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Sample records for mis vib kujuneda

  1. Orexin-dependent activation of layer VIb enhances cortical network activity and integration of non-specific thalamocortical inputs.

    PubMed

    Hay, Y Audrey; Andjelic, Sofija; Badr, Sammy; Lambolez, Bertrand

    2015-11-01

    Neocortical layer VI is critically involved in thalamocortical activity changes during the sleep/wake cycle. It receives dense projections from thalamic nuclei sensitive to the wake-promoting neuropeptides orexins, and its deepest part, layer VIb, is the only cortical lamina reactive to orexins. This convergence of wake-promoting inputs prompted us to investigate how layer VIb can modulate cortical arousal, using patch-clamp recordings and optogenetics in rat brain slices. We found that the majority of layer VIb neurons were excited by nicotinic agonists and orexin through the activation of nicotinic receptors containing α4-α5-β2 subunits and OX2 receptor, respectively. Specific effects of orexin on layer VIb neurons were potentiated by low nicotine concentrations and we used this paradigm to explore their intracortical projections. Co-application of nicotine and orexin increased the frequency of excitatory post-synaptic currents in the ipsilateral cortex, with maximal effect in infragranular layers and minimal effect in layer IV, as well as in the contralateral cortex. The ability of layer VIb to relay thalamocortical inputs was tested using photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-expressing fibers from the orexin-sensitive rhomboid nucleus in the parietal cortex. Photostimulation induced robust excitatory currents in layer VIa neurons that were not pre-synaptically modulated by orexin, but exhibited a delayed, orexin-dependent, component. Activation of layer VIb by orexin enhanced the reliability and spike-timing precision of layer VIa responses to rhomboid inputs. These results indicate that layer VIb acts as an orexin-gated excitatory feedforward loop that potentiates thalamocortical arousal.

  2. ALPHA MIS: Reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Heatherly, R.D.; Hughes, S.E.; Ishee, J.S.; Pratt, S.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1992-02-01

    ALPHA is a powerful and versatile management information system (MIS) initiated and sponsored and by the Finance and Business Management Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who maintain and develop it in concert with the Business Systems Division for its Information Center. A general-purpose MIS, ALPHA allows users to access System 1022 and System 1032 databases to obtain and manage information. From a personal computer or a data terminal, Energy Systems employees can use ALPHA to control their own report reprocessing. Using four general commands (Database, Select, Sort, and Report) they can (1) choose a mainframe database, (2) define subsets within it, (3) sequentially order a subset by one or more variables, and (4) generate a report with their own or a canned format.

  3. MIS - The Human Connection

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Ian E.

    1980-01-01

    The lessons of the 70's with MIS were largely painful, often the same as those of the 60's, and were found in different phases on two continents. On examination this turns out to be true for many non-medical fields, true for systems programming, and thus a very general phenomenon. It is related to the functional complexity rather than to the sheer size of the software required, and above all to the relative neglect of human factors at all levels of software and hardware design. Simple hierarchical theory is a useful tool for analyzing complex systems and restoring the necessary dominance of common sense human factors. An example shows the very large effects of neglecting these factors on costs and benefits of MIS and their sub-systems.

  4. Carbide-forming groups IVB-VIB metals: a new territory in the periodic table for CVD growth of graphene.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhiyu; Fu, Lei; Song, Xiuju; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2014-07-01

    Early transition metals, especially groups IVB-VIB metals, can form stable carbides, which are known to exhibit excellent "noble-metal-like" catalytic activities. We demonstrate herein the applications of groups IVB-VIB metals in graphene growth using atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique. Similar to the extensively studied Cu, Ni, and noble metals, these transition-metal foils facilitate the catalytic growth of single- to few-layer graphene. The most attractive advantage over the existing catalysts is their perfect control of layer thickness and uniformity with highly flexible experimental conditions by in situ converting the dissolved carbons into stable carbides to fully suppress the upward segregation/precipitation effect. The growth performance of graphene on these transition metals can be well explained by the periodic physicochemical properties of elements. Our work has disclosed a new territory of catalysts in the periodic table for graphene growth and is expected to trigger more interest in graphene research. PMID:24873697

  5. Carbide-forming groups IVB-VIB metals: a new territory in the periodic table for CVD growth of graphene.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhiyu; Fu, Lei; Song, Xiuju; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2014-07-01

    Early transition metals, especially groups IVB-VIB metals, can form stable carbides, which are known to exhibit excellent "noble-metal-like" catalytic activities. We demonstrate herein the applications of groups IVB-VIB metals in graphene growth using atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique. Similar to the extensively studied Cu, Ni, and noble metals, these transition-metal foils facilitate the catalytic growth of single- to few-layer graphene. The most attractive advantage over the existing catalysts is their perfect control of layer thickness and uniformity with highly flexible experimental conditions by in situ converting the dissolved carbons into stable carbides to fully suppress the upward segregation/precipitation effect. The growth performance of graphene on these transition metals can be well explained by the periodic physicochemical properties of elements. Our work has disclosed a new territory of catalysts in the periodic table for graphene growth and is expected to trigger more interest in graphene research.

  6. The MIS Pipeline Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuben, Peter J.; Pound, M. W.; Storm, S.; Mundy, L. G.; Salter, D. M.; Lee, K.; Kwon, W.; Fernandez Lopez, M.; Plunkett, A.

    2013-01-01

    A pipeline toolkit was developed to help organizing, reducing and analyzing a large number of near-identical datasets. This is a very general problem, for which many different solutions have been implemented. In this poster we present one such solution that lends itself to users of the Unix command line, using the Unix "make" utility, and adapts itself easily to observational as well as theoretical projects. Two examples are given, one from the CARMA CLASSy survey, and another from a simulated kinematic survey of early galaxy forming disks. The CLASSy survey (discussed in more detail in three accompanying posters) consists of 5 different star forming regions, observed with CARMA, each containing roughly 10-20 datasets in continuum and 3 different molecular lines, that need to be combined in final data cubes and maps. The strength of such a pipeline toolkit shows itself as new data are accumulated, the data reduction steps are improved and easily re-applied to previously taken data. For this we employed a master script that was run nightly, and collaborators submitted improved script and/or pipeline parameters that control these scripts. MIS is freely available for download.

  7. Three-band tight-binding model for monolayers of group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, G. B.; Shan, Wen-Yu; Yao, Yugui; Yao, Wang; Xiao, Di

    2013-01-01

    We present a three-band tight-binding (TB) model for describing the low-energy physics in monolayers of group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te). As the conduction- and valence-band edges are predominantly contributed by the dz2 , dxy, and dx2 y2 orbitals of M atoms, the TB model is constructed using these three orbitals based on the symmetries of the monolayers. Parameters of the TB model are fitted from the first-principles energy bands for all MX2 monolayers. The TB model involving only the nearest-neighbor M-M hoppings is sufficient to capture the band-edge properties in the K valleys, including the energy dispersions as well as the Berry curvatures. The TB model involving up to the third-nearest-neighbor M-M hoppings can well reproduce the energy bands in the entire Brillouin zone. Spin-orbit coupling in valence bands is well accounted for by including the on-site spin-orbit interactions ofM atoms. The conduction band also exhibits a small valley-dependent spin splitting which has an overall sign difference between MoX2 and WX2. We discuss the origins of these corrections to the three-band model. The three-band TB model developed here is efficient to account for low-energy physics in MX2 monolayers, and its simplicity can be particularly useful in the study of many-body physics and physics of edge states.

  8. VIB1, a Link between Glucose Signaling and Carbon Catabolite Repression, Is Essential for Plant Cell Wall Degradation by Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yi; Sun, Jianping; Glass, N. Louise

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi that thrive on plant biomass are the major producers of hydrolytic enzymes used to decompose lignocellulose for biofuel production. Although induction of cellulases is regulated at the transcriptional level, how filamentous fungi sense and signal carbon-limited conditions to coordinate cell metabolism and regulate cellulolytic enzyme production is not well characterized. By screening a transcription factor deletion set in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa for mutants unable to grow on cellulosic materials, we identified a role for the transcription factor, VIB1, as essential for cellulose utilization. VIB1 does not directly regulate hydrolytic enzyme gene expression or function in cellulosic inducer signaling/processing, but affects the expression level of an essential regulator of hydrolytic enzyme genes, CLR2. Transcriptional profiling of a Δvib-1 mutant suggests that it has an improper expression of genes functioning in metabolism and energy and a deregulation of carbon catabolite repression (CCR). By characterizing new genes, we demonstrate that the transcription factor, COL26, is critical for intracellular glucose sensing/metabolism and plays a role in CCR by negatively regulating cre-1 expression. Deletion of the major player in CCR, cre-1, or a deletion of col-26, did not rescue the growth of Δvib-1 on cellulose. However, the synergistic effect of the Δcre-1; Δcol-26 mutations circumvented the requirement of VIB1 for cellulase gene expression, enzyme secretion and cellulose deconstruction. Our findings support a function of VIB1 in repressing both glucose signaling and CCR under carbon-limited conditions, thus enabling a proper cellular response for plant biomass deconstruction and utilization. PMID:25144221

  9. [Project PEACH: A Prescriptive Educational Approach for Children with Handicaps. E.S.E.A. - Title VI-B. 1976-1977, and Appendix]. Report #77154.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiner, Louis

    The School District of Philadelphia, through its Prescriptive Educational Approach to Children with Handicaps (PEACH) Project, funded under E.S.E.A. Title VI-B, provided diagnostic, referral, and prescriptive educational services for preschool children (between 3 and 4.7 years). Priority was given to those children most severely handicapped and…

  10. VibA, a homologue of a transcription factor for fungal heterokaryon incompatibility, is involved in antifungal compound production in the plant-symbiotic fungus Epichloë festucae.

    PubMed

    Niones, Jennifer T; Takemoto, Daigo

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic association of epichloae endophytes (Epichloë/Neotyphodium species) with cool-season grasses of the subfamily Pooideae confers bioprotective benefits to the host plants against abiotic and biotic stresses. While the production of fungal bioprotective metabolites is a well-studied mechanism of host protection from insect herbivory, little is known about the antibiosis mechanism against grass pathogens by the mutualistic endophyte. In this study, an Epichloë festucae mutant defective in antimicrobial substance production was isolated by a mutagenesis approach. In an isolated mutant that had lost antifungal activity, the exogenous DNA fragment was integrated into the promoter region of the vibA gene, encoding a homologue of the transcription factor VIB-1. VIB-1 in Neurospora crassa is a regulator of genes essential in vegetative incompatibility and promotion of cell death. Here we show that deletion of the vibA gene severely affected the antifungal activity of the mutant against the test pathogen Drechslera erythrospila. Further analyses showed that overexpressing vibA enhanced the antifungal activity of the wild-type isolate against test pathogens. Transformants overexpressing vibA showed an inhibitory activity on test pathogens that the wild-type isolate could not. Moreover, overexpressing vibA in a nonantifungal E. festucae wild-type Fl1 isolate enabled the transformant to inhibit the mycelial and spore germination of D. erythrospila. These results demonstrate that enhanced expression of vibA is sufficient for a nonantifungal isolate to obtain antifungal activity, implicating the critical role of VibA in antifungal compound production by epichloae endophytes.

  11. VibA, a Homologue of a Transcription Factor for Fungal Heterokaryon Incompatibility, Is Involved in Antifungal Compound Production in the Plant-Symbiotic Fungus Epichloë festucae

    PubMed Central

    Niones, Jennifer T.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic association of epichloae endophytes (Epichloë/Neotyphodium species) with cool-season grasses of the subfamily Pooideae confers bioprotective benefits to the host plants against abiotic and biotic stresses. While the production of fungal bioprotective metabolites is a well-studied mechanism of host protection from insect herbivory, little is known about the antibiosis mechanism against grass pathogens by the mutualistic endophyte. In this study, an Epichloë festucae mutant defective in antimicrobial substance production was isolated by a mutagenesis approach. In an isolated mutant that had lost antifungal activity, the exogenous DNA fragment was integrated into the promoter region of the vibA gene, encoding a homologue of the transcription factor VIB-1. VIB-1 in Neurospora crassa is a regulator of genes essential in vegetative incompatibility and promotion of cell death. Here we show that deletion of the vibA gene severely affected the antifungal activity of the mutant against the test pathogen Drechslera erythrospila. Further analyses showed that overexpressing vibA enhanced the antifungal activity of the wild-type isolate against test pathogens. Transformants overexpressing vibA showed an inhibitory activity on test pathogens that the wild-type isolate could not. Moreover, overexpressing vibA in a nonantifungal E. festucae wild-type Fl1 isolate enabled the transformant to inhibit the mycelial and spore germination of D. erythrospila. These results demonstrate that enhanced expression of vibA is sufficient for a nonantifungal isolate to obtain antifungal activity, implicating the critical role of VibA in antifungal compound production by epichloae endophytes. PMID:24906411

  12. MIS silicon solar cells: potential advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Cheek, G.; Mertens, R.

    1981-05-01

    Recent progress with silicon solar cells based on the MIS or SIS structure is reviewed. To be competitive with pn junction technology in the near term, these cells must be much cheaper or have a higher efficiency in a production environment. Apparently, the minority carrier MIS cells have the greatest potential for large-scale applications. The data currently indicate that all types of MIS/SIS cells have some inherent instability problems.

  13. Schizosaccharomyces pombe centromere protein Mis19 links Mis16 and Mis18 to recruit CENP-A through interacting with NMD factors and the SWI/SNF complex.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Ebe, Masahiro; Nagao, Koji; Kokubu, Aya; Sajiki, Kenichi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2014-07-01

    CENP-A is a centromere-specific variant of histone H3 that is required for accurate chromosome segregation. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammalian Mis16 and Mis18 form a complex essential for CENP-A recruitment to centromeres. It is unclear, however, how the Mis16-Mis18 complex achieves this function. Here, we identified, by mass spectrometry, novel fission yeast centromere proteins Mis19 and Mis20 that directly interact with Mis16 and Mis18. Like Mis18, Mis19 and Mis20 are localized at the centromeres during interphase, but not in mitosis. Inactivation of Mis19 in a newly isolated temperature-sensitive mutant resulted in CENP-A delocalization and massive chromosome missegregation, whereas Mis20 was dispensable for proper chromosome segregation. Mis19 might be a bridge component for Mis16 and Mis18. We isolated extragenic suppressor mutants for temperature-sensitive mis18 and mis19 mutants and used whole-genome sequencing to determine the mutated sites. We identified two groups of loss-of-function suppressor mutations in non-sense-mediated mRNA decay factors (upf2 and ebs1), and in SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling components (snf5, snf22 and sol1). Our results suggest that the Mis16-Mis18-Mis19-Mis20 CENP-A-recruiting complex, which is functional in the G1-S phase, may be counteracted by the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex and non-sense-mediated mRNA decay, which may prevent CENP-A deposition at the centromere.

  14. Licensing of Centromeric Chromatin Assembly through the Mis18α-Mis18β Heterotetramer.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Isaac K; Zasadzińska, Ewelina; Stellfox, Madison E; Knippler, Christina M; Foltz, Daniel R

    2016-03-01

    Centromeres are specialized chromatin domains specified by the centromere-specific CENP-A nucleosome. The stable inheritance of vertebrate centromeres is an epigenetic process requiring deposition of new CENP-A nucleosomes by HJURP. We show HJURP is recruited to centromeres through a direct interaction between the HJURP centromere targeting domain and the Mis18α-β C-terminal coiled-coil domains. We demonstrate Mis18α and Mis18β form a heterotetramer through their C-terminal coiled-coil domains. Mis18α-β heterotetramer formation is required for Mis18BP1 binding and centromere recognition. S. pombe contains a single Mis18 isoform that forms a homotetramer, showing tetrameric Mis18 is conserved from fission yeast to humans. HJURP binding disrupts the Mis18α-β heterotetramer and removes Mis18α from centromeres. We propose stable binding of Mis18 to centromeres in telophase licenses them for CENP-A deposition. Binding of HJURP deposits CENP-A at centromeres and facilitates the removal of Mis18, restricting CENP-A deposition to a single event per cell cycle. PMID:26942680

  15. Model-based Characterization of the Parameters of Dissimilatory Sulfate Reduction Under the Effect of Different Initial Density of Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 Bacterial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kushkevych, Ivan; Bolis, Marco; Bartos, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design a model of dissimilatory sulfate reduction process using the Verhulst function, with a particular focus on the kinetics of bacterial growth, sulfate and lactate consumption, and accumulation of hydrogen sulfide and acetate. The effect of the initial density (0.12±0.011, 0.25±0.024, 0.5±0.048 and 1.0±0.096 mg cells/ml of medium) of the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 on the growth and dissimilatory sulfate reduction was studied. The exponential growth phase of the D. piger Vib-7 was observed for 72 hours of cultivation at the (0.12 and 0.25 mg/ml) initial concentration of bacterial cells. Sulfate and lactate were consumed incompletely during this time. The increase in the initial concentration of cells to 0.5 and 1 mg/ml led to a shortening of the exponential bacterial growth phase and a shift to the stationary phase of the growth. In the case of 0.5 mg/ml seeding, the stationary growth phase was observed in the 36(th) hour of cultivation. The increase in the initial concentration of cells to 1 mg/ml led to the beginning of the stationary growth phase in 24th hours of cultivation. Under these conditions, sulfate and lactate were consumed completely in the 48th hour of cultivation. The kinetic analysis of the curves of bacterial growth and the process of dissimilatory sulfate reduction by D. piger Vib-7 was carried out. PMID:26668663

  16. NaVβ Subunits Modulate the Inhibition of NaV1.8 by the Analgesic Gating Modifier μO-Conotoxin MrVIB

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael J.; Zhang, Min-Min; Azam, Layla; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Bulaj, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) consist of a pore-forming α-subunit and regulatory β-subunits. Several families of neuroactive peptides of Conus snails target VGSCs, including μO-conotoxins and μ-conotoxins. Unlike μ-conotoxins and the guanidinium alkaloid saxitoxin (STX), which are pore blockers, μO-conotoxins MrVIA and MrVIB inhibit VGSCs by modifying channel gating. μO-MrVIA/B can block NaV1.8 (a tetrodotoxin-resistant isoform of VGSCs) and have analgesic properties. The effect of NaVβ-subunit coexpression on susceptibility to block by μO-MrVIA/B and STX has, until now, not been reported. Here, we show that β1-, β2-, β3-, and β4-subunits, when individually coexpressed with NaV1.8 in Xenopus laevis oocytes, increased the kon of the block produced by μO-MrVIB (by 3-, 32-, 2-, and 7-fold, respectively) and modestly decreased the apparent koff. Strong depolarizing prepulses markedly accelerated MrVIB washout with rates dependent on β-subunit coexpression. Thus, coexpression of β-subunits with NaV1.8 can strongly influence the affinity of the conopeptide for the channel. This observation is of particular interest because β-subunit expression can be dynamic, e.g., β2-expression is up-regulated after nerve injury (J Neurosci, 25:10970–10980, 2005); therefore, the effectiveness of a μO-conotoxin as a channel blocker could be enhanced by the conditions that may call for its use therapeutically. In contrast to MrVIB's action, the STX-induced block of NaV1.8 was only marginally, if at all, affected by coexpression of any of the β-subunits. Our results raise the possibility that μO-conotoxins and perhaps other gating modifiers may provide a means to functionally assess the β-subunit composition of VGSC complexes in neurons. PMID:21586605

  17. Changes in the North Pacific Ocean biological pump from MIS 5e to MIS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, G.

    2009-12-01

    Diatom isotope records from the North Pacific Ocean provide an important means by which to further investigate past climatic and oceanographic changes in a region marked by depleted concentrations of foraminifera and other carbonates within the sedimentary record. Combined measurements of diatom oxygen (δ18Odiatom) and silicon (δ30Sidiatom) from ODP Site 882 indicate significant changes in both freshwater input to the region and the biological pump between MIS 5e and MIS 3. Unchanging values of δ18Odiatom and low/moderate values of δ30Sidiatom suggest relatively stable oceanographic conditions during MIS 5e until a marked, freshwater induced, decrease in δ18Odiatom at the MIS 5e/d boundary. Increases in opal concentrations and δ30Sidiatom to values of 1.2-1.3‰ between MIS 5d and MIS 5b indicate a subsequent increase in nutrient utilisation and export production. With these changes coinciding with a progressive long-term decrease in atmospheric pCO2, the North West Pacific Ocean may have assisted in lowering pCO2 and driving the climatic system into the glacial conditions that prevailed during the last glacial. Subsequent changes in δ30Sidiatom/nutrient utilisation from MIS 5a to MIS 3 covary with δ18Odiatom inferred changes in freshwater input to the region, indicating a long-term regulation of the regional biological pump via a strengthening/weakening of the halocline stratification.

  18. Developing a Management Information Systems (MIS) Curriculum: Perspectives from MIS Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehie, Ike C.

    2002-01-01

    A management information systems (MIS) curriculum was developed through review of existing programs and feedback from 24 MIS practitioners. Key aspects of the role of the information systems professional were identified: knowledge of integrated business processes, programming skills, and technical skills in niche areas. (Contains 17 references.)…

  19. Climate changes in south western Iberia and Mediterranean Outflow variations during two contrasting cycles of the last 1 Myrs: MIS 31-MIS 30 and MIS 12-MIS 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Goñi, M. F.; Llave, E.; Oliveira, D.; Naughton, F.; Desprat, S.; Ducassou, E.; Hodell, D. A.; Hernández-Molina, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Grain size analysis and physical properties of Sites U1388, U1389 and U1390 collected in the Contourite Depositional System of the Gulf of Cádiz during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 339 "Mediterranean Outflow" reveal relative changes in bottom current strength, a tracer of the dynamics of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW), before and after the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT). The comparison of MOW behavior with climate changes identified by the pollen analysis and δ18O benthic foraminifera measurements of Site U1385, the Shackleton Site, collected in the south western Iberian margin shows that the interval MIS 31-MIS 30, ~ 1.1-1.05 million years ago (Ma), before the MPT, was marked by wetter climate and weaker bottom current than the interval MIS 12-MIS 11 (0.47-0.39 Ma), after the MPT. Similarly, the increase in fine particles from these glacials to interglacials and in coarse fraction from interglacials to glacials was coeval with forest and semi-desert expansions, respectively, indicating the lowering/enhancement of MOW strength during periods of regional increase/decrease of moisture. While these findings may not necessarily apply to all glacial/interglacial cycles, they nonetheless serve as excellent supporting examples of the hypothesis that aridification can serve as a good tracer for MOW intensity. The strongest regional aridity during MIS 12 coincides with a remarkable increase of coarse grain size deposition and distribution that we interpret as a maximum in MOW strength. This MOW intensification may have pre-conditioned the North Atlantic by increasing salinity, thereby triggering the strong resumption of the Meridional Overturning Circulation that could contribute to the great warmth that characterizes the MIS 11c super-interglacial.

  20. Improved insulator layer for MIS devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    Insulating layer of supersonic conductor such as LaF sub 3 has been shown able to impart improved electrical properties to photoconductive detectors and promises to improve other metal/insulator/semiconductor (MIS) devices, e.g., MOSFET and integrated circuits.

  1. Incorporating Virtual Teamwork Training into MIS Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fang; Sager, James; Corbitt, Gail; Gardiner, Stanley C.

    2008-01-01

    Due to increasing industry demand for personnel who work effectively in virtual/distributed teams, MIS students should undergo training to improve their awareness of and competence in virtual teamwork. This paper proposes a model for virtual teamwork training and describes the implementation of the model in a class where students were located in…

  2. An Examination of the Introductory MIS Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shouhong

    2007-01-01

    The introductory management information systems (MIS) course is a core course for all business majors at almost every business school. It is common for this course to have multiple sections taught by a mixed group of instructors each semester. Hence, consistent pedagogy and assessment are needed for multiple sections of this course. This paper…

  3. Recruitment of Hispanic Students into MIS Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHaney, Roger; Martin, Dawne

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides several suggestions Hispanic student recruitment and retention in MIS or other business curricula. Cultural considerations like allocentrism and familialism are discussed along with the situation at K-State. It is believed that the recruitment and retention of Hispanic students can be influenced positively by considering…

  4. ALPHA MIS: Reference manual. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Heatherly, R.D.; Hughes, S.E.; Ishee, J.S.; Pratt, S.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1992-02-01

    ALPHA is a powerful and versatile management information system (MIS) initiated and sponsored and by the Finance and Business Management Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who maintain and develop it in concert with the Business Systems Division for its Information Center. A general-purpose MIS, ALPHA allows users to access System 1022 and System 1032 databases to obtain and manage information. From a personal computer or a data terminal, Energy Systems employees can use ALPHA to control their own report reprocessing. Using four general commands (Database, Select, Sort, and Report) they can (1) choose a mainframe database, (2) define subsets within it, (3) sequentially order a subset by one or more variables, and (4) generate a report with their own or a canned format.

  5. Atmospheric methane isotope records during MIS 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, Todd; Bock, Michael; Mitchell, Hailey

    2014-05-01

    The long-term δ13CH4record has led to a new paradigm in our thinking of the biogeochemistry of atmospheric CH4 (Möller et al. 2013). Throughout the last glacial period, abrupt D/O CH4changes appear to be decoupled from δ13CH4, while for δDCH4 we are still missing the big picture. The lack of a clear long-term relationship between loading changes and the isotopic composition of atmospheric CH4suggests multiple sources/sinks were responsible for the observed changes and/or that the characteristic isotope value for some of these sources may have changed over time. During the early part of MIS 4, we observed a ~4o increase in δ13CH4during a period when CH4changes were less than 50 ppb. We measured 12 ice core samples from the NEEM core for δDCH4 covering DO 8 and the MIS 5-4 transition. These new δDCH4 data compliment previously published δDCH4 data from EDML covering the same period (Möller et al. 2013). Replicate analyses of NEEM ice from DO 8 agreed with previously measured samples from NGRIP (Bock et al., 2010). External precision of the analyses based on replicate air standards run throughout each analytical day were ±1.8‰These data were overlain on previously measured δ13CH4data from the Vostok and EDML ice cores from the same periods. The δ13CH4data for the MIS4 start at ~ -48o around 75ka and increase to -44o at 65ka and then decrease to -46o by 59ka. In contrast, NEEM δDCH4 values start at -90o at 70ka and decrease to -97o at 64ka before increasing to -92o by 59ka. These two records appear to be roughly in phase with one another but opposite in the sign of their changes. Comparison between NEEM and EDML δDCH4 data for MIS4 suggest the interpolar δDCH4 difference increases somewhat during the δ13CH4transition. We plan to discuss these records in terms of constraints on the biogeochemistry of atmospheric methane during MIS 4. Bock, M., J. Schmitt, L. Möller, R. Spahni, T. Blunier and H. Fischer (2010). "Hydrogen Isotopes Preclude Marine

  6. Mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced prostaglandin synthesis in skeletal muscle of Group VIB Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2γ-deficient mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Yoda, Emiko; Hachisu, Keiko; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Kotomi; Nakamura, Masanori; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Nakatani, Yoshihito; Kuwata, Hiroshi; Murakami, Makoto; Kudo, Ichiro; Hara, Shuntaro

    2010-01-01

    Group VIB Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) is a membrane-bound iPLA2 enzyme with unique features, such as the utilization of distinct translation initiation sites and the presence of mitochondrial and peroxisomal localization signals. Here we investigated the physiological functions of iPLA2γ by disrupting its gene in mice. iPLA2γ-knockout (KO) mice were born with an expected Mendelian ratio and appeared normal and healthy at the age of one month but began to show growth retardation from the age of two months as well as kyphosis and significant muscle weakness at the age of four months. Electron microscopy revealed swelling and reduced numbers of mitochondria and atrophy of myofilaments in iPLA2γ-KO skeletal muscles. Increased lipid peroxidation and the induction of several oxidative stress-related genes were also found in the iPLA2γ-KO muscles. These results provide evidence that impairment of iPLA2γ causes mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, leading to the loss of skeletal muscle structure and function. We further found that the compositions of cardiolipin and other phospholipid subclasses were altered and that the levels of myoprotective prostanoids were reduced in iPLA2γ-KO skeletal muscle. Thus, in addition to maintenance of homeostasis of the mitochondrial membrane, iPLA2γ may contribute to modulation of lipid mediator production in vivo. PMID:20625036

  7. Development and evaluation of the modular inclined screen (MIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, E.P.; Winchell, F.C.; Plizga, A.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has developed and biologically evaluated a new type of fish diversion screen known as the Modular Inclined Screen (MIS). The MIS is designed to operate at any type of water intake with water velocities approaching the screen of up to 3.1 ms{sup -1}. The biological evaluation of the MIS was conducted in the laboratory with juveniles of eleven species. Fish passage was evaluated at five module velocities ranging from 0.6 to 3.1 ms{sup -1}. Net passage survival with a clean screen typically exceeded 99% at velocities up to 1.8 ms{sup -1} for most species, and exceeded 99% overall (all velocities combined) for channel catfish, coho salmon, brown trout, and Atlantic salmon. Fish passage tests with debris accumulation demonstrated that increases in screen head loss up to 12 cm did not reduce the ability of the MIS to safely and effectively divert fish, depending on species and module velocity. On the basis of these results, EPRI, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) and other contributors have constructed a prototype MIS at NMPC`s Green Island Hydroelectric Project on the Hudson River. Field evaluations of this first MIS will be conducted in the fall of 1995. In addition to the MIS, the effectiveness of a strobe light system will be studied to determine its ability to divert blueback herring from the river to the MIS.

  8. Integrating Intellectual Property Concepts into MIS Education: An Empirical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykytyn, Peter P., Jr.; Mykytyn, Kathleen; Harrison, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The evolving legal environment surrounding intellectual property (IP) and its impact on information systems, especially involving electronic commerce, and the type of education and training provided by management information systems (MIS) faculty to MIS students is a relationship that has not been investigated. Although organizations are…

  9. Water sorption mechanisms for MIS materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, D. K.; Mason, R. E.; Erickson, R. M.

    2002-01-01

    The fundamental processes that control the amount of water sorbed by impure plutonium-containing materials after calcination are reviewed. Of particular interest is the amount of and rate of moisture sorption at 1000 PPMv (parts-per-million vapor; -3% RH at 25 'C) and 10,000 PPMv (32% RH at 25 'C). Pure plutonium oxide powders will remain below the 0.5 wt% criterion for packaging in the DOE 3013 Standard at both water vapor concentrations [I]. Deliquescent salts that have been observed in calcined materials by DOES Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) program will exceed the 0.5 wt% criterion at 10,000 PPMv and will meet that standard at 1,000 PPMv. Hydrated salts will exceed the 0.5 wt% criterion at all technologically achievable water vapor concentrations if allowed to reach equilibrium. Controlling the moisture availability by controlling the atmospheric content at 1000 PPM' and limiting the access to atmospheric moisture after stabilization through the use of a properly configured stabilization boat will minimize moisture uptake by these materials.

  10. Kinetic Properties of Pyruvate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase of Intestinal Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9.

    PubMed

    Kushkevych, Ivan V

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria reduce sulfate ions to hydrogen sulfide causing inflammatory bowel diseases of humans and animals. The bacteria consume lactate as electron donor which is oxidized to acetate via pyruvate in process of the dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase activity and the kinetic properties of the enzyme from intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio piger and Desulfomicrobium sp. have never been well-characterized and have not been yet studied. In this paper we present for the first time the specific activity of pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase and the kinetic properties of the enzyme in cell-free extracts of both D. piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 intestinal bacterial strains. Microbiological, biochemical, biophysical and statistical methods were used in this work. The optimal temperature (+35°C) and pH 8.5 for enzyme reaction were determined. The spectral analysis of the puri- fied pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the cell-free extracts was demonstrated. Analysis of the kinetic properties of the studied enzyme was carried out. Initial (instantaneous) reaction velocity (V0), maximum amount of the product of reaction (Pmax), the reaction time (half saturation period) and maximum velocity of the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase reaction (V ) were defined. Michaelis constants (Km) of the enzyme reaction were calculated for both intestinal bacterial strains. The studies of the kinetic enzyme properties in the intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria strains in detail can be prospects for clarifying the etiological role of these bacteria in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:26373169

  11. Kinetic Properties of Pyruvate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase of Intestinal Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9.

    PubMed

    Kushkevych, Ivan V

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria reduce sulfate ions to hydrogen sulfide causing inflammatory bowel diseases of humans and animals. The bacteria consume lactate as electron donor which is oxidized to acetate via pyruvate in process of the dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase activity and the kinetic properties of the enzyme from intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio piger and Desulfomicrobium sp. have never been well-characterized and have not been yet studied. In this paper we present for the first time the specific activity of pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase and the kinetic properties of the enzyme in cell-free extracts of both D. piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 intestinal bacterial strains. Microbiological, biochemical, biophysical and statistical methods were used in this work. The optimal temperature (+35°C) and pH 8.5 for enzyme reaction were determined. The spectral analysis of the puri- fied pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the cell-free extracts was demonstrated. Analysis of the kinetic properties of the studied enzyme was carried out. Initial (instantaneous) reaction velocity (V0), maximum amount of the product of reaction (Pmax), the reaction time (half saturation period) and maximum velocity of the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase reaction (V ) were defined. Michaelis constants (Km) of the enzyme reaction were calculated for both intestinal bacterial strains. The studies of the kinetic enzyme properties in the intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria strains in detail can be prospects for clarifying the etiological role of these bacteria in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  12. Persistent climatic and oceanographic oscillations in the subpolar North Atlantic during the MIS 6 glaciation and MIS 5 interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokeddem, Zohra; McManus, Jerry F.

    2016-06-01

    Rapidly accumulating sediments from the Björn drift deposit south of Iceland are studied for comparison of glacial/interglacial climate changes related to millennial variability of the subpolar surface and deep ocean circulation in the North Atlantic. High-resolution faunal, isotopic, and sedimentary analyses reveal a strong multimillennial climatic variability interpreted as oscillations in heat transport westward south of Iceland during marine isotope stage 6 (MIS 6), possibly related to the strength of the subpolar gyre (SPG). The oscillations persisted from MIS 6 through the following interglacial (MIS 5), although with diminished magnitude, and were respectively characterized by repeated advances of the polar front south of Iceland during MIS 6 and southward migrations of the Arctic front due to cold surface outflow through the East Greenland and East Iceland Currents during MIS 5. Incursions of cold, fresh surface waters, and drifting ice affected the dynamics of the SPG, episodically causing it to weaken and contract to the northwest. During these intervals of diminished SPG, the northward transport of subtropical heat and salt was strengthened and preferentially conveyed to the northeast past Iceland, enhancing deep-water formation in the Nordic Seas. By contrast, when the SPG was strong, more subtropical water and its associated heat were entrained within the relatively warm Irminger Current flowing westward south of Iceland. These oceanographic oscillations were associated with repeated multimillennial cooling and warming episodes during the glacial stage MIS 6, equivalent to the Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles of the last glaciation.

  13. Quantitative reconstruction of precipitation and runoff during MIS 5a, MIS 3a, and Holocene, arid China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Marine oxygen isotope stage 5a (MIS 5a), MIS 3a, and Holocene were highlighted periods in paleoclimate studies. Many scientists have published a great number of studies in this regard, but they paid more attention to qualitative research, and there was often a lack of quantitative data. In this paper, based on chronological evidence from a paleolake in arid China, MIS 5a, MIS 3a, and Holocene lake area, the precipitation of the drainage area and the runoff of the inflowing rivers of the lake were reconstructed with ArcGIS spatial analysis software and the improved water and energy balance model which was calibrated by modern meteorological and hydrological data in the Shiyang River drainage basin. The results showed that the paleolake areas were 1824, 1124, and 628 km2 for MIS 5a, MIS 3a, and Holocene; meanwhile, the paleoprecipitation and runoff were 293.992-297.433, 271.105-274.294, and 249.431-252.373 mm and 29.103 × 108-29.496 × 108, 18.810 × 108-18.959 × 108, and 10.637 × 108-10.777 × 108 mm, respectively. The quantitative data can help us not only strengthen the understanding of paleoclimatic characteristics but also recognize the complexity and diversity of the climate system.

  14. MIS capacitor studies on silicon carbide single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopanski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Cubic SIC metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors with thermally grown or chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) insulators were characterized by capacitance-voltage (C-V), conductance-voltage (G-V), and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The purpose of these measurements was to determine the four charge densities commonly present in an MIS capacitor (oxide fixed charge, N(f); interface trap level density, D(it); oxide trapped charge, N(ot); and mobile ionic charge, N(m)) and to determine the stability of the device properties with electric-field stress and temperature. The section headings in the report include the following: Capacitance-voltage and conductance-voltage measurements; Current-voltage measurements; Deep-level transient spectroscopy; and Conclusions (Electrical characteristics of SiC MIS capacitors).

  15. Further study of inversion layer MIS solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Fat Duen

    1992-01-01

    Many inversion layer metal-insulator-semiconductor (IL/MIS) solar cells have been fabricated. As of today, the best cell fabricated by us has a 9.138 percent AMO efficiency, with FF = 0.641, V(sub OC) = 0.557 V, and I(sub SC) = 26.9 micro A. Efforts made for fabricating an IL/MOS solar cell with reasonable efficiencies are reported. The more accurate control of the thickness of the thin layer of oxide between aluminum and silicon of the MIS contacts has been achieved by using two different process methods. Comparison of these two different thin oxide processings is reported. The effects of annealing time of the sample are discussed. The range of the resistivity of the substrates used in the IL cell fabrication is experimentally estimated. Theoretical study of the MIS contacts under dark conditions is addressed.

  16. MIS and SIS solar cells on polycrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Cheek, G.; Mertens, R.

    1980-02-01

    MIS and SIS structured solar cells are receiving much attention in the photovoltaic community. Seemingly, these cells could be a viable alternative to thermally diffused p-n junctions for use on thin-film polycrystalline silicon substrates. This review describes MIS/SIS structured solar cells and the possible advantages of these structures for use with thin-film polycrystalline silicon. The results of efficiency calculations are presented. Also addressed are lifetime stability and fabrication techniques amenable to large scale production. Finally, the relative advantages and disadvantages of these cells and the results obtained are presented.

  17. A high-resolution mid-Pleistocene temperature record from Arctic Lake El'gygytgyn: a 50 kyr super interglacial from MIS 33 to MIS 31?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wet, Gregory A.; Castañeda, Isla S.; DeConto, Robert M.; Brigham-Grette, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Previous periods of extreme warmth in Earth's history are of great interest in light of current and predicted anthropogenic warming. Numerous so called "super interglacial" intervals, with summer temperatures significantly warmer than today, have been identified in the 3.6 million year (Ma) sediment record from Lake El'gygytgyn, northeast Russia. To date, however, a high-resolution paleotemperature reconstruction from any of these super interglacials is lacking. Here we present a paleotemperature reconstruction based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) from Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 35 to MIS 29, including super interglacial MIS 31. To investigate this period in detail, samples were analyzed with an unprecedented average sample resolution of 500 yrs from MIS 33 to MIS 30. Our results suggest the entire period currently defined as MIS 33-31 (∼1114-1062 kyr BP) was characterized by generally warm and highly variable conditions at the lake, at times out of phase with Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, and that cold "glacial" conditions during MIS 32 lasted only a few thousand years. Close similarities are seen with coeval records from high southern latitudes, supporting the suggestion that the interval from MIS 33 to MIS 31 was an exceptionally long interglacial (Teitler et al., 2015). Based on brGDGT temperatures from Lake El'gygytgyn (this study and unpublished results), warming in the western Arctic during MIS 31 was matched only by MIS 11 during the Pleistocene.

  18. The Graduate MIS Security Course: Objectives and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Bradley K.; Guynes, Carl S.; Nyaboga, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Given the magnitude of real and potential losses, both private and public employers increasingly expect graduates of management information systems (MIS) programs to understand information security concepts. The infrastructure requirements for the course includes setting up a secure laboratory environment to accommodate the development of viruses…

  19. Assessing Students' Learning in MIS Using Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoriades, Andreas; Pampaka, Maria; Michail, Harris

    2009-01-01

    The work described here draws on the emerging need to internationalize the curriculum in higher education. The focus of the study is on the evaluation of a Management Information Systems (MIS) Module, and the specification of appropriate course of action that would support its internationalization. To realize this goal it is essential to identify…

  20. Tau mis-splicing in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Ah; Ahn, Sang Il; Gallo, Jean-Marc

    2016-08-01

    Tau proteins, which stabilize the structure and regulate the dynamics of microtubules, also play important roles in axonal transport and signal transduction. Tau proteins are missorted, aggregated, and found as tau inclusions under many pathological conditions associated with neurodegenerative disorders, which are collectively known as tauopathies. In the adult human brain, tau protein can be expressed in six isoforms due to alternative splicing. The aberrant splicing of tau pre-mRNA has been consistently identified in a variety of tauopathies but is not restricted to these types of disorders as it is also present in patients with non-tau proteinopathies and RNAopathies. Tau mis-splicing results in isoform-specific impairments in normal physiological function and enhanced recruitment of excessive tau isoforms into the pathological process. A variety of factors are involved in the complex set of mechanisms underlying tau mis-splicing, but variation in the cis-element, methylation of the MAPT gene, genetic polymorphisms, the quantity and activity of spliceosomal proteins, and the patency of other RNA-binding proteins, are related to aberrant splicing. Currently, there is a lack of appropriate therapeutic strategies aimed at correcting the tau mis-splicing process in patients with neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between tau mis-splicing and neurodegenerative disorders will aid in the development of efficient therapeutic strategies for patients with a tauopathy or other, related neurodegenerative disorders. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(8): 405-413]. PMID:27222125

  1. Organizing for Effective Training Support in an MIS Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Stanford E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes how a management information system (MIS) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) was adapted to ensure adequate training to accompany the development of computer applications. Highlights include semantic differences; user needs; time and budget constraints; and problems between users and programmers, including examples.…

  2. A Perspective on a Management Information Systems (MIS) Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yew, Bee K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights relevant curriculum issues that were identified in a Management Information Systems (MIS) program review undertaken by a group of business faculty in a small regional university. The program review was initiated to improve job marketability of graduates and student enrollment. The review process is described as a collective…

  3. Lake level fluctuations and catchment dynamics at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) during MIS6 and MIS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Just, Janna; Sadori, Laura; Masi, Alessia; Vogel, Hendrik; Lindhorst, Katja; Krastel, Sebastian; Dosseto, Anthony; Rothacker, Leo; Leicher, Niklas; Gromig, Raphael

    2016-04-01

    Lake Ohrid, presumably the oldest lake of Europe located at the border of Macedonia and Albania, is about 30 km long, 15 km wide, and up to 290 m deep. In 2013, an ICDP deep drilling campaign was carried out under the umbrella of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project. At the main drill site (DEEP) in the central part of Lake Ohrid, the uppermost 568 m from a total sediment fill of ca. 700 m were recovered. Initial data from core catcher material indicate that the sediment sequence covers more than 1.2 million years. An age model, which is based on 11 tephrostratigragphic tie points and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data versus orbital parameters reveals that that the upper 247 m of the DEEP site sequence cover the time period between 637 ka (MIS16) and the present. Inhere, we present sedimentological, (bio-)geochemical, environmental magnetic, and pollen data for the time period between MIS6 (191 ka) and MIS5 (71 ka). The data imply that MIS6 was one of the most severe glacial periods, while MIS5 was likely one of the more pronounced interglacial during the past 637 kyrs. The repercussions of these high amplitude climatic and environmental variations during this period are recorded in the sedimentological archive of Lake Ohrid. Previous studies based on hydro-acoustic and sediment core data from the northeastern part of the lake basin have shown that the lake level of Lake Ohrid was likely 60 m lower during MIS6. The ˜60 m lower lake level at Lake Ohrid during MIS6 can at least partly be explained by the ongoing subsidence, which persists in the basin until today. However, in the DEEP site sediments, the MIS6/MIS5 transition occurs at ca. 50 m sediment depth. This implies that climate-induced lake level fluctuation at Lake Ohrid are less severe compared for example to Lake Van (Turkey), were a 260 m lower lake level has been reported for the Younger Dryas. The imprint of the environmental variations between

  4. Planktic δ18O records in the northern South China Sea: MIS 5.5 vs MIS 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnthein, M.; Sadatzki, H.

    2012-04-01

    Benthic δ18O records show peak and average levels for Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5.5, which are 0.1-0.2 ‰ lighter than during MIS 1, a shift that largely results from changes in global ice volume. In planktic δ18O records of the northern South China Sea this trend may grow by 0.1-0.2 ‰ due to both a rise in sea surface temperatures (SST) during MIS 5.5 and enhanced freshwater input. On the other hand, dominant sources of atmospheric humidity may alter from the far distant equatorial Indian (18O depleted) to the nearby West Pacific Ocean (18O enriched), thus significantly influencing the δ18O value of the monsoon-controlled freshwater discharge to the South China Sea (Pausata et al., 2011), and accordingly, the local planktic δ18O signal of surface waters. We tested the role of these possibly opposed factors by means of planktic δ18O records with centennial-scale resolution at ODP Site 1144 (2040 m w.d.; Bühring et al., 2004) and MD05-2904 (2070 m w.d.; Ge et al., 2010). In contrast to an expected 18O depletion for MIS 5.5 of 0.3 ‰, the pertinent core sections were 18O enriched by 0.4 ‰ as compared to MIS 1. This positive shift may either suggest a major and dominant switch in atmosph¬eric water supply from Indian to nearby West Pacific sources or exhibit a loss of the sediment section crucial for MIS 5.5, that is a distinct stratigraphic gap. Highly resolved δ18O records obtained for comparison from three sediment cores retrieved nearby at much greater water depths (ODP Sites 1145, 1146; Core 17924) clearly show for MIS-5.5 the expected δ18O level that is slightly lighter than that of MIS 1, in harmony with increased SST (He et al., 2008), and thus support the hiatus model. It is also corroborated by large fields of (modern) erosional furrows which are generated by a vigorous inflow of Upper Pacific Deepwater passing along the continental slope off Hong Kong near 2350 m w.d. During interglacial MIS 5.5, this current had probably moved upslope by

  5. 32 CFR 22.325 - Historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and other minority institutions (MIs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... other minority institutions (MIs). Increasing the ability of HBCUs and MIs to participate in federally funded, university programs is an objective of Executive Order 12876 (3 CFR, 1993 Comp., p. 671) and 10 U... (HBCUs) and other minority institutions (MIs). 22.325 Section 22.325 National Defense Department...

  6. 32 CFR 22.325 - Historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and other minority institutions (MIs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... other minority institutions (MIs). Increasing the ability of HBCUs and MIs to participate in federally funded, university programs is an objective of Executive Order 12876 (3 CFR, 1993 Comp., p. 671) and 10 U... (HBCUs) and other minority institutions (MIs). 22.325 Section 22.325 National Defense Department...

  7. 32 CFR 22.325 - Historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and other minority institutions (MIs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other minority institutions (MIs). Increasing the ability of HBCUs and MIs to participate in federally funded, university programs is an objective of Executive Order 12876 (3 CFR, 1993 Comp., p. 671) and 10 U... (HBCUs) and other minority institutions (MIs). 22.325 Section 22.325 National Defense Department...

  8. 32 CFR 22.325 - Historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and other minority institutions (MIs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... other minority institutions (MIs). Increasing the ability of HBCUs and MIs to participate in federally funded, university programs is an objective of Executive Order 12876 (3 CFR, 1993 Comp., p. 671) and 10 U... (HBCUs) and other minority institutions (MIs). 22.325 Section 22.325 National Defense Department...

  9. 32 CFR 22.325 - Historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and other minority institutions (MIs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other minority institutions (MIs). Increasing the ability of HBCUs and MIs to participate in federally funded, university programs is an objective of Executive Order 12876 (3 CFR, 1993 Comp., p. 671) and 10 U... (HBCUs) and other minority institutions (MIs). 22.325 Section 22.325 National Defense Department...

  10. M-I-S solar cell - Theory and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, R.; Fortuna, J.; Geneczko, J.; Fonash, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents an operating-mode analysis of an MIS solar cell and discusses the advantages which can arise as a result of the use of transport control, field shaping (increased n factor), and zero bias barrier height modification. It is noted that for an n-type semiconductor, it is relatively easy to obtain an enhanced n factor using acceptor-like states without an increase in diode saturation current, the converse being true for p-type semiconductors. Several MIS configurations are examined: an acceptor-like, localized state configuration producing field shaping and no change in diode saturation current, and acceptor-like localized configurations producing field shaping, with a decrease of diode saturation current, in one case, and an increase in the other.

  11. High-Resolution Dust record of last glacial period (MIS 4 to MIS 2) from Talos Dome Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzola, Claudia; Maggi, Valter; Delmonte, Barbara; Marino, Federica; Albani, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    Mineral dust trapped in Antarctic ice cores plays an important role in the study of past climate and atmospheric circulation variability in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work we investigate the Talos Dome (Northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica) ice core dust concentration record through a Laser Sensor (LS) technique. Analyses were performed in continuous as a part of the Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) system, and discontinuously with Beckman Coulter©Counter for comparison and LS calibration. The LS device provided two basic outputs: (1) "bag" (1 m long sections) mean values and (2) high resolution (1 cm resolution) data. Both signals were processed in the contest of this work and two dust records, respectively at low and high resolution, were produced. Here we report the bag mean dust record from the end of the last deglaciation (about 12,000 years B.P.) to Marine Isotopic Stage 4 (MIS 4, 70,000 years BP). The comparison of the TALDICE LS and EPICA-Dome C dust record provides interesting information about climatic conditions of South Pacific-Ross Sea sector of Antarctica, and atmospheric circulation patterns during last glacial period, with a good agreement between MIS 3 and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), where several millennial and plurimillennial scale climatic oscillation are observed. For these reasons it is possible suppose that dust transport mechanisms towards TD and DC were the same during the last glacial period. However, MIS 4 in TD ice core was lower, both in concentration and flux, compared to EDC. Likely, during LGM, very cool air masses extended above the Antarctic plateau, even in TD area, have created a subsidence condition which haven't allowed the cyclonic perturbation to penetrate the interior of Antarctica continent. In fact, the Polar Front has moved towards lower latitude in that period, maintaining far away the disturbances. These preliminary observations suggest that the coupling between inner sites such as EDC and the Talos Dome

  12. Understanding Mis-implementation in Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Allen, Peg; Jacob, Rebekah R.; Harris, Jenine K.; Duggan, Kathleen; Hipp, Pamela R.; Erwin, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A better understanding of mis-implementation in public health (ending effective programs and policies or continuing ineffective ones) may provide important information for decision makers. The purpose of this study is to describe the frequency and patterns in mis-implementation of programs in state and local health departments in the U.S. Methods A cross-sectional study of 944 public health practitioners was conducted. The sample included state (n=277) and local health department employees (n=398) and key partners from other agencies (n=269). Data were collected from October 2013 through June 2014 (analyzed in May through October 2014). Online survey questions focused on ending programs that should continue, continuing programs that should end, and reasons for endings. Results Among state health department employees, 36.5% reported that programs often or always end that should have continued, compared with 42.0% of respondents in local health departments and 38.3% of respondents working in other agencies. In contrast to ending programs that should have continued, 24.7% of state respondents reported programs often or always continuing when they should have ended, compared to 29.4% for local health departments and 25% of respondents working in other agencies. Certain reasons for program endings differed at the state versus local level (e.g., policy support, support from agency leadership), suggesting that actions to address mis-implementation are likely to vary. Conclusions The current data suggest a need to focus on mis-implementation in public health practice in order to make the best use of scarce resources. PMID:25891053

  13. Research on flexible customization of MIS process based on workflow management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing

    2009-07-01

    With the development of diverse information technology, people have a growing understanding of the role MIS plays and an increasing requirement of building corresponding MIS, which increases the complexity and uncertainty while building MIS. It is a challenge for designers to build an adaptive and self-adjusting MIS. This paper proposes a method of flexible customization of MIS process based on the characteristics and advantages of workflow management in the perspective of system architecture. This method digitalizes business processes in the system, which is saved in the format of description files detectable by computer as one input parameter of the whole MIS. This method can adjust the corresponding description files of processes once business processes change, which alleviate the negative impact of changes of MIS on the system and companies which adopt this method.

  14. MIS 3 to MIS 1 temporal and LGM spatial variability in Arctic Ocean sea ice cover: Reconstruction from biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiaotong; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten

    2015-07-01

    Using the sea ice proxy IP25 and phytoplankton-derived biomarkers (brassicasterol and dinosterol), Arctic sea ice conditions were reconstructed for Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 to 1—with special emphasis on the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)—in sediment cores from the northern Barents Sea continental margin across the central Arctic Ocean to the southern Mendeleev Ridge. Our results suggest more extensive sea ice cover than present day during the latter part of MIS 3, increasing sea ice growth during MIS 2 and decreased sea ice cover during the last deglacial. The summer ice edge remained north of the Barents Sea even during extremely cold (i.e., Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)) as well as warm periods (i.e., Bølling-Allerød). During the LGM, the western Svalbard margin and the northern Barents Sea margin areas were characterized by high concentrations of both IP25 and phytoplankton biomarkers, interpreted as a productive ice edge situation caused by the inflow of warm Atlantic water. In contrast, the LGM central Arctic Ocean (north of 84°N) was covered by thick permanent sea ice throughout the year with rare breakup, indicated by zero or near-zero biomarker concentrations. The spring/summer sea ice margin significantly extended southward to the Laptev Sea shelf (southern Lomonosov Ridge) and southern Mendeleev Ridge during the LGM. Our proxy reconstructions are very consistent with published model results based on the North Atlantic/Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Model.

  15. A MIS 15-MIS 12 record of environmental changes and Lower Palaeolithic occupation from Valle Giumentina, central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Valentina; Pereira, Alison; Chaussé, Christine; Nomade, Sébastien; Giaccio, Biagio; Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole; Fusco, Fabio; Regattieri, Eleonora; Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Robert, Vincent; Kuzucuoglu, Catherine; Boschian, Giovanni; Agostini, Silvano; Aureli, Daniele; Pagli, Marina; Bahain, Jean Jacques; Nicoud, Elisa

    2016-11-01

    An integrated geological study, including sedimentology, stable isotope analysis (δ18O, δ13C), geochemistry, micromorphology, biomarker analysis, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and tephrochronology, was undertaken on the Quaternary infill of the Valle Giumentina basin in Central Italy, which also includes an outstanding archaeological succession, composed of nine human occupation levels ascribed to the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic. 40Ar/39Ar dating, and other palaeoenvironmental and tephrochronological data, constrain the sedimentary history of the whole succession to the MIS 15-MIS 12 interval, between 618 ± 13 ka and 456 ± 2 ka. Palaeoenvironmental proxies suggest that over this time interval of about 150 ka, sedimentary and pedogenic processes were mainly influenced by climatic changes, in particular by the pulsing of local mountain glaciers of the Majella massif. Specifically, the Valle Giumentina succession records glacio-fluvial and lacustrine sedimentation during the colder glacial periods and pedogenesis and/or alluvial sedimentation during the warmer interglacial and/or interstadial periods. During this interval, tectonics played a negligible role as a driving factor of local morphogenesis and sedimentation, whereas the general regional uplift experienced in the Middle Pleistocene led to capture of the basin and its definitive extinction after MIS 12. These data substantially improve previous knowledge of the chronology and sedimentary evolution of the succession, providing for the first time, a well constrained chronological and palaeoenvironmental framework for the archaeological and human palaeoecological record of Valle Giumentina.

  16. Climate variability during MIS 7, MIS 5 and the Holocene recorded in a stalagmite from western Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Spötl, C.; Mangini, A.; Richter, D. K.; Niggemann, S.

    2009-04-01

    We present high-resolution stable isotope (i.e., ^18O and ^13C) and trace element profiles for stalagmite HBSH-1 from Hüttenbläserschachthöhle, western Germany. The cave was discovered in 1993 and is one of the biggest caves of the giant cave system of Iserlohn with a length of 4360 m. Other caves of this system are the nearby Dechen-, Bunker- and B7-Höhle, and stalagmites from these caves already provided important insights into past climate variability in Germany (Niggemann et al., 2003a; Niggemann et al., 2003b; Kluge et al., 2008). Stalagmite HBSH-1 was collected deep inside the cave, is about 55 cm long and shows a clearly visible lamination. The U-content of the stalagmite is rather high (i.e., between 4 and 12 g/g), which allows both determination of very precise 230Th/U-ages and analysis of very small sample sizes (i.e., between 1 and 2 mg of calcite) with the MC ICPMS technique. Thus, it is possible to determine the beginning and end of individual growth phases very precisely. Our stalagmite record covers the important climate phases of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 7 and 5 as well as the Holocene. 230Th/U-dating shows so far that HBSH-1 started growing at ~215 ka, which is in agreement with the beginning of (MIS) 7.3 in the Austrian Alps (Spötl et al., 2008). During the remainder of MIS 7 the stalagmite shows intermittent growth until ~189 ka, in agreement with the timing of the end of MIS 7.1 (Spötl et al., 2008). Stalagmite growth reinitiated after a long-lasting hiatus at ~131 ka, which marks the beginning of MIS 5.5. The corresponding growth phase has a length of approx. 25 cm and, thus, represents the largest part of the sample. It also exhibits the highest growth rate of ~12 m/a and, thus, has a very high resolution. At ~113 ka the stalagmite shows a short hiatus of approx. 4 ka. Growth reinitiated at ~109 ka and continued uninterruptedly (i.e., also during the cold interstadial MIS 5.2) until ~78 ka, albeit with a slower growth rate of 5.6 m

  17. Modelling 100 kyr of transient climate change during the Pliocene (MIS M2 to MIS KM5c)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, S. J.; Dolan, A. M.; Haywood, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The mid-Pliocene warm period (3.264-3.025 Ma) is a key target for palaeoclimate modellers in the investigation of warm intervals in Earth history. This research is driven by the need to evaluate climate models against geological data in order to assess model performance in warmer than present climates. The mid-Pliocene has generally been modelled using fixed-boundary condition climate model experiments, such as those performed for the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). This means that orbital-timescale variability in climate is often overlooked. In the past data-model comparisons have primarily focussed on comparing snap-shot experiments (fixed boundary conditions) with time-averaged data (for example PRISM3 data which is representative of an average of ~250,000 years). In order to improve the validity of proxy-data and model comparisons it is critical that we move towards climate simulations that better capture changing bounding conditions occurring over orbital timescales and compare these with timeseries data. Here, we present two sets of transient simulations; the first is centred on the warm interglacial peak, MIS KM5c (+/-20 kyr) whilst the second runs from the glacial peak MIS M2 through to MIS KM5c (~100 kyr). We use the full-complexity intermediate-resolution FAMOUS climate model driven by PRISM3 boundary conditions (which were also used in PlioMIP phase 1). Our initial experiments apply a changing orbit, with and without dynamic vegetation. We present an overview of climate variability during these time windows, but also discuss the difficulties that have been faced in such modelling and detail some ideal future directions to explore

  18. Cueva Antón: A multi-proxy MIS 3 to MIS 5a paleoenvironmental record for SE Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilhão, João; Ajas, Aurélie; Badal, Ernestina; Burow, Christoph; Kehl, Martin; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Pimenta, Carlos; Preece, Richard C.; Sanchis, Alfred; Sanz, Montserrat; Weniger, Gerd-Christian; White, Dustin; Wood, Rachel; Angelucci, Diego E.; Villaverde, Valentín; Zapata, Josefina

    2016-08-01

    Overlying a palustrine deposit of unknown age (complex FP), and protected from weathering and erosion inside a large cave/rock-shelter cavity, the sedimentary fill of Cueva Antón, a Middle Paleolithic site in SE Spain, corresponds in most part (sub-complexes AS2-to-AS5) to a ca.3 m-thick Upper Pleistocene terrace of the River Mula. Coupled with the constraints derived from the deposit's paleoclimatic proxies, OSL dating places the accumulation of this terrace in MIS 5a, and radiocarbon dates from the overlying breccia cum alluvium (sub-complex AS1) fall in the middle part of MIS 3; the intervening hiatus relates to valley incision and attendant erosion. The two intervals represented remain largely unknown in Iberia, where the archeology of the early-to-middle Upper Pleistocene is almost entirely derived from karst sites; Cueva Antón shows that this dearth of data, often interpreted in demographic terms, has depositional underpinnings ultimately determined by past climate variation. In early MIS 5a, the paleobotanical evidence indicates climate conditions similar to present, albeit wetter, followed by progressive cooling, reflected in the replacement of Aleppo pine by black pine and, at the very end, juniper-dominated landscapes - the latter characterizing also mid-MIS 3 times. The variation in sedimentary facies and composition of the mollusk assemblages reflects the changing position of the river channel relative to the back wall of the cave. Such changes represented the major constraint for the occupation of the site - most of the time inaccessible to terrestrial mammals, it was used throughout by the eagle-owl, explaining the abundance of rabbit bones. Human occupation occurred during a few, short windows of availability, and is reflected in well-preserved living floors defined by hearths, artefact scatters, and the remains of hunted herbivores. The stone tool assemblages are Middle Paleolithic, which, in Europe, implies a Neandertal identity for their makers

  19. Photic zone changes in the north-west Pacific Ocean from MIS 4-5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, G. E. A.; Snelling, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    In comparison to other sectors of the marine system, the palaeoceanography of the subarctic North Pacific Ocean is poorly constrained. New diatom isotope records of δ13C, δ18O, δ30Si (δ13Cdiatom, δ18Odiatom, and δ30Sidiatom) are presented alongside existing geochemical and isotope records to document changes in photic zone conditions, including nutrient supply and the efficiency of the soft-tissue biological pump, between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4 and MIS 5e. Peaks in opal productivity in MIS 5b/c and MIS 5e are both associated with the breakdown of the regional halocline stratification and increased nutrient supply to the photic zone. Whereas the MIS 5e peak is associated with low rates of nutrient utilisation, the MIS 5b/c peak is associated with significantly higher rates of nutrient utilisation. Both peaks, together with other smaller increases in productivity in MIS 4 and 5a, culminate with a significant increase in freshwater input which strengthens/re-establishes the halocline and limits further upwelling of sub-surface waters to the photic zone. Whilst δ30Sidiatom and previously published records of diatom δ15N (δ15Ndiatom) (Brunelle et al., 2007, 2010) show similar trends until the latter half of MIS 5a, the records become anti-correlated after this juncture and into MIS 4, suggesting a possible change in photic zone state such as may occur with a shift to iron or silicon limitation.

  20. Photic zone changes in the North West Pacific Ocean from MIS 4-5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, G. E. A.; Snelling, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    In comparison to other sectors of the marine system, the palaeoceanography of the subarctic North Pacific Ocean is poorly constrained. New diatom isotope records of δ13C, δ18O, δ30Si (δ13Cdiatom, δ18Odiatom, δ30Sidiatom), are presented alongside existing geochemical and isotope records to document changes in photic zone conditions, including nutrient supply and the efficiency of the soft-tissue biological pump, between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4 and MIS 5e. Peaks in opal productivity in MIS 5b/c and MIS 5e are both associated with the breakdown of the regional halocline stratification and increased nutrient supply to the photic zone. Whereas the MIS 5e peak is associated with low rates of nutrient utilisation, the MIS 5b/c peak is associated with significantly higher rates of nutrient utilisation. Both peaks, together with other smaller increases in productivity in MIS 4 and 5a culminate with a~significant increase in freshwater input which strengthens/re-establishes the halocline and limits further upwelling of sub-surface waters to the photic zone. Whilst δ30Sidiatom and previously published records of diatom δ15N (δ15Ndiatom) (Brunelle et al., 2007, 2010) show similar trends until the latter half of MIS 5a, the records become anti-correlated after this juncture and into MIS 4, suggesting a possible change in photic zone state such as may occur with a shift to iron or silicon limitation.

  1. Optical stability of silicon nitride MIS inversion layer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, K.; Hezel, R.

    1985-09-01

    For MIS inversion layer solar cells with silicon nitride as an AR coating, accelerated optical stress tests were performed. Degradation of the cell characteristics occurred which was found to be caused by photons with energies equal to or greater than 3.7 eV (wavelength of 335 nm or less). Generation of interface states at the silicon-insulator interface by UV light is shown to be the mechanism responsible. The original cell data could be completely restored by heat treatment (activation energy 0.5 eV) and partially by illumination with short-wavelength light. As the most striking result, however, it is demonstrated that the UV light-induced instability can be drastically improved by incorporation of cesium ions into the silicon nitride layer. An interpretation is given for this effect.

  2. Dense surface reconstruction for enhanced navigation in MIS.

    PubMed

    Totz, Johannes; Mountney, Peter; Stoyanov, Danail; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Recent introduction of dynamic view expansion has led to the development of computer vision methods for minimally invasive surgery to artificially expand the intra-operative field-of-view of the laparoscope. This provides improved awareness of the surrounding anatomical structures and minimises the effect of disorientation during surgical navigation. It permits the augmentation of live laparoscope images with information from previously captured views. Current approaches, however, can only represent the tissue geometry as planar surfaces or sparse 3D models, thus introducing noticeable visual artefacts in the final rendering results. This paper proposes a high-fidelity tissue geometry mapping by combining a sparse SLAM map with semi-dense surface reconstruction. The method is validated on phantom data with known ground truth, as well as in-vivo data captured during a robotic assisted MIS procedure. The derived results have shown that the method is able to effectively increase the coverage of the expanded surgical view without compromising mapping accuracy.

  3. Is the Lack of Keyword Synergism Inhibiting Maturation in the MIS Theory? An Exploratory Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorla, Narasimhaiah; Walker, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Examines previous research on keyword-search techniques and evaluates a keyword classification scheme. Compiled a list of 1056 management information systems (MIS) keywords from 14,676 articles in 27 (MIS) journals and compared it to an existing list (Barki). Concludes that a comprehensive keyword-classification system is needed for enhanced MIS…

  4. An Empirical Study about the Critical Factors Affecting MIS Students' Job Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Xiang; Lee, Sooun

    2005-01-01

    For the first time in many years, Management Information Systems (MIS) students and faculty are seeking ways to improve full-time job placement for program graduates. Due to sharp IT budget cuts, the slowing economy, and outsourcing, job opportunities for MIS graduates have become scarcer than ever before. In addition to achieving good academic…

  5. Space Station Furnace Facility Management Information System (SSFF-MIS) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mead, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    Thios report summarizes the chronology, results, and lessons learned from the development of the SSFF-MIS. This system has been nearly two years in development and has yielded some valuable insights into specialized MIS development. Attachment A contains additions, corrections, and deletions by the COTR.

  6. Tropically-driven climate shifts in southwestern Europe during MIS 19, a low eccentricity interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Goñi, M. F.; Rodrigues, T.; Hodell, D. A.; Polanco-Martínez, J. M.; Alonso-García, M.; Hernández-Almeida, I.; Desprat, S.; Ferretti, P.

    2016-08-01

    The relative roles of high- versus low-latitude forcing of millennial-scale climate variability are still not well understood. Here we present terrestrial-marine climate profiles from the southwestern Iberian margin, a region particularly affected by precession, that show millennial climate oscillations related to a nonlinear response to the Earth's precession cycle during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 19. MIS 19 has been considered the best analogue to our present interglacial from an astronomical point of view due to the reduced eccentricity centred at 785 ka. In our records, seven millennial-scale forest contractions punctuated MIS 19 superimposed to two orbitally-driven Mediterranean forest expansions. In contrast to our present interglacial, we evidence for the first time low latitude-driven 5000-yr cycles of drying and cooling in the western Mediterranean region, along with warmth in the subtropical gyre related to the fourth harmonic of precession. These cycles indicate repeated intensification of North Atlantic meridional moisture transport that along with decrease in boreal summer insolation triggered ice growth and may have contributed to the glacial inception, at ∼774 ka. The freshwater fluxes during MIS 19ab amplified the cooling events in the North Atlantic promoting further cooling and leading to MIS 18 glaciation. The discrepancy between the dominant cyclicity observed during MIS 1, 2500-yr, and that of MIS 19, 5000-yr, challenges the similar duration of the Holocene and MIS 19c interglacials under natural boundary conditions.

  7. Evaluation of the modular inclined screen (MIS) at the Green Island Hydroelectric Project: 1995 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Shiers, P.F.; Downing, J.K.; Plizga, A.W.; Taft, E.P.; Amaral, S.V.; Cook, T.C.; Marks, R.A.; Winchell, F.C.

    1996-05-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) developed a fish diversion screen, known as the Modular Inclined Screen (MIS), to prevent fish mortality at water intakes. hydraulic model testing and successful biological evaluation of the MIS had been completed in the laboratory. Following discussions with various federal and state agencies, the Green Island hydroelectric Project was selected as the field test location. This project is located on the Hudson River, just north of Albany, in Green Island, New York. The MIS test facility was operated and tested in the fall of 1995. In addition to the MIS, the effectiveness of a strobe light system was studied to determine its ability to divert blueblack herring form the river to the MIS.

