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Sample records for miraigata yume machine

  1. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  2. Electric machine

    SciTech Connect

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  3. Nonplanar machines

    SciTech Connect

    Ritson, D. )

    1989-05-01

    This talk examines methods available to minimize, but never entirely eliminate, degradation of machine performance caused by terrain following. Breaking of planar machine symmetry for engineering convenience and/or monetary savings must be balanced against small performance degradation, and can only be decided on a case-by-case basis. 5 refs.

  4. Permutation Machines.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Swapnil; LaBoda, Craig; Yanez, Vanessa; Haddock-Angelli, Traci; Densmore, Douglas

    2016-08-19

    We define a new inversion-based machine called a permuton of n genetic elements, which allows the n elements to be rearranged in any of the n·(n - 1)·(n - 2)···2 = n! distinct orderings. We present two design algorithms for architecting such a machine. We define a notion of a feasible design and use the framework to discuss the feasibility of the permuton architectures. We have implemented our design algorithms in a freely usable web-accessible software for exploration of these machines. Permutation machines could be used as memory elements or state machines and explicitly illustrate a rational approach to designing biological systems.

  5. Permutation Machines.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Swapnil; LaBoda, Craig; Yanez, Vanessa; Haddock-Angelli, Traci; Densmore, Douglas

    2016-08-19

    We define a new inversion-based machine called a permuton of n genetic elements, which allows the n elements to be rearranged in any of the n·(n - 1)·(n - 2)···2 = n! distinct orderings. We present two design algorithms for architecting such a machine. We define a notion of a feasible design and use the framework to discuss the feasibility of the permuton architectures. We have implemented our design algorithms in a freely usable web-accessible software for exploration of these machines. Permutation machines could be used as memory elements or state machines and explicitly illustrate a rational approach to designing biological systems. PMID:27383067

  6. Monel Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Castle Industries, Inc. is a small machine shop manufacturing replacement plumbing repair parts, such as faucet, tub and ballcock seats. Therese Castley, president of Castle decided to introduce Monel because it offered a chance to improve competitiveness and expand the product line. Before expanding, Castley sought NERAC assistance on Monel technology. NERAC (New England Research Application Center) provided an information package which proved very helpful. The NASA database was included in NERAC's search and yielded a wealth of information on machining Monel.

  7. Workout Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Orbotron is a tri-axle exercise machine patterned after a NASA training simulator for astronaut orientation in the microgravity of space. It has three orbiting rings corresponding to roll, pitch and yaw. The user is in the middle of the inner ring with the stomach remaining in the center of all axes, eliminating dizziness. Human power starts the rings spinning, unlike the NASA air-powered system. Marketed by Fantasy Factory (formerly Orbotron, Inc.), the machine can improve aerobic capacity, strength and endurance in five to seven minute workouts.

  8. Wacky Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

  9. Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Achim; Mahidadia, Ashesh

    The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental ideas and techniques of machine learning suitable for the field of this book, i.e., for automated scientific discovery. The chapter focuses on those symbolic machine learning methods, which produce results that are suitable to be interpreted and understood by humans. This is particularly important in the context of automated scientific discovery as the scientific theories to be produced by machines are usually meant to be interpreted by humans. This chapter contains some of the most influential ideas and concepts in machine learning research to give the reader a basic insight into the field. After the introduction in Sect. 1, general ideas of how learning problems can be framed are given in Sect. 2. The section provides useful perspectives to better understand what learning algorithms actually do. Section 3 presents the Version space model which is an early learning algorithm as well as a conceptual framework, that provides important insight into the general mechanisms behind most learning algorithms. In section 4, a family of learning algorithms, the AQ family for learning classification rules is presented. The AQ family belongs to the early approaches in machine learning. The next, Sect. 5 presents the basic principles of decision tree learners. Decision tree learners belong to the most influential class of inductive learning algorithms today. Finally, a more recent group of learning systems are presented in Sect. 6, which learn relational concepts within the framework of logic programming. This is a particularly interesting group of learning systems since the framework allows also to incorporate background knowledge which may assist in generalisation. Section 7 discusses Association Rules - a technique that comes from the related field of Data mining. Section 8 presents the basic idea of the Naive Bayesian Classifier. While this is a very popular learning technique, the learning result is not well suited for

  10. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  11. Fullerene Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically accessible and of great interest. We have computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Preliminary results suggest that these gears can be cooled by a helium atmosphere and a laser motor can power fullerene gears if a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. In addition, we have unproven concepts based on experimental and computational evidence for support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and manufacture. Combining fullerene machines with the remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, there is some reason to believe that a focused effort to develop fullerene nanotechnology could yield materials with tremendous properties.

  12. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  13. Electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Gerstler, William Dwight; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2016-06-21

    An apparatus, such as an electrical machine, is provided. The apparatus can include a rotor defining a rotor bore and a conduit disposed in and extending axially along the rotor bore. The conduit can have an annular conduit body defining a plurality of orifices disposed axially along the conduit and extending through the conduit body. The rotor can have an inner wall that at least partially defines the rotor bore. The orifices can extend through the conduit body along respective orifice directions, and the rotor and conduit can be configured to provide a line of sight along the orifice direction from the respective orifices to the inner wall.

  14. TEMPO machine

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.; Lancaster, K.T.; Lawson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    TEMPO is a transformer powered megavolt pulse generator with an output pulse of 100 ns duration. The machine was designed for burst mode operation at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz with minimum pulse-to-pulse voltage variations. To meet the requirement for pulse duration a nd a 20-..omega.. output impedance within reasonable size constraints, the pulse forming transmission line was designed as two parallel water-insulated, strip-type Blumleins. Stray capacitance and electric fields along the edges of the line elements were controlled by lining the tank with plastic sheet.

  15. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, H.R.

    1984-12-04

    A mining machine is disclosed comprising a mobile base and a cutting head assembly at a forward end of the mobile base having a cutter drum rotatable about an output shaft disposed along the longitudinal axis of the cutter drum. A drive system for the cutting head assembly comprises at least one motor for driving at least one toothed motor pinion and a generally cylindrical combination gear having generally circular end surfaces. A bevel or face gear is formed in at least one of the end surfaces, having teeth adapted to mate with and be driven by the toothed motor pinion. The combination gear has a worm gear formed in the outside cylindrical surface, which is disposed in driving engagement with the teeth of an output gear integrally and coaxially connected to the output shaft of the cutter drum.

  16. Machine wanting.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2013-12-01

    Wants, preferences, and cares are physical things or events, not ideas or propositions, and therefore no chain of pure logic can conclude with a want, preference, or care. It follows that no pure-logic machine will ever want, prefer, or care. And its behavior will never be driven in the way that deliberate human behavior is driven, in other words, it will not be motivated or goal directed. Therefore, if we want to simulate human-style interactions with the world, we will need to first understand the physical structure of goal-directed systems. I argue that all such systems share a common nested structure, consisting of a smaller entity that moves within and is driven by a larger field that contains it. In such systems, the smaller contained entity is directed by the field, but also moves to some degree independently of it, allowing the entity to deviate and return, to show the plasticity and persistence that is characteristic of goal direction. If all this is right, then human want-driven behavior probably involves a behavior-generating mechanism that is contained within a neural field of some kind. In principle, for goal directedness generally, the containment can be virtual, raising the possibility that want-driven behavior could be simulated in standard computational systems. But there are also reasons to believe that goal-direction works better when containment is also physical, suggesting that a new kind of hardware may be necessary. PMID:23792091

  17. Machine wanting.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2013-12-01

    Wants, preferences, and cares are physical things or events, not ideas or propositions, and therefore no chain of pure logic can conclude with a want, preference, or care. It follows that no pure-logic machine will ever want, prefer, or care. And its behavior will never be driven in the way that deliberate human behavior is driven, in other words, it will not be motivated or goal directed. Therefore, if we want to simulate human-style interactions with the world, we will need to first understand the physical structure of goal-directed systems. I argue that all such systems share a common nested structure, consisting of a smaller entity that moves within and is driven by a larger field that contains it. In such systems, the smaller contained entity is directed by the field, but also moves to some degree independently of it, allowing the entity to deviate and return, to show the plasticity and persistence that is characteristic of goal direction. If all this is right, then human want-driven behavior probably involves a behavior-generating mechanism that is contained within a neural field of some kind. In principle, for goal directedness generally, the containment can be virtual, raising the possibility that want-driven behavior could be simulated in standard computational systems. But there are also reasons to believe that goal-direction works better when containment is also physical, suggesting that a new kind of hardware may be necessary.

  18. Tube Alinement for Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tool with stepped shoulders alines tubes for machining in preparation for welding. Alinement with machine tool axis accurate to within 5 mils (0.13mm) and completed much faster than visual setup by machinist.

  19. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  20. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  1. Cable-Twisting Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurnett, S.

    1982-01-01

    New cable-twisting machine is smaller and faster than many production units. Is useful mainly in production of short-run special cables. Already-twisted cable can be fed along axis of machine. Faster operation than typical industrial cable-twisting machines possible by using smaller spools of wire.

  2. Your Sewing Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Marion E.

    The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

  3. Automatic Inspection During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Clyde L.

    1988-01-01

    In experimental manufacturing process, numerically-controlled machine tool temporarily converts into inspection machine by installing electronic touch probes and specially-developed numerical-control software. Software drives probes in paths to and on newly machined parts and collects data on dimensions of parts.

  4. Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…

  5. Continuous mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, H.E.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a continuous mining machine for excavating a longitudinal shaft or tunnel underneath the surface of the earth, the mining machine. It comprises: transport means for moving the machine over a floor of the shaft or tunnel that is being excavated; a working platform having forward and trailing ends.

  6. Cyclodextrin-based molecular machines.

    PubMed

    Hashidzume, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Akira

    2014-01-01

    This chapter overviews molecular machines based on cyclodextrins (CDs). The categories of CD-based molecular machines, external stimuli for CD-based molecular machines, and typical examples of CD-based molecular machines are briefly described.

  7. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  8. Fault Tolerant State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R.; Taft, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    State machines are commonly used to control sequential logic in FPGAs and ASKS. An errant state machine can cause considerable damage to the device it is controlling. For example in space applications, the FPGA might be controlling Pyros, which when fired at the wrong time will cause a mission failure. Even a well designed state machine can be subject to random errors us a result of SEUs from the radiation environment in space. There are various ways to encode the states of a state machine, and the type of encoding makes a large difference in the susceptibility of the state machine to radiation. In this paper we compare 4 methods of state machine encoding and find which method gives the best fault tolerance, as well as determining the resources needed for each method.

  9. Ultra precision machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debra, Daniel B.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Binford, Thomas

    1990-05-01

    There are a number of fields that require or can use to advantage very high precision in machining. For example, further development of high energy lasers and x ray astronomy depend critically on the manufacture of light weight reflecting metal optical components. To fabricate these optical components with machine tools they will be made of metal with mirror quality surface finish. By mirror quality surface finish, it is meant that the dimensions tolerances on the order of 0.02 microns and surface roughness of 0.07. These accuracy targets fall in the category of ultra precision machining. They cannot be achieved by a simple extension of conventional machining processes and techniques. They require single crystal diamond tools, special attention to vibration isolation, special isolation of machine metrology, and on line correction of imperfection in the motion of the machine carriages on their way.

  10. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  11. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2004-12-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  12. Parallel Kinematic Machines (PKM)

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.S.

    2000-03-17

    The purpose of this 3-year cooperative research project was to develop a parallel kinematic machining (PKM) capability for complex parts that normally require expensive multiple setups on conventional orthogonal machine tools. This non-conventional, non-orthogonal machining approach is based on a 6-axis positioning system commonly referred to as a hexapod. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) was the lead site responsible for a multitude of projects that defined the machining parameters and detailed the metrology of the hexapod. The role of the Kansas City Plant (KCP) in this project was limited to evaluating the application of this unique technology to production applications.

  13. On-Machine Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, K.F.

    2000-02-14

    Probing processes are used intermittently and not effectively as an on-line measurement device. This project was needed to evolve machine probing from merely a setup aid to an on-the-machine inspection system. Use of probing for on-machine inspection would significantly decrease cycle time by elimination of the need for first-piece inspection (at a remote location). Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) had the manufacturing facility and the ability to integrate the system into production. The Contractor had a system that could optimize the machine tool to compensate for thermal growth and related error.

  14. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    DOEpatents

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  15. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  16. Semantics via Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  17. An asymptotical machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristallini, Achille

    2016-07-01

    A new and intriguing machine may be obtained replacing the moving pulley of a gun tackle with a fixed point in the rope. Its most important feature is the asymptotic efficiency. Here we obtain a satisfactory description of this machine by means of vector calculus and elementary trigonometry. The mathematical model has been compared with experimental data and briefly discussed.

  18. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  19. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  20. Stirling machine operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  1. Machining heavy plastic sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalkup, O. M.

    1967-01-01

    Machining technique produces consistently satisfactory plane-parallel optical surfaces for pressure windows, made of plexiglass, required to support a photographic study of liquid rocket combustion processes. The surfaces are machined and polished to the required tolerances and show no degradation from stress relaxation over periods as long as 6 months.

  2. THE TEACHING MACHINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLEIN, CHARLES; WAYNE, ELLIS

    THE ROLE OF THE TEACHING MACHINE IS COMPARED WITH THE ROLE OF THE PROGRAMED TEXTBOOK. THE TEACHING MACHINE IS USED FOR INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION, CONTAINS AND PRESENTS PROGRAM CONTENT IN STEPS, PROVIDES A MEANS WHEREBY THE STUDENT MAY RESPOND TO THE PROGRAM, PROVIDES THE STUDENT WITH IMMEDIATE INFORMATION OF SOME KIND CONCERNING HIS RESPONSE THAT CAN…

  3. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  4. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  5. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  6. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods. PMID:24272434

  8. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  9. Micro-machining.

    PubMed

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  10. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... machinery and hammers Gear cutting and finishing machines Grinding machines Hydraulic and pneumatic presses, power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power...

  11. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... machinery and hammers Gear cutting and finishing machines Grinding machines Hydraulic and pneumatic presses, power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power...

  12. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  13. Machine learning and radiology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers.

  14. Machine Learning and Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  15. The Basic Anaesthesia Machine

    PubMed Central

    Gurudatt, CL

    2013-01-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

  16. DNA-based machines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  17. DNA-based machines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications. PMID:24647836

  18. Quantum Boltzmann Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchytskyy, Bohdan; Andriyash, Evgeny; Amin, Mohammed; Melko, Roger

    The field of machine learning has been revolutionized by the recent improvements in the training of deep networks. Their architecture is based on a set of stacked layers of simpler modules. One of the most successful building blocks, known as a restricted Boltzmann machine, is an energetic model based on the classical Ising Hamiltonian. In our work, we investigate the benefits of quantum effects on the learning capacity of Boltzmann machines by extending its underlying Hamiltonian with a transverse field. For this purpose, we employ exact and stochastic training procedures on data sets with physical origins.

  19. Machine Tool Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  20. Wind motor machine

    SciTech Connect

    Goedecke, A.

    1984-12-25

    An improved wind motor machine having a wind rotor rotatable about a vertical axis. The rotor core body of the machine is provided with convexly curved wind application surfaces and coacting outer wing bodies having load supporting airplane wing-shaped cross-sections. The efficiency of the machine is improved by means of stream guiding bodies disposed in the intermediate space between the rotor core body and the wing bodies. These stream guiding bodies extend in a desired streaming direction, that is normal to the rotational axis of the wind body, which insures substantially laminar air streaming within the intermediate space.

  1. OPTICAM machine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedes, Jyrki T.

    1992-01-01

    Rank Pneumo has worked with the Center of Optics Manufacturing to design a multiple-axis flexible machining center for spherical lens fabrication. The OPTICAM/SM prototype machine has been developed in cooperation with the Center's Manufacturing Advisory Board. The SM will generate, fine grind, pre-polish, and center a spherical lens surface in one setup sequence. Unique features of the design incorporate machine resident metrology to provide RQM (Real-time Quality Management) and closed-loop feedback control that corrects for lens thickness, diameter, and centering error. SPC (Statistical Process Control) software can compensate for process drift and QA data collection is provided without additional labor.

  2. Machine tools get smarter

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-11-01

    This article describes how, using software, sensors, and controllers, a new generation of intelligent machine tools are optimizing grinding, milling, and molding processes. A paradox of manufacturing parts is that the faster the parts are made, the less accurate they are--and vice versa. However, a combination of software, sensors, controllers, and mechanical innovations are being used to create a new generation of intelligent machine tools capable of optimizing their own grinding, milling, and molding processes. These brainy tools are allowing manufacturers to machine more-complex, higher-quality parts in shorter cycle times. The technology also lowers scrap rates and reduces or eliminates the need for polishing inadequately finished parts.

  3. Data Machine Independence

    1994-12-30

    Data-machine independence achieved by using four technologies (ASN.1, XDR, SDS, and ZEBRA) has been evaluated by encoding two different applications in each of the above; and their results compared against the standard programming method using C.

  4. The TUM walking machines.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Friedrich

    2007-01-15

    This paper presents some aspects of walking machine design with a special emphasis on the three machines MAX, MORITZ and JOHNNIE, having been developed at the Technical University of Munich within the last 20 years. The design of such machines is discussed as an iterative process improving the layout with every iteration. The control concepts are event-driven and follow logical rules, which have largely been transferred from neurobiological findings. At least for the six-legged machine MAX, a nearly perfect autonomy could be achieved, whereas for the biped JOHNNIE, a certain degree of autonomy could be realized by a vision system with appropriate decision algorithms. This vision system was developed by the group of Prof. G. Schmidt, TU-München. A more detailed description of the design and realization is presented for the biped JOHNNIE.

  5. Laser machining of ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Laudel, A.

    1980-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of The Bendix Corporation manufactures hybrid microcircuits (HMCs) using both thin film and thick film technologies. Laser machining is used to contour the ceramic substrates and to drill holes in the ceramic for frontside-backside interconnections (vias) and holes for mounting components. A 1000 W CO/sub 2/ type laser is used. The laser machining process, and methods used for removing protruding debris and debris from holes, for cleaning the machined surfaces, and for refiring are described. The laser machining process described consistently produces vias, component holes and contours with acceptable surface quality, hole locations, diameter, flatness and metallization adhesion. There are no cracks indicated by dipping in fluorescent dye penetrant and the substances are resistant to repeated thermal shock.

  6. 16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  7. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  8. Flexible machining systems described

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butters, H. J.

    1985-03-01

    The rationalization and gradual automation of short rotationally symmetric parts in the Saalfeld VEB Machine Tool Factory was carried out in three stages: (1) part-specific manufacturing; (2) automated production line for manufacturing toothed gears; and (3) automated manufacturing section for short rotationally symmetric parts. The development of numerically controlled machine tools and of industrial robot technology made possible automated manufacturing. The design of current facilities is explored, manufacturing control is examined, experience is reported.

  9. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  10. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  11. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-06-05

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  12. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2005-06-07

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  13. A Function Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson he observed involving a function machine. This function machine was a box with a slot at the top of one side and a large cut-out hole at the bottom of the opposite side. A card with a number written on it (the input) was pushed into the slot and the teacher put their hand through the hole of the other…

  14. Opticam PM machine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedes, Jyrki T.

    1992-12-01

    Rank Pneumo has worked with the Center for Optics Manufacturing and the Center's Manufacturing Advisory Board to design a multi-axis prism grinding machine. The Opticam PM is a three axis, high precision CNC reciprocating grinder. It is designed for the automated manufacturing of glass prisms. Unique features of the design incorporate electrolytic in- process dressing of the finishing wheel, nested grinding wheels and machine resident metrology to provide RQM (Real-time Quality Management).

  15. Could a machine think

    SciTech Connect

    Churchland, P.M.; Churchland, P.S. )

    1990-01-01

    There are many reasons for saying yes. One of the earliest and deepest reason lay in two important results in computational theory. The first was Church's thesis, which states that every effectively computable function is recursively computable. The second important result was Alan M. Turing's demonstration that any recursively computable function can be computed in finite time by a maximally simple sort of symbol-manipulating machine that has come to be called a universal Turing machine. This machine is guided by a set of recursively applicable rules that are sensitive to the identity, order and arrangement of the elementary symbols it encounters as input. The authors reject the Turing test as a sufficient condition for conscious intelligence. They base their position of the specific behavioral failures of the classical SM machines and on the specific virtues of machines with a more brain-like architecture. These contrasts show that certain computational strategies have vast and decisive advantages over others where typical cognitive tasks are concerned, advantages that are empirically inescapable. Clearly, the brain is making systematic use of these computational advantage. But it need not be the only physical system capable of doing so. Artificial intelligence, in a nonbiological but massively parallel machine, remain a compelling and discernible prospect.

  16. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  17. Feedback in sequential machine realizations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, C. A.; Coates, C. L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A method is described for determining the realizability of a sequential machine with trigger or set-reset flip-flop memory elements when the feedback of the machine is given by a Boolean function. Feedbacks in several types of sequential machines with different memory elements are compared, showing the memory specifications allowing the realization of such machines.

  18. Non-traditional machining techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Robert D; Fierro, Frank; Garcia, Felix P; Hatch, Douglass J; Randolph, Randall B; Reardon, Patrick T; Rivera, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    During the course of machining targets for various experiments it sometimes becomes necessary to adapt fixtures or machines, which are designed for one function, to another function. When adapting a machine or fixture is not adequate, it may be necessary to acquire a machine specifically designed to produce the component required. In addition to the above scenarios, the features of a component may dictate that multi-step machining processes are necessary to produce the component. This paper discusses the machining of four components where adaptation, specialized machine design, or multi-step processes were necessary to produce the components.

  19. The Bearingless Electrical Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bichsel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic bearings allow the suspension of solids. For rotary applications, the most important physical effect is the force of a magnetic circuit to a high permeable armature, called the MAXWELL force. Contrary to the commonly used MAXWELL bearings, the bearingless electrical machine will take advantage of the reaction force of a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field. This kind of force, called Lorentz force, generates the torque in direct current, asynchronous and synchronous machines. The magnetic field, which already exists in electrical machines and helps to build up the torque, can also be used for the suspension of the rotor. Besides the normal winding of the stator, a special winding was added, which generates forces for levitation. So a radial bearing, which is integrated directly in the active part of the machine, and the motor use the laminated core simultaneously. The winding was constructed for the levitating forces in a special way so that commercially available standard ac inverters for drives can be used. Besides wholly magnetic suspended machines, there is a wide range of applications for normal drives with ball bearings. Resonances of the rotor, especially critical speeds, can be damped actively.

  20. Non Contact Measuring Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando D.; Sebastiao, Pedro; Henriques, Bernardo G.

    1989-01-01

    One of the problems of the production of cables is the measurement of the thickness plastic cover at the production line. If for some reason the thickness of the plastic is smaller than the minimum necessary several meters of cable may be lost. If the problem exists in the middle of a long cable and the default is not detected in time, the loss will be significant. To solve this problem it is possible to use automatic measuring machines which may detect a default as soon as it happens. It is also possible to interact with the production line in order to avoid any losses. In this paper it is presented a non contact measuring machine, developed for this purpose. The machine uses a laser which is scanned through a field of 80 mm. The interruption of the beam gives information about the external dimension of the object. The technical study of the resolution, sensitivity and precision are presented on the paper. Also the hardware solution and the software are presented. The machine has an interface which allows communication with a PC. The PC may receive information from several measuring units and to interact with machines installed at the production line. The prototype is finished and is going to be tested in the industry.

  1. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, D.A.; Kubiak, G.D.; Haney, S.J.; Sweeney, D.W.

    2000-02-29

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system is disclosed for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10--14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  2. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  3. Meso-Machining Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; ADAMS,DAVID P.; YANG,PIN

    2001-06-01

    Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as stainless steels, rare earth magnets, ceramics, and glass. Meso-scale processes that are currently available include, focused ion beam sputtering, micro-milling, micro-turning, excimer laser ablation, femtosecond laser ablation, and micro electro discharge machining. These meso-scale processes employ subtractive machining technologies (i.e., material removal), unlike LIGA, which is an additive meso-scale process. Meso-scale processes have different material capabilities and machining performance specifications. Machining performance specifications of interest include minimum feature size, feature tolerance, feature location accuracy, surface finish, and material removal rate. Sandia National Laboratories is developing meso-scale mechanical components and actuators which require meso-scale parts fabricated in a variety of materials. Subtractive meso-scale manufacturing processes expand the functionality of meso-scale components and complement silicon based MEMS and LIGA technologies.

  4. Machinable oxide ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Rayne, R.J.; Toth, L.E.; Jones, L.D.; Soulen, R.J. Jr.; Bender, B.A.

    1993-06-01

    A method of forming a machinable bulk superconductor by melt-casting the described comprising the steps of: weighing out amounts of powdered SrCO[sub 3], CuO, CaCO[sub 3], and Bi[sub 2]O[sub 3] for the desired stoichiometry of the superconductor; combining the amounts of Bi[sub 2]O[sub 3], SrCO[sub 3], CuO and CaCO[sub 3] to form a mixture of uniform color; removing the carbonates in the mixture; heating the mixture until the mixture melts completely, to form a melt; pouring the melt into a preheated, non-reactive mold; cooling the melted mixture in the mold to room temperature, to form a casting; inducing a superconducting phase having randomly oriented platelets within the casting; and machining, by a metal cutting technique, said casting having said induced superconducting phase; wherein said machining step is performed with a steel tool.

  5. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1993-01-01

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  6. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  7. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  8. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  9. New photolithography stepping machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J.; Markle, D.

    1995-03-08

    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  10. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  11. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-14

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  12. Intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, H. Sterling; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-01-16

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through meshing surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the function of one or the other of the rotors from that of "fluid moving" to that of "valving" thereby reducing the pressure loads and associated inefficiencies at the interface of the meshing surfaces. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  13. Paradigms for machine learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

  14. Machine speech and speaking about machines

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, A.

    1996-12-31

    Current philosophy of language prides itself on scientific status. It boasts of being no longer contaminated with queer mental entities or idealist essences. It theorizes language as programmable variants of formal semantic systems, reimaginable either as the properly epiphenomenal machine functions of computer science or the properly material neural networks of physiology. Whether or not such models properly capture the physical workings of a living human brain is a question that scientists will have to answer. I, as a philosopher, come at the problem from another direction. Does contemporary philosophical semantics, in its dominant truth-theoretic and related versions, capture actual living human thought as it is experienced, or does it instead reflect, regardless of (perhaps dubious) scientific credentials, pathology of thought, a pathology with a disturbing social history.

  15. 12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES BLOCKED OUT SECTIONS IN THE ROCK CUT IN PREPARATION FOR DRILLING AND BLASTING. (17) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  16. BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES FOR VALVES AND PREPARE BRONZE VALVE BODIES FOR ASSEMBLY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. 14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine is 24' Jointer made by Oliver Machinery Co. Camera pointed E. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. A Turing Machine Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Aaron B.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a program in Level II BASIC for a TRS-80 computer that simulates a Turing machine and discusses the nature of the device. The program is run interactively and is designed to be used as an educational tool by computer science or mathematics students studying computational or automata theory. (MP)

  19. Support vector machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

  20. Electrical discharge machining.

    PubMed

    LaBarge, K W

    1997-11-01

    This article describes a laboratory technique of achieving the highest degree of passive fit of an implant-retained restoration using electric discharge machining (EDM). This process can save time by eliminating the need for conventional soldering procedures, increase the longevity of the restoration, and when used along with the clinical technique of fabricating a verification index, eliminate the clinical try-in phase.

