kinases which, upon ET-1 exposure, colocalised with FAK at the focal adhesions of migrating VSMC. Accordingly, FAK or PI3K inhibition abrogated ET-1-induced migration in vitro. Consistently, ET-1 receptor A and ETBR antagonists reduced αSMA expression and delayed VSMC outgrowth from cultured GCA-involved artery explants. ET-1 is upregulated in GCA lesions and, by promoting VSMC migration towards the intimal layer, may contribute to intimal hyperplasia and vascular occlusion in GCA. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  16. Synaptopodin-2 induces assembly of peripheral actin bundles and immature focal adhesions to promote lamellipodia formation and prostate cancer cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Kai, FuiBoon; Fawcett, James P.; Duncan, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Synaptopodin-2 (Synpo2), an actin-binding protein and invasive cancer biomarker, induces formation of complex stress fiber networks in the cell body and promotes PC3 prostate cancer cell migration in response to serum stimulation. The role of these actin networks in enhanced cancer cell migration is unknown. Using time-course analysis and live cell imaging of mock- and Synpo2-transduced PC3 cells, we now show that Synpo2 induces assembly of actin fibers near the cell periphery and Arp2/3-dependent lamellipodia formation. Lamellipodia formed in a non-directional manner or repeatedly changed direction, explaining the enhanced chemokinetic activity of PC3 cells in response to serum stimulation. Myosin contraction promotes retrograde flow of the Synpo2-associated actin filaments at the leading edge and their merger with actin networks in the cell body. Enhanced PC3 cell migration correlates with Synpo2-induced formation of lamellipodia and immature focal adhesions (FAs), but is not dependent on myosin contraction or FA maturation. The previously reported correlation between Synpo2-induced stress fiber assembly and enhanced PC3 cell migration therefore reflects the role of Synpo2 as a newly identified regulator of actin bundle formation and nascent FA assembly near the leading cell edge. PMID:25883213

  17. NGF Accelerates Cutaneous Wound Healing by Promoting the Migration of Dermal Fibroblasts via the PI3K/Akt-Rac1-JNK and ERK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji-Cai; Lin, Bei-Bei; Hu, Hou-Wen; Lin, Cai; Jin, Wen-Yang; Zhang, Fa-Biao; Zhu, Yan-An; Lu, Cai-Jiao; Wei, Xiao-Jie; Chen, Rui-Jie

    2014-01-01

    As a well-known neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor (NGF) has also been extensively recognized for its acceleration of healing in cutaneous wounds in both animal models and randomized clinical trials. However, the underlying mechanisms accounting for the therapeutic effect of NGF on skin wounds are not fully understood. NGF treatment significantly accelerated the rate of wound healing by promoting wound reepithelialization, the formation of granulation tissue, and collagen production. To explore the possible mechanisms of this process, the expression levels of CD68, VEGF, PCNA, and TGF-β1 in wounds were detected by immunohistochemical staining. The levels of these proteins were all significantly raised in NGF-treated wounds compared to untreated controls. NGF also significantly promoted the migration, but not the proliferation, of dermal fibroblasts. NGF induced a remarkable increase in the activity of PI3K/Akt, JNK, ERK, and Rac1, and blockade with their specific inhibitors significantly impaired the NGF-induced migration. In conclusion, NGF significantly accelerated the healing of skin excisional wounds in rats and the fibroblast migration induced by NGF may contribute to this healing process. The activation of PI3K/Akt, Rac1, JNK, and ERK were all involved in the regulation of NGF-induced fibroblast migration. PMID:25006578

  18. IL-33 promotes the migration and proliferation of circulating fibrocytes from patients with allergen-exacerbated asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchetti, Lorenza; Marini, Maurizio A.; Isgro, Mirko; Bellini, Alberto; Schmidt, Matthias; Mattoli, Sabrina

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-33 is considered a new therapeutic target for reducing inflammation in asthma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study shows that IL-33 is a potent chemoattractant for fibrocytes in asthma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-33 also promotes fibrocyte proliferation without reducing collagen production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study uncovers a novel non-inflammatory, profibrotic function of IL-33. -- Abstract: The release of IL-33 increases in the bronchial mucosa of asthmatic patients in relation to disease severity and several studies have demonstrated that IL-33 may enhance airway inflammation in asthma. This study tested the hypothesis that IL-33 may also contribute to the development of irreversible structural changes in asthma by favoring the airway recruitment and profibrotic function of circulating fibrocytes during episodes of allergen-induced asthma exacerbation. The circulating fibrocytes from patients with allergen-exacerbated asthma (PwAA) showed increased expression of the specific IL-33 receptor component ST2L in comparison with the cells from non-asthmatic individuals (NAI). Recombinant IL-33 induced the migration of circulating fibrocytes from PwAA at clinically relevant concentrations and stimulated their proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner between 0.1 and 10 ng/ml, without affecting the constitutive release of type I collagen. The recombinant protein did not induce similar responses in circulating fibrocytes from NAI. This study uncovers an important mechanism through which fibrocytes may accumulate in the airways of allergic asthmatics when their disease is not adequately controlled by current treatment and provides novel information on the function of IL-33 in asthma.