  8. Correcting amplitude, time, and phase mis-ties in seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, T.N. ); Nunns, A.G. )

    1994-06-01

    Seismic lines from different vintages frequently mis-tie where they intersect. The mis-ties may stem from different amplitudes, a shift in time, or different wave-let character. The authors can correct these mis-ties to a great extent by applying a scale factor, a static time shift, and a phase rotation to one of the lines. The authors describe algorithms to compute the amplitude, time, and phase differences at each intersection among a series of 2-D seismic lines. They can then use an iterative least-squares technique to derive optimal mis-tie corrections for each line. They include a necessary modification of the least-squares technique for the nonlinear phase data. The various algorithms are stable, fast, and accurate. They have used them in conjunction with an interactive workstation seismic interpretation program for five years. The scalar mis-tie corrections greatly enhance the consistency of the seismic data. The authors show the results of the mis-tie package applied to a 20-line survey consisting of five vintages of seismic data. The resulting mis-tie corrections significantly improve the fit between the 20 lines.

  9. Bounded empathy: neural responses to outgroup targets' (mis)fortunes.

    PubMed

    Cikara, Mina; Fiske, Susan T

    2011-12-01

    The current study investigates whether mere stereotypes are sufficient to modulate empathic responses to other people's (mis)fortunes, how these modulations manifest in the brain, and whether affective and neural responses relate to endorsing harm against different outgroup targets. Participants feel least bad when misfortunes befall envied targets and worst when misfortunes befall pitied targets, as compared with ingroup targets. Participants are also least willing to endorse harming pitied targets, despite pitied targets being outgroup members. However, those participants who exhibit increased activation in functionally defined insula/middle frontal gyrus when viewing pity targets experience positive events not only report feeling worse about those events but also more willing to harm pity targets in a tradeoff scenario. Similarly, increased activation in anatomically defined bilateral anterior insula, in response to positive events, predicts increased willingness to harm envy targets, but decreased willingness to harm ingroup targets, above and beyond self-reported affect in response to the events. Stereotypes' specific content and not just outgroup membership modulates empathic responses and related behavioral consequences including harm. PMID:21671744

  10. Do Null Subjects (mis-)Trigger Pro-drop Grammars?

    PubMed

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-12-01

    Native speakers of English regularly hear sentences without overt subjects. Nevertheless, they maintain a [−pro] grammar that requires sentences to have an overt subject. It is proposed that listeners of English recognize that speakers reduce predictable material and thus attribute null subjects to this process, rather than changing their grammars to a [−pro] setting. Mack et al. (J Memory Lang 67(1):211-223, 2012) showed that sentences with noise covering the subject are analyzed as having null subjects more often with a first person pronoun and with a present tense--properties correlated with more predictable referents--compared to a third person pronoun and past tense. However, those results might in principle have been due to reporting null subjects for verbs that often occur with null subjects. An experiment is reported here in which comparable results are found for sentences containing nonsense verbs. Participants preferred a null subject more often for first person present tense sentences than for third person past tense sentences. The results are as expected if participants are responding to predictability, the likelihood of reduction, rather than to lexical statistics. The results are argued to be important in removing a class of mis-triggering examples from the language acquisition problem.

  11. Do Null Subjects (mis-)Trigger Pro-drop Grammars?

    PubMed

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-12-01

    Native speakers of English regularly hear sentences without overt subjects. Nevertheless, they maintain a [−pro] grammar that requires sentences to have an overt subject. It is proposed that listeners of English recognize that speakers reduce predictable material and thus attribute null subjects to this process, rather than changing their grammars to a [−pro] setting. Mack et al. (J Memory Lang 67(1):211-223, 2012) showed that sentences with noise covering the subject are analyzed as having null subjects more often with a first person pronoun and with a present tense--properties correlated with more predictable referents--compared to a third person pronoun and past tense. However, those results might in principle have been due to reporting null subjects for verbs that often occur with null subjects. An experiment is reported here in which comparable results are found for sentences containing nonsense verbs. Participants preferred a null subject more often for first person present tense sentences than for third person past tense sentences. The results are as expected if participants are responding to predictability, the likelihood of reduction, rather than to lexical statistics. The results are argued to be important in removing a class of mis-triggering examples from the language acquisition problem. PMID:25086703

  12. Bounded Empathy: Neural Responses to Outgroup Targets’ (Mis)fortunes

    PubMed Central

    Cikara, Mina; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigates whether mere stereotypes are sufficient to modulate empathic responses to other people’s (mis)fortunes, how these modulations manifest in the brain, and whether affective and neural responses relate to endorsing harm against different outgroup targets. Participants feel least bad when misfortunes befall envied targets, and worst when misfortunes befall pitied targets, as compared to ingroup targets. Participants are also least willing to endorse harming pitied targets, despite pitied targets being outgroup members. However, those participants who exhibit increased activation in functionally-defined insula/MFG when viewing pity targets experience positive events not only report feeling worse about those events, but also more willing to harm pity targets in a tradeoff scenario. Similarly, increased activation in anatomically-defined bilateral anterior insula, in response to positive events, predicts increased willingness to harm envy targets, but decreased willingness to harm ingroup targets, above and beyond self-reported affect in response to the events. Stereotypes’ specific content, and not just outgroup membership, modulates empathic responses and related behavioral consequences including harm. PMID:21671744

  13. Quenching and stabilization of MIS retorts: Bench-scale experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, F.A.; Boysen, J.E.

    1991-04-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate in situ retort stabilization methods. The objective of the bench-scale simulations was to evaluate possible post-retorting operations procedures for the optimum cleaning of spent retorts. After simulating conditions of modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the time retorting had ended, procedures to accelerate retort cleanup without using large volumes of water were investigated. Samples from various levels of the retort were used to determine the amount of water-soluble constituents in the spent shale and the rehydration characteristics of the spent shale. The organic material that remained after retorting was most effectively removed from the retort by the use of reverse combustion. The removal of the organic material in this manner cracked the oil on the unretorted shale and removed heat from the bottom of the retort. Both were then transported toward the top of the retort. Unretorted kerogen was coked as it emerged from the shale near the reverse-combustion front. The reverse-combustion technique had an additional benefit in that the carbon deposited on the spent shale in the combusted zone appeared to provide a barrier to rehydration of the shale on introduction of water into the retorts. A hot quench immediately following retorting was also relatively effective in removing organic material from the retort. However, the quench did leave some organic material on the unretorted shale. This material was not readily removed by water leaching during laboratory testing. A deluge of water on a cool retort did not efficiently remove the organic material from the unretorted shale nor did the addition of a biodegradable detergent.

  14. Climate variability since MIS 5 in SW Balkans inferred from multiproxy analysis of Lake Prespa sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotopoulos, K.; Böhm, A.; Leng, M. J.; Wagner, B.; Schäbitz, F.

    2013-03-01

    The transboundary Lake Prespa (AL/FYROM/GR) has been recognized as a conservation priority wetland. The catchment area has a remarkably diverse flora that points to its refugial properties. A lake sediment core retrieved from a coring location in the northern part of the lake was investigated through geophysical, sedimentological, geochemical, and palynological analyses. Based on tephrochronology, radiocarbon and electron spin resonance (ESR) dating, and cross correlation with other Northern Hemisphere records, the age model suggests that the basal part of core Co1215 reaches back to 92 ka cal BP. Here we present the response of this mid-altitude site (849 m a.s.l.) to climate oscillations during this interval and assess its sensitivity to millennial-scale variability. Endogenic calcite precipitation occurred in Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5 and 1 and is synchronous with periods of increased primary production (terrestrial and/or lacustrine). Periods of pronounced phytoplankton blooms (inferred from green algae and dinoflagellate concentrations) are recorded in MIS 5 and MIS 1 and suggest that the trophic state and lake levels underwent substantial fluctuations. Three major phases of vegetation development are distinguished: the forested phases of MIS 5 and MIS 1 dominated by deciduous trees with higher temperatures and moisture availability, the open landscapes of MIS 3 with significant presence of temperate trees, and the pine dominated open landscapes of MIS 4 and MIS 2 with lower temperatures and moisture availability. Forest dynamics, cover and density are discussed in an altitudinal context and the existence of temperate tree refugia is examined.

  15. Environmental interpretation of fossil insect assemblages from MIS 5 at Ziegler Reservoir, Snowmass Village, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Scott A.

    2014-11-01

    Organic-rich lake sediments from a trench exposed at the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site near Snowmass Village, Colorado yielded a sequence of 27 insect fossil assemblages, spanning the time interval from about 125 to 77 ka. The assemblages appear to represent MIS 5e, 5c, 5b, and 5a. A total of 99 taxa were identified, mostly beetles. The fossils represent the oldest known Pleistocene insect faunas from high elevation in the Rocky Mountains, and document a series of climatic oscillations from full interglacial to stadial and interstadial environments, accompanied by changes in regional biological communities. The MIS 5e fauna indicates summer temperatures similar to modern values, with winter temperatures 5-7 °C cooler than today. Regional climates cooled somewhat by MIS 5c, and during MIS 5b summer temperatures were 5-6 °C colder than modern values. Summer temperatures recovered to near-modern levels during early MIS 5a, and cooled by 1-2 °C at its end, although winter temperatures were apparently above modern levels. The indication of milder but wetter winters, strengthened by the inclusion of species found today only in the Pacific Northwest region, suggests conditions that may have led to increased snowpack at high elevations in this part of the Rocky Mountains, linked with the onset of MIS 4 glaciation.

  16. New evidence for complex climate change in MIS 11 from Hoxne, Suffolk, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, Nick; Lewis, Simon G.; Parfitt, Simon A.; Penkman, Kirsty E. H.; Russell Coope, G.

    2008-04-01

    The climatic signal of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 is well-documented in marine and ice-sheet isotopic records and is known to comprise at least two major warm episodes with an intervening cool phase. Terrestrial records of MIS 11, though of high resolution, are often fragmentary and their chronology is poorly constrained. However, some notable exceptions include sequences from the maar lakes in France and Tenaghi Philippon in Greece. In the UK, the Hoxnian Interglacial has been considered to correlate with MIS 11. New investigations at Hoxne (Suffolk) provide an opportunity to re-evaluate the terrestrial record of MIS 11. At Hoxne, the type Hoxnian Interglacial sediments are overlain by a post-Hoxnian cold-temperate sequence. The interglacial sediments and the later temperate phase are separated by the so-called 'Arctic Bed' from which cold-climate macroscopic plant and beetle remains have been recovered. The later temperate phase was deposited during an episode of boreal woodland and is associated with the artefacts, a diverse vertebrate fauna and molluscs. New amino acid geochronological data and biostratigraphical considerations suggest that the post-Hoxnian sequence correlates with late substages of MIS 11. The paper further investigates the correlation of the sequence at Hoxne with the palynological sequences found elsewhere in Europe and adjacent offshore areas.

  17. A structured strategy to combine education for advanced MIS training in surgical oncology training programs.

    PubMed

    Brar, S S; Wright, F; Okrainec, A; Smith, A J

    2011-09-01

    Changing realities in surgery and surgical technique have heightened the need for agile adaptation in training programs. Current guidelines reflect the growing acceptance and adoption of the use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in oncology. North American general surgery residents are often not adequately skilled in advanced laparoscopic surgery skills at the completion of their residency. Presently, advanced laparoscopic surgery training during surgical oncology fellowship training occurs on an ad-hoc basis in many surgical oncology programs. We present a rational and template for a structured training in advanced minimally invasive surgical techniques during surgical oncology fellowship training. The structure of the program seeks to incorporate evidence-based strategies in MIS training from a comprehensive review of the literature, while maintaining essential elements of rigorous surgical oncology training. Fellows in this stream will train and certify in the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) course. Fellows will participate in the didactic oncology seminar series continuously throughout the 27 months training period. Fellows will complete one full year of dedicated MIS training, followed by 15 months of surgical oncology training. Minimal standards for case volume will be expected for MIS cases and training will be tailored to meet the career goals of the fellows. We propose that a formalized MIS-Surgical Oncology Fellowship will allow trainees to benefit from an effective training curriculum and furthermore, that will allow for graduates to lead in a cancer surgery milieu increasingly focused on minimally invasive approaches.

  18. A multi-proxy record of MIS 11-12 deglaciation and glacial MIS 12 instability from the Sulmona basin (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regattieri, Eleonora; Giaccio, Biagio; Galli, Paolo; Nomade, Sebastien; Peronace, Edoardo; Messina, Paolo; Sposato, Andrea; Boschi, Chiara; Gemelli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    A multi-proxy record (lithology, XRF, CaCO3 content, carbonate δ18O and δ13C) was acquired from a sediment core drilled in the intermountain Sulmona basin (central Italy). Tephrostratigraphic analyses of three volcanic ash layers ascribe the investigated succession to the MIS 12-MIS 11 period, spanning the interval ca. 500-410 ka. Litho-pedo facies assemblage indicates predominant lacustrine deposition, interrupted by a minor sub-aerial and lake low stand episode. Variations in major and minor elements concentrations are related to changes in the clastic input to the lake. The oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate (δ18Oc) intervals is interpreted mainly as a proxy for the amount of precipitation in the high-altitude catchment of the karst recharge system. The record shows pronounced hydrological variability at orbital and millennial time-scales, which appears closely related to the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation pattern and replicates North Atlantic and west Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) fluctuations. The MIS 12 glacial inception is marked by an abrupt reduction of precipitation, lowering of the lake level and enhanced catchment erosion. A well-defined and isotopically prominent interstadial with increased precipitation maybe related to insolation maxima-precession minima at ca. 465 ka. This interstadial ends abruptly at ca. 457 ka and it is followed by a phase of strong short-term instability. Drastic lake-level lowering and enhanced clastic flux characterized the MIS 12 glacial maximum. Lacustrine deposition restarted about 440 ka ago. The MIS 12-MIS 11 transition is characterized by a rapid increase in the precipitation, lake-level rise and reduction in the clastic input, interrupted by a short and abrupt return to drier conditions. Comparison with marine records from the Iberian margin and western Mediterranean suggests that major events of ice rafted debris deposition, related to southward migrations of the polar front, match the

  19. Stable Isotope and Trace Element Records of Parts of MIS 5 and MIS 6 from Stalagmites from Lehman Cave, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, M.; McGee, D.; Broecker, W. S.; Quade, J.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent years have seen the advent of high-resolution speleothem paleoclimate records from the Great Basin, adding to and refining our knowledge of the timing, duration, and nature of glacial/interglacial periods and transitions in Western North America from lake records and other archives of paleoclimatic change. Here we present a record of isotopic and geochemical change in stalagmites from Lehman Cave, (39.01°N, 114.22°W), a well-decorated cave on the western edge of the Bonneville Basin. These slow-growth stalagmites are 230Th dated to portions of Marine Isotope Stages 5 and 6. They replicate, at least in part, an orbitally-consistent Termination II (T-II) at 131 + 2 ka, first demonstrated in Great Basin speleothems by Shakun et al. (2011). T-II is expressed in our record as a +5.5‰ (from -7.5 to -2 ‰) and nearly +4‰ (from -14.4 to -10.5‰, when corrected for sea level) shift in δ13C and δ18O, respectively. There are notable similarities and differences among our record and other Great Basin records, Devils Hole (Winograd et al. 1992) and the recent speleothem records by Lachniet et al. (2014) and Denniston et al. (2007). Our record, for example, does not agree with the early timing of T-II in Devils Hole. However, during the latter portion of MIS 5, our record exhibits oxygen isotope values (-13 to -14‰ VPDB) significantly lighter than those in MIS 5e (-10.5 to -11‰ VPDB), similar to Devils Hole and Goshute Cave. In contrast, correlative values in Leviathan Cave (Lachniet et al., 2014) during the latter part of MIS5 are up to 3‰ heavier: -10.5‰ VPDB, matching MIS 5e values. Additionally, the lowest MIS 6 oxygen isotopic values in our record are reached at approximately 137.5 ± 2 ka, about 4 ka earlier than in the Lehman Cave sample presented in the Lachniet et al. record. We evaluate several potential explanations for these offsets in the MIS 5 samples, for example, variable degrees of isotopic enrichment. As a step towards reconciling these

  20. Studies of Large-Area Inversion-Layer Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (IL/MIS) Solar Cells and Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Fat Duen

    1996-01-01

    Many inversion-layer metal-insulator-semiconductor (IL/MIS) solar cells have been fabricated. There are around eighteen 1 cm(exp 2) IL/MIS solar cells which have efficiencies greater than 7%. There are only about three 19 cm(exp 2) IL/MIS cells which have efficiencies greater than 4%. The more accurate control of the thickness of the thin layer of oxide between aluminum and silicon of the MIS contacts has been achieved. A lot of effort and progress have been made in this area. A comprehensive model for MIS contacts under dark conditions has been developed that covers a wide range of parameters. It has been applied to MIS solar cells. One of the main advantages of these models is the prediction of the range of the thin oxide thickness versus the maximum efficiencies of the MIS solar cells. This is particularly important when the thickness is increased to 25 A. This study is very useful for our investigation of the IL/MIS solar cells. The two-dimensional numerical model for the IL/MIS solar cells has been tried to develop and the results are presented in this report.

  1. MIS and PN junction solar cells on thin-film polycrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Ariotedjo, A.; Emery, K.; Cheek, G.; Pierce, P.; Surek, T.

    1981-05-01

    The Photovoltaic Advanced Silicon (PVAS) Branch at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has initiated a comparative study to assess the potential of MIS-type solar cells for low-cost terrestrial photovoltaic systems in terms of performance, stability, and cost-effectiveness. Several types of MIS and SIS solar cells are included in the matrix study currently underway. This approach compares the results of MIS and p/n junction solar cells on essentially identical thin-film polycrystalline silicon materials. All cell measurements and characterizations are performed using uniform testing procedures developed in the Photovoltaic Measurements and Evaluation (PV M and E) Laboratory at SERI. Some preliminary data on the different cell structures on thin-film epitaxial silicon on metallurgical-grade substrates are presented here.

  2. The response of SST to insolation and ice sheet variability from MIS 3 to MIS 11 in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina, Aleix; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Flores, José Abel; Martrat, Belen; Grimalt, Joan O.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present a sea surface temperature (SST) record based on the Uk'37 index from the PRGL1 borehole (Promess1) drilled on the upper slope of the Gulf of Lions (GL). This is the first continuous and high-resolution record in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea from marine oxygen isotope stage 3 (MIS) 3 to MIS 11. Due the location of the GL, the SST proxy can be considered to be a reliable tool to study the climate link between high latitude and midlatitude. During glacial inceptions, the northern ice sheet signal via cold northwesterly winds was first recorded in our study area in comparison with southern locations, highlighting the strong sensitivity of this location to high-latitude dynamics. Moreover, the amplitude of the millennial-scale variability in the western Mediterranean basin seems to be the result of both ice sheet and insolation variability.

  3. Late quaternary sea level changes of Gabes coastal plain and shelf: Identification of the MIS 5c and MIS 5a onshore highstands, southern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gzam, Maher; Mejdoub, Noureddine El; Jedoui, Younes

    2016-02-01

    The continental shelf of the Gulf of Gabes is outlined, during the MIS 5c and MIS 5a onshore highstands, by the genesis of forced regressive beach ridges situated respectively at -19 m b.s.l/100 ka and -8 m b.s.l/80 ka. This area, considered as a stable domain since at least the last 130 ka (Bouaziz et al. 2003), is a particular zone for the reconstruction of the late quaternary sea-level changes in the region. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and field observations are highlighted to deduce interaction between hydrodynamic factors and antecedent topography. Variations in geomorphology were attributed to geological inheritance. Petrography and sedimentary facies of the submerged coastal ridges reveal that the palaeocoastal morphology was more agitated than today and the fluvial discharges are consistent. Actual morphologic trend deduced from different environment coasts (sandy coasts, sea cliffs and tidal flat) is marked by accumulation of marine sands and progradation.

  4. Exposure dating and glacial reconstruction at Mt. Field, Tasmania, Australia, identifies MIS 3 and MIS 2 glacial advances and climatic variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackintosh, A. N.; Barrows, T. T.; Colhoun, E. A.; Fifield, L. K.

    2006-05-01

    Tasmania is important for understanding Quaternary climatic change because it is one of only three areas that experienced extensive mid-latitude Southern Hemisphere glaciation and it lies in a dominantly oceanic environment at a great distance from Northern Hemisphere ice sheet feedbacks. We applied exposure dating using 36Cl to an extensive sequence of moraines from the last glacial at Mt. Field, Tasmania. Glaciers advanced at 41-44 ka during Marine oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 and at 18 ka during MIS 2. Both advances occurred in response to an ELA lowering greater than 1100 m below the present-day mean summer freezing level, and a possible temperature reduction of 7-8°C. Deglaciation was rapid and complete by ca. 16 ka. The overall story emerging from studies of former Tasmanian glaciers is that the MIS 2 glaciation was of limited extent and that some glaciers were more extensive during earlier parts of the last glacial cycle. Copyright

  5. An Auto-management Thesis Program WebMIS Based on Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Li; Jie, Shi; Weibo, Zhong

    An auto-management WebMIS based on workflow for bachelor thesis program is given in this paper. A module used for workflow dispatching is designed and realized using MySQL and J2EE according to the work principle of workflow engine. The module can automatively dispatch the workflow according to the date of system, login information and the work status of the user. The WebMIS changes the management from handwork to computer-work which not only standardizes the thesis program but also keeps the data and documents clean and consistent.

  6. Differentiation of MIS 9 and MIS 11 in the continental record: vegetational, faunal, aminostratigraphic and sea-level evidence from coastal sites in Essex, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Helen M.; Coope, G. Russell; Devoy, Robert J. N.; Harrison, Colin J. O.; Penkman, Kirsty E. H.; Preece, Richard C.; Schreve, Danielle C.

    2009-11-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations of the vegetational, faunal and sea-level history inferred from the infills of buried channels on the coast of eastern Essex have a direct bearing on the differentiation of MIS 11 and MIS 9 in continental records. New data are presented from Cudmore Grove, an important site on Mersea Island that can be linked to the terrace sequence of the River Thames. The vegetational history has been reconstructed from a pollen sequence covering much of the interglacial represented. The temperate nature of the climate is apparent from a range of fossil groups, including plant remains, vertebrates (especially the rich herpetofauna), molluscs and beetles, which all have strong thermophilous components. The beetle data have been used to derive a Mutual Climatic Range reconstruction, suggesting that mean July temperatures were about 2 °C warmer than modern values for southeast England, whereas mean January temperatures may have been slightly colder. The sea-level history has been reconstructed from the molluscs, ostracods and especially the diatoms, which indicate that the marine transgression occurred considerably earlier in the interglacial cycle than at the neighbouring Hoxnian site at Clacton. There are a number of palynological similarities between the sequence at Cudmore Grove and Clacton, especially the presence of Abies and the occurrence of Azolla filiculoides megaspores. Moreover, both sites have yielded Palaeolithic archaeology, indeed the latter is the type site of the Clactonian (flake-and-core) industry. However, the sites can be differentiated on the basis of mammalian biostratigraphy, new aminostratigraphic data, as well as the differences in the sea-level history. The combined evidence suggests that the infill of the channel at Cudmore Grove accumulated during MIS 9, whereas the deposits at Clacton formed during MIS 11. The infill of a much later channel, yielding non-marine molluscs and vertebrates including Hippopotamus, appears

  7. Differentiation of MIS 9 and MIS 11 in the continental record: vegetational, faunal, aminostratigraphic and sea-level evidence from coastal sites in Essex, UK.

    PubMed

    Roe, Helen M; Coope, G Russell; Devoy, Robert J N; Harrison, Colin J O; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Preece, Richard C; Schreve, Danielle C

    2009-11-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations of the vegetational, faunal and sea-level history inferred from the infills of buried channels on the coast of eastern Essex have a direct bearing on the differentiation of MIS 11 and MIS 9 in continental records. New data are presented from Cudmore Grove, an important site on Mersea Island that can be linked to the terrace sequence of the River Thames. The vegetational history has been reconstructed from a pollen sequence covering much of the interglacial represented. The temperate nature of the climate is apparent from a range of fossil groups, including plant remains, vertebrates (especially the rich herpetofauna), molluscs and beetles, which all have strong thermophilous components. The beetle data have been used to derive a Mutual Climatic Range reconstruction, suggesting that mean July temperatures were about 2 degrees C warmer than modern values for southeast England, whereas mean January temperatures may have been slightly colder. The sea-level history has been reconstructed from the molluscs, ostracods and especially the diatoms, which indicate that the marine transgression occurred considerably earlier in the interglacial cycle than at the neighbouring Hoxnian site at Clacton. There are a number of palynological similarities between the sequence at Cudmore Grove and Clacton, especially the presence of Abies and the occurrence of Azolla filiculoides megaspores. Moreover, both sites have yielded Palaeolithic archaeology, indeed the latter is the type site of the Clactonian (flake-and-core) industry. However, the sites can be differentiated on the basis of mammalian biostratigraphy, new aminostratigraphic data, as well as the differences in the sea-level history. The combined evidence suggests that the infill of the channel at Cudmore Grove accumulated during MIS 9, whereas the deposits at Clacton formed during MIS 11. The infill of a much later channel, yielding non-marine molluscs and vertebrates including Hippopotamus

  8. Differentiation of MIS 9 and MIS 11 in the continental record: vegetational, faunal, aminostratigraphic and sea-level evidence from coastal sites in Essex, UK

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Helen M.; Coope, G. Russell; Devoy, Robert J.N.; Harrison, Colin J.O.; Penkman, Kirsty E.H.; Preece, Richard C.; Schreve, Danielle C.

    2009-01-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations of the vegetational, faunal and sea-level history inferred from the infills of buried channels on the coast of eastern Essex have a direct bearing on the differentiation of MIS 11 and MIS 9 in continental records. New data are presented from Cudmore Grove, an important site on Mersea Island that can be linked to the terrace sequence of the River Thames. The vegetational history has been reconstructed from a pollen sequence covering much of the interglacial represented. The temperate nature of the climate is apparent from a range of fossil groups, including plant remains, vertebrates (especially the rich herpetofauna), molluscs and beetles, which all have strong thermophilous components. The beetle data have been used to derive a Mutual Climatic Range reconstruction, suggesting that mean July temperatures were about 2 °C warmer than modern values for southeast England, whereas mean January temperatures may have been slightly colder. The sea-level history has been reconstructed from the molluscs, ostracods and especially the diatoms, which indicate that the marine transgression occurred considerably earlier in the interglacial cycle than at the neighbouring Hoxnian site at Clacton. There are a number of palynological similarities between the sequence at Cudmore Grove and Clacton, especially the presence of Abies and the occurrence of Azolla filiculoides megaspores. Moreover, both sites have yielded Palaeolithic archaeology, indeed the latter is the type site of the Clactonian (flake-and-core) industry. However, the sites can be differentiated on the basis of mammalian biostratigraphy, new aminostratigraphic data, as well as the differences in the sea-level history. The combined evidence suggests that the infill of the channel at Cudmore Grove accumulated during MIS 9, whereas the deposits at Clacton formed during MIS 11. The infill of a much later channel, yielding non-marine molluscs and vertebrates including Hippopotamus, appears

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Oxide Material Representation in the Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) Program, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D C; Dodson, K

    2004-06-30

    The Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) program was established within the 94-1 R&D Program to confirm the suitability of plutonium-bearing materials for stabilization, packaging, and long-term storage under DOE-STD-3013-2000. Oxide materials from different sites were chemically and physically characterized. The adequacy of the stabilization process parameters of temperature and duration at temperature (950 C and 2 hours) for eliminating chemical reactivity and reducing the moisture content to less than 0.5 weight percent were validated. Studies also include surveillance monitoring to determine the behavior of the oxides and packaging materials under storage conditions. Materials selected for this program were assumed to be representative of the overall inventory for DOE sites. The Quality Assurance section of the DOE-STD-3013-2000 required that each site be responsible for assuring that oxides packaged according to this standard are represented by items in the MIS characterization program. The purpose of this document is to define the path for determining if an individual item is ''represented'' in the MIS Program and to show that oxides being packaged at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are considered represented in the MIS program. The methodology outlined in the MIS Representation Document (LA-14016-MS) for demonstrating representation requires concurrence of the MIS working Group (MIS-WG). The signature page on this document provides for the MIS-WG concurrence.

  10. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the...

  11. Design of a Model Management Information System (MIS) for California's Regional Occupational Centers and Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, James C.; And Others

    The management information system (MIS) development project for California's Regional Occupational Centers and Programs (ROC/Ps) was conducted in 3 phases over a 12-month period. Phase I involved a literature review and field study to match MIS design features and development strategy with existing conditions in ROC/Ps. A decision support system…

  12. Mapping the MIS Curriculum Based on Critical Skills of New Graduates: An Empirical Examination of IT Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, James P.; McMurtrey, Mark E.; Zeltmann, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    MIS curricula research almost always focuses on either curriculum issues or the critical skills required of new MIS graduates, rarely both. This study examines both by determining the critical skills required of new graduates, from the perspective of IT professionals in the field, then uniquely mapping those skills into a comprehensive yet…

  13. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS)...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the...

  17. First physical evidence for forested environment in the Arctic during MIS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarala, Pertti; Väliranta, Minna; Eskola, Tiina; Vaikutiené, Giedré

    2016-07-01

    Old sedimentological and geochronological records can be preserved underneath the central parts of the continental ice sheets under non-erosive, cold-based subglacial conditions. Organic deposits that predate the last deglaciation are of particular value for the information held on glacial-time climate and environmental conditions. In this study, we present multiproxy data derived from a well-preserved MIS 3 interstadial (55–25 ka ago) organic layer from inside the Arctic Circle in the Finnish Lapland. Biological proxy evidence, namely coming from aquatic plant species, indicates July temperatures as high as 14.4 °C, i.e. higher than those of today for the study site. Macrofossil evidence demonstrates for the first time the presence of pines accompanied by tree birch during the MIS 3 interstadial in northern Fennoscandia. These results concur with contemporary insolation model outcomes but contradict with the previous proxy-based view of open tundra conditions during the MIS 3. The data suggest that there are highly dynamic interstadial continental ice-sheet dynamics following changes in orbital forcing. Warm climate enabled the establishment of forests on exposed landscape. Moreover, we suggest that in the light of these new data, previous MIS 3 pollen data could be re-interpreted.

  18. 48 CFR 226.370-8 - Goals and incentives for subcontracting with HBCU/MIs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Goals and incentives for... Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions 226.370-8 Goals and incentives for... included anticipated awards to HBCU/MIs in the small disadvantaged business goal; and (2) Consider...

  19. Childhood (Mis)Fortune, Educational Attainment, and Adult Health: Contingent Benefits of a College Degree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    College-educated adults are healthier than other people in the United States, but selection bias complicates our understanding of how education influences health. This article focuses on the possibility that the health benefits of college may vary according to childhood (mis)fortune and people's propensity to attain a college degree in the first…

  20. MIS versus Computer Science: An Empirical Comparison of the Influences on the Students' Choice of Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, James P.; McGaughey, Ronnie; Roach, David

    2009-01-01

    A history of declining enrollments in university Management Information Systems (MIS) and computer science (CS) departments in the U.S. considerably impacts both college departments and business organizations that hire graduates. In order to reverse the enrollment trend, an understanding of the important similarities and differences that shape a…

  1. An Activity Theory Approach to Analyze Barriers to a Virtual Management Information Systems (MIS) Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaradat, Suhair; Qablan, Ahmad; Barham, Areej

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains how the activity theory is used as a framework to analyze the barriers to a virtual Management Information Stream (MIS) Curriculum in Jordanian schools, from both the sociocultural and pedagogical perspectives. Taking the activity system as a unit of analysis, this study documents the processes by which activities shape and are…

  2. Student Motivational Profiles in an Introductory MIS Course: An Exploratory Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Klara

    2014-01-01

    This study profiles students in an introductory MIS course according to a variety of variables associated with choice of academic major. The data were collected through a survey administered to 12 sections of the course. A two-step cluster analysis was performed with gender as a categorical variable and students' perceptions of task value…

  3. The Use of Facebook in an Introductory MIS Course: Social Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ractham, Peter; Kaewkitipong, Laddawan; Firpo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The major objective of this article is to evaluate via a Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM) the implementation of a Social Constructivist learning framework for an introductory Management Information System (MIS) course. Facebook was used as a learning artifact to build and foster a learning environment, and a series of features and…

  4. An Empirical Examination of the Composition of Vocational Interest in Business Colleges: MIS vs. Other Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, James

    2011-01-01

    Given the diminishing number of Management Information Systems (MIS) majors, an understanding of the factors which influence student choice of major is crucial. It has been noted in many previous studies that interest in a major and career significantly influences the student's choice of college major; indeed, in most studies, it is the strongest…

  5. First physical evidence for forested environment in the Arctic during MIS 3

    PubMed Central

    Sarala, Pertti; Väliranta, Minna; Eskola, Tiina; Vaikutiené, Giedré

    2016-01-01

    Old sedimentological and geochronological records can be preserved underneath the central parts of the continental ice sheets under non-erosive, cold-based subglacial conditions. Organic deposits that predate the last deglaciation are of particular value for the information held on glacial-time climate and environmental conditions. In this study, we present multiproxy data derived from a well-preserved MIS 3 interstadial (55–25 ka ago) organic layer from inside the Arctic Circle in the Finnish Lapland. Biological proxy evidence, namely coming from aquatic plant species, indicates July temperatures as high as 14.4 °C, i.e. higher than those of today for the study site. Macrofossil evidence demonstrates for the first time the presence of pines accompanied by tree birch during the MIS 3 interstadial in northern Fennoscandia. These results concur with contemporary insolation model outcomes but contradict with the previous proxy-based view of open tundra conditions during the MIS 3. The data suggest that there are highly dynamic interstadial continental ice-sheet dynamics following changes in orbital forcing. Warm climate enabled the establishment of forests on exposed landscape. Moreover, we suggest that in the light of these new data, previous MIS 3 pollen data could be re-interpreted. PMID:27363905

  6. First physical evidence for forested environment in the Arctic during MIS 3.

    PubMed

    Sarala, Pertti; Väliranta, Minna; Eskola, Tiina; Vaikutiené, Giedré

    2016-01-01

    Old sedimentological and geochronological records can be preserved underneath the central parts of the continental ice sheets under non-erosive, cold-based subglacial conditions. Organic deposits that predate the last deglaciation are of particular value for the information held on glacial-time climate and environmental conditions. In this study, we present multiproxy data derived from a well-preserved MIS 3 interstadial (55-25 ka ago) organic layer from inside the Arctic Circle in the Finnish Lapland. Biological proxy evidence, namely coming from aquatic plant species, indicates July temperatures as high as 14.4 °C, i.e. higher than those of today for the study site. Macrofossil evidence demonstrates for the first time the presence of pines accompanied by tree birch during the MIS 3 interstadial in northern Fennoscandia. These results concur with contemporary insolation model outcomes but contradict with the previous proxy-based view of open tundra conditions during the MIS 3. The data suggest that there are highly dynamic interstadial continental ice-sheet dynamics following changes in orbital forcing. Warm climate enabled the establishment of forests on exposed landscape. Moreover, we suggest that in the light of these new data, previous MIS 3 pollen data could be re-interpreted. PMID:27363905

  7. An Alumni Assessment of MIS Related Job Skill Importance and Skill Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Jerod W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a job skill survey of Management Information Systems (MIS) alumni from a Northeastern U.S. university. The study assesses job skill importance and skill gaps associated with 104 technical and non-technical skill items. Survey items were grouped into 6 categories based on prior research. Skill importance and skill…

  8. Transmission line relay mis-operation detection based on time-synchronized field data

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaeilian, Ahad; Popovic, Tomo; Kezunovic, Mladen

    2015-05-04

    In this paper, a real-time tool to detect transmission line relay mis-operation is implemented. The tool uses time-synchronized measurements obtained from both ends of the line during disturbances. The proposed fault analysis tool comes into the picture only after the protective device has operated and tripped the line. The proposed methodology is able not only to detect, classify, and locate transmission line faults, but also to accurately confirm whether the line was tripped due to a mis-operation of protective relays. The analysis report includes either detailed description of the fault type and location or detection of relay mis-operation. As such, it can be a source of very useful information to support the system restoration. The focus of the paper is on the implementation requirements that allow practical application of the methodology, which is illustrated using the field data obtained the real power system. Testing and validation is done using the field data recorded by digital fault recorders and protective relays. The test data included several hundreds of event records corresponding to both relay mis-operations and actual faults. The discussion of results addresses various challenges encountered during the implementation and validation of the presented methodology.

  9. Transmission line relay mis-operation detection based on time-synchronized field data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Esmaeilian, Ahad; Popovic, Tomo; Kezunovic, Mladen

    2015-05-04

    In this paper, a real-time tool to detect transmission line relay mis-operation is implemented. The tool uses time-synchronized measurements obtained from both ends of the line during disturbances. The proposed fault analysis tool comes into the picture only after the protective device has operated and tripped the line. The proposed methodology is able not only to detect, classify, and locate transmission line faults, but also to accurately confirm whether the line was tripped due to a mis-operation of protective relays. The analysis report includes either detailed description of the fault type and location or detection of relay mis-operation. As such,more » it can be a source of very useful information to support the system restoration. The focus of the paper is on the implementation requirements that allow practical application of the methodology, which is illustrated using the field data obtained the real power system. Testing and validation is done using the field data recorded by digital fault recorders and protective relays. The test data included several hundreds of event records corresponding to both relay mis-operations and actual faults. The discussion of results addresses various challenges encountered during the implementation and validation of the presented methodology.« less

  10. The Inchworm and the Nightingale: On the (Mis)use of Data in Music Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The music education profession is faced with two serious problems regarding the (mis)use of data in music teacher evaluation. The first has to do with the quality and kinds of data that music teachers have been forced to use; the second is concerned with how these data are being used in the music teacher evaluation process. The evidence I will use…

  11. Minimally Invasive Direct Thoracic Interbody Fusion (MIS-DTIF): Technical Notes of a Single Surgeon Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive direct thoracic interbody fusion (MIS-DTIF) is a new single surgeon procedure for fusion of the thoracic vertebrae below the scapula (T6/7) to the thoracolumbar junction. In this proof of concept study, we describe the surgical technique for MIS-DTIF and report our experience and the perioperative outcomes of the first four patients who underwent this procedure. Study design/setting In this study we attempt to establish the safety and efficacy of MIS-DTIF. We have performed MIS-DTIF on six spinal levels in four patients with degenerative disk disease or disk herniation. We recorded surgery time, blood loss, fluoroscopy time, complications, and patient-reported pain. Methods Throughout the MIS-DTIF procedure, the surgeon is aided by biplanar fluoroscopic imaging and electrophysiological monitoring. The surgeon approaches the spine with a series of gentle tissue dilations and inserts a working tube that establishes a direct connection from the outside of the skin to the disk space. Through this working tube, the surgeon performs a discectomy and inserts an interbody graft or cage. The procedure is completed with minimally invasive (MI) posterior pedicle screw fixation. Results For the single level patients the mean blood loss was 90 ml, surgery time 43 minutes, fluoroscopy time 293 seconds, and hospital stay two days. For the two-level surgeries, the mean blood loss was 27 ml, surgery time 61 minutes, fluoroscopy time 321 seconds, and hospital stay three days. We did not encounter any clinically significant complications. Thirty days post-surgery, the patients reported a statistically significant reduction of 5.3 points on a 10-point sliding pain scale. Conclusions MIS-DTIF with pedicle screw fixation is a safe and clinically effective procedure for fusions of the thoracic spine. The procedure is technically straightforward and overcomes many of the limitations of the current minimally invasive (MI) approaches to the thoracic spine. MIS

  12. Investigating annually-resovled natural climate variability during MIS 11 using lacustrine records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tye, G. J.; Palmer, A. P.; Candy, I.; Coxon, P.; Hardiman, M.

    2012-04-01

    Marine isotope stage 11 (MIS 11, ca 410,000 yrs BP) is considered to be one of the best analogues for current and future climate change due to the similarity of orbital forcing patterns during these two interglacials. Marine and ice-core records suggest that MIS 11 was a particularly long interglacial, characterised by stable climates. The investigation of high-resolution climate records from MIS 11 can, therefore, allow us to understand how the climate of a Holocene-like interglacial might evolve in the absence of anthropogenic modification. MIS 11 sediments preserved in the palaeolake basin at Marks Tey, eastern England, offer the potential for such a study as they are considered to be annually-laminated (varved) throughout a large part of the interglacial (Turner, 1970, 1975). The lamination sets appear to be comprised, primarily, of three regularly occurring laminae types; 1) authigenic carbonate, 2) diatom blooms, and 3) organic detritus, although there appears to be some variability in the microfacies of these laminations. The carbonate laminations are the key to the study of climate variability during MIS 11, as they represent authigenic carbonate precipitation, consistent with temperature/biologically driven changes in lake chemistry during the summer months. Oxygen isotopic analysis of the carbonate therefore gives a proxy for summer temperature. A period of key interest in the MIS 11 sequence at Marks Tey occurs during the early part of the interglacial, where there is a short-lived increase in grass pollen relative to tree pollen, termed the Non-Arboreal Pollen Zone (NAPZ). The cause of this shift in pollen has been subject to debate, with natural wildfire (Turner, 1970) or climatic deterioration (e.g. Kelly, 1964) being suggested as possible forcing mechanisms. In this study, as well as discussing the main characteristics of the MIS 11 sequence at Marks Tey, we will focus on the sedimentary, micromorphological and geochemical record of the NAPZ. In

  13. Ice Complex permafrost of MIS5 age in the Dmitry Laptev Strait coastal region (East Siberian Arctic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, Sebastian; Tumskoy, Vladimir; Rudaya, Natalia; Kuznetsov, Vladislav; Maksimov, Fedor; Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno; Andreev, Andrei A.; Schirrmeister, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    Ice Complex deposits (locally known as the Buchchagy Ice Complex) are exposed at both coasts of the East Siberian Dmitry Laptev Strait and preserved below the Yedoma Ice Complex that formed during MIS3 and MIS2 (Marine Isotope Stage) and lateglacial-Holocene thermokarst deposits (MIS1). Radioisotope disequilibria (230Th/U) of peaty horizons date the Buchchagy Ice Complex deposition to 126 + 16/-13 kyr and 117 + 19/-14 kyr until 98 ± 5 kyr and 89 ± 5 kyr. The deposit is characterised by poorly-sorted medium-to-coarse silts with cryogenic structures of horizontal ice bands, lens-like, and lens-like reticulated segregation ice. Two peaty horizons within the Buchchagy Ice Complex and syngenetic ice wedges (2-4 m wide, up to 10 m high) are striking. The isotopic composition (δ18O, δD) of Buchchagy ice-wedge ice indicates winter conditions colder than during the MIS3 interstadial and warmer than during MIS2 stadial, and similar atmospheric winter moisture sources as during the MIS2 stadial. Buchchagy Ice Complex pollen spectra reveal tundra-steppe vegetation and harsher summer conditions than during the MIS3 interstadial and rather similar vegetation as during the MIS2 stadial. Short-term climatic variability during MIS5 is reflected in the record. Even though the regional chronostratigraphic relationship of the Buchchagy Ice Complex to the Last Interglacial remains unclear because numerical dating is widely lacking, the present study indicates permafrost (Ice Complex) formation during MIS5 sensu lato, and its preservation afterwards. Palaeoenvironmental insights into past climate and the periglacial landscape dynamics of arctic lowlands in eastern Siberia are deduced from the record.

  14. Orbital scale paleohydrological changes in the subtropical Mexico since MIS 5 and possible forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroz-Jiménez, J. D.; Roy, P. D.; Lozano-SantaCruz, R.; Girón-García, P.; Sánchez Zavala, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In Mexico, there are only two proxy records that provide information about the last interglacial. Lack of longer registers is a hindrance in understanding the effect of modern era global warming on the arid ecosystem of northern Mexico. We present a new orbital-scale record of hydrological changes occurred since the MIS 5 from the southern part of subtropical Mexico. This record is obtained from geochemistry of a 10 m long sediment core collected from central part of the Santiaguillo Basin. The age model is created with radiocarbon dates of sediments deposited over the last 27 cal ka and it incorporates a uniform sedimentation rate (calculated for the last 27 cal ka) for lower part of the core. Variation of runoff is reconstructed from Ti concentration and salinity of the water column is inferred from the abundance authigenic carbonates. Over the last 27 cal ka, this new record shows similar variations as that of our previous work done in sediment profiles collected from the littoral parts of the basin. We observe a first order positive correlation between the proxy records of runoff and lake water salinity with insolation values for the interpolated as well as the extrapolated parts of age model. The runoff record has orbital-scale similarities with autumn (September) insolation and variations in lake water salinity are comparable to summer (June) insolation. Santiaguillo Basin received more runoff (i.e. precipitation) during the intervals of higher autumn insolation and more carbonate deposition occurred (i.e. drought) during the intervals of higher summer insolation. During MIS 5, the hydrological variations were controlled by the insolation values. In general, MIS 4 and MIS 2 were intervals of more runoff and more carbonate deposition occurred during MIS 3. Comparison with other regional records suggests different geographic influences of NAM and Tropical Cyclones in orbital-scales.

  15. Modelling and extraction procedure for gate insulator and fringing gate capacitance components of an MIS structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinoco, J. C.; Martinez-Lopez, A. G.; Lezama, G.; Mendoza-Barrera, C.; Cerdeira, A.; Estrada, M.

    2016-07-01

    CMOS technology has been guided by the continuous reduction of MOS transistors used to fabricate integrated circuits. Additionally, the use of high-k dielectrics as well as a metal gate electrode have promoted the development of nanometric MOS transistors. Under this scenario, the proper modelling of the gate capacitance, with the aim of adequately evaluating the dielectric film thickness, becomes challenging for nanometric metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures due to the presence of extrinsic fringing capacitance components which affect the total gate capacitance. In this contribution, a complete intrinsic-extrinsic model for gate capacitance under accumulation of an MIS structure, together with an extraction procedure in order to independently determine the different capacitance components, is presented. ATLAS finite element simulation has been used to validate the proposed methodology.

  16. Design, development and characterization of a modular end effector for MIS procedures.

    PubMed

    Izzo, A; Tortora, G; Dario, P; Menciassi, A

    2015-01-01

    The Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) paradigm is well established in modern surgical procedures. Although MIS is successful from the patient's viewpoint, the use of rigid instruments inserted through small skin incisions leads to dexterity constraints and loss of degree of motion. Robotics has been introduced as support for augmenting dexterity during interventions, restoring hand-eye coordination and providing tools with enhanced degrees of motion. However, surgical robots have high costs and large footprint, pushing the research towards the development of modular robots to be used in Naturally Orifice Trans-luminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) procedures. The main need of having simple and cheap tools able to be interchanged during the surgical procedure became crucial. In this paper an innovative modular end-effector based on a compliant soft actuation system able to provide up to 5.78 N gripping forces is presented. PMID:26737874

  17. Modelling and extraction procedure for gate insulator and fringing gate capacitance components of an MIS structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinoco, J. C.; Martinez-Lopez, A. G.; Lezama, G.; Mendoza-Barrera, C.; Cerdeira, A.; Estrada, M.

    2016-07-01

    CMOS technology has been guided by the continuous reduction of MOS transistors used to fabricate integrated circuits. Additionally, the use of high-k dielectrics as well as a metal gate electrode have promoted the development of nanometric MOS transistors. Under this scenario, the proper modelling of the gate capacitance, with the aim of adequately evaluating the dielectric film thickness, becomes challenging for nanometric metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures due to the presence of extrinsic fringing capacitance components which affect the total gate capacitance. In this contribution, a complete intrinsic–extrinsic model for gate capacitance under accumulation of an MIS structure, together with an extraction procedure in order to independently determine the different capacitance components, is presented. ATLAS finite element simulation has been used to validate the proposed methodology.

  18. Free exciton emission in forward-biased CdS MIS diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, X. W.; Woods, J.

    1981-07-01

    The radiative decay of free excitons with the emission of 0, 1, or 2LO phonons has been observed in electroluminescence in Cds MIS diodes operated in forward bias at temperatures in the range 40 - 77K. The line shapes and temperature dependence of the ILO and 2LO phonon assisted replicas are discussed in terms of the distribution of kinetic energy of the excitons with an effective temperature equal to that of the lattice.

  19. Basic mechanisms study for MIS solar cell structures on GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonash, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The solar cell structure examined is the MIS configuration on (n) GaAs. The metal room temperature oxide/(n) GaAs materials system was studied. Metals with electronegativities varying from 2.4 (Au) to 1.5 (Al) were used as the upper electrode. The thinnest metallization that did not interfere with the measurement techniques (by introducing essentially transmission line series resistance problems across a device) was used. Photovoltaic response was not optimized.

  20. Automated software development tools in the MIS (Management Information Systems) environment

    SciTech Connect

    Arrowood, L.F.; Emrich, M.L.

    1987-09-11

    Quantitative and qualitative benefits can be obtained through the use of automated software development tools. Such tools are best utilized when they complement existing procedures and standards. They can assist systems analysts and programmers with project specification, design, implementation, testing, and documentation. Commercial products have been evaluated to determine their efficacy. User comments have been included to illustrate actual benefits derived from introducing these tools into MIS organizations.

  1. Extensive MIS 3 glaciation in southernmost Patagonia revealed by cosmogenic nuclide dating of outwash sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvill, Christopher M.; Bentley, Michael J.; Stokes, Chris R.; Hein, Andrew S.; Rodés, Ángel

    2015-11-01

    The timing and extent of former glacial advances can demonstrate leads and lags during periods of climatic change and their forcing, but this requires robust glacial chronologies. In parts of southernmost Patagonia, dating pre-global Last Glacial Maximum (gLGM) ice limits has proven difficult due to post-deposition processes affecting the build-up of cosmogenic nuclides in moraine boulders. Here we provide ages for the Río Cullen and San Sebastián glacial limits of the former Bahía Inútil-San Sebastián (BI-SSb) ice lobe on Tierra del Fuego (53-54°S), previously hypothesised to represent advances during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 12 and 10, respectively. Our approach uses cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al exposure dating, but targets glacial outwash associated with these limits and uses depth-profiles and surface cobble samples, thereby accounting for surface deflation and inheritance. The data reveal that the limits formed more recently than previously thought, giving ages of 45.6 ka (139.9/-14.3) for the Río Cullen, and 30.1 ka (+45.6/-23.1) for the San Sebastián limits. These dates indicate extensive glaciation in southern Patagonia during MIS 3, prior to the well-constrained, but much less extensive MIS 2 (gLGM) limit. This suggests the pattern of ice advances in the region was different to northern Patagonia, with the terrestrial limits relating to the last glacial cycle, rather than progressively less extensive glaciations over hundreds of thousands of years. However, the dates are consistent with MIS 3 glaciation elsewhere in the southern mid-latitudes, and the combination of cooler summers and warmer winters with increased precipitation, may have caused extensive glaciation prior to the gLGM.

  2. A Pleistocene (MIS 5e) mollusk assemblage from Ezeiza (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Sergio; Julia del Río, Claudia; Rojas, Alejandra

    2016-10-01

    A fossil assemblage collected around 3.5 m amsl from Ezeiza, Buenos Aires province, have AMS 14C ages of ca. 33,000 to ca. 40,000 yr BP, whereas in the literature is a report of a conventional 14C age of >43,000 yr BP. An OSL age from the overlying deposit corresponds to ca. 22,000 yr. The samples contain marine fossils: mollusks, balanids and corals (Astrangia). La Coronilla (Uruguay, attributed to MIS 5e) is the locality most related to Ezeiza faunistically, despite is not the nearest one. In consequence, the relationship should be addressed to a more similar age and environment than others. The fauna indicates a higher water temperature than today. In Ezeiza exclusively cold water taxa are absent, and we found seven warm taxa with their southern distribution limit displaced northwards today, plus other six at their southern distribution limit. Around 60% of all the species and more than 70% of the individuals are of warm-temperate waters. In sum, although prima facie the numerical ages would locate the deposit in MIS3, faunistic, temperature, and height evidences show that the Ezeiza mollusk assemblage belong to MIS5e. A stronger than presently Brazil warm current, reaching Southern latitudes, may explain the changes in geographical ranges.

  3. Pathological impact of SMN2 mis-splicing in adult SMA mice

    PubMed Central

    Sahashi, Kentaro; Ling, Karen K Y; Hua, Yimin; Wilkinson, John Erby; Nomakuchi, Tomoki; Rigo, Frank; Hung, Gene; Xu, David; Jiang, Ya-Ping; Lin, Richard Z; Ko, Chien-Ping; Bennett, C Frank; Krainer, Adrian R

    2013-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in SMN1 cause spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic cause of infant mortality. The related SMN2 gene expresses suboptimal levels of functional SMN protein, due to a splicing defect. Many SMA patients reach adulthood, and there is also adult-onset (type IV) SMA. There is currently no animal model for adult-onset SMA, and the tissue-specific pathogenesis of post-developmental SMN deficiency remains elusive. Here, we use an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) to exacerbate SMN2 mis-splicing. Intracerebroventricular ASO injection in adult SMN2-transgenic mice phenocopies key aspects of adult-onset SMA, including delayed-onset motor dysfunction and relevant histopathological features. SMN2 mis-splicing increases during late-stage disease, likely accelerating disease progression. Systemic ASO injection in adult mice causes peripheral SMN2 mis-splicing and affects prognosis, eliciting marked liver and heart pathologies, with decreased IGF1 levels. ASO dose–response and time-course studies suggest that only moderate SMN levels are required in the adult central nervous system, and treatment with a splicing-correcting ASO shows a broad therapeutic time window. We describe distinctive pathological features of adult-onset and early-onset SMA. PMID:24014320

  4. Chromosome mis-segregation and cytokinesis failure in trisomic human cells

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Joshua M; Macedo, Joana C; Mattingly, Aaron J; Wangsa, Darawalee; Camps, Jordi; Lima, Vera; Gomes, Ana M; Dória, Sofia; Ried, Thomas; Logarinho, Elsa; Cimini, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells display aneuploid karyotypes and typically mis-segregate chromosomes at high rates, a phenotype referred to as chromosomal instability (CIN). To test the effects of aneuploidy on chromosome segregation and other mitotic phenotypes we used the colorectal cancer cell line DLD1 (2n = 46) and two variants with trisomy 7 or 13 (DLD1+7 and DLD1+13), as well as euploid and trisomy 13 amniocytes (AF and AF+13). We found that trisomic cells displayed higher rates of chromosome mis-segregation compared to their euploid counterparts. Furthermore, cells with trisomy 13 displayed a distinctive cytokinesis failure phenotype. We showed that up-regulation of SPG20 expression, brought about by trisomy 13 in DLD1+13 and AF+13 cells, is sufficient for the cytokinesis failure phenotype. Overall, our study shows that aneuploidy can induce chromosome mis-segregation. Moreover, we identified a trisomy 13-specific mitotic phenotype that is driven by up-regulation of a gene encoded on the aneuploid chromosome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05068.001 PMID:25942454

  5. Functional analysis of a pyoverdine synthetase from Pseudomonas sp. MIS38.

    PubMed

    Lim, Siew Ping; Roongsawang, Niran; Washio, Kenji; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2007-08-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. MIS38 produces a cyclic lipopeptide, arthrofactin. Arthrofactin is synthesized by a unique nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) with dual C/E-domains. In this study, another class of cyclic peptide, pyoverdine, was isolated from MIS38, viz., Pvd38. The main fraction of Pvd38 had an m/z value of 1,064.57 and contained Ala, Glu, Gly, (OHOrn), Ser, and Thr at a ratio of 2:1:1:(1):1:1 in the peptide part, suggesting a new structure compound. A gene encoding NRPS for the chromophore part of Pvd38 was identified, and we found that it contained a conventional E-domain. Gene disruption completely impaired the production of Pvd38, demonstrating that the synthetase is functional. This observation allows us to conclude that different NRPS systems with dual C/E-domains (in arthrofactin synthetase) and a conventional E-domain (in pyoverdine synthetase) are both functional in MIS38. PMID:17690457

  6. Laser-induced fluorescence and reflected white light imaging for robot-assisted MIS.

    PubMed

    Noonan, David P; Elson, Daniel S; Mylonas, George P; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents an articulated robotic-controlled device to facilitate large-area in vivo tissue imaging and characterization through the integration of miniaturized reflected white light and fluorescence intensity imaging for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The device is composed of a long, rigid shaft with a robotically controlled distal tip featuring three degrees of in-plane articulation and one degree of rotational freedom. The constraints imposed by the articulated section, coupled with the small footprint available in MIS devices, require a novel optical configuration to ensure effective target illumination and image acquisition. A tunable coherent supercontinuum laser source is used to provide sequential white light and fluorescence illumination through a multimode fiber (200 microm diameter), and the reflected images are transmitted to an image acquisition system using a 10,000 pixel flexible fiber image guide (590 microm diameter). By using controlled joint actuation to trace overlapping trajectories, the device allows effective imaging of a larger field of view than a traditional dual-mode laparoscope. A first-generation prototype of the device and its initial phantom and ex vivo tissue characterization results are described. The results demonstrate the potential of the device to be used as a new platform for in vivo tissue characterization and navigation for MIS.

  7. Mathematical analysis of mis-estimation of cell subsets in flow cytometry: viability staining revisited.

    PubMed

    Petrunkina, A M; Harrison, R A P

    2011-05-31

    Many research projects in cell biology now use flow cytometry for analysis or for isolation of specific cell types. In such studies, cell viability is obviously a crucial issue. However, many studies appear to rely upon light-scattering characteristics to identify and gate out non-viable cells, despite the fact that reliable identification of such cells can only be achieved through staining with impermeable fluorescent nuclear dyes such as propidium iodide or 7-amino actinomycin. In this paper we apply mathematical analysis to the theoretical problem of quantifying cell sub-populations labeled with two or more fluorescent markers, comparing situations in which dead cells have been identified with those in which cell viability has not been assessed. We demonstrate that in all cases in which dead cells are present within the population, percentages of live sub-populations in different subsets are mis-estimated. In cases where the pattern of marker expression differs greatly between live and dead cells, or where the proportion of dead cells is high, this mis-estimation will be aggravated; the subsets pattern will therefore be biased in a population selected only on the basis of light-scatter behavior. The importance of accurately detecting and gating out dead cells is illustrated by an experimental example accompanying the mathematical analysis. To conclude, identification of dead cells by means of viability stains should be an absolute routine in practical flow cytometry, so as to avoid mis-estimation in sorting or analysis.

  8. Chromosome mis-segregation and cytokinesis failure in trisomic human cells.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Joshua M; Macedo, Joana C; Mattingly, Aaron J; Wangsa, Darawalee; Camps, Jordi; Lima, Vera; Gomes, Ana M; Dória, Sofia; Ried, Thomas; Logarinho, Elsa; Cimini, Daniela

    2015-05-05

    Cancer cells display aneuploid karyotypes and typically mis-segregate chromosomes at high rates, a phenotype referred to as chromosomal instability (CIN). To test the effects of aneuploidy on chromosome segregation and other mitotic phenotypes we used the colorectal cancer cell line DLD1 (2n = 46) and two variants with trisomy 7 or 13 (DLD1+7 and DLD1+13), as well as euploid and trisomy 13 amniocytes (AF and AF+13). We found that trisomic cells displayed higher rates of chromosome mis-segregation compared to their euploid counterparts. Furthermore, cells with trisomy 13 displayed a distinctive cytokinesis failure phenotype. We showed that up-regulation of SPG20 expression, brought about by trisomy 13 in DLD1+13 and AF+13 cells, is sufficient for the cytokinesis failure phenotype. Overall, our study shows that aneuploidy can induce chromosome mis-segregation. Moreover, we identified a trisomy 13-specific mitotic phenotype that is driven by up-regulation of a gene encoded on the aneuploid chromosome.

  9. Chronology and stratigraphy for the MIS 2 damming of glacial Lake Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, E. C.; Attig, J. W.; Rawling, J. E., III

    2015-12-01

    Glacial Lake Wisconsin formed during the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 glaciation when the Green Bay Lobe (GBL) of the Laurentide Ice Sheet dammed the Wisconsin River at the Baraboo Hills in south-central Wisconsin. Despite nearly a century of research, the precise chronology for the Green Bay Lobe's advance to and retreat from its maximum position, and the resulting damming and subsequent drainage of glacial Lake Wisconsin, remains unsettled (e.g., Colgan, 1992; Attig et al., 2011; Ullman et al., 2014). Age estimates from core collected in ice-proximal lacustrine sediment beyond the glacial margin provide chronologic constraint for ice margin fluctuations that controlled glacial Lake Wisconsin's formation and drainage. Additional cores collected in glacial sediment at and behind the MIS 2 ice margin provide stratigraphic evidence for the dynamics of the GBL during the end of advance to, and the start of retreat from, the MIS 2 maximum. The combined data from these cores suggest that glacial Lake Wisconsin may have filled only once to its highest stage during the MIS 2 maximum, after ice blocked both the east end of the Baraboo Hills and the south end of the Devils Lake gorge. When the ice reached its maximum position and blocked the north end of the gorge, Devils Lake was isolated from glacial Lake Wisconsin and rose to a higher level. Radiocarbon and OSL ages from the Devils Lake gorge indicate that the GBL advanced to the MIS 2 maximum position by 24.6 ka, and remained at or near that location through 19.2 ± 3.2 ka. Radiocarbon ages from lacustrine sediment in a sub-basin of glacial Lake Wisconsin indicate that ice continued to block the Wisconsin River between 21.6 ka and 17.4 ka. The stratigraphy evident in cores at the Devils Lake gorge and south of the Baraboo Hills indicates that ice thinned and advanced immediately prior to retreat, likely in response to reduced basal shear stress as the bed of the glacier thawed.

  10. Last Interglacial (MIS5e) hydrographic shifts linked to meltwater discharges from the East Greenland margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravleva, Anastasia; Bauch, Henning A.; Van Nieuwenhove, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    The East Greenland Current (EGC) plays a key role in transporting polar water from the Arctic to convectional sites of the Iceland and Labrador seas. Ongoing melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) as well as the Arctic sea ice prompts freshening of the EGC and accumulation of low-density water in the subpolar North Atlantic, thus affecting the stabilities of water mass overturning and subsequent northward heat transfer. To assess natural eastern GIS dynamics and possible freshwater-induced regional oceanic reorganizations we analyzed several sediment sequences from the poorly investigated area along the eastern Greenland margin and the western Nordic Seas. Records span the last interglacial (LIG, MIS5e) cycle, including deglacial Termination 2 and the LIG climatic optimum. On a global scale, the latter is believed to have been warmer than present, with a higher sea level, and may, therefore, serve as a promising analogue for future hydrographic changes. Based on various proxy data (stable isotopes, planktic foraminiferal assemblages, ice-rafted debris) our reconstructions support the notion of a "two-step development" of Termination 2 which underwent severe surface freshening in the subpolar North Atlantic. This is shown in extremely light oxygen isotopic values registered all along the eastern Greenland margin during early MIS5e, which are indicative for pronounced eastern/central GIS retreat and a further propagation of the resulting meltwater southward via the EGC. In addition, we find compelling evidence for at least two separate meltwater episodes in proximity of the eastern GIS during early MIS5e. The climatic episode in between is correlated with an early LIG warm peak, which may be linked to enhanced presence of Atlantic water in the central Nordic Seas (Bauch et al., 2012) and further downstream along southern Greenland (Hillaire-Marcel et al., 1994, Irvali et al., 2012). Our data, therefore, reveal a complex and variable dynamic of the EGC during MIS5e

  11. The MisR Response Regulator Is Necessary for Intrinsic Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide and Aminoglycoside Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Justin L; Holley, Concerta L; Reimche, Jennifer L; Dhulipala, Vijaya; Balthazar, Jacqueline T; Muszyński, Artur; Carlson, Russell W; Shafer, William M

    2016-08-01

    During infection, the sexually transmitted pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus) encounters numerous host-derived antimicrobials, including cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) produced by epithelial and phagocytic cells. CAMPs have both direct and indirect killing mechanisms and help link the innate and adaptive immune responses during infection. Gonococcal CAMP resistance is likely important for avoidance of host nonoxidative killing systems expressed by polymorphonuclear granulocytes (e.g., neutrophils) and intracellular survival. Previously studied gonococcal CAMP resistance mechanisms include modification of lipid A with phosphoethanolamine by LptA and export of CAMPs by the MtrCDE efflux pump. In the related pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, a two-component regulatory system (2CRS) termed MisR-MisS has been shown to contribute to the capacity of the meningococcus to resist CAMP killing. We report that the gonococcal MisR response regulator but not the MisS sensor kinase is involved in constitutive and inducible CAMP resistance and is also required for intrinsic low-level resistance to aminoglycosides. The 4- to 8-fold increased susceptibility of misR-deficient gonococci to CAMPs and aminoglycosides was independent of phosphoethanolamine decoration of lipid A and the levels of the MtrCDE efflux pump and seemed to correlate with a general increase in membrane permeability. Transcriptional profiling and biochemical studies confirmed that expression of lptA and mtrCDE was not impacted by the loss of MisR. However, several genes encoding proteins involved in membrane integrity and redox control gave evidence of being MisR regulated. We propose that MisR modulates the levels of gonococcal susceptibility to antimicrobials by influencing the expression of genes involved in determining membrane integrity.

  12. The MisR Response Regulator Is Necessary for Intrinsic Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide and Aminoglycoside Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Justin L; Holley, Concerta L; Reimche, Jennifer L; Dhulipala, Vijaya; Balthazar, Jacqueline T; Muszyński, Artur; Carlson, Russell W; Shafer, William M

    2016-08-01

    During infection, the sexually transmitted pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus) encounters numerous host-derived antimicrobials, including cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) produced by epithelial and phagocytic cells. CAMPs have both direct and indirect killing mechanisms and help link the innate and adaptive immune responses during infection. Gonococcal CAMP resistance is likely important for avoidance of host nonoxidative killing systems expressed by polymorphonuclear granulocytes (e.g., neutrophils) and intracellular survival. Previously studied gonococcal CAMP resistance mechanisms include modification of lipid A with phosphoethanolamine by LptA and export of CAMPs by the MtrCDE efflux pump. In the related pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, a two-component regulatory system (2CRS) termed MisR-MisS has been shown to contribute to the capacity of the meningococcus to resist CAMP killing. We report that the gonococcal MisR response regulator but not the MisS sensor kinase is involved in constitutive and inducible CAMP resistance and is also required for intrinsic low-level resistance to aminoglycosides. The 4- to 8-fold increased susceptibility of misR-deficient gonococci to CAMPs and aminoglycosides was independent of phosphoethanolamine decoration of lipid A and the levels of the MtrCDE efflux pump and seemed to correlate with a general increase in membrane permeability. Transcriptional profiling and biochemical studies confirmed that expression of lptA and mtrCDE was not impacted by the loss of MisR. However, several genes encoding proteins involved in membrane integrity and redox control gave evidence of being MisR regulated. We propose that MisR modulates the levels of gonococcal susceptibility to antimicrobials by influencing the expression of genes involved in determining membrane integrity. PMID:27216061

  13. Two different deglaciation processes in the subtropical Pacific at MIS 5/6 and 1/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujiie, Y.; Asahi, H.