  1. Laser machining of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  2. Cybernetic anthropomorphic machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Functional descriptions are provided for a number of cybernetic man machine systems that augment the capacity of normal human beings in the areas of strength, reach or physical size, and environmental interaction, and that are also applicable to aiding the neurologically handicapped. Teleoperators, computer control, exoskeletal devices, quadruped vehicles, space maintenance systems, and communications equipment are considered.

  3. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  4. Biomimetic machine vision system.

    PubMed

    Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images. Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space. This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems. In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.

  5. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  6. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  7. The Art Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertelney, Harry; Grossberger, Lucia

    1983-01-01

    Introduces educators to possibilities of computer graphics using an inexpensive computer system which takes advantage of existing equipment (35mm camera, super 8 movie camera, VHS video cassette recorder). The concept of the "art machine" is explained, highlighting input and output devices (X-Y plotter, graphic tablets, video digitizers). (EJS)

  8. The Answer Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

  9. Giving Machines the Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amherst Systems manufactures foveal machine vision technology and systems commercially available to end-users and system integrators. This technology was initially developed under NASA contracts NAS9-19335 (Johnson Space Center) and NAS1-20841 (Langley Research Center). This technology is currently being delivered to university research facilities and military sites. More information may be found in www.amherst.com.

  10. 8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE SHOP HANDLED PRIMARILY STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS, WHICH WERE SENT TO THE MACHINE SHOP TO BE FORMED INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPES. (7/24/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Progress in Documentation: Machine Translation and Machine-Aided Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the prospects for fully automatic machine translation of good quality. Sections include history and background, operational and experimental machine translation systems of recent years, descriptions of interactive systems and machine-assisted translation, and a general survey of present problems and future possibilities. (VT)

  12. Tattoo machines, needles and utilities.

    PubMed

    Rosenkilde, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Starting out as a professional tattooist back in 1977 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Frank Rosenkilde has personally experienced the remarkable development of tattoo machines, needles and utilities: all the way from home-made equipment to industrial products of substantially improved quality. Machines can be constructed like the traditional dual-coil and single-coil machines or can be e-coil, rotary and hybrid machines, with the more convenient and precise rotary machines being the recent trend. This development has resulted in disposable needles and utilities. Newer machines are more easily kept clean and protected with foil to prevent crosscontaminations and infections. The machines and the tattooists' knowledge and awareness about prevention of infection have developed hand-in-hand. For decades, Frank Rosenkilde has been collecting tattoo machines. Part of his collection is presented here, supplemented by his personal notes. PMID:25833620

  13. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  14. Machine Shop Fundamentals: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael G.; And Others

    These instructional materials were developed and designed for secondary and adult limited English proficient students enrolled in machine tool technology courses. Part 1 includes 24 lessons covering introduction, safety and shop rules, basic machine tools, basic machine operations, measurement, basic blueprint reading, layout, and bench tools.…

  15. Hydraulic Fatigue-Testing Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodo, James D.; Moore, Dennis R.; Morris, Thomas F.; Tiller, Newton G.

    1987-01-01

    Fatigue-testing machine applies fluctuating tension to number of specimens at same time. When sample breaks, machine continues to test remaining specimens. Series of tensile tests needed to determine fatigue properties of materials performed more rapidly than in conventional fatigue-testing machine.

  16. Association installs condom machine.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    On the occasion of World Population Day (11 July), India installed its first condom vending machine. The machine was inaugurated by Mr. Eruch Lala, an official of the Family Planning Association of India, as part of the association's campaign to help the country curb its rapid population growth rate and stem the spread of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). Each condom, called sangam ("union" in English) costs Rupees 2 (about 6.5 US cents). The machine is located at a textile mill in Bombay. The Association said it would install at least 60 such machines in Bombay over the coming months. "A psychological advantage of the machine is that the user need not personally meet the dispenser and can collect a condom without any embarrassment," Mr. Lala said. "The machine is expected to promote efforts at curbing population growth and prevent the spread of AIDS," he said. In a separate report, AIDS has been found to be racing through India just eight years after the first case was detected. Prostitutes, drug addicts and untested blood supplies are the conduits. More than half of the prostitutes in cities such as Bombay have HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which causes AIDS. The truck drivers and itinerant workers they serve carry it to their own villages, according to the report by Mr. Thomas Wagner writing for the Associated Press. There are 43 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases reported each year in the country, according to the report. The HIV virus has been reported in all 25 states of India. Although the AIDS pandemic came to India later than most large countries, the National AIDS Control Organization estimates there are 1.62 million cases in the population, up 60% from 1993, according to the report. "AIDS is no longer just a problem of high-risk groups; it has spread to every area of India," Dr. P.R. Das Gupta of the national AIDS agency said in an interview. "So many people are migrating from their villages in search of jobs that this

  17. Prediction of Machine Tool Condition Using Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peigong; Meng, Qingfeng; Zhao, Jian; Li, Junjie; Wang, Xiufeng

    2011-07-01

    Condition monitoring and predicting of CNC machine tools are investigated in this paper. Considering the CNC machine tools are often small numbers of samples, a condition predicting method for CNC machine tools based on support vector machines (SVMs) is proposed, then one-step and multi-step condition prediction models are constructed. The support vector machines prediction models are used to predict the trends of working condition of a certain type of CNC worm wheel and gear grinding machine by applying sequence data of vibration signal, which is collected during machine processing. And the relationship between different eigenvalue in CNC vibration signal and machining quality is discussed. The test result shows that the trend of vibration signal Peak-to-peak value in surface normal direction is most relevant to the trend of surface roughness value. In trends prediction of working condition, support vector machine has higher prediction accuracy both in the short term ('One-step') and long term (multi-step) prediction compared to autoregressive (AR) model and the RBF neural network. Experimental results show that it is feasible to apply support vector machine to CNC machine tool condition prediction.

  18. Effect of Machining Velocity in Nanoscale Machining Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Sumaiya; Ibrahim, Raafat; Khondoker, Noman

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the generated forces and deformations of single crystal Cu with (100), (110) and (111) crystallographic orientations at nanoscale machining operation. A nanoindenter equipped with nanoscratching attachment was used for machining operations and in-situ observation of a nano scale groove. As a machining parameter, the machining velocity was varied to measure the normal and cutting forces. At a fixed machining velocity, different levels of normal and cutting forces were generated due to different crystallographic orientations of the specimens. Moreover, after machining operation percentage of elastic recovery was measured and it was found that both the elastic and plastic deformations were responsible for producing a nano scale groove within the range of machining velocities from 250-1000 nm/s.

  19. Engineering molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erman, Burak

    2016-04-01

    Biological molecular motors use chemical energy, mostly in the form of ATP hydrolysis, and convert it to mechanical energy. Correlated thermal fluctuations are essential for the function of a molecular machine and it is the hydrolysis of ATP that modifies the correlated fluctuations of the system. Correlations are consequences of the molecular architecture of the protein. The idea that synthetic molecular machines may be constructed by designing the proper molecular architecture is challenging. In their paper, Sarkar et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043006) propose a synthetic molecular motor based on the coarse grained elastic network model of proteins and show by numerical simulations that motor function is realized, ranging from deterministic to thermal, depending on temperature. This work opens up a new range of possibilities of molecular architecture based engine design.

  20. Wholly Synthetic Molecular Machines.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chuyang; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2016-06-17

    The past quarter of a century has witnessed an increasing engagement on the part of physicists and chemists in the design and synthesis of molecular machines de novo. This minireview traces the development of artificial molecular machines from their prototypes in the form of shuttles and switches to their emergence as motors and pumps where supplies of energy in the form of chemical fuel, electrochemical potential and light activation become a minimum requirement for them to function away from equilibrium. The challenge facing this rapidly growing community of scientists and engineers today is one of putting wholly synthetic molecules to work, both individually and as collections. Here, we highlight some of the recent conceptual and practical advances relating to the operation of wholly synthetic rotary and linear motors.

  1. Machinations of thought

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrop, M.M.

    1985-03-01

    After three decades of frustrating work, artificial intelligence is coming of age--moving out of the laboratories and into the marketplace. Expert systems, computer programs that give advice like a human specialist, are pinpointing mineral deposits and diagnosing diseases. Programs are taking shape that can do a pretty fair job of understanding plain English or French. Robotics will soon benefit from computer vision systems able to store a digitized photograph of an object or scene and recognize a good bit of what is there. As the more exuberant enthusiasts see it, we might soon have machines to advise us about our income taxes or the baby's fever; silicon tutors could help a child master the enthralling possibilities of geometry and numbers; trucks might drive themselves through the night and unload themselves at their destination. In short, we could one day have machines to do almost anything that now requires intelligence in a human.

  2. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1989-01-01

    In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved

  3. Machine Translation from Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  4. Copying Machine Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Manufacturer of the Model 2210 copying machine was looking for a plastic valve bushing material that could be produced by a low-cost injection molding process to replace the unsuitable valve bushing they were using. NERAC conducted a computer search of the NASA database and was able to supply Nashua Corporation with several technical reports in their area of interest. Information aided the company's development of a urethane valve bushing which solved the problem and created a dramatic reduction in unit cost.

  5. Austempered Ductile Iron Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilc, Jozef; Šajgalík, Michal; Holubják, Jozef; Piešová, Marianna; Zaušková, Lucia; Babík, Ondrej; Kuždák, Viktor; Rákoci, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article deals with the machining of cast iron. In industrial practice, Austempered Ductile Iron began to be used relatively recently. ADI is ductile iron that has gone through austempering to get improved properties, among which we can include strength, wear resistance or noise damping. This specific material is defined also by other properties, such as high elasticity, ductility and endurance against tenigue, which are the properties, that considerably make the tooling characteristic worse.

  6. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome. PMID:26572668

  7. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome.

  8. Architectures for intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of intelligent machines has been recently reformulated to incorporate new architectures that are using neural and Petri nets. The analytic functions of an intelligent machine are implemented by intelligent controls, using entropy as a measure. The resulting hierarchical control structure is based on the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence. Each of the three levels of the intelligent control is using different architectures, in order to satisfy the requirements of the principle: the organization level is moduled after a Boltzmann machine for abstract reasoning, task planning and decision making; the coordination level is composed of a number of Petri net transducers supervised, for command exchange, by a dispatcher, which also serves as an interface to the organization level; the execution level, include the sensory, planning for navigation and control hardware which interacts one-to-one with the appropriate coordinators, while a VME bus provides a channel for database exchange among the several devices. This system is currently implemented on a robotic transporter, designed for space construction at the CIRSSE laboratories at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The progress of its development is reported.

  9. Laser machining - Theory and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Chryssolouris, G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments and the state of the art in the field of laser machining are reviewed with emphasis on practical applications. First, an overview of conventional material removing processes is presented. Laser machining systems are then described, and an overview is provided of the necessary knowledge from heat transfer and fluid mechanics required in order to understand the physical mechanisms and thermal processes associated with laser machining. The applications of laser machining discussed include drilling, cutting, marking, and three-dimensional machining of metals, ceramics, plastics, composites, and other materials, and micromachining. 209 refs.

  10. 15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (90mm lens). The arched cutouts in the bottom chords of the roof trusses were necessary to provide clearance for the smokestacks of steam locomotives, and also mark the location of the former inspection pit in the floor (now filled in and covered by a new concrete floor). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  11. Diamond Measuring Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Krstulic, J.F.

    2000-01-27

    The fundamental goal of this project was to develop additional capabilities to the diamond measuring prototype, work out technical difficulties associated with the original device, and perform automated measurements which are accurate and repeatable. For this project, FM and T was responsible for the overall system design, edge extraction, and defect extraction and identification. AccuGem provided a lab and computer equipment in Lawrence, 3D modeling, industry expertise, and sets of diamonds for testing. The system executive software which controls stone positioning, lighting, focusing, report generation, and data acquisition was written in Microsoft Visual Basic 6, while data analysis and modeling were compiled in C/C++ DLLs. All scanning parameters and extracted data are stored in a central database and available for automated analysis and reporting. The Phase 1 study showed that data can be extracted and measured from diamond scans, but most of the information had to be manually extracted. In this Phase 2 project, all data required for geometric modeling and defect identification were automatically extracted and passed to a 3D modeling module for analysis. Algorithms were developed which automatically adjusted both light levels and stone focus positioning for each diamond-under-test. After a diamond is analyzed and measurements are completed, a report is printed for the customer which shows carat weight, summarizes stone geometry information, lists defects and their size, displays a picture of the diamond, and shows a plot of defects on a top view drawing of the stone. Initial emphasis of defect extraction was on identification of feathers, pinpoints, and crystals. Defects were plotted color-coded by industry standards for inclusions (red), blemishes (green), and unknown defects (blue). Diamonds with a wide variety of cut quality, size, and number of defects were tested in the machine. Edge extraction, defect extraction, and modeling code were tested for

  12. Will machines ever think

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence research has come under fire for failing to fulfill its promises. A growing number of AI researchers are reexamining the bases of AI research and are challenging the assumption that intelligent behavior can be fully explained as manipulation of symbols by algorithms. Three recent books -- Mind over Machine (H. Dreyfus and S. Dreyfus), Understanding Computers and Cognition (T. Winograd and F. Flores), and Brains, Behavior, and Robots (J. Albus) -- explore alternatives and open the door to new architectures that may be able to learn skills.

  13. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, A.B.

    1958-04-01

    A device is described that is specifically designed to cast uraniumn fuel rods in a vacuunn, in order to obtain flawless, nonoxidized castings which subsequently require a maximum of machining or wastage of the expensive processed material. A chamber surrounded with heating elements is connected to the molds, and the entire apparatus is housed in an airtight container. A charge of uranium is placed in the chamber, heated, then is allowed to flow into the molds While being rotated. Water circulating through passages in the molds chills the casting to form a fine grained fuel rod in nearly finished form.

  14. Formal modeling of virtual machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremers, A. B.; Hibbard, T. N.

    1978-01-01

    Systematic software design can be based on the development of a 'hierarchy of virtual machines', each representing a 'level of abstraction' of the design process. The reported investigation presents the concept of 'data space' as a formal model for virtual machines. The presented model of a data space combines the notions of data type and mathematical machine to express the close interaction between data and control structures which takes place in a virtual machine. One of the main objectives of the investigation is to show that control-independent data type implementation is only of limited usefulness as an isolated tool of program development, and that the representation of data is generally dictated by the control context of a virtual machine. As a second objective, a better understanding is to be developed of virtual machine state structures than was heretofore provided by the view of the state space as a Cartesian product.

  15. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  16. Smart Test Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Vern Wedeven, president of Wedeven Associates, developed the WAM4, a computer-aided "smart" test machine for simulating stress on equipment, based on his bearing lubrication expertise gained while working for Lewis Research Center. During his NASA years from the 1970s into the early 1980s, Wedeven initiated an "Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Tribology," an effort that involved NASA, six universities, and several university professors. The NASA-sponsored work provided foundation for Wedeven in 1983 to form his own company. Several versions of the smart test machine, the WAM1, WAM2, and WAM3, have proceeded the current version, WAM4. This computer-controlled device can provide detailed glimpses at gear and bearing points of contact. WAM4 can yield a three-dimensional view of machinery as an operator adds "what-if" thermal and lubrication conditions, contact stress, and surface motion. Along with NASA, a number of firms, including Pratt & Whitney, Caterpillar Tractor, Exxon, and Chevron have approached Wedeven for help on resolving lubrication problems.

  17. Neural network machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.O.; Czerniejewski, F.; Fluet, F.; Mitchell, E.

    1988-09-01

    Gould, Inc. and Nestor, Inc. cooperated on a joint development project to combine machine vision technology with neural network technology. The result is a machine vision system which can be trained by an inexperienced operator to perform qualitative classification. The hardware preprocessor reduces the information in the 2D camera image from 122,880 (i.e. 512 x 240) bytes to several hundred bytes in 64 milliseconds. The output of the preprocessor, which is in the format of connected lines, is fed to the first neural network. This neural network performs feature recognition. The output of the first neural network is a probability map. This map is fed to the input of the second neural network which performs object verification. The output of the second neural network is the object location and classification in the field of view. This information can optionally be fed into a third neural network which analyzes spatial relationships of objects in the field of view. The final output is a classification, by quality level, or by style. The system has been tested on applications ranging from the grading of plywood and the grading of paper to the sorting of fabricated metal parts. Specific application examples are presented.

  18. Large Surface Measuring Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egdall, Mark; Breidenthal, Robert S.

    1983-09-01

    A new surface measuring concept developed under government contract at Itek Optical Systems has been previously reported by Allen Greenleaf. The method uses four steerable distance-measuring interferometers at the corners of a tetrahedron to determine the posi-tions of a retroreflecting target at various locations on the surface being measured. A small wooden breadboard had been built and tested, demonstrating the feasibility of the concept. This paper reports the building of a scaled-up prototype surface measuring machine to allow the measurement of large aspheric surfaces. A major advantage of the device is that, unlike conventional interferometry, it provides surface measurement in absolute coordinates, thus allowing direct determination of radius of curvature. In addition, the device is self-calibrating. Measurements of a 24-inch mirror have been made with the new machine, giving repeatability of 4 µ m peak sag in the curvature and accuracy of 0.7 μm rms in the surface figure at best focus. The device is currently being used in the production grinding of large aspheric mirrors at Itek. The device is potentially scalable to other industries where highly accurate measurement of unusual surfaces is required.

  19. Multiple man-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, L.; Cook, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple man machine interfaces inherent in military pilot training, their social implications, and the issue of possible negative feedback were explored. Modern technology has produced machines which can see, hear, and touch with greater accuracy and precision than human beings. Consequently, the military pilot is more a systems manager, often doing battle against a target he never sees. It is concluded that unquantifiable human activity requires motivation that is not intrinsic in a machine.

  20. Diamond Machining Applications And Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Roland J.

    1983-12-01

    Aspheric surface generation and precision machining have been important technologies at Hughes Optical Products, Inc. (formerly Optical Division, Bell & Howell Company) for over twenty years. Present machining capabilities and supporting services which are available on a custom basis are described. A variety of applications of diamond machining are illustrated, involving not only the usual reflective materials such as aluminum, copper, and electroless nickel but also such IR refractive materials as germanium, silicon, and chalcogenide glasses.

  1. Standardized Curriculum for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation; (2) shop safety; (3) shop math; (4) measuring tools and instruments; (5) hand and bench tools; (6) blueprint reading; (7)…

  2. Machine Shop Milling Machines. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trades at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes and part-time adult classes. It can also be adapted to open-entry,…

  3. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Four: The Milling Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the fourth of four topic areas: the milling machine. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish competency for…

  4. The Potential to Machine Superconductors with Electrochemical Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leese, Rebecca J.; Ivanov, Atanas; Babu-Nadendla, Hari

    2016-01-01

    Superconductors (SCs), such as gadolinium barium copper oxide, are brittle ceramics which are very difficult to machine conventionally due to the easy propagation of cracks. The cracks formed during conventional machining destroy the superconductive properties of the material. As a result a new method to machine ceramic SCs is needed. In this paper, polarization experiments were conducted in various nonaqueous salt electrolytes to determine whether electrochemical machining (ECM) is a suitable method for machining gadolinium barium copper oxide with silver inclusions (GdBCO-Ag) for the first time. Sodium chloride in formic acid proved to be the best electrolyte for this application with higher dissolution rates and achieving a better surface finish. It was noted that GdBCO-Ag dissolved at higher rates in NaCl in formic acid than in other salt-solvent systems.

  5. Extremal quantum cloning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are extremal in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all extremal cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called double-Bell states, whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacement000.

  6. Electropulse chemical machining

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.A.; Rospopo, S.D.

    1984-08-01

    Electropulse Chemical Machining is a new technique in chemical milling, and we have applied it to the photoforming of molybdenum. We apply direct current in short pulses at current densities of thousands of amperes per square foot with little thermal degradation of resists or workpieces. We have achieved etch rates an order of magnitude faster than those of existing methods, with a corresponding improvement in surface finish. Equipment designed for pulse plating can be used and is readily available from plating suppliers. Chemicals are commercially available and may be diluted to levels that protect resist images, reduce hazards to personnel, and simplify disposal. We speculate that this process can be applied to other refractory metals and noble metals.

  7. Machining of uranium and uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.O.

    1981-12-14

    Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures.

  8. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  9. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  10. Self-Adjusting Teaching Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovgyallo, A. M.

    A study was made on the synthesis of teaching machine elements to ensure the stabilization of the chi indicator of the teaching process of each student. At first, a procedure was developed for calculating the chi indicator for the case when the teaching machine predicts the magnitude of this indicator based on probabilities derived from an…

  11. Contraction-Only Exercise Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerr, Donald F.; Maples, Arthur B.; Campbell, Craig M.

    1992-01-01

    Standard knee-extension machine modified so subject experiences force only when lifting leg against stack of weights. Exerts little force on leg while being lowered. Hydraulic cylinder and reservoir mounted on frame of exercise machine. Fluid flows freely from cylinder to reservoir during contraction (lifting) but in constricted fashion from reservoir to cylinder during extension (lowering).

  12. The Machine Intelligence Hex Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalup, Stephan K.; Mellor, Drew; Rosamond, Fran

    2005-01-01

    Hex is a challenging strategy board game for two players. To enhance students' progress in acquiring understanding and practical experience with complex machine intelligence and programming concepts we developed the Machine Intelligence Hex (MIHex) project. The associated undergraduate student assignment is about designing and implementing Hex…

  13. Machine Trades Lab Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This manual was developed to guide machine trades instructors and vocational supervisors in sequencing laboratory instruction and controlling the flow of work for a 2-year machine trades training program. The first part of the guide provides information on program management (program description, safety concerns, academic issues, implementation…

  14. Man and Machines: Three Criticisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Edward F.

    As machines have become a more common part of daily life through the passage of time, the idea that the line separating man and machine is slowly fading has become more popular as well. This paper examines three critics of change through their most famous works. One of the most popular views of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" is that it is a…

  15. TEACHING MACHINES AND PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, HERBERT; AND OTHERS

    THE TEACHING MACHINE AND PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION ARE EXPLAINED ANALYTICALLY IN TERMS OF LABORATORY PROCEDURES. AN EXPLANATION IS GIVEN OF THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE STUDENT. TEACHING MACHINES ALLEVIATE SOME PROBLEMS OF STUDENT-TEACHER RELATIONSHIPS, SUCH AS APATHY, STUBBORNNESS, AND RESENTMENT. HIGHER LEVELS OF CONCENTRATION ARE MAINTAINED. SOME…

  16. TEACHING MACHINE STUDY. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EVCO, Albuquerque, NM.

    IN AN INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL OF TEACHING MACHINES IN THE JOB CORPS MATHEMATICS PROGRAM, EXISTING JOB CORPS ARITHMETIC MATERIAL WAS PREPARED FOR INSTRUCTION BY MACHINE AND PROGRAMED TEXT, AND THEN FIELD TESTED. REVISIONS WERE MADE, AND A PROGRAMED MANUAL FOR INSTRUCTORS WRITTEN, AFTER WHICH A NEW FIELD TEST WAS RUN. IN THE INITIAL FIELD…

  17. Machine Shop: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    Intended for use by all machine shop instructors in the Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools, this guide provides a sequential listing of course content and scope. A course description provides a brief overview of the content of the courses offered in the machine shop program. General course objectives are then listed. Outlines of the course…

  18. Man Machine Systems in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sall, Malkit S.

    This review of the research literature on the interaction between humans and computers discusses how man machine systems can be utilized effectively in the learning-teaching process, especially in secondary education. Beginning with a definition of man machine systems and comments on the poor quality of much of the computer-based learning material…

  19. Thermal analog device reduces machining errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Thermal analog devices predict thermal expansion and contraction of machine structures subjected to various heat inputs. Analog devices correct positioning of machine tools to compensate for distortion of machine frame.

  20. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  1. Machine and process characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.W.

    1992-12-01

    A study was conducted to statistically characterize 11 precision machining centers to determine their operating characteristics and process capabilities. Measurement probes and a ball plate were used for measurement analysis. A generic test part designed with geometric features that the department typically manufactures was machined using various machining processes. A better understanding of each machine`s characteristics and process capability was realized through repeating these methods on each machine.

  2. Machine vision for digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future.

  3. Machine vision for digital microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future.

  4. Applications of the connection machine

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Connection Machine development effort was initiated in the belief that parallel processing and artificial intelligence could together accelerate the rate of progress toward truly intelligent machines. This progress is the result of the ease with which the machine can be programmed and the dramatic increase in compute power that the machine can bring to bear. The authors have been able to run many trials of experiments in instances where previously, running just one would have been considered an achievement and no further experimentation would have been done. This has enabled exploring a great many more hypotheses and to work on much larger problems that had been possible on previous-generation artificial intelligence workstations. The ease of programming is in part the result of a decision to use existing serial machines (the Symbolics 3600 or Digital Equipment Corporation VAX), thus leaving unchanged the operating systems, editors, file systems, debuggers, network communications systems, and so on, so as to provide familiar programming environments. The Connection Machine is programmed in conservative extensions of Common Lisp and C. Users familiar with these languages and with front-end computer systems have been able to produce results on the Connection Machine on the first day that they use it.

  5. Virtual Machine Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Christopher; Page, Dennis; O'Reilly, Taifun; Fteichert, Ralph; Lock, Patricia; Lin, Imin; Naviaux, Keith; Sisino, John

    2005-01-01

    Virtual Machine Language (VML) is a mission-independent, reusable software system for programming for spacecraft operations. Features of VML include a rich set of data types, named functions, parameters, IF and WHILE control structures, polymorphism, and on-the-fly creation of spacecraft commands from calculated values. Spacecraft functions can be abstracted into named blocks that reside in files aboard the spacecraft. These named blocks accept parameters and execute in a repeatable fashion. The sizes of uplink products are minimized by the ability to call blocks that implement most of the command steps. This block approach also enables some autonomous operations aboard the spacecraft, such as aerobraking, telemetry conditional monitoring, and anomaly response, without developing autonomous flight software. Operators on the ground write blocks and command sequences in a concise, high-level, human-readable programming language (also called VML ). A compiler translates the human-readable blocks and command sequences into binary files (the operations products). The flight portion of VML interprets the uplinked binary files. The ground subsystem of VML also includes an interactive sequence- execution tool hosted on workstations, which runs sequences at several thousand times real-time speed, affords debugging, and generates reports. This tool enables iterative development of blocks and sequences within times of the order of seconds.

  6. Frozen beverage machine

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1988-04-12

    A frozen beverage machine is described, comprising: a. a frame having an exterior, an interior, a front and a back; b. a cylinder, having an interior and an exterior as well as first and second ends and further having an opening in each of the ends, the cylinder being horizontally and fixedly positioned within the interior of the frame with the second end facing the front of the frame; c. a means, sealingly attached to the opening in the second end of the cylinder, for emptying the cylinder; d. a means, positioned within the frame and communicating with the exterior of the cylinder, for removing heat from the cylinder; e. at least one support bracket; f. a shaft, rotatably attached within the opening in the support bracket and rotatably and sealingly attached within the opening in the first end of the cylinder and extending to the interior of the cylinder; g. a motor assembly, operatively connected to a portion of the shaft exterior to the cylinder and suspended from the shaft such that the weight of the motor assembly is supported only by the shaft; h. a contact switch; and i. a resilient means, connected to the frame and the motor assembly, for maintaining the position of the motor assembly relative to the shaft until a desired threshold resistance to rotation of the shaft within the cylinder occur, and then allowing the motor assembly to rotate to a desired position relative to the shaft.

