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Sample records for misrejoined residual double

  1. Dose-dependent misrejoining of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in human fibroblasts: Experimental and theoretical study for high and low LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, Bjorn; Cooper, Brian; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Holley, William; Chatterjee, Aloke

    2004-11-18

    Misrejoining of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) was measured in human primary fibroblasts after exposure to X-rays and high LET particles (He, N and Fe) in the dose range 10-80 Gy. To measure joining of wrong DNA ends, the integrity of a 3.2 Mbp restriction fragment was analyzed directly after exposure and after 16 hr of repair incubation. It was found that the misrejoining frequency for X-rays was non-linearly related to dose, with less probability of misrejoining at low doses than at high doses. The dose dependence for the high LET particles, on the other hand, was closer to being linear, with misrejoining frequencies higher than for X-rays particularly at the lower doses. These experimental results were simulated with a Monte-Carlo approach that includes a cell nucleus model with all 46 chromosomes present, combined with realistic track structure simulations to calculate the geometrical positions of all DSBs induced for each dose. The model assumes that the main determinant for misrejoining probability is the distance between two simultaneously present DSBs. With a Gaussian interaction probability function with distance, it was found that both the low and high LET data could be fitted with an interaction distance (sigma of the Gaussian curve) of 0.25 {micro}m. This is half the distance previously found to best fit chromosomal aberration data in human lymphocytes using the same methods (Holley et al. Radiat. Res . 158, 568-580 (2002)). The discrepancy may indicate inadequacies in the chromosome model, for example insufficient chromosomal overlap, but may also partly be due to differences between fibroblasts and lymphocytes. Although the experimental data was obtained at high doses, the Monte Carlo calculations could be extended to lower doses. It was found that a linear component of misrejoining versus dose dominated for doses below 1 Gy for all radiations, including X-rays. The calculated relative biological efficiency (RBE) for misrejoining at this low dose

  2. Dose-dependent misrejoining of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in human fibroblasts: experimental and theoretical study for high- and low-LET radiation.

    PubMed

    Rydberg, Bjorn; Cooper, Brian; Cooper, Priscilla K; Holley, William R; Chatterjee, Aloke

    2005-05-01

    Misrejoining of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) was measured in human primary fibroblasts after exposure to X rays and high-LET particles (helium, nitrogen and iron) in the dose range 10-80 Gy. To measure joining of wrong DNA ends, the integrity of a 3.2-Mbp restriction fragment was analyzed directly after exposure and after 16 h of repair incubation. It was found that the misrejoining frequency for X rays was nonlinearly related to dose, with less probability of misrejoining at low doses than at high doses. The dose dependence for the high-LET particles, on the other hand, was closer to being linear, with misrejoining frequencies higher than for X rays, particularly at the lower doses. These experimental results were simulated with a Monte Carlo approach that includes a cell nucleus model with all 46 chromosomes present, combined with realistic track structure simulations to calculate the geometrical positions of all DSBs induced for each dose. The model assumes that the main determinant for misrejoining probability is the distance between two simultaneously present DSBs. With a Gaussian interaction probability function with distance, it was found that the data for both low- and high-LET radiation could be fitted with an interaction distance (sigma of the Gaussian curve) of 0.25 microm. This is half the distance previously found to best fit chromosomal aberration data in human lymphocytes using the same methods (Holley et al., Radiat. Res. 158, 568-580, 2002). The discrepancy may indicate inadequacies in the chromosome model, for example insufficient chromosomal overlap, but may also be partly due to differences between fibroblasts and lymphocytes.

  3. DNA double-strand break misrejoining after exposure of primary human fibroblasts to CK characteristic X rays, 29 kVp X rays and 60Co gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Kühne, Martin; Urban, Gerhard; Frankenberg, Dieter; Löbrich, Markus

    2005-11-01

    The efficiency of ionizing photon radiation for inducing mutations, chromosome aberrations, neoplastic cell transformation, and cell killing depends on the photon energy. We investigated the induction and rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) as possible contributors for the varying efficiencies of different photon energies. A specialized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis assay based on Southern hybridization of single Mbp genomic restriction fragments was employed to assess DSB induction and rejoining by quantifying the restriction fragment band. Unrejoined and misrejoined DSBs were determined in dose fractionation protocols using doses per fraction of 2.2 and 4.4 Gy for CK characteristic X rays, 4 and 8 Gy for 29 kVp X rays, and 5, 10 and 20 Gy for 60Co gamma rays. DSB induction by CK characteristic X rays was about twofold higher than for 60Co gamma rays, whereas 29 kVp X rays showed only marginally elevated levels of induced DSBs compared with 60Co gamma rays (a factor of 1.15). Compared with these modest variations in DSB induction, the variations in the levels of unrejoined and misrejoined DSBs were more significant. Our results suggest that differences in the fidelity of DSB rejoining together with the different efficiencies for induction of DSBs can explain the varying biological effectiveness of different photon energies.

  4. Rejoining and misrejoining of radiation-induced chromatin breaks. IV. Charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Furusawa, Y.; George, K.; Gialanella, G.; Greco, O.; Grossi, G.; Matsufuji, N.; Pugliese, M.; Yang, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    We have recently reported the kinetics of chromosome rejoining and exchange formation in human lymphocytes exposed to gamma rays using the techniques of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and premature chromosome condensation (PCC). In this paper, we have extended previous measurements to cells exposed to charged particles. Our goal was to determine differences in chromatin break rejoining and misrejoining after exposure to low- and high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Cells were irradiated with hydrogen, neon, carbon or iron ions in the LET range 0.3-140 keV/microm and were incubated at 37 degrees C for various times after exposure. Little difference was observed in the yield of early prematurely condensed chromosome breaks for the different ions. The kinetics of break rejoining was exponential for all ions and had similar time constants, but the residual level of unrejoined breaks after prolonged incubation was higher for high-LET radiation. The kinetics of exchange formation was also similar for the different ions, but the yield of chromosome interchanges measured soon after exposure was higher for high-LET particles, suggesting that a higher fraction of DNA breaks are misrejoined quickly. On the other hand, the rate of formation of complete exchanges was slightly lower for densely ionizing radiation. The ratios between the yields of different types of aberrations observed at 10 h postirradiation in prematurely condensed chromosome preparations were dependent on LET. We found significant differences between the yields of aberrations measured in interphase (after repair) and metaphase for densely ionizing radiation. This difference might be caused by prolonged mitotic delay and/or interphase death. Overall, the results point out significant differences between low- and high-LET radiation for the formation of chromosome aberrations.

  5. Rejoining and misrejoining of radiation-induced chromatin breaks. IV. Charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Furusawa, Y.; George, K.; Gialanella, G.; Greco, O.; Grossi, G.; Matsufuji, N.; Pugliese, M.; Yang, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    We have recently reported the kinetics of chromosome rejoining and exchange formation in human lymphocytes exposed to gamma rays using the techniques of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and premature chromosome condensation (PCC). In this paper, we have extended previous measurements to cells exposed to charged particles. Our goal was to determine differences in chromatin break rejoining and misrejoining after exposure to low- and high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Cells were irradiated with hydrogen, neon, carbon or iron ions in the LET range 0.3-140 keV/microm and were incubated at 37 degrees C for various times after exposure. Little difference was observed in the yield of early prematurely condensed chromosome breaks for the different ions. The kinetics of break rejoining was exponential for all ions and had similar time constants, but the residual level of unrejoined breaks after prolonged incubation was higher for high-LET radiation. The kinetics of exchange formation was also similar for the different ions, but the yield of chromosome interchanges measured soon after exposure was higher for high-LET particles, suggesting that a higher fraction of DNA breaks are misrejoined quickly. On the other hand, the rate of formation of complete exchanges was slightly lower for densely ionizing radiation. The ratios between the yields of different types of aberrations observed at 10 h postirradiation in prematurely condensed chromosome preparations were dependent on LET. We found significant differences between the yields of aberrations measured in interphase (after repair) and metaphase for densely ionizing radiation. This difference might be caused by prolonged mitotic delay and/or interphase death. Overall, the results point out significant differences between low- and high-LET radiation for the formation of chromosome aberrations.

  6. Rejoining and misrejoining of radiation-induced chromatin breaks. II. Biophysical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Durante, M.; George, K.; Goodwin, E. H.; Yang, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    A biophysical model for the kinetics of the formation of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is developed to account for the recent experimental results obtained with a combination of the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. In this model, we consider the broken ends of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to be reactant and make use of the interaction distance hypothesis. The repair/misrepair process between broken ends is suggested to consist of two steps; the first step represents the two break ends approaching each other, and the second step represents the enzymatic processes leading to DNA end-to-end rejoining. Only the second step is reflected in the kinetics observed in experiments using PCC. The model appears to be able to fit existing data for human cells. It is shown that the kinetics of the formation of chromosome aberrations can be explained by a single rate that characterizes both rejoining and misrejoining of DSBs, suggesting that repair and misrepair share the same mechanism. Fast repair (completed in minutes) in a subset of DSBs is suggested as an explanation of the complete exchanges observed with PCC in human lymphocytes immediately after irradiation. The fast repair component seems to be absent in human fibroblasts.

  7. Rejoining and misrejoining of radiation-induced chromatin breaks. II. Biophysical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Durante, M.; George, K.; Goodwin, E. H.; Yang, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    A biophysical model for the kinetics of the formation of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is developed to account for the recent experimental results obtained with a combination of the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. In this model, we consider the broken ends of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to be reactant and make use of the interaction distance hypothesis. The repair/misrepair process between broken ends is suggested to consist of two steps; the first step represents the two break ends approaching each other, and the second step represents the enzymatic processes leading to DNA end-to-end rejoining. Only the second step is reflected in the kinetics observed in experiments using PCC. The model appears to be able to fit existing data for human cells. It is shown that the kinetics of the formation of chromosome aberrations can be explained by a single rate that characterizes both rejoining and misrejoining of DSBs, suggesting that repair and misrepair share the same mechanism. Fast repair (completed in minutes) in a subset of DSBs is suggested as an explanation of the complete exchanges observed with PCC in human lymphocytes immediately after irradiation. The fast repair component seems to be absent in human fibroblasts.

  8. γH2AX foci on apparently intact mitotic chromosomes: not signatures of misrejoining events but signals of unresolved DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Martín, Marta; Terradas, Mariona; Hernández, Laia; Genescà, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The presence of γH2AX foci on apparently intact mitotic chromosomes is controversial because they challenge the assumed relationship between γH2AX foci and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In this work, we show that after irradiation during interphase, a variety of γH2AX foci are scored in mitotic cells. Surprisingly, approximately 80% of the γH2AX foci spread over apparently undamaged chromatin at Terminal or Interstitial positions and they can display variable sizes, thus being classified as Small, Medium and Big foci. Chromosome and chromatid breaks that reach mitosis are spotted with Big (60%) and Medium (30%) Terminal γH2AX foci, but very rarely are they signaled with Small γH2AX foci. To evaluate if Interstitial γH2AX foci might be signatures of misrejoining, an mFISH analysis was performed on the same slides. The results show that Interstitial γH2AX foci lying on apparently intact chromatin do not mark sites of misrejoining, and that misrejoined events were never signaled by a γH2AX foci during mitosis. Finally, when analyzing the presence of other DNA-damage response (DDR) factors we found that all γH2AX foci-regardless their coincidence with a visible break-always colocalized with MRE11, but not with 53BP1. This pattern suggests that these γH2AX foci may be hallmarks of both microscopically visible and invisible DNA damage, in which an active, although incomplete or halted DDR is taking place.

  9. Rejoining and misrejoining of radiation-induced chromatin breaks. III. Hypertonic treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; George, K.; Wu, H. L.; Yang, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    It has been shown that treatment in anisotonic medium modifies rejoining of radiation-induced breaks in interphase chromosomes. In previous work, we have demonstrated that formation of exchanges in human lymphocytes has a slow component (half-time of 1-2 h), but a fraction of exchanges are also observed in samples assayed soon after exposure. In this paper we studied the effect of hypertonic treatment on rejoining and misrejoining of radiation-induced breaks using fluorescence in situ hybridization of prematurely condensed chromosomes in human lymphocytes. Isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with 7 Gy gamma rays, fused to mitotic hamster cells and incubated in hypertonic solution (0.5 M NaCl) for the period normally allowed for interphase chromosome condensation to occur. The data from hypertonic treatment experiments indicate the presence of a class of interphase chromosome breaks that rejoin and misrejoin very quickly (half-time of 5-6 min). The fast misrejoining of these lesions is considered to be responsible for the initial level of exchanges which we reported previously. No significant effect of hypertonic treatment on the yield of chromosome aberrations scored at the first postirradiation mitosis was detected.

  10. Rejoining and misrejoining of radiation-induced chromatin breaks. III. Hypertonic treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; George, K.; Wu, H. L.; Yang, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    It has been shown that treatment in anisotonic medium modifies rejoining of radiation-induced breaks in interphase chromosomes. In previous work, we have demonstrated that formation of exchanges in human lymphocytes has a slow component (half-time of 1-2 h), but a fraction of exchanges are also observed in samples assayed soon after exposure. In this paper we studied the effect of hypertonic treatment on rejoining and misrejoining of radiation-induced breaks using fluorescence in situ hybridization of prematurely condensed chromosomes in human lymphocytes. Isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with 7 Gy gamma rays, fused to mitotic hamster cells and incubated in hypertonic solution (0.5 M NaCl) for the period normally allowed for interphase chromosome condensation to occur. The data from hypertonic treatment experiments indicate the presence of a class of interphase chromosome breaks that rejoin and misrejoin very quickly (half-time of 5-6 min). The fast misrejoining of these lesions is considered to be responsible for the initial level of exchanges which we reported previously. No significant effect of hypertonic treatment on the yield of chromosome aberrations scored at the first postirradiation mitosis was detected.

  11. Rejoining and misrejoining of radiation-induced chromatin breaks. I. experiments with human lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; George, K.; Wu, H.; Yang, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a composite probe for human chromosome 4 and a probe that stained all centromeres was used to study gamma-ray induced breakage, rejoining and misrejoining in prematurely condensed chromosomes in human lymphocytes. Dose-response curves for the induction of all types of aberrations in prematurely condensed human chromosomes 4 were determined immediately after irradiation and after 8 h postirradiation incubation. In addition, aberrations were measured after various incubation times from 0 to 18 h after a dose of 7 Gy. Unrejoined chromosome breaks were the most frequent type of aberration observed immediately after irradiation. Approximately 15% of total aberrations observed were chromosome exchanges. After 8 h postirradiation incubation, the frequency of breaks in prematurely condensed chromosomes declined to about 20% of the initial value, and chromosomal exchanges became the most frequent aberration. Results of metaphase analysis were similar to those for prematurely condensed chromosomes after 8 h incubation with the exception that a significantly lower frequency of fragments was observed. Symmetrical and asymmetrical interchanges were found at similar frequencies at all doses. No complex exchanges were observed in lymphocyte chromosomes immediately after exposure. They accounted for about 1% of total exchanges in metaphase chromosomes at doses <3 Gy and about 14% at 7 Gy. Incomplete exchanges amounted to approximately 15% of total exchanges at all doses. The kinetics of break rejoining was exponential, and the frequency of exchanges increased with kinetics similar to that observed for the rejoining of the breaks. This increase in the total exchanges as a function of the time between irradiation and fusion was due to a rapid increase in reciprocal interchanges, and a slower increase in complex exchanges; the frequency of incomplete exchanges increased initially, then decreased with prolonged incubation to the level observed

  12. Rejoining and misrejoining of radiation-induced chromatin breaks. I. experiments with human lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; George, K.; Wu, H.; Yang, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a composite probe for human chromosome 4 and a probe that stained all centromeres was used to study gamma-ray induced breakage, rejoining and misrejoining in prematurely condensed chromosomes in human lymphocytes. Dose-response curves for the induction of all types of aberrations in prematurely condensed human chromosomes 4 were determined immediately after irradiation and after 8 h postirradiation incubation. In addition, aberrations were measured after various incubation times from 0 to 18 h after a dose of 7 Gy. Unrejoined chromosome breaks were the most frequent type of aberration observed immediately after irradiation. Approximately 15% of total aberrations observed were chromosome exchanges. After 8 h postirradiation incubation, the frequency of breaks in prematurely condensed chromosomes declined to about 20% of the initial value, and chromosomal exchanges became the most frequent aberration. Results of metaphase analysis were similar to those for prematurely condensed chromosomes after 8 h incubation with the exception that a significantly lower frequency of fragments was observed. Symmetrical and asymmetrical interchanges were found at similar frequencies at all doses. No complex exchanges were observed in lymphocyte chromosomes immediately after exposure. They accounted for about 1% of total exchanges in metaphase chromosomes at doses <3 Gy and about 14% at 7 Gy. Incomplete exchanges amounted to approximately 15% of total exchanges at all doses. The kinetics of break rejoining was exponential, and the frequency of exchanges increased with kinetics similar to that observed for the rejoining of the breaks. This increase in the total exchanges as a function of the time between irradiation and fusion was due to a rapid increase in reciprocal interchanges, and a slower increase in complex exchanges; the frequency of incomplete exchanges increased initially, then decreased with prolonged incubation to the level observed

  13. Ultrasonic evaluation of residual stresses in flat glass tempering by an original double interferometric detection.

    PubMed

    Devos, D; Duquennoy, M; Roméro, E; Jenot, F; Lochegnies, D; Ouaftouh, M; Ourak, M

    2006-12-22

    In industrial thermal tempering of glass, the knowledge of the homogeneity of compressive residual stress field on the glass product is fundamental to guarantee the quality of the tempered glass product. In this paper, we use the acoustoelasticity phenomenon in order to estimate the residual stress distribution by using acoustic surface wave. We present an experimental setup based on a double interferometric detection in which an aspheric lens is associated with a beam splitter and a YAG laser whose power is 100 mW. This relative high power enables us to carry out measurements on surface flat glass although optical reflection coefficient is typically weak (< 10%). Using these two points of detection, the evolution of relative surface wave velocity is obtained with a good accuracy. At last, a comparison between the numerical modeling and experimental results shows the potentiality of an ultrasonic method to estimate stress distribution in flat glass tempering.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues and egg mortality in double-crested cormorants from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Ankley, G.T.; Giesy, J.P.; Ludwig, J.P.; Kurita-Matsuba, H.; Weseloh, D.V.; Ross, P.S.; Bishop, C.A.; Sileo, L.; Stromborg, K.L.; Larson, J.; Kubiak, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the overall potency of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing extracts from double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritis) eggs with an in vitro bioassay system, the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Results from the H4IIE bioassay were strongly correlated with the hatching success of eggs in the colonies, whereas conventional methods of PCB analysis correlated poorly with hatching success of eggs from the same colonies. These observations suggest that even though concentrations of total PCB residues have declined in almost all compartments of the environment, their effects are still being observed. The significance of this observation is that the adverse symptoms presently observed in certain Great Lakes fish-eating waterbird populations do not appear to be caused by some as yet unidentified industrial chemical or chemicals and seem not to be the result of pesticides, but rather to the dioxin-like activity of PCBs. Evidence is presented to suggest that the relative enrichment of the potency of PCBs in the environment may play a role in the persistence of the observed adverse symptoms.

  15. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in ataxia telangiectasia cells: high frequency of deletions and misrejoining detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawata, Tetsuya; Ito, Hisao; George, Kerry; Wu, Honglu; Uno, Takashi; Isobe, Kouichi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the hyper-radiosensitivity of AT cells were investigated by analyzing chromosome aberrations in the G(2) and M phases of the cell cycle using a combination of chemically induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome painting probes. Confluent cultures of normal fibroblast cells (AG1522) and fibroblast cells derived from an individual with AT (GM02052) were exposed to gamma rays and allowed to repair at 37 degrees C for 24 h. At doses that resulted in 10% survival, GM02052 cells were approximately five times more sensitive to gamma rays than AG1522 cells. For a given dose, GM02052 cells contained a much higher frequency of deletions and misrejoining than AG1522 cells. For both cell types, a good correlation was found between the percentage of aberrant cells and cell survival. The average number of color junctions, which represent the frequency of chromosome misrejoining, was also found to correlate well with survival. However, in a similar surviving population of GM02052 and AG1522 cells, induced by 1 Gy and 6 Gy, respectively, AG1522 cells contained four times more color junctions and half as many deletions as GM02052 cells. These results indicate that both repair deficiency and misrepair may be involved in the hyper-radiosensitivity of AT cells.

  16. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in ataxia telangiectasia cells: high frequency of deletions and misrejoining detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawata, Tetsuya; Ito, Hisao; George, Kerry; Wu, Honglu; Uno, Takashi; Isobe, Kouichi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the hyper-radiosensitivity of AT cells were investigated by analyzing chromosome aberrations in the G(2) and M phases of the cell cycle using a combination of chemically induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome painting probes. Confluent cultures of normal fibroblast cells (AG1522) and fibroblast cells derived from an individual with AT (GM02052) were exposed to gamma rays and allowed to repair at 37 degrees C for 24 h. At doses that resulted in 10% survival, GM02052 cells were approximately five times more sensitive to gamma rays than AG1522 cells. For a given dose, GM02052 cells contained a much higher frequency of deletions and misrejoining than AG1522 cells. For both cell types, a good correlation was found between the percentage of aberrant cells and cell survival. The average number of color junctions, which represent the frequency of chromosome misrejoining, was also found to correlate well with survival. However, in a similar surviving population of GM02052 and AG1522 cells, induced by 1 Gy and 6 Gy, respectively, AG1522 cells contained four times more color junctions and half as many deletions as GM02052 cells. These results indicate that both repair deficiency and misrepair may be involved in the hyper-radiosensitivity of AT cells.

  17. A Theoretical Model for Predicting Residual Stress Generation in Fabrication Process of Double-Ceramic-Layer Thermal Barrier Coating System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yan; Wu, Weijie; Xie, Feng; Liu, Yilun; Wang, Tiejun

    2017-01-01

    Residual stress arisen in fabrication process of Double-Ceramic-Layer Thermal Barrier Coating System (DCL-TBCs) has a significant effect on its quality and reliability. In this work, based on the practical fabrication process of DCL-TBCs and the force and moment equilibrium, a theoretical model was proposed at first to predict residual stress generation in its fabrication process, in which the temperature dependent material properties of DCL-TBCs were incorporated. Then, a Finite Element method (FEM) has been carried out to verify our theoretical model. Afterwards, some important geometric parameters for DCL-TBCs, such as the thickness ratio of stabilized Zirconia (YSZ, ZrO2-8%Y2O3) layer to Lanthanum Zirconate (LZ, La2Zr2O7) layer, which is adjustable in a wide range in the fabrication process, have a remarkable effect on its performance, therefore, the effect of this thickness ratio on residual stress generation in the fabrication process of DCL-TBCs has been systematically studied. In addition, some thermal spray treatment, such as the pre-heating treatment, its effect on residual stress generation has also been studied in this work. It is found that, the final residual stress mainly comes from the cooling down process in the fabrication of DCL-TBCs. Increasing the pre-heating temperature can obviously decrease the magnitude of residual stresses in LZ layer, YSZ layer and substrate. With the increase of the thickness ratio of YSZ layer to LZ layer, magnitudes of residual stresses arisen in LZ layer and YSZ layer will increase while residual stress in substrate will decrease. PMID:28103275

  18. A Theoretical Model for Predicting Residual Stress Generation in Fabrication Process of Double-Ceramic-Layer Thermal Barrier Coating System.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Wu, Weijie; Xie, Feng; Liu, Yilun; Wang, Tiejun

    2017-01-01

    Residual stress arisen in fabrication process of Double-Ceramic-Layer Thermal Barrier Coating System (DCL-TBCs) has a significant effect on its quality and reliability. In this work, based on the practical fabrication process of DCL-TBCs and the force and moment equilibrium, a theoretical model was proposed at first to predict residual stress generation in its fabrication process, in which the temperature dependent material properties of DCL-TBCs were incorporated. Then, a Finite Element method (FEM) has been carried out to verify our theoretical model. Afterwards, some important geometric parameters for DCL-TBCs, such as the thickness ratio of stabilized Zirconia (YSZ, ZrO2-8%Y2O3) layer to Lanthanum Zirconate (LZ, La2Zr2O7) layer, which is adjustable in a wide range in the fabrication process, have a remarkable effect on its performance, therefore, the effect of this thickness ratio on residual stress generation in the fabrication process of DCL-TBCs has been systematically studied. In addition, some thermal spray treatment, such as the pre-heating treatment, its effect on residual stress generation has also been studied in this work. It is found that, the final residual stress mainly comes from the cooling down process in the fabrication of DCL-TBCs. Increasing the pre-heating temperature can obviously decrease the magnitude of residual stresses in LZ layer, YSZ layer and substrate. With the increase of the thickness ratio of YSZ layer to LZ layer, magnitudes of residual stresses arisen in LZ layer and YSZ layer will increase while residual stress in substrate will decrease.

  19. Approaching Free Fall on Two Degrees of Freedom: Simultaneous Measurement of Residual Force and Torque on a Double Torsion Pendulum.

    PubMed

    Bassan, M; Cavalleri, A; De Laurentis, M; De Marchi, F; De Rosa, R; Di Fiore, L; Dolesi, R; Finetti, N; Garufi, F; Grado, A; Hueller, M; Marconi, L; Milano, L; Pucacco, G; Stanga, R; Visco, M; Vitale, S; Weber, W J

    2016-02-05

    A torsion pendulum with 2 soft degrees of freedom (DOFs), realized by off-axis cascading two torsion fibers, has been built and operated. This instrument helps characterize the geodesic motion of a test mass for LISA Pathfinder or any other free-fall space mission, providing information on cross talk and other effects that cannot be detected when monitoring a single DOF. We show that it is possible to simultaneously measure both the residual force and the residual torque acting on a quasifree test mass. As an example of the investigations that a double pendulum allows, we report the measurement of the force-to-torque cross talk, i.e., the amount of actuation signal, produced by applying a force on the suspended test mass, that leaks into the rotational DOF, detected by measuring the corresponding (unwanted) torque.

  20. Approaching Free Fall on Two Degrees of Freedom: Simultaneous Measurement of Residual Force and Torque on a Double Torsion Pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassan, M.; Cavalleri, A.; De Laurentis, M.; De Marchi, F.; De Rosa, R.; Di Fiore, L.; Dolesi, R.; Finetti, N.; Garufi, F.; Grado, A.; Hueller, M.; Marconi, L.; Milano, L.; Pucacco, G.; Stanga, R.; Visco, M.; Vitale, S.; Weber, W. J.