    2011-12-01

    Deglaciation process is one of the results that the tropical climate forcing impact on the global changes by its large heat capacity. However, the deglacial fluctuation has poorly been explored in the tropical Pacific area due to less resolution records from the marine deposits. The Okinawa region is available to represent the high-resolution paleocenographic records of the tropical-subtropical Pacific during the late Quaternary, because of the oscillation between the Kuroshio Current continuing from the North Equatorial Current and central water of the subtropical gyre in this region. Two IMAGES cores were collected from the Okinawa Trough (under the Kuroshio Current) and Ryukyu Trench (under the central water of the subtropical gyre), respectively. Both cores MD982196 (Okinawa Trough) and MD012398 (Ryukyu Trench) covered over the records until Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 7. Here, we aim to demonstrate the deglacial fluctuations of the surface and intermediate waters during two glacial-interglacial shifts, MIS 6 to 5 and MIS 2 to 1, based on the comprehensive analyses of the oxygen isotopes, Mg/Ca ratios of two planktic foraminiferal faunas (surface and upper intermediate species), and faunal assemblages of planktic foraminifera. The glacial-interglacial cycles were clearly confirmed in whole of the Okinawa region by the planktic δ18O curves. Surface Mg/Ca paleo-temperature showed a same trend as the δ18O curve. However, the paleo-temperature of the upper intermediate water showed unique fluctuation: temperature increased from late MIS 6 to 5e, whereas decreased from MIS 2 to Holocene. Moreover, the temperature difference (dT) between the surface and intermediate layers defined these phenomena. Fast warming of intermediate layer proitor to the deglaciation MIS 5/6 delayed a stratification of water column, while cooling of this layer make a large dT during MIS 1/2. Intriguingly, the faunal compositions of planktic foraminifera changed through the shifts of the

  14. New constraints on MIS 7 and 5 relative sea-level at Bermuda: a speleothem approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainer, Karine; Henderson, Gideon; Mason, Andrew; Thomas, Alexander; Williams, Bruce; Rowe, Mark; van Hengstum, Peter; Chandler, Robert

    2014-05-01

    It is now widely accepted that a sea-level rise is associated with global warming [1]. However, its rate, and the height it might reach by the end of the century remain poorly constrained. This study aims to provide better information and precision on the rates and magnitudes of past sea-level change, for periods when sea-level is close to its modern value, using speleothems from Bermudian caves. Speleothems interrupt their growth when they are submerged by sea-water, so U-Th dating periods of growth in coastal sites allows the reconstruction of past sea-level variation versus absolute time [e.g. 2,3,4]. We will present new MC-ICP-MS U-Th ages, trace elements and isotopic data from a set of speleothems (stalagmites, stalactites, flowstones) collected from -14 to +12 m versus modern sea level from several caves in this northern Atlantic archipelago. Relative sea-level (RSL) at Bermuda is of particular interest because it is at a distance from northern hemisphere ice sheets where the isostatic response to ice-unloading is uncertain. RSL reconstruction therefore provides both an indicates of possible rates of sea level change, and a test for glacial-isostatic-adjustment (GIA) models. We will present new relative sea level data for late MIS7, and the different highstands of MIS5. The RSL at Bermuda for these episodes appears to be higher than present. For MIS5a, this is significantly distinct from what is expected from the eustatic sea level. These results will be considered in the context of previous assessments of eustatic change, and of GIA models. [1] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report, Cambridge Univ. Press. [2] Harmon et al. (1981) Nature 289, 357-360. [3] Richards et al. (1994) Nature 367, 481-483. [4] Bard (2002) EPSL 196, 135-146.

  15. Use, option and externality values: are contingent valuation studies in health care mis-specified?

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D

    2007-08-01

    A general population sample of Australian respondents completed a contingent valuation (CV) survey that asked them to value six scenarios. These varied according to whether the scenario was seeking to elicit: (i) use value; (ii) externality value; (iii) option value; or (iv) a combination. Results indicate that use plus externality and/or option value was significantly greater than use value alone. As CV studies in health (care) overwhelmingly focus on use value alone - often implicitly through study design rather than explicitly - this raises the possibility of mis-specification in CV research in health (care). The implications for CV in health (care) are considered.

  16. Space Station Furnace Facility Management Information System (SSFF-MIS) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the chronology, results, and lessons learned from the development of the SSFF-MIS. This system has been nearly two years in development and has yielded some valuable insights into specialized MIS development. General: In December of 1994, the Camber Corporation and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) were contracted to design, develop, and implement a MIS for Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Station Furnace Facility Project. The system was to be accessible from both EBM-Compatible PC and Macintosh platforms. The system was required to contain data manually entered into the MIS as well as data imported from other MSFC sources. Electronic interfaces were established for each data source and retrieval was to be performed at prescribed time intervals. The SOW requirement that predominantly drove the development software selection was the dual-platform (IBM-PC and Macintosh) requirement. The requirement that the system would be maintained by Government personnel influenced the selection of Commercial Off-the-shelf software because of its inherent stability and readily available documentation and support. Microsoft FoxPro Professional 2.6 for Windows and Macintosh was selected as the development tool. This is a software development tool that has been in use for many years. It is stable and powerful. Microsoft has since released the replacement for this product, Microsoft Visual FoxPro, but at the time of this development, it was only available on the Windows platform. The initial contract included included the requirement for capabilities relating to the Work- and Organizational Breakdown Structures, cost (plan and actuals), workforce (plan and actuals), critical path scheduling, trend analysis, procurements and contracts, interface to manufacturing, Safety and Mission Assurance, risk analysis, and technical performance indicators. It also required full documentation of the system and training of users. During the course of

  17. View of the MIS 2—MIS 1 transition from paleosol archives within loess of the North American central Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. C.; Mason, J. A.; Woodburn, T. L.; MacPherson, G.

    2009-12-01

    The transition from MIS 2 to MIS 1 was characterized by a rapid succession of discrete climatic phases (Bølling-Allerød, Younger Dryas, Pre-Boreal, and Boreal), during which there was an overall reduction in Global atmospheric dust flux. Within the North American central Great Plains, the upland loess mantle stabilized sufficiently for effective pedogenesis, resulting in soil formation that persisted for nearly 5 k yrs. This remarkable pedostratigraphic feature, preserved beneath Holocene loess, is well manifest along the proximal boundary of the Last Glacial regional loess plume. In this source-proximal corridor, the soil was particularly sensitive to perturbations in the waning loess transport and associated environmental fluctuations. Age of the soil has been well-constrained through recent AMS 14C and OSL dating of localities east-west along the proximal boundary. Pedogenesis began about 14.2 ka during the Bølling-Allerød and continued uninterrupted to about 10.1 ka within the early Boreal, at which time a threshold level of dust influx and a decrease in effective moisture caused soil development to wane and finally to cease at about 9.4 ka. Increased loess flux, accompanied by widespread sand dune and sheet activation, persisted within the region until about 6.5 ka. Archives of information preserved within this soil document environmental change during the course of pedogenesis. Soil architecture is that of a mature mollisol, exhibiting a cumulic A, underlain by Bk-C horizonation. Profiles of δ13C values derived from total soil organic carbon display a transition from C3 to C4 plant dominance with time, though retardation in this rate of change occurs during the Younger Dryas. Notable consistency exists within the isotopic record for a range of spatial scales, attesting to the viability and inherent region-wide nature of the signal. Biogenic opal data further document the temporal decrease in C3 plants and attendant increase in C4 short grasses during

  18. Foraminifera eco-biostratigraphy of the southern Evoikos outer shelf, central Aegean Sea, during MIS 5 to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinia, Hara; Antonarakou, Assimina; Tsourou, Theodora; Kontakiotis, George; Psychogiou, Maria; Anastasakis, George

    2016-09-01

    The South Evoikos Basin is a marginal basin in the Aegean Sea which receives little terrigenous supply and its sedimentation is dominated by hemipelagic processes. Late Quaternary benthic and planktonic foraminifera from core PAG-155 are investigated in order to understand their response to the glacial-interglacial cycles in this region. The quantitative analysis of planktonic foraminifera, coupled with accelerator mass spectrometry (14C-AMS) radiocarbon date measurements, provide an integrated chrono-stratigraphic time framework over the last 90 ka (time interval between late Marine Isotopic Stages 5 and 1; MIS5-MIS1). The temporary appearance and disappearance as well as several abundance peaks in the quantitative distribution of selected climate-sensitive planktonic species allowed the identification of several eco-bioevents, useful to accurately mark the boundaries of the eco-biozones widely recognized in the Mediterranean records and used for large-scale correlations. The established bio-ecozonation scheme allows a detailed palaecological reconstruction for the late Pleistocene archive in the central Aegean, and furthermore provides a notable contribution for palaeoclimatic studies, facilitating intercorrelations between various oceanographic basins. The quantitative analyses of benthic foraminifera identify four distinct assemblages, namely Biofacies: Elphidium spp., Haynesina spp. Biofacies, characterized by neritic species, dominated during the transition from MIS 5 to MIS 4; Cassidulina laevigata/carinata Biofacies dominated till 42 ka (transgressive trend from MIS 4 to MIS 3); Bulimina gibba Biofacies dominated from 42 ka to 9.5 ka (extensive regression MIS 3,2 through lowstand and early transgression; beginning of MIS 1); Bulimina marginata, Uvigerina spp. Biofacies dominated from 9.5 ka to the present (late transgression through early highstand; MIS 1)., This study showed that the South Evoikos Basin which is characterized by its critical depths and

  19. Paleohydrological and paleoclimatic oscillations during MIS3 revealed by multi-proxies from Balikun Lake, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chengbang; Zhao, Yongtao

    2016-04-01

    Multi-disciplinary analyses (sedimental, geochemical) of a sedimental core (BLK11A) recovered from the centre of the Balikun Lake, eastern Tienshan Mts., provide evidence of paleohydrology and its climatic indications in the arid western China during MIS3. The results suggested fairly high-frequency MIS3 interstadial oscillations and alternate change patterns among nearly fresh water and brackish water and hypersaline water during the ~30 ka. We also found that: 1) the evolutional process of the lake responds indicatively and quickly to the climate change on sub-orbital and millennial timescales, the onset of MIS3 interstadial is featured by abrupt increases in both bioproductivity and chemical weathering; 2) the appearance of the halite lithofacies indicates gradually cooling and drying trends during the middle to late MIS3, this deteriorated environment shrunk the lake area and weakened the vegetation cover as well as watershed chemical weathering; 3) Our new interpretations differ from the assumption that highest lake level and wettest conditions occurred during the late MIS3 from Tibetan Plateau and Inner Mongolia, while suggest that the climate in the Balikun region, even most of arid western China areas would have undergone a progressive aridification. The evolution of the paleohydrology and climate change of Balikun Basin may have a strong correlation with the high latitude summer insolation and the climate in North Atlantic.

  20. Sea-level highstands during the Last interglacial (MIS 5e) in Mallorca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorscheid, T.; Stocchi, P.; Rovere, A.; Gómez-Pujol, L.; Mann, T.; Fornos, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Last Intergalcial in the island of Mallorca (NW Mediterranean) have been the subject of research since the early 60's (Butzer & Cuerda 1960). Despite both the location and stratigraphy of MIS 5e outcrops in the island are well known, the elevation of relative sea level (RSL) markers around the island has never been measured with high-accuracy topographic techniques (e.g. DGPS) and the interpretation of the paleo RSL has never been carried out using standardized definition of the indicative meaning of each RSL marker. In this study we present the results of two field trips aimed at measuring last interglacial deposits in Mallorca with high-accuracy GPS and at establishing, surveying modern shorelines as analogs, indicative ranges and reference water level values for RSL markers across the island. Using an earth-ice coupled GIA-model we performed several model-runs for investigating isostatic adjustment since MIS 5e in the island. These results are compared with the elevation of our deposits in the field and discussed in terms of tectonics and eustasy.

  1. Quantitative assessment of mis-registration issues of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Jiang, Hangyi; Mori, Susumu

    2012-02-01

    Image distortions caused by eddy current and patient motion have been two major sources of the mis-registration issues in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Numerous registration methods have been proposed to correct them. However, quality control of DTI remains an important issue, because we rarely report how much mis-registration existed and how well they were corrected. In this paper, we propose a method for quantitative reporting of DTI data quality. This registration method minimizes a cost function based on mean square tensor fitting errors. Registration with twelve-parameter full affine transformation is used. From the registration result, distortion and motion parameters are estimated. Because the translation parameters involve both eddy-current-induced image translation and the patient motion, by analyzing the transformation model, we separate them by removing the contributions that are linearly correlated with diffusion gradients. We define the metrics measuring the amounts of distortion, rotation, translation. We tested our method on a database with 64 subjects and found the statistics of each of metrics. Finally we demonstrate that how these statistics can be used for assessing the data quality quantitatively in several examples.

  2. Coping with unobservable and mis-classified states in capture-recapture studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Multistate mark-recapture methods provide an excellent conceptual framework for considering estimation in studies of marked animals. Traditional methods include the assumptions that (1) each state an animal occupies is observable, and (2) state is assigned correctly at each point in time. Failure of either of these assumptions can lead to biased estimates of demographic parameters. I review design and analysis options for minimizing or eliminating these biases. Unobservable states can be adjusted for by including them in the state space of the statistical model, with zero capture probability, and incorporating the robust design, or observing animals in the unobservable state through telemetry, tag recoveries, or incidental observations. Mis-classification can be adjusted for by auxiliary data or incorporating the robust design, in order to estimate the probability of detecting the state an animal occupies. For both unobservable and mis-classified states, the key feature of the robust design is the assumption that the state of the animal is static for at least two sampling occasions.

  3. Tumor-Specific Chromosome Mis-Segregation Controls Cancer Plasticity by Maintaining Tumor Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuanjie; Ru, Ning; Xiao, Huasheng; Chaturbedi, Abhishek; Hoa, Neil T.; Tian, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Hang; Ke, Chao; Yan, Fengrong; Nelson, Jodi; Li, Zhenzhi; Gramer, Robert; Yu, Liping; Siegel, Eric; Zhang, Xiaona; Jia, Zhenyu; Jadus, Martin R.; Limoli, Charles L.; Linskey, Mark E.; Xing, Jianhua; Zhou, Yi-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Aneuploidy with chromosome instability is a cancer hallmark. We studied chromosome 7 (Chr7) copy number variation (CNV) in gliomas and in primary cultures derived from them. We found tumor heterogeneity with cells having Chr7-CNV commonly occurs in gliomas, with a higher percentage of cells in high-grade gliomas carrying more than 2 copies of Chr7, as compared to low-grade gliomas. Interestingly, all Chr7-aneuploid cell types in the parental culture of established glioma cell lines reappeared in single-cell-derived subcultures. We then characterized the biology of three syngeneic glioma cultures dominated by different Chr7-aneuploid cell types. We found phenotypic divergence for cells following Chr7 mis-segregation, which benefited overall tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Mathematical modeling suggested the involvement of chromosome instability and interactions among cell subpopulations in restoring the optimal equilibrium of tumor cell types. Both our experimental data and mathematical modeling demonstrated that the complexity of tumor heterogeneity could be enhanced by the existence of chromosomes with structural abnormality, in addition to their mis-segregations. Overall, our findings show, for the first time, the involvement of chromosome instability in maintaining tumor heterogeneity, which underlies the enhanced growth, persistence and treatment resistance of cancers. PMID:24282558

  4. Climatic variability in the northern sector of the American tropics since the latest MIS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Socorro; Ortega, Beatriz; Roy, Priyadarsi D.; Beramendi-Orosco, Laura; Caballero, Margarita

    2015-09-01

    We inferred millennial-scale climate variations and paleohydrological conditions in the northern sector of the American tropics for 30.3-5.5 cal ka BP using geochemical characteristics of sediments from Lake Chalco in central Mexico. The sediment sequence is chronologically constrained with three tephra and nine radiocarbon dates. Temporal variations in titanium, total inorganic carbon, total organic carbon/titanium ratio, carbon/nitrogen ratio, and silica/titanium ratio indicate changes in runoff, salinity, productivity, and sources. Higher concentrations of Ti indicate more runoff during latest Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (30.3-28.6 cal ka BP). Runoff was lower during the last glacial maximum (LGM; 23-19 cal ka BP) than during the Heinrich 2 event (26-24 cal ka BP). The interval of reduced runoff continued up to 17.5 cal ka BP but increased during the Bølling/Allerød. Trends of decreasing runoff and increasing salinity are observed throughout MIS 1. Lake Chalco received less runoff during the LGM compared to deglaciation, opposite the trend of other North American tropical records. Different amounts of rainfall at different sites are possibly due to shifts in the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, changes in the size of the Altlantic warm pool, and varying sea-surface temperatures of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

  5. Control of haptic master - slave robot system for minimally invasive surgery (MIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J. S.; Shin, W. K.; Uhm, C. H.; Lee, S. R.; Han, Y. M.; Choi, S. B.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, 4 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) haptic master featuring electrorheological (ER) fluid is proposed and integrated with a slave. Using an ER fluid, the haptic master is devised which can generate a repulsive force/torque with the 4-DOF motion and provide stimulus information to operator. For realization of master-slave MIS system, an encoder is installed with the ER haptic master to establish the MIS master system. The motion command of the haptic master is realized by slave surgery robot. In order to follow the motion of the haptic master, the mechanism of slave surgery robot is devised. Accordingly, the haptic master-slave system is established by incorporating the slave robot with the haptic master device in which the repulsive force/torque and desired position are transferred to each other. In order to obtain the desired torque trajectories, a sliding mode controller (SMC) is designed and implemented. It has been demonstrated that the desired effective torque tracking control performance is well achieved using the proposed master-slave system.

  6. Were the MIS 11 and MIS 5e warmer and/or wetter than the Holocene? Test comparison of Interglacial intensities using stable isotope data from Northern France tufa deposits.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabkowski, J.; Limondin-Lozouet, N.; Antoine, P.; Marca-Bell, A.; Andrews, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many recent palaeoclimatic studies have focused on MIS 5 (Eemian) and 11 as they are supposed to be the best analogues for our modern interglacial. As they are characteristic of temperate periods and result of calcite precipitation from meteogene water, tufas are key-deposits for palaeoclimatic reconstructions of these interglacials. Calcite oxygen and carbon stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) are known since the 80s to be important palaeoclimatic proxies for the Holocene and we recently have shown their suitability in Pleistocene tufas. At decadal-scale sampling resolution, δ18O of tufa records variations in δ18O of regional rainfall, and in this way reflects source or amount effects (particularly continentality), and temperature depending on locality. δ13C of tufa indicates moisture availability (linked to biomass type/abundance) and rainfall intensity. Using our new results from the tufa of Saint-Germain-le-Vasson (Normandy) dated to the first half of the Holocene, and those from Caours (Somme) and La-Celle-sur-Seine (Seine-et-Marne) respectively assigned to MIS 5e and MIS 11, we investigate similarities or differences between these Pleistocene interglacials and the modern one. Comparison between the sites is relevant as these tufas developed in a similar geological area (the Paris Basin) and are nowadays in the same humid and temperate climatic area. The Caours tufa presents carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions similar to the Saint-Germain sequence. Comparable temperature and humidity conditions are thus recorded during the Eemian and the Holocene. However, δ13C for the MIS 5e optimum are more negative than those for the Atlantic optimum (Holocene), which may indicate wetter conditions. In La Celle, slightly warmer conditions appear to be recorded for MIS 11 compared to the Holocene by higher δ18O values than in Saint-Germain. Moreover, two very humid episodes are observed in the La Celle δ13C profile whereas such wet conditions are not observed during

  7. Increasing the efficiency of a silicon tunnel MIS injector of hot electrons by using high-K oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vexler, M. I.

    2015-09-01

    It is demonstrated theoretically that replacing silicon dioxide in a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure with a double-layer insulator HfO2(ZrO2)/SiO2 must lead to a decrease in the relative contribution of electrons with comparatively low energies to the total tunneling current. As a consequence, a suppression of the current component associated with the charge transport into the valence band of Si or from it is predicted for many regimes, especially of the low-energy part of this component. This effect can improve the efficiency of injection devices, such as a transistor with a tunnel MIS emitter or a resonant-tunneling diode based on a heavily doped MIS structure.

  8. ENSO variability during MIS 11 (424-374 ka) from Tridacna gigas at Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayling, Bridget F.; Chappell, John; Gagan, Michael K.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.

    2015-12-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS 11) from ∼424,000 to 374,000 yrs ago included one of the longest and warmest interglacials of the last 800,000 yrs, and is a potential analogue for the Holocene due to the similarity of Earth's orbital configuration at this time. The question of how the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) responds to warmer background climates remains unanswered and is critical to understand how the ENSO system will evolve under the influence of anthropogenic warming. In this study, we present a 35 yr-long, high-resolution record of MIS 11 climate variability in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) based on coupled measurements of skeletal Mg/Ca and δ18O in giant Tridacna gigas clams from Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. The δ18O of modern T. gigas from Huon Peninsula faithfully records sea surface temperature, salinity/rainfall and regional ENSO variability. The geochemical integrity of the MIS 11 T. gigas for recording paleo-ENSO events was established through trace element screening, detailed petrography and SEM analysis. The fossil T. gigas δ18O record indicates that ENSO was operating during a 35-yr window in MIS 11, but with fewer events of shorter duration compared to those experienced during the last 100 yrs. The suppressed ENSO variability in the MIS 11 T. gigas record corresponds with a reduction in the amplitude of the average annual cycle in δ18O values. Distinctive changes in local insolation seasonality, and T. gigas δ18O, brought about by changes in Earth's orbit, provide an additional geochronological constraint on the timing of reef growth at Huon Peninsula to around 402 ka during the MIS 11.3 sub-stage (∼424-395 ka).

  9. Contrasted ocean conditions in the northwest North Atlantic during marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 5e and 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vernal, Anne; Fréchette, Bianca; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    Cores raised during the IODP Expedition 303 in the north Atlantic were analysed to document paleoceanographical conditions during recent interglacials (cf. Hillaire-Marcel et al., Marine Geol. 2011). Two key sites illustrate conditions in the inner vs outer Labrador Sea, respectively at the southwest Greenland margin (Eirik Ridge Site 1305; 57° N-48° W) and the southern Labrador rise (Orphan Knoll Site 1302/1303; 50° N-45° W). Special attention was paid to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11 (ca. 424-324 ka), 5e (ca. 128-117 ka) and the Holocene (last 11,000 years). The microfossil content of sediments (dinocyst notably) and the isotopic composition of foraminifers indicate significant differences in the conditions that prevailed during these 3 interglacial stages. Optimal conditions with regard to sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) prevailed during MIS 5e (anomalies of about + 5° C) at both sites. However, occurrence of ice rafted debris (IRD) and variations in salinity suggest meltwater discharge along the Greenland and Labrador margins during the last interglacial. On the contrary, during MIS 11, SSTs were similar to modern off Greenland or slightly lower at Orphan Knoll, but salinity was higher at both sites and IRD close to nil, whereas both sites are presently under iceberg routes. Stable oxygen isotope values in the mesopelagic Neogloboquadrina pachyderma left coiled (Npl), are generally not unlike values observed during MIS 9 or 7, i.e., slightly higher than those which characterized MIS 5e and the present interglacial, particularly in the outer Labrador Sea. This points to either a higher salinity and or a lower temperature in the subsurface water layer occupied by Npl. Low IRD, high salinity together with relatively high 18O values in foraminifers suggest limited influence of meltwater from ice cap and sea ice during MIS 11, especially the first part of the interglacial.

  10. Late Quaternary MIS 6-8 shoreline features of pluvial Owens Lake, Owens Valley, eastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A.S.; Bacon, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    The chronologic history of pluvial Owens Lake along the eastern Sierra Nevada in Owens Valley, California, has previously been reported for the interval of time from ca. 25 calibrated ka to the present. However, the age, distribution, and paleoclimatic context of higher-elevation shoreline features have not been formally documented. We describe the location and characteristics of wave-formed erosional and depositional features, as well as fluvial strath terraces that grade into an older shoreline of pluvial Owens Lake. These pluvial-lacustrine features are described between the Olancha area to the south and Poverty Hills area to the north, and they appear to be vertically deformed -20 ?? 4 m across the active oblique-dextral Owens Valley fault zone. They occur at elevations from 1176 to 1182 m along the lower flanks of the Inyo Mountains and Coso Range east of the fault zone to as high as -1204 m west of the fault zone. This relict shoreline, referred to as the 1180 m shoreline, lies -20-40 m higher than the previously documented Last Glacial Maximum shoreline at -1160 m, which occupied the valley during marine isotope stage 2 (MIS 2). Crosscutting relations of wave-formed platforms, notches, and sandy beach deposits, as well as strath terraces on lava flows of the Big Pine volcanic field, bracket the age of the 1180 m shoreline to the time interval between ca. 340 ?? 60 ka and ca. 130 ?? 50 ka. This interval includes marine oxygen isotope stages 8-6 (MIS 8-6), corresponding to 260-240 ka and 185-130 ka, respectively. An additional age estimate for this shoreline is provided by a cosmogenic 36Cl model age of ca. 160 ?? 32 ka on reefal tufa at ???1170 m elevation from the southeastern margin of the valley. This 36Cl model age corroborates the constraining ages based on dated lava flows and refines the lake age to the MIS 6 interval. Documentation of this larger pluvial Owens Lake offers insight to the hydrologic balance along the east side of the southern Sierra

  11. MIS solar cells on thin polycrystalline silicon. Progress report No. 3, September 1-November 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.A.

    1980-12-01

    The first task of this project involves electron-beam deposition of thin silicon films on low cost substrates. The goal is to obtain 20 ..mu..m thick films having 20 ..mu..m diameter crystallites which may be recrystallized to > 40 ..mu..m. Material characterization and device studies are to be included in efforts to reach a 6% conversion efficiency. The second task deals with MIS solar cell fabrication on various types of silicon including poly-Si, ribbon-Si, silicon on ceramic, and thin film silicon. Conduction mechanism studies, optimum engineering design, and modification of the fabrication process are to be used to achieve 13% efficiency on Xtal-Si and 11% efficiency on poly-Si. The third task involves more detailed test procedures and includes spectral response, interface and grain boundary effects, computer analysis, materials studies, and grain boundary passivation. Progress is detailed. (WHK)

  12. Admittance Investigation of MIS Structures with HgTe-Based Single Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izhnin, Ihor I.; Nesmelov, Sergey N.; Dzyadukh, Stanislav M.; Voitsekhovskii, Alexander V.; Gorn, Dmitry I.; Dvoretsky, Sergey A.; Mikhailov, Nikolaj N.

    2016-02-01

    This work presents results of the investigation of admittance of metal-insulator-semiconductor structure based on Hg1 - x Cd x Te grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The structure contains a single quantum well Hg0.35Cd0.65Te/HgTe/Hg0.35Cd0.65Te with thickness of 5.6 nm in the sub-surface layer of the semiconductor. Both the conductance-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics show strong oscillations when the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure with a single quantum well based on HgTe is biased into the strong inversion mode. Also, oscillations on the voltage dependencies of differential resistance of the space charge region were observed. These oscillations were related to the recharging of quantum levels in HgTe.

  13. Electro-physical characteristics of MIS structures with HgTe- based single quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyadukh, S.; Nesmelov, S.; Voitsekhovskii, A.; Gorn, D.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents brief research results of the admittance of metal-insulator- semiconductor (MIS) structures based on Hg1-xCdxTe grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) method including single HgCdTe/HgTe/HgCdTe quantum wells (QW) in the surface layer. The thickness of a quantum well was 5.6 nm, and the composition of barrier layers with the thickness of 35 nm was close to 0.65. Measurements were conducted in the range of temperatures from 8 to 200 K. It is shown that for structure with quantum well based on HgTe capacitance and conductance oscillations in the strong inversion are observed. Also it is assumed these oscillations are related with the recharging of quantum levels in HgTe.

  14. New Spectral Method for Halo Particle Definition in Intense Mis-matched Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Dorf, Mikhail A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Startsev, Edward A.

    2011-04-27

    An advanced spectral analysis of a mis-matched charged particle beam propagating through a periodic focusing transport lattice is utilized in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. It is found that the betatron frequency distribution function of a mismatched space-charge-dominated beam has a bump-on-tail structure attributed to the beam halo particles. Based on this observation, a new spectral method for halo particle definition is proposed that provides the opportunity to carry out a quantitative analysis of halo particle production by a beam mismatch. In addition, it is shown that the spectral analysis of the mismatch relaxation process provides important insights into the emittance growth attributed to the halo formation and the core relaxation processes. Finally, the spectral method is applied to the problem of space-charge transport limits.

  15. Improvement of interface electronic properties of GaF 3/GaAs MIS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, H.; Aizawa, K.; Ishiwara, H.

    The interface electronic properties of GaF 3/GaAs structures are investigated for three different deposition procedures, the GaF 3 films have been deposited on n-type GaAs epitaxial layers without breaking the vacuum, or after being exposed to air, or after being treated in (NH 4) 2S 1 solution. It has been found from low-temperature C-V measurements in MIS diodes that a real modulation of the Fermi level in the forbidden band gap of GaAs occurs only when the GaAs epitaxial layer is treated in the sulfur solution and annealed at an optimum temperature prior to deposition of GaF 3. The unpinning mechanism is also discussed in conjunction with the simplified model for sulfur-treated GaAs surfaces.

  16. The effect of Be and Cr electrode deposition rate on the performance of MIS solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moharram, A. H.; Panayotatos, P.; Yeh, J. L.; Lalevic, B.

    1985-07-01

    An experimental study has been performed on MIS solar cells with Be, Cr and layered Cr-Be electrodes on single crystal Si, Wacker and Monsanto poly-Si substrates. Electrical characterization in the dark and under illumination was correlated to X-ray and Auger spectroscopy results. It was found that the electrode deposition rate directly affects the oxygen content of the electrodes for all metal-substrate configurations. This oxygen is believed to originate from the deposition ambient as well as from the SiO2 layer. In the case of cells with Cr and layered Cr-Be electrodes oxygen acts to reduce the electrode work function (thus increasing the open-circuit voltage) in direct proportion to the relative content of oxygen to chromium.

  17. High capacitance density MIS capacitor using Si nanowires by MACE and ALD alumina dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontis, I.; Botzakaki, M. A.; Georga, S. N.; G. Nassiopoulou, A.

    2016-06-01

    High capacitance density three-dimensional (3D) metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors using Si nanowires (SiNWs) by metal-assisted chemical etching and atomic-layer-deposited alumina dielectric film were fabricated and electrically characterized. A chemical treatment was used to remove structural defects from the nanowire surface, in order to reduce the density of interface traps at the Al2O3/SiNW interface. SiNWs with two different lengths, namely, 1.3 μm and 2.4 μm, were studied. A four-fold capacitance density increase compared to a planar reference capacitor was achieved with the 1.3 μm SiNWs. In the case of the 2.4 μm SiNWs this increase was ×7, reaching a value of 4.1 μF/cm2. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements revealed that, following a two-cycle chemical treatment, frequency dispersion at accumulation regime and flat-band voltage shift disappeared in the case of the 1.3 μm SiNWs, which is indicative of effective removal of structural defects at the SiNW surface. In the case of the 2.4 μm SiNWs, frequency dispersion at accumulation persisted even after the two-step chemical treatment. This is attributed to a porous Si layer at the SiNW tops, which is not effectively removed by the chemical treatment. The electrical losses of MIS capacitors in both cases of SiNW lengths were studied and will be discussed.

  18. A high-elevation MIS 5 hydrologic record using mollusks and ostracodes from Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Saxon E.; Bright, Jordon

    2014-11-01

    Sediments containing terrestrial and aquatic mollusks and ostracodes from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site (2705 m elevation) near Snowmass Village, Colorado, span ~ 130-87 ka (MIS 5e through 5b). The southeastern area of the site where taxa were recovered was a relatively fresh, shallow, well-vegetated wetland during MIS 5e through 5c time, approximately 2 m deep, with a total dissolved solids value of ~ 200-1000 mg L- 1. The wetland was seasonally or annually variable and groundwater discharged along the margins of the bounding moraine. Groundwater likely contributed solutes to the system and may have contributed 18O-enriched water. Based on stable isotopes from ostracode calcite (δ18OOST and δ13COST), seasonal evaporation occurred and the dissolved inorganic carbon pool was unexpectedly enriched in 13C. The mollusk and ostracode faunas changed little across the MIS 5e/5d/5c boundaries, whereas a distinct change in the ostracode fauna occurred between the deposition of Unit 11 and Unit 13, which corresponds in time to the MIS 5c/5b boundary, indicating some combination of increased surface and/or groundwater flow, a decrease in water temperature, and a freshening and a possible deepening of the wetland.

  19. Enhancing Student Learning across Disciplines: A Case Example Using a Systems Analysis and Design Course for MIS and ACS Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surendran, Ken; Ehie, Ike C.; Somarajan, Chellappan

    2005-01-01

    This paper illustrates an approach used to enhance student learning outcomes in a combined cross-listed Systems Analysis and Design (SA&D) course and examines benefits perceived by students through analysis of assessment and students feedback. The SA&D course is a required course in both the Management Information Systems (MIS) major and the…

  20. The Use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in Decision Making in the South-West Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, I. A.; Omirin, Fadekemi F.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Management Information Systems (MIS) in decision-making on long-term planning, short-term planning and budgeting in the South-West Nigerian Universities. The study used the descriptive research design of the survey type. Data were collected from a sample of 600 subjects consisting of 400 academic staff holding…

  1. Paleoproductivity vs. influx of terrestrial biomarker in sediment from the Korean Plateau, East Sea (Japan Sea) since the MIS 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Sangmin; Suh, Yean Jee; Ikehara, Miroru

    2015-04-01

    A piston core collected from the Korean Plateau, East Sea (Japan Sea) of Korea was conducted in terms of variations in paleoproductivity and influx of terrestrial biomarker. The distribution of terrestrial n-alkanes signatures is characterized by the occurrence of high odd number frequency with a minor contribution of specific compound (nC27 only). Average Chain Length (ACL) and Carbon Preferences Index (CPI), both of which are derived from n-alkane combination, show similar shifting between glacial and interglacial periods. Previous studies of SST variation have shown that glacial-interglacial scale changes were quite variable with the maximum range of 26oC in MIS 7, and the minimum range of 12oC during MIS 2 and 6. Therefore, paleovegetation communities had been changed in responding to paleoclimatological variations, and the input amount of terrestrial compound was strongly linked with paleoclimatologic changes. The isotopic composition of δ13C and δ15N of organic matter, which showed extreme temporal variation since MIS 11, indicates the influx of large amount of terrestrial organic matter from the neighboring terrestrial environments during MIS 2, 8 and 10. In particular, depleted values of δ13Corg during MIS 2, 8 and 10 were coincident with lower nitrogen isotope values indicating local paleoceanographic effects such as paleoproductivity changes. Decoupling between δ13Corg and δ15Norg during MIS 1, 3, 5, 7 and coupling of the two during MIS 8 and 11 can be observed, which appear to be interpreted as local productivity changes. In particular, high abundance of cholesterol and C21 n-alkanes, which were derived from diatom, increased during interglacial periods. Therefore, alkenones, SST and n-alkanes signatures coincide with δ13Corg and δ15Norg variations during glacial-interglacial cycles and further strongly associated with cholesterol abundance suggesting that the paleoenvironmental conditions in East Sea during glacial-interglacial periods were

  2. New chronology for Pleistocene shoreline deposits on the central US Atlantic Coast: implication for relative sea level during MIS 5 and 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Z.; Wright, E. E.; Mauz, B.

    2015-12-01

    Emerged shoreline deposits are the most important records for studying relative sea level (RSL) of previous interglacial and understanding glacial/hydro isostasy. The Lower Atlantic Coastal Plain in the U.S. is characterized by coast-parallel barrier beaches and back-barrier deposits formed during maximum Pleistocene marine transgressions. Thus, they offer an opportunity to investigate RSL changes of multiple Pleistocene interglacials. However, the chronology of these deposits has been controversial due to the lack of reliable numerical ages, especially in South Carolina. Here we present stratigraphy and OSL dating results for both the late Pleistocene barrier and the back-barrier deposits between Georgetown and Myrtle Beach, South Carolina and discuss their sea-level implications. The barrier ridge near Georgetown is covered by about 1 m aeolian deposits dated to ~20 ka. The aeolian deposits overlie humic sand and laminated beach sand that is dated to ~80 ka, corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a. Stratigraphy of back-barrier deposits exposed along the Intracoastal Waterway near Myrtle Beach reveals a unit of back-barrier deposits separated from underlying shallow marine deposits by a paleosol. The back-barrier deposits are dated to MIS 5a while the lower shallow marine deposits yielded OSL ages corresponding to MIS 7 (~200 ka). The beach sand near Georgetown and the back-barrier deposits near Myrtle Beach together suggest that MIS 5a RSL was up to about 5 m above present sea level while the shallow marine deposits near Myrtle Beach indicate a MIS 7 RSL at or above present sea level along the northeastern South Carolina coast. The MIS 5a and MIS 7 RSL are in agreement with previous studies along other U.S. Atlantic coast. However, the missing of MIS 5e deposits between MIS 5a and MIS 7 deposits at the exposure near Myrtle Beach needs be confirmed with additional work.

  3. Initial validation of the ProMIS surgical simulator as an objective measure of robotic task performance.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Patrick S; Tausch, Timothy J; Peterson, Andrew C; Brand, Timothy C

    2011-09-01

    Virtual reality robotic simulation has gained widespread momentum. In order to determine the value of virtual reality robotic simulation and its objective metrics, a reality-based robotic surgical training platform with similar analytic capabilities must be developed and validated. The ProMIS laparoscopic surgical simulator is a widely available reality-based simulation platform that has been previously validated as an objective measure of laparoscopic task performance. In this study, we evaluated the validity of the ProMIS laparoscopic surgical simulator as an objective measure of robotic task performance. Volunteers were recruited from two experience groups (novice and expert). All subjects completed three tasks (peg transfer, precision cutting, intracorporeal suture/knot) in the ProMIS laparoscopic simulator using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. Motion analysis data was obtained by the ProMIS computerized optical tracking system and objective metrics recorded included time, path length, economy of motion, and observer-recorded penalty scores. The novice group consisted of 10 subjects with no previous robotic surgical experience. The expert group consisted of 10 subjects with robotic experience. The expert group outperformed the novice group in all three tasks. Subjects rated this training platform as easy to use, as an accurate measure of their robotic surgical proficiency, and as relevant to robotic surgery. The experts described the simulator platform as useful for training and agreed with incorporating it into a residency curriculum. This study demonstrates that the ProMIS laparoscopic simulator is a face, content, and construct valid reality-based simulation platform that can be used for objectively measuring robotic task performance. PMID:27637707

  4. High-latitude environmental change during MIS 8-12: biogeochemical evidence from Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anjou, R. M.; Wei, J. H.; Castañeda, I. S.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Petsch, S. T.; Finkelstein, D. B.

    2012-09-01

    Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 11 has been proposed as an analog for the present interglacial; however, terrestrial records of this time period are rare. Sediments from Lake El'gygytgyn (67°30´ N, 172°5´ E) in Far East Russia contain a 3.56 Ma record of climate variability from the Arctic. Here, we present an organic geochemical reconstruction of environmental and climatic changes from MIS 8 through 12 (289 to 460 ka). Terrestrial vegetation changes, as revealed by plant leaf wax (n-alkane) indices and concentrations of arborinol (a biomarker for trees), show increased tree cover around the lake during interglacial periods, with higher concentrations observed during MIS 11 as compared to MIS 9. A similar pattern is also observed in records of aquatic productivity revealed by molecular indicators from dinoflagellates (dinosterol), eustigmatophyte algae (long-chain (C28-C32) 1,15 n-alkyl diols) in addition to short-chain nalkanes, where aquatic productivity is highest during MIS 11. Changes recorded in these molecular proxies track relative temperature variability as recorded by the MBT/CBT paleothermometer, based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). Additionally, relative MBT/CBT temperature changes generally track pollen and diatom δ18O temperature estimates, compiled by other studies, which suggest glacial-interglacial temperature changes of ~ 9-12 °C. These records of environmental and climatic change indicate Arctic sensitivity to external forcings such as orbital variability and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Overall, this study indicates that organic geochemical analyses of the Lake El'gygytgyn sediment archive can provide critical insight into the response of lake ecosystems and their sensitivity in high latitude regions.

  5. High-latitude environmental change during MIS 9 and 11: biogeochemical evidence from Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anjou, R. M.; Wei, J. H.; Castañeda, I. S.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Petsch, S. T.; Finkelstein, D. B.

    2013-03-01

    Marine isotope stages (MIS) 11 has been proposed as an analog for the present interglacial; however, terrestrial records of this time period are rare. Sediments from Lake El'gygytgyn (67°30' N, 172°5' E) in Far East Russia contain a 3.56 Ma record of climate variability from the Arctic. Here, we present the first terrestrial Arctic reconstruction of environmental and climatic changes from MIS 8 through 12 (289 to 464 ka) using organic geochemical proxies. Terrestrial vegetation changes, as revealed by plant leaf wax (n-alkane) indices and concentrations of arborinol (a biomarker for trees), show increased tree cover around the lake during interglacial periods, with higher concentrations observed during MIS 11 as compared to MIS 9. A similar pattern is also observed in records of aquatic productivity revealed by molecular indicators from dinoflagellates (dinosterol), eustigmatophyte algae (long-chain (C28-C32) 1, 15 n-alkyl diols) in addition to short-chain n-alkanes, where aquatic productivity is highest during MIS 11. Changes recorded in these molecular proxies show a similar structure to relative temperature variability as recorded by the MBT/CBT (Methylation of Branched Tetraether/Cyclization of Branched Tetraether) paleothermometer, based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). Additionally, relative MBT/CBT temperature changes generally track pollen and diatom δ18O temperature estimates, compiled by other studies, which suggest glacial-interglacial temperature changes of ~ 9 to 12 °C. These records of environmental and climatic change indicate Arctic sensitivity to external forcings such as orbital variability and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Overall, this study indicates that organic geochemical analyses of the Lake El'gygytgyn sediment archive can provide critical insight into the response of lake ecosystems and their sensitivity in high latitude regions.

  6. Role of the tropical Pacific Ocean in strengthening the East Asian Monsoon: Climate model study of MIS-13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, M.; Herold, N.; Yin, Q.; Berger, A.

    2012-12-01

    Studying past climates is a valuable approach to improve our understanding of the present and future climate systems. Among the significant events in the history of climate, the interglacial periods are good candidates for representation of the future climate because of their astronomical characteristics and their similarity to predicted anthropogenic warming. Moreover, some interglacials exhibited significant changes in atmospheric and oceanic properties due to only small changes in their climatic forcing (greenhouse gases and solar insolation) which also make them a good case for investigating past climates. For instance, the interglacial stage of around 0.5 Ma identified as Marine Isotopic stage 13 (MIS-13), the focus of this study, was characterized by extremely strong East Asian and Indian summer monsoons while the CO2 and CH4 levels were lower and seasonal radiation energy could reach up to 50 Wm-2 higher than today. The extreme monsoon precipitation is quite unexpected for a climate with such forcing. To understand the physics-based mechanism that enhances the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) during MIS-13, we used two fully coupled general circulation models, the HadCM3 and CCSM3. In MIS-13 experiments, concentrations of greenhouse gases were prescribed lower than in pre-industrial and seasonal insolation characterised by Northern-Hemisphere (NH) summer occurring at perihelion instead of aphelion as it does today. Results of both models confirm increased summer precipitation in the monsoon regions. We find that the tropical Pacific Ocean plays a major role in strengthening the EASM in MIS-13. Simulations of MIS-13 show stronger easterly surface winds along the equatorial Pacific and a subsequent increase in the mean thermocline tilt, in addition to a westward shift of the cold tongue. These changes alter the background climatic state of the equatorial Pacific towards a La Niña-type state. The interannual variability around the La Niña-like background

  7. The Last Interglacial-Glacial cycle (MIS 5-2) re-examined based on long proxy records from central and northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmens, Karin F.

    2014-02-01

    Current multi-proxy studies on a long sediment sequence preserved at Sokli (N Finland), i.e. in the central area of Fennoscandian glaciations, are drastically changing classic ideas of glaciations, vegetation and climate in northern Europe during the Late Pleistocene. The sediments in the Sokli basin have escaped major glacial erosion due to non-typical bedrock conditions. In this review, the Sokli record is compared in great detail with other long proxy records from central, temperate and northern, boreal Europe. These comprise the classic records of La Grande Pile (E France) and Oerel (N Germany) and more recently obtained records from Horoszki Duże (E Poland) and Lake Yamozero (NW Russia). The focus of the review is on pollen, lithology and macrofossil- and insect-based temperature inferences. The long records are further compared with recent proxy data from nearby terrestrial sites as well as with the rapidly accumulating high-resolution proxy data from the ocean realm. The comparison allows a re-examination of the environmental history and climate evolution of the Last Interglacial-Glacial (LI-G) cycle (MIS 5-2). It shows that environmental and climate conditions during MIS 5 (ca 130-70 ka BP) were distinctly different from those during MIS 4-2 (ca 70-15 ka BP). MIS 5 is characterized by three long forested intervals (broadly corresponding to MIS 5e, 5c, 5a), both in temperate and northern boreal Europe. These mild periods were interrupted by two short, relatively cold and dry intervals (MIS 5d and 5b) with mountain-centered glaciation in Fennoscandia. Millennial scale climate events were superimposed upon these longer lasting climate fluctuations. The time interval encompassing MIS 4-2 shows open vegetation. It is characterized by two glacial maxima (MIS 4 and 2) with sub-continental scale glaciation over northern Europe and dry conditions in strongly continental eastern European settings. High amplitude climate oscillations of millennial duration

  8. Tracking millennial-scale climate variability through the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12 using terrigenous biomarkers in lacustrine sediments from Valles Caldera, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, S.; Werne, J. P.; Brown, E. T.; Anderson, R. S.; Fawcett, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Quaternary is characterized by cyclic intervals of warm interglacial and cold glacial stages with the MIS 12 highlighted as one of the most severe glacial stages. Recent studies reported abrupt climatic episodes at millennial scale during MIS 12 and the transition to MIS 11 similar to Dansgaard-Oeschger [D/O] and Heinrich events but weaker in amplitude than the dramatic oscillations observed in the last glacial period. The climate variability of MIS 12 is well documented in marine and ice-sheet isotopic records but terrestrial records are scarce and often fragmented. We will present a high-resolution paleoclimate reconstruction through the MIS 12, including MIS 13-12 and MIS 12-11 transitions, from paleo-lake sediments taken in Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Measurements including scanning X-ray fluorescence, pollen, terrigenous biomarkers and bulk and compound-specific stable isotopes that usually serve as paleoclimatic proxies of precipitation and vegetation will be contrasted. Terrigenous lipid biomarkers confirm that vegetation responds rapidly to millennial-scale climate variability and provide knowledge of how these millennial oscillations impacted western North America.

  9. Climate and vegetation since the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e) in a putative glacial refugium, northern Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Erin M.; Gavin, Daniel G.

    2015-06-01

    There are very few terrestrial sediment records from North America that contain a nearly continuous sequence spanning from the Last Interglacial period to the present. We present stratigraphic records of pollen and several other proxies from a Carex-dominated wetland, Star Meadows, located 140 km south of the maximum extent of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and near the current southern extent of interior mesic forests in northern Idaho. Many species in this region are disjunct by 160 km of arid steppe and dry forest from their more extensive distribution along the Pacific Northwest coast and may have survived in an interior refugium. The chronology for the upper 251 cm was determined by six radiocarbon dates and one tephra deposit, and the age of the remainder of the core (251-809 cm) was estimated by correlation with SPECMAP δ18O. Fluctuating water levels were inferred from alternating peat, biogenic silica, and aquatic pollen types. During MIS 5e the region was warmer and drier than today and was dominated by Pinus (likely Pinus contorta) mixed conifer forest surrounding a Carex meadow. A cool-moist climate (MIS 5b-5d) soon developed, and the site was inundated with deep water. Pollen indicated wetland vegetation (Betula glandulosa, Typhaceae, and Salix) developed around a lake with a Pseudotsuga/Larix and Picea forest on the surrounding slopes. During MIS 5a, a warmer climate supported a Pseudotsuga/Larix, Abies, and Picea forest on the surrounding hillsides and a Carex-dominated environment within a dry meadow. From MIS 4 to MIS 3, a cool and wet Pinus and Picea forest predominated. Water levels rose, enabling Nuphar to persist within a perennial lake while a sedge fen established along the lake margin. As climate transitioned into MIS 2, a cooler and drier climate supported a Pinus and Picea subalpine parkland, though water levels remained high enough to support Nuphar. During the Last Glacial Maximum the sediment was mainly silt and clay with high Artemisia and

  10. Glacial-interglacial variations in sediment organic carbon accumulation and benthic foraminiferal assemblages on the Bermuda Rise (ODP Site 1063) during MIS 13 to 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, Maria Serena; Meyers, Philip A.; Thunell, Robert C.; Capodivacca, Marco

    2012-09-01

    We have determined organic carbon concentrations and isotopic compositions and benthic foraminiferal assemblages in sediments deposited between ˜500 and 340 ka at ODP Site 1063 on the northeastern flank of the Bermuda Rise. This time interval includes Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11, a particularly warm and long interglacial that was similar to today, and MIS 12, one of the most severe glacials of the last 600 kyr. During MIS 11.3, the peak of interglacial warming, organic carbon accumulation rates are low and benthic foraminiferal assemblages are dominated by Nuttallides umbonifera, a species indicative of oligotrophic environments. Higher accumulation rates during MIS 12 and 10 correspond with elevated sedimentation rates (33-36 cm/kyr). This pattern implies a combination of enhanced delivery and improved preservation of sediment organic matter during these glacial times. Organic δ13C values are less negative during MIS 12 and MIS 10 than during MIS 11, which is consistent with greater glacial-stage marine productivity. High relative abundances ofOridorsalis umbonatus during glacial intervals probably records a low but sustained flux of highly degraded organic material. Large, recurrent fluctuations in the abundance of Epistominella exiguaat the beginnings of the MIS 12 and MIS 10 glaciations suggest a marked increase in local phytoplankton blooms at these times and consequent delivery of phytodetritus to the seafloor. The most likely causes of these variations are changes in the position and strength of the Gulf Stream and its associated cold-ring eddies, combined with increased advection of terrigenous sediments from northerly locations during glacial lowstands.

  11. The role of ultra-thin SiO2 layers in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) photoelectrochemical devices (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Daniel V.

    2015-08-01

    Solid-state junctions based on a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) architecture are of great interest for a number of optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaics, photoelectrochemical cells, and photodetection. One major advantage of the MIS junction compared to the closely related metal-semiconductor junction, or Schottky junction, is that the thin insulating layer (1-3 nm thick) that separates the metal and semiconductor can significantly reduce the density of undesirable interfacial mid-gap states. The reduction in mid-gap states helps "un-pin" the junction, allowing for significantly higher built-in-voltages to be achieved. A second major advantage of the MIS junction is that the thin insulating layer can also protect the underlying semiconductor from corrosion in an electrochemical environment, making the MIS architecture well-suited for application in (photo)electrochemical applications. In this presentation, discontinuous Si-based MIS junctions immersed in electrolyte are explored for use as i.) photoelectrodes for solar-water splitting in photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) and ii.) position-sensitive photodetectors. The development and optimization of MIS photoelectrodes for both of these applications relies heavily on understanding how processing of the thin SiO2 layer impacts the properties of nano- and micro-scale MIS junctions, as well as the interactions of the insulating layer with the electrolyte. In this work, we systematically explore the effects of insulator thickness, synthesis method, and chemical treatment on the photoelectrochemical and electrochemical properties of these MIS devices. It is shown that electrolyte-induced inversion plays a critical role in determining the charge carrier dynamics within the MIS photoelectrodes for both applications.

  12. Mis-splicing of the ABCC2 gene linked with Bt toxin resistance in Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yutao; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Chenxi; Heckel, David G; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used widely for insect control in sprays and transgenic plants, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Previous work showed that mutations in a gene encoding the transporter protein ABCC2 are linked with resistance to Bt toxins Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac or both in four species of Lepidoptera. Here we compared the ABCC2 gene of Helicoverpa armigera (HaABCC2) between susceptible strains and a laboratory-selected strain with >1,000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac relative its susceptible parent strain. We discovered a 73-base pair (bp) insertion in the cDNA of the resistant strain that generates a premature stop codon expected to yield a truncated ABCC2 protein. Sequencing of genomic DNA revealed that this insertion is an intron that is not spliced out because of a 6-bp deletion at its splicing site. Analysis of progeny from crosses revealed tight genetic linkage between HaABCC2 and resistance to Cry1Ac. These results provide the first evidence that mis-splicing of a gene encoding an ABCC2 protein confers resistance to a Bt toxin.

  13. Modeling the Hemodynamic Response Function in fMRI: Efficiency, Bias and Mis-modeling

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Martin A.; Loh, Ji Meng; Atlas, Lauren Y.; Wager, Tor D.

    2012-01-01

    Most brain research to date has focused on studying the amplitude of evoked fMRI responses, though there has recently been an increased interest in measuring onset, peak latency and duration of the responses as well. A number of modeling procedures provide measures of the latency and duration of fMRI responses. In this work we compare several techniques that vary in their assumptions, model complexity, and interpretation. For each method, we introduce methods for estimating amplitude, peak latency, and duration and for performing inference in a multi-subject fMRI setting. We then assess the techniques’ relative sensitivity and their propensity for mis-attributing task effects on one parameter (e.g., duration) to another (e.g., amplitude). Finally, we introduce methods for quantifying model misspecification and assessing bias and power-loss related to the choice of model. Overall, the results show that it is surprisingly difficult to accurately recover true task-evoked changes in BOLD signal and that there are substantial differences among models in terms of power, bias and parameter confusability. Because virtually all fMRI studies in cognitive and affective neuroscience employ these models, the results bear on the interpretation of hemodynamic response estimates across a wide variety of psychological and neuroscientific studies. PMID:19084070

  14. Geochemical proxies and millennial-scale climate variability during MIS 3 at Lake Chalco, central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, E.; Lozano, S.; Roy, P.; Ortega, B.; Caballero, M.

    2013-05-01

    The Basin of Mexico (20N, 99W; 2240 m.a.s.l.) is present at the northern limit of the American tropics and is surrounded by up to 5400 m high mountains. The Lake Chalco is situated at the southern part of the basin and spreads over 120 km2. The precipitation in the modern era is influenced by the seasonal displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the high-pressure belt located at about 35 N. Five cores were drilled (up to 122.5 m depth) in order to document climate variability in paleohydrological conditions during the late Quaternary. The age model includes several 14C dates and tephra layers present in the upper 25 m of the core. We documented millennial-scale events during MIS 3 based on geochemical data (total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC), C/N ratio) and abundance of charcoal particles. By temporal correlation with GISP2 core we founded that Greenland interstadials match with TOC percentages suggesting wet conditions while stadials match with high TIC percentages and high charcoal concentrations suggesting dry conditions. We compared our data with speleothem records (δ18O) from Fort Station Cave (New Mexico) and Terciopelo Cave (Costa Rica), our preliminary results indicate that Chalco record has a similar climatic signal as Terciopelo Cave, both presented wet interstadials and dry stadials which appear to have been regulated by the seasonal migration of the ITCZ.

  15. MSV3d: database of human MisSense Variants mapped to 3D protein structure.

    PubMed

    Luu, Tien-Dao; Rusu, Alin-Mihai; Walter, Vincent; Ripp, Raymond; Moulinier, Luc; Muller, Jean; Toursel, Thierry; Thompson, Julie D; Poch, Olivier; Nguyen, Hoan

    2012-01-01

    The elucidation of the complex relationships linking genotypic and phenotypic variations to protein structure is a major challenge in the post-genomic era. We present MSV3d (Database of human MisSense Variants mapped to 3D protein structure), a new database that contains detailed annotation of missense variants of all human proteins (20 199 proteins). The multi-level characterization includes details of the physico-chemical changes induced by amino acid modification, as well as information related to the conservation of the mutated residue and its position relative to functional features in the available or predicted 3D model. Major releases of the database are automatically generated and updated regularly in line with the dbSNP (database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and SwissVar releases, by exploiting the extensive Décrypthon computational grid resources. The database (http://decrypthon.igbmc.fr/msv3d) is easily accessible through a simple web interface coupled to a powerful query engine and a standard web service. The content is completely or partially downloadable in XML or flat file formats. Database URL: http://decrypthon.igbmc.fr/msv3d.

  16. [Efficacy of the program "Testas's (mis)adventures" to promote the deep approach to learning].

    PubMed

    Rosário, Pedro; González-Pienda, Julio Antonio; Cerezo, Rebeca; Pinto, Ricardo; Ferreira, Pedro; Abilio, Lourenço; Paiva, Olimpia

    2010-11-01

    This paper provides information about the efficacy of a tutorial training program intended to enhance elementary fifth graders' study processes and foster their deep approaches to learning. The program "Testas's (mis)adventures" consists of a set of books in which Testas, a typical student, reveals and reflects upon his life experiences during school years. These life stories are nothing but an opportunity to present and train a wide range of learning strategies and self-regulatory processes, designed to insure students' deeper preparation for present and future learning challenges. The program has been developed along a school year, in a one hour weekly tutorial sessions. The training program had a semi-experimental design, included an experimental group (n=50) and a control one (n=50), and used pre- and posttest measures (learning strategies' declarative knowledge, learning approaches and academic achievement). Data suggest that the students enrolled in the training program, comparing with students in the control group, showed a significant improvement in their declarative knowledge of learning strategies and in their deep approach to learning, consequently lowering their use of a surface approach. In spite of this, in what concerns to academic achievement, no statistically significant differences have been found. PMID:21044520

  17. Riparian landscapes and human habitat preferences during the Hoxnian (MIS 11) Interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, Nick; Lewis, Simon G.; Parfitt, Simon; White, Mark

    2006-07-01

    The archaeological, environmental and geological data from Hoxnian Interglacial (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11) sites from Britain are examined to elucidate the type of habitats that humans preferred during this temperate episode. The conclusion is that humans avoided lacustrine situations, but did make use of the full range of resources that fluvial environments provide. This model is strengthened by the examination of other non-archaeological Hoxnian sites. The problem of archaeological visibility in lacustrine sediment sequences is also discussed and methods of identifying other evidence of human presence are suggested that may offset the deficiencies in the lithic record. These include presence of cut-marked bone, micro-debitage and possibly charcoal in fine-grained sediments deposited in distal settings. The reasons for human selection of fluvial situations are discussed. It is concluded that these environments provide a greater diversity of animal, plant and lithic resources, but also are major route-ways through the landscape. Patterns of human site use are identified, which seem to be triggered by local changes in hydrology and drainage, themselves possibly caused by regional changes in climate. Finally, Lower Palaeolithic sites on the interfluves are discussed. Although they lack environmental or dating evidence, it is tentatively suggested that they were used during cooler episodes, when more open conditions prevailed. Copyright

  18. The stress-coping (mis)match hypothesis for nature × nurture interactions.

    PubMed

    Homberg, Judith R

    2012-01-13

    There is high consensus that stress-related disorders like depression are shaped by nature×nurture interactions. However, the complexity appears larger than envisaged and nature×nurture research is progressing too slowly. An important reason is that mainstream research is focussing on the idea that a combination of genotypic stress-sensitivity and stress exposure inevitably leads to maladaptive stress-coping responses, and thereby stress-related disorders. However, stress-coping responses can also be adaptive and adhere to the expected norm. Here I elaborate the 'environment' mismatch hypothesis proposed by Mathias Schmidt (Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, 330-338, 2011) to the stress-coping (mis)match (SCM) hypothesis postulating that stress-coping responses-as programmed by nature×age-dependent nurture interactions-are adaptive when they match current stress conditions, but maladaptive when they mismatch current stress conditions. For instance, acquisition of an active stress-coping response during nurture may lead to the programmed release of active coping responses in current life. This is adaptive when current stress is escapable, but maladaptive when current stress is inescapable, leading to agitation. A model par example for nature×nurture interactions is the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism, which will be discussed in the framework of the SCM hypothesis. The potential role of the prefrontal-amygdala circuit and the therapeutic implications of the SCM hypothesis will also be discussed.

  19. Using Bones to Shape Stones: MIS 9 Bone Retouchers at Both Edges of the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Cuartero, Felipe; Fernández Peris, Josep; Gopher, Avi; Barkai, Ran

    2013-01-01

    A significant challenge in Prehistory is to understand the mechanisms involved in the behavioural evolution of human groups. The degree of technological and cultural development of prehistoric groups is assessed mainly through stone tools. However, other elements can provide valuable information as well. This paper presents two bone retouchers dated to the Middle Pleistocene MIS 9 used for the shaping of lithic artefacts. Originating from Bolomor Cave (Spain) and Qesem Cave (Israel), these two bone retouchers are among the earliest of the Old World. Although the emergence of such tools might be found in the latest phases of the Acheulean, their widespread use seems to coincide with independently emergent post-Acheulean cultural complexes at both ends of the Mediterranean Sea: the post-Acheulean/pre-Mousterian of Western Europe and the Acheulo Yabrudian Cultural Complex of the Levant. Both entities seem to reflect convergent processes that may be viewed in a wider cultural context as reflecting new technology-related behavioural patterns as well as new perceptions in stone tool manufacturing. PMID:24146928

  20. Using bones to shape stones: MIS 9 bone retouchers at both edges of the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Cuartero, Felipe; Fernández Peris, Josep; Gopher, Avi; Barkai, Ran

    2013-01-01

    A significant challenge in Prehistory is to understand the mechanisms involved in the behavioural evolution of human groups. The degree of technological and cultural development of prehistoric groups is assessed mainly through stone tools. However, other elements can provide valuable information as well. This paper presents two bone retouchers dated to the Middle Pleistocene MIS 9 used for the shaping of lithic artefacts. Originating from Bolomor Cave (Spain) and Qesem Cave (Israel), these two bone retouchers are among the earliest of the Old World. Although the emergence of such tools might be found in the latest phases of the Acheulean, their widespread use seems to coincide with independently emergent post-Acheulean cultural complexes at both ends of the Mediterranean Sea: the post-Acheulean/pre-Mousterian of Western Europe and the Acheulo Yabrudian Cultural Complex of the Levant. Both entities seem to reflect convergent processes that may be viewed in a wider cultural context as reflecting new technology-related behavioural patterns as well as new perceptions in stone tool manufacturing.

  1. (Mis) representations of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse in the courts.

    PubMed

    Brown, D

    2000-01-01

    This study addresses the (mis) representations made by pro-false memory attorneys and expert witnesses in court regarding the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Five pro-false memory positions were identified: (1) there is no causal connection between CSA and adult psychopathology; (2) the evidence is insufficient; (3) CSA does not cause specific trauma-related outcomes like borderline and dissociative identity disorder; (4) other variables than CSA explain the variance of adult psychopathology; and (5) the long-term effects of CSA are general and non-specific. Examining the testimony revealed that such pro-false memory testimony was based solely on a partial understanding of retrospective data and that pro-false memory experts do not cite the more recent prospective data. Reviewing the totality of the scientific evidence demonstrates that such pro-false memory testimony is inaccurate and has the potential of misleading the jury. Prospective studies provide sufficient evidence to causally link CSA to a number of areas of adult psychopathology including multiple, co-morbid psychiatric conditions, and possibly to link early parent-infant attachment pathology to the development of borderline and dissociative identity disorder.

  2. Evidence of MIS 5 sea-level highstands in Gebel Mousa coast (Strait of Gibraltar, North of Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, M.; Rodríguez-Vidal, J.; Aboumaria, K.; Zaghloul, M. N.; Cáceres, L. M.; Ruiz, F.; Martínez-Aguirre, A.; Izquierdo, T.; Chamorro, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Last Interglacial is considered the most suitable episode from which to infer patterns of rapid sea-level change since its climatic conditions were similar to those of the present interglacial. However, specifying the true position of its sea level with high accuracy is very troublesome in the absence of sedimentological, erosional or even palaeontological markers. This study investigates the morphosedimentary evidence (beach deposits, cliff, notch and shore platform) of two highstands registered and dated during MIS 5 stage by U-series dating in the North of Morocco (Strait of Gibraltar). Bioerosive notches and mixed siliciclastic and carbonate deposits, high energy beaches with algal bioherms, were formed in coastal environments during MIS 5a. A sea-level height of + 10 m asl can be inferred for this substage. The record of MIS 5e substage is less defined in the geomorphological record, consisting of backshore/foreshore deposits located at + 13 to + 15 m asl. A tectonic uplift rate of ~ 0.1 mm/yr has been estimated for the last 130 kyr. These data are consistent with models of coastal uplifting calculated for the Strait of Gibraltar.

  3. High-elevation late Pleistocene (MIS 6-5) vertebrate faunas from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertich, Joseph J. W.; Stucky, Richard K.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Newton, Cody; Fisher, Daniel C.; Scott, Eric; Demboski, John R.; Lucking, Carol; McHorse, Brianna K.; Davis, Edward B.

    2014-11-01

    The vertebrate record at the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site (ZRFS) near Snowmass Village, Colorado ranges from ~ 140 to 77 ka, spanning all of Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5. The site contains at least 52 taxa of macro- and microvertebrates, including one fish, three amphibian, four reptile, ten bird, and 34 mammal taxa. The most common vertebrate is Ambystoma tigrinum (tiger salamander), which is represented by > 22,000 elements representing the entire life cycle. The mastodon, Mammut americanum, is the most common mammal, and is documented by > 1800 skeletal elements making the ZRFS one of the largest accumulations of proboscidean remains in North America. Faunas at the ZRFS can be divided into two groups, a lake-margin group dating to ~ 140-100 ka that is dominated by woodland taxa, and a lake-center group dating to ~ 87-77 ka characterized by taxa favoring more open conditions. The change in faunal assemblages occurred between MIS 5c and 5a (vertebrates were absent from MIS 5b deposits), which were times of significant environmental change at the ZRFS. Furthermore, the ZRFS provides a well-dated occurrence of the extinct Bison latifrons, which has implications for the timing of the Rancholabrean Mammal Age in the region.

  4. Transconductance sensitivity enhancement in gated-MIS(p) tunnel diode by self-protective effective local thinning mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Wei-Chih; Chen, Jun-Yao; Hwu, Jenn-Gwo

    2016-08-01

    Gated-MIS tunnel diode with ultrathin oxide has been proposed as a transconductance device. The on/off current ratio of a device is sensitive to oxide thickness. For thicker oxide, the on/off current ratio and transconductance sensitivity are inferior due to the lower oxide tunneling rate. In this work, a technique of utilizing the effective local thinning effect created by positive voltage stress (PVS), which only occurs with the oxide thickness larger than about 3 nm, is demonstrated to improve the on/off current ratio and transconductance sensitivity. After PVS, the on/off current ratio and transconductance sensitivity are strongly enhanced by the creation of an effective local thinning at the edge of the MIS(p) tunnel diode. A transconductance of 8.5 × 10-7 S was found in gated-MIS(p) tunnel diode operated at VTD = 0.5 V and VG ≅ -0.12 V after PVS treatment in contract to that of 1.8 × 10-10 S before PVS.

  5. Large shifts in vegetation and climate during the Early Weichselian (MIS 5d-c) inferred from multi-proxy evidence at Sokli (northern Finland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmens, Karin F.; Väliranta, Minna; Engels, Stefan; Shala, Shyhrete

    2012-05-01

    For decades, detailed studies on Early Weichselian deposits have been made in central Europe. In contrast, these studies are rare in Fennoscandia in northern Europe. We here integrate an extensive multi-proxy data set obtained on sediments of MIS 5d-c age that form part of a long sediment record preserved at Sokli in northern Finland. We make a detailed interpretation of the vegetation and depositional history for MIS 5d-c using pollen, macrofossils, diatoms and other siliceous microfossils, insect remains, and sediment characteristics, and combine these data with recently published estimates on July temperatures based on chironomids and selected plant indicator species in order to make inferences of paleo-climate regimes. The fossil record obtained on the seven meter thick MIS 5d-c deposit at Sokli is exceptionally rich in species due to the large variety of habitats associated with an overall fluvial depositional environment. A braided river system flanked by steppe-tundra vegetation is inferred for MIS 5d. Mean July temperatures of at least 12-14 °C are indicated by chironomids and plant indicator species and are in agreement with the presence of conifers and birch trees as recorded by macrofossils. The reconstructed environmental conditions suggest strong continental climate conditions at Sokli during MIS 5d. The gradual infilling of an oxbow lake and subsequent return to stream channel deposition is traced in great detail in the overlying gyttja and gravelly sediment of MIS 5c age. The terrestrial pollen and plant macrofossil record from the gyttja shows the establishment of birch forest followed by the spread of pine and then spruce. Rich plant indicator species assemblages indicate that the boreal environment at Sokli during MIS 5c experienced July temperatures several degrees higher than the present-day value of 13 °C. The high summer temperatures and presence of larch suggest more continental conditions. More open vegetation returned at Sokli during late

  6. Terrestrial environments during MIS 11: evidence from the Palaeolithic site at West Stow, Suffolk, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, R. C.; Parfitt, S. A.; Bridgland, D. R.; Lewis, S. G.; Rowe, P. J.; Atkinson, T. C.; Candy, I.; Debenham, N. C.; Penkman, K. E. H.; Rhodes, E. J.; Schwenninger, J.-L.; Griffiths, H. I.; Whittaker, J. E.; Gleed-Owen, C.

    2007-05-01

    , although there is clear faunal evidence for climatic deterioration. Both the molluscan and vertebrate faunas suggest correlation of the interglacial sediments with the Hoxnian. Uranium series dates from the tufa (˜455 ka BP), TL dates from burnt flints (414±30 ka BP) and a range of amino acid racemization data all support correlation of this interglacial with MIS 11. However, four OSL dates from sand beneath the interglacial sequence yield a mean age of 261±31 ka BP, far younger than all other age determinations and far younger than implied by the biostratigraphy. Archaeologically the site is unusual in showing prolonged human occupation within closed deciduous forest and evidence for controlled use of fire in a Lower Palaeolithic context. Biostratigraphical correlations with other Lower Palaeolithic sites support the suggestion that Acheulian and Clactonian industries both occurred in southern Britain during the same substage of the Hoxnian, although not necessarily at precisely the same time. The characteristics of the MIS 11 interglacial in Britain are discussed in the light of evidence from Beeches Pit and elsewhere.