  7. Video Time Encoding Machines

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Aurel A.; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value. PMID:21296708

  8. Video time encoding machines.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Aurel A; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A

    2011-03-01

    We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value.

  9. Size reduction machine

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, V.

    1999-12-15

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users.

  10. Lubrication of Machine Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

  11. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    A three-tier structure consisting of organization, coordination, and execution levels forms the architecture of an intelligent machine using the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence from a hierarchically intelligent control. This system has been formulated as a probabilistic model, where uncertainty and imprecision can be expressed in terms of entropies. The optimal strategy for decision planning and task execution can be found by minimizing the total entropy in the system. The focus is on the design of the organization level as a Boltzmann machine. Since this level is responsible for planning the actions of the machine, the Boltzmann machine is reformulated to use entropy as the cost function to be minimized. Simulated annealing, expanding subinterval random search, and the genetic algorithm are presented as search techniques to efficiently find the desired action sequence and illustrated with numerical examples.

  12. Slide system for machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Douglass, Spivey S.; Green, Walter L.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  13. Slide system for machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Douglass, S.S.; Green, W.L.

    1980-06-12

    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  14. Gloved Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard (Inventor); Olowin, Aaron (Inventor); Hannaford, Blake (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Certain exemplary embodiments can provide a system, machine, device, manufacture, circuit, composition of matter, and/or user interface adapted for and/or resulting from, and/or a method and/or machine-readable medium comprising machine-implementable instructions for, activities that can comprise and/or relate to: tracking movement of a gloved hand of a human; interpreting a gloved finger movement of the human; and/or in response to interpreting the gloved finger movement, providing feedback to the human.

  15. Gradient boosting machines, a tutorial

    PubMed Central

    Natekin, Alexey; Knoll, Alois

    2013-01-01

    Gradient boosting machines are a family of powerful machine-learning techniques that have shown considerable success in a wide range of practical applications. They are highly customizable to the particular needs of the application, like being learned with respect to different loss functions. This article gives a tutorial introduction into the methodology of gradient boosting methods with a strong focus on machine learning aspects of modeling. A theoretical information is complemented with descriptive examples and illustrations which cover all the stages of the gradient boosting model design. Considerations on handling the model complexity are discussed. Three practical examples of gradient boosting applications are presented and comprehensively analyzed. PMID:24409142

  16. From human-machine interaction to human-machine cooperation.

    PubMed

    Hoc, J M

    2000-07-01

    Since the 1960s, the rapid growth of information systems has led to the wide development of research on human-computer interaction (HCI) that aims at the designing of human-computer interfaces presenting ergonomic properties, such as friendliness, usability, transparency, etc. Various work situations have been covered--clerical work, computer programming, design, etc. However, they were mainly static in the sense that the user fully controls the computer. More recently, public and private organizations have engaged themselves in the enterprise of managing more and more complex and coupled systems by the means of automation. Modern machines not only process information, but also act on dynamic situations as humans have done in the past, managing stock exchange, industrial plants, aircraft, etc. These dynamic situations are not fully controlled and are affected by uncertain factors. Hence, degrees of freedom must be maintained to allow the humans and the machine to adapt to unforeseen contingencies. A human-machine cooperation (HMC) approach is necessary to address the new stakes introduced by this trend. This paper describes the possible improvement of HCI by HMC, the need for a new conception of function allocation between humans and machines, and the main problems encountered within the new forms of human-machine relationship. It proposes a conceptual framework to study HMC from a cognitive point of view in highly dynamic situations like aircraft piloting or air-traffic control, and concludes on the design of 'cooperative' machines.

  17. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  18. Z Machine at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-17

    Sandia Labs' Z machine is the largest laboratory source of x-rays in the world. For the few nanoseconds of a Z Machine test, its electrical output equals the output of 50x the electrical generating stations of all the power plants on earth. The Z Machine complex encompasses an area roughly the size of a major college basketball arena. Originally created to validate nuclear weapons models, the Z Machine is also considered a "dark horse" in the race for viable fusion energy production. After the famous "arcs and sparks" photo of Z (a photo no longer possible after its refurbishment), this is a fast-motion video of workers completing Z's recent refurbishment.

  19. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M.; Briegel, Hans J.

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  20. Building and simulating protein machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katebi, Ataur Rahim

    Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway, present in almost all organisms, that produces energy. The pathway has been extensively investigated by biochemists. There is a significant body of structural and biochemical information about this pathway. The complete pathway is a ten step process. At each step, a specific chemical reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyze the fourth and the fifth steps on the pathway. This thesis investigates the possible substrate transfer mechanism between FBA and TIM. FBA cleaves its substrate, the six-carbon fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), into two three-carbon products -- glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxy acetone phosphate (DHAP). One component of these two products, DHAP, is the substrate for TIM and the other component GAP goes directly to GAPDH, the subsequent enzyme on the pathway. TIM converts DHAP to GAP and delivers the product to GAPDH. I employ Elastic Network Models (ENM) to investigate the mechanistic and dynamic aspects of the functionality of FBA and TIM enzymes -- (1) the effects of the oligomerization of these two enzymes on their functional dynamics and the coordination of the individual protein's structural components along the functional region; and (2) the mechanistic synchrony of these two protein machines that may enable them to operate in a coordinated fashion as a conjugate machine -- transferring the product from FBA as substrate to TIM. A macromolecular machine comprised of FBA and TIM will facilitate the substrate catalysis mechanism and the product flow between FBA and TIM. Such a machine could be used as a functional unit in building a larger a machine for the structural modeling of the whole glycolysis pathway. Building such machines for the glycolysis pathway may reveal the interplay of the enzymes as a complete machine. Also the methods and insights developed from the efforts to build such large machines

  1. Wax Reinforces Honeycomb During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towell, Timothy W.; Fahringer, David T.; Vasquez, Peter; Scheidegger, Alan P.

    1995-01-01

    Method of machining on conventional metal lathe devised for precise cutting of axisymmetric contours on honeycomb cores made of composite (matrix/fiber) materials. Wax filling reinforces honeycomb walls against bending and tearing while honeycomb being contoured on lathe. Innovative method of machining on lathe involves preparation in which honeycomb is placed in appropriate fixture and the fixture is then filled with molten water-soluble wax. Number of different commercial waxes have been tried.

  2. Biosleeve Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assad, Christopher (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing human muscle action and gestures in order to control machines or robotic devices are disclosed. One exemplary system employs a tight fitting sleeve worn on a user arm and including a plurality of electromyography (EMG) sensors and at least one inertial measurement unit (IMU). Power, signal processing, and communications electronics may be built into the sleeve and control data may be transmitted wirelessly to the controlled machine or robotic device.

  3. Model-based machine learning.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Christopher M

    2013-02-13

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications. PMID:23277612

  4. Model-based machine learning.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Christopher M

    2013-02-13

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications.

  5. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting and metal forming machines and complete machines not supported in the hands of an operator when in...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a... other identifier, for the forging machine which was inspected. (ii) Scheduling and recording...

  7. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a... other identifier, for the forging machine which was inspected. (ii) Scheduling and recording...

  9. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a... other identifier, for the forging machine which was inspected. (ii) Scheduling and recording...

  11. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  12. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting and metal forming machines and complete machines not supported in the hands of an operator when in...

  13. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting and metal forming machines and complete machines not supported in the hands of an operator when in...

  14. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  15. Web Mining: Machine Learning for Web Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Chau, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Presents an overview of machine learning research and reviews methods used for evaluating machine learning systems. Ways that machine-learning algorithms were used in traditional information retrieval systems in the "pre-Web" era are described, and the field of Web mining and how machine learning has been used in different Web mining applications…

  16. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  17. Compensating for Shrinkage in Machined Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, L.; Fitchett, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    Technique insures machined ceramics shrink to correct dimensions after baked in kiln. New method automatically compensates during machining for shrinkage later, when part baked. Applicable to numerically controlled machines that include provision to adjust for variations in cuttingtool size, but do not provide for automatic verification of dimensions of machined parts.

  18. Machine vision systems using machine learning for industrial product inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi; Chen, Tie Q.; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Tisler, Anthony

    2002-02-01

    Machine vision inspection requires efficient processing time and accurate results. In this paper, we present a machine vision inspection architecture, SMV (Smart Machine Vision). SMV decomposes a machine vision inspection problem into two stages, Learning Inspection Features (LIF), and On-Line Inspection (OLI). The LIF is designed to learn visual inspection features from design data and/or from inspection products. During the OLI stage, the inspection system uses the knowledge learnt by the LIF component to inspect the visual features of products. In this paper we will present two machine vision inspection systems developed under the SMV architecture for two different types of products, Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and Vacuum Florescent Displaying (VFD) boards. In the VFD board inspection system, the LIF component learns inspection features from a VFD board and its displaying patterns. In the PCB board inspection system, the LIF learns the inspection features from the CAD file of a PCB board. In both systems, the LIF component also incorporates interactive learning to make the inspection system more powerful and efficient. The VFD system has been deployed successfully in three different manufacturing companies and the PCB inspection system is the process of being deployed in a manufacturing plant.

  19. Dry Machining Process of Milling Machine using Axiomatic Green Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspita Andriani, Gita; Akbar, Muhammad; Irianto, Dradjad

    2016-02-01

    Most of companies know that there are strategies to become green industry, and they realize that green efforts have impacts on product quality and cost. Axiomatic Green Methodology models the relationship between green, quality, and cost. This methodology starts with determining the green improvement objective and then continues with mapping the functional, economic, and green requirements. From the mapping, variables which affect the requirements are identified. Afterwards, the effect of each variable is determined by performing experiments and regression modelling. In this research, axiomatic green methodology was implemented to dry machining of milling machine in order to reduce the amount of coolant. Dry machining will be feasible if it is not worse than the minimum required quality. As a result, dry machining is feasible without producing any defect. The proposed machining parameter is to reduce the coolant flow rate from 6.882 ml/minute to 0 ml/minute, set the depth of cut at 1.2 mm, spindle rotation speed at 500 rpm, and feed rate at 128 mm/minute. This solution is also resulted in reduction of cost for 200.48 rupiahs for each process.

  20. Adaptive Machining Of Large, Somewhat Flexible Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutow, David; Wagner, Garrett; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Deily, David

    1996-01-01

    Adaptive machining is method of machining large, somewhat flexible workpieces to close tolerances. Devised for machining precise weld lands on aft skirts of rocket nozzles, but underlying concept generally applicable to precise machining of any of large variety of workpieces deformed by thermal, gravitational, and/or machining forces. For example, in principle, method used to bore precise hole on unanchored end of long cantilever beam.

  1. Game-powered machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, Luke; Turnbull, Douglas; Lanckriet, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Searching for relevant content in a massive amount of multimedia information is facilitated by accurately annotating each image, video, or song with a large number of relevant semantic keywords, or tags. We introduce game-powered machine learning, an integrated approach to annotating multimedia content that combines the effectiveness of human computation, through online games, with the scalability of machine learning. We investigate this framework for labeling music. First, a socially-oriented music annotation game called Herd It collects reliable music annotations based on the “wisdom of the crowds.” Second, these annotated examples are used to train a supervised machine learning system. Third, the machine learning system actively directs the annotation games to collect new data that will most benefit future model iterations. Once trained, the system can automatically annotate a corpus of music much larger than what could be labeled using human computation alone. Automatically annotated songs can be retrieved based on their semantic relevance to text-based queries (e.g., “funky jazz with saxophone,” “spooky electronica,” etc.). Based on the results presented in this paper, we find that actively coupling annotation games with machine learning provides a reliable and scalable approach to making searchable massive amounts of multimedia data. PMID:22460786

  2. Game-powered machine learning.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Luke; Turnbull, Douglas; Lanckriet, Gert

    2012-04-24

    Searching for relevant content in a massive amount of multimedia information is facilitated by accurately annotating each image, video, or song with a large number of relevant semantic keywords, or tags. We introduce game-powered machine learning, an integrated approach to annotating multimedia content that combines the effectiveness of human computation, through online games, with the scalability of machine learning. We investigate this framework for labeling music. First, a socially-oriented music annotation game called Herd It collects reliable music annotations based on the "wisdom of the crowds." Second, these annotated examples are used to train a supervised machine learning system. Third, the machine learning system actively directs the annotation games to collect new data that will most benefit future model iterations. Once trained, the system can automatically annotate a corpus of music much larger than what could be labeled using human computation alone. Automatically annotated songs can be retrieved based on their semantic relevance to text-based queries (e.g., "funky jazz with saxophone," "spooky electronica," etc.). Based on the results presented in this paper, we find that actively coupling annotation games with machine learning provides a reliable and scalable approach to making searchable massive amounts of multimedia data.

  3. Catalysts Encapsulated in Molecular Machines.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tiezheng; Liu, Junqiu

    2016-06-17

    Smart catalysts offer the control of chemical processes and sequences of transformations, and catalysts with unique catalytic behavior can afford chiral products or promote successive polymerization. To meet advanced demands, the key to constructing smart catalysts is to incorporate traditional catalytic functional groups with trigger-induced factors. Molecular machines with dynamic properties and particular topological structures have typical stimulus-responsive features. In recent years, scientists have made efforts to utilize molecular machines (molecular switches, rotaxanes, motors, etc.) as scaffolds to develop smart catalysts. This Minireview focuses on the achievements of developing catalysts encapsulated in molecular machines and their remarkable specialties. This strategy is believed to provide more potential applications in switchable reactions, asymmetric synthesis, and processive catalysis.

  4. Single Bacteria as Turing Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Julia; Zang, Qiucen; Vyawahare, Saurabh; Austin, Robert

    2014-03-01

    In Allan Turing's famous 1950 paper on Computing Machinery and Intelligence, he started with the provocative statement: ``I propose to consider the question, `Can machines think?' This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms `machine' and `think'.'' In our own work on exploring the way that organisms respond to stress and evolve, it seems at times as if they come to remarkably fast solutions to problems, indicating some sort of very clever computational machinery. I'll discuss how it would appear that bacteria can indeed create a form of a Turing Machine, the first example of a computer, and how they might use this algorithm to do rapid evolution to solve a genomics problem.

  5. Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch N.J.

    2005-10-19

    Because of their engineering simplicity, high-β, and steady-state operation, mirror machines and related open-trap machines such as gas dynamic traps, are an attractive concept for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. In these open-trap machines, the confinement occurs by means of magnetic mirroring, without the magnetic field lines closing upon themselves within the region of particle confinement. Unfortunately, these concepts have not achieved to date very spectacular laboratory results, and their reactor prospects are dimmed by the prospect of a low Q-factor, the ratio of fusion power produced to auxiliary power. Nonetheless, because of its engineering promise, over the years numerous improvements have been proposed to enhance the reactor prospects of mirror fusion, such as tandem designs, end-plugging, and electric potential barriers.

  6. Aerosols generated during beryllium machining.

    PubMed

    Martyny, J W; Hoover, M D; Mroz, M M; Ellis, K; Maier, L A; Sheff, K L; Newman, L S

    2000-01-01

    Some beryllium processes, especially machining, are associated with an increased risk of beryllium sensitization and disease. Little is known about exposure characteristics contributing to risk, such as particle size. This study examined the characteristics of beryllium machining exposures under actual working conditions. Stationary samples, using eight-stage Lovelace Multijet Cascade Impactors, were taken at the process point of operation and at the closest point that the worker would routinely approach. Paired samples were collected at the operator's breathing zone by using a Marple Personal Cascade Impactor and a 35-mm closed-faced cassette. More than 50% of the beryllium machining particles in the breathing zone were less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter. This small particle size may result in beryllium deposition into the deepest portion of the lung and may explain elevated rates of sensitization among beryllium machinists.

  7. Dry machinability of aluminum alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Shareef, I.; Natarajan, M.; Ajayi, O. O.; Energy Technology; Department of IMET

    2005-01-01

    Adverse effects of the use of cutting fluids and environmental concerns with regard to cutting fluid disposability is compelling industry to adopt Dry or near Dry Machining, with the aim of eliminating or significantly reducing the use of metal working fluids. Pending EPA regulations on metal cutting, dry machining is becoming a hot topic of research and investigation both in industry and federal research labs. Although the need for dry machining may be apparent, most of the manufacturers still consider dry machining to be impractical and even if possible, very expensive. This perception is mainly due to lack of appropriate cutting tools that can withstand intense heat and Built-up-Edge (BUE) formation during dry machining. The challenge of heat dissipation without coolant requires a completely different approach to tooling. Special tooling utilizing high-performance multi-layer, multi-component, heat resisting, low friction coatings could be a plausible answer to the challenge of dry machining. In pursuit of this goal Argonne National Labs has introduced Nano-crystalline near frictionless carbon (NFC) diamond like coatings (DLC), while industrial efforts have led to the introduction of composite coatings such as titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), tungsten carbide/carbon (WC/C) and others. Although, these coatings are considered to be very promising, they have not been tested either from tribological or from dry machining applications point of view. As such a research program in partnership with federal labs and industrial sponsors has started with the goal of exploring the feasibility of dry machining using the newly developed coatings such as Near Frictionless Carbon Coatings (NFC), Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAlN), and multi-layer multicomponent nano coatings such as TiAlCrYN and TiAlN/YN. Although various coatings are under investigation as part of the overall dry machinability program, this extended abstract deals with a systematic investigation of dry

  8. Machine learning methods in chemoinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John B O

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning algorithms are generally developed in computer science or adjacent disciplines and find their way into chemical modeling by a process of diffusion. Though particular machine learning methods are popular in chemoinformatics and quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR), many others exist in the technical literature. This discussion is methods-based and focused on some algorithms that chemoinformatics researchers frequently use. It makes no claim to be exhaustive. We concentrate on methods for supervised learning, predicting the unknown property values of a test set of instances, usually molecules, based on the known values for a training set. Particularly relevant approaches include Artificial Neural Networks, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, k-Nearest Neighbors and naïve Bayes classifiers. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2014, 4:468–481. How to cite this article: WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2014, 4:468–481. doi:10.1002/wcms.1183 PMID:25285160

  9. Minimal universal quantum heat machine.

    PubMed

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2013-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed.

  10. The Perfect Science Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    ESO celebrates 10 years since First Light of the VLT Today marks the 10th anniversary since First Light with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), the most advanced optical telescope in the world. Since then, the VLT has evolved into a unique suite of four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes (UTs) equipped with no fewer than 13 state-of-the-art instruments, and four 1.8-m moveable Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs). The telescopes can work individually, and they can also be linked together in groups of two or three to form a giant 'interferometer' (VLTI), allowing astronomers to see details corresponding to those from a much larger telescope. Green Flash at Paranal ESO PR Photo 16a/08 The VLT 10th anniversary poster "The Very Large Telescope array is a flagship facility for astronomy, a perfect science machine of which Europe can be very proud," says Tim de Zeeuw, ESO's Director General. "We have built the most advanced ground-based optical observatory in the world, thanks to the combination of a long-term adequately-funded instrument and technology development plan with an approach where most of the instruments were built in collaboration with institutions in the member states, with in-kind contributions in labour compensated by guaranteed observing time." Sitting atop the 2600m high Paranal Mountain in the Chilean Atacama Desert, the VLT's design, suite of instruments, and operating principles set the standard for ground-based astronomy. It provides the European scientific community with a telescope array with collecting power significantly greater than any other facilities available at present, offering imaging and spectroscopy capabilities at visible and infrared wavelengths. Blue Flash at Paranal ESO PR Photo 16b/08 A Universe of Discoveries The first scientifically useful images, marking the official 'First Light' of the VLT, were obtained on the night of 25 to 26 May 1998, with a test camera attached to "Antu", Unit Telescope number 1. They were officially presented to the press on

  11. Cooling system for rotating machine

    DOEpatents

    Gerstler, William Dwight; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Alexander, James Pellegrino; Quirion, Owen Scott; Palafox, Pepe; Shen, Xiaochun; Salasoo, Lembit

    2011-08-09

    An electrical machine comprising a rotor is presented. The electrical machine includes the rotor disposed on a rotatable shaft and defining a plurality of radial protrusions extending from the shaft up to a periphery of the rotor. The radial protrusions having cavities define a fluid path. A stationary shaft is disposed concentrically within the rotatable shaft wherein an annular space is formed between the stationary and rotatable shaft. A plurality of magnetic segments is disposed on the radial protrusions and the fluid path from within the stationary shaft into the annular space and extending through the cavities within the radial protrusions.

  12. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  13. Machine translation project alternatives analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

  14. Towards predictive simulations of machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Lars-Erik; Svoboda, Ales; Wedberg, Dan; Lundblad, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    Machining simulations are challenging with respect to both numerical issues and physical phenomena occurring during machining. The latter are mainly related to the description of the bulk material behaviour (plasticity) and surface properties (friction and wear). The aim of this paper is to present what is required for predictive models, depending on their scopes, as well as the needed developments for the future. The paper includes a short review of selected works that are relevant for this purpose as well as conclusions based on our own experience.

  15. Orientation to Machine Shop. Safety, Machine Identification, Metal Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to the machine shop for use at the postsecondary level. The first of three sections discusses four important areas of safety: (1) personal safety; (2) safety procedures; (3) safe work practices; and (4) fire prevention. The second section identifies and describes the general purposes of 12…

  16. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, William H.; Ganoe, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  17. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  18. Advances of implementing NC machine tools discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukuyev, Y. P.; Trukhan, Y. V.

    1984-11-01

    Numerical control machine tools which are one of the principal resources of reequipment, mechanization and automation of small series and series production in machine building were examined. The continually increasing volume of NC machine tools which are produced and introduced is economically significant for introduction of these machine tools to operation and organization of their effective use. Organizational and technical measures were directed at solving these problems. To insure the fastest introduction of NC machine tools into operation and their technical maintenance, a number of setting up organizations was organized. Setting up services are also provided by the plants manufacturing the NC machine tools, and appropriate subdivisions are created for this purpose.

  19. Dimensioning, Tolerancing, and Machine Finishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, George C.

    Intended for use with the vocational education student interested in technical drawing, this guide provides answers to questions relating to dimensioning and tolerancing machine drawings. It also gives examples of standard dimensioning practices, tolerancing applications, and finish applications. The problems and examples presented are based on…

  20. Computed Tomography Measuring Inside Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wozniak, James F.; Scudder, Henry J.; Anders, Jeffrey E.

    1995-01-01

    Computed tomography applied to obtain approximate measurements of radial distances from centerline of turbopump to leading edges of diffuser vanes in turbopump. Use of computed tomography has significance beyond turbopump application: example of general concept of measuring internal dimensions of assembly of parts without having to perform time-consuming task of taking assembly apart and measuring internal parts on coordinate-measuring machine.

  1. Ultrashort-pulse lasers machining

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P S; Feit, M D; Nguyen, H T; Perry, M D, Stuart, B C

    1999-01-22

    A new type of material processing is enabled with ultrashort (t < 10 psec) laser pulses. Cutting, drilling, sculpting of all materials (biologic materials, ceramics, sapphire, silicon carbide, diamond, metals) occurs by new mechanisms which eliminate thermal shock or collateral damage. High precision machining to submicron tolerances is enabled resulting in high surface quality and negligible heat affected zone.

  2. Ultrashort-pulse laser machining

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P S; Feit, M D; Nguyen, H T; Perry, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Sefcik, J A; Stuart, B C

    1998-09-01

    A new type of material processing is enabled with ultrashort (t < 10 ps) laser pulses. Cutting, drilling, sculpting of all materials (biologic materials, ceramics, sapphire, silicon carbide, diamond, metals) occurs by new mechanisms that eliminate thermal shock or collateral damage. High-precision machining to submicron tolerances is enabled resulting in high surface quality and negligible heat affected zone.

  3. Electrochemical Machining Removes Deep Obstructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catania, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) is effective way of removing obstructing material between two deep holes supposed to intersect but do not because of misalignment of drilling tools. ECM makes it possible to rework costly castings otherwise scrapped. Method fast even for tough or hard alloys and complicated three-dimensional shapes.

  4. Simple Machines in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Robert; Laroder, Aris; Tippins, Deborah; Emaz, Meliza; Fox, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    The community can be a powerful context and mini-laboratory for cultivating students' common understandings of science and mathematics. On the island of Panay in the Philippines, the community was the starting place for a group of fifth- and sixth-grade students to explore simple machines in their daily lives. What students learned in the process…

  5. Analytical design of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.; Valavanis, Kimon P.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing 'intelligent machines' to operate in uncertain environments with minimum supervision or interaction with a human operator is examined. The structure of an 'intelligent machine' is defined to be the structure of a Hierarchically Intelligent Control System, composed of three levels hierarchically ordered according to the principle of 'increasing precision with decreasing intelligence', namely: the organizational level, performing general information processing tasks in association with a long-term memory; the coordination level, dealing with specific information processing tasks with a short-term memory; and the control level, which performs the execution of various tasks through hardware using feedback control methods. The behavior of such a machine may be managed by controls with special considerations and its 'intelligence' is directly related to the derivation of a compatible measure that associates the intelligence of the higher levels with the concept of entropy, which is a sufficient analytic measure that unifies the treatment of all the levels of an 'intelligent machine' as the mathematical problem of finding the right sequence of internal decisions and controls for a system structured in the order of intelligence and inverse order of precision such that it minimizes its total entropy. A case study on the automatic maintenance of a nuclear plant illustrates the proposed approach.

  6. Machines That Make Books Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Vicki, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes playback equipment provided by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped's Talking Books program. The history of these machines is reviewed from 1933 to the present and includes activities during World War II, the introduction of flexible discs and cassettes, descriptions of a variety of machines…

  7. Reading Machines for Blind People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fender, Derek H.

    1983-01-01

    Ten stages of developing reading machines for blind people are analyzed: handling of text material; optics; electro-optics; pattern recognition; character recognition; storage; speech synthesizers; browsing and place finding; computer indexing; and other sources of input. Cost considerations of the final product are emphasized. (CL)

  8. Machine Translation for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

  9. Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorokhodko, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

  10. Precision Machining Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide was developed from a Technical Committee Report prepared with the assistance of industry personnel and containing a Task List which is the basis of the guide. It presents competency-based program standards for courses in precision machining technology and is part of the Idaho Vocational Curriculum Guide Project, a cooperative…

  11. Teaching Machines to Think Fuzzy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy logic programs for computers make them more human. Computers can then think through messy situations and make smart decisions. It makes computers able to control things the way people do. Fuzzy logic has been used to control subway trains, elevators, washing machines, microwave ovens, and cars. Pretty much all the human has to do is push one…

  12. Anisotropy of machine building materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of the anisotropy of elastic and strength characteristics of various structural materials, including pressure worked metals and alloys, laminated fiberglass plastics, and laminated wood plastics, are correlated and classified. Strength criteria under simple and complex stresses are considered as applied to anisotropic materials. Practical application to determining the strength of machine parts and structural materials is discussed.