    2016-02-01

    A torsion pendulum with 2 soft degrees of freedom (DOFs), realized by off-axis cascading two torsion fibers, has been built and operated. This instrument helps characterize the geodesic motion of a test mass for LISA Pathfinder or any other free-fall space mission, providing information on cross talk and other effects that cannot be detected when monitoring a single DOF. We show that it is possible to simultaneously measure both the residual force and the residual torque acting on a quasifree test mass. As an example of the investigations that a double pendulum allows, we report the measurement of the force-to-torque cross talk, i.e., the amount of actuation signal, produced by applying a force on the suspended test mass, that leaks into the rotational DOF, detected by measuring the corresponding (unwanted) torque.

  1. New modified multi-level residue harmonic balance method for solving nonlinearly vibrating double-beam problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Saifur; Lee, Yiu-Yin

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a new modified multi-level residue harmonic balance method is presented and adopted to investigate the forced nonlinear vibrations of axially loaded double beams. Although numerous nonlinear beam or linear double-beam problems have been tackled and solved, there have been few studies of this nonlinear double-beam problem. The geometric nonlinear formulations for a double-beam model are developed. The main advantage of the proposed method is that a set of decoupled nonlinear algebraic equations is generated at each solution level. This heavily reduces the computational effort compared with solving the coupled nonlinear algebraic equations generated in the classical harmonic balance method. The proposed method can generate the higher-level nonlinear solutions that are neglected by the previous modified harmonic balance method. The results from the proposed method agree reasonably well with those from the classical harmonic balance method. The effects of damping, axial force, and excitation magnitude on the nonlinear vibrational behaviour are examined.

  2. Extremal states of energy of a double-layered thick-walled tube - application to residually stressed arteries.

    PubMed

    Waffenschmidt, Tobias; Menzel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Various biological tissues are designed to optimally support external loads for complex geometries and mechanobiological structures. This results in complex microstructures of such materials. The design of, for instance, (healthy) arteries, which are in the focus of this work, is characterised by a residually stressed fibre-reinforced multi-layered composite with highly non-linear elastic response. The complex interaction of material properties with the geometry and residual stress effects enables the optimal support under different blood pressures, respectively blood flow, within the vessel. The fibres reinforcing the arterial wall, as well as residual stresses present in the vessel, strongly influence its overall behaviour and performance. Turn-over and remodelling processes of the collagenous fibres occurring in the respective layers - either resulting from natural growth phenomena or from artificially induced changes in loading condition such as stent deployment - support the optimisation of the multi-layered composite structure of arteries for the particular loading conditions present in the artery. Within this contribution, the overall energetic properties of an artery are discussed by means of the inflation, bending and extension of a double-layered cylindrical tube. Different states of residual stresses and different fibre orientations are considered so that, for instance, representative fibre angles that result in extremal states of the total potential energy can be identified. In view of turn-over and remodelling processes, these orientations are considered to constitute preferred directions of fibre alignment. In summary, the main goal of this work is to calculate optimal material, structural and loading parameters by concepts of energy-minimisation. Several numerical studies show that the obtained values - such as the fibre orientations, the residual axial stretch and the opening angle - are in good agreement with respective physiological parameters

  3. Optimisation of recovery protocols for double-base smokeless powder residues analysed by total vaporisation (TV) SPME/GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Sauzier, Georgina; Bors, Dana; Ash, Jordan; Goodpaster, John V; Lewis, Simon W

    2016-09-01

    The investigation of explosive events requires appropriate evidential protocols to recover and preserve residues from the scene. In this study, a central composite design was used to determine statistically validated optimum recovery parameters for double-base smokeless powder residues on steel, analysed using total vaporisation (TV) SPME/GC-MS. It was found that maximum recovery was obtained using isopropanol-wetted swabs stored under refrigerated conditions, then extracted for 15min into acetone on the same day as sample collection. These parameters were applied to the recovery of post-blast residues deposited on steel witness surfaces following a PVC pipe bomb detonation, resulting in detection of all target components across the majority of samples. Higher overall recoveries were obtained from plates facing the sides of the device, consistent with the point of first failure occurring in the pipe body as observed in previous studies. The methodology employed here may be readily applied to a variety of other explosive compounds, and thus assist in establishing 'best practice' procedures for explosive investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Residual antibiofilm effects of various concentrations of double antibiotic paste used during regenerative endodontics after different application times.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Daniel B; Ehrlich, Ygal; Spolnik, Kenneth; Gregory, Richard L; Yassen, Ghaeth H

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the residual antibiofilm effects of different concentrations of double antibiotic paste (DAP) applied on radicular dentin for 1 or 4 weeks. Dentin samples were prepared (n=120), sterilized and pretreated for 1 or 4 weeks with the clinically used concentration of DAP (500mg/mL), low concentrations of DAP (1, 5 or 50mg/mL) loaded into a methylcellulose system, calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), or placebo paste. After the assigned treatment time, treatment pastes were rinsed off and the samples were kept independently in phosphate buffered saline for 3 weeks. Pretreated dentin samples were then inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and bacterial biofilms were allowed to grow for an additional 3 weeks. Biofilms were then retrieved from dentin using biofilm disruption assays, diluted, spiral plated, and quantified. Fisher's Exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used for statistical comparisons (α=0.05). Dentin pretreatment for 4 weeks with 5, 50 or 500mg/mL of DAP demonstrated significantly higher residual antibiofilm effects and complete eradication of E. faecalis biofilms in comparison to a 1 week pretreatment with similar concentrations. However, dentin pretreated with 1mg/mL of DAP or Ca(OH)2 did not provide a substantial residual antibiofilm effect regardless of the application time. Dentin pretreatment with 5mg/mL of DAP or higher for 4 weeks induced significantly higher residual antibiofilm effects in comparison to a 1 week pretreatment with the same concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vibration activity evaluation of double-span rotor at rundown caused by its initial curvature and residual unbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, A. G.; Volokhovskaya, O. A.

    2017-01-01

    The work is dedicated to the study of vibration activity of double-span rotor of turbine unit (TU) consisting of a high-pressure rotor and a rotor of medium-low pressure rotor combined with it (HPR—MLPR system) at the lowest critical rotational frequencies at rundown. When using the design model of the system, it was assumed that the rotors were installed on anisotropic elastic-damper supports, tied among themselves by a rigid clutch, and having the initial curvature (nonremovable initial deflection) and the residual unbalances in both spans. Two types of bearings were considered-elliptical and six-shoe segmental bearings. It was believed that the initial deflection during operation or as a result of noncompliance of start-up conditions initially gets only HPR and the axis shape of unloaded HPR is known and it is a flat curve. The resultant curve of nonremovable deflection of the HPR-MLPR system occurring after installing the shafting into the bearings was also considered flat and located in the same plane as the initial deflection of HPR. The cases of additional presence with the rotors of concentrated residual unbalances in the middle of each span are considered. The case of availability with both rotors of the shafting antisymmetric point unbalances on each of the spans was not considered in this work. The values of each of the factors of vibration activity (of the initial deflection of HPR and residual unbalances of both rotors) were chosen to be equal to the maximum permissible established by the active in the practice of TU operation limitations on the maximum values of the initial deflection of thermally unstable rotor and its residual unbalances. The influence of location of residual unbalances in relation to the initial deflection curve of HPR-MLPR system on the total amplitudes of transient vibrations caused by both excitation factors in the reference points of the system at TU rundown was investigated. It was established that, at the unfavorable

  6. Doubled critical current density in Bi-2212 round wires by reduction of the residual bubble density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J.; Starch, W. L.; Hannion, M.; Kametani, F.; Trociewitz, U. P.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2011-08-01

    We have recently shown that the gas present in the only ~ 70% dense filaments of as-drawn Bi-2212 wire agglomerates into large bubbles that fill the entire filament diameter during the melt phase of the heat treatment. Once formed, these bubbles never disappear, although they can be bridged by 2212 grains formed on cooling. In order to test the effect of these bubbles on the critical current Ic, we increased the density of the filaments after drawing using 2 GPa of cold isostatic pressure, finding that the bubble density and size were greatly reduced and that Ic could be at least doubled. We conclude that enhancement of the filament packing density is of great importance for making major Ic improvements in this very useful, round superconducting wire.

  7. The use of green tea polyphenols for treating residual albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy: A double-blind randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Cynthia M.; Papadimitriou, Alexandros; Duarte, Diego A.; Lopes de Faria, Jacqueline M.; Lopes de Faria, José B.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has shown that in experimental diabetes mellitus, green tea reduces albuminuria by decreasing podocyte apoptosis through activation of the WNT pathway. We investigated the effect of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on residual albuminuria of diabetic subjects with nephropathy. We conducted a randomised, double-blind study in 42 diabetic subjects with a urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) >30 mg/g, despite administration of the maximum recommended dose of renin-angiotensin (RAS) inhibition. Patients were randomly assigned to two equal groups to receive either GTP (containing 800 mg of epigallocatechin gallate, 17 with type 2 diabetes and 4 with type 1 diabetes) or placebo (21 with type 2 diabetes) for 12 weeks. Treatment with GTP reduced UACR by 41%, while the placebo group saw a 2% increase in UACR (p = 0.019). Podocyte apoptosis (p = 0.001) and in vitro albumin permeability (p < 0.001) were higher in immortalized human podocytes exposed to plasma from diabetic subjects compared to podocytes treated with plasma from normal individuals. In conclusion, GTP administration reduces albuminuria in diabetic patients receiving the maximum recommended dose of RAS. Reduction in podocyte apoptosis by activation of the WNT pathway may have contributed to this effect. PMID:27320846

  8. Repair of x-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks in specific Not I restriction fragments in human fibroblasts: joining of correct and incorrect ends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobrich, M.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    An assay that allows measurement of absolute induction frequencies for DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) in defined regions of the genome and that quantitates rejoining of correct DNA ends has been used to study repair of dsbs in normal human fibroblasts after x-irradiation. The approach involves hybridization of single-copy DNA probes to Not I restriction fragments separated according to size by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Induction of dsbs is quantitated from the decrease in the intensity of the hybridizing restriction fragment and an accumulation of a smear below the band. Rejoining of dsbs results in reconstitution of the intact restriction fragment only if correct DNA ends are joined. By comparing results from this technique with results from a conventional electrophoresis assay that detects all rejoining events, it is possible to quantitate the misrejoining frequency. Three Not I fragments on the long arm of chromosome 21 were investigated with regard to dsb induction, yielding an identical induction rate of 5.8 X 10(-3) break per megabase pair per Gy. Correct dsb rejoining was measured for two of these Not I fragments after initial doses of 80 and 160 Gy. The misrejoining frequency was about 25% for both fragments and was independent of dose. This result appears to be representative for the whole genome as shown by analysis of the entire Not I fragment distribution. The correct rejoining events primarily occurred within the first 2 h, while the misrejoining kinetics included a much slower component, with about half of the events occurring between 2 and 24 h. These misrejoining kinetics are similar to those previously reported for production of exchange aberrations in interphase chromosomes.

  9. Repair of x-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks in specific Not I restriction fragments in human fibroblasts: joining of correct and incorrect ends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobrich, M.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    An assay that allows measurement of absolute induction frequencies for DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) in defined regions of the genome and that quantitates rejoining of correct DNA ends has been used to study repair of dsbs in normal human fibroblasts after x-irradiation. The approach involves hybridization of single-copy DNA probes to Not I restriction fragments separated according to size by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Induction of dsbs is quantitated from the decrease in the intensity of the hybridizing restriction fragment and an accumulation of a smear below the band. Rejoining of dsbs results in reconstitution of the intact restriction fragment only if correct DNA ends are joined. By comparing results from this technique with results from a conventional electrophoresis assay that detects all rejoining events, it is possible to quantitate the misrejoining frequency. Three Not I fragments on the long arm of chromosome 21 were investigated with regard to dsb induction, yielding an identical induction rate of 5.8 X 10(-3) break per megabase pair per Gy. Correct dsb rejoining was measured for two of these Not I fragments after initial doses of 80 and 160 Gy. The misrejoining frequency was about 25% for both fragments and was independent of dose. This result appears to be representative for the whole genome as shown by analysis of the entire Not I fragment distribution. The correct rejoining events primarily occurred within the first 2 h, while the misrejoining kinetics included a much slower component, with about half of the events occurring between 2 and 24 h. These misrejoining kinetics are similar to those previously reported for production of exchange aberrations in interphase chromosomes.

  10. Comparison of repair of DNA double-strand breaks in identical sequences in primary human fibroblast and immortal hamster-human hybrid cells harboring a single copy of human chromosome 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouladi, B.; Waldren, C. A.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    We have optimized a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis assay that measures induction and repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in specific regions of the genome (Lobrich et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 12050-12054, 1995). The increased sensitivity resulting from these improvements makes it possible to analyze the size distribution of broken DNA molecules immediately after the introduction of DSBs and after repair incubation. This analysis shows that the distribution of broken DNA pieces after exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation is consistent with the distribution expected from randomly induced DSBs. It is apparent from the distribution of rejoined DNA pieces after repair incubation that DNA ends continue to rejoin between 3 and 24 h postirradiation and that some of these rejoining events are in fact misrejoining events, since novel restriction fragments both larger and smaller than the original fragment are generated after repair. This improved assay was also used to study the kinetics of DSB rejoining and the extent of misrejoining in identical DNA sequences in human GM38 cells and human-hamster hybrid A(L) cells containing a single human chromosome 11. Despite the numerous differences between these cells, which include species and tissue of origin, levels of TP53, expression of telomerase, and the presence or absence of a homologous chromosome for the restriction fragments examined, the kinetics of rejoining of radiation-induced DSBs and the extent of misrejoining were similar in the two cell lines when studied in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, DSBs were removed from the single-copy human chromosome in the hamster A(L) cells with similar kinetics and misrejoining frequency as at a locus on this hybrid's CHO chromosomes.

  11. Comparison of repair of DNA double-strand breaks in identical sequences in primary human fibroblast and immortal hamster-human hybrid cells harboring a single copy of human chromosome 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouladi, B.; Waldren, C. A.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    We have optimized a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis assay that measures induction and repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in specific regions of the genome (Lobrich et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 12050-12054, 1995). The increased sensitivity resulting from these improvements makes it possible to analyze the size distribution of broken DNA molecules immediately after the introduction of DSBs and after repair incubation. This analysis shows that the distribution of broken DNA pieces after exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation is consistent with the distribution expected from randomly induced DSBs. It is apparent from the distribution of rejoined DNA pieces after repair incubation that DNA ends continue to rejoin between 3 and 24 h postirradiation and that some of these rejoining events are in fact misrejoining events, since novel restriction fragments both larger and smaller than the original fragment are generated after repair. This improved assay was also used to study the kinetics of DSB rejoining and the extent of misrejoining in identical DNA sequences in human GM38 cells and human-hamster hybrid A(L) cells containing a single human chromosome 11. Despite the numerous differences between these cells, which include species and tissue of origin, levels of TP53, expression of telomerase, and the presence or absence of a homologous chromosome for the restriction fragments examined, the kinetics of rejoining of radiation-induced DSBs and the extent of misrejoining were similar in the two cell lines when studied in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, DSBs were removed from the single-copy human chromosome in the hamster A(L) cells with similar kinetics and misrejoining frequency as at a locus on this hybrid's CHO chromosomes.

  12. A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the residual psychomotor and cognitive effects of zolpidem-MR in healthy elderly volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Hindmarch, Ian; Legangneux, Eric; Stanley, Neil; Emegbo, Steve; Dawson, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Aim To assess residual psychomotor and cognitive effects of a modified-release formulation of zolpidem (zolpidem-MR), developed to provide sustained hypnotic efficacy during the whole night, compared with placebo and flurazepam. Methods Twenty-four healthy elderly volunteers received four study treatments (zolpidem-MR 6.25 mg and 12.5 mg, placebo and flurazepam 30 mg) using a randomized, cross-over, double-blind design. Residual psychomotor and cognitive effects were assessed with a psychometric test battery. Quality of sleep and residual effects were evaluated subjectively with the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Results Psychometric performance was significantly impaired with flurazepam but not with zolpidem-MR at either dose. Ease of falling asleep and sleep quality were significantly improved with both doses of zolpidem-MR and with flurazepam. Neither active drug modified perception of well-being on awakening. Conclusion In elderly subjects, zolpidem-MR showed no residual functional impairment in psychometric or cognitive tests sensitive to flurazepam, PMID:17061961

  13. Gastric residual volume by magnetic ressonance after intake of maltodextrin and glutamine: a randomized double-blind, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Brianez, Luigi R; Caporossi, Cervantes; de Moura, Yure W; Dias, Lorena A; Leal, Regis V; de Aguilar-Nascimento, José E

    2014-01-01

    The addition of glutamine in preoperative drinks may enhance the benefits of carbohydrate alone. To evaluate the gastric residual volume after the intake of a beverage containing carbohydrate plus glutamine. Eleven healthy volunteers (24-30 years-old) were randomized in a crossover fashion to intake 400 mL (4h before) and 200 mL (2h before) of a beverage containing either 12.5% maltodextrin (carbohydrate group) or 12.5% maltodextrin plus 15 g of glutamine (glutamine group) in two different moments 7 days apart. Magnetic ressonance was performed to measure the gastric residual volume (mL) 120 and 180 minutes after the last ingestion. Gastric residual volume similar to basal condition was found after 2h and 3h of the intake of beverages. There was no difference in the mean ±SD GRV (mL) found at 120 minutes (carbohydrate group: 22.9±16.6 and glutamine group: 19.7±10.7) and at 180 minutes (carbohydrate group: 21.5±24.1 and glutamine group: 15.1±10.1) between the two drinks. Gastric emptying is efficient, and occurs in up to two hours after the intake of a beverage containing either carbohydrate alone or carbohydrate associated with glutamine. The addition of glutamine to carbohydrate-enriched drink seems to be safe for the use up to 2h before an operation.

  14. Effects of Winter Cover Crops Residue Returning on Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Microbial Community in Double-Cropping Rice Fields

    PubMed Central

    Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice–rice–ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice–rice–Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice–rice–rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice–rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The β-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality. PMID:24956152

  15. Binding affinity and mode of distamycin A with A/T stretches in double-stranded DNA: importance of the terminal A/T residues.

    PubMed

    Asagi, Mariko; Toyama, Akira; Takeuchi, Hideo

    2010-06-01

    Distamycin A (Dst) is an antibiotic which binds to the minor groove of double-stranded DNA at A/T-rich regions. We have examined the affinity and mode of Dst binding to DNA duplexes containing a conserved A/T core and variable terminal A/T regions by using circular dichroism spectroscopy. The observed circular dichroism spectra were analyzed by singular value decomposition and fitted to a two-step binding model. The result clearly shows a correlation between the affinity for Dst and the preference for Dst-DNA 1:1 binding over 2:1 binding. The A/T stretches that prefer 1:1 binding form high-affinity 1:1 complexes, whereas those preferring 2:1 binding form stable 2:1 complex with low overall affinities. The terminal A/T residues of the Dst binding region play an important role in the stabilization/destabilization of the 1:1 and 2:1 complexes, resulting in a terminal residue-dependent variation of the binding affinity and the binding mode preference. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Heat effects on DNA repair after ionising radiation: hyperthermia commonly increases the number of non-repaired double-strand breaks and structural rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    El-Awady, R. A.; Dikomey, E.; Dahm-Daphi, J.

    2001-01-01

    After ionising radiation double-strand breaks (dsb) are lethal if not repaired or misrepaired. Cell killing is greatly enhanced by hyperthermia and it is questioned here whether heat not only affects dsb repair capacity but also fidelity in a chromosomal context. dsb repair experiments were designed so as to mainly score non-homologous end joining, while homologous recombination was largely precluded. Human male G0 fibroblasts were either preheated (45°C, 20 min) or not before X-irradiation. dsb induction and repair were measured by conventional gel electrophoresis and an assay combining restriction digestion using a rare cutting enzyme (NotI) and Southern hybridisation, which detects large chromosomal rearrangements (>100 kb). dsb induction rate in an X-chromosomal NotI fragment was 4.8 × 10–3 dsb/Gy/Mb. Similar values were found for the genome overall and also when cells were preheated. After 50 Gy, fibroblasts were competent to largely restore the original restriction fragment size. Five per cent of dsb remained non-rejoined and 14% were misrejoined. Correct restitution of restriction fragments occurred preferably during the first hour but continued at a slow rate for 12–16 h. In addition, dsb appeared to misrejoin throughout the entire repair period. After hyperthermia the fractions of non-rejoined and misrejoined dsb were similarly increased to 13 and 51%, respectively. It is suggested that heat increases the probability of dsb being incorrectly rejoined but it is not likely to interfere with one dsb repair pathway in particular. PMID:11328880

  17. A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing the Effect of Neostigmine and Metoclopramide on Gastric Residual Volume of Mechanically Ventilated ICU Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gholipour Baradari, Afshin; Alipour, Abbas; Firouzian, Abolfazl; Moarab, Laleh; Emami Zeydi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In critically ill patients, enteral feeding through the nasogastric tube is the method of choice for nutritional support. Gastrointestinal feeding intolerance and disturbed gastric emptying are common challenges in these patients. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of Neostigmine and Metoclopramide on gastric residual volume (GRV) in mechanically ventilated ICU patients. Methods: In a double blind, randomized clinical trial, a total of 60 mechanically ventilated ICU patients with GRV >120 mL (3 hours after the last gavage), were randomly assigned into two groups A and B. At baseline and 6 hours later, patients in group A and B received intravenous infusion of neostigmine in a dose of 2.5 mg and metoclopramide in a dose of 10 mg in 100 ml of normal saline, within 30 minutes. Patients’ gastric residual volumes were evaluated before the beginning of the intervention, and 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours after the intervention. Results: After adjusting of other variables (Sex, BMI and ICU stay period) generalized estimating equation (GEE) model revealed that neostigmine treatment increased odds of GRV improvement compare to metoclopramide group (Estimate 1.291, OR= 0.3.64, 95% CI 1.07-12.34). However there is a statistically significant time trend (within-subject differences or time effect) regardless of treatment groups (P<0.001). The median time from intervention to GRV improvement was 6 hours (95% CI 3.75-8.25) and 9 hours (95% CI 7.38-10.17) in neostigmine and metoclopramide groups, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: It seems that neostigmine is more effective than metoclopramide in reducing GRV and improving gastric emptying in mechanically ventilated ICU patients without significant complication and this protocol may be effective on the tolerance of enteral feeding in ICU patients. Further well-designed randomized clinical trials are needed. PMID:28077899

  18. Subdiffusion Supports Joining Of Correct Ends During Repair Of DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girst, S.; Hable, V.; Drexler, G. A.; Greubel, C.; Siebenwirth, C.; Haum, M.; Friedl, A. A.; Dollinger, G.

    2013-08-01

    The mobility of damaged chromatin regions in the nucleus may affect the probability of mis-repair. In this work, live-cell observation and distance tracking of GFP-tagged DNA damage response protein MDC1 was used to study the random-walk behaviour of chromatin domains containing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Our measurements indicate a subdiffusion-type random walk process with similar time dependence for isolated and clustered DSBs that were induced by 20 MeV proton or 43 MeV carbon ion micro-irradiation. As compared to normal diffusion, subdiffusion enhances the probability that both ends of a DSB meet, thus promoting high efficiency DNA repair. It also limits their probability of long-range movements and thus lowers the probability of mis-rejoining and chromosome aberrations.

  19. Piscidin-1-analogs with double L- and D-lysine residues exhibited different conformations in lipopolysaccharide but comparable anti-endotoxin activities

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Mahajan, Mukesh; Awasthi, Bhanupriya; Tandon, Anshika; Harioudh, Munesh Kumar; Shree, Sonal; Singh, Pratiksha; Shukla, Praveen Kumar; Ramachandran, Ravishankar; Mitra, Kalyan; Bhattacharjya, Surajit; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

    2017-01-01

    To become clinically effective, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) should be non-cytotoxic to host cells. Piscidins are a group of fish-derived AMPs with potent antimicrobial and antiendotoxin activities but limited by extreme cytotoxicity. We conjectured that introduction of cationic residue(s) at the interface of polar and non-polar faces of piscidins may control their insertion into hydrophobic mammalian cell membrane and thereby reducing cytotoxicity. We have designed several novel analogs of piscidin-1 by substituting threonine residue(s) with L and D-lysine residue(s). L/D-lysine-substituted analogs showed significantly reduced cytotoxicity but exhibited either higher or comparable antibacterial activity akin to piscidin-1. Piscidin-1-analogs demonstrated higher efficacy than piscidin-1 in inhibiting lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory responses in THP-1 cells. T15,21K-piscidin-1 (0.5 mg/Kg) and T15,21dK-piscidin-1 (1.0 mg/Kg) demonstrated 100% survival of LPS (12.0 mg/Kg)-administered mice. High resolution NMR studies revealed that both piscidin-1 and T15,21K-piscidin-1 adopted helical structures, with latter showing a shorter helix, higher amphipathicity and cationic residues placed at optimal distances to form ionic/hydrogen bond with lipid A of LPS. Remarkably, T15,21dK-piscidin-1 showed a helix-loop-helix structure in LPS and its interactions with LPS could be sustained by the distance of separation of side chains of R7 and D-Lys-15 which is close to the inter-phosphate distance of lipid A. PMID:28051162

  20. The residual pattern of double thin-film over-etching for the fabrication of continuous patterns with dimensions varying from 50 nm to millimeters over a large area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing Chen, Long; Chan-Park, Mary B.; Yang, Chun; Zhang, Qing

    2008-04-01

    Attempts at heavy edge over-etching of a single thin film under a photoresist to leave behind a residual smaller patterned line as a mask for nanostructure fabrication frequently fail due to detachment of the photoresist above it. We have accordingly developed a technique named 'residual pattern of double thin-film over-etching' (RDTO) to obtain a nanoscale residual pattern of the bottom thin film after extensive edge over-etching. When Au and Cr were used as the top and bottom thin films, respectively, heavy over-etching of Cr for use as a mask for nanopatterning of the underlying silicon substrate was feasible. Three patterns were fabricated for demonstration of the RDTO technique, and nanopatterns with linewidths as small as 50 nm were obtained. More importantly, our technique allows the fabrication of a single pattern with feature dimensions that vary continuously from a few tens of nanometers to a few millimeters at different positions. In addition, we have developed simple models to analyze the hydrodynamic and surface tension effects during the over-etching procedure to show the feasibility of RDTO. This technique will find diverse applications in micro- and nano-fluidics, lab-on-a-chip nano-arrays and biomedical engineering.