  7. Individual and combined effects of ice sheets and precession on MIS-13 climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Q. Z.; Berger, A.; Crucifix, M.

    2009-02-01

    Simulations with an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity are made to investigate the role of insolation and the size of ice sheets on the regional and global climate for marine isotope stage (MIS) 13. The astronomical forcing is selected at two dates with opposite precession, one when Northern Hemisphere summer (NHS) occurs at perihelion (at 506 ka BP) and the other when it occurs at aphelion (at 495 ka BP). Experiments with five different volumes of the Eurasian and North American ice sheets (ranging from 0 to the Last Glacial Maximum one) are done under these two astronomical conditions. When NHS is at perihelion, the Earth is warmer, the seasonal contrast in Northern (Southern) Hemisphere is larger (smaller) and summer precipitation in Northern Hemisphere monsoon regions is more abundant than when it is at aphelion. The global cooling due to the ice sheets is mainly related to the ice sheet area, little to their height. The regional cooling and warming anomalies caused by the ice sheets get intensified with increasing ice sheet size. The cooling is different whether the NHS occurs at aphelion or at perihelion. Precipitation over different monsoon regions responds differently to the size of the ice sheets. Over North Africa, the ice sheets always reduce precipitation, larger the size less the precipitation. Over East China, when NHS is at perihelion, the ice sheets reinforce the summer precipitation whatever their sizes. But when NHS is at aphelion, there is a threshold in the ice volume beyond which the ice sheets start to reduce the precipitation over East China. This underlies the importance of insolation in shaping the ice sheet impact on the precipitation over the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) region.

  8. Charge trapping behavior and its origin in Al2O3/SiC MIS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Yi-Yu; Peng, Zhao-Yang; Li, Cheng-Zhan; Wu, Jia; Bai, Yun; Tang, Yi-Dan; Liu, Ke-An; Shen, Hua-Jun

    2015-08-01

    Charge trapping behavior and its origin in Al2O3/SiC MOS structure are investigated by analyzing the capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis and the chemical composition of the interface. The C-V hysteresis is measured as a function of oxide thickness series for an Al2O3/SiC MIS capacitor. The distribution of the trapped charges, extracted from the C-V curves, is found to mainly follow a sheet charge model rather than a bulk charge model. Therefore, the electron injection phenomenon is evaluated by using linear fitting. It is found that most of the trapped charges are not distributed exactly at the interface but are located in the bulk of the Al2O3 layers, especially close to the border. Furthermore, there is no detectable oxide interface layer in the x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. In addition, Rutherford back scattering (RBS) analysis shows that the width of the Al2O3/SiC interface is less than 1 nm. It could be concluded that the charge trapping sites in Al2O3/SiC structure might mainly originate from the border traps in Al2O3 film rather than the interface traps in the interfacial transition layer. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61106080) and the National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2013ZX02305).

  9. Northern Cordilleran Ice Sheet Dynamics in Coastal Alaska from MIS 3 to the Present: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penkrot, M. L.; Jaeger, J. M.; LeVay, L.; St-Onge, G.; Mix, A. C.; Bahlburg, H.; Davies-Walczak, M.; Gulick, S. P. S.

    2014-12-01

    Establishing the timing of northwestern Cordilleran ice sheet (NCIS) advance-retreat cycles in southern Alaska allows for investigation of global synchronicity in glacial-age climate forcing. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 targeted the glacial dynamics of the NCIS in the coastal St. Elias range. Sediment cores from Site U1419 encompass times of global ice advance and retreat from MIS 3 to the present, based on a preliminary age model with 5-kya resolution developed using oxygen isotopes from benthic and planktonic foraminifera and stratigraphic correlation with a previously C-14 dated site survey core (Davies et al., 2011; doi:10.1029/2010PA002051). CT images of cores were used to identify sedimentary facies and relative ice sheet proximity. Six sedimentary facies were identified in the images; massive mud with and without lonestones, laminations with and without lonestones, massive and stratified diamict (>1 clast/cm). Elemental scanning XRF data were used to delineate possible downcore changes in sediment provenance using provenance-sensitive transition metals. Diamict and gravelly mud are the most common facies, indicative of persistent glacial input interpreted as marine-terminating glacial systems. Stratified diamicts are interpreted as periods of maximum ice extent (~18-20 ka), whereas massive mud (~14 ka-present) suggests terminus retreat. Intervals of laminated mud with and without lonestones are interpreted as periods of reduced ice cover, with the most recent (~14.5 kya) coinciding with the Bølling Interstade of northern Europe/Greenland (Davies et al., 2011). Downcore changes in Al-normalized metal XRF counts vary along with sedimentary lithoficies, suggesting changes in sediment provenance that may be related to the quantity of glacigenic sediment delivery to this location.

  10. Changes in Organic Carbon Accumulation and Benthic Foraminiferal Assemblages in Sediments Deposited on the Bermuda Rise (odp Site 1063)DURING Mis 13 TO 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, M.; Meyers, P. A.; Thunell, R.; Capodivacca, M.

    2011-12-01

    We determined organic carbon concentrations, organic matter carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions, and benthic foraminiferal assemblages in sediments deposited between ~500-340 ka at ODP Site 1063 on the northeastern flank of the Bermuda Rise to identify the nature of glacial-interglacial changes in this part of the North Atlantic. This time interval includes Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11, a particularly warm and long interglacial that was similar to today, and MIS 12, one of the most severe glacials of the last 600 ky. Higher organic carbon accumulation rates occurred during MIS 12 and 10 (up to 3.7 g m-2 yr-1), in correspondence with the highest sedimentation rates (33-36 cm/ky). This pattern suggests a combination of enhanced production and improved preservation of organic matter at these glacial times. Organic δ13C values are larger during MIS 12 and MIS 10 (~-22.5%) than during MIS 11.3 (~-25%), which is consistent with greater glacial-stage marine productivity. At the same time, smaller glacial-stage δ15N values (~3.5%) indicate diminished denitrification, which suggests better oceanic mixing at this location. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages are dominated by Nuttallides umbonifera during MIS 11.3, a species adapted to oligotrophic environments, and by Oridorsalis umbonatus during glacial intervals, a cosmopolitan taxon that dwells under a wide range of environmental conditions and probably prefers a low but sustained flux of highly degraded organic material. The beginnings of the MIS 10 and MIS 12 glaciations are characterized by large and rapid fluctuations in the abundance of Epistominella exigua, a species that inhabits seasonally deposited aggregates of phytodetritus produced during spring plankton blooms, thus suggesting a marked increase in local primary productivity at these times. We conclude that two kinds of glacial-interglacial changes affected delivery of organic matter to the sediments of Site 1063 - a southward shift of the Gulf Stream

  11. Coupled Warming and Drought in the American Southwest During Long mid-Pleistocene Interglacials (MIS 11 and 13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawcett, P. J.; Werne, J.; Anderson, R.; Heikoop, J.; Brown, E.; Hurley, L.; Smith, S.; Berke, M.; Soltow, H.; Goff, F.; Geissman, J.; Woldegabriel, G.; Fessenden, J.; Cisneros-Dozal, M.; Allen, C. D.

    2008-12-01

    An 82-m deep lacustrine sediment core from the Valles Caldera, northern New Mexico reveals details of climate change over two glacial cycles in the middle Pleistocene. Core VC-3, taken from the Valle Grande, has a basal 40Ar/39Ar date of 552 kyr from a tephra associated with the eruption of the South Mountain rhyolite which formed the lake. A variety of proxies including core sedimentology, organic carbon and carbon isotopic ratios, pollen, scanning XRF analysis and a new paleotemperature proxy, MBT (methylated branched tetraether) content of soil bacteria reveal two major warm periods above the basal tephra which we correlate with interglacials MIS 13 and MIS 11. This chronology is corroborated by the identification of two geomagnetic field "events" which are correlated with globally recognized events (14α and 11α). The lacustrine record terminates at ~350 ka when the lake filled its available accommodation space behind the dam of rhyolite lava. MBT temperature estimates show average glacial temperatures in core VC-3 of ~ -4°C, and average interglacial temperatures of ~ +4°C, and the general trends are well corroborated by multiple proxies including pollen and lacustrine organic productivity estimates. A temperature increase of ~9°C occurs during Termination V, the largest glacial termination in the Pleistocene. Multiple proxies from VC-3 show significant structure during the two interglacials present in the core (MIS 13 and 11). Three warm substages (~ 2°C warmer) are recognized within MIS 11 based on organic productivity (Corg, Si/Ti ratios), pollen taxa, elevated charcoal from fires, and the MBT temperature estimates. These warm substages appear to be a strong response to precessional forcing in the SW continental interior even though the amplitude of eccentricity-modulated precession was at a minimum during MIS 11. These results suggest that future climate change in the SW may be characterized by similar natural temperature variability on precessional

  12. The Kinetochore Protein Kis1/Eic1/Mis19 Ensures the Integrity of Mitotic Spindles through Maintenance of Kinetochore Factors Mis6/CENP-I and CENP-A

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Hayato; Arai, Kunio; Kariyazono, Ryo; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sato, Masamitsu

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules play multiple roles in a wide range of cellular phenomena, including cell polarity establishment and chromosome segregation. A number of microtubule regulators have been identified, including microtubule-associated proteins and kinases, and knowledge of these factors has contributed to our molecular understanding of microtubule regulation of each relevant cellular process. The known regulators, however, are insufficient to explain how those processes are linked to one another, underscoring the need to identify additional regulators. To find such novel mechanisms and microtubule regulators, we performed a screen that combined genetics and microscopy for fission yeast mutants defective in microtubule organization. We isolated approximately 900 mutants showing defects in either microtubule organization or the nuclear envelope, and these mutants were classified into 12 categories. We particularly focused on one mutant, kis1, which displayed spindle defects in early mitosis. The kis1 mutant frequently failed to assemble a normal bipolar spindle. The responsible gene encoded a kinetochore protein, Mis19 (also known as Eic1), which localized to the interface of kinetochores and spindle poles. We also found that the inner kinetochore proteins Mis6/CENP-I and Cnp1/CENP-A were delocalized from kinetochores in the kis1 cells and that kinetochore-microtubule attachment was defective. Another mutant, mis6, also displayed similar spindle defects. We conclude that Kis1 is required for inner kinetochore organization, through which Kis1 ensures kinetochore-microtubule attachment and spindle integrity. Thus, we propose an unexpected relationship between inner kinetochore organization and spindle integrity. PMID:25375240

  13. High-resolution vegetation dynamics reconstitution in the Zaire/Congo watershed since MIS 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalibard, Mathieu; Popescu, Speranta-Maria; Maley, Jean; Pittet, Bernard; Marsset, Tania; Baudin, François; Dennielou, Bernard; Sionneau, Thomas; Escarguel, Gilles; Droz, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    contemporaneously with a significant presence of afromontane forest in MIS 6 may be correlated with rainfall increase probably related to changes in the monsoon activity. The information in term of humidity obtained from some other proxies (clay mineralogy, organic carbon, and elemental ratio measured by XRF, such as Br, etc.) shows a similar trend with the pollen record. A spectral analysis has been performed and reveals that the reconstructed climatic parameters from the Zaire/Congo watershed correlated with Milankovitch cycles, including semi-precession cycles (10 kyrs) characteristic of the Equatorial zone.

  14. Geochronologic evidence for a possible MIS-11 emergent barrier/beach-ridge in southeastern Georgia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markewich, H. W.; Pavich, M. J.; Schultz, A. P.; Mahan, S. A.; Aleman-Gonzalez, W. B.; Bierman, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    ˜450 ka to >1 Ma. The age and geomorphic data for Georgia and South Carolina possibly suggest the presence of MIS-11 (˜420-360 ka) shoreline deposits between 15 m and 28 m above present sea level in the Southeastern Atlantic Coastal Plain.

  15. Geochronologic evidence for a possible MIS-11 emergent barrier/beach-ridge in southeastern Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markewich, H.W.; Pavich, M.J.; Schultz, A.P.; Mahan, S.A.; Aleman-Gonzalez, W. B.; Bierman, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    ~450 ka to >1 Ma. The age and geomorphic data for Georgia and South Carolina possibly suggest the presence of MIS-11 (~420−360 ka) shoreline deposits between 15 m and 28 m above present sea level in the Southeastern Atlantic Coastal Plain.

  16. Paleoclimate variability during the Blake geomagnetic excursion (MIS 5d) deduced from a speleothem record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Carlos; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Osete, María-Luisa

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate possible connections between climate and the Earth's magnetic field, we examine paleoclimate proxies in a stalagmite (PA-8) recording the Blake excursion (˜112-˜116.4 ka) from Cobre cave (N Spain). Trace element, δ13C, δ18O, δ234U, fluorescent lamination, growth rate, and paleomagnetic records were synchronized using a floating lamina-counted chronology constrained by U-Th dates, providing a high-resolution multi-proxy paleoclimate record for MIS 5d. The alpine cave setting and the combination of proxies contributed to improve the confidence of the paleoclimatic interpretation. Periods of relatively warm and humid climate likely favored forest development and resulted in high speleothem growth rates, arguably annual fluorescent laminae, low δ13C and [Mg], and increased [Sr] and [Ba]. Colder periods limited soil activity and drip water availability, leading to reduced speleothem growth, poor development of fluorescent lamination, enhanced water-rock interaction leading to increased [Mg], δ13C, and δ234U, and episodic flooding. In the coldest and driest period recorded, evaporation caused simultaneous 18O and 13C enrichments and perturbed the trace element patterns. The Blake took place in a relatively warm interestadial at the inception of the Last Glacial period, but during a global cooling trend recorded in PA-8 by an overall decrease of δ18O and growth rate and increasing [Mg]. That trend culminated in the cessation of growth between ˜112 and ˜101 ka likely due to the onset of local glaciation correlated with Greenland stadial 25. That trend is consistent with a link between low geomagnetic intensity and climate cooling, but it does not prove it. Shorter term changes in relative paleointensity (RPI) relate to climate changes recorded in PA-8, particularly a prominent RPI low from ˜114.5 to ˜113 ka coincident with a significant cooling indicated by all proxy records, suggesting a link between geomagnetic intensity and climate at millennial

  17. MIS 3 Climate Variability Revealed by Two Stalagmites from Northern and South-Western Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragusin, V.; Hoffmann, D.; Onac, B. P.; Isverceanu, E.

    2011-12-01

    We present two stable isotope records of climate variability from stalagmites in northern (#1152 from Pestera Izvorul Tausoarelor, Rodna Mountains) and south-western (#POM1 from Pestera Ascunsa, Mehedinti Mountains) Romania. Both cave entrances are located at over 1000 m asl in areas covered by mature beech forests, in continental temperate climate. Superimposed on the present-day climatic conditions are two different climate influences: Atlantic in the north and sub-mediterranean in the south-west. Both stalagmites were dated by means of uranium series on a Thermo Neptune MC-ICP-MS at Centro Nacional de Investigacion sobre la Evolucion Humana (Burgos, Spain) and samples for stable O and C stable isotopes were analysed on a Thermo Delta V IRMS at the Stable Isotope Laboratory, University of South Florida. For the stable isotopes profile, stalagmite 1152 was sampled at an average interval of 100 years , whereas POM1 was sampled at a 30 years interval. The two stalagmites reveal differences in isotopic signature response to climatic variability. When the POM1 δ18O profile is compared to the NGRIP δ18O, a lower variability of its values is evident. Even so, we are still able to distinguish structures similar to Greenland Interstadials (GIs) 7 and 8, the latter being composed of two distinct units. The stalagmite 1152 δ18O profile shows less variability although some of the peaks in the values could be correlated to GIs 4 through 12. The absolute values of these two records vary around an average of -7.5%, very close to the typical Holocene values from this part of Europe. This may point to an enhanced Mediterranean circulation towards the north during MIS 3. In return, the δ13C values of the two stalagmites are very different and point to large differences in the activity of plants and soil organisms. POM1 values, averaging -5 to -6%, indicate a C4 type vegetation in the area above the cave, that could belong to alpine meadows. This may document a lowering of the

  18. The genes that encode the gonococcal transferrin binding proteins, TbpB and TbpA, are differentially regulated by MisR under iron-replete and iron-depleted conditions.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Justin L; Acevedo, Rosuany Vélez; Dickinson, Mary Kathryne; Cash, Devin R; Shafer, William M; Cornelissen, Cynthia Nau

    2016-10-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae produces two transferrin binding proteins, TbpA and TbpB, which together enable efficient iron transport from human transferrin. We demonstrate that expression of the tbp genes is controlled by MisR, a response regulator in the two-component regulatory system that also includes the sensor kinase MisS. The tbp genes were up-regulated in the misR mutant under iron-replete conditions but were conversely down-regulated in the misR mutant under iron-depleted conditions. The misR mutant was capable of transferrin-iron uptake at only 50% of wild-type levels, consistent with decreased tbp expression. We demonstrate that phosphorylated MisR specifically binds to the tbpBA promoter and that MisR interacts with five regions upstream of the tbpB start codon. These analyses confirm that MisR directly regulates tbpBA expression. The MisR binding sites in the gonococcus are only partially conserved in Neisseria meningitidis, which may explain why tbpBA was not MisR-regulated in previous studies using this related pathogen. This is the first report of a trans-acting protein factor other than Fur that can directly contribute to gonococcal tbpBA regulation.

  19. A review of the MIS 5e highstand deposits from Santa Maria Island (Azores, NE Atlantic): palaeobiodiversity, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Melo, Carlos; Silva, Luís; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Quartau, Rui; Hipólito, Ana; Cordeiro, Ricardo; Rebelo, Ana Cristina; Madeira, Patrícia; Rovere, Alessio; Hearty, Paul J.; Henriques, Diamantino; Silva, Carlos Marques da; Martins, António M. de Frias; Zazo, Caridad

    2015-04-01

    The privileged location of Santa Maria Island (Azores archipelago) in the middle of the North Atlantic makes the fossiliferous outcrops on this island of utmost importance to gain a better understanding of how coeval living communities relate to the broader evolutionary and biogeographic history of the Atlantic basin during the late Neogene and the Quaternary. Here we focus on this island's MIS 5e fossil record, offering a comprehensive review on the palaeobiodiversity, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography of the biota living in the mid North Atlantic during this interglacial. Several studies in oceanic islands stress the huge impact of sea level changes on insular communities. Pleistocene sea-level changes occur during the short-time events known as "Terminations" (associated to glacial/interglacial shifts) as well as with the onset of glaciations (associated to interglacial/glacial shifts). Both are responsible for extinctions and local disappearance of species, bottleneck effects and formation of new species, resulting in community structure changes. This work increases the number of fossil marine taxa reported from the Last Interglacial deposits of Santa Maria to 143 species. All the 19 new records are molluscs (13 gastropods and 6 bivalves), thus increasing the number of fossil molluscs to 136 species. Although thermophilic members of the "Senegalese" tropical fauna were found in these deposits, many of the most emblematic species (e.g., Persististrombus latus (=Strombus bubonius), Cymbula safiana, Harpa doris, Cardita senegalensis, Barbatia plicata, Ctena eburnea or Hyotissa hyotis) are absent, suggesting that they did not reach the Azores. Our results indicate that the main differences between the species composition of the MIS 5e and the present-day shallow-water Azorean communities are probably due to the dropping of sea surface temperature associated with the onset of the last glaciation, which had both direct and indirect effects on species ecology. A

  20. Human occupation of the Arabian Empty Quarter during MIS 5: evidence from Mundafan Al-Buhayrah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groucutt, Huw S.; White, Tom S.; Clark-Balzan, Laine; Parton, Ash; Crassard, Rémy; Shipton, Ceri; Jennings, Richard P.; Parker, Adrian G.; Breeze, Paul S.; Scerri, Eleanor M. L.; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2015-07-01

    The Empty Quarter (or Rub' al Khali) of the Arabian Peninsula is the largest continuous sandy desert in the world. It has been known for several decades that Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, representing phases of wetter climate, are preserved there. These sequences have yielded palaeontological evidence in the form of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate fossils and have been dated using various radiometric techniques. However, evidence for human presence during these wetter phases has until now been ephemeral. Here, we report on the first stratified and dated archaeology from the Empty Quarter, recovered from the site of Mundafan Al-Buhayrah (MDF-61). Human occupation at the site, represented by stone tools, has been dated to the later part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 using multiple luminescence dating techniques (multigrain and single grain OSL, TT-OSL). The sequence consists primarily of lacustrine and palustrine sediments, from which evidence for changing local environmental conditions has been obtained through analysis of fossil assemblages (phytoliths and non-marine molluscs and ostracods). The discovery of securely-dated archaeological material at ∼100 to 80 ka in the Empty Quarter has important implications for hypotheses concerning the timing and routes of dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa, which have been much debated. Consequently, the data presented here fill a crucial gap in palaeoenvironmental and archaeological understanding of the southern Arabian interior. Fossils of H. sapiens in the Levant, also dated to MIS 5, together with Middle Palaeolithic archaeological sites in Arabia and India are thought to represent the earliest dispersal of our species out of Africa. We suggest that the widespread occurrence of similar lithic technologies across southern Asia, coupled with a growing body of evidence for environmental amelioration across the Saharo-Arabian belt, indicates that occupation of the Levant by H. sapiens during MIS 5

  1. The nature of MIS 3 stadial-interstadial transitions in Europe: New insights from model-data comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meerbeeck, C. J.; Renssen, H.; Roche, D. M.; Wohlfarth, B.; Bohncke, S. J. P.; Bos, J. A. A.; Engels, S.; Helmens, K. F.; Sánchez-Goñi, M. F.; Svensson, A.; Vandenberghe, J.

    2011-12-01

    15 abrupt warming transitions perturbed glacial climate in Greenland during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 60-27 ka BP). One hypothesis states that the 8-16 °C warming between Greenland Stadials (GS) and Interstadials (GI) was caused by enhanced heat transport to the North Atlantic region after a resumption of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) from a weak or shutdown stadial mode. This hypothesis also predicts warming over Europe, a prediction poorly constrained by data due to the paucity of well-dated quantitative temperature records. We therefore use a new evidence from biotic proxies and a climate model simulation to study the characteristics of a GS-GI transition in continental Europe and the link to enhanced AMOC strength. We compare reconstructed climatic and vegetation changes between a stadial and subsequent interstadial - correlated to GS15 and GI14 (˜55 ka BP) - with a simulated AMOC resumption using a three-dimensional earth system model setup with early-MIS 3 boundary conditions. Over western Europe (12°W-15°E), we simulate twice the annual precipitation, a 17 °C warmer coldest month, a 8 °C warmer warmest month, 1300 °C-day more growing degree days with baseline 5 °C (GDD5) and potential vegetation allowing tree cover after the transition. However, the combined effect of frequent killing frosts, <20 mm summer precipitation and too few GDD5 after the transition suggest a northern tree limit lying at ˜50°N during GI14. With these 3 climatic limiting factors we provide a possible explanation for the absence of forests north of 48°N during MIS 3 interstadials with mild summers. Finally, apart from a large model bias in warmest month surface air temperatures, our simulation is in reasonable agreement with reconstructed climatic and vegetation changes in Europe, thus further supporting the hypothesis.

  2. A global perspective on the timing and nature of sub-orbital sea level oscillations during MIS 5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, A.; Webster, J.

    2015-12-01

    Although multiple, sub-orbital peaks in sea level during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e have a long history in the literature, there is still debate regarding the number, timing, and magnitude of sea-level peaks. A wide range of competing scenarios have been proposed based on observations from individual field sites including: (i) a stable sea level, (ii) a stable sea level punctuated by an ephemeral drop in sea level (2 peaks), (iii) a stable sea level followed by a rapid rise (2 peaks), or (iv) several (3-4) peaks in sea level that define an oscillating trend during the highstand. While some field sites appear to have conflicting evidence regarding the timing and nature of relative sea-level changes that cannot be reconciled through glacial isostatic processes alone, clearly there must be one global mean sea level (GMSL) reconstruction that gave rise to the evidence that is presently observed in the geologic record. We take a holistic approach to understanding the evolution of sea level during the MIS 5e highstand by integrating sedimentary, floral, faunal, and geochemical evidence from coral reef sites around the globe. Our aim is to develop a scenario for sea-level change during the MIS 5e highstand that satisfies the global observational dataset. Several conclusions emerge from this analysis: (1) there are many sites that preserve clear sedimentary evidence for two distinct sub-orbital peaks in sea level, and fewer that have possible evidence for more than two peaks; (2) there is conflicting evidence as to whether these two peaks are separated by an ephemeral sea-level fall, or whether they are defined by a stable sea level followed by a rapid rise; (3) multiple sites demonstrate significantly different geochemical signatures associated with distinct generations of reef growth as defined by their U-series geochemistry, indicating different post-depositional histories that may be related to differences in post-depositional marine submergence and exposure

  3. Last interglacial (MIS5e) sea-levels and uplift along the north-east Gulf of Aqaba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BAR (KOHN), N.; Stein, M.; Agnon, A.; Yehudai, M.; Lazar, B.; Shaked, Y.

    2014-12-01

    An uplifted flight of coral reef terraces, extending along the north-east margin of the Gulf of Aqaba (GOA), provides evidence for uplift rates and sea level high stands. GOA fills a narrow and deep tectonic depression lying along the southern sector of the Dead Sea Transform where it meets the Red Sea. This special configuration of the GOA and its latitude turn it into a dependable paleo-sea level monitor, sensitive only to global eustatic changes and local tectonic movements. A sequence of five uplifted coral reef terraces were mapped and characterized on basis of morphology and reef-facies, and their elevation above the present sea level was determined. The fossil reefs studied comprise fringing reefs, some with clear reef-structure that includes a reef flat and a shallow back lagoon. Most outcrops in the study area represent a transgressive sequence in which, during its highest stand, formed fringing reef terraces. We use U-Th ages of fossil corals samples found in growth position at various terraces. Corals from three uplifted reef terraces, R1, R2, and R3 were dated to the last interglacial period particularly to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e. These ages were achieved from mainly calcitic corals (recrystallized in a freshwater phreatic environment). A few ages were derived from aragonite corals. The three terraces represent three sub-stages within MIS5e: R3 formed during a short standstill at ~130 ka BP; R2 formed during a long and steady standstill between ~128 to ~121 ka BP; and R1 represents a short standstill at ~117 ka BP. Assuming that terrace reef flats represent past sea level high stands, we calculated the coast average uplift rate and constrained the original terraces elevations. The reconstructed eustatic sea level variation during MIS 5e at GOA resembles observations from reef terraces in other locations. Combined, all indicate a significant sea-level rise from the MIS 6 low stand at ~134-130 ka and followed by a long and stable sea level high

  4. Electrical Characteristics of Ni-CNT-SiO2-SiC Structured 4H-SiC MIS Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taeseop; Kang, Min-Seok; Ha, Tae-Jun; Koo, Sang-Mo

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the electrical characteristics of Ni-CNT-SiO2-SiC structured 4H-SiC MIS capacitors were investigated. The effect of CNTs in the gate/insulator interface have been characterized by C-V measurement at 300 to 500K and J-V have also been measured. The experimental flat-band voltage tends to change with or without CNTs. Current densities of both devices are observed a negligible difference up to 3 V. It has been found that adding CNTs and/or change of temperature can help to control the positive and/or negative flat-band voltage shift.

  5. Insights into MIS 3 and 4 climate in the Alps from the Baumkirchen paleo-lake site: Results of pollen analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Samuel; Drescher-Schneider, Ruth; Starnberger, Reinhard; Spötl, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The well-known Baumkirchen site of western Austria has recently been the focus of a renewed research effort. New drilling has greatly extended the length of the known lacustrine sequence to over 250 m. Luminescence dating has corroborated the late MIS 3 radiocarbon dates for the upper part of the sequence and revealed two lake phases: the upper extending from late MIS 3 back to mid MIS 3, and the lower covering late MIS 4 or early MIS 3 back possibly as far as MIS 5a. X-ray fluorescence core scanning analysis confirmed the presence of two phases which have different geochemical signals, and provided a chemistry-based stratigraphy in the visually monotonous sediments. In these uniform sediments, the only clear indication of climatic conditions from the sediments themselves is a short sequence of ice-rafted debris corresponding to the end of MIS 4. However, given their age and location within the Alps, these sediments provide an important archive of Alpine climate in the last glacial cycle. We present new results from pollen analysis and discuss them in the context of previously reported findings. Due to high sedimentation rates, pollen counts were very low. However, two stadials and two interstadials were identified. The entire lower lake phase corresponding to MIS 4 was identified as a stadial, being characterised by a very low total pollen concentrations, a dominance of herb over tree pollen and significant reworking of pre-Quaternary forms and wood fragments. The upper lake phase contains two interstadials split by an intervening stadial. The interstadials are characterised by higher total pollen concentrations and proportion of woody species including the sporadic presence of relatively warm climate species with the upper of the two appearing better developed with these indicators more strongly expressed. This upper interstadial corresponds to the location of well dated plant remains putting its age around 35 ka cal BP, strongly suggesting a correlation to

  6. MIS M2 initiation and termination link to the shallow CAS open and close?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ning; Ramstein, Gilles; Dumas, Christophe; Contoux, Camille

    2016-04-01

    The Marine Isotope Stage M2 (3.264 -3.312 Ma) occurred just prior to the well documented warm mid-Pliocene (mPWP). With a 0.5‰ benthic foraminiferal δ180 shift (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005), MIS M2 is thought to be a glacial comparable period associated with huge but uncertain sea-level records of 20-60m below present levels (Naish et al. 2009; Miller et al. 2012; Dwyer et al. 2009). However, the mechanism of M2 initiation and termination are still an enigma, since CO2 records were relatively higher than the Quaternary glaciation period and the minima summer insolation during M2 was stronger than other glacial periods. By inferring from data records, De Schepper (2013) proposed that the shallow open Central American Seaway (CAS) observed during M2 could play as a trigger in M2 initiation, then the closure of this shallow CAS resulted from M2 large ice sheet build-up terminates this glacial period. But this assumption has not been test by the model. In this study, we apply IPSL-CM5A Atmosphere-Ocean coupled General Circulation Model (AOGCM) and GRISLI ice sheet model to investigate mechanisms of M2 initiation and termination. We firstly investigate the role of "shallow open CAS" (De Schepper et al. 2013) on M2 initiation. In the mean time we also take into account the main forcing during M2, which includes astronomical parameters, Greenhouse gases and vegetation. Our results show that shallow open CAS plays an important role in reducing northward heat transport in Atlantic low latitudes by 0.05 - 0.1 PW, but it is not a key factor in NH ice sheet build-up; Astronomical parameters and CO2 concentration are essential to create a basic global cooling environment for M2 (cooling by ~3.65 K than mPWP); Cold vegetation replacement amplifies the cooling in north high latitudes by ~ 8 K, which finally allows large ice sheet building up in Northern Hemisphere (12.25 m sea level drop is simulated with considering ice sheet feedback on the climate). The simulated ice sheet

  7. Climate and hydrology of the last interglaciation (MIS 5) in Owens Basin, California: Isotopic and geochemical evidence from core OL-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, H.-C.; Bischoff, J.L.; Ku, T.-L.; Zhu, Z.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    ??18O, ??13C, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, and acid-leachable Li, Mg and Sr concentrations on 443 samples from 32 to 83 m depth in Owens Lake core OL-92 were analyzed to study the climatic and hydrological conditions between 60 and 155 ka with a resolution of ???200 a. The multi-proxy data show that Owens Lake overflowed during wet/cold conditions of marine isotope stages (MIS) 4, 5b and 6, and was closed during the dry/warm conditions of MIS 5a, c and e. The lake partially overflowed during MIS 5d. Our age model places the MIS 4/5 boundary at ca 72.5 ka and the MIS 5/6 boundary (Termination II) at ca 140 ka, agreeing with the Devils Hole chronology. The diametrical precipitation intensities between the Great Basin (cold/wet) and eastern China (cold/dry) on Milankovitch time scales imply a climatic teleconnection across the Pacific. It also probably reflects the effect of high-latitude ice sheets on the southward shifts of both the summer monsoon frontal zone in eastern Asia and the polar jet stream in western North America during glacial periods. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. "Generality of mis-fit"? The real-life difficulty of matching scales in an interconnected world.

    PubMed

    Keskitalo, E Carina H; Horstkotte, Tim; Kivinen, Sonja; Forbes, Bruce; Käyhkö, Jukka

    2016-10-01

    A clear understanding of processes at multiple scales and levels is of special significance when conceiving strategies for human-environment interactions. However, understanding and application of the scale concept often differ between administrative-political and ecological disciplines. These mirror major differences in potential solutions whether and how scales can, at all, be made congruent. As a result, opportunities of seeking "goodness-of-fit" between different concepts of governance should perhaps be reconsidered in the light of a potential "generality of mis-fit." This article reviews the interdisciplinary considerations inherent in the concept of scale in its ecological, as well as administrative-political, significance and argues that issues of how to manage "mis-fit" should be awarded more emphasis in social-ecological research and management practices. These considerations are exemplified by the case of reindeer husbandry in Fennoscandia. Whilst an indigenous small-scale practice, reindeer husbandry involves multi-level ecological and administrative-political complexities-complexities that we argue may arise in any multi-level system. PMID:26939924

  9. Properties of MIS structures based on graded-gap HgCdTe grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V. Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadookh, S. M.; Varavin, V. S.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Sidorov, Yu. G.; Vasiliev, V. V.

    2008-11-15

    The effect of near-surface graded-gap layers on the electrical characteristics of MIS structures fabricated based on heteroepitaxial Hg{sub 1-x} Cd{sub x}Te films grown by molecular beam epitaxy with a two-layer SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} insulator and anodic oxide film is studied experimentally. It is shown that a larger modulation of capacitance (depth and width of the valley) is observed compared with the structures without the graded-gap layer. The field dependences of photovoltage of MIS structures with the graded-gap layers had a classical form and were characterized by a drop only in the enrichment region. For the structures without the graded-gap layer with x = 0.22, a drop in the voltage dependence of the photocurrent is observed in the region of pronounced inversion. This drop is governed by limitation of the space charge region by processes of tunneling generation via deep levels. The properties of the HgCdTe-insulator interfaces are studied.

  10. The use of a virtual reality simulator to explore and understand the impact of Linac mis-calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavis, Andrew W.; Ward, James W.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: In recent years there has been interest in using Computer Simulation within Medical training. The VERT (Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training) system is a Flight Simulator for Radiation Oncology professionals, wherein fundamental concepts, techniques and problematic scenarios can be safely investigated. Methods: The system provides detailed simulations of several Linacs and the ability to display DICOM treatment plans. Patients can be mis-positioned with 'set-up errors' which can be explored visually, dosimetrically and using IGRT. Similarly, a variety of Linac calibration and configuration parameters can be altered manually or randomly via controlled errors in the simulated 3D Linac and its component parts. The implication of these can be investigated by following through a treatment scenario or using QC devices available within a Physics software module. Results: One resultant exercise is a systematic mis-calibration of 'lateral laser height' by 2mm. The offset in patient alignment is easily identified using IGRT and once corrected by reference to the 'in-room monitor'. The dosimetric implication is demonstrated to be 0.4% by setting a dosimetry phantom by the lasers (and ignoring TSD information). Finally, the need for recalibration can be shown by the Laser Alignment Phantom or by reference to the front pointer. Conclusions: The VERT system provides a realistic environment for training and enhancing understanding of radiotherapy concepts and techniques. Linac error conditions can be explored in this context and valuable experience gained in a controlled manner in a compressed period of time.

  11. Cep57 is a Mis12-interacting kinetochore protein involved in kinetochore targeting of Mad1-Mad2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haining; Wang, Tianning; Zheng, Tao; Teng, Junlin; Chen, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) arrests cells in mitosis by sensing unattached kinetochores, until all chromosomes are bi-oriented by spindle microtubules. Kinetochore accumulation of the SAC component Mad1-Mad2 is crucial for SAC activation. However, the mechanism by which Mad1-Mad2 accumulation at kinetochores is regulated is not clear. Here we find that Cep57 is localized to kinetochores in human cells, and binds to Mis12, a KMN (KNL1/Mis12 complex/Ndc80 complex) network component. Cep57 also interacts with Mad1, and depletion of Cep57 results in decreased kinetochore localization of Mad1-Mad2, reduced SAC signalling and increased chromosome segregation errors. We also show that the microtubule-binding activity of Cep57 is involved in the timely removal of Mad1 from kinetochores. Thus, these findings reveal that the KMN network-binding protein Cep57 is a mitotic kinetochore component, and demonstrate the functional connection between the KMN network and the SAC. PMID:26743940

  12. MIS3 to late Holocene Palaeo-ice Thickness Constraints of Glacier Viedma, Hielo Patagonico Sur, Southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, A.; Fabel, D.; Glasser, N. F.

    2014-12-01

    Southern South America is the only landmass intersecting the southern westerly winds (SWW), which critically shape southern hemispheric and global climate. At present palaeo-climatic datasets stretching the 3000 km of SWW influence are in latitudinal disagreement, suggesting a complex picture of SWW palaeo-behavior. In order to unravel the nature of the SWW over the last glacial cycle, a tighter grid of sensitive palaeo-proxies in the region is required. The work presented here is based on the palaeo-glaciology of the Viedma outlet (49°S, 72°W), the second largest glacier draining the Hielo Patagonico Sur (HPS). This locality corresponds to the present day center of the precipitation bearing SWW in southern South America, which are a key factor in maintaining the HPS. Any variation in SWW strength or location has a direct impact on glacial expansion in the region, hence palaeo-glacial geometries can provide key insights into SWW dynamics. Palaeo-ice surface, thickness and thinning rates spanning MIS3 to the late Holocene are presented based on 16 Be-10 exposure ages along three vertical transects covering the accumulation and ablation areas of glacier Viedma. Results indicate a maximum ice thickness over MIS3, a thickening over the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR), which overprinted the vertical expression of the LGM, and progressive ice surface lowering from the middle to the late Holocene. The palaeo-climatic implications will be discussed, particularly with focus on SWW positioning and behavior.

  13. Resolving Global-Scale Climate Changes in Stalagmites from Eastern North America: A Focus on MIS 5 through 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, H.; Buckles, J.; Gao, Y.; Springer, G.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Hardt, B.

    2012-04-01

    Stable isotopic and trace metal (Sr/Ca) results from a Th-230-dated stalagmite whose growth spanned MIS 5e to the MIS 3/2 boundary reveal strong linkages with the isotopic records from Greenland and the Asian Monsoon region, and geochemical/color proxies from the tropics (Cariaco Basin). While the stalagmite oxygen isotope record largely reflects precession-driven shifts in the seasonality of precipitation, the carbon isotope and Sr/Ca curves are better characterized as records of gradual change from wet to dry, punctuated by abrupt spells of aridity. The timings of the shifts in the moisture balance proxies largely coincide with well-documented shifts observed in the Greenland, Asian Monsoon, and Cariaco records---especially the timing of the DO events. This suggests that the climate of eastern North America is responsive to well-defined shifts in the amount of precipitation that are intimately linked with global-scale shifts in tropical variability, monsoonal moisture and polar instability.

  14. Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) Arctic ground squirrel middens and a squirrel-eye-view of the mammoth-steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazula, Grant D.; Froese, Duane G.; Elias, Scott A.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    2011-08-01

    Fossil arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii) middens were recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in association with Sheep Creek-Klondike and Dominion Creek tephras (ca 80 ka) exposed in west-central Yukon. These middens provide plant and insect macrofossil evidence for a steppe-tundra ecosystem during the Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) glacial interval. Midden plant and insect macrofossil data are compared with those previously published for Late Wisconsinan middens dating to ˜25-29 14C ka BP (MIS 3/2) from the region. Although multivariate statistical comparisons suggest differences between the relative abundances of plant macrofossils, the co-occurrence of steppe-tundra plants and insects (e.g., Elymus trachycaulus, Kobresia myosuroides, Artemisia frigida, Phlox hoodii, Connatichela artemisiae) provides evidence for successive reestablishment of the zonal steppe-tundra habitats during cold stages of the Late Pleistocene. Arctic ground squirrels were well adapted to the cold, arid climates, steppe-tundra vegetation and well-drained loessal soils that characterize cold stages of Late Pleistocene Beringia. These glacial conditions enabled arctic ground squirrel populations to expand their range to the interior regions of Alaska and Yukon, including the Klondike, where they are absent today. Arctic ground squirrels have endured numerous Quaternary climate oscillations by retracting populations to disjunct "interglacial refugia" during warm interglacial periods (e.g., south-facing steppe slopes, well-drained arctic and alpine tundra areas) and expanding their distribution across the mammoth-steppe biome during cold, arid glacial intervals.

  15. Response of macrobenthic and foraminifer communities to changes in deep-sea environmental conditions from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12 to 11 at the "Shackleton Site"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Dorador, Javier; Martin-Garcia, Gloria M.; Sierro, Francisco J.; Flores, José A.; Hodell, David A.

    2015-10-01

    Integrative research including facies characterization, ichnological composition and foraminifer analysis has been conducted on cores from Site U1385 of the IODP Expedition 339 to evaluate the incidence of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12 and MIS 11 on deep-sea environmental changes. Four color facies groups have been differentiated, showing variable transitions between them (bioturbated, gradual and sharp contacts). Trace fossil assemblage, assigned to the Zoophycos ichnofacies, consists of light and dark filled structures, with Alcyonidiopsis, Chondrites, Nereites, Planolites, Spirophyton, Thalassinoides, Thalassinoides-like structures, and Zoophycos. A deep-sea multi-tiered trace fossil community is interpreted, revealing predominance of well-oxygenated bottom and pore-waters, as well as abundance of food in the sediment for macrobenthic tracemaker community. Changes in environmental parameters are interpreted to be associated with significant variations in trace fossil distribution according to the differentiated intervals (A to M). Benthic foraminifer concentration in the sediments and variations of the planktonic foraminifer assemblages suggest significant changes in surface productivity and food supply to the sea floor since the ending of MIS 13 to the end of MIS 11 that could be correlated with the registered changes in facies and trace fossil assemblages. At the end of MIS 13 values of annual export productivity were very low, that together with the presence of light-color sediments and the continuous presence of light Planolites and Thalassinoides, reveal lower organic carbon flux to the bottom and high oxygen conditions (interval A). Afterwards the organic matter supply increased rapidly and remained very high until Termination V, determining an eutrophic environment, expressed by high benthic foraminifer accumulation rates, and reduced availability of oxygen, that correlate with the record of Spirophyton and Zoophycos, and the presence of Chondrites

  16. MIS Solar Cell Devices Based on a Cu2 O Substrate Utilizing h-BN as an Insulating and Passivating Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergen, Onur; Gibb, Ashley; Vazquez-Mena, Oscar; Regan, Will; Zettl, Alex

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate Cu2O based metal insulator semiconductor Schottky (MIS-Schottky) solar cells with efficiency exceeding 3%. A unique direct growth technique is employed in the fabrication, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) serves simultaneously as a passivation and insulation layer on the active cuprous oxide (Cu2O) layer. The devices are the most efficient of any Cu2O based MIS-Schottky solar cells reported to date. Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA. Kavli Energy Nanosciences Institute at the University of Berkeley, CA, USA.

  17. The nature of MIS3 stadial-interstadial transitions in Europe: new insights from model-data comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Meerbeeck, Cedric J.; Renssen, Hans; Roche, Didier M.; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    15 abrupt warming transitions perturbed glacial climate in Greenland during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3, 60-27ka BP). One hypothesis states that the 8-16°C warming between Greenland Stadials (GS) and Interstadials (GI) was caused by enhanced heat transport to the North Atlantic region after a resumption of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) from a weak or shutdown stadial mode. This hypothesis also predicts warming over Europe, but so far this has been poorly constrained by data due to the paucity of well-dated quantitative temperature records. We therefore use new evidence from biotic proxies and a climate model simulation to study the characteristics of a GS-GI transition in continental Europe and the link to enhanced AMOC strength. We compare reconstructed climatic and vegetation changes between a stadial and subsequent interstadial - correlated to GS15 and GI14 (~55ka BP) - with a simulated AMOC resumption using a three-dimensional earth system model set up with early-MIS3 boundary conditions. The simulated AMOC resumption results in the predicted warming in Greenland (~10°C in annual mean) and the North Atlantic Ocean (~7°C at the sea surface). Over western Europe (12°W-15°E), we simulate twice the annual precipitation, a 17°C warmer coldest month, a 8°C warmer warmest month, 1300°C-day more growing degree days with baseline 5°C (GDD5) and tree-cover potential vegetation after the transition. However, the combined effect of frequent killing frosts, <20mm summer precipitation and too few GDD5 after the transition suggest a northern tree limit lying at ~50°N during GI14. With these 3 climatic limiting factors we provide a possible explanation for the absence of forests north of 48°N during MIS3 interstadials with mild summers. Finally, apart from a large model bias in warmest month surface air temperatures, our simulation is in reasonable agreement with reconstructed climatic and vegetation changes in Europe, thus further

  18. Electro-physical characteristics of MIS structures with HgTe- based single quantum wells for optoelectronics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyadukh, S.; Nesmelov, S.; Voitsekhovskii, A.; Gorn, D.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents brief research results of the admittance of metal-insulator- semiconductor (MIS) structures based on Hg1-xCdxTe grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) method including single HgCdTe/HgTe/HgCdTe quantum wells (QW) in the surface layer. The thickness of a quantum well was 5.6 nm, and the composition of barrier layers with the thickness of 35 nm was close to 0.65. Measurements were conducted in the range of temperatures from 8 to 200 K. It is shown that for structure with quantum well based on HgTe capacitance and conductance oscillations in the strong inversion are observed. Also it is assumed these oscillations are related with the recharging of quantum levels in HgTe.

  19. Post drain-stress behavior of AlGaN/GaN-on-Si MIS-HEMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauss, Simon A.; Kilian, Stefan; Schwaiger, Stephan; Noll, Stefan; Daves, Walter; Ambacher, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the drain stress behavior and charge trapping phenomena of GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). We fabricated GaN-on-Si MIS-HEMTs with different dielectric stacks in the gate and gate-drain access region and performed interface characterization and stress measurements for slow traps analysis. 2-dimensional TCAD simulations were used to compare the electrical field distributions of the devices in OFF-state stress condition. Our results show a high dependency of the on-resistance increase on interfaces in the gate-drain access region. The dielectric interfaces near the channel play a significant role for long term high voltage stress and regeneration of the device.

  20. From Lake Malawi Drilling: East African Climate May Have Caused Major Evolutionary Turnover in Mammalian Species During MIS 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas; Werne, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Hominin evolution underwent important changes in the last 1.3 million years, including the extinction of Paranthropus at about 1.2 Ma, leaving Homo as the sole hominin genus. Our genus experienced a major increase in cranial capacity at about 500 ka, and our species, H. sapiens, first appeared at ~200 ka. There was a major turnover in mammalian species in East Africa between 540 and 400 ka, favoring descendants of smaller size and less specialized diet. An understanding of what drove evolution in these directions is fundamental to understanding the development of modern H. sapiens. Climate certainly played a role, for it is the principal factor that influences the distribution of vegetation and habitability on the landscape. We present a 1.3 million year record of temperature and hydroclimate in the basin of Lake Malawi, the second deepest lake in Africa, derived from a 380 m sediment sequence taken from a water depth of 590 m by the Lake Malawi Drilling Project. Seismic reflection profiles used to select the site portray an undisturbed sedimentary section that was not impacted by erosion, turbidity currents or mass wasting events. Sediment samples were analyzed to produce records of temperature (TEX86) and aridity (Ca content and leaf wax δ13C). The temperature record displays progressively larger amplitude glacial-interglacial variations from MIS 13 (~500 ka) to MIS 5 (~125 ka). Intervals of low Ca abundance, which reflect lake high stands, correlate with times of depleted δ13Cwax and relatively warm temperatures. The Malawi basin experienced warm, wet interglacials and cooler (by about 2 - 4°C), dry glacial periods, with roughly a 100 ky periodicity since the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), about 900 ka. The paleoclimate record from Lake Malawi sediments portrays a transition from a highly variable and predominantly arid climate prior to 900 ka to a progressively more humid environment after the MPT dominated by 100 ky cycles consisting of warm, wet

  1. Analysis of off-state leakage mechanisms in GaN-based MIS-HEMTs: Experimental data and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, F. A.; Bisi, D.; Meneghini, M.; Verzellesi, G.; Zanoni, E.; Van Hove, M.; You, S.; Decoutere, S.; Marcon, D.; Stoffels, S.; Ronchi, N.; Meneghesso, G.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an extensive analysis of the off-state conduction mechanisms in AlGaN/GaN Meta-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) transistors. Based on combined bi-dimensional numerical simulation and experimental measurements, we demonstrate the following relevant results: (i) under off-state bias conditions, the drain current can show a significant increase when the drain bias is swept up to 600 V; (ii) several mechanisms can be responsible for off-state current conduction, including band-to-band tunneling and impact ionization; (iii) two-dimensional numerical simulations indicate that band-to-band tunneling plays a major role, while impact ionization does not significantly contribute to the overall leakage. Temperature-dependent I-V measurements were also carried out to identify the origin of the vertical drain-bulk leakage.

  2. Late Pleistocene (MIS5-3) environmental reconstruction from north-eastern Iberia through microvertebrate and palaeobotanical records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allue, Ethel; Bennàssar, Maria; Biltekin, Demet; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Burjachs, Francesc; Euba, Itxaso; Expósito, Isabel; Fernández-García, Mónica; López-García, Juan Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the environmental changes during the Late Pleistocene on the basis of a multi-approach study based on natural and archaeological deposits from NE Iberian Peninsula. The focussed area, although having a small extension (some 32.000 square kilometres), covers a large range of ecosystems and bioclimatic conditions from the Mediterranean seashore to the summit of the Pyrenean mountain ranges (up to 2000 masl). This synthetical approach includes materials from various contexts including 10 archaeological deposits and a single natural deposit. In this work, plant (pollen and charcoals) and animal (small mammals, amphibians and reptiles) records are being analysed and compared in order to present an overview of the environmental changes occurred from the MIS5 to MIS3. On the first hand, we are using the small-vertebrate records recovered from archaeological deposits. These proxies are mainly the product of pellets from birds of prey and are key ecological markers. On the second hand, palaeobotanical evidences, pollen and charcoal, have different formation processes. Charcoal remains are mostly from archaeological deposits and are due to human activities related to fire showing evidences of the local vegetation. Pollen evidences from archaeological and natural contexts are deposited through natural processes (wind, insects, etc.) and show regional scale vegetation record. Results indicate the presence of temperate elements during all these periods (especially at the seashore area), with a more important representation and extension southwards or changes in altitude from taxa with eurosiberian affinities during coldest periods. Forest coverage, plant and vertebrate distribution along the territory point out a mosaic landscape formed by open areas and forests. These landscapes have probably a more or less Mediterranean or Eurosiberian character depending on the climatic moment and their location with variations along the sequence.

  3. A sustained +21 m sea-level highstand during MIS 11 (400 ka): direct fossil and sedimentary evidence from Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Storrs L.; Hearty, Paul J.

    2009-02-01

    A small, protected karstic feature exposed in a limestone quarry in Bermuda preserved abundant sedimentary and biogenic materials documenting a transgressive phase, still-stand, and regressive phase of a sea-level in excess of 21.3 m above present during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (400 ka) as determined by U/Th dating and amino acid racemization. Cobbles and marine sediments deposited during the high-energy transgressive phase exhibit rim cements indicating a subsequent phreatic environment. This was succeeded stratigraphically by a still-stand deposition of fine calcareous lagoonal sediments containing bioclasts of red algae and benthic and planktonic foraminifera that was intensely burrowed by marine invertebrates, probably upogebiid shrimp, that could not be produced under any condition other than sustained marine submergence. Overlying this were pure carbonate beach sands of a low-energy regressive phase containing abundant remains of terrestrial and marine vertebrates and invertebrates. The considerable diversity of this fauna along with taphonomic evidence from seabird remains indicates deposition by high run-up waves over a minimum duration of months, if not years. The maximum duration has yet to be determined but probably did not exceed one or two thousand years. The most abundant snails in this fauna are two species indicative of brackish water and high-tide line showing that a Ghyben-Herzberg lens must have existed at > + 20 m. The nature of these sediments and fossil accumulation is incompatible with tsunami deposition and, given the absence of evidence for tectonic uplift of the Bermuda pedestal or platform, provide proof that sea-level during MIS 11 exceeded +20 m, a fact that has widespread ramifications for geologists, biogeographers, and human demographics along the world's coastlines.

  4. Late persistence of the Acheulian in southern Britain in an MIS 8 interstadial: evidence from Harnham, Wiltshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, M. R.; Wenban-Smith, F. F.; Bello, S. M.; Bridgland, D. R.; Buck, L. T.; Collins, M. J.; Keen, D. H.; Leary, J.; Parfitt, S. A.; Penkman, K.; Rhodes, E.; Ryssaert, C.; Whittaker, J. E.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents evidence of the discovery of a new Middle Pleistocene site in central southern England, with undisturbed evidence of hominin occupation well-dated to an interstadial towards the end of Marine Isotope Stage 8, c. 250,000 BP. The site consists of a preserved remnant of a river terrace and its alluvial floodplain overlain by chalk-rich bankside deposits, all abutting a Chalk bedrock riverbank. It preserves an area of occupation with activity focused on the riverbank, complemented by occasional activity on a palaeo-landsurface developed on the surface of the alluvial floodplain. Lithic technology at the site consists almost entirely of handaxe manufacture, allowing attribution to an Acheulian industrial tradition. Mammalian and other palaeo-environmental remains are present and associated with the occupation horizons, including large mammal bones showing signs of hominin interference. Dating was based on OSL determinations on the sediments and amino acid racemisation of molluscan remains, supported by biostratigraphic indications. Besides being a rare instance of an undisturbed Palaeolithic palaeo-landscape covering several hectares, the site contributes to wider Quaternary research concerns over the ability of Middle Pleistocene hominins to tolerate colder climatic episodes in higher latitudes, and over settlement history and changing lithic industrial traditions of northwest Europe in relation to climate change and British peninsularity. It is suggested that the Harnham evidence may represent an insular population that had persisted in southern Britain since MIS 10/9, which became locally extinct during the glacial maximum 8.2 marking the end of MIS 8.

  5. Rapid variability during MIS3 and Termination I from the Western Pacific Warm Pool: new geochemical and sedimentological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustiantini, Luli; Bassinot, Franck; Kissel, Catherine; Dang, Haowen; Zuraida, Rina; Zaim, Yadhi

    2015-04-01

    Giant piston core MD10-3339 (39m) was retrieved in the Halmahera basin at ~ 1920m of water depth. It provides a ~50 kyr-long, high-resolution record that makes it possible to decipher the imprint of sea level, deep currents and monsoon/ENSO variability on sedimentation at the south-easternmost entrance of the Indonesian Archipelago, at the heart of the Western Pacific Warm Pool. Our multiproxy study combines (i) stable O and C isotopic analyses and Mg/Ca analyses on planktonic foraminifers, (ii) high-resolution XRF-derived elemental composition, (iii) laser-granulometry and (iv) magnetic anisotropy. The age model is based on mono-foraminifer 14C dates and extrapolated (constant sedimentation rate) before ~ 42 ka. The XRF profiles are dominated by millennial-scale variability, with no evidence of glacial/interglacial changes, suggesting the lack of long-term climate impact or sea-level control on sedimentation at site MD10-3339. A clear G/IG imprint is readily seen, however, on the decarbonated silt record, suggesting a reduction of bottom current activity during the Holocene (finer material) relative to the last glacial (coarser material). This change in current activity is not reflected in the magnetic anisotropy (no change in direction). Elemental profiles associated to terrigeneous inputs (eg. Fe, Ti,..) show a strong co-variance with planktonic δ18O over the 35-45 ka interval and across the last deglaciation. This strong in-phase relationship degrades, however, at the end of MIS3 and during MIS2. We used paired δ18O-Mg/Ca data to infer past changes in local δ18Osw (i.e. advection, local evaporati n/precipitation) and explore the hypothesis that could explain the evolution of δ18O -XRF data relationship through time.

  6. Extra-long interglacial in Northern Hemisphere during MISs 15-13 arising from limited extent of Arctic ice sheets in glacial MIS 14.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Luo; Oldfield, Frank; Guo, Zhengtang

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the behavior of Northern Hemisphere (NH) ice sheets over the past million years is crucial for understanding the role of orbitally driven insolation changes on glacial/interglacial cycles. Here, based on the demonstrable link between changes in Chinese loess grain-size and NH ice-sheet extent, we use loess grain-size records to confirm that northern ice-sheets were restricted during marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 14. Thus, an unusually long NH interglacial climate of over 100 kyr persisted during MISs 15-13, much longer than expected from marine oxygen isotope records. Taking a global view of the paleoclimate records, MIS 14 inception seems to be a response to changes in Antarctic ice-sheets rather than to NH cooling. Orbital configuration in the two Polar regions shows that the onset of MIS 14 was forced by austral insolation changes, rather than by boreal summer insolation, as Milankovitch theory proposes. Our analysis of MIS 14 raises the possibility that southern insolation forcing may have played an important role in the inception of several other glacials. We suggest that the extra-long NH interglacial climate during MISs 15-13 provided favorable conditions for the second major dispersal episode of African hominins into Eurasia.

  7. Abrupt sand-dune accumulation at the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau challenges the wet MIS3a inferred from numerous lake-highstands

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hao; Fuchs, Markus; Yang, Linhai; Cheng, Hongyi

    2016-01-01

    Over the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions, numerous 14C-based lake records revealed a ubiquitous wet climatic period during 40–25 ka (late MIS 3), which is in contradiction with the global pattern of generally cold and dry climates. This paper focuses on OSL dating results of a large set of sand dunes and alluvial sediments (50 OSL ages) from the Qinwangchuan (QWC) Basin at the northeast edge of the Tibetan Plateau, with the aim to test the validity of the anomalous wet condition for the late MIS 3 interval, evidenced by numerous lake highstands. The abrupt sand dune accumulation as indication of increased aridity in the study area was OSL dated to ~40–13 ka. This dry climatic inference of the sand dune system from QWC apparently shows no wet MIS 3a event. Thus, the anomalous wet conditions revealed by high lake levels for the late MIS 3 phase may not be a universal phenomena across entire western China. PMID:27172907

  8. Extra-long interglacial in Northern Hemisphere during MISs 15-13 arising from limited extent of Arctic ice sheets in glacial MIS 14

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Luo; Oldfield, Frank; Guo, Zhengtang

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the behavior of Northern Hemisphere (NH) ice sheets over the past million years is crucial for understanding the role of orbitally driven insolation changes on glacial/interglacial cycles. Here, based on the demonstrable link between changes in Chinese loess grain-size and NH ice-sheet extent, we use loess grain-size records to confirm that northern ice-sheets were restricted during marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 14. Thus, an unusually long NH interglacial climate of over 100 kyr persisted during MISs 15−13, much longer than expected from marine oxygen isotope records. Taking a global view of the paleoclimate records, MIS 14 inception seems to be a response to changes in Antarctic ice-sheets rather than to NH cooling. Orbital configuration in the two Polar regions shows that the onset of MIS 14 was forced by austral insolation changes, rather than by boreal summer insolation, as Milankovitch theory proposes. Our analysis of MIS 14 raises the possibility that southern insolation forcing may have played an important role in the inception of several other glacials. We suggest that the extra-long NH interglacial climate during MISs 15−13 provided favorable conditions for the second major dispersal episode of African hominins into Eurasia. PMID:26159304

  9. 49 CFR 40.26 - What form must an employer use to report Management Information System (MIS) data to a DOT agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What form must an employer use to report Management Information System (MIS) data to a DOT agency? 40.26 Section 40.26 Transportation Office of the... Employer Responsibilities § 40.26 What form must an employer use to report Management Information...

  10. Temperature-Dependent Electrical Properties and Carrier Transport Mechanisms of TMAH-Treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. Siva Pratap; Puneetha, Peddathimula; Reddy, V. Rajagopal; Lee, Jung-Hee; Jeong, Seong-Hoon; Park, Chinho

    2016-08-01

    The temperature-dependent electrical properties and carrier transport mechanisms of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diodes have been investigated by current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The experimental results reveal that the barrier height (I-V) increases whereas the ideality factor decreases with increasing temperature. The TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode showed nonideal behaviors which indicate the presence of a nonuniform distribution of interface states (N SS) and effect of series resistance (R S). The obtained R S and N SS were found to decrease with increasing temperature. Furthermore, it was found that different transport mechanisms dominated in the TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode. At 150 K to 250 K, Poole-Frenkel emission (PFE) was found to be responsible for the reverse leakage, while Schottky emission (SE) was the dominant mechanism at high electric fields in the temperature range from 300 K to 400 K. Feasible energy band diagrams and possible carrier transport mechanisms for the TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode are discussed based on PFE and SE.

  11. 49 CFR 40.26 - What form must an employer use to report Management Information System (MIS) data to a DOT agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What form must an employer use to report Management Information System (MIS) data to a DOT agency? 40.26 Section 40.26 Transportation Office of the... Employer Responsibilities § 40.26 What form must an employer use to report Management Information...

  12. Abrupt sand-dune accumulation at the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau challenges the wet MIS3a inferred from numerous lake-highstands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Hao; Fuchs, Markus; Yang, Linhai; Cheng, Hongyi

    2016-05-01

    Over the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions, numerous 14C-based lake records revealed a ubiquitous wet climatic period during 40–25 ka (late MIS 3), which is in contradiction with the global pattern of generally cold and dry climates. This paper focuses on OSL dating results of a large set of sand dunes and alluvial sediments (50 OSL ages) from the Qinwangchuan (QWC) Basin at the northeast edge of the Tibetan Plateau, with the aim to test the validity of the anomalous wet condition for the late MIS 3 interval, evidenced by numerous lake highstands. The abrupt sand dune accumulation as indication of increased aridity in the study area was OSL dated to ~40–13 ka. This dry climatic inference of the sand dune system from QWC apparently shows no wet MIS 3a event. Thus, the anomalous wet conditions revealed by high lake levels for the late MIS 3 phase may not be a universal phenomena across entire western China.

  13. Abrupt sand-dune accumulation at the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau challenges the wet MIS3a inferred from numerous lake-highstands.

    PubMed

    Long, Hao; Fuchs, Markus; Yang, Linhai; Cheng, Hongyi

    2016-01-01

    Over the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions, numerous (14)C-based lake records revealed a ubiquitous wet climatic period during 40-25 ka (late MIS 3), which is in contradiction with the global pattern of generally cold and dry climates. This paper focuses on OSL dating results of a large set of sand dunes and alluvial sediments (50 OSL ages) from the Qinwangchuan (QWC) Basin at the northeast edge of the Tibetan Plateau, with the aim to test the validity of the anomalous wet condition for the late MIS 3 interval, evidenced by numerous lake highstands. The abrupt sand dune accumulation as indication of increased aridity in the study area was OSL dated to ~40-13 ka. This dry climatic inference of the sand dune system from QWC apparently shows no wet MIS 3a event. Thus, the anomalous wet conditions revealed by high lake levels for the late MIS 3 phase may not be a universal phenomena across entire western China. PMID:27172907

  14. Temperature-Dependent Electrical Properties and Carrier Transport Mechanisms of TMAH-Treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. Siva Pratap; Puneetha, Peddathimula; Reddy, V. Rajagopal; Lee, Jung-Hee; Jeong, Seong-Hoon; Park, Chinho

    2016-11-01

    The temperature-dependent electrical properties and carrier transport mechanisms of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diodes have been investigated by current-voltage ( I- V) and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) measurements. The experimental results reveal that the barrier height ( I- V) increases whereas the ideality factor decreases with increasing temperature. The TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode showed nonideal behaviors which indicate the presence of a nonuniform distribution of interface states ( N SS) and effect of series resistance ( R S). The obtained R S and N SS were found to decrease with increasing temperature. Furthermore, it was found that different transport mechanisms dominated in the TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode. At 150 K to 250 K, Poole-Frenkel emission (PFE) was found to be responsible for the reverse leakage, while Schottky emission (SE) was the dominant mechanism at high electric fields in the temperature range from 300 K to 400 K. Feasible energy band diagrams and possible carrier transport mechanisms for the TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode are discussed based on PFE and SE.

  15. Paul Goodman, 30 Years Later: "Growing Up Absurd"; "Compulsory Mis-Education, and The Community of Scholars"; and "The New Reformation"--A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminsky, James S.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a retrospective account of the legacy of Paul Goodman's major educational works: "Growing Up Absurd"; "Compulsory Mis-education, and The Community of Scholars"; and "The New Reformation." It is argued here that what remains of interest in Goodman's work is to be found in the tropes and the anarchic Zeitgeist of his work. The legacy…

  16. A History-Coloring Book of the Ojibway Indians, Book No. 3: Original Man & His Grandmother-No-ko-mis. A Mishomis Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banai, Edward Benton

    Continuing his tales from the old Ojibway teachings, Mishomis takes up the story of Original Man after he is separated from Wolf. Because he still has many questions, the Creator sends him to find No-ko-mis (Grandmother) who has the wisdom of the spirits. Since she lives far across the water, Original Man has to use his ability and reasoning as a…

  17. 49 CFR 40.26 - What form must an employer use to report Management Information System (MIS) data to a DOT agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What form must an employer use to report Management Information System (MIS) data to a DOT agency? 40.26 Section 40.26 Transportation Office of the... Employer Responsibilities § 40.26 What form must an employer use to report Management Information...

  18. 49 CFR 40.26 - What form must an employer use to report Management Information System (MIS) data to a DOT agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What form must an employer use to report Management Information System (MIS) data to a DOT agency? 40.26 Section 40.26 Transportation Office of the... Employer Responsibilities § 40.26 What form must an employer use to report Management Information...

  19. 49 CFR 40.26 - What form must an employer use to report Management Information System (MIS) data to a DOT agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What form must an employer use to report Management Information System (MIS) data to a DOT agency? 40.26 Section 40.26 Transportation Office of the... Employer Responsibilities § 40.26 What form must an employer use to report Management Information...