  19. CC-chemokine receptor 7 and its ligand CCL19 promote mitral valve interstitial cell migration and repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaozhi; Wang, Liang; Miao, Liping; Zhao, Rong; Wu, Yanhu; Kong, Xiangqing

    2015-11-01

    The effect of CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and CC-chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) on rheumatic mitral stenosis is unknown. This study aimed to explore the roles of CCR7 and CCL19 in rheumatic mitral stenosis by measuring the expression of CCR7 and CCL19 in human mitral valves from rheumatic mitral stenosis patients. Additionally, we examined their effects on human mitral valve interstitial cells (hMVICs) proliferation, apoptosis and wound repair. CCR7 and CCL19 expression was measured in the mitral valves from rheumatic mitral stenosis patients (n = 10) and compared to normal mitral valves (n = 5). CCR7 was measured in cultured hMVICs from rheumatic mitral stenosis patients and normal donors by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. The cells were also treated with exogenous CCL19, and the effects on wound healing, proliferation and apoptosis were assayed. In the rheumatic mitral valves, valve interstitial cells expressed CCR7, while mononuclear cells and the endothelium expressed CCL19. Healthy mitral valves did not stain positive for CCR7 or CCL19. CCR7 was also detected in cultured rheumatic hMVICs or in normal hMVICs treated with CCL19. In a wound healing experiment, wound closure rates of both rheumatic and normal hMVICs were significantly accelerated by CCL19. These effects were abrogated by a CCR7 neutralizing antibody. The CCR7/CCL19 axis did not influence the proliferation or apoptosis of hMVICs, indicating that wound healing was due to increased migration rates rather than increased proliferation. In conclusion, CCR7 and CCL19 were expressed in rheumatic mitral valves. The CCR7/CCL19 axis may regulate remodeling of rheumatic valve injury through promoting migratory ability of hMVICs.

  20. Loss of CAR promotes migration and proliferation of HaCaT cells, and accelerates wound healing in rats via Src-p38 MAPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Su, Linlin; Fu, Lanqing; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yue; Li, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xue; Li, Yan; Bai, Xiaozhi; Hu, Dahai

    2016-01-01

    The coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a cell adhesion molecule mostly localized to cell-cell contacts in epithelial and endothelial cells. CAR is known to regulate tumor progression, however, its physiological role in keratinocyte migration and proliferation, two essential steps in re-epithelialization during wound healing, has less been investigated. Here we showed that CAR was predominantly expressed in the epidermis of human skin, CAR knockdown by RNAi significantly accelerated HaCaT cell migration and proliferation. In addition, knockdown of CAR in vitro increased p-Src, p-p38, and p-JNK protein levels; however, Src inhibitor PP2 prevented the increase of p-Src and p-p38 induced by CAR RNAi, but not p-JNK, and decelerated cell migration and proliferation. More intriguingly, in vivo CAR RNAi on the skin area surrounding the wounds on rat back visually accelerated wound healing and re-epithelialization process, while treatment with PP2 or p38 inhibitor SB203580 obviously inhibited these effects. By contrast, overexpressing CAR in HaCaT cells significantly decelerated cell migration and proliferation. Above results demonstrate that suppression of CAR could accelerate HaCaT cell migration and proliferation, and promote wound healing in rat skin, probably via Src-p38 MAPK pathway. CAR thus might serve as a novel therapeutic target for facilitating wound healing. PMID:26804208

  1. TAT-Hsp27 promotes adhesion and migration of murine dental papilla-derived MDPC-23 cells through beta1 integrin-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Hye; Lim, Young-Sin; Hwang, Ho-Keel; Kim, Soo-A; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2010-09-01

    Odontoblasts are involved in tooth repair and regeneration as well as dentin formation. The aim of this study was to examine whether delivery of heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) into cells using a TAT fusion protein system (TAT-Hsp27) enhances adhesion and migration of murine dental papilla-derived MDPC-23 cells. Hsp27 was delivered into cells by the TAT-fusion protein system. To examine whether TAT-Hsp27 affects the viability of MDPC-23 cells, MTT assay was performed. The effect of TAT-Hsp27 on adhesion and migration of MDPC-23 cells was determined using type I collagen-coated plates and a commercial kit, respectively. In addition, a precise molecular mechanism was examined by Western blot analysis and focal adhesion activity. TAT-fusion protein system delivered Hsp27 into cells successfully. Transduction of TAT-Hsp27 induced adhesion and migration of MDPC-23 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, transduction of TAT-Hsp27 increased the protein expression of beta1 integrin and focal adhesion formation, and induced phosphorylation of FAK and ERK. TAT-Hsp27-induced migration of MDPC-23 cells was restored by treatment of anti-beta1 integrin antibody. These findings suggest that TAT-Hsp27 promotes adhesion and migration of MDPC-23 cells via beta1 integrin-mediated signaling and is a promising candidate for therapeutic application of dental pulp regeneration.