  13. Basic Machines. Navy Training Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    This document is a reference for the enlisted men in the Navy whose duties require knowledge of the fundamentals of machinery. Beginning with the simplest of machines--the lever--the book proceeds with the discussion of block and tackle, wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw and gears. It explains the concepts of work and power, and differentiates…

  14. Simple Machines Curriculum. [Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Independent School District No. 11, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This manual provides suggestions for investigating simple machines and the teaching of certain basic concepts which pertain to them. Many of the lessons are designed to be used with the commercially available LEGO kits, in an effort to teach concepts in a way in which students must translate pictures shown in two dimension into three-dimensional…

  15. Machine Tool Operation, Course Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Walter E.; Anderson, Floyd L.

    Prepared by an instructor and curriculum specialists, this course of study was designed to meet the individual needs of the dropout and/or hard-core unemployed youth by providing them skill training, related information, and supportive services knowledge in machine tool operation. The achievement level of each student is determined at entry, and…

  16. Machine Shop. Student Learning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction, West Palm Beach, FL.

    This student learning guide contains eight modules for completing a course in machine shop. It is designed especially for use in Palm Beach County, Florida. Each module covers one task, and consists of a purpose, performance objective, enabling objectives, learning activities and resources, information sheets, student self-check with answer key,…

  17. Far Travelers: The Exploring Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicks, Oran W.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program of lunar and planetary exploration produced a flood of scientific information about the moon, planets and the environment of interplanetary space. This book is an account of the people, machines, and the events of this scientific enterprise. It is a story of organizations,…

  18. The architecture of lisp machines

    SciTech Connect

    Pleszkun, A.R.; Thazhuthaveetil, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    Lisp has been a popular programming language for well over 20 years and has become the premier language of artificial intelligence research. Recent interest in fifth generation computer systems has sparked renewed interest in systems for the efficient execution of Lisp and Lisp-like languages. There are two main reasons for Lisp's popularity: extensibility and flexibility. Lisp's extensibility derives from the capability that it provides to build powerful, friendly systems starting with just a few basic primitives and data types. Lisp is dynamically typed and ideally suited for incremental program development, making it a good choice for the fast prototyping of software systems. Several current symbolic manipulation and algebraic systems, design and graphic description systems, expert systems, and other heavily-used non-numeric systems are also based on an underlying Lisp system. Typically, these systems do not run efficiently due to the large semantic gap between list-manipulating languages like Lisp and the conventional von Neumann machine. In this survey, the authors the author discuss what takes place during typical Lisp execution. Based on this, the authors enumerate the runtime requirements of a Lisp system and identify potential obstacles to good machine performance. The authors provide a classification of the Lisp machines that they encountered during the survey, and examine the techniques employed in these machines to cater to Lisp's runtime requirements.

  19. How To Teach Common Characteristics of Machine Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanas, H. C.

    1970-01-01

    Organizes machine tools and machine operations into commonalities in order to help the student visualize and distinguish the common characteristics which exist between machine tools and operations. (GR)

  20. Research on machining error compensation in high-precision surface grinding machine for optical aspheric elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xiaolong; Guo, Yinbiao; Zhang, Shihan; Huang, Hao

    2010-10-01

    Using aspheric component in optical system can correct optical aberration, acquire high imaging quality, improve the optical characteristic, simplify system structure, and reduce system volume. Nowadays, high-precision surface grinding machine is an important approach to processing optical aspheric elements. However, because of the characteristics of optical aspheric elements, the processing method makes a higher demand to whole performance of surface grinding machine, and hardly to achieve ideal machining effect. Taking high generality and efficiency into account, this paper presents a compensation method for machining errors of high-precision surface grinding machine, which bases on optical aspheric elements, to achieve high-precision machining for all kinds of optical aspheric elements. After compensation, the machining accuracy of grinding machine could reach 2um/200×200mm. The research bases on NC surface grinding machine which is self developed. First of all, this paper introduces machining principle for optical aspheric elements on the grinding machine. And then error sources which producing errors are analyzed. By contacting and non-contacting measurement sensors, measurement software which is self designed realizes on-position measure for grinded workpiece, then fits surface precision and machining errors. Through compensation software for machining error which is self designed, compensation algorithm is designed and translated compensation data into G-code for the high-precision grinding machine to achieve compensation machining. Finally, by comparison between machining error compensation before and after processing, the experiments for this purpose are done to validate the compensation machining accuracy.

  1. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    DOEpatents

    Duerksen, Walter K.; Googin, John M.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  2. Machine Indexing: Linguistic and Semiotic Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artandi, Susan

    1976-01-01

    The implications of some major linguistic and semiotic concepts for the machine manipulation of natural language text are examined. It is proposed that the study of meaning should contribute to the development of sophisticated algorithms for machine indexing. (Author)

  3. Human and Machine Intelligence: Comparisons and Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Irving John

    1971-01-01

    Various human mental activities are examined, a theory of brain function presented, and the possible nature of the ultra-intelligent machine" suggested. Some of the social repercussions of such machines are briefly discussed. (AL)

  4. Integrated Inverter For Driving Multiple Electric Machines

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN; Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-04-04

    An electric machine drive (50) has a plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) for controlling respective electric machines (57, 62), which may include a three-phase main traction machine (57) and two-phase accessory machines (62) in a hybrid or electric vehicle. The drive (50) has a common control section (53, 54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) with only one microelectronic processor (54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), only one gate driver circuit (53) for controlling conduction of semiconductor switches (S1-S10) in the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), and also includes a common dc bus (70), a common dc bus filtering capacitor (C1) and a common dc bus voltage sensor (67). The electric machines (57, 62) may be synchronous machines, induction machines, or PM machines and may be operated in a motoring mode or a generating mode.

  5. Setup Aid for Electrical-Discharge Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lines, G.; Duca, J.

    1985-01-01

    Interlock assures that workpiece is correctly assembled in machining fixture. A Plunger in a Hollow Shaft actuates a switch, allowing a power supply to produce current for electrical-discharge machining. Plunger operates only when necessary parts are position.

  6. Specimen coordinate automated measuring machine/fiducial automated measuring machine

    DOEpatents

    Hedglen, Robert E.; Jacket, Howard S.; Schwartz, Allan I.

    1991-01-01

    The Specimen coordinate Automated Measuring Machine (SCAMM) and the Fiducial Automated Measuring Machine (FAMM) is a computer controlled metrology system capable of measuring length, width, and thickness, and of locating fiducial marks. SCAMM and FAMM have many similarities in their designs, and they can be converted from one to the other without taking them out of the hot cell. Both have means for: supporting a plurality of samples and a standard; controlling the movement of the samples in the +/- X and Y directions; determining the coordinates of the sample; compensating for temperature effects; and verifying the accuracy of the measurements and repeating as necessary. SCAMM and FAMM are designed to be used in hot cells.

  7. Permutation parity machines for neural cryptography.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Oscar Mauricio; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2010-06-01

    Recently, synchronization was proved for permutation parity machines, multilayer feed-forward neural networks proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machines. This ability was already used in the case of tree parity machines to introduce a key-exchange protocol. In this paper, a protocol based on permutation parity machines is proposed and its performance against common attacks (simple, geometric, majority and genetic) is studied.

  8. Permutation parity machines for neural cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, Oscar Mauricio; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2010-06-15

    Recently, synchronization was proved for permutation parity machines, multilayer feed-forward neural networks proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machines. This ability was already used in the case of tree parity machines to introduce a key-exchange protocol. In this paper, a protocol based on permutation parity machines is proposed and its performance against common attacks (simple, geometric, majority and genetic) is studied.

  9. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  10. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or...

  11. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or...

  12. 20 CFR 368.3 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vending machines. 368.3 Section 368.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.3 Vending machines. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines...

  13. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or...

  14. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  15. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  16. 20 CFR 368.3 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Vending machines. 368.3 Section 368.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.3 Vending machines. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines...

  17. 20 CFR 368.3 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vending machines. 368.3 Section 368.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.3 Vending machines. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines...

  18. 20 CFR 368.3 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Vending machines. 368.3 Section 368.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.3 Vending machines. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines...

  19. 20 CFR 368.3 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vending machines. 368.3 Section 368.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.3 Vending machines. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines...

  20. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or...

  1. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  2. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  3. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or...

  4. Method and apparatus for monitoring machine performance

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Castleberry, Kimberly N.

    1996-01-01

    Machine operating conditions can be monitored by analyzing, in either the time or frequency domain, the spectral components of the motor current. Changes in the electric background noise, induced by mechanical variations in the machine, are correlated to changes in the operating parameters of the machine.

  5. THE FIRST BOOK OF TEACHING MACHINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPSTEIN, SAM; EPSTEIN, BERYL

    THE FIRST TEACHING MACHINE WAS INVENTED IN THE 1920'S BY SIDNEY L. PRESSEY AND THE FIRST MODERN TEACHING MACHINE WAS DEVELOPED AND POPULARIZED IN THE EARLY 1930'S BY B.F. SKINNER. TODAY BUSINESSMEN AND INDUSTRIALISTS AS WELL AS EDUCATORS HAVE FOUND TEACHING MACHINES USEFUL. ACTUALLY, TEACHING IS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH THE PROGRAM, A CAREFULLY…

  6. Holding Irregularly Shaped Parts For Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Burt W.; Wilson, Rick R.

    1988-01-01

    Part with complicated, irregular outside contours clamped for precise machining of internal passages with aid of simple method. Exterior of part cast in Rigidex, or equivalent epoxy. Forms wall to be clamped. Interior of part machined to finish of 125 microinches or finer. When machining finished, epoxy melted away by heating part to 200 degree F.

  7. Applications of Machine Learning in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Witten, Ian H.; Littin, James

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the basic ideas that underpin applications of machine learning to information retrieval. Describes applications of machine learning to text categorization. Considers how machine learning can be applied to the query-formulation process. Examines methods of document filtering, where the user specifies a query that is to be applied to an…

  8. Computational work and time on finite machines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Measures of the computational work and computational delay required by machines to compute functions are given. Exchange inequalities are developed for random access, tape, and drum machines to show that product inequalities between storage and time, number of drum tracks and time, number of bits in an address and time, etc., must be satisfied to compute finite functions on bounded machines.

  9. Machined electrostatic sector for mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An electrostatic sector device for a mass spectrometer is formed from a single piece of machinable ceramic. The machined ceramic is coated with a nickel coating, and a notch is etched in the nickel coating to form two separated portions. The sector can be covered by a cover formed from a separate piece of machined ceramic.

  10. Debugging Fortran on a shared memory machine

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.R.; Padua, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Debugging on a parallel processor is more difficult than debugging on a serial machine because errors in a parallel program may introduce nondeterminism. The approach to parallel debugging presented here attempts to reduce the problem of debugging on a parallel machine to that of debugging on a serial machine by automatically detecting nondeterminism. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Just the Facts: The Dialysis Machine

    MedlinePlus

    Just the Facts: The Dialysis Machine What is a dialysis machine? During dialysis, your blood is cleaned using a fluid called dialysate, or “bath.” Wastes ... into the bath and are drained away. The dialysis machine controls the flow of the blood and ...

  12. Rendering for machine vision prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, Jacek

    2008-09-01

    Machine Vision systems for manufacturing quality inspection are interdisciplinary solutions including lighting, optics, cameras, image processing, segmentation, feature analysis, classification as well as integration with manufacturing process. The design and optimization of the above systems, especially image acquisition setup is mainly driven by experiment. This requires deep know-how and well equipped laboratory, which does not guarantee the optimal development process and results. This paper proposes novel usage of rendering, originating from 3D computer graphics, for machine vision prototyping and optimization. The invented technique and physically-based rendering aids selection or optimization of luminaires, tolerancing of mechanical construction and object handling, robustness predetermination or surface flaw simulation. The rendering setup utilizes mesh modeling, bump and normal mapping and light distribution sharpening with IES data files. The performed light simulation experiments for metal surfaces (face surface of bearing rollers) are validated.

  13. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-13

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view.

  14. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view.

  15. A neural support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Jändel, Magnus

    2010-06-01

    Support vector machines are state-of-the-art pattern recognition algorithms that are well founded in optimization and generalization theory but not obviously applicable to the brain. This paper presents Bio-SVM, a biologically feasible support vector machine. An unstable associative memory oscillates between support vectors and interacts with a feed-forward classification pathway. Kernel neurons blend support vectors and sensory input. Downstream temporal integration generates the classification. Instant learning of surprising events and off-line tuning of support vector weights trains the system. Emotion-based learning, forgetting trivia, sleep and brain oscillations are phenomena that agree with the Bio-SVM model. A mapping to the olfactory system is suggested.

  16. Machine intelligence for robotics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbin, C.R.; Barhen, J.; de Saussure, G.; Hamel, W.R.; Jorgensen, C.; Oblow, E.M.; Ricks, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review research in machine intelligence ongoing at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR). As a result of initial experimentation with our HERMIES-I mobile robot, hardware and software upgrades were implemented which enable fully asynchronous sonar operation, improved stepper motor control for the sensory platform, and more reliable wheel drive control. The current system, designated as HERMIES-II, is discussed. Successful demonstration of dead-reckoning navigation and the development of a sensor-based exploration and discovery algorithm which can now handle typical maze problems are reported. The development of HERMIES ''brain'' as a hypercube ensemble machine with concurrent computation and associated message passing is described. Algorithms for mapping precedence-constrained task graphs onto a hypercube yield results with high efficiency and proper load balance. A framework for a hybrid uncertainty analysis theory for decision making is described.

  17. The Higgs Machine Learning Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam-Bourdarios, C.; Cowan, G.; Germain-Renaud, C.; Guyon, I.; Kégl, B.; Rousseau, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Higgs Machine Learning Challenge was an open data analysis competition that took place between May and September 2014. Samples of simulated data from the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC corresponding to signal events with Higgs bosons decaying to τ+τ- together with background events were made available to the public through the website of the data science organization Kaggle (kaggle.com). Participants attempted to identify the search region in a space of 30 kinematic variables that would maximize the expected discovery significance of the signal process. One of the primary goals of the Challenge was to promote communication of new ideas between the Machine Learning (ML) and HEP communities. In this regard it was a resounding success, with almost 2,000 participants from HEP, ML and other areas. The process of understanding and integrating the new ideas, particularly from ML into HEP, is currently underway.

  18. Multi-valued Boltzmann machine

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.T.; Lee, C.S.G.

    1995-04-01

    The idea of Hopfield network is based on the Ising spin glass model in which each spin has only two possible states: up and down. This paper generalizes these ideas to multivalue case based on the XY spin glass model in which each spin can be in any direction in a plane. Simply using the gradient descent method and the analog Hopfield network, two different analog connectionist structures and their corresponding evolving rules are first designed to transform the XY spin glass model to distributed computational models. Since these two structures can easily get stuck in local minima, a multivalued Boltzmann machine is proposed which adopts the discrete planar spin glass model for the local minimum problem. The multivalued Boltzmann machine can be applied to the mobile robot navigation problem by defining proper artificial magnetic field on the traverse terrain. This new approach has shown to have several advantages over existing graph search and potential field techniques. 28 refs.

  19. Waterless Clothes-Cleaning Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Glenn; Ganske, Shane

    2013-01-01

    A waterless clothes-cleaning machine has been developed that removes loose particulates and deodorizes dirty laundry with regenerative chemical processes to make the clothes more comfortable to wear and have a fresher smell. This system was initially developed for use in zero-g, but could be altered for 1-g environments where water or other re sources are scarce. Some of these processes include, but are not limited to, airflow, filtration, ozone generation, heat, ultraviolet light, and photocatalytic titanium oxide.

  20. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  1. Spiking neuron network Helmholtz machine

    PubMed Central

    Sountsov, Pavel; Miller, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An increasing amount of behavioral and neurophysiological data suggests that the brain performs optimal (or near-optimal) probabilistic inference and learning during perception and other tasks. Although many machine learning algorithms exist that perform inference and learning in an optimal way, the complete description of how one of those algorithms (or a novel algorithm) can be implemented in the brain is currently incomplete. There have been many proposed solutions that address how neurons can perform optimal inference but the question of how synaptic plasticity can implement optimal learning is rarely addressed. This paper aims to unify the two fields of probabilistic inference and synaptic plasticity by using a neuronal network of realistic model spiking neurons to implement a well-studied computational model called the Helmholtz Machine. The Helmholtz Machine is amenable to neural implementation as the algorithm it uses to learn its parameters, called the wake-sleep algorithm, uses a local delta learning rule. Our spiking-neuron network implements both the delta rule and a small example of a Helmholtz machine. This neuronal network can learn an internal model of continuous-valued training data sets without supervision. The network can also perform inference on the learned internal models. We show how various biophysical features of the neural implementation constrain the parameters of the wake-sleep algorithm, such as the duration of the wake and sleep phases of learning and the minimal sample duration. We examine the deviations from optimal performance and tie them to the properties of the synaptic plasticity rule. PMID:25954191

  2. Machinability studies on INCONEL 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavior, M. Anthony; Patil, Mahesh; Maiti, Abheek; Raj, Mrinal; Lohia, Nitesh

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of proposed work is to determine the influence of controllable parameters on machining characteristics of Inconel-718 and to achieve the optimum parameters for sustainable and efficient turning. Understanding the consequences of advanced tool materials together with higher cutting speeds on the formation of residual stresses and therefore the underlying mechanisms of small structural alteration within the subterranean layer thereby becomes terribly crucial for predicting product quality and more optimizing the machining conditions. Controllable cutting parameters such as cutting velocity, feed rate and depth of cut were selected at different level for experimentations in accordance with the Taguchi L9 array method using Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) cutting condition and three different tools namely PVD TiAlN carbide, Cubic boron nitride and ceramic. Extensive study is done on the resulting surface roughness, surface subsurface hardness, tool wear and chip morphology. The results obtained from each of the tool were thoroughly analyzed and finally the optimized parameters are obtained for efficient machining of Inconel 718.

  3. Machine tools and fixtures: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    As part of NASA's Technology Utilizations Program, a compilation was made of technological developments regarding machine tools, jigs, and fixtures that have been produced, modified, or adapted to meet requirements of the aerospace program. The compilation is divided into three sections that include: (1) a variety of machine tool applications that offer easier and more efficient production techniques; (2) methods, techniques, and hardware that aid in the setup, alignment, and control of machines and machine tools to further quality assurance in finished products: and (3) jigs, fixtures, and adapters that are ancillary to basic machine tools and aid in realizing their greatest potential.

  4. Features of plastics edge cutting machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handozhko, A. V.; Shcherbakov, A. N.; Zaharov, L. A.; Gavrilenko, T. V.

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the features of pieces from thermoplastic materials in the form of electrical insulators cut by a disk edge tool. The problems in question are possible defects arising during machining and technological conditions that reduce their quantity. The necessity of required machining conditions matching substantiated in accordance with a specific grade of the material which is treated. Equipment and machining attachments, developed for experimental studies, determine the rational conditions of plastic electrical insulators machining. As a result of experiments the dependences of cut face quality parameters of plastics are obtained by machining conditions. The obtained results allowed us to make valid conclusions and recommendations.

  5. Vibration assisted femtosecond laser machining on metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Kyu; Yoon, Ji-Wook; Cho, Sung-Hak

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate a novel approach to improve laser machining quality on metals by vibrating the optical objective lens with a frequency (of 500 Hz) and various displacements (0-16.5 μm) during a femtosecond laser machining process. The laser used in this experiment is an amplified Ti:sapphire fs laser system that generates 100 fs pulses having an energy of 3.5 mJ/pulse with a 5 kHz repetition rate at a central wavelength of 790 nm. It is found that both the wall surface finish of the machined structures and the aspect ratio obtained using the frequency vibration assisted laser machining are improved, compared to those derived via laser machining without vibration assistance. This is the first report of low frequency vibration of an optical objective lens in the femtosecond laser machining process being exploited to obtain significantly improved surface roughness of machined side walls and increased aspect ratios.

  6. Cleaning of uranium vs machine coolant formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, S.S.; Byrd, V.R.; Simandl, R.F.

    1984-10-01

    This study compares methods for cleaning uranium chips and the residues left on chips from alternate machine coolants based on propylene glycol-water mixtures with either borax, ammonium tetraborate, or triethanolamine tetraborate added as a nuclear poison. Residues left on uranium surfaces machined with perchloroethylene-mineral oil coolant and on surfaces machined with the borax-containing alternate coolant were also compared. In comparing machined surfaces, greater chlorine contamination was found on the surface of the perchloroethylene-mineral oil machined surfaces, but slightly greater oxidation was found on the surfaces machined with the alternate borax-containing coolant. Overall, the differences were small and a change to the alternate coolant does not appear to constitute a significant threat to the integrity of machined uranium parts.

  7. Chip breaking system for automated machine tool

    DOEpatents

    Arehart, Theodore A.; Carey, Donald O.

    1987-01-01

    The invention is a rotary selectively directional valve assembly for use in an automated turret lathe for directing a stream of high pressure liquid machining coolant to the interface of a machine tool and workpiece for breaking up ribbon-shaped chips during the formation thereof so as to inhibit scratching or other marring of the machined surfaces by these ribbon-shaped chips. The valve assembly is provided by a manifold arrangement having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart ports each coupled to a machine tool. The manifold is rotatable with the turret when the turret is positioned for alignment of a machine tool in a machining relationship with the workpiece. The manifold is connected to a non-rotational header having a single passageway therethrough which conveys the high pressure coolant to only the port in the manifold which is in registry with the tool disposed in a working relationship with the workpiece. To position the machine tools the turret is rotated and one of the tools is placed in a material-removing relationship of the workpiece. The passageway in the header and one of the ports in the manifold arrangement are then automatically aligned to supply the machining coolant to the machine tool workpiece interface for breaking up of the chips as well as cooling the tool and workpiece during the machining operation.

  8. Efficient Checkpointing of Virtual Machines using Virtual Machine Introspection

    SciTech Connect

    Aderholdt, Ferrol; Han, Fang; Scott, Stephen L; Naughton, III, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing environments rely heavily on system-level virtualization. This is due to the inherent benefits of virtualization including fault tolerance through checkpoint/restart (C/R) mechanisms. Because clouds are the abstraction of large data centers and large data centers have a higher potential for failure, it is imperative that a C/R mechanism for such an environment provide minimal latency as well as a small checkpoint file size. Recently, there has been much research into C/R with respect to virtual machines (VM) providing excellent solutions to reduce either checkpoint latency or checkpoint file size. However, these approaches do not provide both. This paper presents a method of checkpointing VMs by utilizing virtual machine introspection (VMI). Through the usage of VMI, we are able to determine which pages of memory within the guest are used or free and are better able to reduce the amount of pages written to disk during a checkpoint. We have validated this work by using various benchmarks to measure the latency along with the checkpoint size. With respect to checkpoint file size, our approach results in file sizes within 24% or less of the actual used memory within the guest. Additionally, the checkpoint latency of our approach is up to 52% faster than KVM s default method.

  9. Machine Phase Fullerene Nanotechnology: 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA has used exotic materials for spacecraft and experimental aircraft to good effect for many decades. In spite of many advances, transportation to space still costs about $10,000 per pound. Drexler has proposed a hypothetical nanotechnology based on diamond and investigated the properties of such molecular systems. These studies and others suggest enormous potential for aerospace systems. Unfortunately, methods to realize diamonoid nanotechnology are at best highly speculative. Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically relatively accessible and of great aerospace interest. Machine phase materials are (hypothetical) materials consisting entirely or in large part of microscopic machines. In a sense, most living matter fits this definition. To begin investigation of fullerene nanotechnology, we used molecular dynamics to study the properties of carbon nanotube based gears and gear/shaft configurations. Experiments on C60 and quantum calculations suggest that benzyne may react with carbon nanotubes to form gear teeth. Han has computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Results suggest that rotation can be converted to rotating or linear motion, and linear motion may be converted into rotation. Preliminary results suggest that these mechanical systems can be cooled by a helium atmosphere. Furthermore, Deepak has successfully simulated using helical electric fields generated by a laser to power fullerene gears once a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. Even with mechanical motion, cooling, and power; creating a viable nanotechnology requires support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and some approach to manufacture. Additional

  10. Experiments with the Dragon Machine

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Malenfant

    2005-08-12

    The basic characteristics of a self-sustaining chain reaction were demonstrated with the Chicago Pile in 1943, but it was not until early 1945 that sufficient enriched material became available to experimentally verify fast-neutron cross-sections and the kinetic characteristics of a nuclear chain reaction sustained with prompt neutrons alone. However, the demands of wartime and the rapid decline in effort following the cessation of hostilities often resulted in the failure to fully document the experiments or in the loss of documentation as personnel returned to civilian pursuits. When documented, the results were often highly classified. Even when eventually declassified, the data were often not approved for public release until years later.2 Even after declassification and approval for public release, the records are sometimes difficult to find. Through a fortuitous discovery, a set of handwritten notes by ''ORF July 1945'' entitled ''Dragon - Research with a Pulsed Fission Reactor'' was found by William L. Myers in an old storage safe at Pajarito Site of the Los Alamos National Laboratory3. Of course, ORF was identified as Otto R. Frisch. The document was attached to a page in a nondescript spiral bound notebook labeled ''494 Book'' that bore the signatures of Louis Slotin and P. Morrison. The notes also reference an ''Idea LS'' that can only be Louis Slotin. The discovery of the notes led to a search of Laboratory Archives, the negative files of the photo lab, and the Report Library for additional details of the experiments with the Dragon machine that were conducted between January and July 1945. The assembly machine and the experiments were carefully conceived and skillfully executed. The analyses--without the crutch of computers--display real insight into the characteristics of the nuclear chain reaction. The information presented here provides what is believed to be a complete collection of the original documentation of the observations made with the Dragon

  11. Hypervelocity cutting machine and method

    DOEpatents

    Powell, James R.; Reich, Morris

    1996-11-12

    A method and machine 14 are provided for cutting a workpiece 12 such as concrete. A gun barrel 16 is provided for repetitively loading projectiles 22 therein and is supplied with a pressurized propellant from a storage tank 28. A thermal storage tank 32,32A is disposed between the propellant storage tank 28 and the gun barrel 16 for repetitively receiving and heating propellant charges which are released in the gun barrel 16 for repetitively firing projectiles 22 therefrom toward the workpiece 12. In a preferred embodiment, hypervelocity of the projectiles 22 is obtained for cutting the concrete workpiece 12 by fracturing thereof.

  12. Free-piston cutting machine

    DOEpatents

    Ciccarelli, Gaby; Subudhi, Manomohan; Hall, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    A cutting machine includes a gun barrel for receiving a projectile. A compression tube is disposed in flow communication with the barrel and includes a piston therein. A reservoir is disposed in flow communication with the tube and receives a first gas under pressure. A second gas fills the compression tube on a front face of the piston. And, the pressurized first gas is discharged into the tube on a back face of the piston to accelerate the piston through the tube for compressing the second gas, and in turn launching the projectile through the barrel to impact a workpiece.

  13. Hypervelocity cutting machine and method

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.

    1996-11-12

    A method and machine are provided for cutting a workpiece such as concrete. A gun barrel is provided for repetitively loading projectiles therein and is supplied with a pressurized propellant from a storage tank. A thermal storage tank is disposed between the propellant storage tank and the gun barrel for repetitively receiving and heating propellant charges which are released in the gun barrel for repetitively firing projectiles therefrom toward the workpiece. In a preferred embodiment, hypervelocity of the projectiles is obtained for cutting the concrete workpiece by fracturing thereof. 10 figs.