  1. Evaluation of an organo-layered double hydroxide and two organic residues as amendments to immobilize metalaxyl enantiomers in soils: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    López-Cabeza, Rocío; Cornejo, Juan; Celis, Rafael

    2016-10-01

    Many pollutants released into the environment as a result of human activities are chiral. Pollution control strategies generally consider chiral compounds as if they were achiral and rarely consider enantiomers separately. We compared the performance of three different materials, an organically-modified anionic clay (HT-ELA) and two organic agro-food residues (ALP and ALPc), as amendments to immobilize the chiral fungicide metalaxyl in two soils with different textures, addressing the effects of the amendments on the sorption, persistence, and leaching of each of the two enantiomers of metalaxyl (R-metalaxyl and S-metalaxyl) separately. The effects of the amendments were both soil- and amendment-dependent, as well as enantiomer-selective. The organo-clay (HT-ELA) was much more efficient in increasing the sorption capacity of the soils for the two enantiomers of metalaxyl than the agro-food residues (ALP and ALPc), even when applied at a reduced application rate. The enhanced sorption in HT-ELA-amended soils reduced the bioavailability of metalaxyl enantiomers and their leaching in the soils, mitigating the particularly high leaching potential of the more persistent S enantiomer. The immobilizing capacity of the agro-food residues was more variable, mainly because their addition did not greatly ameliorate the sorption capacity of the soils and had variable effects on the enantiomers degradation rates. HT-ELA showed potential to reduce the bioavailability and mobility of metalaxyl enantiomers in soil and to mitigate the contamination problems particularly associated with the higher leaching potential of the more persistent enantiomer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The catalytically active tyrosine residues of both SPO11-1 and SPO11-2 are required for meiotic double-strand break induction in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Frank; Wurz-Wildersinn, Rebecca; Fuchs, Jörg; Schubert, Ingo; Suer, Stefanie; Puchta, Holger

    2007-10-01

    SPO11, a homolog of the subunit A of the archaebacterial topoisomerase VI, is essential for double-strand break (DSB)-induced initiation of meiotic recombination. In contrast with single homologs in animals and yeasts, three homologs are present in Arabidopsis thaliana and other higher plants. Whereas At SPO11-3 is involved in somatic endoreduplication, At SPO11-1 and, as recently shown, At SPO11-2 are essential for the initiation of meiotic recombination. Further defining the role of At SPO11-2, we were able to demonstrate that it is required for proper chromosome segregation, as its loss resulted in aneuploidy in the surviving progeny. The double mutant spo11-1 spo11-2 does not differ phenotypically from the single mutants, indicating that both proteins are required for the same step. Contrary to the observations for the At rad51-1 single mutant, the combination of spo11-2 and rad51-1 did not lead to chromosome fragmentation, indicating that SPO11-2, like SPO11-1, is required for DSB induction. As the meiotic phenotype of both single SPO11 mutants can be reversed by complementation using the full-length genes but not the same constructs mutated in their respective catalytically active Tyr, both proteins seem to participate directly in the DNA breakage reaction. The active involvement of two SPO11 homologs for DSB formation reveals a striking difference between plants and other eukaryotes in meiosis.

  3. Residual electric fields of InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb (001) coupled double quantum wells structures assessed by photoreflectance anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Fernández, J. V.; Herrera-Jasso, R.; Ulloa-Castillo, N. A.; Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Castro-García, R.; Lastras-Martínez, L. F.; Lastras-Martínez, A.; Balderas-Navarro, R. E.; Mozume, T.; Gozu, S.

    2016-12-01

    We report on photoreflectance anisotropy (PRA) spectroscopy of InGaAs/AlAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells (CDQWs) with extremely thin coupling AlAs barriers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), with no intentional doping. By probing the in-plane interfacial optical anisotropies (OAs), it is shown that PRA spectroscopy has the ability to detect and distinguish semiconductor layers with quantum dimensions, as the anisotropic photoreflectance (PR) signal stems entirely from buried quantum wells (QWs). In order to account for the experimental PRA spectra, a theoretical model at k = 0, based on a linear electro-optic effect through a piezoelectric shear strain, has been employed to quantify the internal electric fields across the QWs. The dimensionalities of the PR lineshapes were tested by using reciprocal (Fourier) space analysis. Such a complementary test is used in order to correctly employ the PRA model developed here.

  4. Residual Chemosensory Capabilities in Double P2X2/P2X3 Purinergic Receptor Null Mice: Intraoral or Postingestive Detection?

    PubMed Central

    Hallock, Robert M.; Tatangelo, Marco; Barrows, Jennell

    2009-01-01

    Mice lacking the purinergic receptors, P2X2 and P2X3 (P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/−), exhibit essentially no tastant-evoked activity in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves and substantial loss of tastant-evoked behavior as measured in long-term intake experiments. To assess whether the residual chemically driven behaviors in these P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice were attributable to postingestive detection or oropharyngeal detection of the compounds, we used brief access lickometer tests to assess the behavioral capabilities of the P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− animals. The P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice showed avoidance to high levels (10 mM quinine and 10–30 mM denatonium benzoate) of classical “bitter”-tasting stimuli in 24-h, 2-bottle preference tests but minimal avoidance of these substances in the lickometer tests, suggesting that the strong avoidance in the intake tests was largely mediated by post-oral chemosensors. Similarly, increases in consumption of 1 M sucrose by P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice in long-term intake tests were not mirrored by increases in consumption of sucrose in lickometer tests, suggesting that sucrose detection in these mice is mediated by postingestive consequences. In contrast, in brief access tests, P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice avoided citric acid and hydrochloric acid at the same concentrations as their wild-type counterparts, indicating that these weak acids activate oropharyngeal chemoreceptors. PMID:19833662

  5. Residual Chemoresponsiveness to Acids in the Superior Laryngeal Nerve in “Taste-Blind” (P2X2/P2X3 Double-KO) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Horio, Nao; Stratford, Jennifer M.; Finger, Thomas E.; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2012-01-01

    Mice lacking both the P2X2 and the P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X-dblKO) exhibit loss of responses to all taste qualities in the taste nerves innervating the tongue. Similarly, these mice exhibit a near total loss of taste-related behaviors in brief access tests except for a near-normal avoidance of acidic stimuli. This persistent avoidance of acids despite the loss of gustatory neural responses to sour was postulated to be due to continued responsiveness of the superior laryngeal (SL) nerve. However, chemoresponses of the larynx are attributable both to taste buds and to free nerve endings. In order to test whether the SL nerve of P2X-dblKO mice remains responsive to acids but not to other tastants, we recorded responses from the SL nerve in wild-type (WT) and P2X-dblKO mice. WT mice showed substantial SL responses to monosodium glutamate, sucrose, urea, and denatonium—all of which were essentially absent in P2X-dblKO animals. In contrast, the SL nerve of P2X-dblKO mice exhibited near-normal responses to citric acid (50 mM) although responsiveness of both the chorda tympani and the glossopharyngeal nerves to this stimulus were absent or greatly reduced. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the residual avoidance of acidic solutions by P2X-dblKO mice may be attributable to the direct chemosensitivity of nerve fibers innervating the laryngeal epithelium and not to taste. PMID:22362867

  6. Double Photoionization Near Threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehlitz, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The threshold region of the double-photoionization cross section is of particular interest because both ejected electrons move slowly in the Coulomb field of the residual ion. Near threshold both electrons have time to interact with each other and with the residual ion. Also, different theoretical models compete to describe the double-photoionization cross section in the threshold region. We have investigated that cross section for lithium and beryllium and have analyzed our data with respect to the latest results in the Coulomb-dipole theory. We find that our data support the idea of a Coulomb-dipole interaction.

  7. Pyrrolo-dC Metal-Mediated Base Pairs in the Reverse Watson-Crick Double Helix: Enhanced Stability of Parallel DNA and Impact of 6-Pyridinyl Residues on Fluorescence and Silver-Ion Binding.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haozhe; Mei, Hui; Seela, Frank

    2015-07-06

    Reverse Watson-Crick DNA with parallel-strand orientation (ps DNA) has been constructed. Pyrrolo-dC (PyrdC) nucleosides with phenyl and pyridinyl residues linked to the 6 position of the pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine base have been incorporated in 12- and 25-mer oligonucleotide duplexes and utilized as silver-ion binding sites. Thermal-stability studies on the parallel DNA strands demonstrated extremely strong silver-ion binding and strongly enhanced duplex stability. Stoichiometric UV and fluorescence titration experiments verified that a single (2py) PyrdC-(2py) PyrdC pair captures two silver ions in ps DNA. A structure for the PyrdC silver-ion base pair that aligns 7-deazapurine bases head-to-tail instead of head-to-head, as suggested for canonical DNA, is proposed. The silver DNA double helix represents the first example of a ps DNA structure built up of bidentate and tridentate reverse Watson-Crick base pairs stabilized by a dinuclear silver-mediated PyrdC pair.

  8. Residual Cap

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-10

    This MOC image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions

  9. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  10. Residual Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions. The variation in brightness across this scene is a function of several factors including, but not limited to, varying proportions of dust and solid carbon dioxide, undulating topography, and differences in the roughness of the slopes versus the flat surfaces.

    Location near: 86.7oS, 343.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  11. Joining of correct and incorrect DNA ends at double-strand breaks produced by high-linear energy transfer radiation in human fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobrich, M.; Cooper, P. K.; Rydberg, B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were measured within a 3.2-Mbp NotI fragment on chromosome 21 of cells of a normal human fibroblast cell line. Correct rejoining of DSBs was followed by measuring reconstitution of the original-size NotI fragment, and this was compared to total rejoining as measured by a conventional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis technique (FAR assay). After 80 Gy of particle irradiations with LETs in the range of 7-150 keV/microm, it was found that the repair kinetics was generally slower after irradiation with high-LET particles compared to X irradiation and that a larger proportion of the breaks remained unrepaired after 24 h. On the other hand, the misrejoining frequency as measured by the difference between correct and total rejoining after 24 h did not change with LET, but was approximately the same for all radiations at this dose, equal to 25-30% of the initial breaks. This result is discussed in relation to formation of chromosomal aberrations, deletion mutations and other biological end points.

  12. Joining of correct and incorrect DNA ends at double-strand breaks produced by high-linear energy transfer radiation in human fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobrich, M.; Cooper, P. K.; Rydberg, B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were measured within a 3.2-Mbp NotI fragment on chromosome 21 of cells of a normal human fibroblast cell line. Correct rejoining of DSBs was followed by measuring reconstitution of the original-size NotI fragment, and this was compared to total rejoining as measured by a conventional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis technique (FAR assay). After 80 Gy of particle irradiations with LETs in the range of 7-150 keV/microm, it was found that the repair kinetics was generally slower after irradiation with high-LET particles compared to X irradiation and that a larger proportion of the breaks remained unrepaired after 24 h. On the other hand, the misrejoining frequency as measured by the difference between correct and total rejoining after 24 h did not change with LET, but was approximately the same for all radiations at this dose, equal to 25-30% of the initial breaks. This result is discussed in relation to formation of chromosomal aberrations, deletion mutations and other biological end points.

  13. Double helicenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachrach, Steven M.

    2016-12-01

    The even double helicenes with 4-12 phenyl groups in each helix were examined at B3LYP-D3/6-311G(d). The double helicenes with 4-10 phenyl rings are less than twice as strained as their component helicenes; the strain results from twisting about the shared naphthyl moiety, with accompanying loss of aromaticity. These compounds should be reasonable synthetic targets, and computed NMR shifts are provided to aid in their characterization.

  14. [Double responses].

    PubMed

    Motté, G; Dinanian, S; Sebag, C; Drieu, L; Slama, M

    1995-12-01

    Double response is a rare electrocardiographic phenomenon requiring two atrioventricular conduction pathways with very different electrophysiological properties. Double ventricular responses are the usual manifestation: an atrial depolarisation (spontaneous or provoked, anticipated or not) is followed by a first ventricular response dependent on an accessory pathway or a rapid nodal pathway and then a second response resulting from sufficiently delayed transmission through a nodal pathway for the ventricles to have recovered their excitability when the second wave of activation reaches them. A simple curiosity when isolated and occurring under unusual conditions, particularly during electrophysiological investigation of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the double response may initiate symptomatic non-reentrant junctional tachycardia when associated with nodal duality and repeating from atria in sinus rhythm. The functional incapacity and resistance to antiarrhythmic therapy may require referral for ablation of the slow pathway.

  15. Double Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-23

    A double crater, called a crater doublet, is seen in the bottom right part of this image from NASA Dawn spacecraft of asteroid Vesta. This crater doublet was likely formed by the simultaneous impact of two fragments of a split projectile.

  16. Double Layers in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Alton C. (Editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.

  17. Double screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gratia, Pierre; Hu, Wayne; Joyce, Austin; Ribeiro, Raquel H.

    2016-06-15

    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  18. Double inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The ..cap omega..-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Seeing Double

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The separateness and connection of individuals is perhaps the central question of human life: What, exactly, is my individuality? To what degree is it unique? To what degree can it be shared, and how? To the many philosophical and literary speculations about these topics over time, modern science has added the curious twist of quantum theory, which requires that the elementary particles of which everything consists have no individuality at all. All aspects of chemistry depend on this lack of individuality, as do many branches of physics. From where, then, does our individuality come? In Seeing Double, Peter Pesic invites readers to explore this intriguing set of questions. He draws on literary and historical examples that open the mind (from Homer to Martin Guerre to Kafka), philosophical analyses that have helped to make our thinking and speech more precise, and scientific work that has enabled us to characterize the phenomena of nature. Though he does not try to be all-inclusive, Pesic presents a broad range of ideas, building toward a specific point of view: that the crux of modern quantum theory is its clash with our ordinary concept of individuality. This represents a departure from the usual understanding of quantum theory. Pesic argues that what is bizarre about quantum theory becomes more intelligible as we reconsider what we mean by individuality and identity in ordinary experience. In turn, quantum identity opens a new perspective on us. Peter Pesic is a Tutor and Musician-in-Residence at St. John's College, Santa Fe, New Mexico. He has a Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University.

  20. Double Your Major, Double Your Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Rossi, Alison F.; Hersch, Joni

    2008-01-01

    We use the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates to provide the first estimates of the effect on earnings of having a double major. Overall, double majoring increases earnings by 2.3% relative to having a single major among college graduates without graduate degrees. Most of the gains from having a double major come from choosing fields across…

  1. Utilization of oak residues

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Allison

    1971-01-01

    Residues should be thought of as a raw material for specific uses rather than as a waste. Fines and solid wood residues are usually kept separated in waste-collection system, but species are rarely kept separated. The properties of each species dictate what uses can be made of them. Quantity, location, cost, moisture content, physical size, and presence of foreign...

  2. Measurement of Residual Stress in a Welded Branch Connection and Effects on Fracture Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, M.; Luzin, V.; Kirstein, O.

    2010-11-01

    The branch analysed in this paper was not post weld heat treated, resulting in significant residual stresses. Assessment codes assume these to be at, or close to, yield. An integrity assessment of a welded branch connection was carried out using these high assumed residual stresses. The weld then had residual stresses determined by neutron diffraction, performed using ANSTO's residual stress diffractometer, Kowari. The maximum measured residual stress (290 MPa or 60% of yield) was much lower than the yield value assumed by assessment codes. Reanalysing with the actual residual stresses almost doubled the critical crack size, increasing the safety of the connection.

  3. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  4. A double-double/double-single computation package

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.

    2004-12-01

    The DDFUNIDSFUN software permits a new or existing Fortran-90 program to utilize double-double precision (approx. 31 digits) or double-single precision (approx. 14 digits) arithmetic. Double-double precision is required by a rapidly expandirtg body of scientific computations in physics and mathematics, for which the conventional 64-bit IEEE computer arithmetic (about 16 decimal digit accuracy) is not sufficient. Double-single precision permits users of systems that do not have hardware 64-bit IEEE arithmetic (such as some game systems) to perform arithmetic at a precision nearly as high as that of systems that do. Both packages run significantly faster Than using multiple precision or arbitrary precision software for this purpose. The package includes an extensive set of low-level routines to perform high-precision arithmetic, including routines to calculate various algebraic and transcendental functions, such as square roots, sin, ccc, exp, log and others. In addition, the package includes high-level translation facilities, so that Fortran programs can utilize these facilities by making only a few changes to conventional Fortran programs. In most cases, the only changes that are required are to change the type statements of variables that one wishes to be treated as multiple precision, plus a few other minor changes. The DDFUN package is similar in functionality to the double-double part of the GD package, which was previously written at LBNL. However, the DDFUN package is written exclusively in Fortran-90, thus avoidIng difficulties that some users experience when using GD, which includes both Fortran-90 and C++ code.

  5. [A double gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Mink van der Molen, A B; Salu, M K

    1991-04-06

    A 59-year-old woman is described with symptomatic cholelithiasis. A double gallbladder was incidentally found during abdominal surgery. The literature on a double gallbladder is reviewed with respect to incidence, anatomy, diagnosis and therapy.

  6. Chromosome doubling method

    DOEpatents

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  7. The double identity of linguistic doubling.

    PubMed

    Berent, Iris; Bat-El, Outi; Brentari, Diane; Dupuis, Amanda; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered

    2016-11-29

    Does knowledge of language consist of abstract principles, or is it fully embodied in the sensorimotor system? To address this question, we investigate the double identity of doubling (e.g., slaflaf, or generally, XX; where X stands for a phonological constituent). Across languages, doubling is known to elicit conflicting preferences at different levels of linguistic analysis (phonology vs. morphology). Here, we show that these preferences are active in the brains of individual speakers, and they are demonstrably distinct from sensorimotor pressures. We first demonstrate that doubling in novel English words elicits divergent percepts: Viewed as meaningless (phonological) forms, doubling is disliked (e.g., slaflaf < slafmak), but once doubling in form is systematically linked to meaning (e.g., slaf = ball, slaflaf = balls), the doubling aversion shifts into a reliable (morphological) preference. We next show that sign-naive speakers spontaneously project these principles to novel signs in American Sign Language, and their capacity to do so depends on the structure of their spoken language (English vs. Hebrew). These results demonstrate that linguistic preferences doubly dissociate from sensorimotor demands: A single stimulus can elicit diverse percepts, yet these percepts are invariant across stimulus modality--for speech and signs. These conclusions are in line with the possibility that some linguistic principles are abstract, and they apply broadly across language modality.

  8. Forest Residues Bundling Project

    Treesearch

    U.S. Forest Service

    2007-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, the U.S. Forest Service conducted an evaluation of biomass bundling for forest residue extraction. This CD provides a report of the project results, a video documentary project record, and a collection of images from the project. Additional information is available at:

  9. [China's crop residues resources evaluation].

    PubMed

    Xie, Guanghui; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Lantian

    2010-07-01

    The availability of crop residues in China is reviewed in this article. The definition of crop residues is clarified as the total byproducts of field production and processing industry thereafter, and methodology for evaluating crop residues is discussed. Based on literature, the progress on the crop residue assessment is addressed. The annual field crops residues in China from 1991 to 1999 were estimated between 6.0-6.8 hundred million tons, while the data for the process residues were not available. From 2000 to 2007, the annual crop residues were estimated between 5.9-7.3 hundred million tons, while the processing residues at the range of 0.9-1.1 hundred million tons. The reasons for the significant variations are due to the disagreement on crop residue definition, different, even inaccurate residue to grain ratio data used in the estimations, and the lacking of clear understanding on the statistical analysis and grain outputs related to the crop residue evaluation. With the complete statistic analysis method, the author's group evaluated the residues in 2006 and 2007 to be 7.4 hundred million tones in total, including 6.5 hundred million tons for field crop residues and 0.9 hundred million tons for process residues. Moreover, the geographic distribution of the field crop residues was analyzed based on the harvest indices (HI) tested within the near five years.

  10. The ASCE Residuals Transport Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Albertson, O.E.; Bizier, P.A.; Brown, J.; Koch, C.; Sadick, T.

    1999-07-01

    This presentation will highlight the ASCE Residuals Transport Manual, which has been published by ASCE this year. This document, which represents the state of the art in information on residuals transport, is designed to be used by both the active practitioner, as well as for instructional purposes. The authors will present the various chapters which cover the following topics: Conveyance of Water and Wastewater Residuals, Rheology, Sludge Characteristics, Quality and Quantity, Overview of Residuals Conveyance Devices, Pumping of Viscous Sludges and Slurries, Transport of Thickened Residuals, Conveyance of Dewatered Residuals, Transport of Granular and Compactable Residuals, and Case Studies. The Objective of the Transport Monograph is to summarize in one concise volume the general state of knowledge regarding residuals transport from both water and wastewater residuals. The presentation will cover each chapter and will review the pertinent information contained in the manual.

  11. Residual stresses in material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaczek, K.J.; Watkins, T.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    1994-09-01

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then adresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X-ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  12. Residual Neuromuscular Blockade.

    PubMed

    Plummer-Roberts, Anna L; Trost, Christina; Collins, Shawn; Hewer, Ian

    2016-02-01

    This article provides an update on residual neuromuscular blockade for nurse anesthetists. The neuromuscular junction, pharmacology for producing and reversing neuromuscular blockade, monitoring sites and methods, and patient implications relating to incomplete reversal of neuromuscular blockade are reviewed. Overall recommendations include using multiple settings when employing a peripheral nerve stimulator for monitoring return of neuromuscular function and administering pharmacologic reversal when the train-of-four ratio is below 0.9.

  13. Examination of Residuals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-01-01

    observations have been made to test a prediction of the theory. Another example would be an experiment on extrasensory perception ; most people believe that...to have the same n and v and yet differ perceptibly in the properties of their residuals. This will be illustrated by two examples with very small n...logarithmically. In recording sensory perceptions or value judgments arbitrary numerical scores are sometimes used, and on the face of it these might as well be

  14. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOEpatents

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  15. Double-Bounce Switching

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    module. Adjustments provided to investigate double- bounce switching are noted. limitation is at a higher level and occurs in the conventionally...To be presented at the 4th IEEE PUlsed Power Conference, June 6-8, 1983, Albuquerque, NM. DOUBLE- BOUNCE SWITCHING* George B. Frazier and Steven R...Ashby Physics International Company 2700 Merced Street San Leandro, California 94577 Abstract Double- bounce switching is a technique for

  16. Observing Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  17. Wood Residue Distribution Simulator (WORDS)

    Treesearch

    Douglas A. Eza; James W. McMinn; Peter E. Dress

    1984-01-01

    Successful development of woody biomass for energy will depend on the distribution of local supply and demand within subregions, rather than on the total inventory of residues. The Wood Residue Distribution Simulator (WORDS) attempts to find a least-cost allocation of residues from local sources of supply to local sources of demand, given the cost of the materials,...

  18. Effect of household processing on fenazaquin residues in okra fruits.

    PubMed

    Duhan, Anil; Kumari, Beena; Gulati, Rachna

    2010-02-01

    Fenazaquin (4-[[4 (1,1-dimethylethyl) phenyl] ethoxy]quinazoline) is a new acaricide of the quinazoline class. Residue levels of fenazaquin were determined in unprocessed and processed okra fruits to evaluate the effect of different processes (washing, boiling and washing followed by boiling) in reduction of residues of this pesticide in okra. The study was carried out on okra crop (Variety, Varsha Uphar) in research farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar with application of fenazaquin (Magister 10 EC) @ 125 ga.i./ha (Single Dose, T(1)) and 250 g a.i./ha (Double Dose, T(2)). Samples of okra fruits were collected on 0, 3, 7, 15 days after treatment and at harvest (30 days). Residues were estimated by gas chromatograph equipped with capillary column and nitrogen phosphorus detector. Residues reached below maximum residue limit of 0.01 mg/kg at harvest. The residues dissipated with half-life period of 3.13 days at lower dose and 4.43 days at higher dose. Processing is shown to be very effective in reducing the levels of fenazaquin residues in okra fruits. Maximum reduction (60-61%) was observed by washing + boiling followed by boiling/cooking (38-40%) and then by washing (31-32%).

  19. The double life of double effect.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Alison

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court's majority opinion in Vacco v. Quill assumes that the principle of double effect explains the permissibility of hastening death in the context of ordinary palliative care and in extraordinary cases in which painkilling drugs have failed to relieve especially intractable suffering and terminal sedation has been adopted as a last resort. The traditional doctrine of double effect, understood as providing a prohibition on instrumental harming as opposed to incidental harming or harming as a side effect, must be distinguished from other ways in which the claim that a result is not intended might be offered as part of a justification for it. Although double effect might appropriately be invoked as a constraint on ordinary palliative care, it is not clear that it can be coherently extended to justify such practices as terminal sedation. A better approach would reconsider double effect's traditional prohibition on hastening death as a means to relieve suffering in the context of acute palliative care.

  20. Double metalization for VLSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trotter, J. D.; Wade, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Postsintering process increases yield of double-layer metal conductors to almost 100 percent. When wafers containing double-metalized chips are sintered, metal layers react with oxide film remaining in insulation layer holes, breaking it up so that it no longer impedes electric current. Cooling also mechanically disrupts oxide film.

  1. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out.

  2. Emerging double helical nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Wei, Fei

    2014-07-01

    As one of the most important and land-mark structures found in nature, a double helix consists of two congruent single helices with the same axis or a translation along the axis. This double helical structure renders the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the crucial biomolecule in evolution and metabolism. DNA-like double helical nanostructures are probably the most fantastic yet ubiquitous geometry at the nanoscale level, which are expected to exhibit exceptional and even rather different properties due to the unique organization of the two single helices and their synergistic effect. The organization of nanomaterials into double helical structures is an emerging hot topic for nanomaterials science due to their promising exceptional unique properties and applications. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art research progress for the fabrication of double-helical nanostructures based on `bottom-up' and `top-down' strategies. The relevant nanoscale, mesoscale, and macroscopic scale fabrication methods, as well as the properties of the double helical nanostructures are included. Critical perspectives are devoted to the synthesis principles and potential applications in this emerging research area. A multidisciplinary approach from the scope of nanoscience, physics, chemistry, materials, engineering, and other application areas is still required to the well-controlled and large-scale synthesis, mechanism, property, and application exploration of double helical nanostructures.

  3. Emerging double helical nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Wei, Fei

    2014-08-21

    As one of the most important and land-mark structures found in nature, a double helix consists of two congruent single helices with the same axis or a translation along the axis. This double helical structure renders the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the crucial biomolecule in evolution and metabolism. DNA-like double helical nanostructures are probably the most fantastic yet ubiquitous geometry at the nanoscale level, which are expected to exhibit exceptional and even rather different properties due to the unique organization of the two single helices and their synergistic effect. The organization of nanomaterials into double helical structures is an emerging hot topic for nanomaterials science due to their promising exceptional unique properties and applications. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art research progress for the fabrication of double-helical nanostructures based on 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' strategies. The relevant nanoscale, mesoscale, and macroscopic scale fabrication methods, as well as the properties of the double helical nanostructures are included. Critical perspectives are devoted to the synthesis principles and potential applications in this emerging research area. A multidisciplinary approach from the scope of nanoscience, physics, chemistry, materials, engineering, and other application areas is still required to the well-controlled and large-scale synthesis, mechanism, property, and application exploration of double helical nanostructures.