  2. Loss of CAR promotes migration and proliferation of HaCaT cells, and accelerates wound healing in rats via Src-p38 MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Su, Linlin; Fu, Lanqing; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yue; Li, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xue; Li, Yan; Bai, Xiaozhi; Hu, Dahai

    2016-01-25

    The coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a cell adhesion molecule mostly localized to cell-cell contacts in epithelial and endothelial cells. CAR is known to regulate tumor progression, however, its physiological role in keratinocyte migration and proliferation, two essential steps in re-epithelialization during wound healing, has less been investigated. Here we showed that CAR was predominantly expressed in the epidermis of human skin, CAR knockdown by RNAi significantly accelerated HaCaT cell migration and proliferation. In addition, knockdown of CAR in vitro increased p-Src, p-p38, and p-JNK protein levels; however, Src inhibitor PP2 prevented the increase of p-Src and p-p38 induced by CAR RNAi, but not p-JNK, and decelerated cell migration and proliferation. More intriguingly, in vivo CAR RNAi on the skin area surrounding the wounds on rat back visually accelerated wound healing and re-epithelialization process, while treatment with PP2 or p38 inhibitor SB203580 obviously inhibited these effects. By contrast, overexpressing CAR in HaCaT cells significantly decelerated cell migration and proliferation. Above results demonstrate that suppression of CAR could accelerate HaCaT cell migration and proliferation, and promote wound healing in rat skin, probably via Src-p38 MAPK pathway. CAR thus might serve as a novel therapeutic target for facilitating wound healing.

  3. Translucent titanium coating altered the composition of focal adhesions and promoted migration of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells on glass.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yi; Kok, Sang-Heng; Wang, Juo-Song; Lin, Li-Deh

    2014-04-01

    "TiGlass" was designed and was known to promote initial adhesion and increase migration of rat calvarial osteoblats. In this article, migration study and a series of epifluorescence microscopic studies were conducted to find out the composition of focal adhesion on titanium surface. The translucent titanium surface was applied in random migration analysis and immunofluorescence cell staining. In the immunofluorescent double staining, phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase was tested with vinculin. Various integrin subunits were then tested with vinculin to study the composition of activated focal adhesions. Integrin subunit α5 and αV were tested against β3; integrin subunits α5, αV, β3, and αVβ3 were tested with F-actin, respectively. The MG-63 cells began migration earlier and migrated faster on "TiGlass." Immunofluorescent double staining revealed that all focal adhesion kinase in the focal adhesions were activated on both the surfaces. The osteoblast was inferred to made adhesion to titanium and glass through integrins. The focal adhesions on glass were found to be composed of integrin subunits αV and β3. However, on "TiGlass," integrin subunits α5 might have supplemented the adhesion to titanium. Results from double staining of integrin subunits α5, αV, β3, and αVβ3 with F-actin also supported integrin subunits α5 might have involved in adhesion of titanium.

  4. Leptin promotes migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by stimulating IL-8 production in M2 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Hong; Pang, Xueli; Li, Kuangfa; Dang, Weiqi; Tang, Hao; Wei, Lan; Su, Min; Tang, Cuiping; Chen, Tingmei

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the mechanisms underlying leptin-mediated crosstalk between tumor-associated macrophages (M2 macrophages) and breast cancer cells. THP1 human leukemic monocytes were induced to differentiate into M2 macrophages by PMA (100 nM) and IL-4 (20 ng/mL). Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot revealed that leptin (100 nM) significantly increased the expression of leptin receptor (ObR) in the M2 macrophages (P < 0.01) and stimulated interleukin (IL)-8 expression in the M2 macrophages, mouse macrophage cells RAW264.7, and primary mouse peritoneal macrophages in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Leptin-induced IL-8 production was sensitive to the ERK inhibitor PD980590 (10 μmol/L), p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 (20 μmol/L), and anti-ObR neutralizing antibody (4 μg/mL). Leptin (100 ng/mL) substantially increased the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. Thus, leptin may induce IL-8 production in M2 macrophages by interacting with ObR to activate the p38 and ERK signaling pathways. Scratch and transwell chamber assay showed that both recombinant IL-8 and leptin-induced M2 macrophage-derived IL-8 promoted the migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 (All P < 0.01). In a nude mice xenograft model of breast cancer (n = 5 per group), injection of leptin (0.1 μg/g) dramatically increased tumor volume and mass, reduced survival, exacerbated pulmonary metastasis, and elevated IL-8 and Ki67 expression in the tumor tissue (All P < 0.05) compared with PBS injection. Depletion of mouse macrophage by Clophosome®-clodronate liposome and injection of anti-mouse IL-8 neutralizing antibodies in the xenograft tumor significantly attenuated those leptin-mediated stimulations (All P < 0.05). These findings indicate that leptin may promote tumor growth and metastasis by stimulating IL-8 production in tumor-associated macrophage. PMID:27588409

  5. Heme oxygenase-1 promotes migration and β-epithelial Na+ channel expression in cytotrophoblasts and ischemic placentas.