  14. Creating unorganised machines from memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Gerard; Bull, Larry; Costello, Ben De Lacy; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    There is growing interest in memristive devices following their recent nanoscale fabrication. This paper describes initial consideration of the implementation of artificial intelligence within predominantly memristive hardware. In particular, versions of Alan Turing's discrete dynamical network formalism — the unorganised machine — are used as the knowledge representation scheme and a population-based search technique is used to design appropriate networks. Issues including memristor count and global network synchrony are compared for two memristive logic implementations (NAND and IMP) on a well-known simulated robotics benchmark task. It is shown that IMP networks are harder to design than NAND, but are simpler to implement and require fewer processor cycles.

  15. Solar prediction and intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gordon G.

    1987-01-01

    The solar prediction program is aimed at reducing or eliminating the need to throughly understand the process previously developed and to still be able to produce a prediction. Substantial progress was made in identifying the procedures to be coded as well as testing some of the presently coded work. Another project involves work on developing ideas and software that should result in a machine capable of learning as well as carrying on an intelligent conversation over a wide range of topics. The underlying idea is to use primitive ideas and construct higher order ideas from these, which can then be easily related one to another.

  16. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-03-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Machines for lattice gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, P.B.

    1989-05-01

    The most promising approach to the solution of the theory of strong interactions is large scale numerical simulation using the techniques of lattice gauge theory. At the present time, computing requirements for convincing calculations of the properties of hadrons exceed the capabilities of even the most powerful commercial supercomputers. This has led to the development of massively parallel computers dedicated to lattice gauge theory. This talk will discuss the computing requirements behind these machines, and general features of the components and architectures of the half dozen major projects now in existence. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Micro-machined calorimetric biosensors

    DOEpatents

    Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Smith, Stephen F.; Oden, Patrick I.; Bryan, William L.; Moore, James A.; Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting and monitoring micro-volumetric enthalpic changes caused by molecular reactions. Micro-machining techniques are used to create very small thermally isolated masses incorporating temperature-sensitive circuitry. The thermally isolated masses are provided with a molecular layer or coating, and the temperature-sensitive circuitry provides an indication when the molecules of the coating are involved in an enthalpic reaction. The thermally isolated masses may be provided singly or in arrays and, in the latter case, the molecular coatings may differ to provide qualitative and/or quantitative assays of a substance.

  19. Setup reduction approaches for machining

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1997-04-01

    Rapid setup is a common improvement approach in press working operations such as blanking and shearing. It has paid major dividends in the sheet metal industry. It also has been a major improvement thrust for high-production machining operations. However, the literature does not well cover all the setup operations and constraints for job shop work. This review provides some insight into the issues involved. It highlights the floor problems and provides insights for further improvement. The report is designed to provide a quick understanding of the issues.

  20. Does machine perfusion decrease ischemia reperfusion injury?

    PubMed

    Bon, D; Delpech, P-O; Chatauret, N; Hauet, T; Badet, L; Barrou, B

    2014-06-01

    In 1990's, use of machine perfusion for organ preservation has been abandoned because of improvement of preservation solutions, efficient without perfusion, easy to use and cheaper. Since the last 15 years, a renewed interest for machine perfusion emerged based on studies performed on preclinical model and seems to make consensus in case of expanded criteria donors or deceased after cardiac death donations. We present relevant studies highlighted the efficiency of preservation with hypothermic machine perfusion compared to static cold storage. Machines for organ preservation being in constant evolution, we also summarized recent developments included direct oxygenation of the perfusat. Machine perfusion technology also enables organ reconditioning during the last hours of preservation through a short period of perfusion on hypothermia, subnormothermia or normothermia. We present significant or low advantages for machine perfusion against ischemia reperfusion injuries regarding at least one primary parameter: risk of DFG, organ function or graft survival.

  1. Light-driven artificial molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Hao, Qingzhen; Yang, Ying-Wei; Kiraly, Brian; Chiang, I.-Kao; Huang, Tony Jun

    2010-08-01

    Artificial molecular machines represent a growing field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Stimulated by chemical reagents, electricity, or light, artificial molecular machines exhibit precisely controlled motion at the molecular level; with this ability molecular machines have the potential to make significant impacts in numerous engineering applications. Compared with molecular machines powered by chemical or electrical energy, light-driven molecular machines have several advantages: light can be switched much faster, work without producing chemical waste, and be used for dual purposes-inducing (writing) as well as detecting (reading) molecular motions. The following issues are significant for light-driven artificial molecular machines in the following aspects: their chemical structures, motion mechanisms, assembly and characterization on solid-state surfaces. Applications in different fields of nanotechnology such as molecular electronics, nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS), nanophotonics, and nanomedicine are envisaged.

  2. Safety improvements in high pressure thermal machines

    SciTech Connect

    Otters, J.L.

    1988-02-09

    In a thermal machine of the type including a machine body having a main axis extending between a thermal end and a work end, a working fluid at relatively high pressure in a working fluid chamber defined in the body and a displacer element reciprocable within the chamber for subjecting the fluid to a thermodynamic cycle in cooperation with a reciprocable work piston, the improvement is described comprising outer shell means enclosing the machine body for maintaining a substantially sealed atmosphere about the machine body, and diffuser means arranged between the machine body and the outer shell means for diffusing a shock wave traveling towards the outer shell means resulting from explosive failure of the machine body and for shielding the outer shell means against fragments projected upon such failure.

  3. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, D.R.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Bivens, H.M.; Wessendorf, K.O.

    1994-08-16

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a telemetered sensor beacon'' that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20--100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available. 21 figs.

  4. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, Dale R.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Bivens, Hugh M.; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    1994-01-01

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.

  5. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view. PMID:26758235

  6. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view. PMID:26758235

  7. Engineering of the `PCAST machine`

    SciTech Connect

    Sinnis, J.; Brooks, A.; Brown, T.

    1996-12-31

    The President`s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) has suggested that a device with a mission of ignition and moderate burn time could address the physics of burning plasmas at a lesser cost than ITER with its more comprehensive physics and technology mission. The Department of Energy commissioned a study to explore this PCAST suggestion. This paper describes the results of the engineering portion of the study of this `PCAST Machine;` physics is covered in a companion paper authored by G.H. Neilson, et al; and the costs are covered in a companion paper by R.T. Simmons, et al. Both are published in the proceedings of this conference. The study was undertaken by a team under the direction of Bruce Montgomery that included representatives from MIT, PPPL, ORNL, LLNL, GA, Northrup-Grumman, and Stone and Webster. The performance requirements for the PCAST machine are to form and sustain a burning plasma for three helium accumulation times. The philosophy adopted for this design was to achieve the required performance at lower cost by decreasing the major radius to five meters, increasing the toroidal field to 7 tesla, and using stronger shaping. The major device parameters are given. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Machine Translation Evaluation and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorr, Bonnie; Olive, Joseph; McCary, John; Christianson, Caitlin

    The evaluation of machine translation (MT) systems is a vital field of research, both for determining the effectiveness of existing MT systems and for optimizing the performance of MT systems. This part describes a range of different evaluation approaches used in the GALE community and introduces evaluation protocols and methodologies used in the program. We discuss the development and use of automatic, human, task-based and semi-automatic (human-in-the-loop) methods of evaluating machine translation, focusing on the use of a human-mediated translation error rate HTER as the evaluation standard used in GALE. We discuss the workflow associated with the use of this measure, including post editing, quality control, and scoring. We document the evaluation tasks, data, protocols, and results of recent GALE MT Evaluations. In addition, we present a range of different approaches for optimizing MT systems on the basis of different measures. We outline the requirements and specific problems when using different optimization approaches and describe how the characteristics of different MT metrics affect the optimization. Finally, we describe novel recent and ongoing work on the development of fully automatic MT evaluation metrics that have the potential to substantially improve the effectiveness of evaluation and optimization of MT systems.

  9. Machining of low percentage beryllium copper alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habermeyer, J. G.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne beryllium sampling during machining of low percentage beryllium-copper alloys shows that normal dry machining creates 45.2 microgram/cu m of airborne beryllium in the casting operators breathing zone and 2.3 microgram/cu m in an adjacent machine working area. A small vacuum system placed over the tool effectively removes airborne beryllium in the breathing zone sample to 0.2 microgram/cu m.

  10. Introducing Machine Learning Concepts with WEKA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tony C; Frank, Eibe

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to data mining with machine learning. It gives an overview of various types of machine learning, along with some examples. It explains how to download, install, and run the WEKA data mining toolkit on a simple data set, then proceeds to explain how one might approach a bioinformatics problem. Finally, it includes a brief summary of machine learning algorithms for other types of data mining problems, and provides suggestions about where to find additional information.

  11. Machine learning for medical images analysis.

    PubMed

    Criminisi, A

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses the application of machine learning for the analysis of medical images. Specifically: (i) We show how a special type of learning models can be thought of as automatically optimized, hierarchically-structured, rule-based algorithms, and (ii) We discuss how the issue of collecting large labelled datasets applies to both conventional algorithms as well as machine learning techniques. The size of the training database is a function of model complexity rather than a characteristic of machine learning methods.

  12. Machining Thin-Walled Cylindrical Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimbak, Joe; Spagnolo, Jim; Kraus, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Cylindrical walls only few thousandths of inch thick machined accurately and without tears or punctures with aid of beryllium copper mandrel. Chilled so it contracts, then inserted in cylinder. As comes to room temperature, mandrel expands and fits snugly inside cylinder. Will not allow part to slide and provides solid backup to prevent deflection when part machined by grinding wheel. When machining finished, cylinder-and-mandrel assembly inserted in dry ice, mandrel contracts and removed from part.

  13. Rotating Drive for Electrical-Arc Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fransen, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    Rotating drive improves quality of holes made by electrical-arc machining. Mechanism (Uni-tek, rotary head, or equivalent) attached to electrical-arc system. Drive rotates electrode as though it were mechanical drill, while an arc disintegrates metal in workpiece, thereby creating hole. Rotating electrode method often used in electric-discharge machining. NASA innovation is application of technique to electrical-arc machining.

  14. Machining Three Prongs on a Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitt, C.

    1983-01-01

    Simple tool reduces set-up and machining time by more than 70 percent. Unorthodox tooling arrangement used to machine three prongs on end of specialpurpose wrench. Modified carbide-tipped spot-facing tool rotated at 1,400 to 1,600 revolutions per minute in small milling machine and applied to work piece, held with its corners in spaces of three-cornered collect.

  15. Speed-Selector Guard For Machine Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakhshir, Roda J.; Valentine, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Simple guardplate prevents accidental reversal of direction of rotation or sudden change of speed of lathe, milling machine, or other machine tool. Custom-made for specific machine and control settings. Allows control lever to be placed at only one setting. Operator uses handle to slide guard to engage or disengage control lever. Protects personnel from injury and equipment from damage occurring if speed- or direction-control lever inadvertently placed in wrong position.

  16. Rapid Response Small Machining NNR Project 703025

    SciTech Connect

    Kanies, Tim

    2008-12-05

    This project was an effort to develop a machining area for small sized parts that is capable of delivering product with a quick response time. This entailed focusing efforts on leaning out specific work cells that would result in overall improvement to the entire machining area. This effort involved securing the most efficient available technologies for these areas. In the end, this incorporated preparing the small machining area for transformation to a new facility.

  17. CNC Machining Of The Complex Copper Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popan, Ioan Alexandru; Balc, Nicolae; Popan, Alina

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the machining process of the complex copper electrodes. Machining of the complex shapes in copper is difficult because this material is soft and sticky. This research presents the main steps for processing those copper electrodes at a high dimensional accuracy and a good surface quality. Special tooling solutions are required for this machining process and optimal process parameters have been found for the accurate CNC equipment, using smart CAD/CAM software.

  18. MLZ: Machine Learning for photo-Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco Kind, Matias; Brunner, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The parallel Python framework MLZ (Machine Learning and photo-Z) computes fast and robust photometric redshift PDFs using Machine Learning algorithms. It uses a supervised technique with prediction trees and random forest through TPZ that can be used for a regression or a classification problem, or a unsupervised methods with self organizing maps and random atlas called SOMz. These machine learning implementations can be efficiently combined into a more powerful one resulting in robust and accurate probability distributions for photometric redshifts.

  19. High pressure water jet mining machine

    DOEpatents

    Barker, Clark R.

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  20. Multicutter machining of compound parametric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatna, Abdelmadjid; Grieve, R. J.; Broomhead, P.

    2000-10-01

    Parametric free forms are used in industries as disparate as footwear, toys, sporting goods, ceramics, digital content creation, and conceptual design. Optimizing tool path patterns and minimizing the total machining time is a primordial issue in numerically controlled (NC) machining of free form surfaces. We demonstrate in the present work that multi-cutter machining can achieve as much as 60% reduction in total machining time for compound sculptured surfaces. The given approach is based upon the pre-processing as opposed to the usual post-processing of surfaces for the detection and removal of interference followed by precise tracking of unmachined areas.

  1. An intelligent CNC machine control system architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.J.; Loucks, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    Intelligent, agile manufacturing relies on automated programming of digitally controlled processes. Currently, processes such as Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machining are difficult to automate because of highly restrictive controllers and poor software environments. It is also difficult to utilize sensors and process models for adaptive control, or to integrate machining processes with other tasks within a factory floor setting. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, a CNC machine control system architecture based on object-oriented design and graphical programming has been developed to address some of these problems and to demonstrate automated agile machining applications using platform-independent software.

  2. Rough set models of Physarum machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancerz, Krzysztof; Schumann, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we consider transition system models of behaviour of Physarum machines in terms of rough set theory. A Physarum machine, a biological computing device implemented in the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum (true slime mould), is a natural transition system. In the behaviour of Physarum machines, one can notice some ambiguity in Physarum motions that influences exact anticipation of states of machines in time. To model this ambiguity, we propose to use rough set models created over transition systems. Rough sets are an appropriate tool to deal with rough (ambiguous, imprecise) concepts in the universe of discourse.

  3. Active chatter control in a milling machine

    SciTech Connect

    Dohner, J.L.; Hinnerichs, T.D.; Lauffer, J.P.

    1997-08-01

    The use of active feedback compensation to mitigate cutting instabilities in an advanced milling machine is discussed in this paper. A linear structural model delineating dynamics significant to the onset of cutting instabilities was combined with a nonlinear cutting model to form a dynamic depiction of an existing milling machine. The model was validated with experimental data. Modifications made to an existing machine model were used to predict alterations in dynamics due to the integration of active feedback compensation. From simulations, subcomponent requirements were evaluated and cutting enhancements were predicted. Active compensation was shown to enable more than double the metal removal rate over conventional milling machines. 25 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Managing virtual machines with Vac and Vcycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, A.; Love, P.; MacMahon, E.

    2015-12-01

    We compare the Vac and Vcycle virtual machine lifecycle managers and our experiences in providing production job execution services for ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, and the GridPP VO at sites in the UK, France and at CERN. In both the Vac and Vcycle systems, the virtual machines are created outside of the experiment's job submission and pilot framework. In the case of Vac, a daemon runs on each physical host which manages a pool of virtual machines on that host, and a peer-to-peer UDP protocol is used to achieve the desired target shares between experiments across the site. In the case of Vcycle, a daemon manages a pool of virtual machines on an Infrastructure-as-a-Service cloud system such as OpenStack, and has within itself enough information to create the types of virtual machines to achieve the desired target shares. Both systems allow unused shares for one experiment to temporarily taken up by other experiements with work to be done. The virtual machine lifecycle is managed with a minimum of information, gathered from the virtual machine creation mechanism (such as libvirt or OpenStack) and using the proposed Machine/Job Features API from WLCG. We demonstrate that the same virtual machine designs can be used to run production jobs on Vac and Vcycle/OpenStack sites for ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, and GridPP, and that these technologies allow sites to be operated in a reliable and robust way.

  5. Machinability of Green Powder Metallurgy Components: Part II. Sintered Properties of Components Machined in Green State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert-Perron, Etienne; Blais, Carl; Pelletier, Sylvain; Thomas, Yannig

    2007-06-01

    The green machining process is virtually a must if the powder metallurgy (PM) industries are to solve the lower machining performances associated with PM components. This process is known for lowering the rate of tool wear. Recent improvements in binder/lubricant technologies have led to high-green-strength systems that enable green machining. Combined with the optimized cutting parameters determined in Part I of the study, the green machining of PM components seems to be a viable process for fabricating high performance parts on large scale and complete other shaping processes. This second part of our study presents a comparison between the machining behaviors and the sintered properties of components machined prior to or after sintering. The results show that the radial crush strength measured on rings machined in their green state is equal to that of parts machined after sintering.

  6. Possibilities of Multi-Function Machining Systems as Tools for Complete Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajgalik, Michal; Czan, Andrej; Rakoci, Jozef

    2014-12-01

    This article deals with the use of a multi-function system for complete machining. It compares the use of conventional tools with multi-function system on the basis of main indicators of the quality of machining.

  7. ERECTING/MACHINE SHOP, CRANE ACCESS GANGWAY BETWEEN ERECTING (L) AND MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTING/MACHINE SHOP, CRANE ACCESS GANGWAY BETWEEN ERECTING (L) AND MACHINE (R) SHOPS, LOOKING NORTH. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Erecting Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  8. Study of on-machine error identification and compensation methods for micro machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shih-Ming; Yu, Han-Jen; Lee, Chun-Yi; Chiu, Hung-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Micro machining plays an important role in the manufacturing of miniature products which are made of various materials with complex 3D shapes and tight machining tolerance. To further improve the accuracy of a micro machining process without increasing the manufacturing cost of a micro machine tool, an effective machining error measurement method and a software-based compensation method are essential. To avoid introducing additional errors caused by the re-installment of the workpiece, the measurement and compensation method should be on-machine conducted. In addition, because the contour of a miniature workpiece machined with a micro machining process is very tiny, the measurement method should be non-contact. By integrating the image re-constructive method, camera pixel correction, coordinate transformation, the error identification algorithm, and trajectory auto-correction method, a vision-based error measurement and compensation method that can on-machine inspect the micro machining errors and automatically generate an error-corrected numerical control (NC) program for error compensation was developed in this study. With the use of the Canny edge detection algorithm and camera pixel calibration, the edges of the contour of a machined workpiece were identified and used to re-construct the actual contour of the work piece. The actual contour was then mapped to the theoretical contour to identify the actual cutting points and compute the machining errors. With the use of a moving matching window and calculation of the similarity between the actual and theoretical contour, the errors between the actual cutting points and theoretical cutting points were calculated and used to correct the NC program. With the use of the error-corrected NC program, the accuracy of a micro machining process can be effectively improved. To prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods, micro-milling experiments on a micro machine tool were conducted, and the results

  9. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop (Program CIP: 48.0503--Machine Shop Assistant). Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. Presented first are a…

  10. MATC Machine Shop '84: Specific Skill Needs Assessment for Machine Shops in the Milwaukee Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Keith J.

    Building on previous research on the future skill needs of workers in southeastern Wisconsin, a study was conducted at Milwaukee Area Technical College (MATC) to gather information on the machine tool industry in the Milwaukee area. Interviews were conducted by MATC Machine Shop and Tool and Die faculty with representatives from 135 machine shops,…

  11. Machinability of IPS Empress 2 framework ceramic.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C; Weigl, P

    2000-01-01

    Using ceramic materials for an automatic production of ceramic dentures by CAD/CAM is a challenge, because many technological, medical, and optical demands must be considered. The IPS Empress 2 framework ceramic meets most of them. This study shows the possibilities for machining this ceramic with economical parameters. The long life-time requirement for ceramic dentures requires a ductile machined surface to avoid the well-known subsurface damages of brittle materials caused by machining. Slow and rapid damage propagation begins at break outs and cracks, and limits life-time significantly. Therefore, ductile machined surfaces are an important demand for machine dental ceramics. The machining tests were performed with various parameters such as tool grain size and feed speed. Denture ceramics were machined by jig grinding on a 5-axis CNC milling machine (Maho HGF 500) with a high-speed spindle up to 120,000 rpm. The results of the wear test indicate low tool wear. With one tool, you can machine eight occlusal surfaces including roughing and finishing. One occlusal surface takes about 60 min machining time. Recommended parameters for roughing are middle diamond grain size (D107), cutting speed v(c) = 4.7 m/s, feed speed v(ft) = 1000 mm/min, depth of cut a(e) = 0.06 mm, width of contact a(p) = 0.8 mm, and for finishing ultra fine diamond grain size (D46), cutting speed v(c) = 4.7 m/s, feed speed v(ft) = 100 mm/min, depth of cut a(e) = 0.02 mm, width of contact a(p) = 0.8 mm. The results of the machining tests give a reference for using IPS Empress(R) 2 framework ceramic in CAD/CAM systems.

  12. Improving Energy Efficiency in CNC Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavanaskar, Sushrut S.

    We present our work on analyzing and improving the energy efficiency of multi-axis CNC milling process. Due to the differences in energy consumption behavior, we treat 3- and 5-axis CNC machines separately in our work. For 3-axis CNC machines, we first propose an energy model that estimates the energy requirement for machining a component on a specified 3-axis CNC milling machine. Our model makes machine-specific predictions of energy requirements while also considering the geometric aspects of the machining toolpath. Our model - and the associated software tool - facilitate direct comparison of various alternative toolpath strategies based on their energy-consumption performance. Further, we identify key factors in toolpath planning that affect energy consumption in CNC machining. We then use this knowledge to propose and demonstrate a novel toolpath planning strategy that may be used to generate new toolpaths that are inherently energy-efficient, inspired by research on digital micrography -- a form of computational art. For 5-axis CNC machines, the process planning problem consists of several sub-problems that researchers have traditionally solved separately to obtain an approximate solution. After illustrating the need to solve all sub-problems simultaneously for a truly optimal solution, we propose a unified formulation based on configuration space theory. We apply our formulation to solve a problem variant that retains key characteristics of the full problem but has lower dimensionality, allowing visualization in 2D. Given the complexity of the full 5-axis toolpath planning problem, our unified formulation represents an important step towards obtaining a truly optimal solution. With this work on the two types of CNC machines, we demonstrate that without changing the current infrastructure or business practices, machine-specific, geometry-based, customized toolpath planning can save energy in CNC machining.

  13. Defect Classification Using Machine Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, A; Kegelmeyer, L; Liao, Z M; Abdulla, G; Cross, D; Kegelmeyer, W P; Raviza, F; Carr, C W

    2008-10-24

    Laser-induced damage growth on the surface of fused silica optics has been extensively studied and has been found to depend on a number of factors including fluence and the surface on which the damage site resides. It has been demonstrated that damage sites as small as a few tens of microns can be detected and tracked on optics installed a fusion-class laser, however, determining the surface of an optic on which a damage site resides in situ can be a significant challenge. In this work demonstrate that a machine-learning algorithm can successfully predict the surface location of the damage site using an expanded set of characteristics for each damage site, some of which are not historically associated with growth rate.

  14. Thermodynamics of stochastic Turing machines.

    PubMed

    Strasberg, Philipp; Cerrillo, Javier; Schaller, Gernot; Brandes, Tobias

    2015-10-01

    In analogy to Brownian computers we explicitly show how to construct stochastic models which mimic the behavior of a general-purpose computer (a Turing machine). Our models are discrete state systems obeying a Markovian master equation, which are logically reversible and have a well-defined and consistent thermodynamic interpretation. The resulting master equation, which describes a simple one-step process on an enormously large state space, allows us to thoroughly investigate the thermodynamics of computation for this situation. Especially in the stationary regime we can well approximate the master equation by a simple Fokker-Planck equation in one dimension. We then show that the entropy production rate at steady state can be made arbitrarily small, but the total (integrated) entropy production is finite and grows logarithmically with the number of computational steps. PMID:26565165

  15. Operation of the TEMPO machine

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.; Lawson, R.N.; Lancaster, K.T.

    1987-01-01

    The TEMPO machine is a repetitively pulsed, high-voltage driver for experimental microwave generating devices. Three units have been built. TEMPO has a transformer-charged, water-insulated Blumlein directly coupled to the vacuum diode. The Blumlein has a relatively high impedance (20-..cap omega..) strip-type, pulse-forming transmission line (PFL) designed to minimize size. Stray capacitance and enhanced electric fields along the edges of the PFL are controlled by lining the tank in which the Blumlein is housed with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic sheet. During the initial stage of operation, problems with breakdowns in the plastic occurred that necessitated replacing the liner with either polyethylene or polypropylene. During the same period, problems with the power supplies and high voltage switch performance were addressed. These modifications and their results are discussed in the following sections.

  16. Learning Extended Finite State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassel, Sofia; Howar, Falk; Jonsson, Bengt; Steffen, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    We present an active learning algorithm for inferring extended finite state machines (EFSM)s, combining data flow and control behavior. Key to our learning technique is a novel learning model based on so-called tree queries. The learning algorithm uses the tree queries to infer symbolic data constraints on parameters, e.g., sequence numbers, time stamps, identifiers, or even simple arithmetic. We describe sufficient conditions for the properties that the symbolic constraints provided by a tree query in general must have to be usable in our learning model. We have evaluated our algorithm in a black-box scenario, where tree queries are realized through (black-box) testing. Our case studies include connection establishment in TCP and a priority queue from the Java Class Library.

  17. Machine learning in soil classification.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, B; Solomatine, D P

    2006-03-01

    In a number of engineering problems, e.g. in geotechnics, petroleum engineering, etc. intervals of measured series data (signals) are to be attributed a class maintaining the constraint of contiguity and standard classification methods could be inadequate. Classification in this case needs involvement of an expert who observes the magnitude and trends of the signals in addition to any a priori information that might be available. In this paper, an approach for automating this classification procedure is presented. Firstly, a segmentation algorithm is developed and applied to segment the measured signals. Secondly, the salient features of these segments are extracted using boundary energy method. Based on the measured data and extracted features to assign classes to the segments classifiers are built; they employ Decision Trees, ANN and Support Vector Machines. The methodology was tested in classifying sub-surface soil using measured data from Cone Penetration Testing and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:16530382

  18. Thermal properties of time machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Díaz, Pedro F.

    2012-05-01

    Connections between universes through tunneling space-times could make the multiverse a physical entity able to be observed from our own single universe. In this paper we first study the thermal properties of the static Klein-bottle holes and then consider one of the potentially observable effects from wormholes, ringholes, and nonorientable tunnelings when they are converted into time machines connecting other universes with ours own, that is a randomly varying in space and time thermal radiation which, with an unpredictable cadence, randomly manifested to a far observer as a short, occasional pulse with very high intensity and fluence which would be made of black body phantom or ordinary radiation. We discuss the odds for these bursts of thermal radiation to be eventually observable.

  19. Machine learning in motion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Renjeng; Kermiche, Noureddine

    1989-01-01

    The existing methodologies for robot programming originate primarily from robotic applications to manufacturing, where uncertainties of the robots and their task environment may be minimized by repeated off-line modeling and identification. In space application of robots, however, a higher degree of automation is required for robot programming because of the desire of minimizing the human intervention. We discuss a new paradigm of robotic programming which is based on the concept of machine learning. The goal is to let robots practice tasks by themselves and the operational data are used to automatically improve their motion performance. The underlying mathematical problem is to solve the problem of dynamical inverse by iterative methods. One of the key questions is how to ensure the convergence of the iterative process. There have been a few small steps taken into this important approach to robot programming. We give a representative result on the convergence problem.