  4. Topological Quantum Double

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneau, Philippe

    Following a preceding paper showing how the introduction of a t.v.s. topology on quantum groups led to a remarkable unification and rigidification of the different definitions, we adapt here, in the same way, the definition of quantum double. This topological double is dualizable and reflexive (even for infinite dimensional algebras). In a simple case we show, considering the double as the "zero class" of an extension theory, the uniqueness of the double structure as a quasi-Hopf algebra. A la suite d'un précédent article montrant comment l'introduction d'une topologie d'e.v.t. sur les groupes quantiques permet une unification et une rigidification remarquables des différentes définitions, on adapte ici de la même manière la définition du double quantique. Ce double topologique est alors dualisable et reflexif (même pour des algèbres de dimension infinie). Dans un cas simple on montre, en considérant le double comme la "classe zéro" d'une théorie d'extensions, l'unicité de cette structure comme algèbre quasi-Hopf.

  5. residue and shunting pinholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorji, Nima E.

    2014-09-01

    The present work considers two observable phenomena through the experimental fabrication and electrical characterization of the rf-sputtered CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells that extremely reduce the overall conversion efficiency of the device: CdCl2 residue on the surface of the semiconductor and shunting pinholes. The former happens through nonuniform treatment of the As-deposited solar cells before annealing at high temperature and the latter occurs by shunting pinholes when the cell surface is shunted by defects, wire-like pathways or scratches on the metallic back contact caused from the external contacts. Such physical problems may be quite common in the experimental activities and reduce the performance down to 4-5 % which leads to dismantle the device despite its precise fabrication. We present our electrical characterization on the samples that received wet CdCl2 surface treatment (uniform or nonuniform) and are damaged by the pinholes.

  6. Residual gas analyzer calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilienkamp, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    A technique which employs known gas mixtures to calibrate the residual gas analyzer (RGA) is described. The mass spectra from the RGA are recorded for each gas mixture. This mass spectra data and the mixture composition data each form a matrix. From the two matrices the calibration matrix may be computed. The matrix mathematics requires the number of calibration gas mixtures be equal to or greater than the number of gases included in the calibration. This technique was evaluated using a mathematical model of an RGA to generate the mass spectra. This model included shot noise errors in the mass spectra. Errors in the gas concentrations were also included in the valuation. The effects of these errors was studied by varying their magnitudes and comparing the resulting calibrations. Several methods of evaluating an actual calibration are presented. The effects of the number of gases in then, the composition of the calibration mixture, and the number of mixtures used are discussed.

  7. Systematics of pion double charge exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, R.A.

    1985-10-01

    Differential cross sections have been measured for pion-induced double-charge-exchange (DCX) reactions leading to double-isobaric-analog states (DIAS) and low-lying nonanalog states in the residual nuclei. A description of the experimental details and data analysis is presented. The experimentally observed systematics of reactions leading to DIAS, to nonanalog ground states, and to low-lying 2 states are described. Lowest-order optical-model calculations of DIAS DCX are compared to the data. Efforts to understand the anomalies by invoking additional reaction-mechanism amplitudes and a higher-order optical potential are described. Calculations of nonanalog DCX reactions leading to J/sup / = 0 states were performed within a distorted-wave impulse-approximation framework. The sensitivities of these calculations to input parameters are discussed. 58 refs., 41 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Experimental determination of residual stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Milton W.

    1991-01-01

    Residual stresses in finished parts have often been regarded as factors contributing to premature part failure and geometric distortions. Currently, residual stresses in welded structures and railroad components are being investigated. High residual stresses formed in welded structures due primarily to the differential contractions of the weld material as it cools and solidifies can have a profound effect on the surface performance of the structure. In railroad wheels, repeated use of the brakes causes high residual stresses in the rims which may lead to wheel failure and possible derailment. The goals of the study were: (1) to develop strategies for using x-ray diffraction to measure residual stress; (2) to subject samples of Inconel 718 to various mechanical and heat treatments and to measure the resulting stress using x-ray diffraction; and (3) to measure residual stresses in ferromagnetic alloys using magnetoacoustics.

  9. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/007328.htm Double outlet right ventricle Texas Adult Congenital Heart Center (TACH) www.bcm.edu/ ... comments. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy © Copyright Texas Heart Institute All rights reserved.

  10. Double Degenerate Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K.

    2011-09-21

    In this study, angular momentum loss via gravitational radiation in double degenerate binary (DDB)systems (NS + NS, NS + WD, WD + WD, and AM CVn) is studied. Energy loss by gravitational waves has been estimated for each type of systems.

  11. [Double scleral covering evisceration].

    PubMed

    Sanz López, A; Sales Sanz, M

    2003-05-01

    To describe a surgical technique for evisceration that allows the use of large size implants, reducing risk of exposure. We analize the results of 22 eviscerations with Medpor implants with double scleral covering. We managed to use implants of 20 and 22 mm, sometimes in very small anophthalmic cavities, without complications. Double scleral covering evisceration is a surgical technique that allows the use of large size implants, reducing the risk of exposure.

  12. Materials recovery from shredder residues

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E. J.; Jody, B. J.; Pomykala, J., Jr.

    2000-07-24

    Each year, about five (5) million ton of shredder residues are landfilled in the US. Similar quantities are landfilled in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Landfilling of these residues results in a cost to the existing recycling industry and also represents a loss of material resources that are otherwise recyclable. In this paper, the authors outline the resources recoverable from typical shredder residues and describe technology that they have developed to recover these resources.

  13. Persistence and effect of processing on chlorpyriphos residues in tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Rani, Mamta; Saini, Sunayana; Kumari, Beena

    2013-09-01

    Persistence of chlorpyriphos in tomato was studied following applications of Action 505EC at 800 and 1600 g ha(-1) with active application of chlorpyriphos as 400 and 800 g a.i. ha(-1). The average initial deposits of chlorpyriphos were 0.155 and 0.372 mg kg(-1) on tomato fruits on application of ready-mix formulation, Action 505EC at single and double dose, respectively. The residues dissipated with half- life period of 4.43 days at single dose and 4.38 days at double dose following pseudo first order kinetics.Residues of chlorpyriphos in both the doses on 0 day were below maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.5 mg kg(-1). Processing was found very effective in reducing the residues of chlorpyriphos in tomato fruits. By washing, reduction of chlorpyriphos was in the range of 41-44 per cent. Washing followed by boiling reduced the residues from 89 to 91% whereas peeling removed residues from 62 to 64%. In soil samples, residues of chlorpyriphos reached below detectable level of 0.010 mg kg(-1) after 5 and 10 days after spray at single and double dose, respectively.

  14. Microwave emission and crop residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to determine the significance of crop residues or stubble in estimating the emission of the underlying soil. Observations using truck-mounted L and C band passive microwave radiometers showed that for dry wheat and soybeans the dry residue caused negligible attenuation of the background emission. Green residues, with water contents typical of standing crops, did have a significant effect on the background emission. Results for these green residues also indicated that extremes in plant structure, as created using parallel and perpendicular stalk orientations, can cause very large differences in the degree of attenuation.

  15. Microwave emission and crop residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to determine the significance of crop residues or stubble in estimating the emission of the underlying soil. Observations using truck-mounted L and C band passive microwave radiometers showed that for dry wheat and soybeans the dry residue caused negligible attenuation of the background emission. Green residues, with water contents typical of standing crops, did have a significant effect on the background emission. Results for these green residues also indicated that extremes in plant structure, as created using parallel and perpendicular stalk orientations, can cause very large differences in the degree of attenuation.

  16. Residual Stresses and Critical Initial Flaw Size Analyses of Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brust, Frederick W.; Raju, Ivatury, S.; Dawocke, David S.; Cheston, Derrick

    2009-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). A series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on the fatigue life. The purpose of the weld analyses was to model the weld process using a variety of sequences to determine the 'best' sequence in terms of weld residual stresses and distortions. The many factors examined in this study include weld design (single-V, double-V groove), weld sequence, boundary conditions, and material properties, among others. The results of this weld analysis are included with service loads to perform a fatigue and critical initial flaw size evaluation.

  17. On tide-induced lagrangian residual current and residual transport: 1. Lagrangian residual current

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, Shizuo; Cheng, Ralph T.; Pangen, Xi

    1986-01-01

    Residual currents in tidal estuaries and coastal embayments have been recognized as fundamental factors which affect the long-term transport processes. It has been pointed out by previous studies that it is more relevant to use a Lagrangian mean velocity than an Eulerian mean velocity to determine the movements of water masses. Under weakly nonlinear approximation, the parameter k, which is the ratio of the net displacement of a labeled water mass in one tidal cycle to the tidal excursion, is assumed to be small. Solutions for tides, tidal current, and residual current have been considered for two-dimensional, barotropic estuaries and coastal seas. Particular attention has been paid to the distinction between the Lagrangian and Eulerian residual currents. When k is small, the first-order Lagrangian residual is shown to be the sum of the Eulerian residual current and the Stokes drift. The Lagrangian residual drift velocity or the second-order Lagrangian residual current has been shown to be dependent on the phase of tidal current. The Lagrangian drift velocity is induced by nonlinear interactions between tides, tidal currents, and the first-order residual currents, and it takes the form of an ellipse on a hodograph plane. Several examples are given to further demonstrate the unique properties of the Lagrangian residual current.

  18. Taking inventory of woody residuals

    Treesearch

    David McKeever

    2003-01-01

    USDA Forest Service analysis finds 104 million tons of woody residuals available for recovery in the U.S., with wood in MSW and C&D debris streams comprising 28 million tons. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service conducts a variety of analyses to estimate the quantity of woody residuals in the United States. Its Forest Products Laboratory in Madison,...

  19. Residue-based scattering factors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongliang

    2016-11-01

    A glob is defined as a group of atoms in the crystal which can be chosen in various ways. Globs themselves can be used as scattering elements in the theory of structure determination, just as atoms are used at present. In this paper, amino-acid residues are chosen to form globs and empirical formulas for residue-based scattering factors have been developed.

  20. The First SLR Double-Difference Baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svehla, Drazen; Haagmans, Roger; Floberghagen, Rune; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Sierk, Bernd; Kirchner, Georg; Rodriguez, Jose; Wilkinson, Matthew; Sherwood, Rob; Appleby, Graham

    2013-04-01

    We introduce the SLR double-difference approach of space geodesy. With real and simulated SLR measurements it is shown how common SLR biases are removed by forming SLR double-differences, i.e. station range biases, common retro-reflector effects and orbit errors (GNSS) for baselines up to e.g. 5000 km. In this way we obtain SLR observables of utmost precision and accuracy. We show how remaining noise in the SLR measurements nicely averages out, leading to orbit-free and bias-free estimation of station coordinates, local ties between different space geodesy techniques and precise comparison of optical/microwave tropospheric effects. It shall be noted that SLR scale is preserved by double-differencing. When ETALON and LAGEOS satellites are observed by SLR, any orbit error propagates directly into estimated station coordinates. However, by forming differences between two satellites and two ground stations this orbit error can be eliminated. Both satellites need to be observed quasi-simultaneously in the same tracking sessions in order that station range bias and common retro-reflector effects are removed by differencing. When SLR measurements from GRZL and HERL SLR stations are taken to GLONASS and LAGEOS satellites and processed in double-difference mode, clear common orbit errors are visible in the SLR residuals from both stations. The same stands for small range biases that are visible between the consecutive observing sessions and are removed by forming SLR baselines. Longer SLR passes reveal other interesting systematic effects common to both stations at mm-level. An error in the order of 4-6 cm RMS was introduced to GNSS orbits, however the effect on station coordinates in negligible over such a short SLR baseline. We show how with just one-two SLR double-difference passes one can estimate station coordinates at mm-level. When in parallel, both GNSS satellites are observed with microwave measurements, one can estimate very accurate local ties by comparing (or

  1. Residual strains in conduit arteries.

    PubMed

    Rachev, A; Greenwald, S E

    2003-05-01

    Residual strains and stresses are those that exist in a body when all external loads are removed. Residual strains in arteries can be characterized by the opening angle of the sector-like cross-section which arises when an unloaded ring segment is radially cut. A review of experimental methods for measuring residual strains and the main results about the variation of the opening angle with arterial localization, age, smooth muscle activity, mechanical environment and certain vascular pathologies are presented and discussed. It is shown that, in addition to their well-established ability to homogenize the stress field in the arterial wall, residual strains make arteries more compliant and thereby improve their performance as elastic reservoirs and ensure more effective local control of the arterial lumen by smooth muscle cells. Finally, evidence that, in some cases, residual strains remain in arteries even after they have been cut radially is discussed.

  2. Revisting the Double Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Taekjip

    2010-12-08

    Properties of DNA double helix have been studied for over 60 years. Yet as more sensitive tools become available, fundamental assumptions in our understanding of these properties are being challenged. One such question is over the flexibility of DNA. Looping or bending of DNA on short length scales is essential for many cellular processes but it is highly controversial exactly how flexible the DNA is. Using a new, single-molecule based method, we found that DNA of lengths as short as 50 base pairs can form a circle more than 108 times faster than theoretical predictions. Another question concerns the physical principles governing the reversible, helix-coil transitions of DNA between the double helix and single strands. Using porous nanocontainers, we found that the rate of double helix formation shows an abrupt 100 fold change depending on whether there are 7 or more contiguous base pairs or not.

  3. Double checking: a second look.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Tanya; Chreim, Samia; Forster, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Double checking is a standard practice in many areas of health care, notwithstanding the lack of evidence supporting its efficacy. We ask in this study: 'How do front line practitioners conceptualize double checking? What are the weaknesses of double checking? What alternate views of double checking could render it a more robust process?' This is part of a larger qualitative study based on 85 semi-structured interviews of health care practitioners in general internal medicine and obstetrics and neonatology; thematic analysis of the transcribed interviews was undertaken. Inductive and deductive themes are reported. Weaknesses in the double checking process include inconsistent conceptualization of double checking, double (or more) checking as a costly and time-consuming procedure, double checking trusted as an accepted and stand-alone process, and double checking as preventing reporting of near misses. Alternate views of double checking that would render it a more robust process include recognizing that double checking requires training and a dedicated environment, Introducing automated double checking, and expanding double checking beyond error detection. These results are linked with the concepts of collective efficiency thoroughness trade off (ETTO), an in-family approach, and resilience. Double checking deserves more questioning, as there are limitations to the process. Practitioners could view double checking through alternate lenses, and thus help strengthen this ubiquitous practice that is rarely challenged. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Double checking: a second look

    PubMed Central

    Chreim, Samia; Forster, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Double checking is a standard practice in many areas of health care, notwithstanding the lack of evidence supporting its efficacy. We ask in this study: ‘How do front line practitioners conceptualize double checking? What are the weaknesses of double checking? What alternate views of double checking could render it a more robust process?’ Method This is part of a larger qualitative study based on 85 semi‐structured interviews of health care practitioners in general internal medicine and obstetrics and neonatology; thematic analysis of the transcribed interviews was undertaken. Inductive and deductive themes are reported. Results Weaknesses in the double checking process include inconsistent conceptualization of double checking, double (or more) checking as a costly and time‐consuming procedure, double checking trusted as an accepted and stand‐alone process, and double checking as preventing reporting of near misses. Alternate views of double checking that would render it a more robust process include recognizing that double checking requires training and a dedicated environment, Introducing automated double checking, and expanding double checking beyond error detection. These results are linked with the concepts of collective efficiency thoroughness trade off (ETTO), an in‐family approach, and resilience. Conclusion(s) Double checking deserves more questioning, as there are limitations to the process. Practitioners could view double checking through alternate lenses, and thus help strengthen this ubiquitous practice that is rarely challenged. PMID:26568537

  5. Double-helix stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-09-01

    A new stellarator configuration, the Double-Helix Stellarator (DHS), is introduced. This novel configuration features a double-helix center post as the only helical element of the stellarator coil system. The DHS configuration has many unique characteristics. One of them is the extreme low plasma aspect ratio, A {approx} 1--1.2. Other advantages include a high enclosed volume, appreciable rotational transform, and a possibility of extreme-high-{beta} MHD equilibria. Moreover, the DHS features improved transport characteristics caused by the absence of the magnetic field ripple on the outboard of the torus. Compactness, simplicity and modularity of the coil system add to the DHS advantages for fusion applications.

  6. Double arch mirror study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukobratovich, D.; Hillman, D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a method of mounting light weight glass mirrors for astronomical telescopes compatible with the goals of the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was investigated. A 20 in. diameter double arch lightweight mirror previously fabricated was modified to use a new mount configuration. This mount concept was developed and fabricated. The mounting concept of the double mounting mirror is outlined. The modifications made to the mirror, fabrication of the mirror mount, and room temperature testing of the mirror and mount and the extension of the mirror and mount concept to a full size (40 in. diameter) primary mirror for SIRTF are discussed.

  7. Dissipation kinetics of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and chlortetracycline residues in soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanzhu; Wang, Haijiao; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Guangyu; Sun, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The dissipation of different residual states of tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) including oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), and chlortetracycline (CTC) laboratory microcosm systems was investigated in this study. The residues were fractionated by stepwise extractions into aqueous state (KCl solution extracts), organic state (MeOH extracts), residual state I (citric acid-sodium citrate buffer and ethyl acetate extracts) and residual state II (acetonitrile-EDTA-McIlvaine buffer extracts) for accurate evaluation of TCs pollution. The antibiotics in the aqueous state were hardly detected, whereas the antibiotics in the organic state dissipated relatively fast (not detectable within 15 days after application) and followed simple first-order kinetics (SFOK) (R (2) from 0.929 to 0.990). While first-order double-exponential decay model (FODED) (R (2) from 0.840 to 0.999) and availability-adjusted first-order model (AAFO) (R (2) from 0.939 to 0.999) had a better fit on the dissipation of both residue state I and II than SFOK. TCs in these states were likely sequestered into a dormant undegradable phase since no degradation product was detected during the entire experiment. In addition, the overall 50 % dissipation values (i.e., stability) of the three TCs were OTC > TC > CTC. The TCs tend to dissipate faster in the high water content and organic matter soil.

  8. Residual effects of intranasal methamphetamine on sleep, mood, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Audrey; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Gunderson, Erik W.; Marrone, Gina; Silver, Rae; Foltin, Richard W.; Hart, Carl L.

    2008-01-01

    Although intranasal methamphetamine abuse has increased, there are no published data investigating the residual effects of the drug under controlled conditions. Thus, the current study examined the residual effects of single-dose intranasal methamphetamine administration on a broad range of behavioral and physiological measures. Non-treatment seeking methamphetamine abusers (n = 11) completed this two-week, in-patient, within-participant, double-blind study. The study consisted of 4 two-day blocks of sessions; each block was separated by at least 24 hrs. At approximately 1000 hrs, on the first day of each block, participants received one of four intranasal methamphetamine doses (0, 12, 25, 50 mg/70 kg). Lights were turned out at 2300 hrs that evening and sleep measures were assessed. On the morning of the second day of each block, methamphetamine plasma levels, cardiovascular measures, mood, subjective reports of the previous evening's sleep, and psychomotor performance were assessed to determine residual drug effects. The larger methamphetamine doses (25 and 50 mg) markedly disrupted subjective measures of that night's sleep and some indices of next-day mood, but only the largest dose (50 mg) dose decreased objective measures of that night's sleep and increased next-day physiological measures. Methamphetamine did not produce any negative residual effects on early next-day performance. Future studies should assess methamphetamine-related residual effects following repeated doses administered over consecutive days. PMID:18078723

  9. Effects of two different formulations of metalaxyl on their residues in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Khalil

    2002-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the presence of metalaxyl residues in field grown cucumbers. In one experiment, cucumber plants underwent once and twice sprayings by Ridomil-MZ 72 WP at 2.5 g/litre. In another, single and double applications of metalaxyl granule (5G) were carried out at 5 g/m2. Fungicide application performed every 14 days. Samples were taken at different time intervals and metalaxyl level was determined by HPLC. The results showed variable dissipation rates of metalaxyl residues in cucumber. In samples from single and double sprayed plots, the residues were 0.19 and 0.08 mg/kg 14 days after treatment respectively. In single granulated plots, the residues increased during the first 7 days and then decreased to 0.85 mg/kg, 14 days after granule application. However, in double granulated plots, the residues decreased to 0.02 mg/kg after the same period of time. In all treatments except single granulated plots, the residues declined below the MRL (0.5 mg/kg), 7 days after application. These experiments showed that two times spraying and granule applications did not cause the fungicide accumulation in cucumber.

  10. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: MAGNETIC TAPE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Magnetic Tape Manufacturing source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Magnetic Tape Manufacturing source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  11. Electromagnetic zonal flow residual responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, Peter J.; Parra, Felix I.; Pusztai, István

    2017-08-01

    The collisionless axisymmetric zonal flow residual calculation for a tokamak plasma is generalized to include electromagnetic perturbations. We formulate and solve the complete initial value zonal flow problem by retaining the fully self-consistent axisymmetric spatial perturbations in the electric and magnetic fields. Simple expressions for the electrostatic, shear and compressional magnetic residual responses are derived that provide a fully electromagnetic test of the zonal flow residual in gyrokinetic codes. Unlike the electrostatic potential, the parallel vector potential and the parallel magnetic field perturbations need not relax to flux functions for all possible initial conditions.

  12. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: INDUSTRIAL PROCESS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Industrial Process Cooling Towers source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Industrial Process Cooling Towers source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  13. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  14. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  15. Double Marking Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) published the report of an independent panel of experts into maintaining standards at Advanced Level (A-Level). One of its recommendations was for: limited experimental double marking of scripts in subjects such as English to determine whether the strategy would significantly reduce errors…

  16. Double Helix Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Neil M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of James Watson's book, "The Double Helix," as a multidisciplinary way of introducing students to actual science; the scientific method; dilemmas encountered in the world of research; and the rich setting of personalities, politics, and history in post-World War II Europe. (MKR)

  17. Weathering the Double Whammy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane V.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how governing boards can help their institutions weather the "double-whammy" of doing more with less: identify the institution's short-term and long-term challenges; refocus the institution's mission, planning, and programming; assess and integrate the institution's tuition, aid, and outreach strategies; redouble the…

  18. Weathering the Double Whammy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane V.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how governing boards can help their institutions weather the "double-whammy" of doing more with less: identify the institution's short-term and long-term challenges; refocus the institution's mission, planning, and programming; assess and integrate the institution's tuition, aid, and outreach strategies; redouble the…

  19. Double Helix Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Neil M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of James Watson's book, "The Double Helix," as a multidisciplinary way of introducing students to actual science; the scientific method; dilemmas encountered in the world of research; and the rich setting of personalities, politics, and history in post-World War II Europe. (MKR)

  20. Teaching the Double Layer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests various methods for teaching the double layer in electrochemistry courses. Topics addressed include measuring change in absolute potential difference (PD) at interphase, conventional electrode potential scale, analyzing absolute PD, metal-metal and overlap electron PDs, accumulation of material at interphase, thermodynamics of electrified…

  1. Double resonator cantilever accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, D.R.

    1982-09-23

    A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

  2. Double resonator cantilever accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, Dale R.

    1984-01-01

    A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

  3. Design for Double Rainbow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    Rare is the inspirational, spontaneous, transformative moment shared among 20 million people. In the summer of 2010, people around the world were moved by the sighting of a double rainbow--almost a triple rainbow--"all the way across the sky" in Yosemite National Park. Caught on video and posted to by YouTube by Paul Vasquez in January 2010, the…

  4. Double-Glazing Interferometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toal, Vincent; Mihaylova, Emilia M.

    2009-01-01

    This note describes how white light interference fringes can be seen by observing the Moon through a double-glazed window. White light interferometric fringes are normally observed only in a well-aligned interferometer whose optical path difference is less than the coherence length of the light source, which is approximately one micrometer for…

  5. Rosette (Double Blossom)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rosette, or double blossom, is a serious disease of erect blackberries that is limited to the genus Rubus. Rosette may occur on trailing blackberries and dewberries, but rarely on red and black raspberries. In the United States, rosette occurs from New Jersey to Illinois and southwest to Texas and i...

  6. Sun Packs Double Punch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    On August 3, the sun packed a double punch, emitting a M6.0-class flare at 9:43 am EDT. This video is of the second, slightly stronger M9.3-class flare at 11:41 pm EDT. Both flares had significant ...

  7. Design for Double Rainbow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    Rare is the inspirational, spontaneous, transformative moment shared among 20 million people. In the summer of 2010, people around the world were moved by the sighting of a double rainbow--almost a triple rainbow--"all the way across the sky" in Yosemite National Park. Caught on video and posted to by YouTube by Paul Vasquez in January 2010, the…

  8. Double-Glazing Interferometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toal, Vincent; Mihaylova, Emilia M.

    2009-01-01

    This note describes how white light interference fringes can be seen by observing the Moon through a double-glazed window. White light interferometric fringes are normally observed only in a well-aligned interferometer whose optical path difference is less than the coherence length of the light source, which is approximately one micrometer for…

  9. OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.

  10. Memory, double, shadow, and evil.

    PubMed

    McNamara, P

    1994-04-01

    In order to examine shadow dynamics the author explores the phenomenology and mythological associations of the 'double' or Doppelgänger. Current Jungian-inspired theories concerning relations of shadow and double are found to be limited because they do not explain (1) the process of personification of the psychic complex which gives rise to the double, (2) the immediate conditions under which doubling occurs, (3) the conditions which lead to the assignment of evil qualities to the double as shadow. The paper seeks to remedy each of the above limitations by redescribing shadow/double phenomena in terms of autonomous memory phenomena, both personal and trans-personal.