    PubMed

    Warrington, Junie P; Coleman, Kayla; Skaggs, Courtney; Hosick, Peter A; George, Eric M; Stec, David E; Ryan, Michael J; Granger, Joey P; Drummond, Heather A

    2014-05-01

    Preeclampsia is thought to arise from inadequate cytotrophoblast migration and invasion of the maternal spiral arteries, resulting in placental ischemia and hypertension. Evidence suggests that altered expression of epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) proteins may be a contributing mechanism for impaired cytotrophoblast migration. ENaC activity is required for normal cytotrophoblast migration. Moreover, β-ENaC, the most robustly expressed placental ENaC message, is reduced in placentas from preeclamptic women. We recently demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protects against hypertension in a rat model of placental ischemia; however, whether HO-1 regulation of β-ENaC contributes to the beneficial effects of HO-1 is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether β-ENaC mediates cytotrophoblast migration and whether HO-1 enhances ENaC-mediated migration. We showed that placental ischemia, induced by reducing uterine perfusion suppressed, and HO-1 induction restored, β-ENaC expression in ischemic placentas. Using an in vitro model, we found that HO-1 induction, using cobalt protoporphyrin, stimulates cytotrophoblast β-ENaC expression by 1.5- and 1.8-fold (10 and 50 μM). We then showed that silencing of β-ENaC in cultured cytotrophoblasts (BeWo cells), by expression of dominant-negative constructs, reduced migration to 56 ± 13% (P < 0.05) of control. Importantly, HO-1 induction enhanced migration (43 ± 5% of control, P < 0.05), but the enhanced migratory response was entirely blocked by ENaC inhibition with amiloride (10 μM). Taken together, our results suggest that β-ENaC mediates cytotrophoblast migration and increasing β-ENaC expression by HO-1 induction enhances migration. HO-1 regulation of cytotrophoblast β-ENaC expression and migration may be a potential therapeutic target in preeclamptic patients.

  6. Long noncoding RNA ILF3-AS1 promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion via negatively regulating miR-200b/a/429 in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangjun; Liu, Sha; Gao, Guozhen; Yu, Li; Yan, Dexiong; Dong, Hao; Sun, Weijing; Zhao, Xiaochun

    2017-09-21

    Melanoma is the most malignantskin cancer, which account for most of skin-cancer-related deaths. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is a class of noncoding RNAs with crucial roles in many cancers. However, the roles of lncRNAs in melanoma have not been well studied. In this study, using public available data and clinical tissues samples, we found that lncRNA ILF3-AS1 is upregulated in melanoma tissues and cell lines, and correlated with poor prognosis of melanoma patients. Functional experiments showed that knockdown of ILF3-AS1 inhibits melanoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Mechanistically, we found that ILF3-AS1 interacts with EZH2, promotes the binding of EZH2 to the miR-200b/a/429 promoter, and represses miR-200b/a/429 expression. The expression of ILF3-AS1 is negatively correlated with that of miR-200b/a/429 in melanoma tissues. Moreover, inhibition of miR-200b/a/429 abrogates the biological roles of ILF3-AS1 knockdown on melanoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that melanoma-upregulated lncRNA ILF3-AS1 promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion via negatively regulating miR-200b/a/429, and imply that ILF3-AS1 may be a potentialprognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for melanoma. ©2017 The Author(s).

  7. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote proliferation and migration in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells through activation of the ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Chunfu; Ding, Yanling; Zhai, Wei; Liu, Kui; Bu, Fan; Tu, Tao; Sun, Lingxian; Zhu, Wei; Zhou, Fangfang; Qi, Wenkai; Hu, Jiabo; Chen, Huabiao; Sun, Xiaochun

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to migrate to tumor tissues and to play an important role in cancer progression. However, the effects of MSCs on tumor progression remain controversial. The purpose of the present study was to detect the effects of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUC‑MSCs) on the human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB‑231 and MCF-7 in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. MSCs were isolated and identified from umbilical cord tissues. MDA-MB‑231 and MCF-7 cells were treated with conditioned medium (CM) from 10 and 20% umbilical cord MSCs (UC-MSCs), and the resulting changes in proliferation and migration were investigated. The 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)‑2,5-diphenyl‑2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and plate clone formation assays were used to assess the effect on proliferation, and the effects of CM on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 migration were assessed through scratch wound and Transwell migration assays. The expression of cell proliferation- and metastasis-related genes and proteins and activation of the ERK signaling pathway were analyzed by RT-PCR and western blot assays. UC-MSCs are characteristically similar to bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) and exhibit multipotential differentiation capability (i.e., osteoblasts and adipocytes). The MTT, plate clone formation, scratch wound and Transwell migration assay results revealed that 10 and 20% CM promoted the proliferation and migration to higher levels than those observed in the control group. Our findings showed that UC-MSC-CM inhibited E-cadherin expression, increased the expression of N-cadherin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and enhanced the expression of ZEB1, a transcription factor involved in epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT), through activation of the ERK pathway. U0126, an inhibitor of ERK, reversed the effects of UC-MSC-CM on breast cancer cell proliferation and migration. We conclude that UC-MSCs promote the proliferation and migration of breast

  8. Migration-stimulating factor (MSF) is over-expressed in non-small cell lung cancer and promotes cell migration and invasion in A549 cells over-expressing MSF

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xuefeng; Ma, Qunfeng; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Zhipei; Wang, Yunjie

    2013-10-15

    Migration-stimulating factor (MSF), an oncofetal truncated isoform of fibronectin, is a potent stimulator of cell invasion. However, its distribution and motogenic role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have never been identified. In this study, real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) were performed to detect MSF mRNA and protein levels in tumor tissues and matched adjacent tumor-free tissues. Furthermore, to examine the effect of MSF on invasiveness, MSF was upregulated in A549 cells. The invasiveness and viability of A549 cells were then determined using a transwell migration assay and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assays, respectively. The expression level of MSF in NSCLC tissue was markedly higher than in matched adjacent tumor-free tissue. Additionally, the level of MSF protein expression in stage III and IV NSCLC samples was higher than in stage I and II NSCLC samples. More importantly, we also demonstrated that migration and invasion of A549 cells increased substantially after upregulating MSF, although proliferation remained unchanged. Meanwhile, we found no correlation between increasing motility and invasiveness of MSF-overexpressing cells and expression levels and activities of matrix metalloprotease MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our current study shows that MSF plays a role in migration and invasion of A549 cells and suggests that MSF may be a potential biomarker of NSCLC progression. - Highlights: • MSF expression was upregulated in NSCLC and correlated with TNM stages. • MSF may be a new biomarker for NSCLC progression. • MSF promoted migration and invasion in A549 cells, independent of MMP-2/MMP-9 expression.