  20. Aerodynamic seals for rotary machine

    DOEpatents

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Cirri, Massimiliano; Thatte, Azam Mihir; Williams, John Robert

    2016-02-09

    An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having multiple labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device segment also includes multiple flexures connected to the shoe plate and to a top interface element, wherein the multiple flexures are configured to allow the high pressure fluid to occupy a forward cavity and the low pressure fluid to occupy an aft cavity. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal attached to the top interface element at one first end and positioned about the flexures and the shoe plate at one second end.

  1. Perspex Machine X: software development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Sam; Thomas, Benjamin A.; Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2007-01-01

    The Perspex Machine arose from the unification of computation with geometry. We now report significant redevelopment of both a partial C compiler that generates perspex programs and of a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The compiler is constructed with standard compiler-generator tools and produces both an explicit parse tree for C and an Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) that is better suited to code generation. The GUI uses a hash table and a simpler software architecture to achieve an order of magnitude speed up in processing and, consequently, an order of magnitude increase in the number of perspexes that can be manipulated in real time (now 6,000). Two perspex-machine simulators are provided, one using trans-floating-point arithmetic and the other using transrational arithmetic. All of the software described here is available on the world wide web. The compiler generates code in the neural model of the perspex. At each branch point it uses a jumper to return control to the main fibre. This has the effect of pruning out an exponentially increasing number of branching fibres, thereby greatly increasing the efficiency of perspex programs as measured by the number of neurons required to implement an algorithm. The jumpers are placed at unit distance from the main fibre and form a geometrical structure analogous to a myelin sheath in a biological neuron. Both the perspex jumper-sheath and the biological myelin-sheath share the computational function of preventing cross-over of signals to neurons that lie close to an axon. This is an example of convergence driven by similar geometrical and computational constraints in perspex and biological neurons.

  2. Electrochemical Machining of Metal Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J F; Evans, M C

    2005-03-04

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) with concentrated sodium chlorate electrolyte was used to rapidly cut a circular groove (13 cm diameter, 0.2 cm wide) through a 0.15 cm thick sheet of steel--thus opening a 5-inch porthole in as little as 10 minutes. The most favorable operating conditions were: T = 22 C; chlorate concentration 600 g NaClO{sub 3}/liter-solution; electric power of 100 A at 10 V; and flow of 0.5 l/s at a pressure drop of 10 kPa (1.5 psi). The porthole may be removed entirely by electrochemical means, or the electrochemical dissolution may continue until only thin membrane remains that is subsequently cut with a utility knife. An array of thermocouples was used to track temperature in the flowing solution and in the trough being machined; the maximum increase in temperature in the trough was 5 C over that of the flowing electrolyte which increased in temperature by 19 C because of power dissipation. ECM is shown feasible for rapid perforation of plates of ferrous and non-ferrous metals using portable equipment and commercial batteries. The technique can be extended to cut perforations of arbitrary shape through non-planar surfaces using a deformable ring cathode. Analysis of the power requirements for electrolyte flow and ECM indicate a total system weight of less than 45 kg (100 lb) using a commercial NiMH battery. The technique is recommended for reduction to practice and demonstration on full scale as an engineering prototype.

  3. EDM machinability of SiCw/Al composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramulu, M.; Taya, M.

    1989-01-01

    Machinability of high temperature composites was investigated. Target materials, 15 and 25 vol pct SiC whisker-2124 aluminum composites, were machined by electrodischarge sinker machining and diamond saw. The machined surfaces of these metal matrix composites were examined by SEM and profilometry to determine the surface finish. Microhardness measurements were also performed on the as-machined composites.

  4. 49 CFR 236.772 - Machine, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machine, interlocking. 236.772 Section 236.772 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Machine, interlocking. An assemblage of manually operated levers or other devices for the control...

  5. 49 CFR 236.772 - Machine, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machine, interlocking. 236.772 Section 236.772 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Machine, interlocking. An assemblage of manually operated levers or other devices for the control...

  6. 49 CFR 236.771 - Machine, control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machine, control. 236.771 Section 236.771 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Machine, control. An assemblage of manually operated devices for controlling the functions of a...

  7. 49 CFR 236.771 - Machine, control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machine, control. 236.771 Section 236.771 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Machine, control. An assemblage of manually operated devices for controlling the functions of a...

  8. 49 CFR 236.772 - Machine, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machine, interlocking. 236.772 Section 236.772 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Machine, interlocking. An assemblage of manually operated levers or other devices for the control...

  9. 49 CFR 236.771 - Machine, control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machine, control. 236.771 Section 236.771 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Machine, control. An assemblage of manually operated devices for controlling the functions of a...

  10. Using Phun to Study "Perpetual Motion" Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kores, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "perpetual motion" has a long history. The Indian astronomer and mathematician Bhaskara II (12th century) was the first person to describe a perpetual motion (PM) machine. An example of a 13th-century PM machine is shown in Fig. 1. Although the law of conservation of energy clearly implies the impossibility of PM construction, over…

  11. 49 CFR 236.771 - Machine, control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machine, control. 236.771 Section 236.771 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Machine, control. An assemblage of manually operated devices for controlling the functions of a...

  12. 49 CFR 236.772 - Machine, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machine, interlocking. 236.772 Section 236.772 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Machine, interlocking. An assemblage of manually operated levers or other devices for the control...

  13. 49 CFR 236.772 - Machine, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machine, interlocking. 236.772 Section 236.772 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Machine, interlocking. An assemblage of manually operated levers or other devices for the control...

  14. 49 CFR 236.771 - Machine, control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machine, control. 236.771 Section 236.771 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Machine, control. An assemblage of manually operated devices for controlling the functions of a...

  15. The Riddle of the Smart Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Dusti D.

    2010-01-01

    Hundreds of graduate students were introduced to the fields of instructional design and educational technology with the riddle of the smart machines, yet over the years no one has answered it correctly. After revealing the surprising answer to this riddle, both the negative and positive impacts of smart machines are analyzed. An example of this is…

  16. Cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, W.K.; Googin, J.M.; Napier, B. Jr.

    1982-01-28

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and a boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  17. The War in Man; Media and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsen, Frederick D.; Bret, Jane

    The authors present a picture of contemporary man torn by conflicting forces, caught in a psychic house divided against itself, a victim of war between media and machines. Machines, they state, represent the rationalistic tradition which has brought man to the brink of psychic and social disaster. The media they see as offering hope--true…

  18. Machining technique prevents undercutting in tensile specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moscater, R. E.; Royster, D. M.

    1968-01-01

    Machining technique prevents undercutting at the test section in tensile specimens when machining the four corners of the reduced section. Made with a gradual taper in the test section, the width of the center of the tensile specimen is less than the width at the four corners of the reduced section.

  19. MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS IN EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOUGHARY, JOHN W.

    THIS BOOK INCLUDES 5 PARTS. THE FIRST, BACKGROUND, PROVIDES A THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL BASE FOR THE MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS DESCRIBED LATER. IT DEFINES MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS, DESCRIBES COMPUTERS, AND DISCUSSES THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MEDIA TECHNOLOGY AND LEARNING PROCESSES. PART 2, INSTRUCTION, DESCRIBES ADVANCED SYSTEMS IN EDUCATION WHICH ARE…

  20. The Time Machine in Our Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the first comprehensive conceptual account for the imagistic mental machinery that allows us to travel through time--for the time machine in our mind. It is argued that language reveals this imagistic machine and how we use it. Findings from a range of cognitive fields are theoretically unified and a recent proposal about…

  1. Machines and Human Beings in the Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Laan, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Over the years, many movies have presented on-screen a struggle between machines and human beings. Typically, the machines have come to rule and threaten the existence of humanity. They must be conquered to ensure the survival of and to secure the freedom of the human race. Although these movies appear to expose the dangers of an autonomous and…

  2. Machine-Aided Indexing of Technical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1973-01-01

    To index at the Defense Documentation Center (DDC), an automated system must choose single words or phrases rapidly and economically. Automation of DDC's indexing has been machine-aided from its inception. A machine-aided indexing system is described that indexes one million words of text per hour of CPU time. (22 references) (Author/SJ)

  3. Case study for international remote machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Grier C. I.; Kao, Yung-Chou

    1995-08-01

    Owing to the more enhanced networking, the designed data for manufacturing can be transmitted internationally. Therefore, the production of the potential product at one side of the world according to the design requirement at the other side of the world is possible and quicker than ever before. The shipment can be eliminated by producing the product at the potential market place. This paper demonstrates the development of a machining system showing the manufacture of a product based on this idea. Unix, Microsoft Windows, and NFS under the LAN and Internet environment are adopted for data communication and message passing in the devised international remote machining system. The personal computer is the server of the machining center. A C program is developed for the direct control of the machining center through DNC2 interface. The command of machining process is issued from Sun Sparc station to the personal computer through Internet. The devised system structure can also be extended to link with an automatic workpiece loading system, e.g., robot an AGV, to form an automatic machining cell for CIM. The requirements of achieving such an international remote machining cell that links machining center and robot are also discussed.

  4. Machine Shop. Instructor Key. Supplementary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Charles; Cole, Phyllis

    These supplementary units are designed to help students with special needs learn and apply machine shop skills. Nine competencies that are difficult for special needs students to grasp or that would help them get a future job in the field were chosen from the regular machine shop curriculum. Specific objectives for these competencies are listed at…

  5. Machine Shop. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Arthur; Lambert, George

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for a high school basic machine shop course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (2 hours daily) designed to enable students to become familiar with the operation of machine shop equipment, to become familiar…

  6. The Serger (Overlock) Machine. Module 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the purpose and use of the serger machine, one in a series on clothing construction for industrial sewing machine operators designed for student self-study, contains nine sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check,…

  7. Numerically Controlled Machine Tools and Worker Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Jeffrey H.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of data from "Industry Wage Surveys of Machinery Manufacturers" on the skill levels of 57 machining jobs found that introduction of numerically controlled machine tools has resulted in a very small reduction in skill levels or no significant change, supporting neither the deskilling argument nor argument that skill levels increase with…

  8. Pulsed, Hydraulic Coal-Mining Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    In proposed coal-cutting machine, piston forces water through nozzle, expelling pulsed jet that cuts into coal face. Spring-loaded piston reciprocates at end of travel to refill water chamber. Machine a onecylinder, two-cycle, internal-combustion engine, fueled by gasoline, diesel fuel, or hydrogen. Fuel converted more directly into mechanical energy of water jet.

  9. Machine characterization and benchmark performance prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saavedra-Barrera, Rafael H.

    1988-01-01

    From runs of standard benchmarks or benchmark suites, it is not possible to characterize the machine nor to predict the run time of other benchmarks which have not been run. A new approach to benchmarking and machine characterization is reported. The creation and use of a machine analyzer is described, which measures the performance of a given machine on FORTRAN source language constructs. The machine analyzer yields a set of parameters which characterize the machine and spotlight its strong and weak points. Also described is a program analyzer, which analyzes FORTRAN programs and determines the frequency of execution of each of the same set of source language operations. It is then shown that by combining a machine characterization and a program characterization, we are able to predict with good accuracy the run time of a given benchmark on a given machine. Characterizations are provided for the Cray-X-MP/48, Cyber 205, IBM 3090/200, Amdahl 5840, Convex C-1, VAX 8600, VAX 11/785, VAX 11/780, SUN 3/50, and IBM RT-PC/125, and for the following benchmark programs or suites: Los Alamos (BMK8A1), Baskett, Linpack, Livermore Loops, Madelbrot Set, NAS Kernels, Shell Sort, Smith, Whetstone and Sieve of Erathostenes.

  10. An assessment of the connection machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The CM-2 is an example of a connection machine. The strengths and problems of this implementation are considered as well as important issues in the architecture and programming environment of connection machines in general. These are contrasted to the same issues in Multiple Instruction/Multiple Data (MIMD) microprocessors and multicomputers.

  11. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  12. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  13. Lossy Counter Machines Decidability Cheat Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnoebelen, Philippe

    Lossy counter machines (LCM's) are a variant of Minsky counter machines based on weak (or unreliable) counters in the sense that they can decrease nondeterministically and without notification. This model, introduced by R. Mayr [TCS 297:337-354 (2003)], is not yet very well known, even though it has already proven useful for establishing hardness results.

  14. Machine Translation in Post-Contemporary Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2010-01-01

    This article focusing on translating techniques via personal computer or laptop reports updated artificial intelligence progresses before 2010. Based on interpretations and information for field of MT [Machine Translation] by Yorick Wilks' book, "Machine Translation, Its scope and limits," this paper displays understandable theoretical frameworks…

  15. Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Lockhart, Michael; Norvell, Theodore; Crescenzi, Pierluigi

    2009-01-01

    We propose an extension of the Teaching Machine project, called Quiz Generator, that allows instructors to produce assessment quizzes in the field of algorithm and data structures quite easily. This extension makes use of visualization techniques and is based on new features of the Teaching Machine that allow third-party visualizers to be added as…

  16. Machine Shop Projects. Instructor Guide. General Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Raymond E.

    Developed in Georgia, this manual contains 101 projects for use in machine shop courses, arranged according to a suggested machine shop curriculum. Each project, included in a student workbook, contains complete drawings and instructions for implementation. Tasks are listed under the broad headings of measuring, layout, bench work, saws, drilling,…

  17. Machine Tool Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course to prepare machine tool, drill press, grinding machine, lathe, mill, and/or power saw operators. The listing is divided into six sections, with each one outlining the tasks required to perform the duties that have been identified for the given occupation.…

  18. Machine Process Capability Information Through Six Sigma

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, M.F.

    1998-03-13

    A project investigating details concerning machine process capability information and its accessibility has been conducted. The thesis of the project proposed designing a part (denoted as a machine capability workpiece) based on the major machining features of a given machine. Parts are machined and measured to gather representative production, short-term variation. The information is utilized to predict the expected defect rate, expressed in terms of a composite sigma level process capability index, for a production part. Presently, decisions concerning process planning, particularly what machine will statistically produce the minimum amount of defects based on machined features and associated tolerances, are rarely made. Six sigma tools and methodology were employed to conduct this investigation at AlliedSignal FM and T. Tools such as the thought process map, factor relationship diagrams, and components of variance were used. This study is progressing toward completion. This research study was an example of how machine process capability information may be gathered for milling planar faces (horizontal) and slot features. The planning method used to determine where and how to gather variation for the part to be designed is known as factor relationship diagramming. Components-of-variation is then applied to the gathered data to arrive at the contributing level of variation illustrated within the factor relationship diagram. The idea of using this capability information beyond process planning to the other business enterprise operations is proposed.

  19. Light Machines Operator Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.

    1998-06-15

    The objective of this project was to create a multimedia operator performance support system (OPSS) shell that would provide a framework for delivering appropriate information to the student/novice machine tool user just when needed and in the most appropriate form. In addition, the program was designed so that it could be expanded and further developed by Light Machines personnel. The expertise of AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) in the areas of performance support system design and multimedia creation was employed to create the most user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) while providing access to key topical areas. Light Machines provided a subject matter expert from their technical services group in order to provide the needed information for structuring the OPSS shell. They also provided a Benchman VMC 4000 machine tool at the ASFM and T New Mexico location as well as specific instruction on the safe and effective use of that machine tool.

  20. Using Phun to Study ``Perpetual Motion'' Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koreš, Jaroslav

    2012-05-01

    The concept of "perpetual motion" has a long history. The Indian astronomer and mathematician Bhaskara II (12th century) was the first person to describe a perpetual motion (PM) machine. An example of a 13th- century PM machine is shown in Fig. 1. Although the law of conservation of energy clearly implies the impossibility of PM construction, over the centuries numerous proposals for PM have been made, involving ever more elements of modern science in their construction. It is possible to test a variety of PM machines in the classroom using a program called Phun2 or its commercial version Algodoo.3 The programs are designed to simulate physical processes and we can easily simulate mechanical machines using them. They provide an intuitive graphical environment controlled with a mouse; a programming language is not needed. This paper describes simulations of four different (supposed) PM machines.4

  1. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu; Ren Xijun; Fan Heng

    2011-09-15

    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  2. [Psychic experience of pathological machine gamblers].

    PubMed

    Avtonomov, D A

    2011-01-01

    The author presents results of the psychopathological phenomena and subjective experience study of 38 patients with the verified diagnosis "Pathological addiction to gambling" (F63.0) without psychotic disorders. In 84,2% cases, the patients preferred slot machine gambling. The causes of such preferences were analyzed. The phenomenology of the psychic experience of the patients who are slot machine gamblers is presented. With the formation of the addiction, the gamblers began to think about slot machines as human beings (creatures), feel attachment to them, see the individuality in them, and experience slot machines as live and real partners in imaginative or even verbal dialogs. Two main "forms of contact" with slot machines were elicited and described: verbal and non-verbal. The gambler has been gradually depleted the image of himself and experiences the "loss of contact" with his own features, qualities, wishes, and intentions. The data obtained may be helpful in psychotherapeutic and rehabilitative work with such patients. PMID:22027663

  3. Adaptive machine and its thermodynamic costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Wang, Q. A.

    2013-03-01

    We study the minimal thermodynamically consistent model for an adaptive machine that transfers particles from a higher chemical potential reservoir to a lower one. This model describes essentials of the inhomogeneous catalysis. It is supposed to function with the maximal current under uncertain chemical potentials: if they change, the machine tunes its own structure fitting it to the maximal current under new conditions. This adaptation is possible under two limitations: (i) The degree of freedom that controls the machine's structure has to have a stored energy (described via a negative temperature). The origin of this result is traced back to the Le Chatelier principle. (ii) The machine has to malfunction at a constant environment due to structural fluctuations, whose relative magnitude is controlled solely by the stored energy. We argue that several features of the adaptive machine are similar to those of living organisms (energy storage, aging).

  4. OptiCentric lathe centering machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buß, C.; Heinisch, J.

    2013-09-01

    High precision optics depend on precisely aligned lenses. The shift and tilt of individual lenses as well as the air gap between elements require accuracies in the single micron regime. These accuracies are hard to meet with traditional assembly methods. Instead, lathe centering can be used to machine the mount with respect to the optical axis. Using a diamond turning process, all relevant errors of single mounted lenses can be corrected in one post-machining step. Building on the OptiCentric® and OptiSurf® measurement systems, Trioptics has developed their first lathe centering machines. The machine and specific design elements of the setup will be shown. For example, the machine can be used to turn optics for i-line steppers with highest precision.

  5. National Machine Tool Partnership (NMTP) FY 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Programs (DP) National Machine Tool Partnership (NMTP) program has been active since February 1993. The NMTP program is an element of the DP Technology Partnership Program. The NMTP has assisted the Association of Manufacturing Technology (AMT) in the formulation of a technology roadmap for the machine tool industry. This roadmap has been developed to provide a clearer step-by-step plan for technology development and implementation to help close the gap between user requirements and industry implementation. The document outlines a suggested path for the development of technologies for the machine tool industry. The plan details the technology issues or needs analysis facing the machine tool industry. In a parallel effort, the NMTP has prepared a needs analysis of machine tool related technologies needed in various DP laboratory weapons core programs, including the Advanced Design and Production Technologies (ADaPT) initiative.

  6. Building a Successful Machine Safeguarding Program

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, S

    2003-03-06

    Safeguarding hazards associated with machines is a goal common to all health and safety professionals. Whether the individual is new to the safety field or has held associated responsibilities for a period of time, safeguarding personnel who work with or around machine tools and equipment should be considered an important aspect of the job. Although significant progress has been made in terms of safeguarding machines since the era prior to the organized safety movement, companies continue to be cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and workers continue to be injured, even killed by machine tools and equipment. In the early 1900s, it was common practice to operate transmission machinery (gears, belts, pulleys, shafting, etc.) completely unguarded. At that time, the countersunk set screw used on shafting had not been invented and projecting set screws were involved in many horrific accidents. Manufacturers built machines with little regard for worker safety. Workers were killed or seriously injured before definitive actions were taken to improve safety in the workplace. Many states adopted legislation aimed at requiring machine guarding and improved injury reduction. The first patent for a machine safeguard was issued in 1868 for a mechanical interlock. Other patents followed. As methods for safeguarding machinery and tools were developed, standards were written and programs were set up to monitor factories for compliance. Many of those standards continue to govern how we protect workers today. It is common to see machine tools built in the forties, fifties and sixties being used in machine shops today. In terms of safeguarding, these machines may be considered poorly designed, improperly safeguarded or simply unguarded. In addition to the potential threat of an OSHA citation, these conditions expose the operator to serious hazards that must be addressed. The safety professional can help line management determine workable solutions for

  7. 4. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST AT MACHINE SHOP IN KEYSER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST AT MACHINE SHOP IN KEYSER. OLD TRAIN SHED TO RIGHT OF MACHINE SHOP. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Keyser Machine Shop, State Route 46 Northwest of Spring Street, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  8. Diamond machining of steel molds for optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohr, Roland

    2016-08-01

    The requirement of ultra precision diamond machining of lens molds in steel is identified. A solution for this type of machining is presented and results of such a machining in steel compared to standard milling and polishing process are shown.

  9. Micro Machining Enhances Precision Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Advanced thermal systems developed for the Space Station Freedom project are now in use on the International Space Station. These thermal systems employ evaporative ammonia as their coolant, and though they employ the same series of chemical reactions as terrestrial refrigerators, the space-bound coolers are significantly smaller. Two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts between Creare Inc. of Hanover, NH and Johnson Space Center developed an ammonia evaporator for thermal management systems aboard Freedom. The principal investigator for Creare Inc., formed Mikros Technologies Inc. to commercialize the work. Mikros Technologies then developed an advanced form of micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) to make tiny holes in the ammonia evaporator. Mikros Technologies has had great success applying this method to the fabrication of micro-nozzle array systems for industrial ink jet printing systems. The company is currently the world leader in fabrication of stainless steel micro-nozzles for this market, and in 2001 the company was awarded two SBIR research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to advance micro-fabrication and high-performance thermal management technologies.

  10. Fuzzy neural network machine prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Patrick K.; Brotherton, Thomas M.

    1995-06-01

    The ability to predict failures in machinery before they occur would save time, money, and lives. The Army has several areas that would benefit from this ability. Mechanical components could be replaced before they caused catastrophic damage. Electronic components could be replaced in communication and weapon systems before they endangered a mission or lives. One area that would benefit immediately from this ability is predicting the fatique life of the Army's CH-47 helicopter. The CH-47 is a twin-rotor platform that depends on the reliability of its engine, transmissions, rotors, flight controls, and a myriad of other equipment. Predicting the fatigue life of a CH-47 would save the Army operation and support costs through spares elimination and more timely maintenance cycles. We have developed a methodology for a machine fatigue life predictor that utilizes a combination of parameter estimation, model generation, and condition identification. Using data collected from various fault conditions on the tail rotor assembly of a helicopter, we have simulated fatigue conditions and demonstrated the developed methodology.

  11. Smart Machines with Flexible Rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, Arthur W.

    The concept of smart machinery is of significant current interest. Several technologies are relevant in this quest including magnetic bearings, shape memory alloys (SMA) and piezo-electric activation. Recently a smart bearing pedestal was proposed based on SMAs and elastomeric O-rings. However, such a device is clearly relevant only for the control of rigid rotors, for flexible rotors there is a need for some modification on the rotor itself. In this paper, rotor actuation by piezo-electric patches on the rotor is studied. A methodology is presented for the calculation of rotor behaviour and appropriate control strategies are discussed. It is shown how this form of control is a viable option and an estimate of system requirements is given. It is shown that the most promising option for the control of rotor imbalance is the imposition of a counteracting bend. However, because the bend can be controlled as a function of speed, the usual restrictions in comparing a rotor bend and unbalance do not apply. After outlining the methodology of the calculation, a series of transient simulations are presented. Finally, difficulties and options in the construction of a real machine are discussed.

  12. Evolution of the mirror machine

    SciTech Connect

    Damm, C. C.

    1983-08-18

    The history of the magnetic-mirror approach to a fusion reactor is primarily the history of our understanding and control of several crucial physics issues, coupled with progress in the technology of heating and confining a reacting plasma. The basic requirement of an MHD-stable plasma equilibrium was achieved following the early introduction of minimum-B multipolar magnetic fields. In refined form, the same magnetic-well principle carries over to our present experiments and to reactor designs. The higher frequency microinstabilities, arising from the non-Maxwellian particle distributions inherent in mirror machines, have gradually come under control as theoretical prescriptions for distribution functions have been applied in the experiments. Even with stability, the classical plasma leakage through the mirrors posed a serious question for reactor viability until the principle of electrostatic axial stoppering was applied in the tandem mirror configuration. Experiments to test this principle successfully demonstrated the substantial improvement in confinement predicted. Concurrent with advances in mirror plasma physics, development of both high-power neutral beam injectors and high-speed vacuum pumping techniques has played a crucial role in ongoing experiments. Together with superconducting magnets, cryogenic pumping, and high-power radiofrequency heating, these technologies have evolved to a level that extrapolates readily to meet the requirements of a tandem mirror fusion reactor.

  13. Machinability study of Aermet 100

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, D.V.; Syn, C.K.; Fix, B.L.

    1995-02-08

    Machinability of Aermet 100, an ultrahigh strength alloy developed for Navy by Carpenter Technology as a candidate material for aircraft landing gear application, was studied by performing single-point turning tests. Coated and uncoated carbides, ceramic, and cermet cutting tool inserts of a square geometry (SNG 432 type) were used. Round stock workpieces were tested in the as - received, unaged condition and without using any cutting fluid. The turning tests for each tool material were conducted by (i) first establishing the cutting conditions that would allow the continued generation of broken chips during a given cutting test, (ii) measuring intermittently the flank wear as a function of cutting time under such established cutting conditions for discontinuous broken chips, and (iii) determining the tool life using the criteria specified in the ISO Standard 3685: 1993(E). Cutting tools except some uncoated carbide and ceramic were used with a mechanical chip breaker to induce chip breakage and avoid the generation of long continuous chips. The results obtained include the optimal cutting conditions for discontinuous chips, tool wear - cutting time curves, and records of tool life and tool failure mode for each tool material. From the measured tool life and cutting conditions, the amount of material removed by each cutting material was calculated. Coated carbide with CVD tri-phase coating showed the longest tool life that exceeded the twelve minute criterion and removed the highest amount of material per tool. Other tools failed by cutting edge chipping and their lives were shorter.

  14. Machine vision based teleoperation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, William A.; Gatrell, Lance B.; Spofford, John R.

    1991-01-01

    When teleoperating a robot using video from a remote camera, it is difficult for the operator to gauge depth and orientation from a single view. In addition, there are situations where a camera mounted for viewing by the teleoperator during a teleoperation task may not be able to see the tool tip, or the viewing angle may not be intuitive (requiring extensive training to reduce the risk of incorrect or dangerous moves by the teleoperator). A machine vision based teleoperator aid is presented which uses the operator's camera view to compute an object's pose (position and orientation), and then overlays onto the operator's screen information on the object's current and desired positions. The operator can choose to display orientation and translation information as graphics and/or text. This aid provides easily assimilated depth and relative orientation information to the teleoperator. The camera may be mounted at any known orientation relative to the tool tip. A preliminary experiment with human operators was conducted and showed that task accuracies were significantly greater with than without this aid.