  11. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    DOEpatents

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  12. Double Degrees: Double the Trouble or Twice the Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, A. Wendy; Dolnicar, Sara; Ayoub, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Double degrees (also called joint or combined degrees)--programs of study combining two bachelor degrees--are increasingly popular in Australian universities, particularly among women. A case study using qualitative and quantitative surveys of current and past double degree students is presented. The study indicates that double degrees benefit…

  13. Double Degrees: Double the Trouble or Twice the Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, A. Wendy; Dolnicar, Sara; Ayoub, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Double degrees (also called joint or combined degrees)--programs of study combining two bachelor degrees--are increasingly popular in Australian universities, particularly among women. A case study using qualitative and quantitative surveys of current and past double degree students is presented. The study indicates that double degrees benefit…

  14. Residual-QSAR. Implications for genotoxic carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Both main types of carcinogenesis, genotoxic and epigenetic, were examined in the context of non-congenericity and similarity, respectively, for the structure of ligand molecules, emphasizing the role of quantitative structure-activity relationship ((Q)SAR) studies in accordance with OECD (Organization for Economic and Cooperation Development) regulations. The main purpose of this report involves electrophilic theory and the need for meaningful physicochemical parameters to describe genotoxicity by a general mechanism. Residual-QSAR Method The double or looping multiple linear correlation was examined by comparing the direct and residual structural information against the observed activity. A self-consistent equation of observed-computed activity was assumed to give maximum correlation efficiency for those situations in which the direct correlations gave non-significant statistical information. Alternatively, it was also suited to describe slow and apparently non-noticeable cancer phenomenology, with special application to non-congeneric molecules involved in genotoxic carcinogenesis. Application and Discussions The QSAR principles were systematically applied to a given pool of molecules with genotoxic activity in rats to elucidate their carcinogenic mechanisms. Once defined, the endpoint associated with ligand-DNA interaction was used to select variables that retained the main Hansch physicochemical parameters of hydrophobicity, polarizability and stericity, computed by the custom PM3 semiempirical quantum method. The trial and test sets of working molecules were established by implementing the normal Gaussian principle of activities that applies when the applicability domain is not restrained to the congeneric compounds, as in the present study. The application of the residual, self-consistent QSAR method and the factor (or average) method yielded results characterized by extremely high and low correlations, respectively, with the latter resembling

  15. Residual-QSAR. Implications for genotoxic carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Putz, Mihai V

    2011-06-13

    Both main types of carcinogenesis, genotoxic and epigenetic, were examined in the context of non-congenericity and similarity, respectively, for the structure of ligand molecules, emphasizing the role of quantitative structure-activity relationship ((Q)SAR) studies in accordance with OECD (Organization for Economic and Cooperation Development) regulations. The main purpose of this report involves electrophilic theory and the need for meaningful physicochemical parameters to describe genotoxicity by a general mechanism. RESIDUAL-QSAR METHOD: The double or looping multiple linear correlation was examined by comparing the direct and residual structural information against the observed activity. A self-consistent equation of observed-computed activity was assumed to give maximum correlation efficiency for those situations in which the direct correlations gave non-significant statistical information. Alternatively, it was also suited to describe slow and apparently non-noticeable cancer phenomenology, with special application to non-congeneric molecules involved in genotoxic carcinogenesis. The QSAR principles were systematically applied to a given pool of molecules with genotoxic activity in rats to elucidate their carcinogenic mechanisms. Once defined, the endpoint associated with ligand-DNA interaction was used to select variables that retained the main Hansch physicochemical parameters of hydrophobicity, polarizability and stericity, computed by the custom PM3 semiempirical quantum method. The trial and test sets of working molecules were established by implementing the normal Gaussian principle of activities that applies when the applicability domain is not restrained to the congeneric compounds, as in the present study. The application of the residual, self-consistent QSAR method and the factor (or average) method yielded results characterized by extremely high and low correlations, respectively, with the latter resembling the direct activity to parameter QSARs

  16. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    PubMed Central

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; D’Andrea, Daniel; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of the assessment of the intra-molecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect inter-domain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9. PMID:23760879

  17. DISSOLUTION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE RESIDUES

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E

    2009-01-12

    This report describes the development of a dissolution flowsheet for neptunium (Np) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) residues (i.e., various NpO{sub 2} sources, HB-Line glovebox sweepings, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) thermogravimetric analysis samples). Samples of each type of materials proposed for processing were dissolved in a closed laboratory apparatus and the rate and total quantity of off-gas were measured. Samples of the off-gas were also analyzed. The quantity and type of solids remaining (when visible) were determined after post-dissolution filtration of the solution. Recommended conditions for dissolution of the NpO{sub 2} residues are: Solution Matrix and Loading: {approx}50 g Np/L (750 g Np in 15 L of dissolver solution), using 8 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 0.025 M potassium fluoride (KF) at greater than 100 C for at least 3 hours. Off-gas: Analysis of the off-gas indicated nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) as the only identified components. No hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was detected. The molar ratio of off-gas produced per mole of Np dissolved ranged from 0.25 to 0.4 moles of gas per mole of Np dissolved. A peak off-gas rate of {approx}0.1 scfm/kg bulk oxide was observed. Residual Solids: Pure NpO{sub 2} dissolved with little or no residue with the proposed flowsheet but the NpCo and both sweepings samples left visible solid residue after dissolution. For the NpCo and Part II Sweepings samples the residue amounted to {approx}1% of the initial material, but for the Part I Sweepings sample, the residue amounted to {approx}8 % of the initial material. These residues contained primarily aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) compounds that did not completely dissolve under the flowsheet conditions. The residues from both sweepings samples contained minor amounts of plutonium (Pu) particles. Overall, the undissolved Np and Pu particles in the residues were a very small fraction of the total solids.

  18. Tests on Double Layer Metalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    28 page report describes experiments in fabrication of integrated circuits with double-layer metalization. Double-layer metalization requires much less silicon "real estate" and allows more flexibility in placement of circuit elements than does single-layer metalization.

  19. Comparison of analytical methods and residue patterns of pymetrozine in Aster scaber.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji-Hyung; Lee, Cho-Rong; Lim, Jong-Sung; Lee, Kyu-Seung

    2011-12-01

    Residues of the polar pesticide pymetrozine were compared using two methods: hydromatrix and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The biological half-life and the final residue level were investigated using Aster scaber over a 10-days cultivation period. The respective biological half-lives of the pesticide were 4.2 and 3.5 days at the recommended and double dose. The final residue levels were 1.28 and 1.98 mg kg(-1), respectively, at the same application rate of pymetrozine according to the GAP standard of the United Kingdom. Average recovery was higher with LLE than with the hydromatrix method. Dissipation curves of pymetrozine were influenced by the application amount and growth rate of A. scaber. The final residue level of pymetrozine could be predicted to be lower than the UK maximum residue limit for lettuce applying the GAP standard.

  20. Measuring the Double Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew-Fenn, R.S.; Das, R.; Harbury, P.A.B.

    2009-05-26

    DNA is thought to behave as a stiff elastic rod with respect to the ubiquitous mechanical deformations inherent to its biology. To test this model at short DNA lengths, we measured the mean and variance of end-to-end length for a series of DNA double helices in solution, using small-angle x-ray scattering interference between gold nanocrystal labels. In the absence of applied tension, DNA is at least one order of magnitude softer than measured by single-molecule stretching experiments. Further, the data rule out the conventional elastic rod model. The variance in end-to-end length follows a quadratic dependence on the number of base pairs rather than the expected linear dependence, indicating that DNA stretching is cooperative over more than two turns of the DNA double helix. Our observations support the idea of long-range allosteric communication through DNA structure.

  1. Remeasuring the double helix

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew-Fenn, Rebecca S.; Das, Rhiju; Harbury, Pehr A.B.

    2008-10-20

    DNA is thought to behave as a stiff elastic rod with respect to the ubiquitous mechanical deformations inherent to its biology. To test this model at short DNA lengths, we measured the mean and variance of end-to-end length for a series of DNA double helices in solution, using small-angle x-ray scattering interference between gold nanocrystal labels. In the absence of applied tension, DNA is at least one order of magnitude softer than measured by single-molecule stretching experiments. Further, the data rule out the conventional elastic rod model. The variance in end-to-end length follows a quadratic dependence on the number of base pairs rather than the expected linear dependence, indicating that DNA stretching is cooperative over more than two turns of the DNA double helix. Our observations support the idea of long-range allosteric communication through DNA structure.

  2. Residual stresses in welded plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Edward L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a simple model which could be used to study residual stress. The mechanism that results in residual stresses in the welding process starts with the deposition of molten weld metal which heats the immediately adjacent material. After solidification of weld material, normal thermal shrinkage is resisted by the adjacent, cooler material. When the thermal strain exceeds the elastic strain corresponding to the yield point stress, the stress level is limited by this value, which decreases with increasing temperature. Cooling then causes elastic unloading which is restrained by the adjoining material. Permanent plastic strain occurs, and tension is caused in the region immediately adjacent to the weld material. Compression arises in the metal farther from the weld in order to maintain overall static equilibrium. Subsequent repair welds may add to the level of residual stresses. The level of residual stress is related to the onset of fracture during welding. Thus, it is of great importance to be able to predict the level of residual stresses remaining after a weld procedure, and to determine the factors, such as weld speed, temperature, direction, and number of passes, which may affect the magnitude of remaining residual stress. It was hoped to use traditional analytical modeling techniques so that it would be easier to comprehend the effect of these variables on the resulting stress. This approach was chosen in place of finite element methods so as to facilitate the understanding of the physical processes. The accuracy of the results was checked with some existing experimental studies giving residual stress levels found from x-ray diffraction measurements.

  3. Algebra of Majorana doubling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Wilczek, Frank

    2013-11-27

    Motivated by the problem of identifying Majorana mode operators at junctions, we analyze a basic algebraic structure leading to a doubled spectrum. For general (nonlinear) interactions the emergent mode creation operator is highly nonlinear in the original effective mode operators, and therefore also in the underlying electron creation and destruction operators. This phenomenon could open up new possibilities for controlled dynamical manipulation of the modes. We briefly compare and contrast related issues in the Pfaffian quantum Hall state.

  4. Double shell liner implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, S. A.; Chaikovsky, S. A.

    1997-05-05

    Experiments on the double shell liner (DSL) implosions with and without an initial axial magnetic were performed on the SNOP-3 pulse generator (1.1 MA, 100 ns). In implosions of a DSL without an initial axial magnetic field, high radial compressions of the inner shell were observed, as in previous experiments with an initial axial magnetic field. Possible mechanisms for the formation of the initial azimuthal magnetic field are discussed.

  5. Double face sealing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A double face sealing device is disclosed for mounting between two surfaces to provide an air-tight and fluid-tight seal between a closure member bearing one of the surfaces and a structure or housing bearing the other surface which extends around the opening or hatchway to be closed. The double face sealing device includes a plurality of sections or segments mounted to one of the surfaces, each having a main body portion, a pair of outwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, and a pair of inwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, an elastomeric cover on the distal, free ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free ends of the inwardly extending and diverging spring arms. The double face sealing device has application or use in all environments requiring a seal, but is particularly useful to seal openings or hatchways between compartments of spacecraft or aircraft.

  6. Hydrothermal carbonization of agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ivo; Blöhse, Dennis; Ramke, Hans-Günter

    2013-08-01

    The work presented in this article addresses the application of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) to produce a solid fuel named HTC-Biochar, whose characteristics are comparable to brown coal. Several batch HTC experiments were performed using agricultural residues (AR) as substrates, commonly treated in farm-based biogas plants in Germany. Different AR were used in different combinations with other biomass residues. The biogas potential from the resulting process water was also determined. The combination of different AR lead to the production of different qualities of HTC-Biochars as well as different mass and energy yields. Using more lignocellulosic residues lead to higher mass and energy yields for the HTC-Biochar produced. Whilst residues rich in carbohydrates of lower molecular weight such as corn silage and dough residues lead to the production of a HTC-Biochar of better quality and more similar to brown coal. Process water achieved a maximum of 16.3 L CH4/kg FM (fresh matter).

  7. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole–dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single

  8. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Teitelboim, Ayelet; Meir, Noga; Kazes, Miri; Oron, Dan

    2016-05-17

    Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole-dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single photon

  9. Where do the air masses between double tropopauses come from?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parracho, A. C.; Marques, C. A. F.; Castanheira, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the origin of air masses that end up between double tropopauses (DT) in the subtropics and midlatitudes is presented. The double tropopauses were diagnosed in the ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979-2010), and the origin of air masses was analysed using the Lagrangian model FLEXPART. Different processes for the formation of double tropopauses (DT) have been suggested in the literature. Some studies have suggested that double tropopauses may occur as a response to the vertical profile of adiabatic heating, due to the residual meridional circulation, while others have put forward contradicting explanations. Whereas some studies have suggested that double tropopauses result from poleward excursions of the tropical tropopause over the extratropical one, others have argued that DTs develop in baroclinic unstable processes involving transport of air from high latitudes. In some regions, the DT structure has a semipermanent character which cannot be explained by excursions of the tropical tropopause alone. However, the results presented in this paper confirm that processes involving excursions of the tropical tropopause over the extratropical tropopause, which are therefore accompanied by intrusions of air from the tropical troposphere into the lower extratropical stratosphere, make a significant contribution for the occurrence of DTs in the subtropics and midlatitudes. Specifically, it is shown that the air between double tropopauses comes from equatorward regions, and has a higher percentage of tropospheric particles and a lower mean potential vorticity.

  10. Persistence of dicofol residues in cotton lint seed, and soil.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Beena; Duhan, Anil

    2011-11-01

    A supervised field trial was conducted at the CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar to assess the residues of dicofol on cotton, during Kharif season, 2008. Dicofol (Kelthane 18.5EC) was applied at 500 g a.i./ha (T(1)) and 1,000 g a.i./ha T(2)) after 105 days of sowing of cotton crop (Varity Cotton/H-1226). Soil samples were collected on 0 (1 h after treatment), 3, 7, 10, 15, 30, and 60 days after spray and cotton samples were collected at harvest. Samples were processed and residues were quantified by GC-ECD system equipped with capillary column. Limit of detection and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.001 and 0.010 mg kg( -1), respectively, for soil and LOQ for cotton lint and seed was 0.020 mg kg( -1). Initial residues of 0.588 and 1.182 mg kg( -1) in soil reached below detectable level (BDL) of 0.010 mg kg( -1) in T(1) and to the level of BDL (0.010 mg kg( -1)) in T(2) at harvest (60 days after treatment). In 60 days, residues dissipated almost completely (100 and >99%) in both the treatments. Half-life period was calculated as 8.57 days at single dose and 8.69 days at double dose in soil. Residues of dicofol were detected in cotton lint to the levels of 0.292 and 0.653 mg kg( -1) and in seed 0.051 and 0.090 mg kg( -1) in T(1) and T(2) doses, respectively at harvest. Residues in cotton seed were below MRL value of 0.01 mg kg( -1) in both the doses.

  11. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

    1981-09-01

    A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

  12. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: SYNTHETIC ORGANIC ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate. Update 9/19/2006: Proposed Rule June 14, 2006 - Risk Assessment complete September 2005 and only available in the Docket.

  13. Chemistry of combined residual chlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Leao, S.F.; Selleck, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The decay of the combined chlorine residual was investigated in this work. Recent concerns about the formation of undesirable compounds such as chloroform with free residual chlorination have focused attention on the alternative use of combined residual chlorination. This work investigates the applicability of reactions proposed to describe the transformations and decay of the combined residual with time. Sodium hypochlorite was added to buffered solutions of ammonia with the chlorine residual being monitored over periods extending up to 10 days. The reaction was studied at four initial concentrations of hypochlorite of 100, 50, 25 and 10 mg/L as Cl/sub 2/ with molar application ratios of chlorine to ammonia, defined herein as M ratios, of 0.90, 0.50, 0.25 and 0.05 at each hypochlorite dose. Sixty-eight experiments were conducted at the pH of 6.6 and 7.2. The conclusions are: (1) in the absence of free chlorine, the concentration of NH/sub 3/ does not seem to affect the rate of disappearance of the residual other than through the formation of NHCl/sub 2/ by NH/sub 2/Cl hydrolysis; (2) the reaction between NHCl/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ to form NH/sub 2/Cl is either much slower than reported by Gray et. al. or the mechanism is different with a rate limiting step not involving NH/sub 3/ or NH/sub 4//sup +/; (3) a redox reaction in addition to the first-order decomposition of NHCl/sub 2/ appears necessary. Model simulation results indicated that a reaction of the type NH/sub 2/Cl + NHCl/sub 2/ ..-->.. P added to the first-order NHCl/sub 2/ decomposition can explain the results observed except at the higher chlorine doses.

  14. Detection of pesticide (Cyantraniliprole) residue on grapes using hyperspectral sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohite, Jayantrao; Karale, Yogita; Pappula, Srinivasu; Shabeer, Ahammed T. P.; Sawant, S. D.; Hingmire, Sandip

    2017-05-01

    Pesticide residues in the fruits, vegetables and agricultural commodities are harmful to humans and are becoming a health concern nowadays. Detection of pesticide residues on various commodities in an open environment is a challenging task. Hyperspectral sensing is one of the recent technologies used to detect the pesticide residues. This paper addresses the problem of detection of pesticide residues of Cyantraniliprole on grapes in open fields using multi temporal hyperspectral remote sensing data. The re ectance data of 686 samples of grapes with no, single and double dose application of Cyantraniliprole has been collected by handheld spectroradiometer (MS- 720) with a wavelength ranging from 350 nm to 1052 nm. The data collection was carried out over a large feature set of 213 spectral bands during the period of March to May 2015. This large feature set may cause model over-fitting problem as well as increase the computational time, so in order to get the most relevant features, various feature selection techniques viz Principle Component Analysis (PCA), LASSO and Elastic Net regularization have been used. Using this selected features, we evaluate the performance of various classifiers such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF) and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) to classify the grape sample with no, single or double application of Cyantraniliprole. The key finding of this paper is; most of the features selected by the LASSO varies between 350-373nm and 940-990nm consistently for all days. Experimental results also shows that, by using the relevant features selected by LASSO, SVM performs better with average prediction accuracy of 91.98 % among all classifiers, for all days.

  15. Organochlorine residues in eggs of Alaskan seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Bartonek, J.C.; Divoky, G.J.; Klass, E.

    1982-01-01

    Aleutian Islands and Bristol Bay. However, within some species there were exceptions to this general pattern, and mean concentrations of most chemicals differed from one site to another within the same region.Among eggs of species collected in two or more regions, residue frequencies were highest in those of the fork-tailed storm-petrel, tufted puffin (Lunda cirrhata), horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata), pelagic cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), and northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), and lowest in those of common murre (Uria aalge), black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), and thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia).On a regional basis, mean concentrations of DDE and PCB's varied significantly among species, but there were few consistent patterns of species differences, except that levels of DDE were always lowest in black-legged kittiwakes and concentrations of PCB's were usually lowest in murres. Also, concentrations of both chemicals (except PCB's in the Gulf of Alaska) were usually higher in northern fulmars than in other species, and the highest concentrations of both DDE and PCB's found in this study were in glaucous-winged gulls in the Aleutian Islands.

  16. Residual contact restraints in cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretegny, J. F.; Demonicault, J. M.

    The use of residual stress measurements to evaluate the state of cryogenic turbomachines, whose surfaces are worn by the working conductions in dry contact, is addressed. Their contribution to the understanding of the reasons of possible ruptures is considered. It is stated that residual stress measurements should be used as a complementary tool rather than as input data for models. It is shown, thanks to two examples concerning the ball bearings and splines of the liquid hydrogen turbopump of the Vulcain engine, what can be expected from such techniques. Total exploitation of the results has still to be done, but preliminary results are quite encouraging.

  17. Pesticide residues in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Lentza-Rizos, C; Avramides, E J

    1995-01-01

    The attacks of pests and diseases and the presence of weeds make it necessary to apply pesticides to olive trees to ensure crop protection. Residues of these compounds may remain and contaminate the oil produced. For the analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil, the most common methods are multiresidue methods for fatty substrates, based on partitioning between hexane or light petroleum and acetonitrile. Recently, other methods have been applied, such as ready-to-use, disposable minicolumns or direct injection of oil into a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a precolumn with an oil recovery tank. Although several pesticides are registered in oil-producing countries for use on olive trees, available literature on the level and fate of residues is very limited. However, it is clear that fat-soluble pesticides tend to concentrate in the oil, both after full coverage and bait spraying, and their use close to harvest should therefore be avoided. Because it is sometimes necessary to use such pesticides late in autumn because of their effectiveness in cases of severe attack, residue trials should be carried out to determine the residue concentration in oil and to set a reasonable preharvest safety interval. Data produced by such trials would permit the establishment of MRLs (tolerances) in olive oil to cover cases where the residues, although relatively high, are not of toxicological significance for consumers (risk assessment). Such is the case with corn oil and the fat-soluble insecticide methyl pirimiphos, registered in the U.S. for use on corn. The U.S. EPA tolerance for methyl pirimiphos in corn is 8 mg/kg, whereas it is 11 times higher (88 mg/kg) for corn oil because it is known to concentrate in the oil. Similar provisions for olive oil, based on data from residue trials according to Good Agricultural Practice, the long-term toxicity of each pesticide as expressed by its ADI for man, and olive oil consumption patterns, would facilitate international trade

  18. Dissipation of flubendiamide residues in/on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, M; Banerjee, Hemanta

    2013-02-01

    Residues of fubendiamide and its metabolite desiodo flubendiamide were estimated in cabbage and soil using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-vis detector. The initial deposits of flubendiamide residues on cabbage were found to be 0.16 and 0.31 μg g(-1) following two applications of flubendiamide 20 WG at 12.5 (standard dose) and 25 (double dose) g a.i. ha(-1) respectively at 10-days interval. The half-life values (t(1/2)) of flubendiamide on cabbage ranged from 3.4 to 3.6 days. When flubendiamide applied at both the standard and double dose, no detectable residues were found in cabbage and soil at harvest. Thus, a waiting period of 1.63 days was suggested for the safe consumption of flubendiamide-treated cabbage. These data could provide guidance for the proper and safe use of this pesticide on cabbage crops in India.

  19. Dissipation of residues of mancozeb and metalaxyl in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Rani, Ritu; Sharma, Vineet K; Rattan, G S; Singh, Balwinder; Sharma, Neeraj

    2013-02-01

    Dissipation of mancozeb and metalaxyl in tomato was estimated following four applications of a combination formulation Ridomil MZ (mancozeb 64% + metalaxyl 8%) at 0.25 and 0.50% at 10 days interval by carbon disulphide evolution method and gas liquid chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous detector, respectively. Half-life periods for mancozeb were 3.76 and 4.14 days, whereas for metalaxyl these values were 1.29 and 0.41 days at single and double the application rates, respectively. Residues of mancozeb dissipated below limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.25 mg kg(-1) after 10 and 15 days at single and double the application dosage, respectively. Similarly, residues of metalaxyl took 3 and 5 days to reach LOQ of 0.02 mg kg(-1), at single and double dosages, respectively.

  20. Collection of sugarcane crop residue for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

    1982-12-01

    Crop residue left after sugarcane harvesting was recovered using a forage harvester and a large round baler. The quantity, bulk density and moisture content of the crop residue was determined in four fields. Crop residue from 7 ha was burned in boilers at a sugar mill. Samples of this residue were tested by a laboratory and compared to sugarcane bagasse.

  1. Residual Structures in Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2010-01-01

    Several alternatives are available for specifying the residual structure in latent growth curve modeling. Two specifications involve uncorrelated residuals and represent the most commonly used residual structures. The first, building on repeated measures analysis of variance and common specifications in multilevel models, forces residual variances…

  2. A Biochemical Double Slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kominis, Iannis

    2011-03-01

    Radical-ion-pair reactions, fundamental in photosynthesis and at the basis of the avian magnetic compass mechanism, have been recently shown to offer a rich playground for applying methods and concepts from quantum measurement/quantum information science. We will demonstrate that radical-ion-pair reactions are almost the exact analog of the optical double slit experiment, i.e. Nature has already engineered biochemical reactions performing the act of quantum interference. We will further elaborate on the non-trivial quantum effects pertaining in these reactions and the recent debate on their fundamental theoretical description that these effects have sparked.

  3. Double-pulse standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for versatile hazardous materials detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Jennifer L.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Munson, Chase A.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a double-pulse standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (ST-LIBS) system capable of detecting a variety of hazardous materials at tens of meters. The use of a double-pulse laser improves the sensitivity and selectivity of ST-LIBS, especially for the detection of energetic materials. In addition to various metallic and plastic materials, the system has been used to detect bulk explosives RDX and Composition-B, explosive residues, biological species such as the anthrax surrogate Bacillus subtilis, and chemical warfare simulants at 20 m. We have also demonstrated the discrimination of explosive residues from various interferents on an aluminum substrate.

  4. Synthesis and properties of double-stranded antisense oligonucleotides connected with a pentaerythritol linker.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Aya; Ueno, Yoshihito; Matsuda, Akira; Kitade, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and properties of double-stranded antisense oligonucleotides connected with a pentaerythritol linker. We found that double-stranded antisense oligonucleotides with aminomethyl residues have high affinity for single-stranded DNA or RNA in buffer solutions both with and without MgCl(2). Thus, these oligonucleotides would be useful as antisense oligonucleotides for targeting single-stranded RNA through triplex formation.

  5. Choosing forest residues management alternatives.

    Treesearch

    John M. Pierovich; Richard C. Smith

    1973-01-01

    Forest residues management involves disposal, modification, or utilization of wood products. The costs and benefits of the several alternatives available to forest managers must be evaluated in relation to land management goals and constraints in four areas: (1) unused wood fiber, (2) conflagrations, (3) impairment of forest resources, and (4) opposition to treatment...

  6. Residual Stresses in Ground Steels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-13

    stress near the surface can be lower. The level of residual stress is also strongly affected by carbon,’3 which influences the microplastic behaviour of...1966, Vol. 14, 99-104. 14. C. 3. )4cMahon: “ Microplastic Behaviour in Iron” in Mv. in Mater . S d . Res., Vol. 2, 121-140, Interscience, New York

  7. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, E.; Rayner, S.

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  8. Potential hazards of fumigant residues.

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, L

    1976-01-01

    A spectrum of fumigants (primarily ethylene dibromide, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, ethylene oxide, symdibromotetetrachloroethane, 1,3-dichloropropene, dichlorovos, carbon tetrachloride, methyl bromide) as well as their degradation products in foodstuffs and soil have been examined mainly in regard to the potential mutagenicity of their residues. PMID:789068

  9. Double Eclipsing Binary Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagas, P.; Pejcha, O.

    2012-06-01

    The parameters of the mutual orbit of eclipsing binaries that are physically connected can be obtained by precision timing of minima over time through light travel time effect, apsidal motion or orbital precession. This, however, requires joint analysis of data from different sources obtained through various techniques and with insufficiently quantified uncertainties. In particular, photometric uncertainties are often underestimated, which yields too small uncertainties in minima timings if determined through analysis of a χ2 surface. The task is even more difficult for double eclipsing binaries, especially those with periods close to a resonance such as CzeV344, where minima get often blended with each other. This code solves the double binary parameters simultaneously and then uses these parameters to determine minima timings (or more specifically O-C values) for individual datasets. In both cases, the uncertainties (or more precisely confidence intervals) are determined through bootstrap resampling of the original data. This procedure to a large extent alleviates the common problem with underestimated photometric uncertainties and provides a check on possible degeneracies in the parameters and the stability of the results. While there are shortcomings to this method as well when compared to Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, the ease of the implementation of bootstrapping is a significant advantage.