  20. Terrestrial biomarkers in the sediment of the East Sea (Japan Sea) since the MIS 11: implications for paleoproductivity and paleoclimatic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, S.; Suh, Y. J.; Woo, K. S.; Ikehara, M.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial biomarkers such as n-alkanes and cholesterol were analyzed to infer the variations of paleoproductivity and the corresponding paleoclimatologic information from the sediment of the Korean Plateau, East Sea (Japan Sea) since the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (ca. 400 ka). Previous studies of SST variation have shown that glacial-interglacial scale changes were quite variable with the maximum range of 26oC in MIS 7, and the minimum range of 12oC during MIS 2 and 6. The distribution of terrestrial n-alkanes signatures is characterized by the occurrence of high odd number frequency with a minor contribution of specific compound (nC27 only). Average Chain Length (ACL) and Carbon Preferences Index (CPI), both of which are derived from n-alkane combination, show similar shifting between glacial and interglacial periods. This suggests that paleovegetation communities had been changed in responding to paleoclimatological variations, and the input amount of terrestrial compound was strongly linked with paleoclimatologic changes. In particular, depleted values of δ13Corg during MIS 2, 8 and 10 were coincident with lower nitrogen isotope values indicating local paleoceanographic effects such as paleoproductivity changes. Decoupling between δ13Corg and δ15Norg during MIS 1, 3, 5, 7 and coupling of the two during MIS 8 and 11 can be observed, which appear to be interpreted as local productivity changes. In particular, high abundance of cholesterol and C21 n-alkanes, which were derived from diatom, increased during interglacial periods. Therefore, alkenones, SST and n-alkanes signatures coincide with δ13Corg and δ15Norg variations during glacial-interglacial cycles and further strongly associated with cholesterol abundance suggesting that the paleoenvironmental conditions in East Sea during glacial-interglacial periods were sensitive not only to global climate changes but also to local paleceanographic variations. Surface water circulation around the Korea

  1. Sea surface temperature and salinity patterns in the northern North Atlantic and the Arctic during interglacial MIS 11c: Implications for oceanic circulation reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandiano, E.; van der Meer, M.; Schouten, S.; Fahl, K.; Polyak, L. V.; Cronin, T. M.; Bauch, H. A.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) patterns in the northern North Atlantic, the Nordic seas, and the western Arctic Ocean (AO) were reconstructed across the MIS 11c interglacial, a potential future climate analogue, using planktic foraminiferal abundances, alkenone-based Uk'37 and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT)-based TEX86 analyses. Foraminiferal SST reconstructions were supported by foraminiferal counts of small-sized fractions and rare foraminiferal species, stable oxygen isotope measurements on benthic and planktic foraminifers, and ice rafted debris records. Additionally, the hydrogen isotopic (δD) compositions of long chain alkenones were determined to assess variations in paleo sea surface salinity in the North Atlantic. In the North Atlantic our newly produced TEX86 -based SSTs range between 14 and 19 °C in agreement with summer foraminiferal SST (13 and 18 °C) and alkenone SSTs (13 and 16 °C). However, the former showed higher fluctuations than SSTs based on foraminiferal abundances. In concordance with δ18O records TEX86 SSTs demonstrate notable variability in the middle of MIS 11c, between 400 and 410 ka, which is consistent with the intra-MIS 11c cold event in the Arctic indicated by planktic foraminifers. This pattern implies that the interglacial MIC 11c climate was probably not as stable as it widely believed. The preliminary alkenone δD data show that during MIS 11c salinity values in the North Atlantic were similar to Holocene values. Foraminiferal SST records imply that during MIS 11c at least parts of the AO experienced unusually warm and probably ice free conditions, whereas the Nordic seas remained rather cold, especially during the early phase of this period, as it is inferred from foraminiferal and alkenone SSTs. At the same time all our SST records show that the North Atlantic was 1-2°C warmer than present during MIS 11c. This pattern suggests that during MIS 11c the North Atlantic Current was deflected to the west, which

  2. Paleosols in low-order streams and valley heads in the Araucaria Plateau - Record of continental environmental conditions in southern Brazil at the end of MIS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; Osterrieth, Margarita Luisa; Paisani, Sani Daniela Lopes; Fachin, Andressa; Guerra, Simone; Oliveira, Leandro

    2014-10-01

    The Araucaria Plateau is a geomorphological unit that occupies approximately three-quarters of the terrain in the southern region of Brazil. The plateau displays different altitudinal levels (600 to <1400 m a.s.l.) that are locally recognized as remnants of planed surfaces (S8-S1). These surfaces are maintained by basic (S3-S8) and acidic (S1 and S2) volcanic flows from the Neocretaceous period of the Paraná Basin. The largest extent of this plateau is located in a humid subtropical climate zone. Colluvial, colluvial-alluvial, alluvial sediments and paleosols (Ab diagnostic horizons) occur predominantly in S2. The paleosols are located in low-hierarchical-order fossil valleys (first- to fourth-order in Strahler's stream classification) and valley heads, which are referred to as paleovalleys in this paper. We employed these paleosols as stratigraphic level markers of the pedogenesis of the regional Upper Quaternary and propose their importance as records of the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Araucaria Plateau in areas above 1200 m a.s.l. These paleosols were dated by 14C and show ages between 23.8 ± 0.05 kyr BP (28.06-29.08 kyr cal. BP) and 41.16 ± 0.48 kyr BP (44.13-45.58 kyr cal. BP). The calibrated ages are related to Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), in which the last period of global warming occurred (approximately 60-25 kyr cal. BP). We integrated the morphological, pedogeochemical, clay fraction mineralogy, micromorphological and δC-13 analyses of five paleosols from S2 to verify the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Araucaria Plateau and its correspondence with the paleoclimatic phenomena that were identified on a global scale during MIS 3 in the Southern Hemisphere. We obtained the following conclusions: a) the properties of paleosols reflect pedological processes that are adjusted to the paleoenvironmental conditions at the end of MIS 3 and the transition to MIS 2 (Last Glacial Maximum); b) aplasmogenic partial acidolysis was the predominant

  3. Paired microfossil evidence for a delayed development of fully marine surface water conditions in the Nordic seas during the Last interglacial (MIS 5e)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nieuwenhove, N.; Bauch, H. A.; Kandiano, E. S.

    2010-12-01

    Dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) and foraminiferal records of sediment cores from The Vøring and Iceland Plateau and south of the Fram Strait were used to reconstruct the evolution of the surface circulation in the Nordic seas during the last interglacial (Marine Isotopic Stage or MIS 5e). The location of the cores, under the modern pathway of the warm Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC) and within the mixing zone of the NwAC and the cold East Greenland Current (EGC), allows to reconstruct the spreading of inflowing North Atlantic surface waters across the Nordic seas during the climate progression of MIS 5e. The microfossil records, supported by stable isotope and IRD data, reveal that during the first ~6000 years of MIS 5e a more pronounced stratification and seasonality existed in the eastern Nordic seas, presumably as a result of long-lasting deglacial effects. Thus, the northward heat flux was reduced during this time in this area. It was only during late MIS 5e, and when IRD-input into the eastern Nordic seas had come to a halt, that the northward flow of warm Atlantic water masses intensified so that interglacial conditions became also eminent in the surface waters south of the Fram Strait. Our data further suggest that the stronger NwAC of late MIS 5e entailed an intensification of the EGC. While this brought comparatively colder conditions towards the Iceland Plateau it was also the only time when proper, that is fully marine, warm interglacial surface conditions co-existed in the eastern Nordic seas.

  4. Vegetation and climate history in arid western China during MIS2: New insights from pollen and grain-size data of the Balikun Lake, eastern Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongtao; An, Cheng-Bang; Mao, Limi; Zhao, Jiaju; Tang, Lingyu; Zhou, Aifeng; Li, Hu; Dong, Weimiao; Duan, Futao; Chen, Fahu

    2015-10-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 is mostly a cold period encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but the regional expression of MIS2 in arid areas of China is not well known. In this paper, we use high-resolution lacustrine pollen and grain-size records from Balikun Lake to infer vegetation, lake evolution, and climate in arid western China during MIS2. Our results suggest that: 1) the regional vegetation around Balikun was mainly dominated by desert and/or desert-steppe, and Balikun Lake was relatively shallow and experienced high aeolian input during MIS2; 2) distinctive runoff from mountain glacial meltwater in the eastern parts of the Balikun basin caused a high relative abundance of Artemisia pollen during the LGM (26.5-19.2 cal kyr BP), while simultaneously the desert areas expanded as indicated by the high abundance of desert shrubs (e.g., Elaeagnaceae, Rhamnaceae, Hippophae). This cold and dry LGM climate triggered a substantial lowering of lake level; 3) an extremely cold and dry climate prevailing from 17.0 to 15.2 cal kyr BP, correlated with Heinrich event 1 (H1), would explain the low vegetation cover found then; and 4) the warm and humid Bølling/Allerød interstadial (BA: ca. 15-ca. 13 cal kyr BP) is clearly recorded in the Balikun region by the development of wetland herb communities (e.g., Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Typha), and the lake level rose due to increased runoff. Our results challenge the traditional view of cold and wet climatic conditions and high lake levels in arid western China during the LGM, and we propose that changes in local temperature modulated by July insolation was an indispensable factor in triggering vegetation evolution in the Balikun region during MIS2.

  5. An interdisciplinary approach to reconstructing hydrologically controlled terrestrial habitat dynamics during MIS 5 from sediments of Lake Ohrid (Albania, Macedonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtvoeth, Jens; Vogel, Hendrik; Rushworth, Danielle; Copsey, Harriet; Imeri, Alma; Valsecchi, Verushka; Cara, Magdalena; Schouten, Stefan; Wagner, Bernd; Wolff, George A.; Pancost, Richard D.

    2016-04-01

    We investigated sediments from a piston core (site Co1202) in the northeastern part of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) that cover the period from 136 to 97 ka, i.e. most of marine isotope stage (MIS) 5 including Termination II and the peak warm period of MIS 5e (Eemian). The aim of the study was to reconstruct climatically controlled changes in the terrestrial habitat by combining data from elemental, lipid biomarker (alkyl lipids, glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers/GDGTs) and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses with pollen data. Comparison of biomarker data from sediments and modern materials shows a close similarity between the average biomarker composition of sediments and soils. This is confirmed by statistical analyses, implying that a dominant proportion of the sedimentary alkyl lipids derives from soils while aquatic sources (macrophytes, phytoplankton) can be ruled out as a major source. The carbonate record of the Co1202 sediments and the GDGT-based proxy for lake surface water temperature (TEX86) closely follow climatic trends as they are known from the North Atlantic realm, including marine isotope sub-stage 5d and short-term climate events such as cold events C25, C24 and C23. By contrast, proxies based on alkyl lipid composition reveal an entirely different pattern. Episodes of slow, continuous change are disrupted by abrupt shifts. This suggests a threshold-controlled system, with supply of organic matter from specific sources being increased or suppressed by a sudden change of supply pathways. Such a mechanism is provided by lake level change that includes rapid flooding or exposure of extensive tectonic terraces in the vicinity of site Co1202 as documented by geophysical surveys. Both flooding and exposure change the areas that certain habitats occupy in the catchment of the site, e.g., the proportions of vegetation and soils on the surrounding mountain slopes relative to that on low-lying terrace surfaces. Several such abrupt changes can

  6. A modeling experiment on the grounding of an ice shelf in the central Arctic Ocean during MIS 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Siegert, M.; Paton, M.

    2003-12-01

    High-resolution chirp sonar subbottom profiles from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean, acquired from the Swedish icebreaker Oden in 1996, revealed large-scale erosion of the ridge crest down to depths of 1000 m below present sea level [Jakobsson, 1999]. Subsequent acoustic mapping during the SCICEX nuclear submarine expedition in 1999 showed glacial fluting at the deepest eroded areas and subparallel ice scours from 950 m water depth to the shallowest parts of the ridge crest [Polyak et al., 2001]. The directions of the mapped glaciogenic bed-forms and the redeposition of eroded material on the Amerasian side of the ridge indicate ice flow from the Barents-Kara Sea area. Core studies revealed that sediment drape the eroded areas from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5.5 and, thus, it was proposed that the major erosional event took place during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 [Jakobsson et al., 2001]. Glacial geological evidence suggests strongly that the Late Saalian (MIS 6) ice sheet margin reached the shelf break of the Barents-Kara Sea [Svendsen et al. in press] and this gives us two possible ways to explain the ice erosional features on the Lomonosov Ridge. One is the grounding of a floating ice shelf and the other is the scouring from large deep tabular iceberg. Here we apply numerical ice sheet modeling to test the hypothesis that an ice shelf emanating from the Barents/Kara seas grounded across part of the Lomonsov Ridge and caused the extensive erosion down to a depth of around 1000 m below present sea level. A series of model experiments was undertaken in which the ice shelf mass balance (surface accumulation and basal melting) and ice shelf strain rates were adjusted. Grounding of the Lomonosov Ridge was not achieved when the ice shelf strain rate was 0.005 yr-1 (i.e. a free flowing ice shelf). However this model produced two interesting findings. First, with basal melt rates of up to 50 cm yr-1 an ice shelf grew from the St. Anna Trough ice stream

  7. Development of a high-resolution record of Great Basin climate change during MIS 5, 6, and 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, M.; McGee, D.; Broecker, W. S.; Quade, J.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.

    2013-12-01

    As evinced by the cycles of the large paleolakes Lahontan and Bonneville, the currently semi-arid to arid Great Basin region of the United States has experienced significant changes in climate and water balance in the past. Although there has been substantial research concerning these changes for times around and since the last glacial maximum, relatively little is known about the region's previous climate and water balance history. There is a clear need for a long-term record for earlier glacial and interglacial periods. Here, we present some of our initial results from Lehman Cave (39.01°N, 114.22°W), a well-decorated, active cave located on the edge of the Bonneville Basin in the Great Basin National Park, for times correlating with large portions of Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages (MIS) 5, 6, and 7. We initially surveyed a suite of speleothems to obtain times and durations of growth phases to aid in choosing samples appropriate for more extensive analysis. Approximately eighty 2 to 10 mg samples with a mean 238U of 400 ppb, representing most of the major growth phases of this suite of 20 speleothems, were analyzed for preliminary uranium-thorium dates. A subset of eight of these stalagmites grew collectively over large portions of MIS 5 and 6 (an interval that includes the Little Valley lake cycle of the Bonneville Basin) as well as a substantial portion of MIS 7. This record includes several significant periods of contemporaneous growth, including: 81.5 to 103 ka, which corresponds to the interval between Dansgaard-Oeschger events 21 and 23; 204 to 207 ka; and 118 to 132 ka, an interval including the beginning of the last interglacial period and the end of Termination II and Heinrich Stadial 11. We have yet to identify growth phases between 103 to 118 ka, 134 to 137 ka, and 164 to 169 ka. Initial stable isotope results indicate a shift of approximately +3‰ δ18O and +5‰ δ13C around 131 × 2.5 ka, which agrees within error with the findings of Shakun et al

  8. Coral Reef Response to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e Sea Level Changes in the Granitic Seychelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyverberg, K.; Dechnik, B.; Dutton, A.; Webster, J.; Zwartz, D.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-level position has a direct control on coral reef morphology and composition. Examining changes in these parameters in fossil reefs can inform reconstructions of past sea-level behavior and, indirectly, ice sheet dynamics. Here we provide a detailed examination of fossil reefs from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e. These fossil reefs are located in the granitic Seychelles, which is tectonically stable site and far-field from the former margins of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. To reconstruct relative sea level (RSL), we combine RTK and Total Station elevation surveys with sedimentary and taxonomic evaluations of eight fossil reef sites. Carbonate coralgal reef buildups of the shallowest portion of the reef are preserved in limestone outcrops that are protected by granite boulder overhangs. Two primary outcrop morphologies were observed at these sites: plastering and massive. Plastering outcrops manifest as thin (~ 1 m height x 1 m width x 0.5 m depth) vertical successions of reef framework and detritus, while massive outcrops are larger (~ 2-6 m height x 2-6 m width x 1-2 m depth). The base of these limestone outcrops consistently record a period of reef growth, characterized by corals or coralline algae colonizing the surface or face of a granite boulder and building upwards. This lower reefal unit is capped by a disconformity that is commonly overlain by coral rubble or a ~10 cm thick layer of micrite. Rubble units contain coarse fragments of the coralgal reef buildups while micrite layers consist of a relatively homogeneous fine-grained carbonate, bearing coral-dwelling, Pyrgomatid barnacles. In many of the outcrops, this succession is repeated upsection with another unit of coralgal reef framework capped by a disconformity that is recognized by the sharp transition to coral rubble or micrite with barnacles. We identified four distinct fossil coralgal assemblages in the limestone outcrops. These assemblages are consistent with modern assemblages which

  9. Loss of vps54 function leads to vesicle traffic impairment, protein mis-sorting and embryonic lethality.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Páll; Droce, Aida; Moser, Jakob M; Cuhlmann, Simon; Padilla, Carolina Ortiz; Heimann, Peter; Bartsch, Jörg W; Füchtbauer, Annette; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The identification of the mutation causing the phenotype of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) model mouse, wobbler, has linked motor neuron degeneration with retrograde vesicle traffic. The wobbler mutation affects protein stability of Vps54, a ubiquitously expressed vesicle-tethering factor and leads to partial loss of Vps54 function. Moreover, the Vps54 null mutation causes embryonic lethality, which is associated with extensive membrane blebbing in the neural tube and is most likely a consequence of impaired vesicle transport. Investigation of cells derived from wobbler and Vps54 null mutant embryos demonstrates impaired retrograde transport of the Cholera-toxin B subunit to the trans-Golgi network and mis-sorting of mannose-6-phosphate receptors and cargo proteins dependent on retrograde vesicle transport. Endocytosis assays demonstrate no difference between wobbler and wild type cells, indicating that the retrograde vesicle traffic to the trans-Golgi network, but not endocytosis, is affected in Vps54 mutant cells. The results obtained on wobbler cells were extended to test the use of cultured skin fibroblasts from human ALS patients to investigate the retrograde vesicle traffic. Analysis of skin fibroblasts of ALS patients will support the investigation of the critical role of the retrograde vesicle transport in ALS pathogenesis and might yield a diagnostic prospect.

  10. Mis-regulation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Complexes Induced by Albuminuria in Proximal Tubules*

    PubMed Central

    Peruchetti, Diogo B.; Cheng, Jie; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Guggino, William B.

    2014-01-01

    High albumin concentrations in the proximal tubule of the kidney causes tubulointerstitial injury, but how this process occurs is not completely known. To address the signal transduction pathways mis-regulated in renal injury, we studied the modulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes by physiologic and pathophysiologic albumin concentrations in proximal tubule cells. Physiologic albumin concentrations activated the PI3K/mTORC2/PKB/mTORC1/S6 kinase (S6K) pathway, but pathophysiologically high albumin concentrations overactivated mTORC1 and inhibited mTORC2 activity. This control process involved the activation of ERK1/2, which promoted the inhibition of TSC2 and activation of S6K. Furthermore, S6K was crucial to promoting the over activation of mTORC1 and inhibition of mTORC2. Megalin expression at the luminal membrane is reduced by high concentrations of albumin. In addition, knockdown of megalin mimicked all the effects of pathophysiologic albumin concentrations, which disrupt normal signal transduction pathways and lead to an overactivation of mTORC1 and inhibition of mTORC2. These data provide new perspectives for understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the effects of albumin on the progression of renal disease. PMID:24790108

  11. A mixed solution-processed gate dielectric for zinc-tin oxide thin-film transistor and its MIS capacitance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hunho; Kwack, Young-Jin; Yun, Eui-Jung; Choi, Woon-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed gate dielectrics were fabricated with the combined ZrO2 and Al2O3 (ZAO) in the form of mixed and stacked types for oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). ZAO thin films prepared with double coatings for solid gate dielectrics were characterized by analytical tools. For the first time, the capacitance of the oxide semiconductor was extracted from the capacitance-voltage properties of the zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) TFTs with the combined ZAO dielectrics by using the proposed metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure model. The capacitance evolution of the semiconductor from the TFT model structure described well the threshold voltage shift observed in the ZTO TFT with the ZAO (1:2) gate dielectric. The electrical properties of the ZTO TFT with a ZAO (1:2) gate dielectric showed low voltage driving with a field effect mobility of 37.01 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage of 2.00 V, an on-to-off current ratio of 1.46 × 105, and a subthreshold slope of 0.10 V/dec. PMID:27641430

  12. Environmental changes of the Mazovian (Holsteinian /~MIS 11) palaeolake near Szymanowo (eastern Poland) in the light of malacological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanek, Marcin

    2014-06-01

    The malacofauna of the palaeolake deposits at Szymanowo (eastern Poland) was investigated. It represents the younger part of the climatic optimum of the Mazovian (Holsteinian) Interglacial (~MIS 11) and possibly the postoptimal period. The mollusc assemblage is composed of both standing and running water species, mostly connected with temperate climate. The presence of biostratigraphical indicators of the Mazovian, Viviparus diluvianus (Kunth, 1865), Lithoglyphus jahni Urbański, 1975 and Pisidium clessini Neumayr, 1875, is noteworthy. Variability in the structure and composition of the assemblage enables palaeoecological reconstruction. Changes in the water-level, vegetation and energy conditions are inferred from the malacological succession. Three stages of the lake development were distinguished. The first one is connected with deeper conditions and predominance of V. diluvianus and L. jahni. The second one, dominated by Bithynia tentaculata (Linnaeus, 1758), records a fall of the water-level and the growth of aquatic plants, evidenced by high frequencies of Valvata cristata Muller, 1774 and Acroloxus lacustris (Linnaeus, 1758). The third stage corresponds to another rise of the water-level and an increase in V. diluvianus, L. jahni, Valvata piscinalis Muller, 1774 and Pisidium henslowanum (Sheppard, 1823), which evidence some higher energy conditions.

  13. Resistive switching characteristics of Al/Si3N4/p-Si MIS-based resistive switching memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee-Dong; Yun, Min Ju; Kim, Sungho

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we proposed and demonstrated a self-rectifying property of a silicon nitride (Si3N4)-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) device by employing p-type silicon ( p-Si) as the bottom electrode. The RRAM devices consisting of Al/Si3N4/ p-Si are fabricated by using a low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition and exhibited an intrinsic diode property with non-linear current-voltage ( I-V) behavior. In addition, compared to the conventional metal/insulator/metal (MIM) structure of Al/Si3N4/Ti RRAM cells, the operating current over the entire bias region for the proposed metal/insulator/semiconductor (MIS) cells is dramatically lower because the introduced p-Si bottom electrode efficiently suppresses the current in both the low- and the high resistance states. Then, the results mean that when p-Si is employed as a bottom electrode, the Si3N4-based RRAM cells can be applied to selector-free RRAM cells.

  14. Regulation of outer kinetochore Ndc80 complex-based microtubule attachments by the central kinetochore Mis12/MIND complex.

    PubMed

    Kudalkar, Emily M; Scarborough, Emily A; Umbreit, Neil T; Zelter, Alex; Gestaut, Daniel R; Riffle, Michael; Johnson, Richard S; MacCoss, Michael J; Asbury, Charles L; Davis, Trisha N

    2015-10-13

    Multiple protein subcomplexes of the kinetochore cooperate as a cohesive molecular unit that forms load-bearing microtubule attachments that drive mitotic chromosome movements. There is intriguing evidence suggesting that central kinetochore components influence kinetochore-microtubule attachment, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we find that the conserved Mis12/MIND (Mtw1, Nsl1, Nnf1, Dsn1) and Ndc80 (Ndc80, Nuf2, Spc24, Spc25) complexes are connected by an extensive network of contacts, each essential for viability in cells, and collectively able to withstand substantial tensile load. Using a single-molecule approach, we demonstrate that an individual MIND complex enhances the microtubule-binding affinity of a single Ndc80 complex by fourfold. MIND itself does not bind microtubules. Instead, MIND binds Ndc80 complex far from the microtubule-binding domain and confers increased microtubule interaction of the complex. In addition, MIND activation is redundant with the effects of a mutation in Ndc80 that might alter its ability to adopt a folded conformation. Together, our results suggest a previously unidentified mechanism for regulating microtubule binding of an outer kinetochore component by a central kinetochore complex.

  15. A high resolution tephrochronological record of MIS 14-12 in the Southern Apennines (Acerno Basin, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosino, P.; Jicha, B. R.; Mazzeo, F. C.; Russo Ermolli, E.

    2014-03-01

    Lithological, mineralogical, and glass chemical analyses on juvenile fragments extracted from 20 tephra layers embedded within the lacustrine sediments of the Acerno Basin (Southern Apennines, Italy) were carried out together with four sanidine 40Ar/39Ar age determinations. The measured ages span the interval between 561 and 493 ka. Middle Pleistocene eruptive activity at Roman Province volcanoes was identified as the main possible source of the investigated tephra layers. Some of them were correlated with precise terrestrial counterparts corresponding to large explosive events of the Sabatini (e.g. Tufo Giallo della Via Tiberina) and Alban Hills volcanic districts (e.g. Tufo Pisolitico di Trigoria). The integration of tephrochronology and pollen analyses allowed the Acerno lacustrine sedimentation to be constrained between MIS 14 and 12, which overlaps with several well-studied, lacustrine successions of the Southern Apennines. The correlation with other tephrostratigraphic records from intramontane basins in central-southern Apennines testifies to the wide dispersal of at least three tephra layers that serve as marker layers, thus improving the resolution of the Middle Pleistocene Italian tephrostratotype.

  16. A mixed solution-processed gate dielectric for zinc-tin oxide thin-film transistor and its MIS capacitance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hunho; Kwack, Young-Jin; Yun, Eui-Jung; Choi, Woon-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed gate dielectrics were fabricated with the combined ZrO2 and Al2O3 (ZAO) in the form of mixed and stacked types for oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). ZAO thin films prepared with double coatings for solid gate dielectrics were characterized by analytical tools. For the first time, the capacitance of the oxide semiconductor was extracted from the capacitance-voltage properties of the zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) TFTs with the combined ZAO dielectrics by using the proposed metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure model. The capacitance evolution of the semiconductor from the TFT model structure described well the threshold voltage shift observed in the ZTO TFT with the ZAO (1:2) gate dielectric. The electrical properties of the ZTO TFT with a ZAO (1:2) gate dielectric showed low voltage driving with a field effect mobility of 37.01 cm(2)/Vs, a threshold voltage of 2.00 V, an on-to-off current ratio of 1.46 × 10(5), and a subthreshold slope of 0.10 V/dec. PMID:27641430

  17. A mixed solution-processed gate dielectric for zinc-tin oxide thin-film transistor and its MIS capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hunho; Kwack, Young-Jin; Yun, Eui-Jung; Choi, Woon-Seop

    2016-09-01

    Solution-processed gate dielectrics were fabricated with the combined ZrO2 and Al2O3 (ZAO) in the form of mixed and stacked types for oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). ZAO thin films prepared with double coatings for solid gate dielectrics were characterized by analytical tools. For the first time, the capacitance of the oxide semiconductor was extracted from the capacitance-voltage properties of the zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) TFTs with the combined ZAO dielectrics by using the proposed metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure model. The capacitance evolution of the semiconductor from the TFT model structure described well the threshold voltage shift observed in the ZTO TFT with the ZAO (1:2) gate dielectric. The electrical properties of the ZTO TFT with a ZAO (1:2) gate dielectric showed low voltage driving with a field effect mobility of 37.01 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage of 2.00 V, an on-to-off current ratio of 1.46 × 105, and a subthreshold slope of 0.10 V/dec.

  18. The comprehensive study and the reduction of contact resistivity on the n-InGaAs M-I-S contact system with different inserted insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, M.-H. Lien, C.

    2015-05-15

    Five different kinds of insulators including BaTiO{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CdO and ZnO on the n-type InGaAs metal-insulator-semiconductor (M-I-S) ohmic contact structure are studied. The effect for the dielectric constant (ε) of inserted insulator and the conduction band offset (CBO) between an insulator and semiconductor substrate is analyzed by a unified M-I-S contact model. Based on the theoretical model and experimental data, we demonstrates that the inserted ZnO insulator with the high electron affinity and the low CBO (∼0.1 eV) to the InGaAs substrate results in ∼10 times contact resistivity reduction, even the ε of ZnO is not pretty high (∼10)

  19. The effect of 60Co (γ-ray) irradiation on the electrical characteristics of Au/SnO 2/n-Si (MIS) structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökçen, M.; Tataroğlu, A.; Altındal, Ş.; Bülbül, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 60Co (γ-ray) irradiation on the electrical properties of Au/SnO 2/n-Si (MIS) structures has been investigated using the capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and conductance-voltage ( G/ ω- V) measurements in the frequency range 1 kHz to 1 MHz at room temperature. The MIS structures were exposed to γ-rays at a dose rate of 2.12 kGy/h in water and the range of total dose was 0-500 kGy. It was found that the C- V and G/ ω- V curves were strongly influenced with both frequency and the presence of the dominant radiation-induced defects, and the series resistance was increased with increasing dose. Also, the radiation-induced threshold voltage shift (Δ VT) strongly depended on radiation dose and frequency, and the density of interface states Nss by Hill-Coleman method decreases with increasing radiation dose.

  20. Techno-Cultural Characterization of the MIS 5 (c. 105 – 90 Ka) Lithic Industries at Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Douze, Katja; Wurz, Sarah; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Blombos Cave is well known as an important site for understanding the evolution of symbolically mediated behaviours among Homo sapiens during the Middle Stone Age, and during the Still Bay in particular. The lower part of the archaeological sequence (M3 phase) contains 12 layers dating to MIS 5 with ages ranging from 105 to 90 ka ago (MIS 5c to 5b) that provide new perspectives on the technological behaviour of these early humans. The new data obtained from our extensive technological analysis of the lithic material enriches our currently limited knowledge of this time period in the Cape region. By comparing our results with previously described lithic assemblages from sites south of the Orange River, we draw new insights on the extent of the techno-cultural ties between these sites and the M3 phase at Blombos Cave and highlight the importance of this phase within the Middle Stone Age cultural stratigraphy. PMID:26580219

  1. Techno-Cultural Characterization of the MIS 5 (c. 105 - 90 Ka) Lithic Industries at Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Douze, Katja; Wurz, Sarah; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Blombos Cave is well known as an important site for understanding the evolution of symbolically mediated behaviours among Homo sapiens during the Middle Stone Age, and during the Still Bay in particular. The lower part of the archaeological sequence (M3 phase) contains 12 layers dating to MIS 5 with ages ranging from 105 to 90 ka ago (MIS 5c to 5b) that provide new perspectives on the technological behaviour of these early humans. The new data obtained from our extensive technological analysis of the lithic material enriches our currently limited knowledge of this time period in the Cape region. By comparing our results with previously described lithic assemblages from sites south of the Orange River, we draw new insights on the extent of the techno-cultural ties between these sites and the M3 phase at Blombos Cave and highlight the importance of this phase within the Middle Stone Age cultural stratigraphy. PMID:26580219

  2. Multiproxy record of the last interglacial (MIS 5e) off central and northern California, U.S.A., from Ocean Drilling Program sites 1018 and 1020

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, Richard Z.; Dowsett, H.J.; Barron, J.A.; Heusser, L.; Ravelo, A.C.; Mix, A.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and climatic conditions during the last interglacial (about 125,000 years ago) along the Central and Northern California coastal region are interpreted from study of marine cores recovered by the Ocean Drilling Program at sites 1018 and 1020. Marine microfossil and pollen assemblages, oxygen isotopes in benthic foraminifers, physical properties, and calcium carbonate contents of cored sediments are proxies indicating strong links between the marine and terrestrial environments during marine isotope stage 5 (MIS 5). At the beginning of the last interglacial (MIS 5e), reduction in global ice volume, increase in surface temperature, and warming of air temperature along the Central and Northern California coast were synchronous within the resolution of our sampling record.

  3. The sea-level highstand correlated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 in the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Renato P; Dillenburg, Sergio R; Schultz, Cesar L; Ferigolo, Jorge; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Pereira, Jamil C; Holanda, Elizete C; Pitana, Vanessa G; Kerber, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    The coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil, includes four barrier-lagoon depositional systems formed by successive Quaternary sea-level highstands that were correlated to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 9, 5 and 1, despite the scarcity of absolute ages. This study describes a sea-level highstand older than MIS 5, based on the stratigraphy, ages and fossils of the shallow marine facies found in coastal barrier (Barrier II). This facies outcrops along the banks of Chuí Creek, it is composed of fine, well-sorted quartz sand and contains ichnofossils Ophiomorpha nodosa and Rosselia sp., and molluscan shells. The sedimentary record indicates coastal aggradation followed by sea-level fall and progradation of the coastline. Thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) ages from sediments and fossil shells point to an age of ∼220 ka for the end of this marine transgression, thus correlating it to MIS 7 (substage 7e). Altimetric data point to a maximum amplitude of about 10 meters above present-day mean sea-level, but tectonic processes may be involved. Paleoceanographic conditions at the time of the highstand and correlations with other deposits in the Brazilian coasts are also discussed.

  4. The sea-level highstand correlated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 in the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Renato P; Dillenburg, Sergio R; Schultz, Cesar L; Ferigolo, Jorge; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Pereira, Jamil C; Holanda, Elizete C; Pitana, Vanessa G; Kerber, Leonardo

    2014-12-09

    The coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil, includes four barrier-lagoon depositional systems formed by successive Quaternary sea-level highstands that were correlated to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 9, 5 and 1, despite the scarcity of absolute ages. This study describes a sea-level highstand older than MIS 5, based on the stratigraphy, ages and fossils of the shallow marine facies found in coastal barrier (Barrier II). This facies outcrops along the banks of Chuí Creek, it is composed of fine, well-sorted quartz sand and contains ichnofossils Ophiomorpha nodosa and Rosselia sp., and molluscan shells. The sedimentary record indicates coastal aggradation followed by sea-level fall and progradation of the coastline. Thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) ages from sediments and fossil shells point to an age of ∼220 ka for the end of this marine transgression, thus correlating it to MIS 7 (substage 7e). Altimetric data point to a maximum amplitude of about 10 meters above present-day mean sea-level, but tectonic processes may be involved. Paleoceanographic conditions at the time of the highstand and correlations with other deposits in the Brazilian coasts are also discussed.

  5. Human choices and environmental constraints: deciphering the variability of large game procurement from Mousterian to Aurignacian times (MIS 5-3) in southwestern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discamps, Emmanuel; Jaubert, Jacques; Bachellerie, François

    2011-09-01

    The evolution in the selection of prey made by past humans, especially the Neandertals and the first anatomically modern humans, has been widely debated. Between Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5 and 3, the accuracy of absolute dating is still insufficient to precisely correlate paleoclimatic and archaeological data. It is often difficult, therefore, to estimate to what extent changes in species procurement are correlated with either climate fluctuations or deliberate cultural choices in terms of subsistence behavior. Here, the full development of archeostratigraphy and Bayesian statistical analysis of absolute dates allows the archeological and paleoclimatic chronologies to be compared. The variability in hunted fauna is investigated using multivariate statistical analysis of quantitative faunal lists of 148 assemblages from 39 archeological sequences from MIS 5 through MIS 3. Despite significant intra-technocomplex variability, it is possible to identify major shifts in the human diet during these stages. The integration of archeological data, paleoclimatic proxies and the ecological characteristics of the different species of prey shows that the shifts in large game hunting can be explained by an adaptation of the human groups to climatic fluctuations. However, even if Middle and Early Upper Paleolithic men adapted to changes in their environment and to contrasting landscapes, they ultimately belonged to the ecosystems of the past and were limited by environmental constraints.

  6. A high-elevation, multi-proxy biotic and environmental record of MIS 6-4 from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Ian M.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, R. Scott; Johnson, Kirk R.; Mahan, Shannon; Ager, Thomas A.; Baker, Richard G.; Blaauw, Maarten; Bright, Jordon; Brown, Peter M.; Bryant, Bruce; Calamari, Zachary T.; Carrara, Paul E.; Michael D., Cherney; Demboski, John R.; Elias, Scott A.; Fisher, Daniel C.; Gray, Harrison J.; Haskett, Danielle R.; Honke, Jeffrey S.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Kline, Douglas; Leonard, Eric M.; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Lucking, Carol; McDonald, H. Gregory; Miller, Dane M.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Nash, Stephen E.; Newton, Cody; Paces, James B.; Petrie, Lesley; Plummer, Mitchell A.; Porinchu, David F.; Rountrey, Adam N.; Scott, Eric; Sertich, Joseph J. W.; Sharpe, Saxon E.; Skipp, Gary L.; Strickland, Laura E.; Stucky, Richard K.; Thompson, Robert S.; Wilson, Jim

    2014-01-01

    In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 are rare. Where found, they provide insight into how the coupling of the ocean–atmosphere system is manifested in biotic and environmental records and how the biosphere responds to climate change. In 2010–2011, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA) revealed a nearly continuous, lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~ 140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site also contained thousands of well-preserved bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and bighorn sheep. In addition, the site contained more than 26,000 bones from at least 30 species of small animals including salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial and aquatic plant macrofossils, a detailed pollen record, and a robust, directly dated stratigraphic framework shows that high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are climatically sensitive and varied dramatically throughout MIS 5.

  7. A high-elevation, multi-proxy biotic and environmental record of MIS 6–4 from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Ian M. Miller; Mitchell A. Plummer; Various Others

    2014-10-01

    In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 are rare. Where found, they provide insight into how the coupling of the ocean–atmosphere system is manifested in biotic and environmental records and how the biosphere responds to climate change. In 2010–2011, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA) revealed a nearly continuous, lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site also contained thousands of well-preserved bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and bighorn sheep. In addition, the site contained more than 26,000 bones from at least 30 species of small animals including salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial and aquatic plant macrofossils, a detailed pollen record, and a robust, directly dated stratigraphic framework shows that high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are climatically sensitive and varied dramatically throughout MIS 5

  8. Variations of Minor elements during MIS3a in the glacial tills at Mt.Yulong, South-eastern Tibetan plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuanqing; He, Ze

    2016-04-01

    Several profiles of glacial varve sediments in Mt.Yulong (27°7'43"N, 100°14'53"E) were found and sampled recently, where is the lowest latitude alpine glacier-covered area in the region of south-eastern Tibetan Plateau influenced by South Asian monsoon. High resolution X-ray fluorescence (mXRF) was firstly applied to observe and describe these sediments in details, and the varve sediments are dated between 31620±180 and 38230±380BP determined by 14C dating,corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage 3a(MIS3a). Minor elements in the glacial till can be related to precipitation amount because this kind of accumulation is strongly affected by monsoon rainfall in the region. 4 general circle variations have been identified in the varve sediments. The changes of analyzed lithogenic elements(Ga, Si, Fe,Sr,Zr )in the sediments show distinct centennial to millennial variable features during MIS3a. Principal components analysis of our geochemical dataset suggests a close link between high Rb/Sr ratio, Mn/Fe ratio and Zr abundance in the deposition that could be dealing with both chemical weathering process and hydrological process. Key Words: Minor elements, MIS 3a, Glacial till, Mt.Yulong, South-eastern Tibetan plateau;

  9. Assessment of the reliability and consistency of the "malnutrition inflammation score" (MIS) in Mexican adults with chronic kidney disease for diagnosis of protein-energy wasting syndrome (PEW).

    PubMed

    González-Ortiz, Ailema Janeth; Arce-Santander, Celene Viridiana; Vega-Vega, Olynka; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Angeles

    2014-10-04

    Antecedentes: El síndrome de desgaste proteínico-energético (DPE) se refiere a una condición de desnutrición, inflamación, anorexia, y emaciación de reservas corporales resultante de las condiciones inflamatorias y no inflamatorias que prevalecen en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC).Una forma ampliamente descrita en la literatura para evaluar el DPE es el Malnutrition Inflamation Score (MIS). Objetivo: Valorar la fiabilidad y consistencia del MIS en adultos mexicanos con ERC en Hemodiálisis (HD) para Diagnóstico de DPE. Métodos: Estudio de pruebas diagnósticas. Se analizó una muestra de 45 adultos con ERC en HD, Durante el periodo Junio-Julio 2014. El instrumento se aplicó en 2 ocasiones, la fiabilidad test-retest se calculó mediante el Coeficiente de correlación Intraclase (CCI), la consistencia interna del cuestionario se analizó mediante el Coeficiente de Cronbach. Se calculó una prueba de Kappa ponderada para estimar la validez del instrumento, posteriormente se comparó con el índice nutricional de Bilbrey (IB). Resultados: La fiabilidad entre cuestionarios valorada en la muestra de pacientes fue de CCI = 0.829. La concordancia entre observaciones MIS es considerada como adecuada = 0.585 (p.

  10. Comparative study of the electrical properties of Au/n-Si (MS) and Au/Si3N4/n-Si (MIS) Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adem, Tataroğlu

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the electrical parameters of Au/n-Si (MS) and Au/Si3N4/n-Si (MIS) Schottky diodes are obtained from the forward bias current—voltage (I—V) and capacitance—voltage (C—V) measurements at room temperature. Experimental results show that the rectifying ratios of the MS and MIS diodes at ± 5 V are found to be 1.25 × 103 and 1.27 × 104, respectively. The main electrical parameters of the MS and MIS diodes, such as the zero-bias barrier height (ΦBo) and ideality factor (n), are calculated to be 0.51 eV (I—V), 0.53 eV (C—V), and 4.43, and 0.65 eV (I—V), 0.70 eV (C—V), and 3.44, respectively. In addition, the energy density distribution profile of the interface states (Nss) is obtained from the forward bias I—V, and the series resistance (Rs) values for the two diodes are calculated from Cheung's method and Ohm's law.

  11. Insight of dust provenance in Antarctic ice cores prior to M.I.S. 6 from ice magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanci, L.; Delmonte, B.

    2014-12-01

    The identification of dust provenance and its characteristics is a key issue to understand climate, atmospheric and environmental changes, and provides key constraints to dust transport processes. Many traditional geochemical methods for dust source tracking are not relevant in Antarctic ice cores because of their extremely low dust content, spanning from a few ppb during warm interglacial periods to a few hundreds of ppb, in the case of relatively dustier glacial periods. For the same reason, the Sr-Nd-Pb radiogenic isotope composition of mineral dust in ice cores, that is the most widely-used technique for dust source fingerprint has intrinsic limitations related to dust abundance that drastically limit the temporal information one can achieve. Rock-magnetic properties of aerosol dust, instead, can be measured directly in small ice samples despite its very low concentration. Intensity of isothermal remanent magnetization and coercivity of magnetic minerals are directly related to that of insoluble dust and these magnetic properties are informative of the dust provenance areas. We investigated rock-magnetic properties of aerosol dust in Antartic ice older than M.I.S. 6 in EPiCA Dome-C and Vostok ice core to gather information on dust provenance prior to the last interglacial times. New and previously published results from rock-magnetism suggests that aerosol dust provenance has changed in time during subsequent glacial-interglacial climatic stages. Moreover parallel changes in Dome-C and Vostok sites suggest that such changes result from long-distance dust transportation implying that transportation paths and/or dust sources did not remained the same during the last few glacial-interglacial cycles.

  12. The Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) Project - Did the Ross Ice Shelf Collapse During MIS 5e?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertler, N. A. N.; Conway, H.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Blunier, T.; Brook, E.; Dadic, R.; Delmonte, B.; Dongqi, Z.; Edwards, R.; Emanuelsson, D. B.; Fudge, T. J.; Golledge, N.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.; Hawley, R. L.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjær, H. A.; Kurbatov, A.; Lee, J.; Mayewski, P. A.; Naish, T.; Neff, P. D.; Scherer, R. P.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Simonsen, M. F.; Steig, E. J.; Tuohy, A.; Vallelonga, P. T.; Waddington, E. D.

    2014-12-01

    Geological evidence and modelling experiments suggest that the removal of ice shelves from marine based ice sheets can lead to catastrophic collapse. Roosevelt and Ross Islands are thought to be key stabilization anchors for the Ross Ice Shelf and thus the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. As part of the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project, a 763m deep ice core was recovered during 2011-2013 from Roosevelt Island, at the northern edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. The ice at Roosevelt Island is grounded 210m below sea level and accumulates in situ, with the Ross Ice Shelf flowing around the rise. High resolution radar surveys show a well developed Raymond Bump at the divide of the ice dome. With the conclusion of the RICE core processing campaign in July 2014, a preliminary age model is developed using annual layer count, volcanic ash layers; and high resolution methane data tied to the WAIS Divide ice core record, and a glacial flow model. Here we show preliminary data spanning over 100 ka including evidence of ice from the Eemian period (MIS 5e) at the base of the core. The presence of Eemian ice in the RICE record raises the question: how much of the Ross Ice Shelf and West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapsed during the last interglacial, when global sea level was 4-8m higher than today? We discuss reconstructions of sea surface and air temperature, sea ice extent, atmospheric circulation patterns, and ice shelf retreat. An ensemble of sensitivity modelling experiments is used to determine thresholds for the removal of ice on Roosevelt Island and correlated grounding line and ice volume changes of the Ross Ice Shelf and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  13. Millennial/submillennial-scale sea-level fluctuations in western Mediterranean during the second highstand of MIS 5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrio, C. J.; Zazo, C.; Cabero, A.; Goy, J. L.; Bardají, T.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; González-Delgado, J. A.; Lario, J.; Silva, P. G.; Borja, F.; García-Blázquez, A. M.

    2011-02-01

    This paper investigates a series of small-scale, short-lived fluctuations of sea level registered in a prograding barrier spit that grew during the MIS 5e. This interglacial includes three highstands ( Zazo et al., 2003) and we focus on the second highstand, of assumed duration ˜10 ± 2 ka, given that U-Th ages do not provide more accurate data. Geometry and 3D architecture of beach facies, and thin-section petrography were used to investigate eight exposed offlapping subunits separated by seven conspicuous erosion surfaces, all interpreted as the result of repeated small-scale fluctuations of sea level. Each subunit records a relatively rapid rise of sea level that generated a gravelly shoreface with algal bioherms and a sandy uppermost shoreface and foreshore where most sand accumulated. A second range of still smaller-scaled oscillations of sea level has been deduced in this phase of sea-level fluctuation from lateral and vertical shifts of the foreshore-plunge-step-uppermost shoreface facies. Eventually, progradation with gently falling sea level took place and foreshore deposits underwent successive vadose cementation and subaerial dissolution, owing to relatively prolonged exposure. Later recovery of sea level re-established the highstand with sea level at approximately the same elevation, and there began deposition of a new subunit. The minimum sea-level variation (fall and subsequent rise) required to generate the observed features is 4 m. The time span available for the whole succession of events, and comparison with the Holocene prograding beach ridge complex in the nearby Roquetas (Almería) were used to calculate the periodicity of events. A millennial-suborbital time scale is suggested for fluctuations separating subunits and a decadal scale for the minor oscillations inside each subunit.

  14. The functional consequences of mis-sense mutations affecting an intra-molecular salt bridge in arylsulphatase A.

    PubMed Central

    Schestag, Frank; Yaghootfam, Afshin; Habetha, Matthias; Poeppel, Peter; Dietz, Frank; Klein, Roger A; Zlotogora, Joel; Gieselmann, Volkmar

    2002-01-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of arylsulphatase A. We describe the functional consequences of three mis-sense mutations in the arylsulphatase A gene (Asp-335-Val, Arg-370-Trp and Arg-370-Gln), affecting an apparent intramolecular Asp-335 to Arg-370 salt bridge, and interpret the effects and clinical consequences on the basis of the three-dimensional structure of arylsulphatase A. Asp-335-Val and Arg-370-Trp substitutions each cause a complete loss of enzyme activity and are associated with the most severe form of the human disease, whereas the Arg-370-Gln-substituted enzyme retains some residual activity, being found in a patient suffering from the milder juvenile form of the disease. Detailed analysis reveals that formation of the apparent salt bridge depends critically on the presence of aspartic acid and arginine residues at positions 335 and 370, respectively. Substitution by various other amino acids, including glutamic acid and lysine, affects enzyme function severely. Biosynthesis and immunoprecipitation studies indicate that the Asp-335-Val substitution affects folding of arylsulphatase A more severely than either the Arg-370-Trp or Arg-370-Gln substitutions. In vitro mutagenesis data show that clinical severity correlates with the space occupied by residue 370. The combination with structural data suggests that the bulky tryptophan residue broadens the cleft held together by the apparent salt bridge, whereas the smaller glutamine residue still allows the cleft to close, yielding a less severely affected enzyme. The position of residue 370 in the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme provides a plausible explanation for the differing severities in loss of enzyme function caused by the mutations and thus the clinical phenotype. PMID:12086582

  15. A new age within MIS 7 for the Homo neanderthalensis of Saccopastore in the glacio-eustatically forced sedimentary successions of the Aniene River Valley, Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Ceruleo, Piero; Jicha, Brian; Pandolfi, Luca; Petronio, Carmelo; Salari, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    Field observations as well as borehole, sedimentological and geochronologic data allow us to reconstruct the geologic setting of the Aniene River Valley in northern Rome, framing it within the recently recognized picture of temporally constrained, glacio-eustatically forced aggradational successions of this region. The sedimentary successions cropping out in this area include those described in the literature of the early 20th century in Saccopastore, where two skulls of Homo neanderthalensis were recovered. Based on the geometry, elevation and sedimentologic features of the investigated sedimentary deposits, the stratigraphic record of Saccopastore is correlated with the aggradational succession deposited in response to sea-level rise during glacial termination III at the onset of MIS 7 (i.e. ˜250 ka), corresponding to the local Vitinia Formation, as opposed to previous correlation with the MIS 5 interglacial and a locally defined "Tyrrhenian" stage (˜130 ka). This previous attribution was based on the interpretation of the sedimentary succession of Saccopastore, occurring between 15 and 21 m a.s.l., as a fluvial terrace formed around 130 ka during the Riss-Würm interglacial, ca. 6 m above the present-day alluvial plain of the Aniene River. In contrast to this interpretation, a 40Ar/39Ar age of 129 ± 2 ka determined for this study on a pyroclastic-flow deposit intercalated in a fluvial-lacustrine sequence forming a terrace ˜37 m a.s.l. near the coast of Rome constrains the aggradational succession in this area to MIS 5, precluding the occurrence of an equivalent fluvial terrace at lower elevation in the inland sector of Saccopastore. We therefore interpret the stratigraphic record of Saccopastore as the basal portion of the aggradational succession deposited in response to sea-level rise during MIS 7, whose equivalent fluvial terrace occurs around 55 m a.s.l. in this region. We also review the published paleontological and paleoethnological records recovered

  16. Millennial-Scale Climate Variability During a mid-Pleistocene Glacial (MIS 12) from a Terrestrial Lacustrine Record in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawcett, P. J.; Brown, E. T.; Werne, J. P.; Contreras, S.; Anderson, R. S.; Dodd, J. P.; Sharp, Z. D.; Heikoop, J. M.; Allen, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    We present a high-resolution terrestrial climate record from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico which spans some 200,000 years from mid MIS 14 to early MIS 10. The glacial periods represented in the record exhibit millennial-scale Dansgaard-Oeschger like variability, especially in MIS 12, one of the coldest glacials in the Pleistocene. High resolution proxies from core VC-3 including scanning XRF data, sediment density, color, and magnetic susceptibility show approximately 23 millennial-scale oscillations in MIS 12 with an average duration of 2,300 years. Many of these oscillations are characterized by relatively slow coolings followed by abrupt warmings, similar to D-O events in the Greenland ice core record. MBT/CBT MAT estimates in the MIS 12 portion of the core show stadial to interstadial warmings of up to 6 °C. The VC-3 stadials correlate with high percentages of boreal taxa pollen ( Picea, Abies ) (up to 25%) while interstadials have lower boreal pollen percentages (~5%) and many correlate with local maxima in Juniperus> and Quercus> . Significant changes in the hydrologic cycle also occur at these millennial timescales. Oxygen isotope data from diatom silica record changes of up to 10 per mil from stadial to interstadial, probably reflecting a combination of changes in moisture source (Pacific vs. Gulf of Mexico), moisture transport pathway, and the seasonality of precipitation. Several interstadials correlate with increases in Cyperaceae (sedge) pollen suggesting a shallower lake with a broad marshy zone around its margin. This zone was minimized during stadials when the lake was deeper. Interstadial shallowing probably resulted from higher evaporation rates and/or a reduction in winter precipitation. This combination of proxies from the Valles Caldera suggests that glacial stage millennial-scale climate variability in the American southwest was strongly driven by changes in the strength and location of the winter polar jet, which in turn affected the local

  17. Palaeoecology of well-preserved coral communities in a siliciclastic environment from the Late Pleistocene (MIS 7), Kish Island, Persian Gulf (Iran): the development of low-relief reef frameworks (biostromes) in increasingly restricted environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossadegh, Zahra Karimi; Parker, Justin; Gischler, Eberhard; Oschmann, Wolfgang; Blakeway, David; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2013-03-01

    Major changes in community structure and depositional relief of high-latitude coral communities in the southern Persian Gulf between marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 and the present day suggest that the area has become increasingly restricted. Corals and bivalves from outcrops on Kish Island, Iran, were identified in order to interpret the Late Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental setting. U/Th disequilibrium dating was used to constrain the ages of the stratigraphic units. During MIS 7, two coral-bearing sequences were deposited on what is now Kish Island. The lower sequence is dated as MIS 7.5 and changes laterally from an assemblage dominated by Cyphastrea sp. and Platygyra daedalea in the west to one characterized by branching Montipora in the east. By contrast, the upper sequence, dated as MIS 7.1, transitions from an assemblage dominated by platy Montipora in the west to a diverse assemblage of Platygyra and other faviids in the east. The assemblages of both sequences are within a marl matrix and bounded by thin lithified mollusc-rich layers. Corals and bivalves indicate that the sequences were deposited on gentle slopes in sheltered environments less than 20 m deep. The MIS 7 deposits may be classified as coral carpets or biostromes that developed a low-relief framework. During MIS 5, coral communities were no longer framework building and are now limited to an Acropora-rich layer of coral rubble that covers large parts of the island, and two small incipient reefs with sparse faviids. Similarities between the MIS 5 and modern nearshore coral communities suggest that the environmental conditions during MIS 5 were comparable to those of today. The late Pleistocene coral carpets and non-framework coral communities of the southern Persian Gulf may serve as models for coral biostromes in the fossil record, which formed under restricted environmental conditions such as elevated terrigenous input, high turbidity, and strong seasonal changes in temperature and/or salinity.

  18. Late Quaternary landscape development at the margin of the Pomeranian phase (MIS 2) near Lake Wygonin (Northern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Florian; Schneider, Anna; Nicolay, Alexander; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kordowski, Jarosław; Noryskiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    , Florian Hirsch, Anna Schneider, Alexander Nicolay, Mirosław Błaszkiewicz, Jarosław Kordowski, Agnieszka M. Noryskiewicz, Sebastian Tyszkowski, Alexandra Raab, Thomas Raab, Late Quaternary landscape development at the margin of the Pomeranian phase (MIS 2) near Lake Wygonin (Northern Poland), Pages 28-44, 2015, with permission from Elsevier.

  19. MIS 5e sea level: up to what point can we use literature reviews to answer the most pressing questions on the Last Interglacial ice sheets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Raymo, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    During MIS 5e (between ~128 and 116 kyr BP) greenhouse gas concentrations were comparable to pre-industrial levels, summer insolation was higher by ~10% at high latitudes and polar temperatures in both hemispheres were about 3-5 °C warmer than today. Sea level (SL) at this time has been a subject of numerous studies (and some debate) with ~1000 sites with MIS 5e sea level markers recognized worldwide. Recently, Kopp et al. (Nature, 2009) and Dutton & Lambeck (Science, 2012) analyzed worldwide datasets of sea level markers pertaining to the last interglacial. After accounting for GIA, they reached similar conclusions that eustatic (i.e., globally averaged) sea level (ESL) was between +5 and +9.4 m above modern during MIS 5e. Furthermore, Kopp et al. (Nature, 2009; GJI, 2013) suggest that sea level was not uniform during the LIG, but instead underwent at least two rapid oscillations including a rapid late 5e rise first proposed by Hearty et al. (QSR, 2007) and later by O'Leary et al. (Nat. Geo., 2013). Investigating the temporal and geographic variability of MIS 5e sea level opens new lines of research, in particular the possibility to fingerprint (Hay et al., QSR, 2014) the source of the proposed rapid ice sheet collapse near the end of the Last Interglacial. In this presentation we ask: can we use a database of published sea level estimates for this purpose? To answer this question, we built a relative sea level (RSL) database using RSLcalc 2.0; this is a relational database specifically designed to review relative sea level data points while keeping all the relevant information contained in the original publications. RSlcalc allows to estimate the measurement error (on the actual elevation of the SL feature), the error on the indicative range (the elevation range occupied by a sea level indicator) as well as the reference water level (the relationship between the marker and the former sea level). We show that the majority of published data have an accuracy of few

  20. Study of gap states in a-Si:H alloys by measurements of photoconductivity and spectral response of MIS solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanier, P. E.; Delahoy, A. E.; Griffith, R. W.

    1981-06-01

    A picture of the density of gap states n (E) in glow discharge a-Si:H is constructed using four different kinds of transport measurement on a large number of samples. The minimum in n (E) lies 0.4 eV below Ec, rather than in the middle of the gap. A distribution of fast recombination centers lies at mid-gap, and two sets of hole traps lie between mid-gap and the valence band. Modifications in n (E) have been studied by the effects of selected impurities on the conversion efficiency and spectral response of MIS and pin solar cells.

  1. Orbital and Millennial-scale Variability Reflected on Continental-scale Vegetation Changes in the Southern Subtropics between MIS 6 and 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrego, D. H.; Sanchez Goni, M.; Daniau, A.; Martinez, P.

    2011-12-01

    While our understanding of the effects of orbital and millennial-scale variability on the vegetation has grown during the past decades, empirical data from some climatically important periods and regions are still lacking. Scarce data exist for instance for deep-time glacial-interglacial cycles that could provide suitable analogs for current climate-change. Recent global-scale reconstructions of vegetation responses to rapid events during the last glacial cycle have been useful, however, these global compilations clearly show that some regions, namely the southern tropics and subtropics, remain understudied. Here we present results from one of the few available continental-scale vegetation records from southwestern Africa spanning the last glacial-interglacial cycle. We have conducted multiproxy analyses of marine core MD96 2098 (25°36'S, 12°38'E), retrieved from the Lüderitz slope off the coast of Namibia. Preservation of pollen and other terrestrial microfossils is facilitated at this site by the Benguela upwelling system and the proximity to the Orange River mouth. Chronological control has been derived from radiocarbon dates and marine isotope stratigraphy. We have used pollen analyses, benthic foraminifer d18O (1), X-ray Fluorescence, geochemistry (2), foraminifer assemblages and microcharcoal quantification (3) to reconstruct the terrestrial vegetation and climatic history of the southwestern part of Africa and offshore between 190 and 30 ka. We find that MIS 6 and 4 are characterized by expanding Semidesert and Fynbos vegetation, while expanding grasslands characterized MIS 5. The termination of MIS 5 is also punctuated by an expansion of humid forests. At millennial timescales, variations in grasslands are generally coupled with stadials and interstadials. The expansion of semidesert is associated with decreased continental humidity caused by the strengthening of the Benguela upwelling during MIS 6 and 4. The expansion of grasslands during the

  2. Investigation into MIS 11 in the U.S. Great Basin Using Trace Elements and Stable Isotopes from two Lehman Caves Stalagmites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, A.; McGee, D.; Tal, I.; Shakun, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS 11) represents a long interglacial period of high temperatures and muted orbital variability that occurred around 424-374 kya, and is referred to as a 'super-interglacial'. MIS 11 is marked by especially pronounced high latitude warming in the Northern Hemisphere from 410-400 ka and thus presents a natural experiment for investigating the response of Great Basin precipitation to high latitude temperatures.MIS 11 is recorded by stalagmites LC3 and BT1 from Lehman Caves in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. LC3 represents 378-413 ka, while BT1 has a bottom age of 410 ka. Ongoing U-Th dating will refine chronologies from these samples. We will present stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) and trace element (Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) data from these stalagmites to study changes in precipitation recorded in them. Previous studies have shown a relationship between Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, δ13C and prior calcite precipitation, and thus infiltration rates, in the cave system (Cross et al., 2015; Steponaitis et al., 2015). Meanwhile, δ18O has been shown to reflect larger scale atmospheric circulation.We will compare the records to previously published trace element and stable isotope data from more recent interglacials (Lachniet et al., 2014; Cross et al., 2015; Steponaitis et al., 2015) to test whether extensive high-latitude warming during MIS 11 was marked by anomalous precipitation patterns in the Great Basin. As they are coeval, we will also test the reproducibility between the stalagmites.References cited:Cross M., et al. (2015) Great Basin hydrology, paleoclimate, and connections with the North Atlantic: A speleothem stable isotope and trace element record from Lehman Caves, NV. Quaternary Science Reviews, in press.Steponaitis E., et al. (2015) Mid-Holocene drying the U.S. Great Basin recorded in Nevada speleothems. Quaternary Science Reviews, in press.Lachniet M. S., et al. (2014) Orbital control of western North America atmospheric circulation and climate

  3. Revised 14C dating of ice wedge growth in interior Alaska (USA) to MIS 2 reveals cold paleoclimate and carbon recycling in ancient permafrost terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachniet, Matthew S.; Lawson, Daniel E.; Sloat, Alison R.

    2012-09-01

    Establishing firm radiocarbon chronologies for Quaternary permafrost sequences remains a challenge because of the persistence of old carbon in younger deposits. To investigate carbon dynamics and establish ice wedge formation ages in Interior Alaska, we dated a late Pleistocene ice wedge, formerly assigned to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3, and host sediments near Fairbanks, Alaska, with 24 radiocarbon analyses on wood, particulate organic carbon (POC), air-bubble CO2, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Our new CO2 and DOC ages are up to 11,170 yr younger than ice wedge POC ages, indicating that POC is detrital in origin. We conclude an ice wedge formation age between 28 and 22 cal ka BP during cold stadial conditions of MIS 2 and solar insolation minimum, possibly associated with Heinrich event 2 or the last glacial maximum. A DOC age for an ice lens in a thaw unconformity above the ice wedge returned a maximum age of 21,470 ± 200 cal yr BP. Our variable 14C data indicate recycling of older carbon in ancient permafrost terrain, resulting in radiocarbon ages significantly older than the period of ice-wedge activity. Release of ancient carbon with climatic warming will therefore affect the global 14C budget.

  4. Groove-type channel enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN MIS HEMT with combined polar and nonpolar AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Xiao, Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ning, Jing; Hao, Yue

    2016-08-01

    A novel groove-type channel enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN MIS high electron mobility transistor (GTCE-HEMT) with a combined polar and nonpolar AlGaN/GaN heterostucture is presented. The device simulation shows a threshold voltage of 1.24 V, peak transconductance of 182 mS/mm, and subthreshold slope of 85 mV/dec, which are obtained by adjusting the device parameters. Interestingly, it is possible to control the threshold voltage accurately without precisely controlling the etching depth in fabrication by adopting this structure. Besides, the breakdown voltage (V B) is significantly increased by 78% in comparison with the value of the conventional MIS-HEMT. Moreover, the fabrication process of the novel device is entirely compatible with that of the conventional depletion-mode (D-mode) polar AlGaN/GaN HEMT. It presents a promising way to realize the switch application and the E/D-mode logic circuits. Project supported by the National Science and Technology Major Project, China (Grant No. 2013ZX02308-002) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11435010, 61474086, and 61404099).

  5. Lake Prespa palaeoenvironment since the MIS 5: a continuous record from a mid-altitude site on modern human's way to Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotopoulos, K.; Aufgebauer, A.; Schäbitz, F.; Wagner, B.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Prespa is situated in the Balkans (40°57'50'' N, 20°58'41'' E) along the eastern trajectory of modern human dispersal. A long (c. 18m) composite sediment core was investigated using geophysical, geochemical and pollen analyses. This study aims to reconstruct the palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimate from a mid-altitude (849m asl) site and evaluate their implications in the migration of our ancestors from Africa to Europe. The age-depth model, based on radiocarbon dating and tephrochronology, indicates continuous sedimentation reaching back to MIS 5. According to the pollen record, the wider Lake Prespa catchment sustained refugial temperate tree populations throughout this period. Following the decline of woodlands at the end of MIS 5, pollen concentration and TOC percentages retain relatively low values until the onset of the Holocene when closed forest formations dominated the landscape signaling the establishment of a warmer and moister climate. Distinct fluctuations of arboreal relative percentages coupled with the occurrence of TIC and Mn peaks can be tentatively correlated to Heinrich events. Climatic oscillations are sensitively recorded in the Lake Prespa sediments at a sub-millennial scale permitting a detailed reconstruction of the regional palaeoenvironment, as well as correlations with other regional and global climate archives. This project is part of the Collaborative Research Center 806: "Our Way To Europe; Culture-Environment Interaction and Human Mobility in the Late Quaternary" (www.sfb806.de). Keywords: Lake Prespa, Balkans, eastern Mediterranean, pollen analysis, palaeolimnology, modern human dispersal

  6. Effect of pre-deposition annealing on the performance of MIS capacitor formed using atomic layer deposition of ultrathin HfO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Savita; Singh, B. R.; Radhakrishna, M.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we report the effect of pre-deposition annealing on electrical characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors, with HfO2 as high-k insulator. HfO2 has been deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) using Tetrakis [Ethyl Methyl Amino] Hafnium, Hf[N(CH3)(C2H5(]4 (TEMAHf) as metal oxide precursor and water (H2O) as oxidizing precursor. The results obtained have shown that the pre-and post deposition annealing have profound effect on electrical characteristic of MIS Capacitors. This led us to hypothesize that the preparation of Silicon substrate with pre-deposition temperature treatment forms an interfacial layer between hafnium dioxide & substrate and that will have influence on the ALD deposition and consequentially on the electrical characteristic of the device formed through ALD. By controlling the post deposition conditions, the electrical characteristic behavior is ascribed to the predeposition treatment. The promising hypothesis of such a behavior, supported with some preliminary experimental data has been presented in this short communication.

  7. Groove-type channel enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN MIS HEMT with combined polar and nonpolar AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Xiao, Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ning, Jing; Hao, Yue

    2016-08-01

    A novel groove-type channel enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN MIS high electron mobility transistor (GTCE-HEMT) with a combined polar and nonpolar AlGaN/GaN heterostucture is presented. The device simulation shows a threshold voltage of 1.24 V, peak transconductance of 182 mS/mm, and subthreshold slope of 85 mV/dec, which are obtained by adjusting the device parameters. Interestingly, it is possible to control the threshold voltage accurately without precisely controlling the etching depth in fabrication by adopting this structure. Besides, the breakdown voltage (V B) is significantly increased by 78% in comparison with the value of the conventional MIS-HEMT. Moreover, the fabrication process of the novel device is entirely compatible with that of the conventional depletion-mode (D-mode) polar AlGaN/GaN HEMT. It presents a promising way to realize the switch application and the E/D-mode logic circuits. Project supported by the National Science and Technology Major Project, China (Grant No. 2013ZX02308-002) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11435010, 61474086, and 61404099).

  8. NOTCH2 and FLT3 gene mis-splicings are common events in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML): new potential targets in AML

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Natan, Michal; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Pilarski, Patrick M.; Bach, Christian; Pevzner, Samuel; Calimeri, Teresa; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Lode, Laurence; Verselis, Sigitas; Fox, Edward A.; Galinsky, Ilene; Mathews, Steven; Dagogo-Jack, Ibiayi; Wadleigh, Martha; Steensma, David P.; Motyckova, Gabriela; Deangelo, Daniel J.; Quackenbush, John; Tenen, Daniel G.; Stone, Richard M.; Griffin, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed an increase in alternative splicing of multiple RNAs in cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared with CD34+ bone marrow cells from normal donors. Aberrantly spliced genes included a number of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and genes involved in regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle, and cell differentiation. Among the most commonly mis-spliced genes (>70% of AML patients) were 2, NOTCH2 and FLT3, that encode myeloid cell surface proteins. The splice variants of NOTCH2 and FLT3 resulted from complete or partial exon skipping and utilization of cryptic splice sites. Longitudinal analyses suggested that NOTCH2 and FLT3 aberrant splicing correlated with disease status. Correlation analyses between splice variants of these genes and clinical features of patients showed an association between NOTCH2-Va splice variant and overall survival of patients. Our results suggest that NOTCH2 and FLT3 mis-splicing is a common characteristic of AML and has the potential to generate transcripts encoding proteins with altered function. Thus, splice variants of these genes might provide disease markers and targets for novel therapeutics. PMID:24574459

  9. Marine-to-lacustrine transition, mud volcanism, and slope instability in an active tectonic setting: the MIS 5 to 4 transition in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grall, Céline; Henry, Pierre; Kendé, Julia; Namık Çaǧatay, M.; Kadir Eriş, K.; Paillès, Christine; Sorlien, Christopher; Shillington, Donna; McHugh, Cecilia; Steckler, Michael; Çifçi, Günay; Géli, Louis

    2016-04-01

    MTDs. At the transition from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 to 4, sea-level fell from 25 to 85 m below the modern sea-level resulting in the disconnection of the Sea of Marmara. Sapropels deposited on the shelf before the disconnection and are attributed to MIS-5 (Cagatay et al. 2009). Grall et al, (2014) proposed that MTDs found above the Red-H1 were deposited at the beginning of MIS-4 at ~70 ka and that MTD complexes found during earlier glacial cycles also accumulated after marine to lacustrine-disconnections, possibly in relation with hydrate dissociation and/or clay swelling. Buried mud volcanoes located within the NNAF damage zone pierce the Red-H1 reflector but not the reflector above, suggesting that the last main eruption may also happens at the beginning of MIS-4. We will present preliminary assessment of the paleoenvironmental changes across the MIS-5 to 4 transition from bio-indicators and geochemistry.