  15. Linear solvers on multiprocessor machines

    SciTech Connect

    Kalogerakis, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Two new methods are introduced for the parallel solution of banded linear systems on multiprocessor machines. Moreover, some new techniques are obtained as variations of the two methods that are applicable to special instances of the problem. Comparisons with the best known methods are performed, from which it is concluded that the two methods are superior, while their variations for special instances are, in general, competitive and in some cases best. In the process, some new results on the parallel prefix problem are obtained and a new design for this problem is presented that is suitable for VLSI implementation. Furthermore, a general model is introduced for the analysis and classification of methods that are based on row transformations of matrices. It is seen that most known methods are included in this model. It is demonstrated that this model may be used as a basis for the analysis as well as the generation of important aspects of those methods, such as their arithmetic complexity and interprocessor communication requirements.

  16. Machine vision and the OMV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcanulty, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) is intended to close with orbiting targets for relocation or servicing. It will be controlled via video signals and thruster activation based upon Earth or space station directives. A human operator is squarely in the middle of the control loop for close work. Without directly addressing future, more autonomous versions of a remote servicer, several techniques that will doubtless be important in a future increase of autonomy also have some direct application to the current situation, particularly in the area of image enhancement and predictive analysis. Several techniques are presentet, and some few have been implemented, which support a machine vision capability proposed to be adequate for detection, recognition, and tracking. Once feasibly implemented, they must then be further modified to operate together in real time. This may be achieved by two courses, the use of an array processor and some initial steps toward data reduction. The methodology or adapting to a vector architecture is discussed in preliminary form, and a highly tentative rationale for data reduction at the front end is also discussed. As a by-product, a working implementation of the most advanced graphic display technique, ray-casting, is described.

  17. Memristor models for machine learning.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, Juan Pablo; Dambre, Joni; Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    In the quest for alternatives to traditional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor, it is being suggested that digital computing efficiency and power can be improved by matching the precision to the application. Many applications do not need the high precision that is being used today. In particular, large gains in area and power efficiency could be achieved by dedicated analog realizations of approximate computing engines. In this work we explore the use of memristor networks for analog approximate computation, based on a machine learning framework called reservoir computing. Most experimental investigations on the dynamics of memristors focus on their nonvolatile behavior. Hence, the volatility that is present in the developed technologies is usually unwanted and is not included in simulation models. In contrast, in reservoir computing, volatility is not only desirable but necessary. Therefore, in this work, we propose two different ways to incorporate it into memristor simulation models. The first is an extension of Strukov's model, and the second is an equivalent Wiener model approximation. We analyze and compare the dynamical properties of these models and discuss their implications for the memory and the nonlinear processing capacity of memristor networks. Our results indicate that device variability, increasingly causing problems in traditional computer design, is an asset in the context of reservoir computing. We conclude that although both models could lead to useful memristor-based reservoir computing systems, their computational performance will differ. Therefore, experimental modeling research is required for the development of accurate volatile memristor models.

  18. "Paper Machine" for Molecular Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Connelly, John T; Rolland, Jason P; Whitesides, George M

    2015-08-01

    Clinical tests based on primer-initiated amplification of specific nucleic acid sequences achieve high levels of sensitivity and specificity. Despite these desirable characteristics, these tests have not reached their full potential because their complexity and expense limit their usefulness to centralized laboratories. This paper describes a device that integrates sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with end point detection using a hand-held UV source and camera phone. The prototype device integrates paper microfluidics (to enable fluid handling) and a multilayer structure, or a "paper machine", that allows a central patterned paper strip to slide in and out of fluidic path and thus allows introduction of sample, wash buffers, amplification master mix, and detection reagents with minimal pipetting, in a hand-held, disposable device intended for point-of-care use in resource-limited environments. This device creates a dynamic seal that prevents evaporation during incubation at 65 °C for 1 h. This interval is sufficient to allow a LAMP reaction for the Escherichia coli malB gene to proceed with an analytical sensitivity of 1 double-stranded DNA target copy. Starting with human plasma spiked with whole, live E. coli cells, this paper demonstrates full integration of sample preparation with LAMP amplification and end point detection with a limit of detection of 5 cells. Further, it shows that the method used to prepare sample enables concentration of DNA from sample volumes commonly available from fingerstick blood draw.

  19. "Paper Machine" for Molecular Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Connelly, John T; Rolland, Jason P; Whitesides, George M

    2015-08-01

    Clinical tests based on primer-initiated amplification of specific nucleic acid sequences achieve high levels of sensitivity and specificity. Despite these desirable characteristics, these tests have not reached their full potential because their complexity and expense limit their usefulness to centralized laboratories. This paper describes a device that integrates sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with end point detection using a hand-held UV source and camera phone. The prototype device integrates paper microfluidics (to enable fluid handling) and a multilayer structure, or a "paper machine", that allows a central patterned paper strip to slide in and out of fluidic path and thus allows introduction of sample, wash buffers, amplification master mix, and detection reagents with minimal pipetting, in a hand-held, disposable device intended for point-of-care use in resource-limited environments. This device creates a dynamic seal that prevents evaporation during incubation at 65 °C for 1 h. This interval is sufficient to allow a LAMP reaction for the Escherichia coli malB gene to proceed with an analytical sensitivity of 1 double-stranded DNA target copy. Starting with human plasma spiked with whole, live E. coli cells, this paper demonstrates full integration of sample preparation with LAMP amplification and end point detection with a limit of detection of 5 cells. Further, it shows that the method used to prepare sample enables concentration of DNA from sample volumes commonly available from fingerstick blood draw. PMID:26104869

  20. Machine Learning and Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdar, Harshil; Turk, Matthew; Brunner, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We explore the application of machine learning (ML) to the problem of galaxy formation and evolution in a hierarchical universe. Our motivations are two-fold: (1) presenting a new, promising technique to study galaxy formation, and (2) quantitatively evaluating the extent of the influence of dark matter halo properties on small-scale structure formation. For our analyses, we use both semi-analytical models (Millennium simulation) and N-body + hydrodynamical simulations (Illustris simulation). The ML algorithms are trained on important dark matter halo properties (inputs) and galaxy properties (outputs). The trained models are able to robustly predict the gas mass, stellar mass, black hole mass, star formation rate, $g-r$ color, and stellar metallicity. Moreover, the ML simulated galaxies obey fundamental observational constraints implying that the population of ML predicted galaxies is physically and statistically robust. Next, ML algorithms are trained on an N-body + hydrodynamical simulation and applied to an N-body only simulation (Dark Sky simulation, Illustris Dark), populating this new simulation with galaxies. We can examine how structure formation changes with different cosmological parameters and are able to mimic a full-blown hydrodynamical simulation in a computation time that is orders of magnitude smaller. We find that the set of ML simulated galaxies in Dark Sky obey the same observational constraints, further solidifying ML's place as an intriguing and promising technique in future galaxy formation studies and rapid mock galaxy catalog creation.

  1. Fault-Tolerant Coding for State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naegle, Stephanie Taft; Burke, Gary; Newell, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Two reliable fault-tolerant coding schemes have been proposed for state machines that are used in field-programmable gate arrays and application-specific integrated circuits to implement sequential logic functions. The schemes apply to strings of bits in state registers, which are typically implemented in practice as assemblies of flip-flop circuits. If a single-event upset (SEU, a radiation-induced change in the bit in one flip-flop) occurs in a state register, the state machine that contains the register could go into an erroneous state or could hang, by which is meant that the machine could remain in undefined states indefinitely. The proposed fault-tolerant coding schemes are intended to prevent the state machine from going into an erroneous or hang state when an SEU occurs. To ensure reliability of the state machine, the coding scheme for bits in the state register must satisfy the following criteria: 1. All possible states are defined. 2. An SEU brings the state machine to a known state. 3. There is no possibility of a hang state. 4. No false state is entered. 5. An SEU exerts no effect on the state machine. Fault-tolerant coding schemes that have been commonly used include binary encoding and "one-hot" encoding. Binary encoding is the simplest state machine encoding and satisfies criteria 1 through 3 if all possible states are defined. Binary encoding is a binary count of the state machine number in sequence; the table represents an eight-state example. In one-hot encoding, N bits are used to represent N states: All except one of the bits in a string are 0, and the position of the 1 in the string represents the state. With proper circuit design, one-hot encoding can satisfy criteria 1 through 4. Unfortunately, the requirement to use N bits to represent N states makes one-hot coding inefficient.

  2. Compensation strategy for machining optical freeform surfaces by the combined on- and off-machine measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Zeng, Zhen; Liu, Xianlei; Fang, Fengzhou

    2015-09-21

    Freeform surface is promising to be the next generation optics, however it needs high form accuracy for excellent performance. The closed-loop of fabrication-measurement-compensation is necessary for the improvement of the form accuracy. It is difficult to do an off-machine measurement during the freeform machining because the remounting inaccuracy can result in significant form deviations. On the other side, on-machine measurement may hides the systematic errors of the machine because the measuring device is placed in situ on the machine. This study proposes a new compensation strategy based on the combination of on-machine and off-machine measurement. The freeform surface is measured in off-machine mode with nanometric accuracy, and the on-machine probe achieves accurate relative position between the workpiece and machine after remounting. The compensation cutting path is generated according to the calculated relative position and shape errors to avoid employing extra manual adjustment or highly accurate reference-feature fixture. Experimental results verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. National machine guarding program: Part 1. Machine safeguarding practices in small metal fabrication businesses

    PubMed Central

    Yamin, Samuel C.; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G.; Stanley, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background Metal fabrication workers experience high rates of traumatic occupational injuries. Machine operators in particular face high risks, often stemming from the absence or improper use of machine safeguarding or the failure to implement lockout procedures. Methods The National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP) was a translational research initiative implemented in conjunction with two workers' compensation insures. Insurance safety consultants trained in machine guarding used standardized checklists to conduct a baseline inspection of machine‐related hazards in 221 business. Results Safeguards at the point of operation were missing or inadequate on 33% of machines. Safeguards for other mechanical hazards were missing on 28% of machines. Older machines were both widely used and less likely than newer machines to be properly guarded. Lockout/tagout procedures were posted at only 9% of machine workstations. Conclusions The NMGP demonstrates a need for improvement in many aspects of machine safety and lockout in small metal fabrication businesses. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:1174–1183, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26332060

  4. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  5. An obstacle to building a time machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Sean M.; Farhi, Edward; Guth, Alan H.

    1992-01-01

    Gott (1991) has shown that a spacetime with two infinite parallel cosmic strings passing each other with sufficient velocity contains closed timelike curves. An attempt to build such a time machine is discussed. Using the energy-momentum conservation laws in the equivalent (2 + 1)-dimensional theory, the spacetime representing the decay of one gravitating particle into two is explicitly constructed; there is never enough mass in an open universe to build the time machine from the products of decays of stationary particles. More generally, the Gott time machine cannot exist in any open (2 + 1)-dimensional universe for which the total momentum is timelike.

  6. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  7. Nano Mechanical Machining Using AFM Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostofa, Md. Golam

    Complex miniaturized components with high form accuracy will play key roles in the future development of many products, as they provide portability, disposability, lower material consumption in production, low power consumption during operation, lower sample requirements for testing, and higher heat transfer due to their very high surface-to-volume ratio. Given the high market demand for such micro and nano featured components, different manufacturing methods have been developed for their fabrication. Some of the common technologies in micro/nano fabrication are photolithography, electron beam lithography, X-ray lithography and other semiconductor processing techniques. Although these methods are capable of fabricating micro/nano structures with a resolution of less than a few nanometers, some of the shortcomings associated with these methods, such as high production costs for customized products, limited material choices, necessitate the development of other fabricating techniques. Micro/nano mechanical machining, such an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe based nano fabrication, has, therefore, been used to overcome some the major restrictions of the traditional processes. This technique removes material from the workpiece by engaging micro/nano size cutting tool (i.e. AFM probe) and is applicable on a wider range of materials compared to the photolithographic process. In spite of the unique benefits of nano mechanical machining, there are also some challenges with this technique, since the scale is reduced, such as size effects, burr formations, chip adhesions, fragility of tools and tool wear. Moreover, AFM based machining does not have any rotational movement, which makes fabrication of 3D features more difficult. Thus, vibration-assisted machining is introduced into AFM probe based nano mechanical machining to overcome the limitations associated with the conventional AFM probe based scratching method. Vibration-assisted machining reduced the cutting forces

  8. Probabilistic machine learning and artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-05-28

    How can a machine learn from experience? Probabilistic modelling provides a framework for understanding what learning is, and has therefore emerged as one of the principal theoretical and practical approaches for designing machines that learn from data acquired through experience. The probabilistic framework, which describes how to represent and manipulate uncertainty about models and predictions, has a central role in scientific data analysis, machine learning, robotics, cognitive science and artificial intelligence. This Review provides an introduction to this framework, and discusses some of the state-of-the-art advances in the field, namely, probabilistic programming, Bayesian optimization, data compression and automatic model discovery.

  9. Chemical implementation of finite-state machines.

    PubMed

    Hjelmfelt, A; Weinberger, E D; Ross, J

    1992-01-01

    With methods developed in a prior article on the chemical kinetic implementation of a McCulloch-Pitts neuron, connections among neurons, logic gates, and a clocking mechanism, we construct examples of clocked finite-state machines. These machines include a binary decoder, a binary adder, and a stack memory. An example of the operation of the binary adder is given, and the chemical concentrations corresponding to the state of each chemical neuron are followed in time. Using these methods, we can, in principle, construct a universal Turing machine, and these chemical networks inherit the halting problem

  10. Probabilistic machine learning and artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-05-28

    How can a machine learn from experience? Probabilistic modelling provides a framework for understanding what learning is, and has therefore emerged as one of the principal theoretical and practical approaches for designing machines that learn from data acquired through experience. The probabilistic framework, which describes how to represent and manipulate uncertainty about models and predictions, has a central role in scientific data analysis, machine learning, robotics, cognitive science and artificial intelligence. This Review provides an introduction to this framework, and discusses some of the state-of-the-art advances in the field, namely, probabilistic programming, Bayesian optimization, data compression and automatic model discovery. PMID:26017444

  11. Switching surface chemistry with supramolecular machines.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunbar, Timothy D.; Kelly, Michael James; Jeppesen, Jan O.; Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Matzke, Carolyn M.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Huber, Dale L.; Kushmerick, James G.; Flood, Amar H.; Perkins, Julie; Cao, Jianguo

    2005-07-01

    Tethered supramolecular machines represent a new class of active self-assembled monolayers in which molecular configurations can be reversibly programmed using electrochemical stimuli. We are using these machines to address the chemistry of substrate surfaces for integrated microfluidic systems. Interactions between the tethered tetracationic cyclophane host cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) and dissolved {pi}-electron-rich guest molecules, such as tetrathiafulvalene, have been reversibly switched by oxidative electrochemistry. The results demonstrate that surface-bound supramolecular machines can be programmed to adsorb or release appropriately designed solution species for manipulating surface chemistry.

  12. Probabilistic machine learning and artificial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-05-01

    How can a machine learn from experience? Probabilistic modelling provides a framework for understanding what learning is, and has therefore emerged as one of the principal theoretical and practical approaches for designing machines that learn from data acquired through experience. The probabilistic framework, which describes how to represent and manipulate uncertainty about models and predictions, has a central role in scientific data analysis, machine learning, robotics, cognitive science and artificial intelligence. This Review provides an introduction to this framework, and discusses some of the state-of-the-art advances in the field, namely, probabilistic programming, Bayesian optimization, data compression and automatic model discovery.

  13. Chemical Implementation of Finite-State Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjelmfelt, Allen; Weinberger, Edward D.; Ross, John

    1992-01-01

    With methods developed in a prior article on the chemical kinetic implementation of a McCulloch-Pitts neuron, connections among neurons, logic gates, and a clocking mechanism, we construct examples of clocked finite-state machines. These machines include a binary decoder, a binary adder, and a stack memory. An example of the operation of the binary adder is given, and the chemical concentrations corresponding to the state of each chemical neuron are followed in time. Using these methods, we can, in principle, construct a universal Turing machine, and these chemical networks inherit the halting problem

  14. Machine vision for real time orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision for automation and robotic operation of Space Station era systems has the potential for increasing the efficiency of orbital servicing, repair, assembly and docking tasks. A machine vision research project is described in which a TV camera is used for inputing visual data to a computer so that image processing may be achieved for real time control of these orbital operations. A technique has resulted from this research which reduces computer memory requirements and greatly increases typical computational speed such that it has the potential for development into a real time orbital machine vision system. This technique is called AI BOSS (Analysis of Images by Box Scan and Syntax).

  15. Abstract quantum computing machines and quantum computational logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiara, Maria Luisa Dalla; Giuntini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe; Leporini, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Classical and quantum parallelism are deeply different, although it is sometimes claimed that quantum Turing machines are nothing but special examples of classical probabilistic machines. We introduce the concepts of deterministic state machine, classical probabilistic state machine and quantum state machine. On this basis, we discuss the question: To what extent can quantum state machines be simulated by classical probabilistic state machines? Each state machine is devoted to a single task determined by its program. Real computers, however, behave differently, being able to solve different kinds of problems. This capacity can be modeled, in the quantum case, by the mathematical notion of abstract quantum computing machine, whose different programs determine different quantum state machines. The computations of abstract quantum computing machines can be linguistically described by the formulas of a particular form of quantum logic, termed quantum computational logic.

  16. Machine generation of machine-executable state-change instructions for magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hoenninger, J.C. III; Crooks, L.E.

    1987-11-17

    A process of machine generating machine executable state-change instructions for a sequence controller of a multi-slice magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system is described comprising the steps of: defining predetermined program-change tables T1, T2,...Tn of MRI parameter values in a machine accessible memory; defining predetermined slice-specific program segments P1, P2,...Pm of machine executable MRI sequencer instructions in a machine accessible memory, which segments are referenced by predetermined respective symbolic addresses and which segments include pointer-references to the tables; and machine replicating a predetermined set of the slice-specific program segments in a predetermined order while indexing the corresponding symbolic addresses and referenced table entries in a predetermined sequence so as to maintain proper correspondence between slice-specific main programs and subroutines in each replicated segment.

  17. Designing a leaner, cleaner machine

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1997-05-01

    With factories cutting back on emissions and municipalities stepping up recycling efforts, environmentalists have cast automobiles as the primary pollution culprit. A concept car called the XCAR, which incorporates a fuel-efficient, low-pollution engine from Australia, may one day rehabilitate automobiles` bad environmental reputation. The XCAR is being designed by XCORP in Malibu, Calif. The company was founded in 1991 to transfer cutting-edge aerospace and defense technologies to business and manufacturing applications. Their goals are to design a next-generation automobile that will use less energy; provide a higher degree of safety by being more impact-resistant; reduce stress on roads, highways, and bridges by its lighter weight, thus extending the life of infrastructure; and be easily recycled and repaired. The company is developing a roadster, a subcompact coupe, and a sports/utility version of the XCAR for American civilian use, as well as a general-purpose version for the US military and a multipurpose car for developing nations. The design of the XCAR includes molded thermoplastic panels, which reduces the vehicle`s overall weight. Thermoplastic also lowers the energy needed to stamp steel parts by eliminating the by-products generated from spot-welding, drilling, and riveting, such as welding fumes and spent machining oils. Using large, molded thermoplastic/aluminum sections for much of the chassis and body assemblies will also reduce the number of parts required by a third compared to conventional autos. In addition, paint application and its attendant solvents are eliminated because the color is molded into the plastic body.

  18. Turning toys into microgravity machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumners, C.; Reiff, P.

    The Toys in Space program communicates the experience of being in space and ultimately living in space. In space, what would happen to a yo-yo's speed, a top's wobble, or your skill in playing soccer, throwing a boomerang or jumping rope? Discover how these toys and others have performed in microgravity and how these demonstrations can link children to the space program. On April 12, 1985 astronauts carried the first experiment package of miniature mechanical systems called toys into space. Since that time 54 toys have been demonstrated in microgravity. This summer, NASA and the Houston Museum of Natural Science have sponsored the first International Toys in Space project with sixteen toys chosen for their popularity and relevance around the world. This set of toys takes advantage of the larger Space Station by providing toys that take up more room - from two-person games of soccer, lacrosse, marbles, and hockey to a jump rope and several kinds of yoyos. Three earlier Toys in Space missions have shown that toys are ideal machines to demonstrate how gravity affects moving objects on the Earth's surface and how the motions of these objects change in microgravity. In this presentation, participants actually experiment with miniature versions of toys, predict their behavior on orbit, and watch the surprising results. Participants receive toy patterns to share with young people at home, around the world. The Toys in Space program scales for all ages. Young learners can use their observation and comparison skills while older students apply physics concepts to toy behaviors. Concepts demonstrated include all of Newton's Laws of Motion, gyroscopic stability, centripetal force, density, as well as conservation of linear and angular momentum.

  19. Electroformed Electrodes for Electrical-Discharge Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, A.; Cassidenti, M.

    1984-01-01

    Copper electrodes replace graphite electrodes in many instances of electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of complex shapes. Copper electrodes wear longer and cause less contamination of EDM dielectric fluid than do graphite electrodes.

  20. Contamination-Free Electrical-Discharge Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Mark G.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination of parts by electrical-discharge machining (EDM) almost completely eliminated by reversing flow of coolant. Flow reversed from usual direction so coolant carries contaminants out through passage in electrode. Coolant for reverse flow is pressurized dichlorodifluoromethane vapor.

  1. Machine learning applications in genetics and genomics.

    PubMed

    Libbrecht, Maxwell W; Noble, William Stafford

    2015-06-01

    The field of machine learning, which aims to develop computer algorithms that improve with experience, holds promise to enable computers to assist humans in the analysis of large, complex data sets. Here, we provide an overview of machine learning applications for the analysis of genome sequencing data sets, including the annotation of sequence elements and epigenetic, proteomic or metabolomic data. We present considerations and recurrent challenges in the application of supervised, semi-supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods, as well as of generative and discriminative modelling approaches. We provide general guidelines to assist in the selection of these machine learning methods and their practical application for the analysis of genetic and genomic data sets. PMID:25948244

  2. Phenolic cutter for machining foam insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, T. A.; Miller, A. C.; Price, B. W.; Stiles, W. S.

    1970-01-01

    Pre-pregged fiber glass is an efficient abrasive for machining polystyrene and polyurethane foams. It bonds easily to any cutter base made of aluminum, steel, or phenolic, is inexpensive, and is readily available.

  3. Refrigerated cutting tools improve machining of superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    Freon-12 applied to tool cutting edge evaporates quickly, leaves no residue, and permits higher cutting rate than with conventional coolants. This technique increases cutting rate on Rene-41 threefold and improves finish of machined surface.

  4. A Machine-Portable CDC UPDATE Emulator.

    SciTech Connect

    THOMAS,; HAILL, A.

    1987-09-01

    Version 01 UPEML is a machine-portable CDC UPDATE emulation program. It is capable of emulating a significant subset of the standard CDC UPDATE functions, including program library creation and subsequent modification.

  5. Electrical-Discharge Machining Of Perpendicular Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1996-01-01

    Perpendicular telescoping electrode used to perform electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of internal passage through previously inaccessible depth of metal workpiece. More specifically, used to make internal passage perpendicular to passage entering from outer surface.

  6. Physical effects in wormholes and time machines

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, V.P. P. N. Lebedev, Physical Institute, Moscow ); Novikov, I.D. )

    1990-08-15

    Physical effects in a spacetime with a traversable wormhole are considered. It is shown that the interaction of a wormhole with the surrounding matter and with the external gravitational field almost inevitably transforms it into a time machine.

  7. Strain gradient plasticity theory applied to machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Raphaël; Laheurte, Raynald; Darnis, Philippe; Gérard, Alain; Cahuc, Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Machining is the most common manufacturing process. A good behaviour law is necessary in the simulation of machining processes (analytical and finite element modeling). Usually, commonly used behaviour laws such as Jonhson-Cook can bring unsatisfactory results especially for high strain and large deformation processes. Significant differences can appear between experimental and simulation results. The aim of this paper is to present the choices made regarding the behaviour law in this context. This study develops a large deformation strain-gradient theoretical framework with hypothesis linked to metal cutting processes. The theoretical framework has the potential of expressing moments at the tool tip as they were observed in experiments. It will be shown that the theory has the capability of interpreting the complex phenomena found in machining and more particularly in high speed machining.

  8. Machine learning: an indispensable tool in bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Inza, Iñaki; Calvo, Borja; Armañanzas, Rubén; Bengoetxea, Endika; Larrañaga, Pedro; Lozano, José A

    2010-01-01

    The increase in the number and complexity of biological databases has raised the need for modern and powerful data analysis tools and techniques. In order to fulfill these requirements, the machine learning discipline has become an everyday tool in bio-laboratories. The use of machine learning techniques has been extended to a wide spectrum of bioinformatics applications. It is broadly used to investigate the underlying mechanisms and interactions between biological molecules in many diseases, and it is an essential tool in any biomarker discovery process. In this chapter, we provide a basic taxonomy of machine learning algorithms, and the characteristics of main data preprocessing, supervised classification, and clustering techniques are shown. Feature selection, classifier evaluation, and two supervised classification topics that have a deep impact on current bioinformatics are presented. We make the interested reader aware of a set of popular web resources, open source software tools, and benchmarking data repositories that are frequently used by the machine learning community. PMID:19957143

  9. Drill user's manual. [drilling machine automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Instructions are given for using the DRILL computer program which converts data contained in an Interactive Computer Graphics System (IGDS) design file to production of a paper tape for driving a numerically controlled drilling machine.

  10. A survey of machine readable data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlock, P.

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two of the machine readable data bases available to the technologist and researcher in the natural sciences and engineering are described and compared with the data bases and date base services offered by NASA.

  11. Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David

    2015-11-01

    Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system (working fluid) coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) sometimes called the work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into a few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines powered by them is limited by the generalized Carnot bound.

  12. Turning assistive machines into assistive robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argall, Brenna D.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, the potential for automation in particular, in the form of smart wheelchairs to aid those with motor, or cognitive, impairments has been recognized. It is a paradox that often the more severe a person's motor impairment, the more challenging it is for them to operate the very assistive machines which might enhance their quality of life. A primary aim of my lab is to address this confound by incorporating robotics autonomy and intelligence into assistive machines turning the machine into a kind of robot, and offloading some of the control burden from the user. Robots already synthetically sense, act in and reason about the world, and these technologies can be leveraged to help bridge the gap left by sensory, motor or cognitive impairments in the users of assistive machines. This paper overviews some of the ongoing projects in my lab, which strives to advance human ability through robotics autonomy.

  13. Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.

  14. Laser applications in machining slab materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping

    1990-10-01

    Since the invention of the laser back in 1960, laser technology has been extensively applied in many fields of science and technology. These has been a history of nearly two decades of using lasers as an energy source in machining materials, such as cutting, welding, ruling and boring, among other operations. With the development of flexible automation in production, the advantages of laser machining have has grown more and more obvious. The combination of laser technology and computer science further promotes the enhancement and upgrading of laser machining and related equipment. At present, many countries are building high quality laser equipment for machining slab materials, such as the Coherent and Spectra Physics corporations in the United States, the Trumpf Corporation in West Germany, the Amada Corporation in Japan, and the Bystronic Corporation in Switzerland, among other companies.