  10. Doubling an investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2004-01-01

    We study the issue of optimal long-term portfolio management in continuous time multi-asset financial markets. Rather than following the abstract notion of ‘utility’ and its implied paradigm of ‘maximization of expected utility’ we suggest a different approach: The investor sets a goal-such as reaching a desired fortune level, or doubling the initial investment-and then operates to minimize the expected time-to-goal, i.e., achieving the goal as quick as possible. We assume the ‘standard model’ of multi-asset financial markets where assets are governed by correlated Geometric Brownian motion dynamics, and study optimality under the criteria of ‘minimization of the expected time-to-goal’. We explicitly compute: (i) the optimal holding strategies; (ii) the dynamics and behavior of the optimal investment portfolios; and, (iii) the statistics-mean, variance, and Laplace transform-of the time-to-goal (under the optimal investment strategy). Also, an investment paradox arising in this context-in which some portfolios have exponential mean growth but have a positive probability of never doubling their initial value-is discussed and explained.

  11. Firewalls from double purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2013-10-01

    The firewall paradox is often presented as arising from double entanglement, but I argue that more generally the paradox is double purity. Near-horizon modes are purified by the interior, in the infalling vacuum. Hence, they cannot also be pure alone, or in combination with any third system, as demanded by unitarity. This conflict arises independently of the Page time, for entangled and for pure states. It implies that identifications of Hilbert spaces cannot resolve the paradox. Traditional complementarity requires the unitary identification of infalling matter with a scrambled subsystem of the Hawking radiation. Extending this map to the infalling vacuum overdetermines the out-state. More general complementarity maps (“A=RB,” “ER=EPR”) necessarily fail when the near-horizon zone is pure. I argue that pure-zone states span the microcanonical ensemble, and that this suffices to make the horizon a special place. I advocate that the ability to detect the horizon locally, rather than the degree or probability of violence, is what makes firewalls problematic. Conversely, if the production of matter at the horizon can be dynamically understood and shown to be consistent, then firewalls do not constitute a violation of the equivalence principle.

  12. Comparing the additive composition of smokeless gunpowder and its handgun-fired residues.

    PubMed

    Reardon, M R; MacCrehan, W A; Rowe, W F

    2000-11-01

    Detecting the use of handguns via the determination of the organic additives in smokeless gunpowder residues (OGSR) presents a promising alternative to primer metal residue analysis. Compositional analysis of the gunpowder additives nitroglycerin, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite provides information that can associate residue samples with unfired gunpowder. We evaluated the composition of seven reloading smokeless gunpowders, both in bulk and as single particles, by ultrasonic solvent extraction/capillary electrophoresis. Handgun-fired residues obtained from three common weapon calibers loaded with the known reloading powders were compared with the unfired powders. In general, the composition of the residues was similar to that found in the unfired powders. For double-base powders, comparing the ratio of the propellant (P) to the total amount of stabilizer (S) for both residue and gunpowder samples proved to be a useful measurement for identification. This P/S ratio demonstrated that the additives in the residues did not greatly change relative to the unfired powder, providing a useful indicator to aid in forensic powder and residue evaluation.

  13. Fatty Acid Structure and Degradation Analysis in Fingerprint Residues.

    PubMed

    Pleik, Stefanie; Spengler, Bernhard; Schäfer, Thomas; Urbach, Dieter; Luhn, Steven; Kirsch, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    GC-MS investigations were carried out to elucidate the aging behavior of unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues and to identify their degradation products in aged samples. For this purpose, a new sample preparation technique for fingerprint residues was developed that allows producing N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) derivatives of the analyzed unsaturated fatty acids and their degradation products. MSTFA derivatization catalyzed by iodotrimethylsilane enables the reliable identification of aldehydes and oxoacids as characteristic MSTFA derivatives in GCMS. The obtained results elucidate the degradation pathway of unsaturated fatty acids. Our study of aged fingerprint residues reveals that decanal is the main degradation product of the observed unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, oxoacids with different chain lengths are detected as specific degradation products of the unsaturated fatty acids. The detection of the degradation products and their chain length is a simple and effective method to determine the double bond position in unsaturated compounds. We can show that the hexadecenoic and octadecenoic acids found in fingerprint residues are not the pervasive fatty acids Δ9-hexadecenoic (palmitoleic acid) and Δ9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) acid but Δ6-hexadecenoic acid (sapienic acid) and Δ8-octadecenoic acid. The present study focuses on the structure identification of human sebum-specific unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues based on the identification of their degradation products. These results are discussed for further investigations and method developments for age determination of fingerprints, which is still a tremendous challenge because of several factors affecting the aging behavior of individual compounds in fingerprints. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Fatty Acid Structure and Degradation Analysis in Fingerprint Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleik, Stefanie; Spengler, Bernhard; Schäfer, Thomas; Urbach, Dieter; Luhn, Steven; Kirsch, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    GC-MS investigations were carried out to elucidate the aging behavior of unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues and to identify their degradation products in aged samples. For this purpose, a new sample preparation technique for fingerprint residues was developed that allows producing N-methyl- N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) derivatives of the analyzed unsaturated fatty acids and their degradation products. MSTFA derivatization catalyzed by iodotrimethylsilane enables the reliable identification of aldehydes and oxoacids as characteristic MSTFA derivatives in GCMS. The obtained results elucidate the degradation pathway of unsaturated fatty acids. Our study of aged fingerprint residues reveals that decanal is the main degradation product of the observed unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, oxoacids with different chain lengths are detected as specific degradation products of the unsaturated fatty acids. The detection of the degradation products and their chain length is a simple and effective method to determine the double bond position in unsaturated compounds. We can show that the hexadecenoic and octadecenoic acids found in fingerprint residues are not the pervasive fatty acids Δ9-hexadecenoic (palmitoleic acid) and Δ9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) acid but Δ6-hexadecenoic acid (sapienic acid) and Δ8-octadecenoic acid. The present study focuses on the structure identification of human sebum-specific unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues based on the identification of their degradation products. These results are discussed for further investigations and method developments for age determination of fingerprints, which is still a tremendous challenge because of several factors affecting the aging behavior of individual compounds in fingerprints.

  15. Colored Flag by Double Refraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Describes various demonstrations that illustrate double refraction and rotation of the plane of polarization in stressed, transparent plastics, with the consequent production of colored designs. (ZWH)

  16. Colored Flag by Double Refraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Describes various demonstrations that illustrate double refraction and rotation of the plane of polarization in stressed, transparent plastics, with the consequent production of colored designs. (ZWH)

  17. Apple Valley Double Star Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The High Desert Astronomical Society hosts an annual double star workshop, where participants measure the position angles and separations of double stars. Following the New Generation Science Standards (NGSS), adopted by the California State Board of Education, participants are assigned to teams where they learn the process of telescope set-up and operation, the gathering of data, and the reduction of the data. Team results are compared to the latest epoch listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) and papers are written for publication in the Journal of Double Star Observations (JDSO). Each team presents a PowerPoint presentation to their peers about actual hands-on astronomical research.

  18. Double integrated laser interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motyka, Zbigniew

    2003-10-01

    The layout of integrated optical system compromising the basis of proposed solution of double laser interferometer composed of two integrated Michelson's interferometers is presented and shortly discussed. Such an integrated system is designed for work with two lasers of different wavelength. It may serve for mapping surfaces and deformations of objects under investigation with the use of simultaneous recording of two mutually orthogonal gratings, each one composed of equidistant, parallel interference fringes projected onto the surface of such an object. The picture resulting two-coloured is recorded with the digital camera and may be used for obtaining these maps and deformations directly or in the indirect way after suitable digital processing applied to each colour component separately.

  19. Double beta decay: Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brofferio, Chiara

    2008-11-01

    Calorimeters or, with a more specific definition, low temperature detectors, have been used by now for more than 15 years in Double Beta Decay (DBD) searches, with excellent results: they compete with Ge diodes for the rank of detectors with the highest sensitivity to the effective neutrino mass, which is defined as a linear combination of the neutrino mass eigenvalues. After a brief introduction to the argument, with some notes on DBD and on bolometers, an update on the now closed experiment CUORICINO and on its successor, CUORE, is given. The fundamental role of background is then revealed and commented, introducing in this way the importance of the specific experiment now under construction, CUORE-0, that will precede CUORE to help optimizing the struggle against surface background. The possible future of this technique is then commented, quoting important R&D studies that are going on, for active shielding bolometers and for scintillating bolometers coupled with light detecting bolometers.

  20. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2007-06-01

    The recent results showing the presence of neutrino oscillations clearly indicate that the difference between the squared mass of neutrinos of different flavors is different from zero, but are unable to determine the nature and the absolute value of the neutrino mass. Neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) is at present the most powerful tool to ascertain if the neutrino is a Majorana particle and to determine under this condition the absolute value of its mass. The results already obtained in this lepton violating process will be reported and the two presently running DBD experiments briefly discussed. The future second generation experiments will be reviewed with special emphasis to those already partially approved. In conclusion the peculiar and interdisciplinary nature of these searches will be stressed in their exciting aim to discover if neutrino is Dirac or Majorana particle.

  1. Catalytic combustion of residual fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

  2. Limits of adaptation, residual interferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokry, Miroslav (Editor); Erickson, J. C., Jr.; Goodyer, Michael J.; Mignosi, Andre; Russo, Giuseppe P.; Smith, J.; Wedemeyer, Erich H.; Newman, Perry A.

    1990-01-01

    Methods of determining linear residual wall interference appear to be well established theoretically; however they need to be validated, for example by comparative studies of test data on the same model in different adaptive-wall wind tunnels as well as in passive, ventilated-wall tunnels. The GARTEur CAST 7 and the CAST 10/DOA 2 investigations are excellent examples of such comparative studies. Results to date in both one-variable and two-variable methods for nonlinear wall interference indicate that a great deal more research and validation are required. The status in 2D flow is advanced over that in 3D flow as is the case generally with adaptive-wall development. Nevertheless, it is now well established that for transonic testing with extensive supercritical flow present, significant wall interference is likely to exist in conventional ventilated test sections. Consequently, residual correction procedures require further development hand-in-hand with further adaptive-wall development.

  3. 40 CFR 180.185 - DCPA; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances for the combined residues of the herbicide dimethyl... residues of the herbicide dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA) and its metabolites monomethyl... residues. Tolerances are established for the combined indirect or inadvertent residues of the...

  4. 40 CFR 180.185 - DCPA; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances for the combined residues of the herbicide dimethyl... residues of the herbicide dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA) and its metabolites monomethyl... residues. Tolerances are established for the combined indirect or inadvertent residues of the...

  5. 40 CFR 180.185 - DCPA; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances for the combined residues of the herbicide dimethyl... residues of the herbicide dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA) and its metabolites monomethyl... residues. Tolerances are established for the combined indirect or inadvertent residues of the...

  6. 40 CFR 180.185 - DCPA; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances for the combined residues of the herbicide dimethyl... residues of the herbicide dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA) and its metabolites monomethyl... residues. Tolerances are established for the combined indirect or inadvertent residues of the...

  7. 40 CFR 180.185 - DCPA; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances for the combined residues of the herbicide dimethyl... residues of the herbicide dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA) and its metabolites monomethyl... residues. Tolerances are established for the combined indirect or inadvertent residues of the...

  8. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O`Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination.

  9. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  10. Pesticidal residues in animal tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.; Menzie, C.M.; Adomaitis, V.A.; Reichel, W.L.

    1960-01-01

    Tests with penned starlings, rats, pheasants, and ducks indicated that each species differs in sensitivity to the various pesticides. Residues in tissues are proportional to the degree of exposure during area treatment and they are also found in animals shot six or more months after treatment. The presence of more than 20-30 ppm of DDT, 20 ppm of chlordan, and 6-20 ppm of heptachlor epoxide in quail tissues indicated that the birds had ingested lethal dosages of the pesticides.

  11. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  12. A New Methodology For In-Situ Residual Stress Measurement In MEMS Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastiani, M.; Bemporad, E.; Melone, G.; Rizzi, L.; Korsunsky, A. M.

    2010-11-24

    In this paper, a new approach is presented for local residual stress measurement in MEMS structures. The newly proposed approach involves incremental focused ion beam (FIB) milling of annular trenches at material surface, combined with high resolution SEM imaging and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) analysis for the measurement of the strain relief over the surface of the remaining central pillar. The proposed technique allows investigating the average residual stress on suspended micro-structures, with a spatial resolution lower than 1 {mu}m. Results are presented for residual stress measurement on double clamped micro-beams, whose layers are obtained by DC-sputtering (PVD) deposition. Residual stresses were also independently measured by the conventional curvature method (Stoney's equation) on a similar homogeneous coating obtained by the same deposition parameters and a comparison and discussion of obtained results is performed.

  13. A New Methodology For In-Situ Residual Stress Measurement In MEMS Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastiani, M.; Bemporad, E.; Melone, G.; Rizzi, L.; Korsunsky, A. M.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, a new approach is presented for local residual stress measurement in MEMS structures. The newly proposed approach involves incremental focused ion beam (FIB) milling of annular trenches at material surface, combined with high resolution SEM imaging and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) analysis for the measurement of the strain relief over the surface of the remaining central pillar. The proposed technique allows investigating the average residual stress on suspended micro-structures, with a spatial resolution lower than 1 μm. Results are presented for residual stress measurement on double clamped micro-beams, whose layers are obtained by DC-sputtering (PVD) deposition. Residual stresses were also independently measured by the conventional curvature method (Stoney's equation) on a similar homogeneous coating obtained by the same deposition parameters and a comparison and discussion of obtained results is performed.

  14. Geotechnical characteristics of residual soils

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    Residual soils are products of chemical weathering and thus their characteristics are dependent upon environmental factors of climate, parent material, topography and drainage, and age. These conditions are optimized in the tropics where well-drained regions produce reddish lateritic soils rich in iron and aluminum sesquioxides and kaolinitic clays. Conversely, poorly drained areas tend towards montmorillonitic expansive black clays. Andosols develop over volcanic ash and rock regions and are rich in allophane (amorphous silica) and metastable halloysite. The geological origins greatly affect the resulting engineering characteristics. Both lateritic soils and andosols are susceptible to property changes upon drying, and exhibit compaction and strength properties not indicative of their classification limits. Both soils have been used successfully in earth dam construction, but attention must be given to seepage control through the weathered rock. Conversely, black soils are unpopular for embankments. Lateritic soils respond to cement stabilization and, in some cases, lime stabilization. Andosols should also respond to lime treatment and cement treatments if proper mixing can be achieved. Black expansive residual soils respond to lime treatment by demonstrating strength gains and decreased expansiveness. Rainfall induced landslides are typical of residual soil deposits.

  15. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained <500 ppM americium and <2500 ppM magnesium. The process operates by sorbing PuCl/sub 6//sup 2 -/ from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO/sub 3/-4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO/sub 3/ precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed.

  16. Comprehensive analysis of surface charged residues involved in thermal stability in Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius esterase 2.

    PubMed

    Pezzullo, Margherita; Del Vecchio, Pompea; Mandrich, Luigi; Nucci, Roberto; Rossi, Mosè; Manco, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Here we report a comprehensive analysis through alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the contribution of surface ion pairs to the thermal stability of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius esterase 2 (EST2). We produced 16 single mutants, 4 double mutants corresponding to selected ion pairs R31/E118, E43/K102, R58/D130, D145/R148, 2 double mutants (R63A/R98A and E50A/D94A) involving residues of a large ion network on the protein surface and the double-mutant R98A/R148A meant to disrupt the R98 interactions within the said network and, contextually, the interaction between R148 and D145. The double-mutant E43A/E273K was obtained by chance. All selected residues were replaced with alanine except E91, which was mutated to a glycine and K102, which was changed to a glutamine. All 24 proteins were over-expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized with respect to the main features. Structural stability data were compared with an in silico prediction of ΔΔG values. Our study of the individual factors involved in thermostability and their structural interpretation reveals that the great stability of this thermophilic protein can be explained by the contribution of a few residues at the protein surface.

  17. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  18. New Galactic Double Periodic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennickent, R. E.; Rosales, J.

    2014-10-01

    We discovered two new Double Periodic Variables in the ASAS catalogue of variable stars, viz., V495 Cen and V4142 Sgr. Other 3 candidates for Double Periodic Variables were found. All systems have relatively long orbital periods. We present improved ephemerides and disentangled light curves.

  19. Empirically Unbinding the Double Bind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, David H.

    The theoretical concept of the double bind and the possibilities for researching it are discussed. The author has observed that theory and research, which should be reciprocal and mutually beneficial, have been working, as concerns the double bind, at odds with one another. Two approaches to empirically investigating the concept are considered via…

  20. Residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film tunable dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, L. M. Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Lam, P.; Harris, D.; Maria, J.-P.

    2014-07-28

    Loss reduction is critical to develop Ba{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} thin film tunable microwave dielectric components and dielectric energy storage devices. The presence of ferroelectricity, and hence the domain wall contributions to dielectric loss, will degrade the tunable performance in the microwave region. In this work, residual ferroelectricity—a persistent ferroelectric response above the global phase transition temperature—was characterized in tunable dielectrics using Rayleigh analysis. Chemical solution deposited Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} films, with relative tunabilities of 86% over 250 kV/cm at 100 kHz, demonstrated residual ferroelectricity 65 °C above the ostensible paraelectric transition temperature. Frequency dispersion observed in the dielectric temperature response was consistent with the presence of nanopolar regions as one source of residual ferroelectricity. The application of AC electric field for the Rayleigh analysis of these samples led to a doubling of the dielectric loss for fields over 10 kV/cm at room temperature.

  1. PESTICIDE RESIDUE RECOVERIES FROM SURFACE WIPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure is a consequence of pesticide use indoors with a primary source resulting from residue deposition on household surfaces. Accurate measurements of surface residues is essential for estimating exposure from different routes. Various procedures have been developed ...

  2. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers....

  3. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers....

  4. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers....

  5. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers....

  6. 48 CFR 1850.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Residual powers. 1850.104 Section 1850.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... 1850.104 Residual powers....

  7. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers....

  8. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers....

  9. 48 CFR 1850.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Residual powers. 1850.104 Section 1850.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... 1850.104 Residual powers....

  10. 48 CFR 1850.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Residual powers. 1850.104 Section 1850.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... 1850.104 Residual powers....

  11. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers....

  12. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers....

  13. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers....

  14. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers....

  15. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  16. PESTICIDE RESIDUE RECOVERIES FROM SURFACE WIPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure is a consequence of pesticide use indoors with a primary source resulting from residue deposition on household surfaces. Accurate measurements of surface residues is essential for estimating exposure from different routes. Various procedures have been developed ...

  17. Double valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Stassano, Paolo; Mannacio, Vito; Musumeci, Antonino; Golino, Alessandro; Maida, Piero; Ferrigno, Vincenzo; Buonocore, Gaetano; Spampinato, Nicola

    1991-01-01

    From January 1976 through December 1987, 194 patients with a mean age of 43.3 ± 13.7 years (range, 11 to 74 years) underwent double (mitral and aortic) replacement of native valves with 8 types of bioprostheses: Carpentier-Edwards, 127 valves; Hancock, 76 valves; Liotta-Bioimplant, 57 valves; Ionescu-Shiley, 53 valves; Vascor, 27 valves; Carpentier-Edwards Pericardial, 22 valves; Angell-Shiley, 20 valves; and Implamedic, 6 valves. Concomitant cardiac procedures were performed in 25 patients (12.8%). There were 18 operative deaths (9.27%). Our retrospective analysis was restricted to 352 bioprostheses implanted in the 176 patients who survived surgery and were considered at risk for valve tissue failure. The overall cumulative duration of follow-up was 1,174.1 patient-years (range, 1 to 13 years). The durations of follow-up for specific valves were: Carpentier-Edwards, 920.2 valve-years; Hancock, 383.8 valve-years; Liotta-Bioimplant, 310.2 valve-years; Ionescu-Shiley, 357.7 valve-years; Vascor, 131.2 valve-years; Carpentier-Edwards Pericardial, 52.0 valve-years; Angell-Shiley, 167.0 valve-years; and Implamedic, 31.0 valve-years. Thirty patients had thromboembolic accidents, for a linearized incidence of 2.5% per patient-year. At 13 years, the actuarial freedom from thromboembolic accidents was 85.8% ± 10.7%. Nine patients had endocarditis, for a linearized incidence of 0.7% per patient-year. At 13 years, the actuarial freedom from endocarditis was 92.0% ± 1.5%. Twenty-four patients had valve tissue failure, for a cumulative linearized incidence of 1.87% per valve-year. The cumulative actuarial probability of freedom from valve tissue failure was 78.6% ± 3.7% at 10 years and 51.2% ± 10.7% at 13 years. The 24 patients with valve tissue failure all underwent reoperation: 20 of these had double valve replacement, 3 had aortic valve replacement alone, and 1 had mitral valve replacement alone. The mean interval between initial valve implantation and reoperation was

  18. The Visual Double Star Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.

    2015-08-01

    In visual double star work, production of the first comprehensive attempt to list all discovered pairs in his accessible sky was prepared by S.W. Burnham in 1906. A double star catalog for the southern hemisphere was prepared by R.T.A. Innes et al. in 1927 and the northern hemisphere catalog was updated by R.G. Aitken and E. Doolittle in 1932. Eventually, this led to Lick Observatory maintaining what became known as the Index Catalogue, an all-sky visual double star database.In 1964, under the aegis of Commission 26, the Lick double star database was transferred to the U.S. Naval Observatory where it was redesignated the Washington Double Star Catalog where it and it's ancillary catalogs, have been maintained for over half a century. The current statistics of the catalog and it's supplements are presented as are the enhancements currently under consideration.

  19. Theory of nonmonotonic double layers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.Y.

    1987-12-01

    A simple graphic method of solving the Vlasov--Poisson system associated with nonlinear eigenvalue conditions for arbitrary potential structures is presented. A general analytic formulation for nonmonotonic double layers is presented and illustrated with some particular closed form solutions. This class of double layers satisfies the time stationary Vlasov--Poisson system while requiring a Sagdeev potential, which is a double-valued function of the physical potential. It follows that any distribution function having a density representation as any integer or noninteger power series of potential can never satisfy the nonmonotonic double-layer boundary conditions. A Korteweg--de Vries-like equation is found showing a relationship among the speed of the nonmonotonic double layer, its scale length, and its degree of asymmetry.

  20. Laser double Doppler flowmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poffo, L.; Goujon, J.-M.; Le Page, R.; Lemaitre, J.; Guendouz, M.; Lorrain, N.; Bosc, D.

    2014-05-01

    The Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a non-invasive method for estimating the tissular blood flow and speed at a microscopic scale (microcirculation). It is used for medical research as well as for the diagnosis of diseases related to circulatory system tissues and organs including the issues of microvascular flow (perfusion). It is based on the Doppler effect, created by the interaction between the laser light and tissues. LDF measures the mean blood flow in a volume formed by the single laser beam, that penetrate into the skin. The size of this measurement volume is crucial and depends on skin absorption, and is not directly reachable. Therefore, current developments of the LDF are focused on the use of always more complex and sophisticated signal processing methods. On the other hand, laser Double Doppler Flowmeter (FL2D) proposes to use two laser beams to generate the measurement volume. This volume would be perfectly stable and localized at the intersection of the two laser beams. With FL2D we will be able to determine the absolute blood flow of a specific artery. One aimed application would be to help clinical physicians in health care units.

  1. Double acting bit holder

    DOEpatents

    Morrell, Roger J.; Larson, David A.; Ruzzi, Peter L.

    1994-01-01

    A double acting bit holder that permits bits held in it to be resharpened during cutting action to increase energy efficiency by reducing the amount of small chips produced. The holder consist of: a stationary base portion capable of being fixed to a cutter head of an excavation machine and having an integral extension therefrom with a bore hole therethrough to accommodate a pin shaft; a movable portion coextensive with the base having a pin shaft integrally extending therefrom that is insertable in the bore hole of the base member to permit the moveable portion to rotate about the axis of the pin shaft; a recess in the movable portion of the holder to accommodate a shank of a bit; and a biased spring disposed in adjoining openings in the base and moveable portions of the holder to permit the moveable portion to pivot around the pin shaft during cutting action of a bit fixed in a turret to allow front, mid and back positions of the bit during cutting to lessen creation of small chip amounts and resharpen the bit during excavation use.

  2. Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2010-12-01

    Almost exactly seventy years ago and only one year before his tragic disappearance the ingenious idea of Ettore Majorana is becoming one of the most important step in the development of fundamental physics. The problem of the nature of the neutrino, namely if it is a massless Dirac particle different from its antineutrino or a Majorana particle with finite mass, is discussed. In fact the recent results showing the presence of neutrino oscillations clearly indicates that the difference between the squared mass of neutrinos of different flavours is finite. Neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) is at present the most powerful tool to determine the effective value of the mass of a Majorana neutrino. The results already obtained in this lepton violating process will be reported and the two presently running DBD experiments briefly discussed. The future second generation experiments will be reviewed with special emphasis to those already at least partially approved. In conclusion the peculiar and interdisciplinary nature of these searches will be stressed in their exciting aim to discover if neutrino is indeed a Majorana particle.

  3. Double Diffusive Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Bruce; Lee, Brace

    2008-11-01

    Sour gas flares attempt to dispose of deadly H2S gas through combustion. What does not burn rises as a buoyant plume. But the gas is heavier than air at room temperature, so as the rising gas cools eventually it becomes negatively buoyant and descends back to the ground. Ultimately, our intent is to predict the concentrations of the gas at ground level in realistic atmospheric conditions. As a first step towards this goal we have performed laboratory experiments examining the structure of a steady state plume of hot and salty water that rises buoyantly near the source and descends as a fountain after it has cooled sufficiently. We call this a double-diffusive plume because its evolution is dictated by the different (turbulent) diffusivities of heat and salt. A temperature and conductivity probe measures both the salinity and temperature along the centreline of the plume. The supposed axisymmetric structure of the salinity concentration as it changes with height is determined by light-attenuation methods. To help interpret the results, a theory has been successfully adapted from the work of Bloomfield and Kerr (2000), who developed coupled equations describing the structure of fountains. Introducing a new empirical parameter for the relative rates of turbulent heat and salt diffusion, the predictions are found to agree favourably with experimental results.