  10. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

    2010-05-01

    to the sea level, in lagoonal to alluvial environments. There are only few age estimates available. Several shells from the lower terraces are currently being dated. A Calcic Luvisol developed on the terrace T1 (terminology according to Brückner, 1980), which is attributed to MIS 5.1. The next higher terraces T2 and T3 are characterised by progressive soil evolution, in particular increasing rubification and clay translocation. In some locations, loess accumulated on the terraces, as observed in the profile Petrulla on T1. According to OSL datings by Zander et al. (2006), the loess at this site accumulated between 24.9 ka BP and <16 ka BP, i.e. during the LGM. A yellowish-brown Calcic Luvisol developed in the loess. Thus, the soils reflect rather the interglacial soil formation in a Mediterranean environment than the glacial soil formation in a steppe environment. References Allen, J.R.M., Watts, W.A., Huntley, B. (2000): Weichelian palynostratigraphy, palaeovegetation and palaeoenvironment; the record from Lago Grande di Monticchio, southern Italy. Quaternary International, 73/74: 91-110. Brückner, H., 1980. Marine Terrassen in Süditalien. Eine quartärmorphologische Studie über das Küstentiefland von Metapont. Düsseldorfer Geographische Schriften, 14, 235 p. Di Donato, V., Esposito, P., Russo-Ermolli, E., Scarano, A., Cheddadi, R. (2008): Coupled atmospheric and marine palaeoclimatic reconstruction for the last 35 ka in the Sele Plain - Gulf of Salerno area (southern Italy). Quaternary International, 190: 146-157. Follieri, M., Giardini, M., Magri, D., Sadori, L. (1998): Palynostratigraphy of the last glacial period in the volcanic region of central Italy. Quaternary International, 47/48: 3-20. Zander, A., Fülling, A., Brückner, H. & Mastronuzzi, G. (2006): OSL dating of Upper Pleistocene littoral sediments: a contribution to the chronostratigraphy of raised marine terraces bordering the Gulf of Taranto, South Italy. Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria

  11. A multiple-approach radiometric age estimate for the Rotoiti and Earthquake Flat eruptions, New Zealand, with implications for the MIS 4/3 boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, C.J.N.; Rhoades, D.A.; Lanphere, M.A.; Calvert, A.T.; Houghton, B.F.; Weaver, S.D.; Cole, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Pyroclastic fall deposits of the paired Rotoiti and Earthquake Flat eruptions from the Taupo Volcanic Zone (New Zealand) combine to form a widespread isochronous horizon over much of northern New Zealand and the southwest Pacific. This horizon is important for correlating climatic and environmental changes during the Last Glacial period, but has been the subject of numerous disparate age estimates between 35.1??2.8 and 71??6 ka (all errors are 1 s.d.), obtained by a variety of techniques. A potassium-argon (K-Ar) age of 64??4 ka was previously determined on bracketing lavas at Mayor Island volcano, offshore from the Taupo Volcanic Zone. We present a new, more-precise 40Ar/39Ar age determination on a lava flow on Mayor Island, that shortly post-dates the Rotoiti/Earthquake Flat fall deposits, of 58.5??1.1 ka. This value, coupled with existing ages from underlying lavas, yield a new estimate for the age of the combined eruptions of 61.0??1.4 ka, which is consistent with U-Th disequilibrium model-age data for zircons from the Rotoiti deposits. Direct 40Ar/39Ar age determinations of plagioclase and biotite from the Rotoiti and Earthquake Flat eruption products yield variable values between 49.6??2.8 and 125.3??10.0 ka, with the scatter attributed to low radiogenic Ar yields, and/or alteration, and/or inheritance of xenocrystic material with inherited Ar. Rotoiti/Earthquake Flat fall deposits occur in New Zealand in association with palynological indicators of mild climate, attributed to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 and thus used to suggest an age that is post-59 ka. The natures of the criteria used to define the MIS 4/3 boundary in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, however, imply that the new 61 ka age for the Rotoiti/Earthquake Flat eruption deposits will provide the inverse, namely, a more accurate isochronous marker for correlating diverse changes across the MIS 4/3 boundary in the southwest Pacific. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Burried MIS 5 abrasion platforms in the Bay of Koper (Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic) confirm long-term subsidence of the Northern Adriatic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trobec, Ana; Šmuc, Andrej; Poglajen, Sašo; Vrabec, Marko

    2016-04-01

    The youngest seafloor sediments of the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic) are represented by an up to several 100 meters thick succession of Pliocene to Quaternary continental and shallow-marine deposits recording numerous transgressive-regressive cycles. These sediments are separated from older lithologies (mainly Eocene flysch) by an erosional unconformity. Previous geophysical campaigns conducted in the Italian part of the Gulf of Trieste revealed a complex undulating morphology of the unconformity characterised by numerous morphological steps in the flysch appearing between 40 and 200 m below sea level. From correlation with onshore well data from the Friuli and Veneto area it is assumed that the highest system of these unconformities located at approximately 40 mbsl represents a marine abrasion platform formed during the MIS 5 period sea-level highstand. We present the first observations of these abrasion platforms in the Bay of Koper in the southern (Slovenian) part of the Gulf of Trieste. A series of perpendicular sub-bottom sonar profiles with a spacing of 250-500 meters was acquired in the Bay of Koper between 2009 and 2012 with the Innomar parametric sediment echo sounder SES-2000. Along the northern coast of the bay several acoustic facies were resolved, including the top erosional unconformity surface of the flysch. On this surface we located platforms at 35 ms (platform A), 40 ms (platform B) and 50 ms (platform C) of two-way-travel time. The top of abrasion platform B coincides with the top of a sediment progradational wedge which overlies abrasion platform C. No progradational wedge is developed at the top of platform A. Due to signal attenuation and multiples sub-bottom profiles could not be interpreted below 53 ms TWT time. We used a sound velocity of 1650 m/s for the time to depth conversion, which places the platforms at the depth of 28, 33 and 41 mbsl, respectively. Assuming that the abrasion platforms are a remnant of the MIS 5 highstand, this

  13. Capacitance-voltage characteristics of (Al/Ti)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/n-GaN MIS structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A. Potapov, A. S.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Lundin, V. V.; Sakharov, A. V.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.; Afanas’ev, A. V.; Romanov, A. A.; Osachev, E. V.

    2015-08-15

    The capacitance-voltage characteristics of (Al/Ti)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/n-GaN metal—insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures are measured and analyzed. n-Type GaN films are grown on sapphire (0001) substrates by the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method. An aluminum-oxide layer with a thickness of 60 nm is deposited onto the surface of GaN by the method of atomic-layer deposition from the gas phase. Metallic contacts are deposited by the electron-beam evaporation of titanium and aluminum in vacuum. According to the measurement results, the breakdown-field strength of the oxide, its dielectric constant, and the integrated electron density of states at the oxide-semiconductor interface are 5 × 10{sup 6} V/cm, 7.5, and 3 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}, respectively.

  14. Study of gap states in a-Si:H alloys by measurements of photoconductivity and spectral response of MIS solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vanier, P.E.; Delahoy, A.E.; Griffith, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A picture of the density of gap states n(E) in glow discharge a-Si:H is constructed using four different kinds of transport measurement on a large number of samples. The minimum in n(E) lies 0.4 eV below E/sub c/, rather than in the middle of the gap. A distribution of fast recombination centers lies at mid-gap, and two sets of hole traps lie between mid-gap and the valence band. Modifications in n(E) have been studied by the effects of selected impurities on the conversion efficiency and spectral response of MIS and p-i-n solar cells.

  15. Analysis of interface states of Al/TiO2/Si0.3Ge0.7 MIS structures using the conductance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Bera, M. K.; Bose, P. K.; Maiti, C. K.

    2006-03-01

    TiO2 films have been deposited at a low temperature (~150 °C) using titanium tetrakis isopropoxide (TTIP) as an organometallic precursor on Si0.3Ge0.7 heterolayers by a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition system. Interfacial properties of the as-deposited films have been characterized using capacitance-voltage and conductance-voltage techniques measured at different frequencies. The energy distribution of interface states and the relaxation time have been determined from Gp/ω versus ω analysis. A Dit level of Al/TiO2/SiGe MIS capacitors in the range of 2.87 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 (in EC-0.446) eV to 5.04 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 (in EC-0.696) eV has been observed from conductance measurements.

  16. Application of ICP-SFMS, ICP-AES integrate method to the geochemical characterization of ANDRILL-MIS oceanic sediment samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugi, F.; Castellano, E.; Marino, F.; Ghedini, C.; Severi, M.; Becagli, S.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.

    2009-12-01

    An integrated system for the determination of 39 major and trace (including Rare Earths Elements -REE) metals in soils and marine sediments was set up by using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrophotometry (ICP - AES) devices, in order to achieve an extensive geochemical characterization. Major elements, in particular silicon, are also quantified with PIXE technique. Method selectivity, accuracy and reproducibility was evaluated analyzing six certified materials: Basalt, Hawaiian Volcanic Observatory (BHVO-1); Japanese Andesite (JA-2); Montana Soil (NIST 2711); Antarctic Sediment (CRM-MURST-ISS-A1); Antarctic Sediment (GBW 073113) e Antarctic Sediment (NIST 2702); after mineralization with fluoridric, nitric and perchloric acids on hot plate. The choice of the isotope (ICP-SFMS) or wavelength (ICP-AES) was addressed obtaining the best compromise between high sensitivity and suitable selectivity for the metal determination. Particular care was paid in optimizing analytical quantification of each species, because of the huge difference in concentration of major and trace elements in geological samples. For ICP-SFMS, high resolution (10,000 m/Δm) was selected for all metals to avoid isobaric interferences. An accurate blank evaluation was carried out, especially for metals present at sub-ppb levels in the extract solutions (REE and other trace elements). The obtained operative blank values included sample manipulation and digestion, reagent content and analytical procedures. ICP-SFMS and ICP-AES methods were applied to the characterization of the geochemical composition of sample from the first 90 m of Mc Murdo Ice Shelf (MIS) marine core, in the framework of the ANDRILL (ANtarctic DRILLing) Project. This international project aims to study the role of the Antarctic Continent within the global climatic system, by the recovery and analysis of two deep sediment cores (named MIS

  17. Temperature dependent electrical characterisation of Pt/HfO{sub 2}/n-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) Schottky diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Shetty, Arjun Vinoy, K. J.; Roul, Basanta; Mukundan, Shruti; Mohan, Lokesh; Chandan, Greeshma; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2015-09-15

    This paper reports an improvement in Pt/n-GaN metal-semiconductor (MS) Schottky diode characteristics by the introduction of a layer of HfO{sub 2} (5 nm) between the metal and semiconductor interface. The resulting Pt/HfO{sub 2}/n-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) Schottky diode showed an increase in rectification ratio from 35.9 to 98.9(@ 2V), increase in barrier height (0.52 eV to 0.63eV) and a reduction in ideality factor (2.1 to 1.3) as compared to the MS Schottky. Epitaxial n-type GaN films of thickness 300nm were grown using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The crystalline and optical qualities of the films were confirmed using high resolution X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. Metal-semiconductor (Pt/n-GaN) and metal-insulator-semiconductor (Pt/HfO{sub 2}/n-GaN) Schottky diodes were fabricated. To gain further understanding of the Pt/HfO{sub 2}/GaN interface, I-V characterisation was carried out on the MIS Schottky diode over a temperature range of 150 K to 370 K. The barrier height was found to increase (0.3 eV to 0.79 eV) and the ideality factor decreased (3.6 to 1.2) with increase in temperature from 150 K to 370 K. This temperature dependence was attributed to the inhomogeneous nature of the contact and the explanation was validated by fitting the experimental data into a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights.

  18. Characterization of a rapid climate shift at the MIS 8/7 transition in central Spain (Valdocarros II, Autonomous Region of Madrid) by means of the herpetological assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Panera, Joaquin; Uribelarrea, David; Rubio-Jara, Susana; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2012-07-01

    Climate instability with high-amplitude and rapid shifts during the Middle Pleistocene is well known from pollen records and deep-ocean sediment cores. Although poorly correlatable with such long climate/environment records, the successive fossil amphibian and reptile assemblages from the Middle Pleistocene site of Valdocarros II (Autonomous Region of Madrid, central Spain) provide a unique opportunity to characterize the climatic and environmental features of such rapid (certainly less than 1000 years) shifts from cold to warm conditions in a terrestrial sequence. As the amphibians and reptiles do not differ at species level from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. In this paper, the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods are applied to the herpetofaunistic assemblages in order to estimate quantitative data. The difference in mean annual temperature between "cold" and "warm" periods is estimated at 3.2 °C, with a greater increase in temperature during winter (+3 °C) than during summer (+1 °C). During "cold" periods the climate was more Oceanic (although preserving some dryness during the summers), whereas during "warm" periods the climate became Mediterranean (with mild winters and a long period of dryness in the summer and early autumn). Though higher during cold periods, the continentality (or atmospheric temperature range) remained roughly similar, in accordance with the geographical location of the site in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. A greater amount of open landscape occurred during "cold" periods, whereas during "warm" periods the wooded areas expanded from 20% to 40% of the landscape surface. Such climatic/environmental changes, together with the numeric datings of the site, suggest that this shift may correspond to the transition from MIS 8 to MIS 7, also called Termination III.

  19. Mitotic Spindle Defects and Chromosome Mis-Segregation Induced by LDL/Cholesterol—Implications for Niemann-Pick C1, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Granic, Antoneta; Potter, Huntington

    2013-01-01

    Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol is a risk factor for both Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Atherosclerosis (CVD), suggesting a common lipid-sensitive step in their pathogenesis. Previous results show that AD and CVD also share a cell cycle defect: chromosome instability and up to 30% aneuploidy–in neurons and other cells in AD and in smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaques in CVD. Indeed, specific degeneration of aneuploid neurons accounts for 90% of neuronal loss in AD brain, indicating that aneuploidy underlies AD neurodegeneration. Cell/mouse models of AD develop similar aneuploidy through amyloid-beta (Aß) inhibition of specific microtubule motors and consequent disruption of mitotic spindles. Here we tested the hypothesis that, like upregulated Aß, elevated LDL/cholesterol and altered intracellular cholesterol homeostasis also causes chromosomal instability. Specifically we found that: 1) high dietary cholesterol induces aneuploidy in mice, satisfying the hypothesis’ first prediction, 2) Niemann-Pick C1 patients accumulate aneuploid fibroblasts, neurons, and glia, demonstrating a similar aneugenic effect of intracellular cholesterol accumulation in humans 3) oxidized LDL, LDL, and cholesterol, but not high-density lipoprotein (HDL), induce chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy in cultured cells, including neuronal precursors, indicating that LDL/cholesterol directly affects the cell cycle, 4) LDL-induced aneuploidy requires the LDL receptor, but not Aß, showing that LDL works differently than Aß, with the same end result, 5) cholesterol treatment disrupts the structure of the mitotic spindle, providing a cell biological mechanism for its aneugenic activity, and 6) ethanol or calcium chelation attenuates lipoprotein-induced chromosome mis-segregation, providing molecular insights into cholesterol’s aneugenic mechanism, specifically through its rigidifying effect on the cell membrane, and potentially explaining why ethanol

  20. Aligning and synchronization of MIS5 proxy records from Lake Ohrid (FYROM) with independently dated Mediterranean archives: implications for DEEP core chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchetta, Giovanni; Regattieri, Eleonora; Giaccio, Biagio; Wagner, Bernd; Sulpizio, Roberto; Francke, Alex; Vogel, Hendrik; Sadori, Laura; Masi, Alessia; Sinopoli, Gaia; Lacey, Jack H.; Leng, Melanie J.; Leicher, Niklas

    2016-05-01

    The DEEP site sediment sequence obtained during the ICDP SCOPSCO project at Lake Ohrid was dated using tephrostratigraphic information, cyclostratigraphy, and orbital tuning through the marine isotope stages (MIS) 15-1. Although this approach is suitable for the generation of a general chronological framework of the long succession, it is insufficient to resolve more detailed palaeoclimatological questions, such as leads and lags of climate events between marine and terrestrial records or between different regions. Here, we demonstrate how the use of different tie points can affect cyclostratigraphy and orbital tuning for the period between ca. 140 and 70 ka and how the results can be correlated with directly/indirectly radiometrically dated Mediterranean marine and continental proxy records. The alternative age model presented here shows consistent differences with that initially proposed by Francke et al. (2015) for the same interval, in particular at the level of the MIS6-5e transition. According to this new age model, different proxies from the DEEP site sediment record support an increase of temperatures between glacial to interglacial conditions, which is almost synchronous with a rapid increase in sea surface temperature observed in the western Mediterranean. The results show how a detailed study of independent chronological tie points is important to align different records and to highlight asynchronisms of climate events. Moreover, Francke et al. (2016) have incorporated the new chronology proposed for tephra OH-DP-0499 in the final DEEP age model. This has reduced substantially the chronological discrepancies between the DEEP site age model and the model proposed here for the last glacial-interglacial transition.

  1. Calcium carbonate production and sea surface dynamics during MIS 9 to 13 in the Southern Ocean: Evidence from calcareous nannofossils and sediment geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, J.; Sierro, F. J.; Filippelli, G. M.; Latimer, J. C.

    2001-12-01

    The calcareous nannofossils (CN-present day coccolithophores) as autotrophic phytoplankton inhabitant of the photic zone, have demonstrate to be an excellent tool fort paleoceanografic reconstructions. However, this fossil group is susceptible of dissolution due to their calcium carbonate composition. Here we shown a comparative study between CN and different geochemical proxies in order to estimate, 1) degree of dissolution in the CN assemblages, and 2) the contribution the primary production of these organisms and their relationship with surface-water dynamics. We analyzed several cores along the Atlantic and Pacific sectors (Subantarctic) in the Southern Ocean, for the interval comprise between MIS 9 to 13, paying special attention to ODP Site 1089 (Cape Basin). This interval is characterized in the whole ocean by a dominance of Gephyrocapsa caribbeanica (a small but robust and well-calcified placolith). Although the record of CN is continuous, we observed important fluctuations in the degree of preservation in the CN assemblages, that during interglacial periods shown high to moderate dissolution. Conversely, glacials are characterized by moderate to good CN preservation. It is interesting to note that during Terminations IV and V, we observed maxima in CN accumulation, but with moderate preservation. This pattern allow us to propose that maxima in CN production occurs during Terminations. These data agree with the geochemical data such as P/Ti ratio and Sr concentration. These proxies, not affected by dissolution, show peaks during Terminations IV and V. Although, according with the available information, maximum production of calcium carbonate in the ocean is referred to interglacial period. In the case of MIS 11, related with the so-called Mid-Brunhes event", we discuss the possibility that the dissolution interval occurring at this time was related with high production of calcium carbonate and burial in the ocean, and a consequent rising of CCD and

  2. Constraining Seasonal and Vertical Distributions of Planktonic Foraminifera for Paleoclimate Reconstruction Since MIS3 at the Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. L.; Ravelo, A. C.; Clague, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The California Current is an upwelling region with dynamic interactions between circulation, biological productivity and ecology. A 77 cm piston push core was taken from the Juan de Fuca Ridge Axial Seamount using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) (2213m, 45.55º N, 130.08º W), an active submarine volcano ~480 km off Oregon's coast. Five radiocarbon dates indicate that the sediment ranges from 42.6 ka at 77 cm to 17.6 ka at 15 cm, with an average sediment accumulation rate of 2.47 cm/ka from 77-15 cm, and an average rate of 0.85 cm/ka during the postglacial period (<17.6 ka). Multiple species of planktic foraminifera from the core representing subtropical, subartic, and arctic fauna have been used to constrain changes in vertical and seasonal temperature since Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3). Measurements of δ18O of the upwelling species Globigerina bulloides, the thermocline dwelling species Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, and the warm mixed-layer species Orbulina universa are offset from each other, reflecting vertical and seasonal variation among the planktonic foraminifera. Of the three species, G. bulloides shows the least variation in δ18O, possibly indicating that marked changes in temperature are masking changes in the δ18O of seawater due to global ice volume changes. G. bulloides and O. universa δ18O values are similar in MIS 3 and diverge with time, indicating the development of strong seasonal succession of species, since the last glacial maximum. Bulk nitrogen isotopes and nitrogen flux provide additional constraints on upwelling strength and insight into local biological productivity and nutrient dynamics. Obtaining Mg/Ca data will clarify the δ 18O interpretation except deep in the core where metal-bearing authigenic precipitates affect Mg concentrations. These climatic proxies together provide insight into how global climate change and local seamount volcanism impacts regional productivity in the California Current.

  3. A Mg/Ca reconstruction of intermediate water temperature from the western North Atlantic during MIS 3: Heinrich events triggered by oceanic "low blows"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcott, S. A.; Clark, P. U.; Padman, L.; Klinkhammer, G. P.; Ungerer, A.; Schmittner, A.; Padman, J.

    2008-12-01

    Distinct IRD layers in North Atlantic sediment cores identify several Heinrich events derived from the Laurentide Ice Sheet during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3). The mechanism associated with the initiation of these events is commonly thought to be related to internal ice sheet instabilities. However, Heinrich events consistently occur following a cooling trend that culminates in cold events of Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles, thus suggesting a possible trigger by climate. Recent work has proposed ocean mechanisms as potential triggers, either through sea level rise or warming of intermediate waters associated with a collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Both triggers are thought to destabilize ice shelves, which in turn would induce ice stream surging and ice sheet drawdown. There appears to be a smaller sensitivity of ice shelf stability to sea level rise than previously thought, however, suggesting that ocean temperature may play the more important role in destabilization. Here we report Mg/Ca and δ18O results from benthic foraminifera from site EW93-2JPC (water depth = 1250 m) near the Flemish Cap off the eastern Canadian coast. These data reveal significant changes during MIS 3 at the time of several Heinrich events, consistent with ice-shelf collapse triggered by greater basal melt as the subsurface ocean warms. We use a coupled ocean/ice-shelf model, for a specific geometry of an ice shelf filling Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea based on Hulbe (1997), to explore the sensitivity of basal melt rate to modeled changes in intermediate water temperature. The model includes tides as a source of mixing contributing to basal melt. The subsurface warming increases net basal melt by about 30% relative to the cold-ocean case. Net melt is, however, an order of magnitude too high to balance the influx of ice through the Hudson Strait, suggesting that the "steady-state" ice shelf is much smaller than used in these models.

  4. Mitotic spindle defects and chromosome mis-segregation induced by LDL/cholesterol-implications for Niemann-Pick C1, Alzheimer's disease, and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Granic, Antoneta; Potter, Huntington

    2013-01-01

    Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol is a risk factor for both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Atherosclerosis (CVD), suggesting a common lipid-sensitive step in their pathogenesis. Previous results show that AD and CVD also share a cell cycle defect: chromosome instability and up to 30% aneuploidy-in neurons and other cells in AD and in smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaques in CVD. Indeed, specific degeneration of aneuploid neurons accounts for 90% of neuronal loss in AD brain, indicating that aneuploidy underlies AD neurodegeneration. Cell/mouse models of AD develop similar aneuploidy through amyloid-beta (Aß) inhibition of specific microtubule motors and consequent disruption of mitotic spindles. Here we tested the hypothesis that, like upregulated Aß, elevated LDL/cholesterol and altered intracellular cholesterol homeostasis also causes chromosomal instability. Specifically we found that: 1) high dietary cholesterol induces aneuploidy in mice, satisfying the hypothesis' first prediction, 2) Niemann-Pick C1 patients accumulate aneuploid fibroblasts, neurons, and glia, demonstrating a similar aneugenic effect of intracellular cholesterol accumulation in humans 3) oxidized LDL, LDL, and cholesterol, but not high-density lipoprotein (HDL), induce chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy in cultured cells, including neuronal precursors, indicating that LDL/cholesterol directly affects the cell cycle, 4) LDL-induced aneuploidy requires the LDL receptor, but not Aß, showing that LDL works differently than Aß, with the same end result, 5) cholesterol treatment disrupts the structure of the mitotic spindle, providing a cell biological mechanism for its aneugenic activity, and 6) ethanol or calcium chelation attenuates lipoprotein-induced chromosome mis-segregation, providing molecular insights into cholesterol's aneugenic mechanism, specifically through its rigidifying effect on the cell membrane, and potentially explaining why ethanol

  5. The ESA Mice in Space (MIS) habitat: effects of cage confinement on neuromusculoskeletal structure and function and stress/behavior using wild-type C57Bl/6JRj mice in a modular science reference model (MSRM) test on ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blottner, Dieter; Vico, Laurence; Jamon, D. Berckmansp L. Vicop Y. Liup R. Canceddap M.

    Background: Environmental conditions likely affect physiology and behaviour of mice used for Life Sciences Research on Earth and in Space. Thus, mice habitats with sufficient statistical numbers should be developed for adequate life support and care and that should meet all nesces-sary ethical and scientific requirements needed to successfully perform animal experimentation in Space. Aim of study: We here analysed the effects of cage confinement on the weightbear-ing musculoskeletal system, behaviour and stress of wild-type mice (C57BL/6JRj, 30 g b.wt., total n = 24) housed for 25 days in a prototypical ground-based MSRM (modular science ref-erence module) in the frame of breadboard activities for a fully automated life support habitat called "Mice in Space" (MIS) at the Leuven University, Belgium. Results: Compared with control housing (individually ventilated cages, IVC-mice) the MIS mice revealed no significant changes in soleus muscle size and myofiber distribution (type I vs. II) and quality of bone (3-D microarchitecture and mineralisation of calvaria, spine and femur) determined by confocal and micro-computed tomography. Corticosterone metabolism measured non-invasively (faeces) monitored elevated adrenocortical activity at only start of the MIS cage confinement (day 1). Behavioural tests (i.e., grip strength, rotarod, L/D box, elevated plus-maze, open field, ag-gressiveness) performed subsequently revealed only minor changes in motor performance (MIS vs. controls). Conclusions: The MIS habitat will not, on its own, produce major effects that could confound interpretation of data induced by microgravity exposure on orbit as planned for future biosatellite programmes. Sponsors: ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL

  6. Vegetation and climate change inferred from two marine pollen records in the low latitude west Pacific during the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Y.; Li, J.; Jian, Z.; Chu, F.; Kuhnt, W.; Chu, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The climate change in the low latitude area since the last glacial is one of the most hotspot for Quaternary climate research, and the West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) is thought to play a key role in the propagation and amplification of climate changes through its influence on the global distribution of heat and water vapour. Meanwhile tropical vegetation is the most outstanding and obvious feature of South-East Asian landscapes, is expected to provide valuable information for the palaeoclmatic conditions. Pollen records from the tropical West Pacific indicate that the tropical vegetation is much sensitive to the environment and climate change, and their good correspondence with palaeocliamte change in glacial/interglacial timescales. Due to the low resolution of sediment cores, few of previous vegetation studies concerned on rapid climate change. In this study, pollen analysis from the sediment cores MD06-3075 retrieved from the Davao Gulf off Southern Philippine and MD98-2178 from western Sulawesi sea are used to reconstruct the vegetation and climate history of the tropical West Pacific and short timescale variation during the MIS 3. Based on AMS14C dating and plankton foraminifera oxygen isotope, the sedimentary records of the last 50,000 years at station MD06-3075 was obtained with a sample resolution of 400 years; records of almost the last 90,000 was included in sediments at station MD98-2178, where pollen analysis includes records of the last 77,000 years with a temporal resolution of 400-800 years. Pollen records from these two marine core show significant periodinal changes during MIS 3. The mangrove pollen content increase at 43-39 ka B.P. and 31-29 ka B.P., while the tropical mid-upper montane rainforest pollen decrease at that two periods from MD06-3075. The MD98-2178 record present that those two groups fluctuate during the 57-51 ka B.P., 48-44 ka B.P. and 38-28 ka B.P. Considering the oxygen isotope value and the SSTMg/Ca record , the temperature

  7. Evidence for Millennial-Scale Climate Variability in the Surface Waters Above ODP Site 980, NE Atlantic Ocean During the Last Glacial Interval (MIS 4-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, J. R.; Cullen, J. L.; McManus, J. F.; Oppo, D. W.

    2004-05-01

    Successful efforts to recover quality high sedimentation rate deep-sea sediment sections from the North Atlantic over the last decade have produced a number of studies demonstrating that climate instability at sub-orbital and even millennial time-scales is a pervasive component of Late Pleistocene North Atlantic climate. This is particularly true during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 4-2, i.e., the last glacial interval. One such high sedimentation rate section was recovered at ODP Site 980, Northeast Atlantic Ocean where sedimentation rates during MIS 4-2 exceed 15cm/kyr. Recently, we have begun to generate more detailed records from MIS 4-2 at Site 980 by reducing our sampling interval from 20 to around 2.5 cm, improving the resolution of our records an order of magnitude, from 1200-1300 to 100-200 years. 300 samples were used to generate high resolution records of changes in the input of ice-rafted detritus (IRD), along with limited data documenting changes in the relative abundance of the N. pachyderma, left coiling, which can be evaluated within the context of our previously generated lower resolution planktic and benthic oxygen isotope records used to generate our age model for this interval. Our previously published low resolution IRD record enabled us to identify Heinrich events 1-6 within the sediment interval deposited during the last glacial. Each event is characterized by IRD concentrations ranging from 500 to over 2500 lithic grains >150 microns per gram sediment. Superimposing our new high resolution IRD record reveals that Heinrich events 3,2,1 occurring at approximately 32, 23, and 17 kya, respectively, are each composed of a series of separate abrupt rapid increases in IRD concentrations approaching 1,000 grains per gram. An additional comparable event occurring at approximately 20 kya has also been identified. In the early part of the last glacial H6, H5, and H4 occurring at approximately 66, 47, and 38 kya, respectively, are recorded as much more

  8. Millennial scale precipitation changes over Easter Island (Southern Pacific) during MIS 3: Inter-hemispheric connections during North Atlantic abrupt cold events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margalef, Olga; Cacho, Isabel; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Pueyo, Juan Jose; Sáez, Alberto; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 climate has been globally characterized by the occurrence of millennial-scale climate variations defined over North Atlantic as Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events. Despite climate variability has been broadly explored over North Atlantic records, the response of the tropical and subtropical latitudes, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, still remains as a matter of debate. Rano Aroi peat record (Easter Island, Chile, 27°S) provides a unique opportunity to understand Southern Pacific atmospheric and oceanic changes during these stadial-interstadial transitions because of its exceptional location on the interplay of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the South Pacific Anticyclone (SPA) and the Southern Westerlies (SW). Rano Aroi record contains 8 main enhanced precipitation events between 70 and 40 kyr BP that can be correlated with the timing of Heinrich events 5, 5a and 6 as well as other cold stadials. These humid events are also present in other Southern Hemisphere continental sites and correspond to dry periods on Northern Hemisphere records. This opposite hydrologic trend has been explained by the latitudinal migration of ITCZ and has been supported by several climatic models. As Easter Island precipitation is mainly dependent on SPCZ storm track belt activity, we suggest that the southern migration of the ITCZ is associated to an expansion of SPCZ to the east. This process should be intimately related to a weakening of the Walker circulation, which is further supported by an estimation of d18Osw gradient along the equator for the same time period. Consequently, atmospheric and oceanic responses during these cold stadials and Heinrich events might lead to a configuration that resembles the warm ENSO state over Southern Pacific, as previously suggested by some global climatic models. Rano Aroi record clearly points out that shifts in hydrological cycle in tropical Southern

  9. Awakening to Opportunities in International Business: A Title VI-B Grant and Partnership Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Joan; Rutz, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Subsequent to hurricane Katrina, Mississippi Gulf Coast businesses are rebuilding and rewriting rules. This catastrophic event has offered the coast a tremendous opportunity to write new rules furthering the redevelopment and expansion of international trade through the ports of Gulfport and Pascagoula and the expansion of the tourism industry.

  10. TMAH-based wet surface pre-treatment for reduction of leakage current in AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Young Jun; Seo, Jae Hwa; Cho, Min Su; Kang, Hee-Sung; Won, Chul-Ho; Kang, In Man; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2016-10-01

    The pre-passivation surface treatment process with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)-based wet solution was proposed for the minimization of the leakage current (Ileak) in AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs). This process step contributes to the simultaneous decrease of the surface current (Isurf) in the active region of device and mesa-isolated region by removing the surface states and traps related to nitrogen (N) vacancy, Ga-oxide, and dangling bonds. Using the surface treatment, the fabricated device achieves a lower off-state current (Ioff) of ∼10-12 A/mm, a higher on/off current ratio (Ion/Ioff) of ∼1011, a small subthreshold swing (SS) of 68.4 mV/dec. The reduced Ileak also improves breakdown voltage (BV). In addition, the interface trap density (Dit) between the SiN layer and the AlGaN surface was extracted to evaluate the quality of the SiN/GaN interface, which showed that the treatment decreases the Dit with reduction of the surface defects.

  11. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Lai, Zhongping; Han, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2016-09-01

    Due to lack of reliable proxies from the Westerlies-dominant region, the strength change of Northern Hemisphere Westerlies remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to provide a reliable paleoclimatic proxy about the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies change. Here we report a 30.7 m thick loess section from the Ili basin directly controlled by the Westerlies. Based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and high resolution grain-size records, we reconstruct the change history of the Westerlies strength during the last glacial period (mainly Marine Isotope Stages 2, MIS2), being similar with the Westerlies index recorded in the Qinghai Lake sediments. Within error limits, all ages are in stratigraphic order. We further compare the climatic records among the Ili loess, Qinghai Lake and the NGRIP, their similarity shows a good climatic coupling relationship among the Central Asia, East Asia and the North Atlantic, and the Westerlies plays a critical influence in transporting the North Atlantic signal to Central and East Asia.

  12. Radiometric dating (U/Th) of the lower marine terrace (MIS 5.5) west of Nice (French Riviera): Morphological and neotectonic quantitative implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubar, Michel; Innocent, Christophe; Sivan, Olivier

    2008-11-01

    Measurements of U/Th disequilibrium by mass spectrometry with a plasma source were used for the dating of shells collected on the lower marine terrace to the west of Nice. The dates obtained (129 ± 30 ka) arranged with palaeoclimatic data indicate that this terrace corresponds to the MIS 5.5 (Tyrrhenian pro parte) and can be correlated with the level with Strombus bubonius located to the east of Nice. Thus, a profile of almost 70 km can be restored with precision from altimetric measurements of the deposits and from sedimentological indicators of the sea level. This profile passes from the tectonic foreland of Provence to the front of the Nice Alpine Range after skirting the Pliocene Var Basin. It thus crosses major structural limits. As expected, the deformation of the lower Tyrrhenian terrace consists of a west-to-east uplift with two boundaries: (1): the "Var Fault" located under the Pliocene Basin; and (2): the border fault of the Nice Range. On a regional scale, the uplift appears closely related to the Nice Range activity. It decreases to the east, in the Flyschs zone, then increases again up to the Apennines chain.

  13. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Lai, Zhongping; Han, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2016-01-01

    Due to lack of reliable proxies from the Westerlies-dominant region, the strength change of Northern Hemisphere Westerlies remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to provide a reliable paleoclimatic proxy about the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies change. Here we report a 30.7 m thick loess section from the Ili basin directly controlled by the Westerlies. Based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and high resolution grain-size records, we reconstruct the change history of the Westerlies strength during the last glacial period (mainly Marine Isotope Stages 2, MIS2), being similar with the Westerlies index recorded in the Qinghai Lake sediments. Within error limits, all ages are in stratigraphic order. We further compare the climatic records among the Ili loess, Qinghai Lake and the NGRIP, their similarity shows a good climatic coupling relationship among the Central Asia, East Asia and the North Atlantic, and the Westerlies plays a critical influence in transporting the North Atlantic signal to Central and East Asia. PMID:27586593

  14. Modifications to toxic CUG RNAs induce structural stability, rescue mis-splicing in a myotonic dystrophy cell model and reduce toxicity in a myotonic dystrophy zebrafish model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    deLorimier, Elaine; Coonrod, Leslie A.; Copperman, Jeremy; Taber, Alex; Reister, Emily E.; Sharma, Kush; Todd, Peter K.; Guenza, Marina G.; Berglund, J. Andrew

    2014-10-10

    In this study, CUG repeat expansions in the 3' UTR of dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) cause myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). As RNA, these repeats elicit toxicity by sequestering splicing proteins, such as MBNL1, into protein–RNA aggregates. Structural studies demonstrate that CUG repeats can form A-form helices, suggesting that repeat secondary structure could be important in pathogenicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we utilized structure-stabilizing RNA modifications pseudouridine (Ψ) and 2'-O-methylation to determine if stabilization of CUG helical conformations affected toxicity. CUG repeats modified with Ψ or 2'-O-methyl groups exhibited enhanced structural stability and reduced affinity for MBNL1. Molecular dynamicsmore » and X-ray crystallography suggest a potential water-bridging mechanism for Ψ-mediated CUG repeat stabilization. Ψ modification of CUG repeats rescued mis-splicing in a DM1 cell model and prevented CUG repeat toxicity in zebrafish embryos. This study indicates that the structure of toxic RNAs has a significant role in controlling the onset of neuromuscular diseases.« less

  15. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Analytical charge control model for AlGaN/GaN MIS-HFETs including an undepleted barrier layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenghui, Lu; Jiangfeng, Du; Qian, Luo; Qi, Yu; Wei, Zhou; Jianxin, Xia; Mohua, Yang

    2010-09-01

    An analytical charge control model considering the insulator/AlGaN interface charge and undepleted Al-GaN barrier layer is presented for AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructure field effect transistors (MIS-HFETs) over the entire operation range of gate voltage. The whole process of charge control is analyzed in detail and partitioned into four regions: I—full depletion, II—partial depletion, III—neutral region and IV—electron accumulation at the insulator/AlGaN interface. The results show that two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) saturates at the boundary of region II/III and the gate voltage should not exceed the 2DEG saturation voltage in order to keep the channel in control. In addition, the span of region II accounts for about 50% of the range of gate voltage before 2DEG saturates. The good agreement of the calculated transfer characteristic with the measured data confirms the validity of the proposed model.

  16. Modifications to toxic CUG RNAs induce structural stability, rescue mis-splicing in a myotonic dystrophy cell model and reduce toxicity in a myotonic dystrophy zebrafish model

    SciTech Connect

    deLorimier, Elaine; Coonrod, Leslie A.; Copperman, Jeremy; Taber, Alex; Reister, Emily E.; Sharma, Kush; Todd, Peter K.; Guenza, Marina G.; Berglund, J. Andrew

    2014-10-10

    In this study, CUG repeat expansions in the 3' UTR of dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) cause myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). As RNA, these repeats elicit toxicity by sequestering splicing proteins, such as MBNL1, into protein–RNA aggregates. Structural studies demonstrate that CUG repeats can form A-form helices, suggesting that repeat secondary structure could be important in pathogenicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we utilized structure-stabilizing RNA modifications pseudouridine (Ψ) and 2'-O-methylation to determine if stabilization of CUG helical conformations affected toxicity. CUG repeats modified with Ψ or 2'-O-methyl groups exhibited enhanced structural stability and reduced affinity for MBNL1. Molecular dynamics and X-ray crystallography suggest a potential water-bridging mechanism for Ψ-mediated CUG repeat stabilization. Ψ modification of CUG repeats rescued mis-splicing in a DM1 cell model and prevented CUG repeat toxicity in zebrafish embryos. This study indicates that the structure of toxic RNAs has a significant role in controlling the onset of neuromuscular diseases.

  17. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Lai, Zhongping; Han, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2016-01-01

    Due to lack of reliable proxies from the Westerlies-dominant region, the strength change of Northern Hemisphere Westerlies remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to provide a reliable paleoclimatic proxy about the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies change. Here we report a 30.7 m thick loess section from the Ili basin directly controlled by the Westerlies. Based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and high resolution grain-size records, we reconstruct the change history of the Westerlies strength during the last glacial period (mainly Marine Isotope Stages 2, MIS2), being similar with the Westerlies index recorded in the Qinghai Lake sediments. Within error limits, all ages are in stratigraphic order. We further compare the climatic records among the Ili loess, Qinghai Lake and the NGRIP, their similarity shows a good climatic coupling relationship among the Central Asia, East Asia and the North Atlantic, and the Westerlies plays a critical influence in transporting the North Atlantic signal to Central and East Asia. PMID:27586593

  18. Modifications to toxic CUG RNAs induce structural stability, rescue mis-splicing in a myotonic dystrophy cell model and reduce toxicity in a myotonic dystrophy zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    deLorimier, Elaine; Coonrod, Leslie A; Copperman, Jeremy; Taber, Alex; Reister, Emily E; Sharma, Kush; Todd, Peter K; Guenza, Marina G; Berglund, J Andrew

    2014-11-10

    CUG repeat expansions in the 3' UTR of dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) cause myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). As RNA, these repeats elicit toxicity by sequestering splicing proteins, such as MBNL1, into protein-RNA aggregates. Structural studies demonstrate that CUG repeats can form A-form helices, suggesting that repeat secondary structure could be important in pathogenicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we utilized structure-stabilizing RNA modifications pseudouridine (Ψ) and 2'-O-methylation to determine if stabilization of CUG helical conformations affected toxicity. CUG repeats modified with Ψ or 2'-O-methyl groups exhibited enhanced structural stability and reduced affinity for MBNL1. Molecular dynamics and X-ray crystallography suggest a potential water-bridging mechanism for Ψ-mediated CUG repeat stabilization. Ψ modification of CUG repeats rescued mis-splicing in a DM1 cell model and prevented CUG repeat toxicity in zebrafish embryos. This study indicates that the structure of toxic RNAs has a significant role in controlling the onset of neuromuscular diseases. PMID:25303993

  19. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Lai, Zhongping; Han, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2016-09-02

    Due to lack of reliable proxies from the Westerlies-dominant region, the strength change of Northern Hemisphere Westerlies remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to provide a reliable paleoclimatic proxy about the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies change. Here we report a 30.7 m thick loess section from the Ili basin directly controlled by the Westerlies. Based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and high resolution grain-size records, we reconstruct the change history of the Westerlies strength during the last glacial period (mainly Marine Isotope Stages 2, MIS2), being similar with the Westerlies index recorded in the Qinghai Lake sediments. Within error limits, all ages are in stratigraphic order. We further compare the climatic records among the Ili loess, Qinghai Lake and the NGRIP, their similarity shows a good climatic coupling relationship among the Central Asia, East Asia and the North Atlantic, and the Westerlies plays a critical influence in transporting the North Atlantic signal to Central and East Asia.

  20. A Lower Palaeolithic industry from the Cromerian (MIS 13) Baginton Formation of Waverley Wood and Wood Farm Pits, Bubbenhall, Warwickshire, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, David H.; Hardaker, Terry; Lang, Alexander T. O.

    2006-07-01

    Artefacts of Cromerian (MIS 13) age recovered from extensions to the classic site of Waverley Wood Farm Pit, Warwickshire, give new insights into the Lower Palaeolithic and Pleistocene geological record of the English Midlands. The Baginton Formation in the area to the south and southwest of Coventry has been the major source of Lower Palaeolithic artefacts in the Midlands since the first discoveries in the 1930s. Current sand and gravel workings at Waverley Wood and Wood Farm Pits near the village of Bubbenhall, have provided artefacts of quartzite, andesite and flint together with sparse large mammal material. Some of the Lower Palaeolithic finds were in situ in the succession providing, for the first time, firm evidence of their geological provenance. The variety and number of the artefacts allows detailed evaluation of the largest group of Lower Palaeolithic tools to be found in the West Midlands. The petrology of some of the tools and associated clasts in the gravels at the base of the Baginton Formation allow speculation on the origin of the rock types from northwest and eastern England which may have been brought to the West Midlands by a pre-Anglian glaciation or just possibly by human transport. Copyright

  1. Identification of the correct form of the mis-annotated response regulator Rre1 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Rebeca

    2015-04-01

    Two-component systems have been extensively described in the control of gene expression in response to different environmental signals in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The Hik34-Rre1 two-component system has been shown to regulate a set of genes under certain stress conditions. Some evidence indicates that another histidine kinase, probably Hik2, is acting upstream of Rre1 in the regulation of some genes in response to hyperosmotic and salt stress. In the present study, a mis-annotation of the Rre1 protein has been identified and the correct version has been functionally characterized in vitro. By using EMSA assays, we have demonstrated that phosphorylation of Rre1 by Hik2 increases the affinity of the response regulator for the adhA promoter region, a gene that has been demonstrated previously to be specifically regulated by the Hik34-Rre1 system. These results suggest that Hik2 might cooperate with Hik34 in the regulation of the adhA gene by transferring the phosphoryl group to Rre1 under salt and hyperosmotic stress conditions.

  2. Late-Pleistocene (MIS 3-2) palaeoenvironments as recorded by sediments, palaeosols, and ground-squirrel nests at Duvanny Yar, Kolyma lowland, northeast Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanina, O. G.; Gubin, S. V.; Kuzmina, S. A.; Maximovich, S. V.; Lopatina, D. A.

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study of the Duvanny Yar section in the Kolyma Lowland (Yakutia) provides the most extensive knowledge to date about late-Pleistocene soil formation processes and environments in the North-East Siberian Arctic. Late-Quaternary palaeoenvironmental changes were reconstructed using paleopedological data and a range of palaeoecological bio-indicators (palynomorphs, plant macrofossils and insects). The frozen sediments representing marine isotope stage 3 (MIS-3), which encompasses the Karginsky interstadial, include profiles of four palaeosols of different ages. The oldest palaeosol is early Karginskian, and three overlying soil horizons represent a late-Karginskian pedocomplex. Palaeopedological data indicate a change of from synlithogenic soil formation processes to epigenic ones during these intervals. The intervening periods of synlithogenic pedogenesis were accompanied by active accumulation of eolian deposits. The Earlier Karginskian period of pedogenesis occurred in the absence of eolian sedimentation and when summer conditions were warm. The wide spectrum of peaty and peaty-gley soils observed in the late-Karginskian deposits developed under conditions of progressive cooling. The structure and content of fossil rodent burrows dated to approximately 30 000 yr BP from frozen late-Pleistocene deposits at Duvanny Yar indicate an arid and severe climate, a depth of active layer of 60-80 cm, and a wide distribution of disturbed habitats with pioneer and steppe vegetation.

  3. Peculiarities of Determining the Dopant Concentration in the Near-Surface Layer of a Semiconductor by Measuring the Admittance of MIS Structures Based on P-Hg0.78Cd0.22Te Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    Peculiarities of determining the concentration and distribution profile of dopant in the near-surface layer of a semiconductor by measuring the admittance of MIS structures based on p-Hg0.78Cd0.22Te grown by molecular beam epitaxy are studied. A technique is proposed for the determining the concentration of dopant based on the measurement of the admittance of MIS structures in the frequency range of 50 kHz - 1 MHz. It is shown that in this frequency range, the capacitance-voltage characteristics of MIS structures based on p-Hg0.78Cd0.22Te with a near-surface graded-gap layer have a high- frequency behavior with respect to the recharge time of surface states located near the Fermi level of intrinsic semiconductor. The distribution profile of dopant in the nearsurface layer of the semiconductor is calculated. It is shown that in p-Hg0.78Cd0.22Te with a near-surface graded-gap layer, the dopant concentration has the lowest value near the interface with the insulator.

  4. Summary of the Snowmastodon Project Special Volume. A high-elevation, multi-proxy biotic and environmental record of MIS 6-4 from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Ian M.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Scott Anderson, R.; Johnson, Kirk R.; Mahan, Shannon A.; Ager, Thomas A.; Baker, Richard G.; Blaauw, Maarten; Bright, Jordon; Brown, Peter M.; Bryant, Bruce; Calamari, Zachary T.; Carrara, Paul E.; Cherney, Michael D.; Demboski, John R.; Elias, Scott A.; Fisher, Daniel C.; Gray, Harrison J.; Haskett, Danielle R.; Honke, Jeffrey S.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Kline, Douglas; Leonard, Eric M.; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Lucking, Carol; Gregory McDonald, H.; Miller, Dane M.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Nash, Stephen E.; Newton, Cody; Paces, James B.; Petrie, Lesley; Plummer, Mitchell A.; Porinchu, David F.; Rountrey, Adam N.; Scott, Eric; Sertich, Joseph J. W.; Sharpe, Saxon E.; Skipp, Gary L.; Strickland, Laura E.; Stucky, Richard K.; Thompson, Robert S.; Wilson, Jim

    2014-11-01

    In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 are rare. Where found, they provide insight into how the coupling of the ocean-atmosphere system is manifested in biotic and environmental records and how the biosphere responds to climate change. In 2010-2011, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA) revealed a nearly continuous, lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~ 140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site also contained thousands of well-preserved bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and bighorn sheep. In addition, the site contained more than 26,000 bones from at least 30 species of small animals including salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial and aquatic plant macrofossils, a detailed pollen record, and a robust, directly dated stratigraphic framework shows that high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are climatically sensitive and varied dramatically throughout MIS 5.

  5. Climate variability and volcanic history of the Eastern Romanian Carpathians since early MIS 3 recorded in sediments from Mohoş crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, M.; Veres, D.; Wulf, S.; Papadopoulou, M.; Panagiotopoulos, K.; Schaebitz, F.

    2015-12-01

    We present a 30m long sediment record covering the last ca. 50,000 years from the in-filled Mohoş crater (46°05' N; 25°55' E) located on Ciomadul volcano (Romania) that was retrieved in 2014. The record consists of bog and lacustrine sediments that are inter-bedded with tephra deposits. Ciomadul volcano, hosting the superimposed craters of Mohoş and Sf. Ana, is the youngest volcanic edifice in the Carpathian-Balkan region. Thus, tephra-analysis on the Mohoş sediments gives valuable insights into the volcanic history of that region, mainly arising from the younger crater of Sf Ana and several secondary domes. For investigations into the past climate history, the Mohoş sediment sequence has been analysed using a multi-proxy approach including geophysical, geochemical and sedimentological parameters. Multi-Sensor core logging and ITRAX X-ray fluorescence scanning have been performed at high-resolution, whereas grain size analysis, TOC and C/N ratios supplement the geophysical and geochemical data. Chronological control is based on radiocarbon and luminescence dating. We also present first results of the tephra-analysis on the Mohoş sediment record and their correlation to medium-distal pyroclastic deposits originating in this volcanic field. We further discuss responses of this mid-altitude site (1050 m a.s.l.) to past climate oscillations since early MIS 3. To date, the Mohoş core record provides the longest time series from the Carpathian region. This study is part of the Collaborative Research Centre 806 "Our Way To Europe; Culture-Environment Interaction and Human Mobility in the Late Quaternary" (www.sfb806.de); subproject B2.

  6. Cova del Rinoceront (Castelldefels, Barcelona): a terrestrial record for the Last Interglacial period (MIS 5) in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daura, J.; Sanz, M.; Julià, R.; García-Fernández, D.; Fornós, J. J.; Vaquero, M.; Allué, E.; López-García, J. M.; Blain, H. A.; Ortiz, J. E.; Torres, T.; Albert, R. M.; Rodríguez-Cintas, À.; Sánchez-Marco, A.; Cerdeño, E.; Skinner, A. R.; Asmeron, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Garcés, M.; Arnold, L. J.; Demuro, M.; Pike, A. W. G.; Euba, I.; Rodríguez, R. F.; Yagüe, A. S.; Villaescusa, L.; Gómez, S.; Rubio, A.; Pedro, M.; Fullola, J. M.; Zilhão, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Cova del Rinoceront, a site in NE Iberia, contains a thick sedimentary fill preserving a faunal archive from the penultimate glacial and the the last interglacial periods. Layers I to III have been dated to between 74 and 147 ka, coinciding with MIS 5a to 5e, a period poorly represented in the Mediterranean terrestrial record. The results from Cova del Rinoceront are of broader interest for the reconstruction of ecological dynamics during warm stages and the understanding of the evolution and geographical variation of several taxa. The palaeoecological evidence suggests a landscape dominated by mixed wooded vegetation with mild climatic conditions, slightly more humid than today. Several vertebrate taxa, including Haploidoceros mediterraneus, Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis and Glis glis, are documented for the first time in the early Upper Pleistocene of Europe, showing that these species persisted across the region for longer than previously thought. In addition, the recovery of a small lithic assemblage indicates human presence in the surroundings of the site. The 11 m-thick stratigraphic section also provides an ideal setting in which to compare several geochronological methods. U-Th dating of the flowstones that cap the deposit, of speleothems formed along the cave walls, and of speleothems buried by the deposit at different elevations provides minimum and maximum ages of 74 and 175 ka, respectively, for the accumulation. The ages obtained by luminescence, electron spin resonance (ESR), amino acid racemisation (AAR), palaeomagnetism and U-series dating of bone are in good agreement with each other and are stratigraphically consistent. This well-dated faunal succession presents a unique opportunity to assess changes in the Pleistocene fauna of the Mediterranean coast over an interval of more than 100 ka.

  7. Millennial-scale precipitation variability over Easter Island (South Pacific) during MIS 3: inter-hemispheric teleconnections with North Atlantic abrupt cold events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margalef, O.; Cacho, I.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Cañellas-Boltà, N.; Pueyo, J. J.; Sáez, A.; Pena, L. D.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Rull, V.; Giralt, S.

    2015-04-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 59.4-27.8 kyr BP) is characterized by the occurrence of rapid millennial-scale climate oscillations known as Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles (DO) and by abrupt cooling events in the North Atlantic known as Heinrich events. Although both the timing and dynamics of these events have been broadly explored in North Atlantic records, the response of the tropical and subtropical latitudes to these rapid climatic excursions, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, still remains unclear. The Rano Aroi peat record (Easter Island, 27° S) provides a unique opportunity to understand atmospheric and oceanic changes in the South Pacific during these DO cycles because of its singular location, which is influenced by the South Pacific Anticyclone (SPA), the Southern Westerlies (SW), and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) linked to the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The Rano Aroi sequence records 6 major events of enhanced precipitation between 38 and 65 kyr BP. These events are compared with other hydrological records from the tropical and subtropical band supporting a coherent regional picture, with the dominance of humid conditions in Southern Hemisphere tropical band during Heinrich Stadials (HS) 5, 5a and 6 and other Stadials while dry conditions prevailed in the Northern tropics. This antiphased hydrological pattern between hemispheres has been attributed to ITCZ migration, which in turn might be associated with an eastward expansion of the SPCZ storm track, leading to an increased intensity of cyclogenic storms reaching Easter Island. Low Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (SST) gradients across the Equator were coincident with the here-defined Rano Aroi humid events and consistent with a reorganization of Southern Pacific atmospheric and oceanic circulation also at higher latitudes during Heinrich and Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials.

  8. Ecosystem regimes and responses in a coupled ancient lake system from MIS 5b to present: the diatom record of lakes Ohrid and Prespa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Jovanovska, Elena; Francke, Alexander; Tofilovska, Slavica; Vogel, Hendrik; Levkov, Zlatko; Donders, Timme H.; Wagner, Bernd; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2016-05-01

    We reconstruct the aquatic ecosystem interactions since the last interglacial period in the oldest, most diverse, hydrologically connected European lake system, by using palaeolimnological diatom and selected geochemistry data from Lake Ohrid "DEEP site" core and equivalent data from Lake Prespa core, Co1215. Driven by climate forcing, the lakes experienced two adaptive cycles during the last 92 ka: "interglacial and interstadial" and "glacial" cycle. The short-term ecosystems reorganizations, e.g. regime shifts within these cycles substantially differ between the lakes, as evident from the inferred amplitudes of variation. The deeper Lake Ohrid shifted between ultra oligo- and oligotrophic regimes in contrast to the much shallower Lake Prespa, which shifted from a deeper, (oligo-) mesotrophic to a shallower, eutrophic lake and vice versa. Due to the high level of ecosystem stability (e.g. trophic state, lake level), Lake Ohrid appears relatively resistant to external forcing, such as climate and environmental change. Recovering in a relatively short time from major climate change, Lake Prespa is a resilient ecosystem. At the DEEP site, the decoupling between the lakes' response to climate change is marked in the prolonged and gradual changes during the MIS 5/4 and 2/1 transitions. These response differences and the lakes' different physical and chemical properties may limit the influence of Lake Prespa on Lake Ohrid. Regime shifts of Lake Ohrid due to potential hydrological change in Lake Prespa are not evident in the data presented here. Moreover, a complete collapse of the ecosystems functionality and loss of their diatom communities did not happen in either lake for the period presented in the study.

  9. Severe cooling episodes at the onset of deglaciations on the Southwestern Iberian margin from MIS 21 to 13 (IODP site U1385)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Garcia, Gloria M.; Alonso-Garcia, Montserrat; Sierro, Francisco J.; Hodell, David A.; Flores, José A.

    2015-12-01

    Here we reconstruct past sea surface water conditions on the SW Iberian Margin by analyzing planktonic foraminifer assemblages from IODP Site U1385 sediments (37°34.285‧N, 10°7.562‧W; 2585 m depth). The data provide a continuous climate record from Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 21 to 13, extending the existing paleoclimate record of the Iberian Margin back to the ninth climatic cycle (867 ka). Millennial-scale variability in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) occurred during interglacial and glacial periods, but with wider amplitude (> 5 °C) at glacial onsets and terminations. Pronounced stadial events were recorded at all deglaciations, during the middle Pleistocene. These events are recorded by large amplitude peaks in the percentage of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral coincident with heavy values of planktonic δ18O and low Ca/Ti ratios. This prominent cooling of surface waters along the Portuguese margin is the result of major reorganizations of North Atlantic surface and deep-water circulation in response to freshwater release to the North Atlantic when ice sheets collapse at the onset of deglaciations. In fact, most of these cooling events occurred at times of maximum or increasing northern Hemisphere summer insolation. The slowdown of deep North Atlantic deep-water formation reduced the northward flow of the warm subtropical North Atlantic Drift, which was recorded on the Iberian margin by enhanced advection of northern cold subpolar waters. Following each episode of severe cooling at the onset of deglaciations, surface water experienced abrupt warming that initiated the climatic optimum during the early phase of interglacials. Abrupt warming was recorded by a sudden increase of the subtropical assemblage that indicates enhanced northward transport of heat through the North Atlantic Drift. At the onset of glaciations, SST along the Portuguese margin remained relatively warm while the surface waters of the North Atlantic experienced cooling, generating a

  10. Shatter cones: (Mis)understood?

    PubMed Central

    Osinski, Gordon R.; Ferrière, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Meteorite impact craters are one of the most common geological features in the solar system. An impact event is a near-instantaneous process that releases a huge amount of energy over a very small region on a planetary surface. This results in characteristic changes in the target rocks, from vaporization and melting to solid-state effects, such as fracturing and shock metamorphism. Shatter cones are distinctive striated conical fractures that are considered unequivocal evidence of impact events. They are one of the most used and trusted shock-metamorphic effects for the recognition of meteorite impact structures. Despite this, there is still considerable debate regarding their formation. We show that shatter cones are present in several stratigraphic settings within and around impact structures. Together with the occurrence of complete and “double” cones, our observations are most consistent with shatter cone formation due to tensional stresses generated by scattering of the shock wave due to heterogeneities in the rock. On the basis of field mapping, we derive the relationship Dsc = 0.4 Da, where Dsc is the maximum spatial extent of in situ shatter cones, and Da is the apparent crater diameter. This provides an important, new, more accurate method to estimate the apparent diameter of eroded complex craters on Earth. We have reestimated the diameter of eight well-known impact craters as part of this study. Finally, we suggest that shatter cones may reduce the strength of the target, thus aiding crater collapse, and that their distribution in central uplifts also records the obliquity of impact. PMID:27532050

  11. Shatter cones: (Mis)understood?

    PubMed

    Osinski, Gordon R; Ferrière, Ludovic

    2016-08-01

    Meteorite impact craters are one of the most common geological features in the solar system. An impact event is a near-instantaneous process that releases a huge amount of energy over a very small region on a planetary surface. This results in characteristic changes in the target rocks, from vaporization and melting to solid-state effects, such as fracturing and shock metamorphism. Shatter cones are distinctive striated conical fractures that are considered unequivocal evidence of impact events. They are one of the most used and trusted shock-metamorphic effects for the recognition of meteorite impact structures. Despite this, there is still considerable debate regarding their formation. We show that shatter cones are present in several stratigraphic settings within and around impact structures. Together with the occurrence of complete and "double" cones, our observations are most consistent with shatter cone formation due to tensional stresses generated by scattering of the shock wave due to heterogeneities in the rock. On the basis of field mapping, we derive the relationship D sc = 0.4 D a, where D sc is the maximum spatial extent of in situ shatter cones, and D a is the apparent crater diameter. This provides an important, new, more accurate method to estimate the apparent diameter of eroded complex craters on Earth. We have reestimated the diameter of eight well-known impact craters as part of this study. Finally, we suggest that shatter cones may reduce the strength of the target, thus aiding crater collapse, and that their distribution in central uplifts also records the obliquity of impact.

  12. Manpower management information system /MIS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravette, M. C.; King, W. L.

    1971-01-01

    System of programs capable of building and maintaining data bank provides all levels of management with regular manpower evaluation reports and data source for special management exercises on manpower.

  13. Shatter cones: (Mis)understood?

    PubMed

    Osinski, Gordon R; Ferrière, Ludovic

    2016-08-01

    Meteorite impact craters are one of the most common geological features in the solar system. An impact event is a near-instantaneous process that releases a huge amount of energy over a very small region on a planetary surface. This results in characteristic changes in the target rocks, from vaporization and melting to solid-state effects, such as fracturing and shock metamorphism. Shatter cones are distinctive striated conical fractures that are considered unequivocal evidence of impact events. They are one of the most used and trusted shock-metamorphic effects for the recognition of meteorite impact structures. Despite this, there is still considerable debate regarding their formation. We show that shatter cones are present in several stratigraphic settings within and around impact structures. Together with the occurrence of complete and "double" cones, our observations are most consistent with shatter cone formation due to tensional stresses generated by scattering of the shock wave due to heterogeneities in the rock. On the basis of field mapping, we derive the relationship D sc = 0.4 D a, where D sc is the maximum spatial extent of in situ shatter cones, and D a is the apparent crater diameter. This provides an important, new, more accurate method to estimate the apparent diameter of eroded complex craters on Earth. We have reestimated the diameter of eight well-known impact craters as part of this study. Finally, we suggest that shatter cones may reduce the strength of the target, thus aiding crater collapse, and that their distribution in central uplifts also records the obliquity of impact. PMID:27532050

  14. Surface exposure chronology of the Waimakariri glacial sequence in the Southern Alps of New Zealand: Implications for MIS-2 ice extent and LGM glacial mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rother, Henrik; Shulmeister, James; Fink, David; Alexander, David; Bell, David

    2015-11-01

    During the late Quaternary, the Southern Alps of New Zealand experienced multiple episodes of glaciation with large piedmont glaciers reaching the coastal plains in the west and expanding into the eastern alpine forelands. Here, we present a new 10Be exposure age chronology for a moraine sequence in the Waimakariri Valley (N-Canterbury), which has long been used as a reference record for correlating glacial events across New Zealand and the wider Southern Hemisphere. Our data indicate that the Waimakariri glacier reached its maximum last glaciation extent prior to ∼26 ka well before the global last glaciation maximum (LGM). This was followed by a gradual reduction in ice volume and the abandonment of the innermost LGM moraines at about 17.5 ka. Significantly, we find that during its maximum extent, the Waimakariri glacier overflowed the Avoca Plateau, previously believed to represent a mid-Pleistocene glacial surface (i.e. MIS 8). At the same time, the glacier extended to a position downstream of the Waimakariri Gorge, some 15 km beyond the previously mapped LGM ice limit. We use a simple steady-state mass balance model to test the sensitivity of past glacial accumulation to various climatic parameters, and to evaluate possible climate scenarios capable of generating the ice volume required to reach the full local-LGM extent. Model outcomes indicate that under New Zealand's oceanic setting, a cooling of 5 °C, assuming modern precipitation levels, or a cooling of 6.5 °C, assuming a one third reduction in precipitation, would suffice to drive the Waimakariri glacier to the eastern alpine forelands (Canterbury Plains). Our findings demonstrate that the scale of LGM glaciation in the Waimakariri Valley and adjacent major catchments, both in terms of ice volume and downvalley ice extent, has been significantly underestimated. Our observation that high-lying glacial surfaces, so far believed to represent much older glacial episodes, were glaciated during the LGM

  15. High-resolution OSL dating of a late Quaternary sequence from Xingkai Lake (NE Asia): Chronological challenge of the "MIS 3a Mega-paleolake" hypothesis in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Hao; Shen, Ji; Wang, Yong; Gao, Lei; Frechen, Manfred

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a combined OSL (49 samples) and 14C (14 samples) dating study was conducted on a sediment core from Xingkai Lake, NE Asia. A single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol was used to determine the equivalent dose (De) of the extracted fine-grained (FG) quartz fraction; the suitability of the measurement procedure was confirmed by a set of luminescence tests (e.g., preheat plateau and dose recovery measurements). In addition, a post-IR infrared stimulated luminescence protocol at 290 °C (pIRIR290) was applied to the polymineral FG fraction of seven samples. Our results can be summarized as follows: (1) The uppermost sample was dated to ∼110 a, indicating that the OSL signal of FG quartz has been well bleached. This has been further confirmed by the consistency of OSL ages and pIRIR290 ages within <80 ka. The resulting OSL ages generally increased with depth, and the lowermost samples of core XK08 reached back to the last interglacial, although the pIRIR290 dating suggested that the quartz OSL ages likely begin to be underestimated beyond 80 ka; (2) The comparison of OSL and 14C ages suggested that the radiocarbon dating technique may significantly underestimate the age of sediments for samples older than 30 cal ka BP (corresponding to ∼25 14C ka BP), and thus it is necessary to pay attention when using such old 14C dates for paleoclimatic/archaeological interpretation; (3) This study challenges the radiocarbon-based chronology of the "MIS 3a Mega-paleolake" hypothesis, which had been reiterated for many years and extensively reported across northern and western China; and (4) The current high-resolution OSL dating record (one-age/5-10 cm) showed clear sedimentation rate changes down the core. The identified variations in the sedimentation processes at the orbital timescale may be related to regional/global climatic changes during the past 130 ka, and the high sedimentation rate during the last ∼0.4 ka has probably been caused by intensified human

  16. Minimizing ultraviolet noise due to mis-matches between detector flow cell and post column mobile phase temperatures in supercritical fluid chromatography: effect of flow cell design.

    PubMed

    Berger, Terry A

    2014-10-17

    A mis-match between the post-column mobile phase temperature and the UV detector flow cell temperature can cause significant UV noise in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Deviations as little as 5 °C can increase noise as much as 5 times, making the detector unsuited for trace analysis. Two approaches were used to minimize this noise. When a flow cell was in direct thermal contact (metal on metal) with the detector optical bench, the mobile phase temperature was actively controlled to the measured flow cell temperature, by using one of the heat exchangers (HX) in the column compartment. However, with some older, but still widely used flow cell designs, this required repeated, hourly monitoring of the flow cell temperature and repeated manual adjustment of the heat exchanger temperature, due to thermal drift. Flow cell design had a strong influence on susceptibility to this thermally induced noise. Thermally insulating the flow cell from the optical bench made some cells much less susceptible to such thermally induced noise. Five different flow cells, some insulated, some un-insulated, were evaluated. Most had a truncated conical flow path, but one had a cylindrical flow path. Using either approach, the ASTM noise, with a 10mm, 13 μL conical flow cell, could be optimized to ≈0.007 mAU at 2.5 Hz, in SFC, which is very near the 0.006 mAU manufacturer's specification for HPLC. The insulated version of this flow cell required far less optimization, compared to the un-insulated version. At 150 bar, an experimental 3mm, 2 μL flow cell, with only one side insulated, yielded noise slightly too high (≈0.16-0.18 mAU) for trace analysis, at 80 Hz. However, at 200 bar, noise at 80 Hz was <0.06 mAU, which should allow quantification of a 1 mAU tall trace component with a signal to noise ratio (S/N) >10. Even partially un-insulated, this flow cell design was much less susceptible to thermally induced noise. Further insulating this flow cell design failed to improve

  17. Processus mis en jeu dans l'evolution morpho-dynamique de Roberts Bank (Delta du Fraser): Observation et modelisation hydrodynamiques et sedimentaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meule, Samuel

    Roberts Bank couvre le delta intertidal entre le bras principal du fleuve Fraser et la pointe du Cap Roberts en Colombie Britannique, Canada. Sous la pression du developpement urbain et la modification du regime sedimentaire, cette plage de sable fin est soumise a une erosion significative. L'identification des forces hydrodynamiques, leur importance et leur interaction permettent de determiner les zones de transport, et donc la stabilite de Roberts Bank. Deux periodes de mesures associees a des phases de modelisation de la houle et des courants ont ete effectuees lors de ce travail. La premiere periode de mesure, entre le 29 juin et le 8 juillet 2001, a permis l'identification de processus hydrodynamiques et sedimentaires associes aux forts courants de maree presents le long de Roberts Bank. La seconde phase de mesure, entre le 1er mars et le 26 mars 2002, a permis d'etudier les processus de remise en suspension associes a la houle. Des phases de modelisation ont ete menees a partir des connaissances acquises sur le terrain, afin d'affiner la comprehension des processus sedimentaires et notamment les interactions houle - courant - sediment. Les mecanismes, mis en evidence dans cette etude, participent au faconnage de Roberts Bank, contribuent a son erosion et a la mise en place de nouvelles structures sedimentaires. Les courants de flot de maree vont initier la creation de nuages de resuspension de sediment depuis le fond. En eau peu profonde, la composante " onshore" du courant de maree induit un transport a la cote, tandis qu'en eau plus profonde une faible composante " offshore" du courant peut favoriser un transport au large le long de la pente. Les chenaux, les dunes subaquatiques et les surfaces d'erosion affleurantes fournissent une rugosite de fond suffisante a la generation de turbulence et donc de nuages de sediment en suspension. Lors de la maree de jusant, les sediments resuspendus en eau peu profonde, sont transportes vers le large a partir d

  18. Minimizing ultraviolet noise due to mis-matches between detector flow cell and post column mobile phase temperatures in supercritical fluid chromatography: effect of flow cell design.