  9. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Conditioned Medium Promotes Proliferation and Migration of Alveolar Epithelial Cells under Septic Conditions In Vitro via the JNK-P38 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Li, Yanqin; Hao, Haojie; Li, Chonghui; Du, Yu; Hu, Ye; Li, Jian; Liang, Zhixin; Li, Chunsun; Liu, Jiejie; Chen, Liangan

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) based therapies may be useful for treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We investigated the impact of human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived MSC (hUC-MSC) secreted factors on alveolar epithelial cells under septic conditions and determined the relevant intracellular signaling pathways. Human alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) and primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were subjected to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without the presence of hUC-MSC-conditioned medium (CM). Proliferation and migration of AEC and SAEC were determined via an MTT assay, a wound healing assay and a transwell migration assay (only for AEC). Protein phosphorylation was determined by western blot and the experiments were repeated in presence of small-molecule inhibitors. The hMSC-secretory proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry. MSC-CM enhanced proliferation and migration. Activation of JNK and P38, but not ERK, was required for the proliferation and migration of AEC and SAEC. Pretreatment of AEC or SAEC with SP600125, an inhibitor of JNK1 or SB200358, an inhibitor of P38, significantly reduced cell proliferation and migration. An array of proteins including TGF-beta receptor type-1, TGF-beta receptor type-2, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 which influencing the proliferation and migration of AEC and SAEC were detected in MSC-CM. Our data suggest MSC promote epithelial cell repair through releasing a repertoire of paracrine factors via activation of JNK and P38 MAPK. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 promotes migration and invasion of human trophoblast cells through activation of MAPK, PI3K and NOTCH signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Massimiani, M; Vecchione, L; Piccirilli, D; Spitalieri, P; Amati, F; Salvi, S; Ferrazzani, S; Stuhlmann, H; Campagnolo, L

    2015-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (Egfl7) is a gene that encodes a partially secreted protein and whose expression is largely restricted to the endothelia. We recently reported that EGFL7 is also expressed by trophoblast cells in mouse and human placentas. Here, we investigated the molecular pathways that are regulated by EGFL7 in trophoblast cells. Stable EGFL7 overexpression in a Jeg3 human choriocarcinoma cell line resulted in significantly increased cell migration and invasiveness, while cell proliferation was unaffected. Analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways showed that EGFL7 promotes Jeg3 cell motility by activating both pathways. We show that EGFL7 activates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in Jeg3 cells, resulting in downstream activation of extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs). In addition, we provide evidence that EGFL7-triggered migration of Jeg3 cells involves activation of NOTCH signaling. EGFL7 and NOTCH1 are co-expressed in Jeg3 cells, and blocking of NOTCH activation abrogates enhanced migration of Jeg3 cells overexpressing EGFL7. We also demonstrate that signaling through EGFR and NOTCH converged to mediate EGFL7 effects. Reduction of endogenous EGFL7 expression in Jeg3 cells significantly decreased cell migration. We further confirmed that EGFL7 stimulates cell migration by using primary human first trimester trophoblast (PTB) cells overexpressing EGFL7. In conclusion, our data suggest that in trophoblast cells, EGFL7 regulates cell migration and invasion by activating multiple signaling pathways. Our results provide a possible explanation for the correlation between reduced expression of EGFL7 and inadequate trophoblast invasion observed in placentopathies.

  11. Long non-coding RNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 12 (SNHG12) promotes cell proliferation and migration by upregulating angiomotin gene expression in human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Wendong; Wang, Pei; Feng, Shiqing; Xue, Yuan; Li, Yulin

    2016-03-01

    The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) small nucleolar RNA host gene 12 (SNHG12) has a role in cell proliferation and migration. Angiomotin, encoded by the AMOT gene, is a protein that regulates the migration and organization of endothelial cells. SNHG12 and AMOT have been shown to play a role in a variety of human cancers but have yet to be studied in detail in human osteosarcoma. Tissue samples from primary osteosarcoma (n = 20) and adjacent normal tissues (n = 20), the osteosarcoma cell lines, SAOS-2, MG-63, U-2 OS, and the human osteoblast cell line hFOB (OB3) were studied using Western blot for angiomotin, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the expression of SNHG12 and AMOT. The expression of SNHG12 was knocked down using RNA interference. Cell migration assays were performed. Cell apoptosis was studied using flow cytometry. SNHG12 and AMOT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was upregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines when compared with normal tissues and cells. Upregulation of AMOT mRNA was associated with upregulation of SNHG12. Knockdown of SNHG12 reduced the expression of angiomotin in osteosarcoma cells and suppressed cell proliferation and migration but did not affect cell apoptosis. This preliminary study has shown that the lncRNA SNHG12 promotes cell proliferation and migration by upregulating AMOT gene expression in osteosarcoma cells in vivo and in vitro. Further studies are recommended to investigate the role of SNHG12 and AMOT expression in tumor cell proliferation and migration and angiogenesis in osteosarcoma and a range of malignant mesenchymal tumors.