  4. Antarctic radiation exposure doubles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blue, Charles

    New data reveal that the Antarctic Peninsula received twice its normal maximum dose of hazardous solar ultraviolet radiation in December 1990. The prolonged persistence of the ozone hole over Antarctica caused an increased exposure of radiation, according to a paper published in the October issue of Geophysical Research Letters.John Frederick and Amy D. Alberts of the University of Chicago calculated the amount of ultraviolet solar spectral radiation from data collected at Palmer Station, Antarctica. During the spring of 1990 the largest observed values for ultraviolet radiation were approximately double the values expected, based on previous years. “The measurements from Palmer Station are consistent with similar data from McMurdo Sound, where a factor of three [ultraviolet radiation] enhancement was recorded, according to work by Knut Stamnes and colleagues at the University of Alaska,” Frederick said. “The radiation levels observed over Palmer Station in December 1990 may be the largest experienced in this region of the world since the development of the Earth's ozone layer,” he added.

  5. Persistence and effect of processing on reduction of chlorpyriphos residues in okra fruits.

    PubMed

    Samriti; Chauhan, Reena; Kumari, Beena

    2011-08-01

    Residue levels of chlorpyriphos were determined in unprocessed and processed okra fruits to evaluate the effect of different processes (washing and washing followed by boiling/cooking) on reduction of residues of this pesticide in okra. The study was carried out on okra crop (Variety, Varsha Uphar) in research farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar with application of chlorpyriphos (Radar 20 EC) at 200 g a.i./ha and 400g a.i./ha (Single Dose, T(1)) and 400 g a.i./ha (Double Dose, T(2)). Samples of okra fruits were collected on 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 days and at harvest after treatment. Residues were estimated by GC-ECD system and reached BDL of 0.010 mg kg(-1) on 7th and 15th day in case of single and double dose, respectively. The residues dissipated with half-life period of 3.15 days at lower dose and 3.46 days at higher dose following biphasic first order kinetics. Processing was found very effective in reducing the levels of chlorpyriphos residues in okra fruits. Maximum reduction (64-77%) was observed by washing + boiling followed by washing (13-35%).

  6. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  7. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic effects. The purpose is to develop PCB critical residue values for fish, mammals and birds, especially as these relate to aquatic and aquatic-dependent species.

  9. 48 CFR 50.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Residual powers. 50.104... EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 50.104 Residual powers. This section prescribes standards and procedures for exercising residual powers under Pub. L....

  10. 48 CFR 50.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 50.104... EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 50.104 Residual powers. This section prescribes standards and procedures for exercising residual powers under Pub. L....

  11. 48 CFR 50.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Residual powers. 50.104... EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 50.104 Residual powers. This section prescribes standards and procedures for exercising residual powers under Pub. L....

  12. 48 CFR 50.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Residual powers. 50.104... EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 50.104 Residual powers. This section prescribes standards and procedures for exercising residual powers under Pub. L....

  13. 48 CFR 50.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Residual powers. 50.104... EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 50.104 Residual powers. This section prescribes standards and procedures for exercising residual powers under Pub. L....

  14. Using the method of weighted residuals to compute potentials of mean force

    SciTech Connect

    Cyr, Eric C. . E-mail: ericcyr@uiuc.edu; Bond, Stephen D. . E-mail: sdbond@uiuc.edu

    2007-07-01

    We propose a general framework for approximating the potential of mean force (PMF) along a reaction coordinate in conformational space. This framework, based on the method of weighted residuals, can be viewed as a generalization of thermodynamic integration and direct histogram methods. Using weighted residuals allows for higher-order approximations to the PMF in the form of a global spectral method or a finite element method. In addition, the higher degree of continuity provided by spectral and higher-order elements makes weighted residual methods an attractive choice for use in tandem with biasing force methods. As an analysis tool, the weighted residuals framework provides a context for direct comparison of thermodynamic integration and histogram based methods. For validation of the new method, numerical experiments are performed on two systems: a simple double-well and alanine dipeptide in vacuum. Comparisons between the new weighted residual methods, thermodynamic integration, and WHAM are performed. When configuration space is perfectly sampled the high-order weighted residual methods are found to exhibit exponential convergence. For more realistic sampling, the weighted residual methods performed comparably to the other two. However, results suggest that spectral type methods are more robust with respect to parameter choices describing the solution space.

  15. Identifying molecular markers for the sensitive detection of residual atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Vu-Han, Tu-Lan; Frühwald, Michael C; Hasselblatt, Martin; Kerl, Kornelius; Nagel, Inga; Obser, Tobias; Oyen, Florian; Siebert, Reiner; Schneppenheim, Reinhard

    2014-09-01

    Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), a rare and highly malignant tumor entity of the central nervous system that presents in early childhood, has a poor prognosis. AT/RTs are characterized by biallelic inactivating mutations of the gene SMARCB1 in 98% of patients; these mutations may serve as molecular markers for residual tumor cell detection in liquid biopsies. We developed a marker-specific method to detect residual AT/RT cells. Seven of 150 patient samples were selected, each with a histological and genetically ascertained diagnosis of AT/RT. Tumor tissue was either formalin fixed or fresh frozen. DNA was extracted from the patients' peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, DNA sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to characterize the tumors' mutations. Residual tumor cell detection used mutation-specific primers and real-time PCR. The detection limit for the residual tumor cell search was 1-18%, depending on the quality of the template provided. The residual tumor cell search in PBL and CSF was negative for all seven patients. The SMARCB1 region of chromosome 22 is prone to DNA double-strand breaks. The individual breakpoints and breakpoint-specific PCR offer the option to detect minimal residual tumor cells in CSF or blood. Even if we did not detect minimal residual tumor cells in the investigated material, proof of principle for this method was confirmed.

  16. Process to recycle shredder residue

    DOEpatents

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  17. Direct and residual effects of cadmium on the growth and elemental composition of Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, T.J.; Tingey, D.; Rodecap, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the direct (first generation) and residual (second generation) phytotoxicity of a range of cadmium concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in double-container, vermiculite-hydroponic plot-culture systems. First generation plants were continuously exposed to nutrient solutions ranging from 0 to 100 micrometers CdCl/sub 2/. Biomass in the first generation plants decreased in response to nutrient solution containing increasing Cd concentrations. The 100 micrometers Cd treatment significantly reduced rosette, raceme and mature seed biomass. The progeny from the first-generation plants revealed no significant residual effects as far as growth and elemental composition are concerned.

  18. Persistence and dissipation of the insecticide flubendiamide and its metabolite desiodo flubendiamide residues in tomato fruit and soil.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, M; Banerjee, Hemanta

    2012-03-01

    A method for residue analysis of flubendiamide and its metabolite desiodo flubendiamide was developed using high performance liquid chromatography. This method was then used to evaluate the residual level and dissipation rate of flubendiamide and desiodo flubendiamide in the tomato fruit. The half-life of flubendiamide in tomato fruit was 1.64 and 1.98 days in recommended and double of the recommended dose, respectively. Tomato fruit and soil samples analyzed on the 10th day after the last spray revealed that flubendiamide and its metabolite desiodo flubendiamide residues at below determination level (0.01 μg g(-1)) at either dose of application.

  19. A Handbook of Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, Edward; Gledhill, Joseph; Wilson, James M.

    2011-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Historical, and Descriptive of Instruments and Methods: 1. Historical introduction; 2. The Equatorial: its construction and adjustments; 3. Some account of the Equatorials which have been used by double-star observers; 4. The micrometer; 5. Methods of observing double stars; Part II. On the Calculation of the Orbit of a Binary Star: 1. Introduction; 2. Example of an orbit worked by a graphical method; 3. Dr. Doberck's example of an orbit worked by analytical methods; 4. On relative rectilinear motion; 5. On the effect of proper motion and parallax on the observed position angles and distance of an optically double star; 6. On the errors of observation and the combination of observations; Part III. The Catalogue and Measures: Introductory remarks; A catalogue of binary and other double starts deserving of attention; Lists of measures, with historical notes, etc.; Supplementary list of measures; Appendix; Additional notes to measures; Binary stars classified; Note on systematic errors in the measures of angle and distance of double stars; Part IV. Bibliography: A. Some of the most important works and papers on double stars; B. Some papers on the micrometer; C. Some papers on the colours of double stars; Additional notes; Corrections 1880.

  20. Managing residual limb hyperhidrosis in wounded warriors.

    PubMed

    Pace, Sarah; Kentosh, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    Residual limb dermatologic problems are a common concern among young active traumatic amputee patients who strive to maintain an active lifestyle. Hyperhidrosis of residual limbs is a recognized inciting factor that often contributes to residual limb dermatoses and is driven by the design of the prosthetic liner covering the residual limb. Treatment of hyperhidrosis in this population presents a unique challenge. Several accepted treatments of hyperhidrosis can offer some relief but have been limited by lack of results or side-effect profiles. Microwave thermal ablation has presented an enticing potential for residual limb hyperhidrosis.

  1. Advanced double layer capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarangapani, S.; Lessner, P.; Forchione, J.; Laconti, A. B.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for large amounts of power to be delivered rapidly in a number of airborne and space systems. Conventional, portable power sources, such as batteries, are not suited to delivering high peak power pulses. The charge stored at the electrode-electrolyte double layer is, however, much more assessible on a short time scale. Devices exploiting this concept were fabricated using carbon and metal oxides (Pinnacle Research) as the electrodes and sulfuric acid as the electrolyte. The approach reported, replaces the liquid sulfuric acid electrolyte with a solid ionomer electrolyte. The challenge is to form a solid electrode-solid ionomer electrolyte composite which has a high capacitance per geometric area. The approach to maximize contact between the electrode particles and the ionomer was to impregnate the electrode particles using a liquid ionomer solution and to bond the solvent-free structure to a solid ionomer membrane. Ruthenium dioxide is the electrode material used. Three strategies are being pursued to provide for a high area electrode-ionomer contact: mixing of the RuOx with a small volume of ionomer solution followed by filtration to remove the solvent, and impregnation of the ionomer into an already formed RuOx electrode. RuOx powder and electrodes were examined by non-electrochemical techniques. X-ray diffraction has shown that the material is almost pure RuO2. The electrode structure depends on the processing technique used to introduce the Nafion. Impregnated electrodes have Nafion concentrated near the surface. Electrodes prepared by the evaporation method show large aggregates of crystals surrounded by Nafion.

  2. South Polar Residual Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This mosaic is composed of 18 Viking Orbiter images (6 each in red, green, and violet filters), acquired on September 28, 1977, during revolution 407 of Viking Orbiter 2. The south pole is located just off the lower left edge of the polar cap, and the 0 degree longitude meridian extends toward the top of the mosaic. The large crater near the right edge (named 'South') is about 100 km in diameter. These images were acquired during southern summer on Mars (Ls = 341 degrees); the sub-solar declination was 8 degrees S., and the south polar cap was nearing its final stage of retreat just prior to vernal equinox. The south residual cap is approximately 400 km across, and the exposed surface is thought to consist dominantly of carbon-dioxide frost. This is in contrast to the water-ice surface of the north polar residual cap. It is likely that water ice is present in layers that underlie the south polar cap and that comprise the surrounding layered terrains. Near the top of this image, irregular pits with sharp-rimmed cliffs appear 'etched', presumably by wind. A series of rugged mountains (extending toward the upper right corner of the image) are of unknown origin.

  3. Intercompatibility of residual fuel blends

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Asher, J.; Krenis, G.; Luria, D.

    1995-04-01

    It is a well known fact that two fuel oils, thermally stable by themselves, may produce sludge of asphaltenic nature when blended together. Settling out of asphaltenes from the fuel medium will result in strainer and burner plugging, causing serious operational difficulties in industrial and marine fuel systems. It was the aim of the present study to establish criteria for the phenomenon of incompatibility. The parameters which influence thermal stability of the blend were assessed, and an attempt was made to predict possible separation of asphaltenes from fuel oil mixtures. Fuel oils originating from Brazil, France, Hong-Kong, Greece, U.S.A., Japan as well as locally (Israel) produced residual fuels were mixed. Thermal stability of the blend was determined by ASTM D-4740 method. In some cases, total sediment was measured by ASTM D-4870. Blends of fuels were stored at 50{degrees}C to assess the effect of elevated temperatures on thermal stability. It was found that most of the blends were compatible though composed of fuels originating from different refineries. Density, Pour Point, Sulfur content and Xylene Number served as useful tools for predicting the thermal stability of residual fuel blends.

  4. RESIDUAL STRESSES IN 3013 CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-11-10

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  5. South Polar Residual Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This mosaic is composed of 18 Viking Orbiter images (6 each in red, green, and violet filters), acquired on September 28, 1977, during revolution 407 of Viking Orbiter 2. The south pole is located just off the lower left edge of the polar cap, and the 0 degree longitude meridian extends toward the top of the mosaic. The large crater near the right edge (named 'South') is about 100 km in diameter. These images were acquired during southern summer on Mars (Ls = 341 degrees); the sub-solar declination was 8 degrees S., and the south polar cap was nearing its final stage of retreat just prior to vernal equinox. The south residual cap is approximately 400 km across, and the exposed surface is thought to consist dominantly of carbon-dioxide frost. This is in contrast to the water-ice surface of the north polar residual cap. It is likely that water ice is present in layers that underlie the south polar cap and that comprise the surrounding layered terrains. Near the top of this image, irregular pits with sharp-rimmed cliffs appear 'etched', presumably by wind. A series of rugged mountains (extending toward the upper right corner of the image) are of unknown origin.

  6. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  7. Residual number processing in dyscalculia☆

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  8. Revised Backbone-Virtual-Bond-Angle Potentials to Treat the l- and d-Amino Acid Residues in the Coarse-Grained United Residue (UNRES) Force Field

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Continuing our effort to introduce d-amino-acid residues in the united residue (UNRES) force field developed in our laboratory, in this work the Cα ··· Cα ··· Cα backbone-virtual-bond-valence-angle (θ) potentials for systems containing d-amino-acid residues have been developed. The potentials were determined by integrating the combined energy surfaces of all possible triplets of terminally blocked glycine, alanine, and proline obtained with ab initio molecular quantum mechanics at the MP2/6-31G(d,p) level to calculate the corresponding potentials of mean force (PMFs). Subsequently, analytical expressions were fitted to the PMFs to give the virtual-bond-valence potentials to be used in UNRES. Alanine represented all types of amino-acid residues except glycine and proline. The blocking groups were either the N-acetyl and N′,N′-dimethyl or N-acetyl and pyrrolidyl group, depending on whether the residue next in sequence was an alanine-type or a proline residue. A total of 126 potentials (63 symmetry-unrelated potentials for each set of terminally blocking groups) were determined. Together with the torsional, double-torsional, and side-chain-rotamer potentials for polypeptide chains containing d-amino-acid residues determined in our earlier work (Sieradzan et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2012, 8, 4746), the new virtual-bond-angle (θ) potentials now constitute the complete set of physics-based potentials with which to run coarse-grained simulations of systems containing d-amino-acid residues. The ability of the extended UNRES force field to reproduce thermodynamics of polypeptide systems with d-amino-acid residues was tested by comparing the experimentally measured and the calculated free energies of helix formation of model KLALKLALxxLKLALKLA peptides, where x denotes any d- or l- amino-acid residue. The obtained results demonstrate that the UNRES force field with the new potentials reproduce the changes of free energies of helix formation upon d

  9. The Double Chooz Outer Veto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toups, Matthew

    2009-05-01

    Measuring a non-zero value for the neutrino mixing angle θ13 sets the scale for future precision measurements in the lepton sector such as CP violation. The Double Chooz experiment will begin taking data later this year with a sensitivity to 2̂(2θ13) in the 0.02 - 0.03 range, improving on the CHOOZ bound by about an order of magnitude. Efficient rejection of backgrounds induced by cosmic muons is essential to achieving this sensitivity. The Double Chooz Outer Veto plays a crucial role in vetoing and tagging these muons. An update on the status of the Double Chooz Outer Veto will be presented.

  10. Aspects of the doubled worldsheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driezen, Sibylle; Sevrin, Alexander; Thompson, Daniel C.

    2016-12-01

    We clarify the relation between various approaches to the manifestly T-duality symmetric string. We explain in detail how the PST covariant doubled string arises from an unusual gauge fixing. We pay careful attention to the role of "spectator" fields in this process and also show how the T-duality invariant doubled dilaton emerges naturally. We extend these ideas to non-Abelian T-duality and show they give rise to the duality invariant formalism based on the semi-Abelian Drinfeld Double. We then develop the N = (0, 1) supersymmetric duality invariant formalism.

  11. Residual symptoms in elderly major depression remitters.

    PubMed

    Gastó, C; Navarro, V; Catalán, R; Portella, M J; Marcos, T

    2003-07-01

    To assess residual symptoms in severe geriatric major depression in remission, and to determine baseline clinical and sociodemographic predictors of residual symptoms in remitters. A total of 108 elderly patients with unipolar major depression were evaluated and treated naturalistically for 9 months so as to record the predictors of residual symptoms in remitters. In order to reduce the likelihood of confusing residual symptoms with normal effects of age, 30 control subjects were also monitored. Seventy-nine patients (73.1%) were considered remitters and 82.3% of remitters showed residual symptoms. Medical burden, chronic stress and subjective social support were the only variables which predicted the severity of residual symptoms in remitters. Residual symptoms in elderly patients with major depression in remission should not only be attributed exclusively to intrinsic factors of the illness or the age of the individual patient, but also to external factors.

  12. An essential tyrosine residue of Aspergillus polygalacturonase.

    PubMed

    Stratilová, E; Dzúrová, M; Markovic, O; Jörnvall, H

    1996-03-11

    Based on strict conservation of a tyrosine residue in 24 polygalacturonases, tyrosine modification was assessed in two different forms of the Aspergillus enzyme. The second subform was unknown in structure but submitted to sequence analysis and was found also to have the conserved tyrosine residue. Results of chemical modifications are consistent in showing inactivation of the proteins with all tyrosine-reactive agents tested, acetic anhydride, N-acetyl imidazole, and tetranitromethane. Furthermore, after acetylation, regeneration of enzyme activity was possible with hydroxylamine. Spectrophotometric pH titration showed that one accessible tyrosine residue is ionized at pH 9.3-9.5, whereas the remaining, masked residues are all ionized at pH 10.5. It is concluded that one tyrosine residue is catalytically important, in agreement with the inactivation and reactivation data, that this residue is accessible, and that it is likely to correspond to the strictly conserved residue observed in all forms.

  13. Object tracking with double-dictionary appearance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Li; Fan, Tanghuai; Sun, Zhen; Wang, Jun; Xu, Lizhong

    2016-08-01

    Dictionary learning has previously been applied to target tracking across images in video sequences. However, most trackers that use dictionary learning neglect to make optimal use of the representation coefficients to locate the target. This increases the possibility of losing the target in the presence of similar objects, or in case occlusion or rotation occurs. We propose an effective object-tracking method based on a double-dictionary appearance model under a particle filter framework. We employ a double dictionary by training template features to represent the target. This representation not only exploits the relationship between the candidate and target but also represents the target more accurately with minimal residual. We also introduce a simple and effective strategy to update the template to reduce the influence of occlusion, rotation, and drift. Experiments on challenging sequences showed that the proposed algorithm performs favorably against the state-of-the-art methods in terms of several comparative metrics.

  14. Obtaining single path phase delays from GPS double differences

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, C.; Ware, R.; Rocken, C.; Braun, J.

    2000-07-01

    We describe a method for obtaining singlepath phase delays from GPS double differences. The resulting “zero differences” (ZDs) can be used for remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor. The method is demonstrated by simulating and observing atmospheric delay gradients, and by comparing ZDs with pointed radiometer observations of integrated water vapor along GPS ray paths. In-situ GPS antenna phase center and multipath effects are mapped in ZD residuals for a specific site and network. We conclude that ZDs derived from GPS network data show promise for real time sensing of water vapor for use in meteorological modeling and forecasting.

  15. A Double Pendulum "Art Machine"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a double pendulum apparatus and its mode of operation to produce a great variety of figures similar to Lissajous figures. The author suggests that several advanced physics topics can be studied with the aid of this instrument. Bibliography. (LC)

  16. Double-Base Binder Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The general objective of this program is to improve the mechanical properties of composite modified double base ( CMDB ) propellants, with particular emphasis upon those prepared by the slurry cast process.

  17. Large Double-ringed Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-08-05

    Taken about 40 minutes before NASA Mariner 10 made its close approach to Mercury on Sept. 21,1974, this picture shows a large double-ringed basin center of picture located in the planet south polar region

  18. Entanglement purification with double selection

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Katsuji

    2009-10-15

    We investigate an entanglement purification protocol with double-selection process, which works under imperfect local operations. Compared with the usual protocol with single selection, this double-selection method has higher noise thresholds for the local operations and quantum communication channels and achieves higher fidelity of purified states. It also provides a yield comparable to that of the usual protocol with single selection. We discuss on general grounds how some of the errors which are introduced by local operations are left as intrinsically undetectable. The undetectable errors place a general upper bound on the purification fidelity. The double selection is a simple method to remove all the detectable errors in the first order, so that the upper bound on the fidelity is achieved in the low-noise regime. The double selection is further applied to purification of multipartite entanglement such as two-colorable graph states.

  19. Double Diffusive Convection in Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandra, Narayanan; Leslie, Fred W.

    1999-01-01

    A great number of crystals grown in space are plagued by convective motions which contribute to structural flaws. The character of these instabilities is not well understood but is associated with density variations in the presence of residual gravity (g-jitter). As a specific example, past HgCdTe crystal growth space experiments by Lehoczky and co-workers indicate radial compositional asymmetry in the grown crystals. In the case of HgCdTe the rejected component into the melt upon solidification is HgTe which is denser than the melt. The space grown crystals indicate the presence of three dimensional flow with the heavier HgTe-rich material clearly aligned with the residual gravity (0.55-1.55 micro g) vector. This flow stems from double-diffusive convection, namely, thermal and solutal buoyancy driven flow in the melt. The study of double-diffusive convection is multi-faceted and rather vast. In our investigation, we seek to focus on one specific aspect of this discipline that is of direct relevance to materials processing especially crystal growth, namely, the side ways heating regime. This problem has been widely studied, both experimentally and numerically, in the context of solar ponds wherein the system is characterized by a linear salt (solutal) gradient with an imposed lateral temperature gradient. The induced flow instabilities arise from the wide disparity between the fluid thermal diffusivity and the solute diffusivity. The extension of the analysis to practical crystal growth applications has however not been rigorously made and understood. One subtle but important difference in crystal growth systems is the fact that die system solute gradient is non-linear (typically exponential). Besides, the crystal growth problem has the added complexities of solidification, both lateral and longitudinal thermal gradients and segregation phenomena in systems where binary and ternary compounds are being grown. This paper treats the side ways heating problem alone in

  20. Double Diffusive Convection in Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandra, Narayanan; Leslie, Fred W.

    1999-01-01

    A great number of crystals grown in space are plagued by convective motions which contribute to structural flaws. The character of these instabilities is not well understood but is associated with density variations in the presence of residual gravity (g-jitter). As a specific example, past HgCdTe crystal growth space experiments by Lehoczky and co-workers indicate radial compositional asymmetry in the grown crystals. In the case of HgCdTe the rejected component into the melt upon solidification is HgTe which is denser than the melt. The space grown crystals indicate the presence of three dimensional flow with the heavier HgTe-rich material clearly aligned with the residual gravity (0.55-1.55 micro g) vector. This flow stems from double-diffusive convection, namely, thermal and solutal buoyancy driven flow in the melt. The study of double-diffusive convection is multi-faceted and rather vast. In our investigation, we seek to focus on one specific aspect of this discipline that is of direct relevance to materials processing especially crystal growth, namely, the side ways heating regime. This problem has been widely studied, both experimentally and numerically, in the context of solar ponds wherein the system is characterized by a linear salt (solutal) gradient with an imposed lateral temperature gradient. The induced flow instabilities arise from the wide disparity between the fluid thermal diffusivity and the solute diffusivity. The extension of the analysis to practical crystal growth applications has however not been rigorously made and understood. One subtle but important difference in crystal growth systems is the fact that die system solute gradient is non-linear (typically exponential). Besides, the crystal growth problem has the added complexities of solidification, both lateral and longitudinal thermal gradients and segregation phenomena in systems where binary and ternary compounds are being grown. This paper treats the side ways heating problem alone in

  1. Deformed quasiparticle random phase approximation formalism for single- and two-neutrino double {beta} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, R.; Sarriguren, P.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Pacearescu, L.; Faessler, Amand; Simkovic, F.

    2004-12-01

    We use a deformed quasiparticle random phase approximation formalism to describe simultaneously the energy distributions of the single {beta} Gamow-Teller strength and the two-neutrino double {beta} decay matrix elements. Calculations are performed in a series of double {beta} decay partners with A=48, 76, 82, 96, 100, 116, 128, 130, 136, and 150, using deformed Woods-Saxon potentials and deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock mean fields. The formalism includes a quasiparticle deformed basis and residual spin-isospin forces in the particle-hole and particle-particle channels. We discuss the sensitivity of the parent and daughter Gamow-Teller strength distributions in single {beta} decay, as well as the sensitivity of the double {beta} decay matrix elements to the deformed mean field and to the residual interactions. Nuclear deformation is found to be a mechanism of suppression of the two-neutrino double {beta} decay. The double {beta} decay matrix elements are found to have maximum values for about equal deformations of parent and daughter nuclei. They decrease rapidly when differences in deformations increase. We remark on the importance of a proper simultaneous description of both double {beta} decay and single Gamow-Teller strength distributions. Finally, we conclude that for further progress in the field, it would be useful to improve and complete the experimental information on the studied Gamow-Teller strengths and nuclear deformations.

  2. [The double and his theatre].

    PubMed

    Trillet, M

    1996-01-01

    Professor Paul Girard dedicated an important part of his scientific works to the notion of the Double. He was naturally prompted to such an investigation because of his interest in lateralization disorders and in the problems of cerebral functional asymmetry. We present his conception, in view of recent information of modern neuropsychology as regards identification and recognition processes, as well as anticipation and familiarity operations. Beyond the problem of the Double, the search for Identity is considered in artistic and literary activity.

  3. Detection of Energetic Materials and Explosive Residues With Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: 1. Laboratory Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    oil] M-43 (propellant) 76% RDX, 4% nitrocellulose, 12% cellulose acetate / butyrate , 8% plasticizer, ə% additives LX-14 (propellant) 95.5% HMX, 4.5... gas and double pulse LIBS, have been investigated with laboratory and field-portable instruments. We present results demonstrating the ability of... separation Δt=2 μs and total energy=320 mJ). (Twenty spectra of the aluminum and RDX residue samples in air and under an argon flow were acquired with

  4. Determination of pymetrozine residues in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Talebi, K; Ghazizadeh Ahsaii, H

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the residues of pymetrozin in cucumber under field conditions. Plots of cucumber (cv. Daminus) were sprayed with pymetrozine (Chess, WG50) at two different rates; 0.5 and 1.0 kg/ha. Samples were collected 2 hours and 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after spraying and pymetrozin residues were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detector. Two hours after spraying, the residues was 0.326 mg/kg for 0.5 kg/ha treatment. The residues decreased to 0.013 mg/kg on the third day and no residue was detected four days after spraying. In 1.0 kg/ha treatment, the residue was 0.627 mg/kg, two hours after spraying, which decreased to 0.028 mg/kg, on the third day, but no residues was found in samples which collected four days after spraying. In farm plots which received 0.5 kg/ha pymetrozine, the residues in peels and peeled cucumber were 0.359 and 0.308 mg/kg respectively, two hours after spraying, but in plots which sprayed at 1.0 kg/ha, the residues were 0.648 and 0.609 mg/kg respectively. Furthermore the residues in peels showed a significant difference with those of peeled and unpeeled cucumber under field conditions.