    PubMed

    Berger, Terry A

    2014-10-17

    A mis-match between the post-column mobile phase temperature and the UV detector flow cell temperature can cause significant UV noise in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Deviations as little as 5 °C can increase noise as much as 5 times, making the detector unsuited for trace analysis. Two approaches were used to minimize this noise. When a flow cell was in direct thermal contact (metal on metal) with the detector optical bench, the mobile phase temperature was actively controlled to the measured flow cell temperature, by using one of the heat exchangers (HX) in the column compartment. However, with some older, but still widely used flow cell designs, this required repeated, hourly monitoring of the flow cell temperature and repeated manual adjustment of the heat exchanger temperature, due to thermal drift. Flow cell design had a strong influence on susceptibility to this thermally induced noise. Thermally insulating the flow cell from the optical bench made some cells much less susceptible to such thermally induced noise. Five different flow cells, some insulated, some un-insulated, were evaluated. Most had a truncated conical flow path, but one had a cylindrical flow path. Using either approach, the ASTM noise, with a 10mm, 13 μL conical flow cell, could be optimized to ≈0.007 mAU at 2.5 Hz, in SFC, which is very near the 0.006 mAU manufacturer's specification for HPLC. The insulated version of this flow cell required far less optimization, compared to the un-insulated version. At 150 bar, an experimental 3mm, 2 μL flow cell, with only one side insulated, yielded noise slightly too high (≈0.16-0.18 mAU) for trace analysis, at 80 Hz. However, at 200 bar, noise at 80 Hz was <0.06 mAU, which should allow quantification of a 1 mAU tall trace component with a signal to noise ratio (S/N) >10. Even partially un-insulated, this flow cell design was much less susceptible to thermally induced noise. Further insulating this flow cell design failed to improve

  19. Last Neanderthals and first Anatomically Modern Humans in the NW Iberian Peninsula: Climatic and environmental conditions inferred from the Cova Eirós small-vertebrate assemblage during MIS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey-Rodríguez, Iván; López-García, Juan-Manuel; Bennàsar, Maria; Bañuls-Cardona, Sandra; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Blanco-Lapaz, Ángel; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Xosé-Pedro; de Lombera-Hermida, Arturo; Díaz-Rodríguez, Mikel; Ameijenda-Iglesias, Alicia; Agustí, Jordi; Fábregas-Valcarce, Ramón

    2016-11-01

    Cova Eirós is emerging as a reference site in the northwestern Iberian Peninsula for the study of the development of the last Neanderthal populations and the first populations of Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) in MIS 3. Cova Eirós is an archaeological site (with Middle and Upper Palaeolithic levels) located in Cancelo, Triacastela (Lugo, northwestern Iberian Peninsula), which has been systematically excavated from 2008 onwards. The small-vertebrate assemblage analysed came from the archaeo-palaeontological field seasons that took place from 2009 to 2014. At least 18 small-vertebrate taxa have been identified: 1 frog (Rana temporaria), 1 snake (Vipera sp.), 4 insectivores (Sorex minutus, Sorex sp., Talpa cf. occidentalis and Erinaceus europaeus), 4 chiropters (Myotis myotis/blythii, cf. Miniopterus sp., Myotis sp. and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) and 8 rodents (Apodemus sylvaticus, Arvicola amphibius, Arvicola sapidus, Chionomys nivalis, Microtus (Terricola) lusitanicus, Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis and Microtus oeconomus). Using the Habitat Weighting method to reconstruct the palaeoenvironment, we reconstruct a landscape for MIS 3 characterized by open woodland formations. The Mutual Ecogeographic Range (MER) method and the Bioclimatic Model (BM) used for the palaeoclimatic reconstruction show lower temperatures and higher precipitation than at present in the region. Our results from Cova Eirós are compared with the data obtained from several other sites in the Iberian Peninsula; it can be said that Neanderthals and AMH were well adapted to the territory that they occupied, as well as to the surrounding environment and the climatic conditions prevalent in the unstable context of MIS 3 in the Iberian Peninsula.

  20. An MIS 3 age organic deposit from Balglass Burn, central Scotland: palaeoenvironmental significance and implications for the timing of the onset of the LGM ice sheet in the vicinity of the British Isles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Eleanor J.; Rose, James; Coope, Russell G.; Lowe, John J.

    2007-03-01

    This paper reports the analysis of a glaciotectonised organic deposit located between a lower weathered till and an upper unweathered till at Balglass Burn, north of the Campsie Fells in central Scotland, UK, close to the centre of ice accumulation in Scotland. Sedimentology, pollen, macroscopic plant remains and Coleoptera indicate accumulation in a small pond, as part of an open, tundra landscape with low floral diversity. MCR palaeotemperature reconstructions for the Coleoptera give a mean temperature for the warmest and the coldest months of 8 to 10°C and -26 to -10°C respectively, indicating the presence of at least discontinuous permafrost. Six AMS dates on Carex fruit and Coleoptera fragments give ages between 34 480 and 28 050 14C yr BP (ca. 39.8 to ca. 32.8 cal. yr BP; Fairbanks et al. ([2005])). The upper till and the glaciotectonism are attributed to glaciation during the LGM. Glaciotectonic deformation means that the ages do not indicate sequential development and it is not possible to relate this palaeo-evidence to the fine resolution palaeoclimatic signature for MIS 3. However, the fact that this part of central Scotland was ice-free at this time means that some recent proposals suggesting that the British ice sheet began to accumulate around the middle of MIS 3 are unlikely to be correct. Copyright

  1. A Comparison of Paleomagnetic Secular Variation during MIS 7-10 between the Bering Sea (IODP Ex. 323) and North Atlantic Ocean (ODP Leg 172): Implications for the space/time pattern of field and environmental variability (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, S.; Okada, M.; Acton, G.; Clement, B. M.; Stoner, J. S.; Platzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Detailed records of Brunhes paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 7-10 have been recovered from four IODP Ex. 323 sites in the Bering Sea (U1339, U1343-U1345) and four ODP Leg 172 sites from the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean (1060-1063). Reproducible records of PSV (both directions and paleointensity) have been recovered from three or more holes at each site and correlated among the four independent sites in each region. These PSV records provide an unprecedented database for considering patterns of long-term secular variation and evidence for excursional field behavior on a larger than individual regional scale. We will present reproducible evidence for sustained long-term secular variation in each region and assess the extent to which they may be interrelated. We have identified the times of magnetic field excursions 7α, 7β, 8α, 9α, and 9β in the Atlantic records and correlated those times to the Bering Sea records. There are no true excursions in the Bering Sea at those times, but several of these intervals mark the most anomalous field behavior in the Bering Sea during MIS 7-10. In both regions, the PSV also serves as a high-resolution chronostratigraphic tool for regional correlation of environmental variability. Both regions show clear, reproducible evidence among the sites for synchronous millennial-scale environmental variability that has not been diagnosed previously.

  2. Combining 14C/U-Th Series Geochronology and Stable/Clumped Isotope Geochemistry of MIS 2 Lake Tufas of Lake Chewaucan, Oregon, USA to Reconstruct Deglacial Climate in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, A. M.; Quade, J.; Ali, G.; Boyle, D. P.; Bassett, S.; Huntington, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    Shoreline deposits surrounding closed-basin lake remnants in the Great Basin of North America have been critical to defining the timing and extent of lake highstands during Marine Isotope Stage 2, recording the wettest climate conditions during the last glacial cycle. We present 14C and U-Th series ages and stable and clumped isotope results from MIS 2 microbialite tufas of pluvial Lake Chewaucan, southern Oregon. At ~42.5°N latitude, the Chewaucan basin is the one of the northernmost lake systems in the Great Basin, a critical location for investigating regional climate. Dating of modern tufa and DIC indicates no 14C reservoir effect. Low lake depth is observed for peak LGM conditions (21.0 ka, +11 m above modern), consistent with regional records and climate model results. In contrast with other Great Basin lake reconstructions for deglacial MIS 2, Lake Chewaucan was deepest during the Bølling/Ållerod (B/A; 14.5-13.0 ka, +50 m) and early Holocene (10.9-9.5 ka +15 m) warm periods, with lowstands during Heinrich Event 1 (+0-1 m) and Younger Dryas cold periods (+0 m). This supports previous evidence for wet interstadials in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) during MIS 2-3, the opposite of the central/southern Great Basin, where stadials correlate with wet conditions. δ18O values of tufas (-0.9 to -4.4‰ PDB) reflect high evaporation relative to inflowing meteoric water (-13.6‰ SMOW), and lake water (-6.7 SMOW). δ13C values (+1.7 to +4.5‰ PDB) are consistent with equilibrium with lake DIC (+1.5‰ PDB) and atmospheric CO2, supporting atmospheric 14C equilibrium. Clumped isotope temperatures for modern tufa (20±7°C) are consistent with summer lake surface temperature for modern lake remnant, Abert Lake (17.7-22.0°C), supporting previous clumped isotope results for tufas as summer temperature indicators. Clumped temperatures for the B/A highstand are 19±4°C, indicating near modern lake temperatures during deepest lake conditions. 13±4°C is indicated for the

  3. The Taimyr Peninsula and the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago, Arctic Russia: a synthesis of glacial history and palaeo-environmental change during the Last Glacial cycle (MIS 5e-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Per; Alexanderson, Helena; Funder, Svend; Hjort, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We here suggest a glacial and climate history of the Taimyr Peninsula and Severnaya Zemlya archipelago in arctic Siberia for the last about 150 000 years (ka). Primarily it is based on results from seven field seasons between 1996 and 2012, to a large extent already published in papers referred to in the text - and on data presented by Russian workers from the 1930s to our days and by German colleagues working there since the 1990s. Although glaciations even up here often started in the local mountains, their culminations in this region invariably seems to have centred on the shallow Kara Sea continental shelf - most likely due to expanding marine ice-shelves grounding there, as a combined effect of thickening ice and eustatically lowered sea-levels. The most extensive glaciation so far identified in this region (named the Taz glaciation) took place during Marine Isotope Stage 6 (MIS 6), i.e. being an equivalent to the late Saale/Illinoian glaciations. It reached c. 400 km southeast of the Kara Sea coast, across and well beyond the Byrranga Mountain range and ended c. 130 ka. It was followed by the MIS 5e (Karginsky/Eemian) interglacial, with an extensive marine transgression to 140 m above present sea level - facilitated by strong isostatic downloading during the preceding glaciation. During the latest (Zyryankan/Weichselian/Wisconsinan) glacial cycle followed a series of major glacial advances. The earliest and most extensive, culminating c. 110-100 ka (MIS 5d-5e), also reached south of the Byrranga mountains and its post-glacial marine limit there was c. 100 m a.s.l. The later glacial phases (around 70-60 ka and 20 ka) terminated at the North Taimyr Ice Marginal Zone (NTZ), along or some distance inland from the present northwest coast of Taimyr. They dammed glacial lakes, which caused the Taimyr River to flow southwards where to-day it flows northwards into the Kara Sea. The c. 20 ka glacial phase, contemporary with the maximum (LGM) glaciation in NW Europe

  4. High-temperature studies of multiple fluorinated traps within an Al2O3 gate dielectric for E-Mode AlGaN/GaN power MIS-HEMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-Hsiang; Liang, Yung C.; Samudra, Ganesh S.; Chu, Po-Ju; Liao, Ya-Chu; Huang, Chih-Fang; Kuo, Wei-Hung; Lo, Guo-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Normally-off AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT devices with multiple fluorinated ALD-Al2O3 layers as the gate dielectric have been reported to achieve a high threshold voltage for normally-off operations with satisfactory performance for both on and off states at room temperature. However, a large swing in gate threshold voltage is found when devices operate at elevated temperatures. Hence, further study of the gate dielectric on the distribution of fluorinated trap states in the energy band are required to assess the gate function at higher temperatures. Through the use of the charge analytical model and Poole-Frenkel trap emission theory, the gate voltage stressing measurement was carried out to accurately find the effective trap state distribution within the Al2O3 energy bandgap created by fluorinated treatments. For the samples fabricated and used in the investigation, we found that a higher population of fluorinated trap states located deeper than 1.1 eV corresponding to emission levels above 200 °C would allow more trapped charges to remain in the dielectric at high temperature for better threshold voltage retention. We also discovered that a higher fluorine treatment power on the gate dielectric could yield a higher trap state density at deeper levels, resulting in better temperature stability.

  5. MIS-based sensors with hydrogen selectivity

    DOEpatents

    Li; ,Dongmei; Medlin, J. William; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Bastasz, Robert J.

    2008-03-11

    The invention provides hydrogen selective metal-insulator-semiconductor sensors which include a layer of hydrogen selective material. The hydrogen selective material can be polyimide layer having a thickness between 200 and 800 nm. Suitable polyimide materials include reaction products of benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride 4,4-oxydianiline m-phenylene diamine and other structurally similar materials.

  6. Phonological influences on lexical (mis)selection.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Victor S; Griffin, Zenzi M

    2003-01-01

    Speakers produce words to convey meaning, but does meaning alone determine which words they say? We report three experiments that show independent semantic and phonological influences converging to determine word selection. Speakers named pictures (e.g., of a priest) following visually presented cloze sentences that primed either semantic competitors of the target object name ("The woman went to the convent to become a..."), homophones of the competitors ("I thought that there would still be some cookies left, but there were..."), or matched unrelated control object names. Primed semantic competitors (nun) were produced instead of picture names more often than primed unrelated control object names, showing the well-documented influence of semantic similarity on lexical selection. Surprisingly, primed homophone competitors (none) also substituted for picture names more often than control object names even though they only sounded like competitors. Thus, independent semantic and phonological influences can converge to affect word selection. PMID:12564760

  7. The (Mis)Education of Generation M

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Susan G.

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the potential problems and challenges presented by the content, quantity and quality of contemporary media influences (electronic, print and digital). Whereas most articles in this arena focus on one form of media influences (e.g., video games), this article looks at the cumulative scope of influence presented by…

  8. Assurance of Learning in the MIS Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Jeffrey S.; Harder, Joseph T.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development of a systematic and practical methodology for assessing program effectiveness and monitoring student development in undergraduate decision sciences programs. The model we present is based on a student's progression through learning stages associated with four key competencies: technical, analytical,…

  9. Conceptual Mis(understandings) of Beginning Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Peter; Haines, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a taxonomy of three levels in increasing order of mathematical demand in order to understand a set of mathematical skills of some importance to beginning undergraduates in engineering and mathematics. Suggests that the constructed instrument is robust and the taxonomy used is effective. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/ASK)

  10. Teachers' (Mis)Understandings of Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Deborah; Oswald, Murray; Spears, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to extend previous studies into resilience, by identifying the roles that teachers played in fostering resilience (N=57: females n=43; and males n=14). A quantitative scale was administered to teachers in South Australia's Catholic education sector to determine the extent to which they were involved in fostering resilience. A…

  11. Strategic importance of MIS for home healthcare.

    PubMed

    Muller, J H

    1986-06-01

    Selecting the most appropriate medical information system will greatly influence the agency's ability to position itself very strongly in an increasingly competitive marketplace. The integration of business and medical applications in one single medical information system reduces financial exposure and permits the agency to expand its range of services to include high-value medical tests. The resulting close working relationship with local physicians will develop into a strong referral linkage. A medical information system, when applied expertly and designed to meet specific local requirements, may represent an important source of additional revenue for the agency and thus more than pay for itself.

  12. On double exponential forward bias current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Au/Ca3Co4Ga0.001Ox/n-Si/Au (MIS) type structures in temperature range of 80-340 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marıl, E.; Altındal, Ş.; Kaya, A.; Koçyiğit, S.; Uslu, İ.

    2015-04-01

    Current transport mechanisms (CTMs) of Au/Ca3Co4Ga0.001Ox/n-Si/Au (MIS) type structures were investigated using current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in the temperature range of 80-340 K. Semilogarithmic I-V plots show two linear regions corresponding to low (0.075-0.250 V) and moderate (0.27-0.70 V) biases, respectively. Zero-bias barrier height (ΦB0) was observed to increase with increase in the temperature, whereas opposite behaviour was observed for ideality factor (n). ΦB0 and (n-1-1) vesus q/2kT and ΦB0 versus n plots were drawn to get an evidence of Gaussian distribution (GD) of the barrier heights. These plots, too, show two linear regions corresponding to low (80-160 K) and high (200-340 K) temperature ranges (LTR and HTR), respectively. Mean value of barrier height (?B0) and standard deviation (σs) were extracted from the intercept and slope of ΦB0 versus q/2kT plots for two linear regions as 0.382 eV, 0.0060 V for LTR and 0.850 eV, 0.135 V for HTR at low biases and 0.364 eV, 0.0059 V for LTR and 0.806 eV, 0.132 V for HTR at high biases, respectively. ?B0 and Richardson constant (A*) values were also obtained from the intercept and slope of the modified Richardson (Ln(Io/T2)-(q2σs2/2k2T2) versus q/kT) plots as 131.81 Acm-2 K-2, 0.381 eV for LTR and 129.35 Acm-2 K-2, 0. 854 eV for HTR at low biases and 148.01 Acm-2 K-2, 0.377 eV for LTR and 143.77 Acm-2 K-2, 0.812 eV for HTR at high biases, respectively. In conclusion, CTM in the structure can be successfully explained in terms of thermionic emission theory with the double GD of barrier heights.

  13. On the negative capacitance behavior in the forward bias of Au/n-4H-SiC (MS) and comparison between MS and Au/TiO2/n-4H-SiC (MIS) type diodes both in dark and under 200 W illumination intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çetinkaya, H. G.; Yıldız, D. E.; Altındal, Ş.

    2015-09-01

    In order to see the effect of interfacial layer on electrical characteristics both Au/n-4H-SiC (MS) and Au/TiO2/n-4H-SiC (MIS) type Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were fabricated and their main electrical parameters were investigated by using the forward and reverse bias current-voltage (I-V), capacitance/conductance-voltage (C/G-V) measurements at room temperature. The ideality factor (n), series and shunt resistances (Rs, Rsh), barrier height (BH), depletion layer width (WD) and the concentration of donor atoms (ND) were obtained before and after illumination. The energy density distribution profile of surface states (Nss) was also obtained by taking into account voltage dependent effective BH (Φe) and ideality factor (nV). All of these experimental results confirmed that the use of a high dielectric material or insulator layer (TiO2) between metal and semiconductor leads to improvements in the diode performance in terms of Rs, Rsh, BH, Nss and rectifier rate (RR = IF/IR for sufficiently high forward and reverse current). Another important result is the negative capacitance (NC) behavior observed in the forward bias C-V plot for the Au/n-4H- SiC (MS) diode, but it disappears in Au/TiO2/n-4 H-SiC (MIS) diode and also the minimum value of C-V plot corresponds to maximum value of G/ω-V plot in the accumulation region. Such behavior of NC shows that the material displays an inductive behavior.

  14. Corrigendum to "An equation decoupling approach to identify the equivalent foundation in rotating machinery using modal parameters" [J. Sound Vib. 365 (2016) 182-198

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Minli; Feng, Ningsheng; Hahn, Eric J.

    2016-08-01

    The authors would like to apologise for the error made to the affiliation details of Dr Ningsheng Feng and Dr Eric J. Hahn in the original publication and who are both affiliated to The School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia

  15. Erratum to "Characterization of parallel misalignment in rotating machines by means of the modulated signal of incremental encoders" [J. Sound Vib. 333/21 (2014) 5229-5243

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroño Pérez, P. A.; GómezdeLeón, F. C.; Zaghar, L.

    2016-08-01

    The publisher regrets the paper 'Characterization of parallel misalignment in rotating machines by means of the modulated signal of incremental encoders' was incorrectly published as a Review Article rather than a Research Article.

  16. Acid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion processes utilizing a catalyst comprising a group ivb, vb or vib metal oxide on an inorganic refractory oxide support

    SciTech Connect

    Grenoble, D.C.; Kim, C.J.; Murrell, L.L.

    1980-11-11

    It has been discovered and forms the basis of the disclosure that various acid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion processes such as catalytic cracking of gas oil; xylene isomerization; toluene disproportionation; dealkylation of aromatics; ethylene, butylene , isobutylene, propylene polymerization; olefin isomerization; alcohol dehydration; olefin hydration; alkylation; heavy ends cat cracking, etc. are dramatically improved insofar as percent conversion, and selectivity are concerned by the use of a catalyst selected from the group consisting of the oxides of tungsten, niobium and mixtures thereof, and tungsten or niobium oxides in combination with one or more additional metal oxides selected from the group consisting of tantalum oxide, hafnium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide and zirconium oxide, supported on an inorganic refractory oxide support. These catalysts may be prepared by the methods known in the art, I.E., incipient wetness, impregnation, coprecipitation, etc. Of the metal oxide precursor onto or with the supports followed by conversion into the oxide form. Before use, the metal oxide/support combination is preferably subjected to steaming at elevated temperatures either before introduction into the reactor or in situ in the process reactor. Conventional catalytic cracking catalysts are unstable at the elevated temperatures where the metal oxide/support combinations of the present invention are uniquely stable.

  17. Corrigendum to "Reflection and damping properties for semi-infinite string equations with non-classical boundary conditions" [J. Sound & Vibration Vib. 336 (2014) 179-190

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkaya, Tugce; van Horssen, Wim T.

    2015-03-01

    The authors regret that the following mistakes in referencing for the article "Reflection and damping properties for semi-infinite string equations with non-classical boundary conditions" ran through to the production version of this paper and therefore wish to correct this mistake in this corrigendum.

  18. Natural longitudinal frequencies of a uniform rod with a tip mass or a spring [J. Sound Vib. 77(1) (1981) 147-148

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadıoğlu, Fethi; Tekin, Gülçin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this communication is to correct the equation which gives the condition for eigenvalues and present the corrected numerical solutions that give the natural longitudinal frequencies for a rod with a spring at the tip in a published letter [1].

  19. (Mis)regulation--the case of commercial surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Tarang

    2015-01-01

    In the most recent attempt to regulate commercial surrogacy, the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has issued a notice altering the category of visa for foreign nationals entering into commercial surrogacy arrangements from "tourist" to "medical". Upon close scrutiny, it becomes clear that this measure is a far too hasty and unprincipled step. Given the varying laws across different countries, commercial surrogacy has been an area marked by a fair amount of legal ambiguity and conflict, for example, with respect to the citizenship status of the child and legally accepted parentage of commissioning parents. The MHA's step towards addressing some of the dilemmas is, however, grossly inadequate and discriminatory. In spite of its seeming advantages, of some administrative and legal oversight of the industry, the notice will impact the existing practices in questionable ways since its provisions remain to be vetted through the lens of medical ethics and social justice. The measures, which are supposed to ensure legality, disambiguation and some degree of security for the commercial surrogate, end up giving a clean chit to the industry for the time being. If the step taken by the MHA was meant to be urgent, one wonders at the lack of motivation to strengthen public debate and produce a piece of legislation that can address the various concerns and dilemmas generated by the assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). This is especially with reference to legislation that ensures the health and democratic rights of those who are at a disadvantage due to the power imbalance in commercial surrogacy arrangements. PMID:25716437

  20. The readout system for the ArTeMis camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doumayrou, E.; Lortholary, M.; Dumaye, L.; Hamon, G.

    2014-07-01

    During ArTeMiS observations at the APEX telescope (Chajnantor, Chile), 5760 bolometric pixels from 20 arrays at 300mK, corresponding to 3 submillimeter focal planes at 450μm, 350μm and 200μm, have to be read out simultaneously at 40Hz. The read out system, made of electronics and software, is the full chain from the cryostat to the telescope. The readout electronics consists of cryogenic buffers at 4K (NABU), based on CMOS technology, and of warm electronic acquisition systems called BOLERO. The bolometric signal given by each pixel has to be amplified, sampled, converted, time stamped and formatted in data packets by the BOLERO electronics. The time stamping is obtained by the decoding of an IRIG-B signal given by APEX and is key to ensure the synchronization of the data with the telescope. Specifically developed for ArTeMiS, BOLERO is an assembly of analogue and digital FPGA boards connected directly on the top of the cryostat. Two detectors arrays (18*16 pixels), one NABU and one BOLERO interconnected by ribbon cables constitute the unit of the electronic architecture of ArTeMiS. In total, the 20 detectors for the tree focal planes are read by 10 BOLEROs. The software is working on a Linux operating system, it runs on 2 back-end computers (called BEAR) which are small and robust PCs with solid state disks. They gather the 10 BOLEROs data fluxes, and reconstruct the focal planes images. When the telescope scans the sky, the acquisitions are triggered thanks to a specific network protocol. This interface with APEX enables to synchronize the acquisition with the observations on sky: the time stamped data packets are sent during the scans to the APEX software that builds the observation FITS files. A graphical user interface enables the setting of the camera and the real time display of the focal plane images, which is essential in laboratory and commissioning phases. The software is a set of C++, Labview and Python, the qualities of which are respectively used for rapidity, powerful graphic interfacing and scripting. The commands to the camera can be sequenced in Python scripts. The paper describes the whole electronic and software readout chain designed to fulfill the specificities of ArTeMiS and its performances. The specific options used are explained, for example, the limited room in the Cassegrain cabin of APEX has led us to a quite compact design. This system was successfully used in summer 2013 for the commissioning and the first scientific observations with a preliminary set of 4 detectors at 350μm.

  1. Base pairing and base mis-pairing in nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A. H. J.; Rich, A.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years we have learned that DNA is conformationally active. It can exist in a number of different stable conformations including both right-handed and left-handed forms. Using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis we are able to discover not only additional conformations of the nucleic acids but also different types of hydrogen bonded base-base interactions. Although Watson-Crick base pairings are the predominant type of interaction in double helical DNA, they are not the only types. Recently, we have been able to examine mismatching of guanine-thymine base pairs in left-handed Z-DNA at atomic resolution (1A). A minimum amount of distortion of the sugar phosphate backbone is found in the G x T pairing in which the bases are held together by two hydrogen bonds in the wobble pairing interaction. Because of the high resolution of the analysis we can visualize water molecules which fill in to accommodate the other hydrogen bonding positions in the bases which are not used in the base-base interactions. Studies on other DNA oligomers have revealed that other types of non-Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding interactions can occur. In the structure of a DNA octamer with the sequence d(GCGTACGC) complexed to an antibiotic triostin A, it was found that the two central AT base pairs are held together by Hoogsteen rather than Watson-Crick base pairs. Similarly, the G x C base pairs at the ends are also Hoogsteen rather than Watson-Crick pairing. Hoogsteen base pairs make a modified helix which is distinct from the Watson-Crick double helix.

  2. Using Google AdWords in the MBA MIS Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosso, Mark A.; McClelland, Marilyn K.; Jansen, Bernard J.; Fleming, Sundar W.

    2009-01-01

    From February to June 2008, Google ran its first ever student competition in sponsored Web search, the 2008 Google Online Marketing Challenge (GOMC). The 2008 GOMC was based on registrations from 61 countries: 629 course sections from 468 universities participated, fielding over 4000 student teams of approximately 21,000 students. Working with a…

  3. (Mis)understanding Science: The Problem with Scientific Breakthroughs.

    PubMed

    Evans, James P

    2016-09-01

    On Saturday morning, February 28, 1953, the mystery of heredity appeared secure. Humans hadn't the faintest idea of how genetic information was transmitted-how the uncanny resemblance between mother and daughter, grandfather and grandson was conveyed across generations. Yet, by that Saturday afternoon, two individuals, James Watson and Francis Crick, had glimpsed the solution to these mysteries. The story of Watson and Crick's great triumph has been told and retold and has rightly entered the pantheon of scientific legend. But Watson and Crick's breakthrough was just that: a rupture and dramatic discontinuity in human knowledge that solved a deep mystery, the likes of which occurs, perhaps, a couple of times each century. And that's the problem. The story is just so good and so irresistible that it has misled generations of scientists about what to expect regarding a life in science. And more damaging, the resulting breakthrough mentality misleads the public, the media, and society's decision-makers about how science really works, all to the detriment of scientific progress and our society's well-being. PMID:27649823

  4. MIS Implementation in Schools: A Systems Socio-Technical Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telem, Moshe

    1996-01-01

    Presents a socio-technical approach to develop a school management information system (SMIS) implementation framework that suits the school's special characteristics based on research in Israeli schools. The framework's five components are described, including managerial, structural, psychosocial, goals and values, and technical. (Contains 72…

  5. Child Soldiers and Iconography: Portrayals and (Mis)Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denov, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, child soldiers have inundated the popular media. Images of boys armed with AK47s appear ubiquitous, providing a cautionary tale of innocent childhood gone awry. While these representations turn commonly held assumptions of a protected and innocuous childhood on its head, what they conceal is as provocative as what they…

  6. MIS priorities for MSO's (management services organization) & clinics without walls.

    PubMed

    Miller, J L

    1994-01-01

    Organized and efficient systems that are responsive to the needs of the medical group, hospital and management services organization are at the heart of successful integrated healthcare systems. Unfortunately, selecting the right systems solution can be a time-consuming and difficult process, at best. The problems are many. First, not all management services organizations look alike. Some are limited in scope and function. Others offer an expansive menu of services to the participating groups and physicians. Second, the level of sophistication of clinic or MSO personnel evaluating systems varies. Often, hospital systems personnel with little experience in the practice management arena are assigned the job of evaluating practice systems. Third, the budget for a data processing system may be limited. The process of forming an MSO and organizing a group without walls may be very expensive. Unless adequate budgeting is done in advance, only limited funds may be left for investment in systems. Lastly, identifying viable systems which are available can be an arduous undertaking. Literally, hundreds of possible systems are available. Unfortunately, few sources offer comprehensive information on each system suitable for proper evaluation. This has led many organizations to strategically design and develop their own physician network solutions and options using such applications as 4th generation data base language. According to Mick Bassell of Partners in HealthCare, a systems consulting group in San Rafael, CA., "a request for proposal process is usually the best way to identify systems that meet the group's needs, weaknesses and strengths. This should be done before vendors are asked to supply information about various computer systems. Developing a good RFP is a building process for both the MSO and group which will help them to jointly identify, organize and prioritize system requirements."

  7. Rendering of virtual fixtures for MIS using generalized sigmoid functions.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Patel, Rajni V; McIsaac, Kenneth A

    2006-01-01

    To avoid undesired collisions and improve the level of safety and precision, artificial potential field (APF) can be employed to generate virtual forces around protected tissue and to provide surgeons with real-time force refection through haptic feedback. In this paper, we propose a potential field-based force model using the generalized sigmoid function, and show that it can represent a large class of shapes. The proposed approach has several advantages such as computational efficiency, easily adjustable level of force reflection, and force continuity. PMID:16404096

  8. Rendering of virtual fixtures for MIS using generalized sigmoid functions.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Patel, Rajni V; McIsaac, Kenneth A

    2006-01-01

    To avoid undesired collisions and improve the level of safety and precision, artificial potential field (APF) can be employed to generate virtual forces around protected tissue and to provide surgeons with real-time force refection through haptic feedback. In this paper, we propose a potential field-based force model using the generalized sigmoid function, and show that it can represent a large class of shapes. The proposed approach has several advantages such as computational efficiency, easily adjustable level of force reflection, and force continuity.

  9. The University Revisioned: An Alternative to Corporate Mis-Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Corporatization refers not only to the subordination of academic programs to outside business interest, but also to the more troubling intrusion of corporate forms of governance and market criteria of performance into the institution as a whole. In this paper, the author wants to show how this corporatization affects the substance, structure and…

  10. Second Career Teachers and (Mis)Recognitions of Professional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1980s there has been an increase of "second career teachers" (SCTs), professionals that switch careers to become teachers. Little is known about SCTs and their sense of professional identity. Building from Pierre Bourdieu's concepts of power and cultural capital, the professional identities of teachers were examined…

  11. Adding XML to the MIS Curriculum: Lessons from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, William P.; Pant, Vik; Hilken, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a new technology that is currently being extolled by many industry experts and software vendors. Potentially it represents a platform independent language for sharing information over networks in a way that is much more seamless than with previous technologies. It is extensible in that XML serves as a "meta"…

  12. Black School White School: Racism and Educational (Mis) Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    How do race and race relations influence leadership practice and the education of students? In this timely and provocative book, the author identifies cultural and unstated norms and beliefs around race and race relations, and explores how these dynamics influence the kind of education students receive. Drawing on findings from extensive…

  13. Marketing Feud: An Active Learning Game of (Mis)Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schee, Brian A. Vander

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of implementing an active learning activity in the principles of marketing course adapted from the television show "Family Feud". The objectives of the Marketing Feud game include increasing awareness of marketing misperceptions, clarifying marketing misunderstandings, encouraging class participation, and building…

  14. REPORT ON THE MODELING OF THE LARGE MIS CANS

    SciTech Connect

    E. MOODY; J. LYMAN; K. VEIRS

    2000-12-01

    Changes in gas composition and gas pressure for closed systems containing plutonium dioxide and water are studied using a model that incorporates both radiolysis and chemical reactions. The model is used to investigate the behavior of material stored in storage containers conforming to DOE-STD-3013-99 storage standard. Scaling of the container to allow use of smaller amounts of nuclear material in experiments designed to bound the behavior of all material destined for long-term storage is studied. It is found that the container volume must be scaled along with the amount of material to achieve applicable results.

  15. An Alternative Method To Measure MIS Faculty Teaching Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Judith C.; Soliman, Khalid S.

    2003-01-01

    Developed a method of measuring a professor's performance using student evaluations in the field of information systems by measuring differences in student perceptions and knowledge. Findings for 328 students show the usefulness of this method in assessing teacher performance. (SLD)

  16. The making of Amerexico: (mis)handling illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Andreas, P

    1994-01-01

    The border and social policies that the United States shares with Mexico have had only a modest impact on the level of illegal immigration. Alternative methods could reduce the social backlash against Mexican immigrants in US states of destination. Federal Relief Aid to states affected by new arrivals would ameliorate hostility. Although economic stagnation may depress the flow of immigrants or job opportunities, legal or illegal, economic recovery is dependent on the hard work of immigrants. The political solution has been to tighten border controls. Other options are possible. There should be pressure placed on multilateral institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to incorporate immigration issues in economic policy decisions. Many market reforms have contributed to greater emigration. The US has the option to use both supply and demand side options. Enforcement of workplace rules on minimum wages and health and safety standards would make it more difficult to exploit immigrant workers and would decrease the incentive to hire illegal workers. In a deregulated market stricter work standards were considered difficult to attain. A 1993 opinion poll revealed that 65% thought immigration was not beneficial. Border apprehension rates have increased dramatically over the past 30 years. The most recent policies aim to encourage the mobility of capital and trade through the NAFTA free trade agreement while trying to discourage human resource mobility. The push factors in Mexico are identified as high levels of poverty and unemployment, overpopulation, and economic stagnation. NAFTA and prior economic development efforts have not addressed the push factors. Disruption of traditional ways and changes toward greater industrialization spur emigration. The US program to develop border export industry encouraged migration from the interior of Mexico to border areas. Recent Mexican policies have changed the incentives for small farmers to stay on their lands, and Mexican urban areas are overpopulated. Experience has taught that migration flows are easier to start than stop. PMID:12319795

  17. MIS unicondylar knee arthroplasty: surgical approach and early results.

    PubMed

    Gesell, Mark W; Tria, Alfred J

    2004-11-01

    Unicondylar arthroplasty of the knee has seen a resurgence of interest in the United States. The principles of unicondylar arthroplasty of the knee are different from those for total knee arthroplasty, allowing replacement of only the affected joint compartment with less bone loss. Minimally invasive surgery allows for less soft tissue dissection with the potential for less morbidity. The key question is: will the changes associated with the minimally invasive surgery procedure improve the clinical results of the standard unicondylar arthroplasty of the knee or will the changes make the procedure too difficult and lead to an increasing failure rate? This study reviews the surgical technique and presents the 2 to 4 year results of the minimally invasive unicondylar arthroplasty of the knee 47 knees in 41 patients. The average range of motion increased from 121 degrees -132 degrees . The Knee Society pain score improved from 45-80 and the function score improved from 47-78. Only one knee has been revised. With proper patient selection, minimally invasive unicondylar arthroplasty of the knee allows for results that are at least equal to those of the standard open procedure at 2 to 4 years after the surgery.

  18. The mis-specification of the expected rescaled adjusted range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Craig

    2006-05-01

    Rescaled range analysis has regained popularity in the recent econophysics literature as a means of identifying long-term dependence in time-series data. Conclusions derived from the rescaled adjusted range statistic are conditional however upon the choice of an appropriate benchmark against which calculated results can be compared. One recent paper in Physica A by Couillard and Davison [Physica A 348 (2005) 404] concludes that the Anis and Lloyd [Biometrika 63 (1976) 111] model of the expected rescaled adjusted range is more accurate than that proposed by Peters [Fractal Market Analysis, Wiley, New York, 1994]. This finding is contrary to the evidence presented by Peters. This paper reveals significant inconsistencies in the empirical results reported by Peters, which when considered, support the conclusions of Couillard and Davison and explain the apparent contradiction in their results versus those of Peters.

  19. A Hollywood View of Christian Mis-Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2011-01-01

    "Saved!" is the first Hollywood movie to focus on private religious education and is therefore a significant milestone in popular culture. The movie is critical of the school along the very dimensions of concern to Brighouse (2006): undermining personal autonomy, fostering social divisiveness, and promoting anti-democratic values. This article is…

  20. (Mis)understanding Science: The Problem with Scientific Breakthroughs.

    PubMed

    Evans, James P

    2016-09-01

    On Saturday morning, February 28, 1953, the mystery of heredity appeared secure. Humans hadn't the faintest idea of how genetic information was transmitted-how the uncanny resemblance between mother and daughter, grandfather and grandson was conveyed across generations. Yet, by that Saturday afternoon, two individuals, James Watson and Francis Crick, had glimpsed the solution to these mysteries. The story of Watson and Crick's great triumph has been told and retold and has rightly entered the pantheon of scientific legend. But Watson and Crick's breakthrough was just that: a rupture and dramatic discontinuity in human knowledge that solved a deep mystery, the likes of which occurs, perhaps, a couple of times each century. And that's the problem. The story is just so good and so irresistible that it has misled generations of scientists about what to expect regarding a life in science. And more damaging, the resulting breakthrough mentality misleads the public, the media, and society's decision-makers about how science really works, all to the detriment of scientific progress and our society's well-being.

  1. Do Null Subjects (Mis-)Trigger Pro-Drop Grammars?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Native speakers of English regularly hear sentences without overt subjects. Nevertheless, they maintain a [[superscript -]pro] grammar that requires sentences to have an overt subject. It is proposed that listeners of English recognize that speakers reduce predictable material and thus attribute null subjects to this process, rather than changing…

  2. Listening to "The Thick Bunch": (Mis)Understanding and (Mis)Representation of Young People in Jobs without Training in the South West of England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawy, Robert; Quinn, Jocey; Diment, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Young people in jobs without training are ubiquitous but invisible, working in shops, cafes, and other low-waged, low-status occupations. Commonly elided with young people who are not in education, employment or training, they are positioned as the "thick bunch" with empty and meaningless working lives. The main purpose of the research was to…

  3. Changes in planktic and benthic foraminifer assemblages in the Gulf of Lions, off south France: Response to climate and sea level change from MIS 6 to MIS 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina, Aleix; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Filippelli, Gabriel; Flores, José Abel; Berné, Serge

    2013-04-01

    A multidisciplinary study involving micropaleontological and geochemical tools was carried out in borehole PRGL1 (Promess 1), with the aim of reconstructing the impact of climate change and sea level variation between 133 ka and 406 ka in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lions. We used factor analysis to obtain three main benthic assemblages related to eutrophic, mesotrophic, and oxygenated environments; planktic foraminifers were grouped as warm-water and cold-turbulent species. These results were compared with records of CaCO3 and major and trace elements (Al, Ca, K, Sr) as well as the C/N ratio of organic matter. Power and cross-spectral analysis showed a straightforward relationship between precession minima and thermal stratification of the water column as well as the occurrence of eutrophic bottom conditions during lowstand periods and mesotrophic environments at times of highstand. These eutrophic-mesotrophic oscillations, usually driven by global eustatic change, also involved regional variations in CaCO3 source to this environment. During periods of precession maxima, enhancement of northwesterly winds increased primary productivity by mixing, enhancing the percentage of cold-turbulent species in the water column and the proportion of oxygenated benthic species on the bottom. During interglacial stages, these events were recorded by lower biogenic carbonate at the expense of higher silicate-related components most likely due to a higher supply from Pyrenees rivers. The record of oxygenated benthic species can be a good proxy to monitor past changes in Winter Intermediate Water dynamics driven by northwesterly winds.

  4. New optically stimulated luminescence ages provide evidence of MIS3 and MIS2 eolian activity on Black Mesa, northeastern Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellwein, A.L.; Mahan, S.A.; McFadden, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Eolian deposition on the semiarid southern Colorado Plateau has been attributed to episodic aridity during the Quaternary Period. However, OSL ages from three topographically controlled (e.g. falling) dunes on Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona indicate that eolian sediments there were deposited in deep tributary valleys as early as 35-30. ka, with most sand deposited before 20. ka. In contrast, the oldest OSL ages for sand sheets fall within the Pleistocene-Holocene climatic transition (~. 12-8. ka). Thus most eolian sediment accumulated on Black Mesa under climatic conditions that were in general cooler, moister, and more variable than today, not more arid, pointing to a considerable increase in sediment supply. ?? 2010 University of Washington.

  5. Language and Nutrition (Mis)Information: Food Labels, FDA Policies and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Christy Marie

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I address the ways in which food manufacturers can exploit the often vague and ambiguous nature of FDA policies concerning language and images used on food labels. Employing qualitative analysis methods (Strauss, 1987; Denzin and Lincoln, 2003; Mackey and Gass, 2005) that drew upon critical discourse analysis (Fairclough,…

  6. Directly dated MIS 3 lake-level record from Lake Manix, Mojave Desert, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, Marith; Miller, David M.; McGeehin, John P.; Redwine, Joanna R.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Bright, Jordon E.

    2015-01-01

    An outcrop-based lake-level curve, constrained by ~ 70 calibrated 14C ages on Anodonta shells, indicates at least 8 highstands between 45 and 25 cal ka BP within 10 m of the 543-m upper threshold of Lake Manix in the Mojave Desert of southern California. Correlations of Manix highstands with ice, marine, and speleothem records suggest that at least the youngest three highstands coincide with Dansgaard–Oeschger (D–O) stadials and Heinrich events 3 and 4. The lake-level record is consistent with results from speleothem studies in the Southwest that indicate cool wet conditions during D–O stadials. Notably, highstands between 43 and 25 ka apparently occurred at times of generally low levels of pluvial lakes farther north as interpreted from core-based proxies. Mojave lakes may have been supported by tropical moisture sources during oxygen-isotope stage 3, perhaps controlled by southerly deflection of Pacific storm tracks due to weakening of the sea-surface temperature gradient in response to North Atlantic climate perturbations.

  7. Spin-orbit angle distribution and the origin of (mis)aligned hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, A.; Batygin, K.

    2014-07-01

    Context. For 61 transiting hot Jupiters, the projection of the angle between the orbital plane and the stellar equator (called the spin-orbit angle) has been measured. For about half of them, a significant misalignment is detected, and retrograde planets have been observed. This challenges scenarios of the formation of hot Jupiters. Aims: In order to better constrain formation models, we relate the distribution of the real spin-orbit angle Ψ to the projected one β. Then, a comparison with the observations is relevant. Methods: We analyse the geometry of the problem to link analytically the projected angle β to the real spin-orbit angle Ψ. The distribution of Ψ expected in various models is taken from the literature, or derived with a simplified model and Monte Carlo simulations in the case of the disk-torquing mechanism. Results: An easy formula to compute the probability density function (PDF) of β knowing the PDF of Ψ is provided. All models tested here look compatible with the observed distribution beyond 40 degrees, which is so far poorly constrained by only 18 observations. But only the disk-torquing mechanism can account for the excess of aligned hot Jupiters, provided that the torquing is not always efficient. This is the case if the exciting binaries have semi-major axes as large as ~104 AU. Conclusions: Based on comparison with the set of observations available today, scattering models and the Kozai cycle with tidal friction models can not be solely responsible for the production of all hot Jupiters. Conversely, the presently observed distribution of the spin-orbit angles is compatible with most hot Jupiters having been transported by smooth migration inside a proto-planetary disk, itself possibly torqued by a companion.

  8. Spin-Orbit angle distribution and the origin of (mis)aligned hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, A.; Batygin, K.

    2014-12-01

    The angle between the orbital plane and the stellar equator (called the spin-orbit angle) has been measured for about 60 hot Jupiters, half of them showing significant misalignment. This challenges scenarios of the formation of hot Jupiters. Recently, it has been proposed that misalignment could be a consequence of the torquing of the proto-planetary disk by a transcient binary companion of the host star Here, we analyse the geometry of the problem, and compare the probability density function (PDF) of the projected spin-orbit angle expected in various mechanisms, with the observed one. Scattering models and the Kozai cycle with tidal friction models can not be solely responsible for the production of all hot Jupiters. Conversely, the presently observed distribution of the spin-orbit angles is compatible with most hot Jupiters having been transported by smooth migration inside a proto-planetary disk, itself possibly torqued by a companion.

  9. (Mis)Conceptions about Geometric Shapes in Pre-Service Primary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Žilková, Katarína; Guncaga, Ján; Kopácová, Janka

    2015-01-01

    During the last reform, Slovakia has reduced geometry in curriculum in primary mathematics education. Pre-school education schools devote more time to geometry in curriculum, but this is not mandatory for all the children. In the primary schools, teachers devote very little lessons time to this problem. These lessons are mainly focused on…

  10. Electrical Characterization of Amorphous Silicon MIS-Based Structures for HIT Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    García, Héctor; Castán, Helena; Dueñas, Salvador; Bailón, Luis; García-Hernansanz, Rodrigo; Olea, Javier; Del Prado, Álvaro; Mártil, Ignacio

    2016-12-01

    A complete electrical characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers (a-Si:H) deposited on crystalline silicon (c-Si) substrates by electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD) was carried out. These structures are of interest for photovoltaic applications. Different growth temperatures between 30 and 200 °C were used. A rapid thermal annealing in forming gas atmosphere at 200 °C during 10 min was applied after the metallization process. The evolution of interfacial state density with the deposition temperature indicates a better interface passivation at higher growth temperatures. However, in these cases, an important contribution of slow states is detected as well. Thus, using intermediate growth temperatures (100-150 °C) might be the best choice. PMID:27423876

  11. The (Mis)interpretation of Teaching Evaluations by College Faculty and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boysen, Guy A.; Kelly, Timothy J.; Raesly, Holly N.; Casner, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Student evaluations of teaching are ubiquitous and impactful on the careers of college teachers. However, there is limited empirical research documenting the accuracy of people's efforts in interpreting teaching evaluations. The current research consisted of three studies documenting the effect of small mean differences in teaching…

  12. Isotopic variability of cave bears (δ15N, δ13C) across Europe during MIS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajcarz, Magdalena; Pacher, Martina; Krajcarz, Maciej T.; Laughlan, Lana; Rabeder, Gernot; Sabol, Martin; Wojtal, Piotr; Bocherens, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Collagen, the organic fraction of bone, records the isotopic parameters of consumed food for carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). This relationship of isotopic signature between diet and tissue is an important tool for the study of dietary preferences of modern and fossil animal species. Since the first information on the isotopic signature of cave bear was reported, numerous data from Europe have become available. The goal of this work is to track the geographical variation of cave bear collagen isotopic values in Europe during Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (about 60,000-25,000 yr BP). In this study the results of new δ13C and δ15N isotopic analyses of cave bear collagen from four Central-Eastern European sites are presented, as well as a review of all published isotopic data for cave bears of the same period. The main conclusion is a lack of geographical East-West pattern in the variations of δ13C and δ15N values of cave bear collagen. Moreover, no relationship was found between cave bear taxonomy and isotopic composition. The cave bears from Central-Eastern Europe exhibit δ13C and δ15N values near the average of the range of Central, Western and Southern European cave bears. Despite the fact that most cave bear sites follow an altitudinal gradient, separate groups of sites exhibit shift in absolute values of δ13C, what disturbs an altitude-related isotopic pattern. The most distinct groups are: high Alpine sites situated over 1500 m a.s.l. - in terms of δ13C; and two Romanian sites Peştera cu Oase and Urşilor - in case of δ15N. Although the cave bear isotopic signature is driven by altitude, the altitudinal adjustment of isotopic data is not enough to explain the isotopic dissimilarity of these cave bears. The unusually high δ15N signature of mentioned Romanian sites is an isolated case in Europe. Cave bears from relatively closely situated Central-Eastern European sites and other Romanian sites are more similar to Western European than to Romanian populations in terms of isotopic composition, and probably ecology.

  13. Pursuing Justice for Refugee Students: Addressing Issues of Cultural (Mis)Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper Nancy Fraser's conceptual tools are drawn on to theorise issues of justice in a culturally diverse primary school in Australia where approximately 30% of the student population are immigrant/refugees. The paper examines justice issues of cultural recognition in relation to refugee student identity, behaviour and assessment. Drawing…

  14. (Mis)use of Prescribed Stimulants in the Medical Student Community: Motives and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fond, Guillaume; Gavaret, Martine; Vidal, Christophe; Brunel, Lore; Riveline, Jean-Pierre; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Domenech, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of psychostimulant use in the French medical community and their motives. A population-based cross-sectional study using a self-administered online survey was done. A total of 1718 French students and physicians (mean age, 26.84±7.19 years, 37.1% men) were included. Self-reported lifetime use, motives, socio-demographic and academic features for over the counter (OTC), medically prescribed (MPP), and illicit (IP) psychostimulant users were reported. Lifetime prevalence of psychostimulant use was 33% (29.7% for OTC, 6.7% for MPP, and 5.2% for IP). OTC consumption mainly aimed at increasing academic performance and wakefulness during competitive exams preparation. OTC consumption started early and was predictive of later MPP use. Corticoids were the most frequently consumed MPP (4.5%) before methylphenidate and modafinil. Motives for MPP consumption were increased academic performance, concentration, memory, and wakefulness. Psychostimulant use is common among French medical community. Our results suggest that restrictions on methylphenidate and modafinil prescriptions are effective at limiting their use. However, these restrictions may explain the observed rates of corticoids consumption, which raise a new public health problem, given that corticoids may have severe side effects. PMID:27100420

  15. Applied Derrida: (Mis)Reading the Work of Mourning in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lather, Patti

    2003-01-01

    Whatever the meaning of the "post" these days, it is pervasive, elusive and marked by a proliferation of conflicting definitions that refuse to settle into meaning. Efforts to accommodate/incorporate the "post" in educational research have not been easy. In the pages of the "Educational Researcher" alone, McLaren and Farahmandpur (2000) warn…

  16. Mis/Representations in School-Based Digital Media Production: An Ethnographic Exploration with Muslim Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahya, Negin; Jenson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss findings from a digital media production club with racialized girls in a low-income school in Toronto, Ontario. Specifically, the authors consider how student-produced media is impacted by ongoing postcolonial structures relating to power and representation in the school and in the media production work of…

  17. Potential (Mis)match? Marriage Markets Amidst Sociodemographic Change in India, 2005-2050.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Ridhi; Esteve, Albert; García-Román, Joan

    2015-02-01

    We explore the impact of sociodemographic change on marriage patterns in India by examining the hypothetical consequences of applying three sets of marriage pairing propensities-contemporary patterns by age, contemporary patterns by age and education, and changing propensities that allow for greater educational homogamy and reduced educational asymmetries--to future population projections. Future population prospects for India indicate three trends that will impact marriage patterns: (1) female deficit in sex ratios at birth; (2) declining birth cohort size; (3) female educational expansion. Existing literature posits declining marriage rates for men arising from skewed sex ratios at birth (SRBs) in India's population. In addition to skewed SRBs, India's population will experience female educational expansion in the coming decades. Female educational expansion and its impact on marriage patterns must be jointly considered with demographic changes, given educational differences and asymmetries in union formation that exist in India, as across much of the world. We systematize contemporary pairing propensities using data from the 2005-2006 Indian National Family Health Survey and the 2004 Socio-Economic Survey and apply these and the third set of changing propensities to multistate population projections by educational attainment using an iterative longitudinal projection procedure. If today's age patterns of marriage are viewed against age/sex population composition until 2050, men experience declining marriage prevalence. However, when education is included, women--particularly those with higher education--experience a more salient rise in nonmarriage. Significant changes in pairing patterns toward greater levels of educational homogamy and gender symmetry can counteract a marked rise in nonmarriage.

  18. Potential (Mis)match? Marriage Markets Amidst Sociodemographic Change in India, 2005-2050.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Ridhi; Esteve, Albert; García-Román, Joan

    2015-02-01

    We explore the impact of sociodemographic change on marriage patterns in India by examining the hypothetical consequences of applying three sets of marriage pairing propensities-contemporary patterns by age, contemporary patterns by age and education, and changing propensities that allow for greater educational homogamy and reduced educational asymmetries--to future population projections. Future population prospects for India indicate three trends that will impact marriage patterns: (1) female deficit in sex ratios at birth; (2) declining birth cohort size; (3) female educational expansion. Existing literature posits declining marriage rates for men arising from skewed sex ratios at birth (SRBs) in India's population. In addition to skewed SRBs, India's population will experience female educational expansion in the coming decades. Female educational expansion and its impact on marriage patterns must be jointly considered with demographic changes, given educational differences and asymmetries in union formation that exist in India, as across much of the world. We systematize contemporary pairing propensities using data from the 2005-2006 Indian National Family Health Survey and the 2004 Socio-Economic Survey and apply these and the third set of changing propensities to multistate population projections by educational attainment using an iterative longitudinal projection procedure. If today's age patterns of marriage are viewed against age/sex population composition until 2050, men experience declining marriage prevalence. However, when education is included, women--particularly those with higher education--experience a more salient rise in nonmarriage. Significant changes in pairing patterns toward greater levels of educational homogamy and gender symmetry can counteract a marked rise in nonmarriage. PMID:25604846

  19. Mis-sizing of stent promotes intimal hyperplasia: impact of endothelial shear and intramural stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Henry Y.; Sinha, Anjan K.; Choy, Jenny S.; Zheng, Hai; Sturek, Michael; Bigelow, Brian; Bhatt, Deepak L.

    2011-01-01

    Stent can cause flow disturbances on the endothelium and compliance mismatch and increased stress on the vessel wall. These effects can cause low wall shear stress (WSS), high wall shear stress gradient (WSSG), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and circumferential wall stress (CWS), which may promote neointimal hyperplasia (IH). The hypothesis is that stent-induced abnormal fluid and solid mechanics contribute to IH. To vary the range of WSS, WSSG, OSI, and CWS, we intentionally mismatched the size of stents to that of the vessel lumen. Stents were implanted in coronary arteries of 10 swine. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was used to size the coronary arteries and stents. After 4 wk of stent implantation, IVUS was performed again to determine the extent of IH. In conjunction, computational models of actual stents, the artery, and non-Newtonian blood were created in a computer simulation to yield the distribution of WSS, WSSG, OSI, and CWS in the stented vessel wall. An inverse relation (R2 = 0.59, P < 0.005) between WSS and IH was found based on a linear regression analysis. Linear relations between WSSG, OSI, and IH were observed (R2 = 0.48 and 0.50, respectively, P < 0.005). A linear relation (R2 = 0.58, P < 0.005) between CWS and IH was also found. More statistically significant linear relations between the ratio of CWS to WSS (CWS/WSS), the products CWS × WSSG and CWS × OSI, and IH were observed (R2 = 0.67, 0.54, and 0.56, respectively, P < 0.005), suggesting that both fluid and solid mechanics influence the extent of IH. Stents create endothelial flow disturbances and intramural wall stress concentrations, which correlate with the extent of IH formation, and these effects were exaggerated with mismatch of stent/vessel size. These findings reveal the importance of reliable vessel and stent sizing to improve the mechanics on the vessel wall and minimize IH. PMID:21926337

  20. The mis-measurement of extreme global poverty: A case study in the Pacific Islands

    PubMed Central

    Gubhaju, Bina

    2015-01-01

    Debate over the measurement of global poverty in low- and middle-income countries continues unabated. There is considerable controversy surrounding the ‘dollar a day’ measure used to monitor progress against the Millennium Development Goals. This article shines fresh light on the debate with new empirical analyses of poverty (including child poverty), inequality and deprivation levels in the Pacific island state of Vanuatu. The study focuses not only on economic and monetary metrics and measures, but also the measures of deprivation derived from sociology in relation to shelter, sanitation, water, information, nutrition, health and education. Until recently, there had been few, if any, attempts to study poverty and deprivation disparities among children in this part of the world. Different measures yield strikingly different estimates of poverty. The article, therefore, attempts to situate the study findings in the broader international context of poverty measurement and discusses their implications for future research and the post-2015 development agenda. PMID:26336359

  1. Teacher (Mis)Perceptions of Preschoolers' Academic Skills: Predictors and Associations with Longitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Courtney N.; Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Preschool teachers have important impacts on children's academic outcomes, and teachers' misperceptions of children's academic skills could have negative consequences, particularly for low-income preschoolers. This study utilized data gathered from 123 preschool teachers and their 760 preschoolers from 70 low-income, racially diverse centers.…

  2. The power of (Mis)perception: Rethinking suicide contagion in youth friendship networks.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Rees, Carter; Posick, Chad; Zimmerman, Lori A

    2016-05-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among youth. In the wake of peer suicide, youth are vulnerable to suicide contagion. But, questions remain about the mechanisms through which suicide spreads and the accuracy of youths' estimates of friends' suicidal behaviors. This study addresses these questions within school-aged youths' friendship networks. Social network data were drawn from two schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, from which 2180 youth in grades 7-12 nominated up to ten friends. A measure of "perceived" friends' attempted suicide was constructed based on respondents' reports of their friends' attempted suicide. This measure was broader than a "true" measure of friends' attempted suicide, constructed from self-reports of nominated friends who attended respondents' schools. Sociograms graphically represented the accuracy with which suicide attempters estimated friends' suicide attempts. Results from cross-tabulation with Chi-square analysis indicated that approximately 4% of youth (88/2180) attempted suicide, and these youth disproportionately misperceived (predominantly overestimated) friends' suicidal behaviors, compared to non-suicide-attempters. Penalized logistic regression models indicated that friends' self-reported attempted suicide was unrelated to respondent attempted suicide. But, the odds of respondent attempted suicide were 2.54 times higher (95% CI, 1.06-6.10) among youth who accurately perceived friends' attempted suicide, and 5.40 times higher (95% CI, 3.34-8.77) among youth who overestimated friends' attempted suicide. The results suggest that at-risk youth overestimate their friends' suicidal behaviors, which exacerbates their own risk of suicidal behavior. Methodologically, this suggests that a continued collaboration among network scientists, suicide researchers, and medical providers is necessary to further examine the mechanisms surrounding this phenomenon. Practically, it is important to screen at-risk youth for exposure to peer suicide and to use the social environment created by adolescent friendship networks to empower and support youth who are susceptible to suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

  3. The (mis)use of subjective process measures in software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valett, Jon D.; Condon, Steven E.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of measures are used in software engineering research to develop an understanding of the software process and product. These measures fall into three broad categories: quantitative, characteristics, and subjective. Quantitative measures are those to which a numerical value can be assigned, for example effort or lines of code (LOC). Characteristics describe the software process or product; they might include programming language or the type of application. While such factors do not provide a quantitative measurement of a process or product, they do help characterize them. Subjective measures (as defined in this study) are those that are based on the opinion or opinions of individuals; they are somewhat unique and difficult to quantify. Capturing of subjective measure data typically involves development of some type of scale. For example, 'team experience' is one of the subjective measures that were collected and studied by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). Certainly, team experience could have an impact on the software process or product; actually measuring a team's experience, however, is not a strictly mathematical exercise. Simply adding up each team member's years of experience appears inadequate. In fact, most researchers would agree that 'years' do not directly translate into 'experience.' Team experience must be defined subjectively and then a scale must be developed e.g., high experience versus low experience; or high, medium, low experience; or a different or more granular scale. Using this type of scale, a particular team's overall experience can be compared with that of other teams in the development environment. Defining, collecting, and scaling subjective measures is difficult. First, precise definitions of the measures must be established. Next, choices must be made about whose opinions will be solicited to constitute the data. Finally, care must be given to defining the right scale and level of granularity for measurement.

  4. Propagation of the MIS4 Eurasian Meltwater Event in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyak, L. V.; Spielhagen, R. F.; Norgaard-Pedersen, N.; Curry, W. B.

    2013-12-01

    Sediment records from the Arctic Ocean indicate multiple Pleistocene meltwater events from Eurasian and North American ice sheets. These events may have affected both the Arctic climate and the North Atlantic deep-water formation, and are important for understanding the stability of Pleistocene ice sheets. We investigate the distribution of meltwater during the discharge of large Eurasian proglacial lakes at the end of Marine Isotope Stage 4, approximately 50-60 ka, using stable isotope records in planktic and benthic foraminifers. Studies focused on lithological and radiogenic isotope proxies suggest that this meltwater pulse affected sedimentation in the Eurasian Basin all the way to the Lomonosov Ridge and at least part of the Amerasian Basin (Mendeleev Ridge). The analysis of stable-isotope data provides further insights. The spatial distribution of planktonic oxygen-18, with the lightest values in the Mendeleev Ridge area, reveals a strong cyclonic circulation extending into the western Arctic Ocean, similar to the negative Arctic Oscillation mode. This circulation pattern differs from that inferred from lithostratigraphy and neodymium isotopes indicating a stronger effect of Eurasian discharge on the Lomonosov Ridge. We propose that this discrepancy resulted from a decoupling of surface and deep-water circulation, where deep waters had a significant contribution of brines carrying deglacial sediments (hyperpicnal flows). The propagation of proglacial brines as far as the Amerasian Basin, suggested earlier from neodymium isotope data, is confirmed by benthic stable isotope records.

  5. The (Mis)Measurement of Job Performance in Child Welfare Using (Non)Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Alice A.; Levy, Michelle M.

    2006-01-01

    This commentary explicates two principal arguments against the conclusions drawn by Robin Perry in his article "Do Social Workers Make Better Child Welfare Workers Than Non-Social Workers?" The first concerns the methodology used, whereas the second centers on the measurement of the dependent variable, performance expectation. Considering the…

  6. (Mis)perception of Sleep in Insomnia: A Puzzle and a Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Allison G.; Tang, Nicole K. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is prevalent, causing severe distress and impairment. This review focuses on illuminating the puzzling finding that many insomnia patients misperceive their sleep. They overestimate their sleep onset latency (SOL) and underestimate their total sleep time (TST), relative to objective measures. This tendency is ubiquitous (although not…

  7. The Four Personae of Racism: Educators' (Mis)Understanding of Individual vs. Systemic Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Evelyn Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study used CRT to engage educators in critical discourse regarding the persistence of racism in urban schooling. A combined method of action research and critical case study was employed to raise a group of educators' race consciousness through antiracist training. Findings revealed conflicting views of racism as an individual pathology vs. a…

  8. Electrical Characterization of Amorphous Silicon MIS-Based Structures for HIT Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Héctor; Castán, Helena; Dueñas, Salvador; Bailón, Luis; García-Hernansanz, Rodrigo; Olea, Javier; del Prado, Álvaro; Mártil, Ignacio

    2016-07-01

    A complete electrical characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers (a-Si:H) deposited on crystalline silicon (c-Si) substrates by electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD) was carried out. These structures are of interest for photovoltaic applications. Different growth temperatures between 30 and 200 °C were used. A rapid thermal annealing in forming gas atmosphere at 200 °C during 10 min was applied after the metallization process. The evolution of interfacial state density with the deposition temperature indicates a better interface passivation at higher growth temperatures. However, in these cases, an important contribution of slow states is detected as well. Thus, using intermediate growth temperatures (100-150 °C) might be the best choice.

  9. Chomsky on MisEducation. Critical Perspectives Series: A Book Series Dedicated to Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomsky, Noam

    2004-01-01

    Noam Chomsky's prolific writings have made him one of the most-quoted educators in history--the only living writer on a most-cited list that includes Plato, Shakespeare, and Freud. Yet until now, no book has systematically offered Chomsky's influential writings on education. In this book, Noam Chomsky encourages a larger understanding of…

  10. Tree Trunks from MIS3 Revealed in Pacific Northwest Landslide Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Water, P. K.; Leavitt, S. W.; Panyushkina, I. P.; Jull, A. T.; Testa, N. R.; Squire, J.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple large tree trunks have been discovered in landslide deposits dating to before the last full-glacial provide a new source for paleo-climatic reconstructions from the northwest coast of North America. Excavation during US Highway 20 realignment through the Oregon Coast Range uncovered organic deposits at depth that included the boles of twelve large trees. Radiocarbon dates on subsurface organic material from multiple landslide deposits range from 17,850 ± 100 to >46,400 (radiocarbon dates B.P.). A single cohort of twelve tree trunks, found emplaced nearly upright, date to >53,000 radiocarbon years B.P. The sedimentary deposits are interpreted as paleo-translational landslides involving the Tyee Formation. The trees are tentatively identified as Thuja plicata, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Abies spp. Preservation of the wood material and associated macrofossils is excellent because of clay sediments that encased the material, halting decomposition. Preliminary analysis shows excellent preservation of late-wood rings but the early wood is composed primarily of ghost tracheids. Ring counts from a portion of the Thuja plicata bole, a four inch block of outer rings, contained between 120 to 130 rings of annual growth with good sensitivity for climate reconstruction. This makes the find particularly important for inferring high-resolution environmental variability, because it is one of only very few deposits of wood of this age worldwide. In addition to paleobotanical and paleoclimatic information, the large amount of wood will be used for radioisotope and stable isotope studies.

  11. On the (mis-) Behavior of Thunderstorms at the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, K. L.; Saba, M. M.; Schulz, W.; Noggle, C.; Quick, M. G.; Saraiva, A. C.; Krider, E. P.

    2009-12-01

    The area density of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning strokes reported by the NLDN near the Grand Canyon, Arizona, show strong variations near the canyon rim. The average area density of strokes outside the canyon is about 8-times larger than within the canyon, and there is a clear increase in the frequency of lightning attachments near the top edge of the canyon rim. If the attachments are made at or near the top of the rim, this could imply a very large attractive radius and unusually long upward leaders, perhaps produced by enhanced electric fields at the canyon rim just prior to ground termination. If the attachments are made along the face of the canyon near the rim, another possible explanation of the existing data, then the high area density near the rim and the low density within the canyon might be explained by the random spatial development of downward branches in the lightning leader just prior to attachment, interacting with the slope and protrusions along the canyon walls. This geometrical development might cause attachment to occur to the canyon walls before the lower-altitude leader channels can attach to the canyon floor. Two other possible factors are (1) the attenuation or distortion of the electromagnetic fields produced by the lightning due to propagation from deep within the canyon to the surface and (2) a difficulty for lightning-producing storms to form over or propagate into the wider regions of the canyon. The effects of EM propagation will likely result in low-amplitude fields and/or produce waveforms that the NLDN will not classify as CG strokes. Storm-propagation effects will likely reduce the convection and the electrification of clouds over the wide portions of the canyon, and result in a lower area density of flashes. We will present limited results of some measurements that were obtained during July 2009 relating to each of the above factors, and we will outline our plans for additional measurements during July/August 2010 or 2011.

  12. Use and mis-use of supplementary material in science publications.

    PubMed

    Pop, Mihai; Salzberg, Steven L

    2015-11-03

    Supplementary material is a ubiquitous feature of scientific articles, particularly in journals that limit the length of the articles. While the judicious use of supplementary material can improve the readability of scientific articles, its excessive use threatens the scientific review process and by extension the integrity of the scientific literature. In many cases supplementary material today is so extensive that it is reviewed superficially or not at all. Furthermore, citations buried within supplementary files rob other scientists of recognition of their contribution to the scientific record. These issues are exacerbated by the lack of guidance on the use of supplementary information from the journals to authors and reviewers. We propose that the removal of artificial length restrictions plus the use of interactive features made possible by modern electronic media can help to alleviate these problems. Many journals, in fact, have already removed article length limitations (as is the case for BMC Bioinformatics and other BioMed Central journals). We hope that the issues raised in our article will encourage publishers and scientists to work together towards a better use of supplementary information in scientific publishing.

  13. (Mis)Understanding Human Beings: Theory, Value, and Progress in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Karl

    2010-01-01

    There is renewed interest in what can be called an "experimentist" approach to education research. The claim is that if researchers would focus on experiments and "evidence-based" policies and practices, irreversible progress in education can be achieved. This experimentist approach cannot provide the understanding of knowledge and human beings…

  14. [A method for improving measuring accuracy in multi-channel impedance spectroscopy (MIS)].