  12. [Extracellular HMGB1 promotes the migration of cord Blood CD34⁺ cells via SDF-1/CXCR-4 axis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu-Lu; Sun, Zi-Min; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Xing-Bing; Wang, Jian

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of high mobility group box1(HMGB1) and/or stromal cell derived factor-1(SDF-1) on the migration of cord blood CD34⁺ cells, and to explore whether HMGB1 promotes cord blood CD34⁺ cell migration via SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Cord blood mononuclear cells were isolated by Ficoll-Paque density centrifugation, CD34⁺ cells were collected by a positive immunoselection procedure (CD34 MicroBeads) according to the manufacturer's instructions, the purity of the isolated CD34⁺ cells was detected by flow cytometry. In vitro chemotaxis assays were performed using Transwell cell chambers to detect cells migration. 1 × 10⁵ cells/well cord blood CD34⁺ cells were added into the upper chambers. Different concentrations of HMGB1 and/or SDF-1 (0, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 ng/ml) were used to detect the optimal concentrations of HMGB1 and/or SDF-1 for inducing migration of cord blood CD34⁺ cells. Freshly isolated cord blood CD34⁺ cells express CXCR4 (SDF-1 receptor), and HMGB1 receptor TLR-2,TLR-4 and RAGE. To explore which receptors were required for the synergy of HGMB1 and/or SDF-1 on cells migration, the anti-SDF-1, anti-CXCR4 and anti-RAGE antibodies were used to detect the effect of HGMB1 alone or with SDF-1 on cord blood CD34⁺ cells migration. The results showed that the purity of CD34⁺ cells isolated from cord blood mononuclear cells by magnetic cell sorting was 97.40 ± 1.26%, the 25 ng/ml SDF-1 did not induce migration of cord blood CD34⁺ cells, whereas the optimal migration was observed at 100 ng/ml. HMGB1 alone did not induce migration up to 100 ng/ml. The dose test found that the the best synergistic concentrations for cells migration were 100 ng/ml HMGB1 combined with 50 ng/ml SDF-1. The blocking test showed that both the anti-SDF-1 (4 µg/ml) and anti-CXCR4 (5 µg/ml) antibodies could block cell migration induced by HMGB1 or combined with SDF-1, but the cord blood CD34⁺ cells in the presence of anti-RAGE, anti

  13. Helium-Neon Laser Irradiation Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of Human Epidermal Stem Cells In Vitro: Proposed Mechanism for Enhanced Wound Re-epithelialization

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xuan; Xie, Guang-Hui; Cheng, Biao; Li, Sheng-Hong; Xie, Shan; Xiao, Li-Ling; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation on the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of cultured human epidermal stem cells (ESCs). Background data: A He-Ne laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm is known to have photobiological effects, and is widely used for accelerating wound healing; however, the cellular mechanisms involved have not been completely understood. Methods: The ESCs were prepared from human foreskin, and irradiated by using He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm with 2 J/cm2. The ESC proliferation, migration, and differentiation were examined by using XTT assay, scratch assay, and flow cytometry technology, respectively. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) was analyzed by using Western blotting. Results: He-Ne laser irradiation markedly promoted cell proliferation and migration accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of ERK, but did not significantly influence cell differentiation. Conclusion: Our data indicated that photostimulation with a He-Ne laser resulted in a significant increase in human ESC proliferation and migration in vitro, which might contribute, at least partially, to accelerated wound re-epithelialization by low-level laser therapy. PMID:24661127

  14. Diminished expression of h2-calponin in prostate cancer cells promotes cell proliferation, migration and the dependence of cell adhesion on substrate stiffness.

    PubMed

    Moazzem Hossain, M; Wang, Xin; Bergan, Raymond C; Jin, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Calponin is an actin filament-associated protein and its h2 isoform inhibits cell motility. Here we report significant expression of h2-calponin in prostate epithelial cells, which is diminished in cancerous cells. Comparison between a prostate cancer cell line PC3 and its metastatic derivative PC3-M showed lower levels of h2-calponin in PC3-M, corresponding to faster rates of cell proliferation and migration. Substrate adhesion of PC3 and PC3-M cells was positively correlated to the level of h2-calponin and the adhesion of PC3-M exhibited a higher dependence on substrate stiffness. Such effects of h2-calponin on cell proliferation, migration and substrate adhesion were also seen in normal versus cancerous primary prostate cells. Further supporting the role of h2-calponin in inhibiting cell motility, fibroblasts isolated from h2-calponin knockout mice proliferated and migrated faster than that of wild type fibroblasts. Transfective over-expression of h2-calponin in PC3-M cells effectively inhibited cell proliferation and migration. The results suggest that the diminished expression of h2-calponin in prostate cancer cells increases cell motility, decreases substrate adhesion, and promotes adhesion on high stiffness substrates.