  15. The Invention Convention: Mind Meets Simple Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    1997-01-01

    Describes an Earth Day celebration where students had to design an invention made of simple machines that could crush an empty aluminum can through 10 rapid mechanical movements using materials foraged from the students' homes. (JRH)

  16. Strain gradient plasticity theory applied to machining

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Raphael; Laheurte, Raynald; Darnis, Philippe; Gerard, Alain; Cahuc, Olivier

    2011-05-04

    Machining is the most common manufacturing process. A good behaviour law is necessary in the simulation of machining processes (analytical and finite element modeling). Usually, commonly used behaviour laws such as Jonhson-Cook can bring unsatisfactory results especially for high strain and large deformation processes. Significant differences can appear between experimental and simulation results. The aim of this paper is to present the choices made regarding the behaviour law in this context. This study develops a large deformation strain-gradient theoretical framework with hypothesis linked to metal cutting processes. The theoretical framework has the potential of expressing moments at the tool tip as they were observed in experiments. It will be shown that the theory has the capability of interpreting the complex phenomena found in machining and more particularly in high speed machining.

  17. Machine learning applications in genetics and genomics.

    PubMed

    Libbrecht, Maxwell W; Noble, William Stafford

    2015-06-01

    The field of machine learning, which aims to develop computer algorithms that improve with experience, holds promise to enable computers to assist humans in the analysis of large, complex data sets. Here, we provide an overview of machine learning applications for the analysis of genome sequencing data sets, including the annotation of sequence elements and epigenetic, proteomic or metabolomic data. We present considerations and recurrent challenges in the application of supervised, semi-supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods, as well as of generative and discriminative modelling approaches. We provide general guidelines to assist in the selection of these machine learning methods and their practical application for the analysis of genetic and genomic data sets.

  18. Light source design for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieczka, Eric J.; Harding, Kevin G.

    1992-03-01

    There is a lack of commercially available white light sources for machine vision applications. Current commercial sources are typically expensive and primarily designed for workbench use. Because of their benchtop design, these light sources cannot be easily integrated into the inspection system. In most cases a light source must be custom designed and built to suit the needs of the particular machine vision application. The materials being inspected can vary from highly specular to highly diffuse, thus requiring a broad range of illumination levels. Other issues important in machine vision light sources include efficiency, light divergence, spectral content, source size, and packaging. This paper discusses the issues that must be overcome when designing a light source for machine vision applications, and describes the work done by ITI to produce an efficient white light source with computer controlled illumination level.

  19. Electrical-Discharge Machining With Additional Axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malinzak, Roger M.; Booth, Gary N.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed electrical-discharge-machining (EDM) apparatus uses moveable vertical wire as electrode. Wire positionable horizontally along one axis as it slides vertically past workpiece. Workpiece indexed in rotation about horizontal axis. Because of symmetry of parts, process used to make two such parts at a time by defining boundary between them. Advantages: cost of material reduced, imparts less residual stress to workpiece, and less time spent machining each part when parts produced in such symmetrical pairs.

  20. Cutting sound enhancement system for mining machines

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, M.C.; Kwitowski, A.J.

    1991-01-24

    The invention relates to the field of acoustical monitoring in a mining environment in general, and in particular to a system for focusing an acoustical transducer on the cutting head of a mining machine and coupling the output of the transducer to headphones worn by the remotely positioned operator of the machine to assist the operator in audibly detecting the location of the parameters of a coal seam.

  1. Method of fabricating a micro machine

    DOEpatents

    Stalford, Harold L

    2014-11-11

    A micro machine may be in or less than the micrometer domain. The micro machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft is operable to be driven by the micro actuator. A tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to at least motion of the micro shaft.

  2. Machine Learning for Biological Trajectory Classification Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; Theriot, Julie; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2002-01-01

    Machine-learning techniques, including clustering algorithms, support vector machines and hidden Markov models, are applied to the task of classifying trajectories of moving keratocyte cells. The different algorithms axe compared to each other as well as to expert and non-expert test persons, using concepts from signal-detection theory. The algorithms performed very well as compared to humans, suggesting a robust tool for trajectory classification in biological applications.

  3. Implementing nested conditional statements in SIMD machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David

    1989-01-01

    Single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) computers consist of a very large number of processors executing a common sequence of instructions. Maintaining the full speedup potential of such machines is most sensitive to conditional execution in their programs, regions of code where some processing elements (PEs) perform no useful work. Techniques are presented for efficiently implementing nested conditional statements, specifically if and case statements, in SIMD machines, while adding minimal specialized hardware.

  4. Principles and techniques for designing precision machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L C

    1999-02-01

    This thesis is written to advance the reader's knowledge of precision-engineering principles and their application to designing machines that achieve both sufficient precision and minimum cost. It provides the concepts and tools necessary for the engineer to create new precision machine designs. Four case studies demonstrate the principles and showcase approaches and solutions to specific problems that generally have wider applications. These come from projects at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in which the author participated: the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine, Accuracy Enhancement of High- Productivity Machine Tools, the National Ignition Facility, and Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography. Although broad in scope, the topics go into sufficient depth to be useful to practicing precision engineers and often fulfill more academic ambitions. The thesis begins with a chapter that presents significant principles and fundamental knowledge from the Precision Engineering literature. Following this is a chapter that presents engineering design techniques that are general and not specific to precision machines. All subsequent chapters cover specific aspects of precision machine design. The first of these is Structural Design, guidelines and analysis techniques for achieving independently stiff machine structures. The next chapter addresses dynamic stiffness by presenting several techniques for Deterministic Damping, damping designs that can be analyzed and optimized with predictive results. Several chapters present a main thrust of the thesis, Exact-Constraint Design. A main contribution is a generalized modeling approach developed through the course of creating several unique designs. The final chapter is the primary case study of the thesis, the Conceptual Design of a Horizontal Machining Center.

  5. Parallel machine architecture and compiler design facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuck, David J.; Yew, Pen-Chung; Padua, David; Sameh, Ahmed; Veidenbaum, Alex

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to provide an integrated simulation environment for studying and evaluating various issues in designing parallel systems, including machine architectures, parallelizing compiler techniques, and parallel algorithms. The status of Delta project (which objective is to provide a facility to allow rapid prototyping of parallelized compilers that can target toward different machine architectures) is summarized. Included are the surveys of the program manipulation tools developed, the environmental software supporting Delta, and the compiler research projects in which Delta has played a role.

  6. Hydraulic machine with non-uniform cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haluza, M.; Pochylý, F.; Habán, V.

    2012-11-01

    In this article is introduced the sentence of an extension of operational zone of hydraulic machines. The problems of its extending is based on the design of non-uniform cascade. The non-uniform cascade is connected with other factors. The change of own frequency of the runner of a hydraulic machine and pressure pulsations. The suitable construction of non-uniform cascade is introduced on the results of computational simulation and experiment.

  7. Manipulator for plasma-assisted machining of components made of materials with low machinability

    SciTech Connect

    Lyaoshchukov, M.M.; Agadzhanyan, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The All-Union Scientific-Research and Technological Institute of Pump Engineering developed, and the ''Uralgidromash'' Production Association has adopted, a manipulator with remote control for the plasma-assisted machining (PAM) of components made of materials with low machinability. The manipulator is distinguished by its universal design and can be used for machining both external and internal surfaces of the bodies of revolution and also end faces and various curvilinear surfaces.

  8. Detecting Abnormal Machine Characteristics in Cloud Infrastructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaduri, Kanishka; Das, Kamalika; Matthews, Bryan L.

    2011-01-01

    In the cloud computing environment resources are accessed as services rather than as a product. Monitoring this system for performance is crucial because of typical pay-peruse packages bought by the users for their jobs. With the huge number of machines currently in the cloud system, it is often extremely difficult for system administrators to keep track of all machines using distributed monitoring programs such as Ganglia1 which lacks system health assessment and summarization capabilities. To overcome this problem, we propose a technique for automated anomaly detection using machine performance data in the cloud. Our algorithm is entirely distributed and runs locally on each computing machine on the cloud in order to rank the machines in order of their anomalous behavior for given jobs. There is no need to centralize any of the performance data for the analysis and at the end of the analysis, our algorithm generates error reports, thereby allowing the system administrators to take corrective actions. Experiments performed on real data sets collected for different jobs validate the fact that our algorithm has a low overhead for tracking anomalous machines in a cloud infrastructure.

  9. X-Ray Backscatter Machine Support Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    This summer at Kennedy Space Center, I spent 10 weeks as an intern working at the Prototype Development Lab. During this time I learned about the design and machining done here at NASA. I became familiar with the process from where a design begins in Pro/Engineer and finishes at the hands of the machinists. As an intern I was given various small jobs to do and then one project of my own. My personal project was a job for the Applied Physics Lab; in their work they use an X-Ray Backscatter machine. Previously it was resting atop a temporary frame that limited the use of the machine. My job was to design a frame for the machine to rest upon that would allow a full range of sample sizes. The frame was required to support the machine and provide a strain relief for the cords attached to the machine as it moved in the x and y directions. Calculations also had to be done to be sure the design would be able to withstand any loads or outside sources of stress. After the calculations proved the design to be ready to withstand the requirements, the parts were ordered or fabricated, as required. This helped me understand the full process of jobs sent to the Prototype Development Lab.

  10. Vending machine assessment methodology. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M

    2015-07-01

    The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended.

  11. Simplified theory of Ringbom Stirling machines

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, P.; Stouffs, P.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a first order analysis of four types of overdriven free-displacer Stirling machines. All the presented types of machines can work as refrigerating machines, prime movers or heat exchange accelerators depending on parameters such as the hot to cold source temperatures ratio, the dimensional mass of working gas in the machine, the displacer rod to displacer cross sectional area ratio, the corrected dead space to piston cylinder volume ratio and the displacer to piston cylinder volume ratio. In its analytical form this theory holds for machines at low speed as it is assumed that the piston displacement can be neglected during the displacer movement duration. This analysis may be used to find the conditions and values giving either the best theoretical refrigerating cycle or the best theoretical prime mover cycle, the associated reference work, reference time, efficiency and heat quantities involved. A table gives the analytical expressions and the limiting values of the main parameters for the four different types of Ringbom machines considered. The preliminary design of a Ringbom prime mover is then presented. The main parameters influences are predicted and the magnitude of work, rotational speed limit and efficiency are obtained.

  12. Gram staining with an automatic machine.

    PubMed

    Felek, S; Arslan, A

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a new Gram-staining machine controlled by a micro-controller and to investigate the quality of slides that were stained in the machine. The machine was designed and produced by the authors. It uses standard 220 V AC. Staining, washing, and drying periods are controlled by a timer built in the micro-controller. A software was made that contains a certain algorithm and time intervals for the staining mode. One-hundred and forty smears were prepared from Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria sp., blood culture, trypticase soy broth, direct pus and sputum smears for comparison studies. Half of the slides in each group were stained with the machine, the other half by hand and then examined by four different microbiologists. Machine-stained slides had a higher clarity and less debris than the hand-stained slides (p < 0.05). In hand-stained slides, some Gram-positive organisms showed poor Gram-positive staining features (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that Gram staining with the automatic machine increases the staining quality and helps to decrease the work load in a busy diagnostic laboratory.

  13. Survey of ceramic machining in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, B.P.; Blau, P.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report is a compilation of four subcontract reports provided by B. P. Bandyopadhyay who, while a visiting professor at Toyohashi University in Japan, conducted a survey of ceramic machining technology in that country from January 1 through December 31, 1992. Various aspects of machining technology were surveyed: types of parts being produced, types of ceramic materials being used, the nature of current ceramic machining research and development, and types of machine tools. The four separate reports compiled here were originally provided in a narrative, chronological form, and some of the information has been reorganized into topical areas for this compilation. This report is organized into three sections: The first describes ten ceramic machining research and development organizations and provides a reference list of their current technical publications; the second, two major trade shows; and the third, several other products and commercial developments noted during the course of Bandyopadhyay`s stay in Japan. An Appendix lists key individuals who are currently conducting ceramic machining research in Japan.

  14. Communication Studies of DMP and SMP Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Andrew; Biswas, Rupak; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between machines and problems is key to obtaining high performance on parallel machines. This paper investigates the interplay between programming paradigms and communication capabilities of parallel machines. In particular, we explicate the communication capabilities of the IBM SP-2 distributed-memory multiprocessor and the SGI PowerCHALLENGEarray symmetric multiprocessor. Two benchmark problems of bitonic sorting and Fast Fourier Transform are selected for experiments. Communication-efficient algorithms are developed to exploit the overlapping capabilities of the machines. Programs are written in Message-Passing Interface for portability and identical codes are used for both machines. Various data sizes and message sizes are used to test the machines' communication capabilities. Experimental results indicate that the communication performance of the multiprocessors are consistent with the size of messages. The SP-2 is sensitive to message size but yields a much higher communication overlapping because of the communication co-processor. The PowerCHALLENGEarray is not highly sensitive to message size and yields a low communication overlapping. Bitonic sorting yields lower performance compared to FFT due to a smaller computation-to-communication ratio.

  15. Photonic Neurocomputers And Learning Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Nabil H.

    1990-05-01

    The study of complex multidimensional nonlinear dynamical systems and the modeling and emulation of cognitive brain-like processing of sensory information (neural network research), including the study of chaos and its role in such systems would benefit immensely from the development of a new generation of programmable analog computers capable of carrying out collective, nonlinear and iterative computations at very high speed. The massive interconnectivity and nonlinearity needed in such analog computing structures indicate that a mix of optics and electronics mediated by judicial choice of device physics offer benefits for realizing networks with the following desirable properties: (a) large scale nets, i.e. nets with high number of decision making elements (neurons), (b) modifiable structure, i.e. ability to partition the net into any desired number of layers of prescribed size (number of neurons per layer) with any prescribed pattern of communications between them (e.g. feed forward or feedback (recurrent)), (c) programmable and/or adaptive connectivity weights between the neurons for self-organization and learning, (d) both synchroneous or asynchroneous update rules be possible, (e) high speed update i.e. neurons with lisec response time to enable rapid iteration and convergence, (f) can be used in the study and evaluation of a variety of adaptive learning algorithms, (g) can be used in rapid solution by fast simulated annealing of complex optimization problems of the kind encountered in adaptive learning, pattern recognition, and image processing. The aim of this paper is to describe recent efforts and progress made towards achieving these desirable attributes in analog photonic (optoelectronic and/or electron optical) hardware that utilizes primarily incoherent light. A specific example, hardware implementation of a stochastic Boltzmann learning machine, is used as vehicle for identifying generic issues and clarify research and development areas for further

  16. 30 CFR 18.36 - Cables between machine components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cables between machine components. 18.36... and Design Requirements § 18.36 Cables between machine components. (a) Cables between machine... between machine components shall be: (1) Clamped in place to prevent undue movement, (2) protected...

  17. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  18. 30 CFR 18.36 - Cables between machine components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cables between machine components. 18.36... and Design Requirements § 18.36 Cables between machine components. (a) Cables between machine... between machine components shall be: (1) Clamped in place to prevent undue movement, (2) protected...

  19. 30 CFR 18.36 - Cables between machine components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cables between machine components. 18.36... and Design Requirements § 18.36 Cables between machine components. (a) Cables between machine... between machine components shall be: (1) Clamped in place to prevent undue movement, (2) protected...

  20. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  1. 30 CFR 18.61 - Final inspection of complete machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final inspection of complete machine. 18.61... and Tests § 18.61 Final inspection of complete machine. (a) A completely assembled new machine or a... with the requirements of this part it shall be corrected before an approval of the machine will...

  2. 41 CFR 50-204.5 - Machine guarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Machine guarding. 50-204... General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.5 Machine guarding. (a) One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from...

  3. 12 CFR 1005.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 1005... TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) General § 1005.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. “Automated teller machine operator” means any person that operates an automated teller machine at which...

  4. 30 CFR 18.36 - Cables between machine components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cables between machine components. 18.36... and Design Requirements § 18.36 Cables between machine components. (a) Cables between machine... between machine components shall be: (1) Clamped in place to prevent undue movement, (2) protected...

  5. 41 CFR 50-204.5 - Machine guarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Machine guarding. 50-204... General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.5 Machine guarding. (a) One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from...

  6. 12 CFR 205.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 205... SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. Automated teller machine operator means any person that operates an automated teller machine...

  7. 12 CFR 205.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 205... SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. Automated teller machine operator means any person that operates an automated teller machine...

  8. 30 CFR 18.61 - Final inspection of complete machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Final inspection of complete machine. 18.61... and Tests § 18.61 Final inspection of complete machine. (a) A completely assembled new machine or a... with the requirements of this part it shall be corrected before an approval of the machine will...

  9. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  10. 12 CFR 1005.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 1005... TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) General § 1005.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. “Automated teller machine operator” means any person that operates an automated teller machine at which...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.212 - General requirements for all machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General requirements for all machines. 1910.212 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.212 General requirements for all machines. (a) Machine guarding—(1) Types of guarding. One or more methods...

  12. 30 CFR 18.61 - Final inspection of complete machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final inspection of complete machine. 18.61... and Tests § 18.61 Final inspection of complete machine. (a) A completely assembled new machine or a... with the requirements of this part it shall be corrected before an approval of the machine will...

  13. 30 CFR 18.36 - Cables between machine components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cables between machine components. 18.36... and Design Requirements § 18.36 Cables between machine components. (a) Cables between machine... between machine components shall be: (1) Clamped in place to prevent undue movement, (2) protected...

  14. 12 CFR 205.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 205... SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. Automated teller machine operator means any person that operates an automated teller machine...

  15. 41 CFR 50-204.5 - Machine guarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Machine guarding. 50-204... General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.5 Machine guarding. (a) One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from...

  16. 30 CFR 18.61 - Final inspection of complete machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Final inspection of complete machine. 18.61... and Tests § 18.61 Final inspection of complete machine. (a) A completely assembled new machine or a... with the requirements of this part it shall be corrected before an approval of the machine will...

  17. 41 CFR 50-204.5 - Machine guarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Machine guarding. 50-204... General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.5 Machine guarding. (a) One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from...

  18. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  19. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.212 - General requirements for all machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General requirements for all machines. 1910.212 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.212 General requirements for all machines. (a) Machine guarding—(1) Types of guarding. One or more methods...

  1. 30 CFR 18.61 - Final inspection of complete machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final inspection of complete machine. 18.61... and Tests § 18.61 Final inspection of complete machine. (a) A completely assembled new machine or a... with the requirements of this part it shall be corrected before an approval of the machine will...

  2. 12 CFR 205.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 205... SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. Automated teller machine operator means any person that operates an automated teller machine...

  3. 12 CFR 1005.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 1005... TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 1005.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. “Automated teller machine operator” means any person that operates an automated teller machine at which a...

  4. 12 CFR 205.16 - Disclosures at automated teller machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 205... SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. Automated teller machine operator means any person that operates an automated teller machine...

  5. Understanding and Writing G & M Code for CNC Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In modern CAD and CAM manufacturing companies, engineers design parts for machines and consumable goods. Many of these parts are cut on CNC machines. Whether using a CNC lathe, milling machine, or router, the ideas and designs of engineers must be translated into a machine-readable form called G & M Code that can be used to cut parts to precise…

  6. 29 CFR 1910.212 - General requirements for all machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General requirements for all machines. 1910.212 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.212 General requirements for all machines. (a) Machine guarding—(1) Types of guarding. One or more methods...

  7. The Double-Needle Felling Machine. Module 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the double-needle felling machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: performing special operations on the double-needle felling machine (straight seams) and performing special operations on the double-needle felling machine (curved flat-felled seams). For…

  8. Project Plan for Vertical Lift Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, G F

    2002-08-05

    This document describes the Project Plan for the development and manufacture of a Vertical Lift Machine. It is assumed by this project plan that the Vertical Lift Machine will be developed, designed, manufactured, and tested by a qualified vendor. LLNL will retain review and approval authority for each step given in this project plan. The Vertical Lift Machine is a single linear axis positioning device capable of lifting objects vertically at controlled rates and positioning them repeatedly at predetermined heights, in relation to other objects suspended from above, for high neutron multiplication experiments. Operation of the machine during the experiments is done remotely. The lift mechanism shall accommodate various platforms (tables) that support the objects to be raised. A frame will support additional subassemblies from above such that the lower subassembly can be raised close to and/or interface with those above. The structure must be stiff and motion of the table linear such that radial alignment is maintained (e.g. concentricity). The safe position for the Vertical Lift Machine is the lift mechanism fully retracted with the subassemblies fully separated. The machine shall reside in this position when not in use. It must return to this safe condition from any position upon failure of power sources, open safety interlocks, or operator initiated SCRAM. The Vertical Lift Machine shall have the capability of return to the safe position with no externally applied power. The Vertical Lift Machine shall have dual operator interfaces, one near the machine and another located in a remote control room. Conventional single key, key-lock switching shall be implemented to lock out the control interface not in use. The interface at the machine will be used for testing and ''dry running'' experimental setup(s) with inert subassemblies (i.e. Setup Mode). The remote interface shall provide full control and data recording capability (i.e. Assembly Mode). The control system

  9. Spanning Tree Calculations on D-Wave 2 Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, M. A.; Hobl, Q. L.; Hall, J. S.; Michielsen, K.

    2016-02-01

    Calculations on D-Wave machines are presented, both for the 500-qubit and the 1000-qubit machines. Results are presented for spanning trees on the available K4,4 Chimera graphs of both machines. Comparing trees of approximately the same size, the frequency of finding the ground state for the 1000-qubit machine is significantly improved over the 500- qubit older generation machine. Spanning trees are difficult problems for solution by adiabatic quantum computers, so the enhanced frequency of finding the ground state for newer machine generations and larger machines is encouraging for this immature technology.

  10. Smile (System/Machine-Independent Local Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1988-04-01

    This document defines the characteristics of Smile, a System/machine-independent local environment. This environment consists primarily of a number of primitives (types, macros, procedure calls, and variables) that a program may use; these primitives provide facilities, such as memory allocation, timing, tasking and synchronization beyond those typically provided by a programming language. The intent is that a program will be portable from system to system and from machine to machine if it relies only on the portable aspects of its programming language and on the Smile primitives. For this to be so, Smile itself must be implemented on each system and machine, most likely using non-portable constructions; that is, while the environment provided by Smile is intended to be portable, the implementation of Smile is not necessarily so. In order to make the implementation of Smile as easy as possible and thereby expedite the porting of programs to a new system or a new machine, Smile has been defined to provide a minimal portable environment; that is, simple primitives are defined, out of which more complex facilities may be constructed using portable procedures. The implementation of Smile can be as any of the following: the underlying software environment for the operating system of an otherwise {open_quotes}bare{close_quotes} machine, a {open_quotes}guest{close_quotes} system environment built upon a preexisting operating system, an environment within a {open_quotes}user{close_quotes} process run by an operating system, or a single environment for an entire machine, encompassing both system and {open_quotes}user{close_quotes} processes. In the first three of these cases the tasks provided by Smile are {open_quotes}lightweight processes{close_quotes} multiplexed within preexisting processes or the system, while in the last case they also include the system processes themselves.

  11. Machine Maintenance Integrated Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.; Schwartz, M.E.

    1998-03-11

    The objectives of this partnership project were to develop a preventive maintenance checklist program, a troubleshooting system for the Vertical Turning Center (VTC)-5, an on-line manual, and to integrate these components with a custom browser that would run on the VTC-5 machine's controller and would support future internet/intranet delivery. Kingsbury provided subject matter experts from engineering, manufacturing, and technical support. They also provided photographs, schematics, and CAD drawings, which AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) digitized for use in the final program. Information from The Kingsbury troubleshooting experts were interviewed regarding symptoms and root causes of system malfunctions This knowledge was captured and from it, fault trees were developed. These trees were then incorporated into the EPSS as a troubleshooting tool. The troubleshooting portion of the system presents simple questions to the machine operator in order to determine the likely cause or causes of malfunctions and then recommends systematic corrective actions. The on-line reference manual, covering operations and maintenance, provides text and illustrations to the machine operator in a traditional structure, but additionally offers the capability to search voluminous amounts of technical data and retrieve specific information on request. The maintenance portion of the EPSS includes checklists that are displayed daily, weekly, monthly, and annually, as appropriate, on the VTC-5 controller screen. The controller software is unavailable for machining parts until the machine tool operator goes through and checks off all of the checklist items. This project provided the team with a detailed understanding of the knowledge and information required to produce and support advanced machine tools. In addition, it resulted in the design and construction of a prototype VTC-5 EPSS containing all the logic and interfaces necessary to integrate operations

  12. 34 CFR 395.32 - Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on Federal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on Federal property. 395.32 Section 395.32 Education Regulations of the Offices... Management § 395.32 Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on...

  13. 34 CFR 395.32 - Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on Federal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on Federal property. 395.32 Section 395.32 Education Regulations of the Offices... Management § 395.32 Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on...

  14. 34 CFR 395.32 - Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on Federal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on Federal property. 395.32 Section 395.32 Education Regulations of the Offices... Management § 395.32 Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on...

  15. 34 CFR 395.32 - Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on Federal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on Federal property. 395.32 Section 395.32 Education Regulations of the Offices... Management § 395.32 Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on...

  16. 34 CFR 395.32 - Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on Federal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on Federal property. 395.32 Section 395.32 Education Regulations of the Offices... Management § 395.32 Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on...

  17. Advanced coordinate measuring machine at Sandia National Laboratories/California

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkey, R.D.; Klevgard, P.A.

    1993-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/California has acquired a new Moore M-48V CNC five-axis universal coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Site preparation, acceptance testing, and initial performance results are discussed. Unique features of the machine include a ceramic ram and vacuum evacuated laser pathways (VELPS). The implementation of a VELPS system on the machine imposed certain design requirements and entailed certain start-up problems. The machine`s projected capabilities, workload, and research possibilities are outlined.

  18. Amusement machine playing in childhood and adolescence: a comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M D

    1991-03-01

    The introduction of video games has met with mixed reviews. In the US, an ongoing debate focusing on the potential problems of video game playing has been taken up by parents, politicians and social scientists. A number of the concerns that have been raised about the playing of video games in the US are very similar to the concerns raised about the playing of fruit machines (slot machines) in the UK. This paper attempts to put the on-going US and UK amusement machine debates into an empirical perspective and attempts a comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines by examining: incidence of play, sex differences and psychological characteristics of machine players, observational findings in arcade setting, the alleged negative consequences of amusement machine playing (i.e. increased aggression and addiction), and an appraisal of amusement machines' positive aspects. Future directions and an expanded version of Brown's (1989) developmental model of a pathology of man-machine relationships are also discussed.

  19. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit I--Introduction to Milling Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to identify parts and attachments of vertical and horizontal milling machines, identify work-holding devices, state safety rules, and…

  20. Machine Shop Operations--2. Milling Machine, Heat Treatment of Metals, and Grinders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currao, Joseph; Usarzewicz, Louis

    This manual was prepared for the student who plans to enter the machine shop field. The 20 selected jobs provide the student with knowledge and step-by-step procedures for the operation of milling machines. The text is organized so that each job has an objective, tools needed, step-by-step instructions, a progress quiz, and space for reference,…