    PubMed

    Thiel, F; Hartung, C

    2004-08-01

    The use of impedance spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for the investigation of biological objects involves the consideration of numerous parameters impacting on measuring accuracy. This paper describes a calibration method for multichannel instruments that reduces the non-inconsiderable influence of frequency response variations between the channels, thus significantly increasing measuring accuracy. The method is tested in a recently developed, high-resolution, multi-channel bio-impedance analyser. Reduction of the measuring error is demonstrated, and the magnitude and phase resolution is quantified. The advantage of this method lies in its applicability to existing systems. Furthermore, an additional calibration impedance is not needed. PMID:15481406

  15. A Complementary Measure of MIS Program Outcomes: Useful Insights from a Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsten, Rex; Roth, Roberta M.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing student learning is a critical element in today's higher education environment. Learning assurance programs seek to assess and improve the quality of student learning, and may employ both direct and indirect measures. In this paper, we describe a practical learning assurance assessment measure developed and used as a part of a broader…

  16. Teaching Higher Order Thinking in the Introductory MIS Course: A Model-Directed Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

    2011-01-01

    One vision of education evolution is to change the modes of thinking of students. Critical thinking, design thinking, and system thinking are higher order thinking paradigms that are specifically pertinent to business education. A model-directed approach to teaching and learning higher order thinking is proposed. An example of application of the…

  17. MALDI-MIS INVESTIGATIONS OF DRINKING WATER PATHOGENS--GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, have been responsible for numerous waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee affected approximately 400,000 people and resulted in o...

  18. Teenage Pregnancy and Sex and Relationship Education: Myths and (Mis)conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the role of sex and relationship education (SRE) in reducing teenage pregnancy rates. It critically examines some of the assumptions underlying the emphasis placed on SRE within the teenage pregnancy strategy ( SEU, 1999)--in particular, the view that ignorance of sexual matters plays a key part in teenage conception. An…

  19. Dependence of mis-alignment sensitivity of ring laser gyro cavity on cavity parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Feng; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Hong-Bo; Yang, Chang-cheng

    2011-02-01

    The ring laser gyroscope (RLG), as a rotation sensor, has been widely used for navigation and guidance on vehicles and missiles. The environment of strong random-vibration and large acceleration may deteriorate the performance of the RLG due to the vibration-induced tilting of the mirrors. In this paper the RLG performance is theoretically analyzed and the parameters such as the beam diameter at the aperture, cavity mirror alignment sensitivities and power loss due to the mirror tilting are calculated. It is concluded that by carefully choosing the parameters, the significant loss in laser power can be avoided.

  20. Lecturer and First Year Student (Mis)understandings of Assessment Task Verbs: "Mind the Gap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the way in which a cohort of first year Chemistry students interpreted commonly used assessment task verbs and compared these responses with their lecturers' usage of these terms. The results of the research suggest that the gap between the understandings held by students new to university, and those held by lecturers, is of…

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Merging galaxies (mis)alignments (Barrera-Ballesteros+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Garcia-Lorenzo, B.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Lyubenova, M.; Wild, V.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Sanchez, S. F.; Marquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Ziegler, B.; Del Olmo, A.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Garcia-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Mast, D.; Kehrig, C.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Marino, R. A.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Walcher, C. J.; Vilchez, J. M.; Bomans, D. J.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; Gonzalez Delgado, R. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; McIntosh, D. H.; Bekeraite, S.; CALIFA Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The sample presented in this work was selected from 256 objects observed until March 20131. These galaxies are part of the CALIFA mother sample (hereafter CALIFA MS). We consider as objects in pairs those galaxies with companions within a projected distance of 160kpc, systemic velocity difference smaller than 300km/s, and a difference in r-band magnitude smaller than 2mag (relative distances, systemic velocities, and magnitudes were taken from NED3). Observations were carried out using the PPAK instrument at Calar Alto Observatory. Its main component consists of 331 fibers of 2.7" diameter each, concentrated in a single hexagon bundle covering a FoV of 74"x64", with a filling factor of ~60%. Three dithering pointings are taken for each object to reach a filling factor of 100% across the entire FoV (see details in Husemann et al. 2013). The final data cube consists of more than 4000 spectra at a sampling of 1"x1" per spaxel. (4 data files).

  2. Are phonological influences on lexical (mis)selection the result of a monitoring bias?

    PubMed Central

    Ratinckx, Elie; Ferreira, Victor S.; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A monitoring bias account is often used to explain speech error patterns that seem to be the result of an interactive language production system, like phonological influences on lexical selection errors. A biased monitor is suggested to detect and covertly correct certain errors more often than others. For instance, this account predicts that errors which are phonologically similar to intended words are harder to detect than ones that are phonologically dissimilar. To test this, we tried to elicit phonological errors under the same conditions that show other kinds of lexical selection errors. In five experiments, we presented participants with high cloze probability sentence fragments followed by a picture that was either semantically related, a homophone of a semantically related word, or phonologically related to the (implicit) last word of the sentence. All experiments elicited semantic completions or homophones of semantic completions, but none elicited phonological completions. This finding is hard to reconcile with a monitoring bias account and is better explained with an interactive production system. Additionally, this finding constrains the amount of bottom-up information flow in interactive models. PMID:18942035

  3. The Psychology of Containment: (Mis) Representing Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bergen, Penny; Graham, Linda J.; Sweller, Naomi; Dodd, Helen F.

    2015-01-01

    The number of students in special schools has increased at a rapid rate in some Australian states, due in part to increased enrolment under the categories of emotional disturbance (ED) and behaviour disorder (BD). Nonetheless, diagnostic distinctions between ED and BD are unclear. Moreover, despite international findings that students with…

  4. The (Mis)use of the Finnish Teacher Education Model: "Policy-Based Evidence-Making"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background: International achievement studies such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) have an increasing influence on education policy worldwide. The use of such data can provide a basis for evidence-based policy-making to initiate educational reform. Finland, a high performer in PISA, is often cited as an example of both…

  5. Potential (mis)match?: Marriage Markets amidst Socio-Demographic Change in India, 2005–2050

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Ridhi; Esteve, Albert; García-Román, Joan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the impact of socio-demographic change on marriage patterns in India by examining the hypothetical consequences of applying three sets of marriage pairing propensities – contemporary patterns by age, by age and education, and changing propensities that allow for greater educational homogamy and reduced educational asymmetries – to future population projections. Future population prospects for India indicate three trends that will impact marriage patterns: i) female-deficit in sex ratios at birth; ii) declining birth cohort size; iii) female educational expansion. Existing literature posits declining marriage rates for men arising from skewed sex ratios at birth (SRB) in India’s population. In addition to skewed SRBs, India’s population will experience female educational expansion in the coming decades. Female educational expansion and its impact on marriage patterns must be jointly considered with demographic changes, given educational differentials and asymmetries in union formation that exist in India, as across much of the world. We systematize contemporary pairing propensities using data from the 2005–2006 Indian National Family Health Survey and the 2004 Socio-Economic Survey and apply these and the third set of changing propensities to IIASA/VID multi-state population projections by educational attainment using an iterative longitudinal projection procedure. If today’s age patterns of marriage are viewed against age-sex population composition until 2050, men experience declining marriage prevalence. However, when education is included, women, particularly those with higher education experience a more salient rise in non-marriage. Significant changes in pairing patterns towards greater levels of educational homogamy and gender symmetry can counteract a marked rise in non-marriage. PMID:25604846

  6. Off Our Lawns and out of Our Basements: How We (Mis)Understand the Millennial Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechler, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the existing research on the characteristics of Millennials within historical, social, and economic contexts. While many researchers have made claims about Millennials, they fail to consider how parenting styles, economic factors, historical events, and shifts in educational priorities may have created the…

  7. (Mis)Perceptions of Continuing Education: Insights from Knowledge Translation, Quality Improvement, and Patient Safety Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitto, Simon C.; Bell, Mary; Goldman, Joanne; Peller, Jennifer; Silver, Ivan; Sargeant, Joan; Reeves, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Minimal attention has been given to the intersection and potential collaboration among the domains of continuing education (CE), knowledge translation (KT), quality improvement (QI), and patient safety (PS), despite their overlapping objectives. A study was undertaken to examine leaders' perspectives of these 4 domains and their…

  8. Use and mis-use of supplementary material in science publications.

    PubMed

    Pop, Mihai; Salzberg, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary material is a ubiquitous feature of scientific articles, particularly in journals that limit the length of the articles. While the judicious use of supplementary material can improve the readability of scientific articles, its excessive use threatens the scientific review process and by extension the integrity of the scientific literature. In many cases supplementary material today is so extensive that it is reviewed superficially or not at all. Furthermore, citations buried within supplementary files rob other scientists of recognition of their contribution to the scientific record. These issues are exacerbated by the lack of guidance on the use of supplementary information from the journals to authors and reviewers. We propose that the removal of artificial length restrictions plus the use of interactive features made possible by modern electronic media can help to alleviate these problems. Many journals, in fact, have already removed article length limitations (as is the case for BMC Bioinformatics and other BioMed Central journals). We hope that the issues raised in our article will encourage publishers and scientists to work together towards a better use of supplementary information in scientific publishing. PMID:26525146

  9. The Silence of Fear: Making Sense of Student (Mis)Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterek-Bonner, Emily

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this personal narrative is to retrospectively analyze the actions and reactions of a young, female, white teacher who was faced with the reality of the dichotomy of race and power in a large school system. When an African American male student brings a gun to school, the teacher's personal assumptions come to the forefront, bringing…

  10. Mis-modelling in Gravitational Wave Astronomy: The Trouble with Templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Laura; Cornish, Neil; Yunes, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    Waveform templates are a powerful tool for extracting and characterizing gravitational wave signals. There are, however, attendant dangers in using these highly restrictive signal priors. If strong field gravity is not accurately described by General Relativity (GR), then using GR templates may result in fundamental bias in the recovered parameters, or worse - a complete failure to detect signals. Here we study such dangers, concentrating on three distinct possibilities. First, we show that there exist modified theories compatible with all existing tests that would fail to be detected by the LIGO/Virgo network using searches based on GR templates, but which would be detected using a one parameter post-Einsteinian extension. Second, we study modified theories that produce departures from GR that do not naively fit into the simplest parameterized post-Einsteinian (ppE) scheme. We show that even the simplest ppE templates are still capable of picking up these strange signals and diagnosing a departure from GR. Third, we study how using inspiral-only ppE waveforms for signals that include merger and ringdown can lead to problems in misidentifying a GR departure. We present an easy technique that allows us to self-consistently identify the inspiral portion of the signal.

  11. Re-Birthing the Monstrous: James Whale's (Mis)Reading of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picart, Caroline Joan S.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on film and feminism by showing how James Whale's film attempts to excise or severely delimit the disturbing critique of the Romantic politics of gender in Mary Shelley's novel "Frankenstein." Discusses parthenogenesis, showing how the novel critiques the Romantic rhetorical reconstructions of masculine divinity and…

  12. Exploratory Factor Analysis as a Construct Validation Tool: (Mis)applications in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Factor analysis has been frequently exploited in applied research to provide evidence about the underlying factors in various measurement instruments. A close inspection of a large number of studies published in leading applied linguistic journals shows that there is a misconception among applied linguists as to the relative merits of exploratory…

  13. Aeolian Processes and Landforms in River Valleys of Central Russian Plain in MIS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlakhova, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    Late Pleistocene terraces in river valleys of Central Russian Plain were subject to aeolian reworking after the alluvial sedimentation had finished. Severe natural conditions of LGM (cold and dry climate, scarce vegetation) contributed activation of aeolian processes. Ground water lowering because of deep pre-LGM incision of rivers made deep aeolian reworking possible at low hypsometric levels of valley bottom. We studied lithological structure of terraces in river valleys of Central Russian Plain. The key sites were located in Seim (the middle Dnieper catchment) and Khoper (the middle Don catchment) river valleys. Field data was combined with quartz grains morphoscopy technique (study of texture of sediment particles using scanning electron microscope). Wide participation of aeolian sediments in terrace deposits was detected. During this study a new technique of the distinguishing of short-term aeolian reworking of alluvial deposits using quartz grains morphoscopy technique was developed. The main problem of interpretation the results of quartz grains morphoscopy is that aeolian signals are sometimes not clear due to short duration of wind action over alluvial sands. However, detailed studies of the quartz grains surfaces under scanning electron microscope helped to solve this problem. We used scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM-661 LV and worked with magnification from ×160 to ×400 for whole grains and up to ×1800 for some parts of grains. Deep aeolian reworking of Late Pleistocene terrace alluvium in river valleys of Central Russian Plain during LGM led to the formation of aeolian covers on the terrace surfaces. Also there are many relict dunes on Late Pleistocene river terrace surfaces. Sometimes the development of aeolian processes could led to more significant changes in the shape of the valley and formation of aeolian aprons. The thickness of aeolian covers can reach 3-5 m or more. Due to this reason morphology and topography of river terraces could have been changed considerably during LGM.

  14. The Relationship among Creative (Mis) Fit, College Culture, Creative and Academic Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cayirdag, Nur

    2016-01-01

    Although person-environment fit (PEF) has been extensively studied in organizational psychology and business literature, its application to educational context has been limited. The current study used PEF framework in terms of creativity within the context of higher education. The nature of relationship between person-environment fit, college…

  15. The (Mis)Identification of Ineffective Classroom Teaching Practice: Critical Interrogations of Classroom Teacher Effectiveness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper critiques specific forms of classroom teacher effectiveness research. In doing so, the paper suggests that education policy-making deems and employs teacher effectiveness research as a promising and capable contrivance for the identification of ineffective classroom teaching practice. The paper engages with this policy debate by using a…

  16. Radiogenic Nd isotope labeling of the northern NE Atlantic during MIS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Natalie L.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.

    2015-08-01

    Paleoceanographic reconstructions rely on chemical proxies which are controlled by physical, chemical, and biological marine parameters. The accurate interpretation of proxy records relies on the integrity of proxy-environmental relationships through time, and under changing conditions. In this study we closely examine paleo controls on authigenic Nd isotope records from five cores in the northern NE Atlantic, approximating a depth-transect, allowing spatial and temporal relationships to be reconstructed. We compare our Nd isotope records with other paleocirculation proxies, and consider the sedimentalogical controls on Nd isotope signals, by comparing ice-rafted detritus lithology and counts, detrital sediment chemistry and redox sensitive element concentrations measured on foraminifera authigenic coatings. With this suite of geochemical and sedimentalogical data we show that Nd isotope records in the northern NE Atlantic were labeled by radiogenic sediments, however this modification did not occur in the pore-waters of each core, but instead likely reflects changes in the Nd isotopic composition of deep-waters caused by the input of ice-rafted sediment during Heinrich events and the last glacial maximum. This study has implications for understanding how localized changes in the Nd isotope signal can set a watermass end-member composition, decoupling chemical proxy-circulation relationships locally, but providing a signal which can be potentially traced along the deep-water flowpath. Such scenarios must be considered in future interpretations of glacial Nd isotope records taken from within the ice-rafted detritus belt and downstream along watermass flowpaths.

  17. Impact of abrupt climate change in the tropical southeast Atlantic during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessler, Ines; Steinke, Stephan; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Dupont, Lydie; Wefer, Gerold

    2011-12-01

    High resolution planktonic foraminifera Mg/Ca paleotemperatures and oxygen isotopes of seawater of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1078 (off Angola) have been reconstructed and reveal insights into the seasonal thermal evolution of the Angola Current (AC), the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF), and the Benguela Current (BC) during the last glacial (50-23.5 ka BP). Special emphasis is put on time intervals possibly associated with the North Atlantic Heinrich Stadials (HS), which are thought to lead to an accumulation of heat in the South Atlantic due to a reduction of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Within dating uncertainties, Globigerinoides ruber (pink) Mg/Ca-based sea surface temperature (SST) estimates that represent southern hemisphere summer surface conditions show several warming episodes that coincide with North Atlantic HS, thus supporting the concept of the bipolar thermal seesaw. In contrast, the Mg/Ca-based temperatures of Globigerina bulloides, representing the SST of the ABF/BC system during southern hemisphere winter, show no obvious response to the North Atlantic HS in the study area. We suggest that surface water cooling during the winter season is due to enhanced upwelling or upwelling of colder water masses which has most likely mitigated a warming of the ABF/BC system during HS. We further speculate that the seasonal asymmetry in our SST record results from seasonal differences in the dominance of atmospheric and oceanic teleconnections during periods of northern high latitude cooling.

  18. The Effects and Side-Effects of Statistics Education: Psychology Students' (Mis-)Conceptions of Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina; Chiesi, Francesca; Handley, Simon

    2009-01-01

    In three studies we looked at two typical misconceptions of probability: the representativeness heuristic, and the equiprobability bias. The literature on statistics education predicts that some typical errors and biases (e.g., the equiprobability bias) increase with education, whereas others decrease. This is in contrast with reasoning theorists'…

  19. Financial Aid: Who Needs It? MIS Research Profile, Volume One, Number 1, Mar. 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda M.

    This report examines various aspects of financial aid including financial need as the basis for financial aid to students and the problem of inadequate funds. Recommendations suggest: (1) When forms are administered to the students, more guidance is needed to make them aware of the differences in the two systems presently serving the colleges and…

  20. Understanding public (mis)understanding of tDCS for enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Laura Y.; Reiner, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the public’s perspective on using the minimally invasive technique transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as an enhancement tool, we analyzed and compared online comments in key popular press articles from two different periods (pre-commercialization and post-commercialization). The main conclusion drawn from this exploratory investigation is that public perception regarding tDCS has shifted from misunderstanding to cautionary realism. This change in attitude can be explained as moving from a focus on an emergent technology to a focus on its applications, benefits, and risks as the technology becomes more grounded within the public domain. Future governance of tDCS should include the concerns and enthusiasms of the public. PMID:25964748

  1. Primary Renal Hydatid Cyst: Mis-Interpretation as a Renal Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon; Park, Jae Young; Kim, Jae-Heon; Moon, Du Geon; Lee, Jeong-Gu

    2014-01-01

    Primary renal echinococcosis, a rare disease involving the kidney, accounts for 2-3% of human echinococcosis. A 64-year-old female patient from Uzbekistan presented with complaints of left flank pain. A CT scan revealed a cystic mass in the upper to midpole of the left kidney. We regarded this lesion as a renal malignancy and hand-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed to remove the renal mass. The mass consisted of a large unilocular cyst and multiple smaller cysts without any grossly visible renal tissue. The final pathologic diagnosis was a renal hydatid cyst. For patients from endemic areas, hydatid cyst should be included in the differential diagnosis. Here, we present a case of renal hydatid cyst in a female patient who relocated from Uzbekistan to Korea. PMID:25031471

  2. ELSA flood stack for MIS 2-3 from dry maar lakestructure Auel (Eifel/Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunck, Heiko; Sirocko, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Lacustrine sediments are very sensitive to natural and anthropogenically enviromental changes. Thus, lake sediments are excellent climate archives and can be used for reconstructions of past precipitation and flood events. However, until now, there is no continous flood record for the entire last 60 000 years for Central Europe. The present study reconstructs paleo floods from event layers in the sediment, of dry maar lakestructure Auel (Eifel). This silted up basin has an inflow by a local stream. Accordingly the sedimentation rate is directly linked to runoff activity. The bioturbation was low so that event layers become visible, but varves are not preserved. The maar site is near to the town of Gerolstein in the Eifel; the core AU2 was drilled in the ELSA (Eifel Laminated Sediment archive) project and is 123m long. AU2 has the highest sedimentation rate of all ELSA cores, due to abundant fluvial input. The Eifel area is well suited to approximate Central European weather, because modern water level gauge data from Eifel rivers correlate with respective data from the Rhine (Wernli and Pfahl, 2009). Due to the high inflow into the maar, Auel has the highest number of botanical macro remains of all ELSA cores. These specific conditions explain why only in AU2 all 21 Greenland interstadials can be observed in the abundance of wood remains and the organic carbon concentration. In a final stratigraphic step the time series of Corg was tuned to the Greenland ice core chronology to link the central European landscape evolution directly to the Greenland climate curve (Svensson et al., 2008). Combined sedimentological, paleobotanical and geochemical data received from AU2 builds the foundation of the 14C based chronology. The synchronisation of the record with other cores is controlled by tephra time markers and pollen. Both are used to align the main cores of the ELSA project and construct an integrated age model for the last 220 000 years [b2k] (Förster and Sirocko, 2014). To study the past flood events in detail, 10 cm long thin sections were analyzed to distinguish flood layers from distal turbidites. Turbidites have a continuous grain size gradation; the grains size profile of flood events is in contrast characterized by several grain size maxima over the entire layer thickness. A flood event over several days shows numerous peaks of intense discharge, which lead to a discontinuous grain size gradient. The thickness of each flood layer was measured for the classification of the event intensity. As a consequence, 88 flood layers over 7.5 mm thickness were detected. Our time-series represents the first highly-resolved chronology for flood events from 60 000 years until present times and indicates variable periodicities of flood activity linked to predominant climatic development. The fore main sections of all flood layers are: 44 000 - 45 500, 30 000 - 37 000, 20 000 - 22 500 and 11 000 - 17 000 years [b2k].

  3. Design and synthesis of hairpin probe for specific mis-match discrimination.

    PubMed

    Misra, Arvind; Kumar, Pradeep; Gupta, K C

    2007-01-01

    A single stranded hairpin probe labeled with fluorescein at its 5'-end and terminates with deoxyguanosine nucleotide at 3'- end, as quencher, has been designed and synthesized in an automated DNA synthesizer. The system has been used as an alternative to molecular beacon. The deoxyguanosine residues have been kept at the 3'-end of the complementary arm strand to quench the fluorescence intensity of the fluorophore, making the hairpin probe behave like a conventional molecular beacon. The proposed probe has been used to find a correlation between fluorescence and thermal behaviour on hybridizing it with several mismatched target oligonucleotides. The designed probe has shown greater degree of specificity with perfectly matched target oligonucleotide, while it shows a variable degree of destabilization with mismatched (A/C) target complementary oligonucleotides.

  4. Entertainment (mis)education: the framing of organ donation in entertainment television.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Susan E; Harrison, Tyler R; Chewning, Lisa; Davis, Lashara; Dicorcia, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners who have sought to understand public reluctance to donating organs in spite of favorable attitudes toward organ donation have long thought that belief in myths about donation contribute to the problem. How these myths emerged and more important, why they have persisted in spite of national education campaigns is not clear. In the absence of direct personal experience with organ donation or transplantation, we believe that most people receive their information about donation through the media. In this study, we identify all entertainment television shows with organ donation storylines or subplots broadcast on ABC, NBC, CBS, and FOX from 2004-2005. Frame analysis reveals 2 competing metaframes: the moral corruption of the powerful and organ donors are good people. In addition to the metaframes, 4 secondary frames, and 6 tertiary frames are identified. Organ donation is framed in mostly negative terms, with a few notable exceptions. Recommendations for how to address negative framing of organ donation in the media are offered.

  5. "Food company sponsors are kind, generous and cool": (Mis)conceptions of junior sports players

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing influences their food knowledge, preferences and consumption. Sport sponsorship by food companies is widespread and industry investment in this marketing is increasing. This study aimed to assess children's awareness of sport sponsors and their brand-related attitudes and purchasing intentions in response to this marketing. Methods Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with children aged 10-14 years (n = 103) to examine their recall of local sports club and elite sport sponsors, and their attitudes towards sponsors and sponsorship activities. Results Most children (68%) could recall sponsors of their sports club, naming a median of two sponsors, including a median of one food company sponsor each. Almost half (47%) of children could recall any sponsors of their favourite elite sporting team. Children aged 10-11 years were more likely than older children to report that they thought about sponsors when buying something to eat or drink (P < 0.01); that they liked to return the favour to sponsors by buying their products (P < 0.01); and that sponsors were 'cool' (P = 0.02). Most children had received a voucher or certificate from a food or beverage company to reward sport performance (86% and 76%, respectively). Around one-third of children reported liking the company more after receiving these rewards. Conclusions Children's high recall of food and beverage company sport sponsors and their positive attitudes towards these sponsors and their promotions is concerning as this is likely to be linked to children's food preferences and consumption. Limiting children's exposure to this marketing is an important initiative to improve children's nutrition. PMID:21888675

  6. Correcting Media Mis-Education: The Portrayal of Smokers and Smoking in Top Grossing Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Alyssa; Brackin, Taryn; Chubb, Jamie; Covata, Sandy; Ferguson, Liz; Hinckley, Adele; Hodges, Jilda; Liberati, Cheryl; Tornetta, Jonette; Chambliss, Catherine

    Given that young people are extremely concerned with how they appear socially, beguiling and glamorous portrayals of smokers in recent films may be contributing to the continual rise in college student smoking. The pervasive positive depiction of smokers as attractive and appealing easily preys on young people who lack confidence and self esteem.…

  7. Adolescent (Mis)Perceptions about Nicotine Addiction: Results from a Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roditis, Maria; Lee, Joann; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite evidence that adolescents become addicted to nicotine even after limited use, adolescents believe they can experiment with or smoke cigarettes for a few years and easily quit. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' understanding of the definition and process of nicotine addiction using a mixed-methods approach. Method:…

  8. Education and the Face of the Other: Levinas, Camus and (Mis)Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Among the most neglected of Albert Camus' literary works is his play "The misunderstanding." Composed while Camus was in exile in occupied France, and first performed on stage in 1944, "The misunderstanding" depicts the events that unfold when a man returns, without declaring his identity, to a home he left 20 years ago.…

  9. Measuring the Performance and Intelligence of Systems: Proceedings of the 2002 PerMIS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messina, E. R.; Meystel, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: Performance Metrics; Performance of Multiple Agents; Performance of Mobility Systems; Performance of Planning Systems; General Discussion Panel 1; Uncertainty of Representation I; Performance of Robots in Hazardous Domains; Modeling Intelligence; Modeling of Mind; Measuring Intelligence; Grouping: A Core Procedure of Intelligence; Uncertainty in Representation II; Towards Universal Planning/Control Systems.

  10. Conceptual mis(understandings) of fractions: From area models to multiple embodiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofen; Clements, M. A. (Ken); Ellerton, Nerida F.

    2015-06-01

    Area-model representations seem to have been dominant in the teaching and learning of fractions, especially in primary school mathematics curricula. In this study, we investigated 40 fifth grade children's understandings of the unit fractions, , and , represented through a variety of different models. Analyses of pre-teaching test and interview data revealed that although the participants were adept at partitioning regional models, they did not cope well with questions for which unit fractions were embodied in non-area-model scenarios. Analyses of post-teaching test and interview data indicated that after their participation in an instructional intervention designed according to Dienes' (1960) dynamic principle, the students' performances on tests improved significantly, and their conceptual understandings of unit fractions developed to the point where they could provide reasonable explanations of how they arrived at solutions. Analysis of retention data, gathered more than 3 months after the teaching intervention, showed that the students' newly found understandings had, in most cases, been retained.

  11. The Problem of the Match and Mis-Match in Testing Black Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert L.

    Ability tests in use today and the educational programs of the schools are examined from a Black perspective. It is stated that it is incumbent upon educators to develop appropriate learning experiences in the classroom which relate to the Black child's background experiences. The following issues are raised: (1) I.Q. tests (predictor variables)…

  12. All Recent Mars Landers Have Landed Downrange - Are Mars Atmosphere Models Mis-Predicting Density?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.

    2008-01-01

    All recent Mars landers (Mars Pathfinder, the two Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, and the Mars Phoenix Lander) have landed further downrange than their pre-entry predictions. Mars Pathfinder landed 27 km downrange of its prediction [1], Spirit and Opportunity landed 13.4 km and 14.9 km, respectively, downrange from their predictions [2], and Phoenix landed 21 km downrange from its prediction [3]. Reconstruction of their entries revealed a lower density profile than the best a priori atmospheric model predictions. Do these results suggest that there is a systemic issue in present Mars atmosphere models that predict a higher density than observed on landing day? Spirit Landing: The landing location for Spirit was 13.4 km downrange of the prediction as shown in Fig. 1. The navigation errors upon Mars arrival were very small [2]. As such, the entry interface conditions were not responsible for this downrange landing. Consequently, experiencing a lower density during the entry was the underlying cause. The reconstructed density profile that Spirit experienced is shown in Fig. 2, which is plotted as a fraction of the pre-entry baseline prediction that was used for all the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) design analyses. The reconstructed density is observed to be less dense throughout the descent reaching a maximum reduction of 15% at 21 km. This lower density corresponded to approximately a 1- low profile relative to the dispersions predicted. Nearly all the deceleration during the entry occurs within 10- 50 km. As such, prediction of density within this altitude band is most critical for entry flight dynamics analyses and design (e.g., aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic predictions, landing location, etc.).

  13. Imprinted X-linked genes, 'feminine intuition' and the public (mis)understanding of science.

    PubMed

    Scourfield, J; McGuffin, P

    1997-09-01

    The report of an imprinted locus on the X chromosome influencing social behaviour was taken up with fervour by the media and reported in a way which neglected the reality of multifactorial complexity and the interplay between genetic and environmental contributors to gender differences. We summarize the background scientific details of the study and discuss the media reporting of those findings.

  14. Electronic properties of Al/p-Si/C70/Au MIS-type diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedikpınar, M.; Çavaş, M.; Alahmed, Zayed A.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2013-07-01

    The electrical characteristics of the Al/p-Si/C70/Au diode were investigated by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements. The current-voltage characteristics confirm that the diode is a metal-insulator-semiconductor type device. The decrease in ideality factor and increase in barrier height values of the diode were observed with temperature. This behavior was explained on the basis of Schottky barrier height inhomogeneities. The zero-bias mean barrier height ϕ and Richardson values for the diode were found to be 1.06 eV and 33.12 A/cm2 K2, respectively. The obtained Richardson constant (A* = 33.12 A/cm2 K2) is in agreement with the theoretical value of A* = 32 A/cm2 K2. The interface state density properties of the diode were analyzed and the shape of the interface state density is changed with temperature. The ϕB value obtained from C-V measurement is higher than that of ϕB value obtained from I-V measurements. The discrepancy between ϕB(C-V) and ϕB(I-V) values was explained by distribution of Schottky barrier height due the inhomogeneities.

  15. (Mis) Representations of the Long-Term Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse in the Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Addresses representations made by pro-false memory attorneys and expert witnesses in court regarding the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Examining the testimony revealed that such pro-false memory testimony was based on a partial understanding of retrospective data. Reviewing the totality of the scientific evidence demonstrates that…

  16. Film, Crime, and State Legitimacy: Political Education or Mis-Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankowski, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Film and related media are an important source of visually centered narratives in many contemporary cultures. This essay focuses on recent crime stories (particularly in the United States) conveyed through these media. In what follows, the emphasis is on film, but the issues could often be adapted to apply to other media that use moving images.…

  17. Role of vibrationally excited HBr in a HBr/He inductively coupled plasma used for etching of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinck, Stefan; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-06-01

    In this work, the role of vibrationally excited HBr (HBr(vib)) is computationally investigated for a HBr/He inductively coupled plasma applied for Si etching. It is found that at least 50% of all dissociations of HBr occur through HBr(vib). This additional dissociation pathway through HBr(vib) makes the plasma significantly more atomic. It also results in a slightly higher electron temperature (i.e. about 0.2 eV higher compared to simulation results where HBr(vib) is not included), as well as a higher gas temperature (i.e. about 50 K higher than without including HBr(vib)), due to the enhanced Franck–Condon heating through HBr(vib) dissociation, at the conditions investigated. Most importantly, the calculated etch rate with HBr(vib) included in the model is a factor 3 higher than in the case without HBr(vib), due to the higher fluxes of etching species (i.e. H and Br), while the chemical composition of the wafer surface shows no significant difference. Our calculations clearly show the importance of including HBr(vib) for accurate modeling of HBr-containing plasmas.

  18. Designing a Virtual Item Bank Based on the Techniques of Image Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Wen-Wei; Ho, Rong-Guey

    2011-01-01

    One of the major weaknesses of the item exposure rates of figural items in Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests lies in its inaccuracies. In this study, a new approach is proposed and a useful test tool known as the Virtual Item Bank (VIB) is introduced. The VIB combine Automatic Item Generation theory and image processing theory with the concepts of…

  19. Reactive codoping of GaAlInP compound semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Hanna, Mark Cooper; Reedy, Robert

    2008-02-12

    A GaAlInP compound semiconductor and a method of producing a GaAlInP compound semiconductor are provided. The apparatus and method comprises a GaAs crystal substrate in a metal organic vapor deposition reactor. Al, Ga, In vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing organometallic compounds. P vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing phospine gas, group II vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing an organometallic group IIA or IIB compound. Group VIB vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing a gaseous compound of group VIB. The Al, Ga, In, P, group II, and group VIB vapors grow a GaAlInP crystal doped with group IIA or IIB and group VIB elements on the substrate wherein the group IIA or IIB and a group VIB vapors produced a codoped GaAlInP compound semiconductor with a group IIA or IIB element serving as a p-type dopant having low group II atomic diffusion.

  20. Inadvertent hypnosis during interrogation: false confession due to dissociative state; mis-identified multiple personality and the Satanic cult hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ofshe, R J

    1992-07-01

    Induction of a dissociative state followed by suggestion during interrogation caused a suspect to develop pseudo-memories of raping his daughters and of participation in a baby-murdering Satanic cult. The pseudo-memories coupled with influence from authority figures convinced him of his guilt for 6 months. During this time, the suspect, the witnesses, and all the evidence in the case were studied. No evidence supported an inference of guilt and substantial evidence supported the conclusion that no crime had been committed. An experiment demonstrated the suspect's extreme suggestibility. The conclusion reached was that the cult did not exist and the suspect's confessions were coerced-internalized false confessions. During the investigation, 2 psychologists diagnosed the suspect as suffering from a dissociative disorder similar to multiple personality. Both psychologists were predisposed to find Satanic cult activity. Each concluded that the disorder was due to "programming" by the non-existent Satanic cult. PMID:1399152

  1. The Richardson constant and barrier inhomogeneity at Au/Si3N4/n-Si (MIS) Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataroğlu, A.; Pür, F. Z.

    2013-07-01

    Si3N4 films were deposited on n-type silicon substrate by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Au/Si3N4/n-Si (metal-insulator-semiconductor) Schottky diodes were investigated in the temperature range of 160-400 K. Experimental results show an abnormal increase in the zero-bias barrier height (BH) (ΦBo) and a decrease in the ideality factor (n) with increasing temperature. This behavior is attributed to barrier inhomogeneities by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD) of BHs. The conventional Richardson plot (ln(Io/T2) versus 1000/T) exhibits a linearity above about 300 K. The values of activation energy (Ea) and Richardson constant (A*) were found to be 0.350 eV and 1.242 × 10-3 A cm-2 K-2 from the slope and the intercept at the ordinate of the linear region of this plot, respectively. Also, we attempted to draw a ΦBo versus q/2kT plot to determine evidence of the GD of BHs, and the values of \\bar \\Phi _{{\\rm{Bo}}} = 0.999\\,{\\rm{eV}} and σs = 0.137 eV for the mean BH and zero-bias standard deviation, respectively, were obtained from this plot; then, a modified ln(Io/T2) - q2σs2/2k2T2 versus q/kT plot gives \\bar \\Phi _{{\\rm{Bo}}} and A* as 0.992 eV and 108.228 A cm-2 K-2, respectively. This value of A* is very close to the theoretical value of 112 A cm-2 K-2 for n-type Si.

  2. Investigating the Influence of Climate Changes on Rodent Communities at a Regional-Scale (MIS 1-3, Southwestern France)

    PubMed Central

    Royer, Aurélien; Montuire, Sophie; Legendre, Serge; Discamps, Emmanuel; Jeannet, Marcel; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have continuously evolved throughout the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, deeply affected by both progressive environmental and climatic modifications, as well as by abrupt and large climatic changes such as the Heinrich or Dansgaard-Oeschger events. Yet, the impacts of these different events on terrestrial mammalian communities are poorly known, as is the role played by potential refugia on geographical species distributions. This study examines community changes in rodents of southwestern France between 50 and 10 ky BP by integrating 94 dated faunal assemblages coming from 37 archaeological sites. This work reveals that faunal distributions were modified in response to abrupt and brief climatic events, such as Heinrich events, without actually modifying the rodent community on a regional scale. However, the succession of events which operated between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene gradually led to establishing a new rodent community at the regional scale, with intermediate communities occurring between the Bølling and the Allerød. PMID:26789523

  3. Race, Gender, and Bodily (Mis)Recognitions: Women of Color Faculty Experiences with White Students in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Kristie A.

    2011-01-01

    Identities are not only shaped by self-perception, but are influenced by others' perceptions of self as well. More pointedly, one's physicality or bodily self can be perceived differently depending upon the viewer. To that end, Turner (2002) notes, "faculty women of color experience multiple marginality, characterized by lived contradiction and…

  4. Mis-expression of the BK K(+) channel disrupts suprachiasmatic nucleus circuit rhythmicity and alters clock-controlled behavior.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Jenna R; Whitt, Joshua P; Wright, Breanne N; Lai, Michael H; Meredith, Andrea L

    2013-02-15

    In mammals, almost all aspects of circadian rhythmicity are attributed to activity in a discrete neural circuit of the hypothalamus, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). A 24-h rhythm in spontaneous firing is the fundamental neural intermediary to circadian behavior, but the ionic mechanisms that pattern circuit rhythmicity, and the integrated impact on behavior, are not well studied. Here, we demonstrate that daily modulation of a major component of the nighttime-phased suppressive K(+) current, encoded by the BK Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current channel (K(Ca)1.1 or Kcnma1), is a critical arbiter of circadian rhythmicity in the SCN circuit. Aberrant induction of BK current during the day in transgenic mice using a Per1 promoter (Tg-BK(R207Q)) reduced SCN firing or silenced neurons, decreasing the circadian amplitude of the ensemble circuit rhythm. Changes in cellular and circuit excitability in Tg-BK(R207Q) SCNs were correlated with elongated behavioral active periods and enhanced responses to phase-shifting stimuli. Unexpectedly, despite the severe reduction in circuit amplitude, circadian behavioral amplitudes in Tg-BK(R207Q) mice were relatively normal. These data demonstrate that downregulation of the BK current during the day is essential for the high amplitude neural activity pattern in the SCN that restricts locomotor activity to the appropriate phase and maintains the clock's robustness against perturbation. However, a residually rhythmic subset prevails over the ensemble circuit to drive the fundamental circadian behavioral rhythm.

  5. MisTec: A software application for supporting space exploration scenario options and technology development analysis and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsham, Gary A. P.

    1991-01-01

    The structure and composition of a new, emerging software application, which models and analyzes space exploration scenario options for feasibility based on technology development projections is presented. The software application consists of four main components: a scenario generator for designing and inputting scenario options and constraints; a processor which performs algorithmic coupling and options analyses of mission activity requirements and technology capabilities; a results display which graphically and textually shows coupling and options analysis results; and a data/knowledge base which contains information on a variety of mission activities and (power and propulsion) technology system capabilities. The general long-range study process used by NASA to support recent studies is briefly introduced to provide the primary basis for comparison for discussing the potential advantages to be gained from developing and applying this king of application. A hypothetical example of a scenario option to facilitate the best conceptual understanding of what the application is, how it works, or the operating methodology, and when it might be applied is presented.

  6. Investigating the Influence of Climate Changes on Rodent Communities at a Regional-Scale (MIS 1-3, Southwestern France).

    PubMed

    Royer, Aurélien; Montuire, Sophie; Legendre, Serge; Discamps, Emmanuel; Jeannet, Marcel; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have continuously evolved throughout the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, deeply affected by both progressive environmental and climatic modifications, as well as by abrupt and large climatic changes such as the Heinrich or Dansgaard-Oeschger events. Yet, the impacts of these different events on terrestrial mammalian communities are poorly known, as is the role played by potential refugia on geographical species distributions. This study examines community changes in rodents of southwestern France between 50 and 10 ky BP by integrating 94 dated faunal assemblages coming from 37 archaeological sites. This work reveals that faunal distributions were modified in response to abrupt and brief climatic events, such as Heinrich events, without actually modifying the rodent community on a regional scale. However, the succession of events which operated between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene gradually led to establishing a new rodent community at the regional scale, with intermediate communities occurring between the Bølling and the Allerød. PMID:26789523

  7. How Do Children with ADHD (Mis)Manage Their Real-Life Dyadic Friendships? A Multi-Method Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Sebastien; Schneider, Barry H.; Lee, Matthew D.; Maisonneuve, Marie-France; Kuehn, Sally M.; Robaey, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This multimethod study provides detailed information about the friendships of 87 children (76% boys) with ADHD and 46 comparison children aged 7-13 years. The methods included parent and teacher ratings, self-report measures and direct observation of friends' dyadic behaviors in three structured analogue tasks. Results indicated that, in contrast…

  8. When Do Motor Behaviors (Mis)Match Affective Stimuli? An Evaluative Coding View of Approach and Avoidance Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eder, Andreas B.; Rothermund, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Affective-mapping effects between affective stimuli and lever movements are critically dependent upon the evaluative meaning of the response labels that are used in the task instructions. In Experiments 1 and 2, affective-mapping effects predicted by specific-muscle-activation and distance-regulation accounts were replicated when the standard…

  9. Mis-Diagnosis and Dual Diagnosis of Gifted Children: Gifted and LD, ADHD, OCD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, James T.

    Many gifted and talented children are often misdiagnosed by psychologists and other health professionals as having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Disorder (OD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), or another of the mood disorders. The misdiagnosis can stem from mistaken assumptions being made about the social and…

  10. Teaching Students What They Already Know? The (Mis)Alignment between Mathematics Instructional Content and Student Knowledge in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Finch, Maida A.

    2013-01-01

    Kindergarten mathematics skills are important for subsequent achievement, yet mathematics is underemphasized in kindergarten classrooms. Using nationally representative data, this study explored the relationship between students' school-entry math skills, classroom content coverage, and end-of-kindergarten math achievement. Although the vast…

  11. Mis/Representations of Asian/Americans in the Curricula: Perspectives from Second-Generation Japanese American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This case study explores how six second-generation Japanese American youth recalled learning about cultural diversity at their high schools, particularly information that was intended to represent their identities as ethnic and racial minorities. Semi-structured interviews were used to investigate how the participants made sense of curricular…

  12. Challenging the Academic (Mis)Categorization of Urban Youth: Building a Case for Puerto Rican High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene; Velez, William; Garrett, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    This article is intended to dispel the myth that Latinas and Latinos and other urban high school youths of color are not capable of performing at high academic levels. Much research shows that youths of color are underrepresented and underserved in gifted education programs. The authors describe the four success factors to which 10 working-class…

  13. [Sigmund Freud, Rudolf Meringer and Carl Mayer: slips of the tongue and mis-readings. The history of a controversy].

    PubMed

    Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2007-01-01

    In both his The Psychopathology of Everyday Life and his Lectures Sigmund Freud derived the terms unconscious, preconscious and conscious, particularly from slips in speech, slips in reading and forgetfulness. In these slips, Freud recognised parallels to dreams. In the work mentioned, he analysed these in depth as part of mental motivation. In the papers referred to, Sigmund Freud paid tribute to Rudolf Meringer and Carl Mayer's study which was published in 1895. Meringer and Mayer showed as phenomena reversals and rearrangement of whole words, syllables or sounds, along with pre-tones or anticipations and echoes, word contaminations and word substitutions as responsible for slips of the tongue. The present work demonstrates how passionately these three scientists have contributed to the controversy of their standpoints. For modern psycholinguistics and the psychology of language, speech errors are always an expression of a momentary malfunction of the human speech production system: for the cognitive process of speech production slips of the tongue offer an insight into speech processing. Pre-tones and echoes, serialization errors, as Meringer and Mayer recognised, represent the vast majority of slips of the tongue. They do not reveal any hidden point. But with lexical-semantic slips of the tongue the question of mental motivation is admissible. This short paper is a sign of appreciation and gratitude: firstly, a modest birthday gift for Sigmund Freud, secondly homage to Carl Mayer, who influenced generations of neurologists in his 40 years of chairing the Psychiatric-Neurological Clinic in Innsbruck, so that Hans Ganner rightly spoke of a "Carl Mayer School". But lastly, this short study is also-and especially-a late recognition of Rudolf Meringer, the great Austrian linguist. The view an individual has concerning mental processes and the "topology of the psychic apparatus" is decisive as to the power of determination attached to the unconscious.

  14. Perceiving the Problem of Poverty and Schooling: Deconstructing the Class Stereotypes that Mis-Shape Education Practice and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorski, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    A rich history of scholarship has demonstrated the ways in which popular stereotypes of disenfranchised communities, including people living in poverty, affect individual biases and preconceptions. Less attention has been paid to the ways in which such stereotypes help frame policy and practice responses regarding social problems, such as the…

  15. Using ICD codes and birth records to prevent mis-matches of multiple births in linked hospital readmission data.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Alison; Liu, Zhiwei; Smith, Emily; Mineau, Geraldine; Xu, Wu

    2008-11-06

    Multiple births present a challenge for accurately identifying newborn readmissions when using probabilistic linkage methods and the given name is missing. We discovered that using ICD newborn codes and linking to birth certificates to identify multiple births in hospital discharge data improves the linking accuracy for newborn readmissions by 28.9%.

  16. Synchronizing the North American Varve Chronology with Greenland ice core records during late MIS 2 using Meteoric 10Be Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJong, Benjamin D.; Balco, Greg; Ridge, Jack C.; Rood, Dylan H.; Bierman, Paul R.

    2013-04-01

    The North American Varve Chronology (NAVC) is a floating 5700-year sequence of glacial lake varves deposited in the Connecticut River Valley of the northeast US ~18,000-12,500 years ago. The NAVC is an annually resolved record of regional climate and ice-marginal processes at 40-45° N latitude, near the margin of the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). NAVC deposition occurred at the same time as rapid and abrupt Arctic and North Atlantic climate changes that took place during the last deglaciation. Age calibration estimates for the NAVC based on radiocarbon dated plant macrofossils in individual varves imply a relationship between ice-marginal events recorded by the NAVC and climate events recorded in Greenland ice cores. For example, the retreat rate of the LIS up the Connecticut River Valley increased during the Bolling warming in Greenland, a readvance of the LIS margin took place during the Older Dryas cold period, and a correlation between an outburst flood from glacial Lake Iroquois and the Intra-Allerod Cold Period supports the hypothesis that the flood affected North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. On the other hand, a doubling of the ice-margin retreat rate recorded by the NAVC around 16,000 years ago coincides with a relatively cold period in Greenland. Our goal is to investigate the precise time relationship between these two records by synchronizing the NAVC with the Greenland ice core time scale using atmospherically-produced 10Be. Existing 10Be flux records, including those from Greenland ice cores, exhibit solar variability on a range of time scales. Because this variability is globally synchronous, a 10Be flux record for the NAVC can, in principle, be used to align NAVC and ice core timescales. In the first phase of this research we tested this potential by generating 10Be flux records for two 80-year varve sequences and analyzing them using multi-taper spectral analysis for determination of statistically significant periodicities. We were specifically looking to see if they record the 11-year Schwabe solar cycle, which is clearly expressed in 10Be flux records from Greenland ice cores. The results do not support the existence of a statistically significant 11-year periodicity, but the diagnostic El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO; ~4-6 yr) signaling was resolved with >99% confidence. We interpret these results to suggest that our measurements of 10Be flux are representative and that the multi-taper spectral analysis method is the appropriate tool for investigating harmonic signaling. The lack of the 11-year solar variability suggests that complex watershed processes influenced the retention and delivery of 10Be in the glaciated and freshly de-glaciated landscapes of the Connecticut River Valley so as to obscure the short-period 11-year variability. We use these results to guide sampling for a 1700-year record of 10Be flux record at decadal (15-year) resolution for comparison with Greenland ice core records at centennial timescales.

  17. Couples Counseling Directive Technique: A (Mis)communication Model to Promote Insight, Catharsis, Disclosure, and Problem Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaffey, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    A psychoeducational model for improving couple communication is proposed. An important goal in couples counseling is to assist couples in resolving communication conflicts. The proposed communication model helps to establish a therapeutic environment that encourages insight, therapeutic alliance formation, catharsis, self-disclosure, symptom…

  18. Target problem (mis) matching: predictors and consequences of parent-youth agreement in a sample of anxious youth.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Lauren J; Chu, Brian C

    2015-04-01

    Parents and youth often report discrepant target problems upon seeking treatment for youth psychopathology, which can have important impact on therapy processes (e.g., dropout) and treatment outcomes, as entry-level attitudes have been found to be influential in ultimate use and benefit of treatment. The current study examined parent-youth agreement within an anxiety disordered sample by assessing demographic and diagnostic factors that may predict matching, as well as the impact of matching on attrition, treatment outcome, and parental satisfaction. Ninety-five youth with principal anxiety disorders received cognitive-behavioral treatment for anxiety at a university outpatient clinic. Youth and parents independently identified target problems during the pretreatment assessment. Target problems were coded into 25 qualitative categories representing diagnostic, symptom, and functional impairment domains, including diffuse anxiety, social anxiety, academic achievement, oppositional/behavior problems, sleep problems, suicidal ideation, and family functioning. The majority of parent-youth dyads (67.4%) agreed on at least one target problem. Although problems related to diffuse anxiety and social anxiety were reported most frequently, relatively low rates of agreement were found in these domains. Kappa values demonstrated higher levels of agreement for problems with specific fears, school attendance, and panic and lower levels of agreement for difficulties with worry, shame, and self-esteem. Further, youth diagnosed with comorbid externalizing disorders were less likely to agree with their parents on at least one target problem. No effects were found for gender, age, or number of diagnoses in predicting agreement. Target problem agreement did not significantly impact rates of attrition or diagnostic remission, but did predict some measures of parental satisfaction. Results suggest that disagreement on treatment goals exists even within a narrow treatment population and may predict important consumer variables such as satisfaction. Findings emphasize that initial goals disagreement warrants careful assessment and monitoring. PMID:25638516

  19. Teachers' Memories of Schooling: The Sociocultural Injuries and the Mis-Education of Mexican Teachers in the Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, Lilliana P.

    2013-01-01

    Relying on life history and memory as methodology, this essay unearths the memories of schooling of five Mexican American teachers at a dual-language school in San Antonio, locating their memories of trauma within the history of language oppression and cultural exclusion in U.S. public schools. In re(membering) their schooling experiences as…

  20. 77 FR 72905 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Electronic Reporting In previous years, PHMSA attempted to mail the DAMIS user name and password to operator... operators to obtain user name and password for electronic reporting. SUMMARY: PHMSA has determined that the... mail the user name and password for the Drug and Alcohol Management Information System (DAMIS)...

  1. The (mis)measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale

    PubMed Central

    Kajonius, Petri J.; Persson, Björn N.; Rosenberg, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Background. The dark side of human character has been conceptualized in the Dark Triad Model: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. These three dark traits are often measured using single long instruments for each one of the traits. Nevertheless, there is a necessity of short and valid personality measures in psychological research. As an independent research group, we replicated the factor structure, convergent validity and item response for one of the most recent and widely used short measures to operationalize these malevolent traits, namely, Jonason’s Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. We aimed to expand the understanding of what the Dirty Dozen really captures because the mixed results on construct validity in previous research. Method. We used the largest sample to date to respond to the Dirty Dozen (N = 3,698). We firstly investigated the factor structure using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and an exploratory distribution analysis of the items in the Dirty Dozen. Secondly, using a sub-sample (n = 500) and correlation analyses, we investigated the Dirty Dozen dark traits convergent validity to Machiavellianism measured by the Mach-IV, psychopathy measured by Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire Revised, narcissism using the Narcissism Personality Inventory, and both neuroticism and extraversion from the Eysenck’s questionnaire. Finally, besides these Classic Test Theory analyses, we analyzed the responses for each Dirty Dozen item using Item Response Theory (IRT). Results. The results confirmed previous findings of a bi-factor model fit: one latent core dark trait and three dark traits. All three Dirty Dozen traits had a striking bi-modal distribution, which might indicate unconcealed social undesirability with the items. The three Dirty Dozen traits did converge too, although not strongly, with the contiguous single Dark Triad scales (r between .41 and .49). The probabilities of filling out steps on the Dirty Dozen narcissism-items were much higher than on the Dirty Dozen items for Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Overall, the Dirty Dozen instrument delivered the most predictive value with persons with average and high Dark Triad traits (theta > −0.5). Moreover, the Dirty Dozen scale was better conceptualized as a combined Machiavellianism-psychopathy factor, not narcissism, and is well captured with item 4: ‘I tend to exploit others towards my own end.’ Conclusion. The Dirty Dozen showed a consistent factor structure, a relatively convergent validity similar to that found in earlier studies. Narcissism measured using the Dirty Dozen, however, did not contribute with information to the core of the Dirty Dozen construct. More importantly, the results imply that the core of the Dirty Dozen scale, a manipulative and anti-social trait, can be measured by a Single Item Dirty Dark Dyad (SIDDD). PMID:26966673

  2. Psychosis related to neurological conditions: pro and cons of the dis- / mis-connectivity models of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Foucher, Jack R.; Luck, David

    2006-01-01

    Schizophrenia is still a condition with obscure causes and psychopathology. This paper aims to discuss the “disconnectivity” hypothesis in relation to some neurological conditions which are known to alter brain connectivity, as well as mimicking some aspects of the disorder. After a short historical introduction to the concept, we will examine the evidence for connectivity problems in schizophrenia, separating the anatomical level from the functional level. Then, we will discuss three different issues concerning connectivity: i) local reduction in connectivity without neuronal loss (within the gray matter); ii) reduction in or alteration of long-range connectivity (within the white matter); and iii) abnormal targets for connections. For each of these aspects, we will look at the conditions able to reproduce anomalies capable of increasing susceptibility to schizophrenia. We conclude that psychosis is more likely to occur: i) when long-range connectivity is concerned; ii) when lesions result in lengthening and scattering of conduction times; and iii) when there are high dopamine levels, shedding light on or adding weight to the idea of an interaction between dopamine and connectivity. PMID:16640110

  3. Tracing kinematic (mis)alignments in CALIFA merging galaxies. Stellar and ionized gas kinematic orientations at every merger stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Lyubenova, M.; Wild, V.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez, S. F.; Marquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Ziegler, B.; del Olmo, A.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; García-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Mast, D.; Kehrig, C.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Marino, R. A.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Walcher, C. J.; Vílchez, J. M.; Bomans, D. J.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; González Delgado, R. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; McIntosh, D. H.; Bekeraitė, S.

    2015-10-01

    We present spatially resolved stellar and/or ionized gas kinematic properties for a sample of 103 interacting galaxies, tracing all merger stages: close companions, pairs with morphological signatures of interaction, and coalesced merger remnants. In order to distinguish kinematic properties caused by a merger event from those driven by internal processes, we compare our galaxies with a control sample of 80 non-interacting galaxies. We measure for both the stellar and the ionized gas components the major (projected) kinematic position angles (PAkin, approaching and receding) directly from the velocity distributions with no assumptions on the internal motions. This method also allow us to derive the deviations of the kinematic PAs from a straight line (δPAkin). We find that around half of the interacting objects show morpho-kinematic PA misalignments that cannot be found in the control sample. In particular, we observe those misalignments in galaxies with morphological signatures of interaction. On the other hand, thelevel of alignment between the approaching and receding sides for both samples is similar, with most of the galaxies displaying small misalignments. Radial deviations of the kinematic PA orientation from a straight line in the stellar component measured by δPAkin are large for both samples. However, for a large fraction of interacting galaxies the ionized gas δPAkin is larger than the typical values derived from isolated galaxies (48%), indicating that this parameter is a good indicator to trace the impact of interaction and mergers in the internal motions of galaxies. By comparing the stellar and ionized gas kinematic PA, we find that 42% (28/66) of the interacting galaxies have misalignments larger than 16°, compared to 10% from the control sample. Our results show the impact of interactions in the motion of stellar and ionized gas as well as the wide the variety of their spatially resolved kinematic distributions. This study also provides a local Universe benchmark for kinematic studies in merging galaxies at high redshift. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. The Internet Playground: Children's Access, Entertainment, and Mis-Education. Second Printing. Popular Culture and Everyday Life Volume 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Based on four years of experience teaching computers to 8-12 year olds, media scholar Ellen Seiter offers parents and educators practical advice on what children need to know about the Internet and when they need to know it. "The Internet Playground" argues that, contrary to the promises of technology boosters, teaching with computers is very…

  5. The analysis of leakage current in MIS Au/SiO{sub 2}/n-GaAs at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Altuntas, H.; Ozcelik, S.

    2013-10-15

    The aim of this study is to determine the reverse-bias leakage current conduction mechanisms in Au/SiO{sub 2}/n-GaAs metal-insulator-semiconductor type Schottky contacts. Reverse-bias current-voltage measurements (I-V) were performed at room temperature. The using of leakage current values in SiO{sub 2} at electric fields of 1.46-3.53 MV/cm, ln(J/E) vs. {radical}E graph showed good linearity. Rom this plot, dielectric constant of SiO{sub 2} was calculated as 3.7 and this value is perfect agreement with 3.9 which is value of SiO{sub 2} dielectric constant. This indicates, Poole-Frenkel type emission mechanism is dominant in this field region. On the other hand, electric fields between 0.06-0.73 and 0.79-1.45 MV/cm, dominant leakage current mechanisms were found as ohmic type conduction and space charge limited conduction, respectively.

  6. (Mis)Use of Email in Student-Faculty Interaction: Implications for University Instruction in Germany, Saudi Arabia, and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielewicz-Betz, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines student-faculty communication by email and the lack of clear guidelines that leads to misuse of email in student-faculty interaction, whereby status-incongruent pragmatic markers are employed, resulting in impoliteness and inappropriateness. The main objective is to bridge the gap in research on other than requestive speech…

  7. Bimodal-hybrid heterocyclic amine targeting oxidative pathways and copper mis-regulation in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Paulina; da Costa, Viviana C.P.; Hyde, Kimberly; Wu, Qiong; Annunziata, Onofrio; Rizo, Josep; Akkaraju, Giridhar; Green, Kayla N.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from metal-ion misregulation plays a role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This process includes the production of tissue-damaging reactive oxygen species and amyloid aggregates. Herein we describe the synthesis, characterization and protective capacity of the small molecule, lipoic cyclen, which has been designed to target molecular features of AD. This construct utilizes the biologically compatible and naturally occurring lipoic acid as a foundation for engendering low cellular toxicity in multiple cell lines, radical scavenging capacity, tuning the metal affinity of the parent cyclen, and results in an unexpected affinity for amyloid without inducing aggregation. The hybrid construct thereby shows protection against cell death induced by amyloid aggregates and copper ions. These results provide evidence for the rational design methods used to produce this fused molecule as a potential strategy for the development of lead compounds for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25144522

  8. (Mis)Understanding Strategy as a "Spectacular Intervention": A Phenomenological Reflection on the Strategy Orientations Underpinning School Improvement in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of the "National Strategies" for primary education in 1998, positioned "strategy" as a powerful instrument for mobilising the school "workforce" in England in the cause of continuous improvement. Government approaches to strategy formulation and enactment appear to reflect an instrumentalist…

  9. Common (Mis)Beliefs about Memory: A Replication and Comparison of Telephone and Mechanical Turk Survey Methods

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Daniel J.; Chabris, Christopher F.

    2012-01-01

    Incorrect beliefs about memory have wide-ranging implications. We recently reported the results of a survey showing that a substantial proportion of the United States public held beliefs about memory that conflicted with those of memory experts. For that survey, respondents answered recorded questions using their telephone keypad. Although such robotic polling produces reliable results that accurately predicts the results of elections, it suffers from four major drawbacks: (1) telephone polling is costly, (2) typically, less than 10 percent of calls result in a completed survey, (3) calls do not reach households without a landline, and (4) calls oversample the elderly and undersample the young. Here we replicated our telephone survey using Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to explore the similarities and differences in the sampled demographics as well as the pattern of results. Overall, neither survey closely approximated the demographics of the United States population, but they differed in how they deviated from the 2010 census figures. After weighting the results of each survey to conform to census demographics, though, the two approaches produced remarkably similar results: In both surveys, people averaged over 50% agreement with statements that scientific consensus shows to be false. The results of this study replicate our finding of substantial discrepancies between popular beliefs and those of experts and shows that surveys conducted on MTurk can produce a representative sample of the United States population that generates results in line with more expensive survey techniques. PMID:23272183

  10. Perceptual-Gestural (Mis)Mapping in Serial Short-Term Memory: The Impact of Talker Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Robert W.; Marsh, John E.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the poorer serial recall of talker-variable lists (e.g., alternating female-male voices) as compared with single-voice lists were examined. We tested the novel hypothesis that this "talker variability effect" arises from the tendency for perceptual organization to partition the list into streams based on voice such that…

  11. Racial Battle Fatigue and the "Mis"Education of Black Men: Racial Microaggressions, Societal Problems, and Environmental Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William A.; Hung, Man; Franklin, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    Black men's lives are racialized contradictions, They are told that contemporary educational and professional institutions--particularly historically White institutions (HWls)--are places where, through hard work, they can achieve the so-called American dream. However, for far too many Black men, HWIs represent racial climates that are replete…

  12. Inadvertent hypnosis during interrogation: false confession due to dissociative state; mis-identified multiple personality and the Satanic cult hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ofshe, R J

    1992-07-01

    Induction of a dissociative state followed by suggestion during interrogation caused a suspect to develop pseudo-memories of raping his daughters and of participation in a baby-murdering Satanic cult. The pseudo-memories coupled with influence from authority figures convinced him of his guilt for 6 months. During this time, the suspect, the witnesses, and all the evidence in the case were studied. No evidence supported an inference of guilt and substantial evidence supported the conclusion that no crime had been committed. An experiment demonstrated the suspect's extreme suggestibility. The conclusion reached was that the cult did not exist and the suspect's confessions were coerced-internalized false confessions. During the investigation, 2 psychologists diagnosed the suspect as suffering from a dissociative disorder similar to multiple personality. Both psychologists were predisposed to find Satanic cult activity. Each concluded that the disorder was due to "programming" by the non-existent Satanic cult.

  13. The Lupus Autoantigen La Prevents Mis-channeling of tRNA Fragments into the Human MicroRNA Pathway.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Daniele; Lehmann, Gerhard; Murakawa, Yasuhiro; Klironomos, Filippos; Jakob, Leonhard; Grässer, Friedrich A; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Landthaler, Markus; Meister, Gunter

    2016-07-01

    The Lupus autoantigen La is an RNA-binding protein that stabilizes RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcripts and supports RNA folding and has in addition been implicated in the mammalian microRNA (miRNA) pathway. Here, we have analyzed effects of La depletion on Argonaute (Ago)-bound small RNAs in human cells. We find that in the absence of La, distinct tRNA fragments are loaded into Ago proteins. Thus, La functions as gatekeeper ensuring correct tRNA maturation and protecting the miRNA pathway from potentially functional tRNA fragments. However, one specific isoleucin pre-tRNA produces both a functional tRNA and a miRNA even when La is present. We demonstrate that the fully complementary 5' leader and 3' trailer of the pre-tRNA-Ile form a double-stranded RNA molecule that has low affinity to La. Instead, Exportin-5 (Xpo5) recognizes it as miRNA precursor and transports it into the cytoplasm for Dicer processing and Ago loading. PMID:27345152

  14. Target problem (mis) matching: predictors and consequences of parent-youth agreement in a sample of anxious youth.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Lauren J; Chu, Brian C

    2015-04-01

    Parents and youth often report discrepant target problems upon seeking treatment for youth psychopathology, which can have important impact on therapy processes (e.g., dropout) and treatment outcomes, as entry-level attitudes have been found to be influential in ultimate use and benefit of treatment. The current study examined parent-youth agreement within an anxiety disordered sample by assessing demographic and diagnostic factors that may predict matching, as well as the impact of matching on attrition, treatment outcome, and parental satisfaction. Ninety-five youth with principal anxiety disorders received cognitive-behavioral treatment for anxiety at a university outpatient clinic. Youth and parents independently identified target problems during the pretreatment assessment. Target problems were coded into 25 qualitative categories representing diagnostic, symptom, and functional impairment domains, including diffuse anxiety, social anxiety, academic achievement, oppositional/behavior problems, sleep problems, suicidal ideation, and family functioning. The majority of parent-youth dyads (67.4%) agreed on at least one target problem. Although problems related to diffuse anxiety and social anxiety were reported most frequently, relatively low rates of agreement were found in these domains. Kappa values demonstrated higher levels of agreement for problems with specific fears, school attendance, and panic and lower levels of agreement for difficulties with worry, shame, and self-esteem. Further, youth diagnosed with comorbid externalizing disorders were less likely to agree with their parents on at least one target problem. No effects were found for gender, age, or number of diagnoses in predicting agreement. Target problem agreement did not significantly impact rates of attrition or diagnostic remission, but did predict some measures of parental satisfaction. Results suggest that disagreement on treatment goals exists even within a narrow treatment population and may predict important consumer variables such as satisfaction. Findings emphasize that initial goals disagreement warrants careful assessment and monitoring.

  15. "This Is Not Reality...It's Only TV": African American Girls Respond to Media (Mis)Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Horace R.; Smith, Eleshia L.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the ways in which three African American high school girls interpret and challenge racialized and sexualized media representations of their race, class, and gender within music videos. The authors assert that these students' ability to counter stereotypes is a reflection of their cultural orientations, as well as their…

  16. The agreeableness asymmetry in first impressions: perceivers' impulse to (mis)judge agreeableness and how it is moderated by power.

    PubMed

    Ames, Daniel R; Bianchi, Emily C

    2008-12-01

    Prior research shows that perceivers can judge some traits better than others in first impressions of targets. However, questions remain about which traits perceivers naturally do infer. Here, the authors develop an account of the "agreeableness asymmetry": Although perceivers show little ability to accurately gauge target agreeableness in first impressions, they find that agreeableness is generally the most commonly inferred disposition among the Big Five dimensions of personality (agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, and emotional stability). Using open-ended impressions based on photographs, videos, and face-to-face encounters, three studies show agreeableness as the most prevalently judged of the Big Five, although it is also poorly judged in both absolute and relative terms. The authors use interpersonal power to reveal an underlying mechanism. Manipulating the power of perceivers relative to targets substantially shifts impression content, suggesting that habitual interaction and relational concerns may partially explain perceiver's chronic interest in assessing agreeableness despite their limited ability to do so. PMID:18784327

  17. 40 CFR 763.85 - Inspection and reinspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... paragraph (a)(4)(vi)(B) of this section, are surfacing material, thermal system insulation, or miscellaneous... accreditation number. (c) General. Thermal system insulation that has retained its structural integrity and...

  18. 40 CFR 763.85 - Inspection and reinspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... paragraph (a)(4)(vi)(B) of this section, are surfacing material, thermal system insulation, or miscellaneous... accreditation number. (c) General. Thermal system insulation that has retained its structural integrity and...

  19. 40 CFR 763.85 - Inspection and reinspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... paragraph (a)(4)(vi)(B) of this section, are surfacing material, thermal system insulation, or miscellaneous... accreditation number. (c) General. Thermal system insulation that has retained its structural integrity and...

  20. High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration does not prevent bone loss resulting from muscle disuse in mice following botulinum toxin injection.

    PubMed

    Manske, Sarah L; Good, Craig A; Zernicke, Ronald F; Boyd, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration enhances bone formation ostensibly by mimicking normal postural muscle activity. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether daily exposure to low-magnitude vibration (VIB) would maintain bone in a muscle disuse model with botulinum toxin type A (BTX). Female 16-18 wk old BALB/c mice (N = 36) were assigned to BTX-VIB, BTX-SHAM, VIB, or SHAM. BTX mice were injected with BTX (20 µL; 1 U/100 g body mass) into the left hindlimb posterior musculature. All mice were anaesthetized for 20 min/d, 5 d/wk, for 3 wk, and the left leg mounted to a holder. Through the holder, VIB mice received 45 Hz, ± 0.6 g sinusoidal acceleration without weight bearing. SHAM mice received no vibration. At baseline and 3 wk, muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and tibial bone properties (epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis) were assessed by in vivo micro-CT. Bone volume fraction in the metaphysis decreased 12 ± 9% and 7 ± 6% in BTX-VIB and BTX-SHAM, but increased in the VIB and SHAM. There were no differences in dynamic histomorphometry outcomes between BTX-VIB and BTX nor between VIB and SHAM. Thus, vibration did not prevent bone loss induced by a rapid decline in muscle activity nor produce an anabolic effect in normal mice. The daily loading duration was shorter than would be expected from postural muscle activity, and may have been insufficient to prevent bone loss. Based on the approach used in this study, vibration does not prevent bone loss in the absence of muscle activity induced by BTX. PMID:22590551