  15. Diminished expression of h2-calponin in prostate cancer cells promotes cell proliferation, migration and the dependence of cell adhesion on substrate stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Moazzem Hossain, M.; Wang, Xin; Bergan, Raymond C.; Jin, J.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Calponin is an actin filament-associated protein and its h2 isoform inhibits cell motility. Here we report significant expression of h2-calponin in prostate epithelial cells, which is diminished in cancerous cells. Comparison between a prostate cancer cell line PC3 and its metastatic derivative PC3-M showed lower levels of h2-calponin in PC3-M, corresponding to faster rates of cell proliferation and migration. Substrate adhesion of PC3 and PC3-M cells was positively correlated to the level of h2-calponin and the adhesion of PC3-M exhibited a higher dependence on substrate stiffness. Such effects of h2-calponin on cell proliferation, migration and substrate adhesion were also seen in normal versus cancerous primary prostate cells. Further supporting the role of h2-calponin in inhibiting cell motility, fibroblasts isolated from h2-calponin knockout mice proliferated and migrated faster than that of wild type fibroblasts. Transfective over-expression of h2-calponin in PC3-M cells effectively inhibited cell proliferation and migration. The results suggest that the diminished expression of h2-calponin in prostate cancer cells increases cell motility, decreases substrate adhesion, and promotes adhesion on high stiffness substrates. PMID:25161871

  16. 3-Phosphoinositide Dependent Protein Kinase-1 (PDK-1) Promotes Migration and Invasion in Gastric Cancer Cells Through Activating the NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ning; He, Changyu; Zhu, Bohui; Jiang, Jinling; Chen, Yiwen; Ma, Tao

    2017-08-07

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. Many factors have been reported regarding the progression and development of GC. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation of 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1) with cell viability, migration, and invasion of GC. The expression of PDK-1 was measured in different GC cell lines. Thereafter, the expression of PDK-1 was interfered by small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and then incubated with or without the inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). We then investigated the effects of PDK-1 aberrant expression on GC cell viability, migration, invasion, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progress. The results showed that PDK-1 was highly expressed in GC cells, and PDK-1 promoted cell viability, migration, invasion, and EMT in GC. Moreover, we confirmed that PDK-1 activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-hydroxy kinase (PI3K)/AKT and NF-κB signaling pathways. However, administration of PDTC reversed the effects of overexpression of PDK-1 on cell migration and invasion. All these findings suggest that PDK-1 may be involved in progression of GC and could be a new therapeutic target for this disease.

  17. Focal adhesion kinase and paxillin promote migration and adhesion to fibronectin by swine skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Chun-Qi; Chen, Rong-Qiang; Jin, Cheng-Long; Li, Hai-Chang; Yan, Hui-Chao; Wang, Xiu-Qi

    2016-05-24

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway contributes to the cell migration and adhesion that is critical for wound healing and regeneration of damaged muscle, but its function in skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) is less clear. We compared the migration and adhesion of SCs derived from two species of pig (Lantang and Landrace) in vitro, and explored how FAK signaling modulates the two processes. The results showed that Lantang SCs had greater ability to migrate and adhere to fibronection (P < 0.05) than Landrace SCs. Compared to Landrace SCs, Lantang SCs expressed many more focal adhesion (FA) sites, which were indicated by the presence of p-paxillin (Tyr118), and exhibited less F-actin reorganization 24 h after seeding onto fibronectin. Levels of p-FAK (Tyr397) and p-paxillin (Tyr118) were greater (P < 0.05) in Lantang SCs than Landrace SCs after migration for 24 h. Similarly, Lantang SCs showed much higher levels of p-FAK (Tyr397), p-paxillin (Tyr118) and p-Akt (Ser473) than Landrace SCs 2 h after adhesion. Treatment with the FAK inhibitor PF-573228 (5 or 10 μmol/L) inhibited Lantang SC migration and adhesion to fibronectin (P < 0.05), decreased levels of p-paxillin (Tyr118) and p-Akt (Ser473) (P < 0.05), and suppressed the formation of FA sites on migrating SCs. Thus FAK appears to play a key role in the regulation of SC migration and adhesion necessary for muscle regeneration.

  18. Focal adhesion kinase and paxillin promote migration and adhesion to fibronectin by swine skeletal muscle satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Chun-qi; Chen, Rong-qiang; Jin, Cheng-long; Li, Hai-chang; Yan, Hui-chao; Wang, Xiu-qi

    2016-01-01

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway contributes to the cell migration and adhesion that is critical for wound healing and regeneration of damaged muscle, but its function in skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) is less clear. We compared the migration and adhesion of SCs derived from two species of pig (Lantang and Landrace) in vitro, and explored how FAK signaling modulates the two processes. The results showed that Lantang SCs had greater ability to migrate and adhere to fibronection (P < 0.05) than Landrace SCs. Compared to Landrace SCs, Lantang SCs expressed many more focal adhesion (FA) sites, which were indicated by the presence of p-paxillin (Tyr118), and exhibited less F-actin reorganization 24 h after seeding onto fibronectin. Levels of p-FAK (Tyr397) and p-paxillin (Tyr118) were greater (P < 0.05) in Lantang SCs than Landrace SCs after migration for 24 h. Similarly, Lantang SCs showed much higher levels of p-FAK (Tyr397), p-paxillin (Tyr118) and p-Akt (Ser473) than Landrace SCs 2 h after adhesion. Treatment with the FAK inhibitor PF-573228 (5 or 10 μmol/L) inhibited Lantang SC migration and adhesion to fibronectin (P < 0.05), decreased levels of p-paxillin (Tyr118) and p-Akt (Ser473) (P < 0.05), and suppressed the formation of FA sites on migrating SCs. Thus FAK appears to play a key role in the regulation of SC migration and adhesion necessary for muscle regeneration. PMID:27127174

  19. Long noncoding RNA HEIH promotes melanoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion via inhibition of miR-200b/a/429

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haiying; Xing, Guoping; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Guoyan; Meng, Huijuan

    2017-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are frequently dysregulated and have important roles in many diseases, particularly cancers. lncRNA-HEIH was first identified in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression, clinical significance and roles of lncRNA-HEIH in melanoma are still unknown. In the present study, we found that lncRNA-HEIH is highly expressed in melanoma tissues and cell lines, associated with advanced clinical stages, and predicts poor outcomes in melanoma patients. Functional assays showed that ectopic expression of lncRNA-HEIH promotes melanoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Knockdown of lncRNA-HEIH inhibits melanoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Mechanistically, we revealed that lncRNA-HEIH directly binds to miR-200b/a/429 promoter and represses miR-200b/a/429 transcription. The expression of miR-200b is inversely associated with lncRNA-HEIH in melanoma tissues. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-200b/a/429 abrogates melanoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion enhanced by lncRNA-HEIH. In conclusion, we identified lncRNA-HEIH as a key oncogene in melanoma via transcriptional inhibition of miR-200b/a/429. Our data suggested that lncRNA-HEIH may serve as a promising prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for melanoma. PMID:28487474

  20. Anti-atherogenic activity of wild grape (Vitis thunbergii) extract antagonizing smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration promoted by neighboring macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Wook; Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Hyun-Sung; Lee, Yong-Jin; Kang, Young-Hee

    2012-06-01

    The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) play critical roles in intimal thickening and neointimal hyperplasia in early-phase atherosclerosis. This study tested whether wild grape extract (WGE) suppressed the proliferation and migration of human aortic SMCs induced by neighboring macrophages. Cellular expression of fibrogenic connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and secretion of collagen IV and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 were determined in SMCs exposed to THP-1-differentiated macrophage-conditioned media. Proliferation was enhanced in SMCs exposed to macrophage-conditioned media collected during the early stage of differentiation, which was attenuated by treatment with ≥ 10 µg/ml WGE. Increased secretion of CTGF and collagen IV macrophage-conditioned media was suppressed in WGE-supplemented SMCs. TGF-β1-promoted production of CTGF and collagen IV was suppressed by blocking TGF-β receptors of R1 and R2 in SMCs. WGE repressed macrophage-conditioned media-upregulated MMP-2 secretion, indicating that WGE had an ability to encumber plaque rupture within atherosclerotic lesions. In addition, ≥ 1 µg/ml WGE ameliorated the migration of SMCs promoted by neighboring macrophages. These results demonstrate that WGE retarded neointimal hyperplasia and thickening within atherosclerotic plaques largely comprising of macrophages and SMCs. Therefore, WGE may be developed as an anti-proliferative and anti-migratory agent targeting SMCs in the proximity of newly differentiated and resident macrophages.

  1. Understanding the "black box" of a health-promotion program: Keys to enable health among older persons aging in the context of migration.

    PubMed

    Barenfeld, Emmelie; Gustafsson, Susanne; Wallin, Lars; Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve

    2015-01-01

    Although the need to make health services more accessible to persons who have migrated has been identified, knowledge about health-promotion programs (HPPs) from the perspective of older persons born abroad is lacking. This study explores the design experiences and content implemented in an adapted version of a group-based HPP developed in a researcher-community partnership. Fourteen persons aged 70-83 years or older who had migrated to Sweden from Finland or the Balkan Peninsula were included. A grounded theory approach guided the data collection and analysis. The findings showed how participants and personnel jointly helped raise awareness. The participants experienced three key processes that could open doors to awareness: enabling community, providing opportunities to understand and be understood, and confirming human values and abilities. Depending on how the HPP content and design are being shaped by the group, the key processes could both inhibit or encourage opening doors to awareness. Therefore, this study provides key insights into how to enable health by deepening the understanding of how the exchange of health-promoting messages is experienced to be facilitated or hindered. This study adds to the scientific knowledge base of how the design and content of HPP may support and recognize the capabilities of persons aging in the context of migration.

  2. Ubiquitin C-terminal Hydrolase 37, a novel predictor for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence, promotes cell migration and invasion via interacting and deubiquitinating PRP19.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ying; Fu, Da; Tang, Wenqing; Cai, Yu; Ma, Duan; Wang, Huijun; Xue, Ruyi; Liu, Taotao; Huang, Xiaowu; Dong, Ling; Wu, Hao; Shen, Xizhong

    2013-03-01

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 37 (UCH37) plays a crucial role in numerous biological processes and is also involved in oncogenesis. In this study, clinicopathologic data showed that UCH37 was over-expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cancerous tissues and was a significant predictor for time to recurrence (TTR). In vitro, we discovered that UCH37 could promote cel