  5. Double-layer structure in polar mesospheric clouds observed from SOFIE/AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haiyang; Shepherd, Gordon G.; Tang, Yuanhe; Bu, Lingbing; Wang, Zhen

    2017-02-01

    Double-layer structures in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) are observed by using Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE) data between 2007 and 2014. We find 816 and 301 events of double-layer structure with percentages of 10.32 and 7.25 % compared to total PMC events, and the mean distances between two peaks are 3.06 and 2.73 km for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH) respectively. Double-layer PMCs almost always have less mean ice water content (IWC) than daily IWC during the core of the season, but they are close to each other at the beginning and the end. The result by averaging over all events shows that the particle concentration has obvious double peaks, while the particle radius exhibits an unexpected monotonic increase with decreasing altitude. By further analysis of the background temperature and water vapour residual profiles, we conclude that the lower layer is a reproduced one formed at the bottom of the upper layer. 56.00 and 47.51 % of all double-layer events for the NH and SH respectively have temperature enhancements larger than 2 K locating between their double peaks. The longitudinal anti-correlation between the gravity waves' (GWs') potential energies and occurrence frequencies of double-layer PMCs suggests that the double-layer PMCs tend to form in an environment where the GWs have weaker intensities.

  6. An impedimetric chemical sensor for determination of detergents residues.

    PubMed

    Bratov, Andrey; Abramova, Natalia; Ipatov, Andrey; Merlos, Angel

    2013-03-15

    A new impedimetric sensor based on an interdigitated electrode array with electrode digits located at the bottom of microcapillaries formed in silicon dioxide is presented. Microcapillaries are opened at the top, so that in contact with an electrolyte solution the ac current flows close to the surface of the capillary wall from one electrode to another and is significantly affected by changes in the surface conductance at the SiO2/electrolyte interface. Adsorption of detergents on the sensor surface affects the charge distribution in the electrical double layer and thus the surface conductance. These changes are registered by measuring impedance. Effect of surface adsorption of ionic and non-ionic surfactants on the sensor impedance is studied. The sensor is shown to be able to measure commercial detergents residues in a tap water starting from 5 ppm even in solutions with high electrolyte conductivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Organochlorine residues and shell thinning in Oregon seabird eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Prouty, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    A single egg was collected at 62 nests of 10 seabird species from Oregon in 1979. The eggs were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants; contemporary shell thickness was compared with eggshells collected during earlier time periods. Concentrations of DDE and PCB's in 1979 were generally low with the most contaminated species being the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), Leach's Storm Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), and Forktailed Storm Petrel (O. furcata). Limited eggshell data provide evidence that shell thinning was more severe along the Oregon coast in the 1950's than in 1979. With the possible exception of the Fork-tailed Storm Petrel, the residues in 1979 posed no known threat to the welfare of the species.

  8. Organochlorine residues and eggshell thinning in anhingas and waders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1977-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine compounds occur commonly in environmental samples and have been associated with adverse effects in numerous avian species. The affected species are usually terminal consumers, generally those feeding on aquatic organisms (primarily fish) or birds. Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus , and certain herons are among the species that have exhibited shell thinning in some regions. In 1972, we began a study to determine: (1) geographic differences in the occurrence of environmental pollutants in Anhingas (Anhinga anhinga) and waders in the eastern United States; (2) differences in environmental pollutant levels among those species nesting at the same localities; and (3) whether eggshell thickness had changed since the widespread use of organochlorine pesticides began in the mid-1940's.

  9. Mapping smokeless powder residue on PVC pipe bomb fragments using total vaporization solid phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Bors, Dana; Goodpaster, John

    2017-07-01

    Quantitating post-blast explosive residue is not a common practice in crime labs as it is typically not legally relevant. There is value in quantitation, however, if the distribution of residues on Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) can help guide future sample collection and/or method development. Total vaporization solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TV-SPME/GC/MS) was used to quantify residues of double-base smokeless powder (DBSP), which includes nitroglycerin (NG), diphenylamine (DPA), and ethyl centralite (EC) on post-blast PVC pipe bomb fragments. The analytical method could separate the three constituents in under 5min with a detection limit under 1ppb, which demonstrates high throughput while maintaining high sensitivity. The method was optimized for nitroglycerin, as it is the most indicative of DBSP. The average mass of nitroglycerin recovered from an entire PVC device was 1.0mg. The average mass of diphenylamine recovered was much lower (24μg) and only one device had detectable levels of EC. The typical concentration of NG on any given fragment was approximately 15-30ppm (μg NG/g fragment). However, there was no correlation between the mass of a fragment and the mass of residue upon it. Instead, the residue was distributed such that the highest concentration of residues was found on end cap fragments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Abdul; Kashif, Natasha; Kifayat, Nasira; Ahmad, Shabeer

    2016-09-01

    The antibiotic residues in poultry meat can pose certain hazards to human health among them are sensitivity to antibiotics, allergic reactions, mutation in cells, imbalance of intestinal micro biota and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of the present paper was to detect antibiotic residue in poultry meat. During the present study a total of 80 poultry kidney and liver samples were collected and tested for detection of different antibiotic residues at different pH levels Eschericha coli at pH 6, 7 and Staphyloccocus aureus at pH 8 & 9. Out of 80 samples only 4 samples were positive for antibiotic residues. The highest concentrations of antibiotic residue found in these tissues were tetracycline (8%) followed by ampicilin (4%), streptomycine (2%) and aminoglycosides (1%) as compared to other antibiotics like sulfonamides, neomycine and gentamycine. It was concluded that these microorganism at these pH levels could be effectively used for detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

  11. The double loop mattress suture

    PubMed Central

    Biddlestone, John; Samuel, Madan; Creagh, Terry; Ahmad, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    An interrupted stitch type with favorable tissue characteristics will reduce local wound complications. We describe a novel high-strength, low-tension repair for the interrupted closure of skin, cartilage, and muscle, the double loop mattress stitch, and compare it experimentally with other interrupted closure methods. The performance of the double loop mattress technique in porcine cartilage and skeletal muscle is compared with the simple, mattress, and loop mattress interrupted sutures in both a novel porcine loading chamber and mechanical model. Wound apposition is assessed by electron microscopy. The performance of the double loop mattress in vivo was confirmed using a series of 805 pediatric laparotomies/laparoscopies. The double loop mattress suture is 3.5 times stronger than the loop mattress in muscle and 1.6 times stronger in cartilage (p ≤ 0.001). Additionally, the double loop mattress reduces tissue tension by 66% compared with just 53% for the loop mattress (p ≤ 0.001). Wound gapping is equal, and wound eversion appears significantly improved (p ≤ 0.001) compared with the loop mattress in vitro. In vivo, the double loop mattress performs as well as the loop mattress and significantly better than the mattress stitch in assessments of wound eversion and dehiscence. There were no episodes of stitch extrusion in our series of patients. The mechanical advantage of its intrinsic pulley arrangement gives the double loop mattress its favorable properties. Wound dehiscence is reduced because this stitch type is stronger and exerts less tension on the tissue than the mattress stitch. We advocate the use of this novel stitch wherever a high-strength, low-tension repair is required. These properties will enhance wound repair, and its application will be useful to surgeons of all disciplines. PMID:24698436

  12. Optical systolic array processor using residue arithmetic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J.; Casasent, D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of residue arithmetic to increase the accuracy and reduce the dynamic range requirements of optical matrix-vector processors is evaluated. It is determined that matrix-vector operations and iterative algorithms can be performed totally in residue notation. A new parallel residue quantizer circuit is developed which significantly improves the performance of the systolic array feedback processor. Results are presented of a computer simulation of this system used to solve a set of three simultaneous equations.

  13. Studies Of Residual Flexibility And Vibration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Admire, John R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Bookout, Paul S.; Ivey, Edward W.

    1995-01-01

    Collection of reports presents theoretical and experimental studies in which concept of residual flexibility applied to modal vibration testing and verification of mathematical models of vibrations of flexible structure constrained by another structure. "Residual flexibility" denotes that part of interface flexibility due to mode shapes out of frequency range of test. Studies directed toward assessing residual-flexibility approach as substitute for fixed-base vibrational testing of payloads installed in spacecraft.

  14. Residual stresses in polymer matrix composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, H. T.

    1976-01-01

    Residual stresses in composites are induced during fabrication and by environmental exposure. The theory formulated can describe the shrinkage commonly observed after a thermal expansion test. Comparison between the analysis and experimental data for laminates of various material systems indicates that the residual stress-free temperature can be lower than the curing temperature, depending on the curing process. Effects of residual stresses on ply failure including the acoustic emission characteristics are discussed.

  15. Double metric, generalized metric, and α' -deformed double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohm, Olaf; Zwiebach, Barton

    2016-03-01

    We relate the unconstrained "double metric" of the "α' -geometry" formulation of double field theory to the constrained generalized metric encoding the spacetime metric and b -field. This is achieved by integrating out auxiliary field components of the double metric in an iterative procedure that induces an infinite number of higher-derivative corrections. As an application, we prove that, to first order in α' and to all orders in fields, the deformed gauge transformations are Green-Schwarz-deformed diffeomorphisms. We also prove that to first order in α' the spacetime action encodes precisely the Green-Schwarz deformation with Chern-Simons forms based on the torsionless gravitational connection. This seems to be in tension with suggestions in the literature that T-duality requires a torsionful connection, but we explain that these assertions are ambiguous since actions that use different connections are related by field redefinitions.

  16. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  17. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L [Rigby, ID; Kenney, Kevin L [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Christopher T [Idaho Falls, ID; Hess, J Richard [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  18. Identification of kinetically hot residues in proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Demirel, M. C.; Atilgan, A. R.; Jernigan, R. L.; Erman, B.; Bahar, I.

    1998-01-01

    A number of recent studies called attention to the presence of kinetically important residues underlying the formation and stabilization of folding nuclei in proteins, and to the possible existence of a correlation between conserved residues and those participating in the folding nuclei. Here, we use the Gaussian network model (GNM), which recently proved useful in describing the dynamic characteristics of proteins for identifying the kinetically hot residues in folded structures. These are the residues involved in the highest frequency fluctuations near the native state coordinates. Their high frequency is a manifestation of the steepness of the energy landscape near their native state positions. The theory is applied to a series of proteins whose kinetically important residues have been extensively explored: chymotrypsin inhibitor 2, cytochrome c, and related C2 proteins. Most of the residues previously pointed out to underlie the folding process of these proteins, and to be critically important for the stabilization of the tertiary fold, are correctly identified, indicating a correlation between the kinetic hot spots and the early forming structural elements in proteins. Additionally, a strong correlation between kinetically hot residues and loci of conserved residues is observed. Finally, residues that may be important for the stability of the tertiary structure of CheY are proposed. PMID:9865946

  19. Residue, dissipation, and safety evaluation of pyridalyl nanoformulation in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L] Moench).

    PubMed

    Saini, Priya; Gopal, Madhuban; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin

    2015-03-01

    A comparative study on residues and rate of dissipation of a new nanoformulation of pyridalyl and commercial pyridalyl was carried out on okra under net house and field conditions. Okra crop was sprayed with commercial and nanoformulation of pyridalyl at recommended (75 g a. i./ha) and double the recommended dose (150 g a. i./ha) at the time of fruiting. Quantitation of residues of pyridalyl in okra was done by ultra high performance liquid chromatography over a period of 15 days, and recovery of the method ranged from 79 to 87 %. The half life calculated from the dissipation pattern of pyridalyl on okra for commercial and developed nanoformulation proved that residues of nanopyridalyl did not persist much longer than that of conventional formulation in net house as well as in field trials. The risk quotient value of pyridalyl in okra was significantly lower than 1, implying its negligible risk to the humans.

  20. Oil residue contamination of continental shelf sediments of the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Harding, V; Camp, J; Morgan, L J; Gryko, J

    2016-12-15

    We have investigated the distribution of a heavy oil residue in the coastal sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. The amount of the contamination was determined by high-temperature pyrolysis coupled with the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) of air-dried sediments. The pyrolysis products contain straight-chain saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, such as dodecane and 1-dodecene, resulting in a very characteristic pattern of double peaks in the GCMS. Hydrocarbons containing 8 to 23 carbon atoms were detected in the pyrolysis products. Using thermal pyrolysis we have found that the sediment samples collected along Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi shores contain no detectable traces of oil residue, but most of the samples collected along Alabama and Florida shores contain ~200ppm of heavy oil residue.

  1. Total concentrations and chemical speciation of heavy metals in liquefaction residues of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xingzhong; Huang, Huajun; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Hui; Wang, Jingyu; Zhou, Chunfei; Zhu, Huina; Pei, Xiaokai; Liu, Zhifeng; Liu, Zhantao

    2011-03-01

    The risk (including bioavailability and eco-toxicity) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Ni) in liquefaction residues (LR) of sewage sludge (SS) was estimated, according to both the speciation of heavy metals and the local environmental characteristics. The amount of organic matters in LR was lower than that in SS, resulting in a smaller calorific value, while the total content of heavy metals in LR nearly doubled. High residual rates of heavy metals (about 80%) indicated that the heavy metals in SS were concentrated into LR after liquefaction. The comparisons of sequential extraction results between SS and LR showed that after liquefaction, the mobile and easily available heavy metal fractions (acid soluble/exchangeable and reducible fractions) were mainly transformed into the relatively stable heavy metal fractions (oxidizable and residual fractions). The bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals in LR were relieved, though the total concentrations of heavy metals increased.

  2. Importance of cysteine residues in the thyroid hormone transporter MCT8.

    PubMed

    Lima de Souza, Elaine C; Groeneweg, Stefan; Visser, W Edward; Peeters, Robin P; Visser, Theo J

    2013-05-01

    The thyroid hormone (TH) transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is crucial for brain development as demonstrated by the severe psychomotor retardation in patients with MCT8 mutations. MCT8 contains 10 residues of the reactive amino acid cysteine (Cys) whose functional roles were studied using the Cys-specific reagent p-chloromercurybenzenesulfonate (pCMBS) and by site-directed mutagenesis. Pretreatment of JEG3 cells with pCMBS resulted in a dose- and time-dependent decrease of subsequent T3 uptake. Pretreatment with dithiothreitol did not affect TH transport or its inhibition by pCMBS. However, pCMBS inhibition of MCT8 was reversed by dithiothreitol. Inhibition of MCT8 by pCMBS was prevented in the presence of T3. The single and double mutation of C481A and C497A did not affect T3 transport, but the single mutants were less sensitive and the double mutant was completely insensitive to pCMBS. Similar effects on MCT8 were obtained using HgCl2 instead of pCMBS. In conclusion, we have identified Cys481 and Cys497 in MCT8 as the residues modified by pCMBS or HgCl2. These residues are probably located at or near the substrate-recognition site in MCT8. It remains to be investigated whether MCT8 function is regulated by modification of these Cys residues under pathophysiological conditions.

  3. Persistence and effect of processing on reduction of chlorantraniliprole residues on brinjal and okra fruits.

    PubMed

    Vijayasree, V; Bai, Hebsy; Beevi, S Naseema; Mathew, Thomas Biju; George, Thomas; Xavier, George

    2015-05-01

    Dissipation and decontamination of chlorantraniliprole (Coragen 18.5 SC) in brinjal and okra fruits were studied following field application at single and double doses of 30 and 60 g ai ha(-1), and the residues of the insecticide was estimated using LC-MS/MS. Initial residues of chlorantraniliprole at single and double doses on the fruits of brinjal were 0.72 and 1.48 mg kg(-1), while on okra fruits, the residues were 0.48 and 0.91 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residues reached below detectable level of 0.01 mg kg(-1) on the 10th day. Half-life of chlorantraniliprole at 30 and 60 g ai ha(-1) on brinjal was 1.58 and 1.80 days with the calculated waiting period of 0.69 and 2.38 days, whereas on okra, the values were 1.60 and 1.70 and 0 and 1.20 days, respectively. The extent of removal of chlorantraniliprole using simple decontaminating techniques at 2 h and 3 days after spraying was 40.99-91.37% and 29.85-89.12%, respectively, from brinjal fruits and 47.78-86.10% and 41.77-86.48%, respectively, from okra fruits.

  4. A network of allosterically coupled residues in the bacteriophage T4 Mre11-Rad50 complex.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Meyer, Jennifer R; Nelson, Scott W

    2016-11-01

    The Mre11-Rad50 (MR) protein complex, made up of a nuclease and ATPase, respectively, is involved in the processing of double-strand breaks as part of an intricate mechanism for their repair. Although it is clear that the MR complex is subject to allosteric regulation and that there is communication between the nuclease and ATPase active sites, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We performed statistical coupling analysis on Mre11 and Rad50 to predict linked residues based on their evolutionary correlation. This analysis predicted a coevolving sector of six residues that may be allosterically coupled. The prediction was tested using double-mutant cycle analysis of nuclease and ATPase activity. The results indicate that a tyrosine residue located near the active site of Mre11 is allosterically coupled to several Rad50 residues located over 40 Å away. This allosteric coupling may be the basis for the reciprocal regulation of the ATPase and nuclease activities of the complex. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  5. Detection of residues from explosive manipulation by near infrared hyperspectral imaging: a promising forensic tool.

    PubMed

    Fernández de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles; Amigo, José Manuel; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    In this study near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) is used to provide a fast, non-contact, non-invasive and non-destructive method for the analysis of explosive residues on human handprints. Volunteers manipulated individually each of these explosives and after deposited their handprints on plastic sheets. For this purpose, classical explosives, potentially used as part of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) as ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite were studied. A partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was built to detect and classify the presence of explosive residues in handprints. High levels of sensitivity and specificity for the PLS-DA classification model created to identify ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite residues were obtained, allowing the development of a preliminary library and facilitating the direct and in situ detection of explosives by NIR-HSI. Consequently, this technique is showed as a promising forensic tool for the detection of explosive residues and other related samples.

  6. Double shrinking sparse dimension reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tianyi; Tao, Dacheng

    2013-01-01

    Learning tasks such as classification and clustering usually perform better and cost less (time and space) on compressed representations than on the original data. Previous works mainly compress data via dimension reduction. In this paper, we propose "double shrinking" to compress image data on both dimensionality and cardinality via building either sparse low-dimensional representations or a sparse projection matrix for dimension reduction. We formulate a double shrinking model (DSM) as an l(1) regularized variance maximization with constraint ||x||(2)=1, and develop a double shrinking algorithm (DSA) to optimize DSM. DSA is a path-following algorithm that can build the whole solution path of locally optimal solutions of different sparse levels. Each solution on the path is a "warm start" for searching the next sparser one. In each iteration of DSA, the direction, the step size, and the Lagrangian multiplier are deduced from the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. The magnitudes of trivial variables are shrunk and the importances of critical variables are simultaneously augmented along the selected direction with the determined step length. Double shrinking can be applied to manifold learning and feature selections for better interpretation of features, and can be combined with classification and clustering to boost their performance. The experimental results suggest that double shrinking produces efficient and effective data compression.

  7. Partitioning Residue-derived and Residue-induced Emissions of N2O Using 15N-labelled Crop Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, R. E.; Carverhill, J.; Lemke, R.; Knight, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of N2O emissions in Canada indicate that 17% of all agriculture-based emissions are associated with the decomposition of crop residues. However, research specific to the western Canadian prairies (including Saskatchewan) has shown that the N2O emission factor for N sources in this region typically ranges between 0.2 and 0.6%, which is well below the current IPCC default emission factor of 1.0%. Thus, it stands to reason that emissions from crop residues should also be lower than those calculated using the current IPCC emission factor. Current data indicates that residue decomposition, N mineralization and N2O production are affected by a number of factors such as C:N ratio and chemical composition of the residue, soil type, and soil water content; thus, a bench-scale incubation study was conducted to examine the effects of soil type and water content on N2O emissions associated with the decomposition of different crop residues. The study was carried out using soils from the Black, Dark Brown, Brown, and Gray soil zones and was conducted at both 50% and 70% water-filled pore space (WFPS); the soils were amended with 15N-labeled residues of wheat, pea, canola, and flax, or with an equivalent amount of 15N-labeled urea; 15N2O production was monitored using a Picarro G5101-i isotopic N2O analyzer. Crop residue additions to the soils resulted in both direct and indirect emissions of N2O, with residue derived emissions (RDE; measured as 15N2O) generally exceeding residue-induced emissions (RIE) at 50% WFPS—with RDEs ranging from 42% to 88% (mean = 58%) of the total N2O. Conversely, at 70% WFPS, RDEs were generally lower than RIEs—ranging from 21% to 83% (mean = 48%). Whereas both water content and soil type had an impact on N2O production, there was a clear and consistent trend in the emission factors for the residues; i.e., emissions were always greatest for the canola residue and lowest for the wheat residue and urea fertilizer; and intermediate for pea

  8. Thermal Insulation from Hardwood Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sable, I.; Grinfelds, U.; Vikele, L.; Rozenberga, L.; Zeps, M.; Luguza, S.

    2015-11-01

    Adequate heat is one of the prerequisites for human wellbeing; therefore, building insulation is required in places where the outside temperature is not suitable for living. The climate change, with its rising temperatures and longer dry periods, promotes enlargement of the regions with conditions more convenient for hardwood species than for softwood species. Birch (Betula pendula) is the most common hardwood species in Latvia. The aim of this work was to obtain birch fibres from wood residues of plywood production and to form low-density thermal insulation boards. Board formation and production was done in the presence of water; natural binder, fire retardant and fungicide were added in different concentrations. Board properties such as density, transportability or resistance to particulate loss, thermal conductivity and reaction to fire were investigated. This study included thermal insulation boards with the density of 102-120 kg/m3; a strong correlation between density and the binder amount was found. Transportability also improved with the addition of a binder, and 0.1-0.5% of the binder was the most appropriate amount for this purpose. The measured thermal conductivity was in the range of 0.040-0.043 W/(m·K). Fire resistance increased with adding the fire retardant. We concluded that birch fibres are applicable for thermal insulation board production, and it is possible to diversify board properties, changing the amount of different additives.

  9. Catalyst deactivation in residue hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect

    Oballa, M.C.; Wong, C.; Krzywicki, A.

    1994-12-31

    The existence of a computer-controlled bench scale hydrocracking units at the authors site has made cheaper the non-stop running of experiments for long periods of time. It was, therefore possible to show, at minimal costs, when three hydrocracking catalysts in service reach their maximum lifetime. Different parameters which are helpful for catalyst life and activity predictions were calculated, e.g., relative catalyst age and the effectiveness factor. Experimental results compared well with model, giving them the minimum and maximum catalyst lifetime, as well as the deactivation profile with regard to sulfur and metals removal. Reaction rate constants for demetallization and desulfurization were also determined. Six commercial catalysts were evaluated at short term runs and the three most active were used for long term runs. Out of three catalysts tested for deactivation at long term runs, it was possible to choose one whose useful life was higher than the others. All runs were carried out in a Robinson-Mahoney continuous flow stirred tank reactor, using 50/50 volumetric mixture of Cold Lake/Lloydminster atmospheric residue and NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst.

  10. Gunshot residue preservation in seawater.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Anne-Christine; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Athens, Josie; Obertova, Zuzana; Duncan, Warwick; Waddell, Neil; Kieser, Jules

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the persistence of gunshot residue (GSR) in soft tissue and bones during decomposition in marine environments. For a better understanding, qualitative and quantitative data were obtained on GSR retention on soft tissue and bony gunshot wounds (GSWs). A quantity of 36 fleshed and 36 defleshed bovine ribs were shot at contact range with 0.22 calibre hollow point ammunition using a Stirling 0.22 calibre long rifle. Bone specimens in triplicate were placed in three environments: submerged, intertidal and in supralittoral zone. Sets of triplicates were recovered on day 3, 10, 24 and 38, and analysed with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX), and inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The SEM-EDX recorded GSR-indicative particles surrounding the bullet entrance on all bone types (fleshed and defleshed) in all environments throughout the study. GSR-unique particles were only detected on the supralittoral bones. The ICP-MS analysis showed faster GSR loss on submerged than intertidal and supralittoral defleshed specimens. Fleshed specimens showed a faster GSR loss on intertidal than submerged and supralittoral specimens. In conclusion, the GSR disappeared faster from submerged and intertidal than non-submerged specimens. The difference of detection of GSR between analysed specimens (defleshed versus fleshed) disappeared upon defleshing. This study highlights the potential of finding evidence of GSR in a submerged body and the potential of microscopic and analytical methods for examining suspected GSW in highly decomposed bodies in marine habitats.

  11. Fgd residues: a commercial opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Juzwiak, J.H.; Smith, C.L. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on actual operating experience in the handling and processing of ash and FGD by-products by Conversion Systems at the Orlando Utility Commission Stanton Energy Center at Orlando, Florida. The discussion discloses how the Poz-O-Tec stabilization technology, the most widely used disposal technology for wet FGD sludge, has been modified and improved to maximize the by-product recycling and produce the most cost effective disposal option. Recently, CSI has directed 100% of the Stanton Facility FGD stabilization production into the generation of the commercial aggregate called Poz-O-Lite Aggregate. This aggregate product is used in the manufacture of concrete block, replacing ordinary crushed stone. CSI has been able to develop this reuse application using the low permeability and superior strength of the stabilized material. The utility also benefits from the stabilized material which is not recycled as it offers opportunity for co-disposal of other combustion residues from some of the utility's oil fired plants in cells that are lined and then capped with the stabilized material. In summary, virtually all production of the by-products, from combustion or flue gas desulfurization at the Stanton Energy Center are now being used for commercial application, except that specifically required as liners for the disposal of other materials on site.

  12. Homologous radioimmunoassay for human parathyrin (residues 53-84)

    SciTech Connect

    Hitzler, W.; Schmidt-Gayk, H.; Spiropoulos, P.; Raue, F.; Hufner, M.

    1982-08-01

    A sequential saturation double-antibody radioimmunoassay for carboxyl-terminal fragments of human parathyrin (hPTH) in serum is described. Standards are prepared with synthetic hPTH (residues 53-84) in hPTH-free serum. Antisera are obtained by immunizing guinea pigs with partly purified hPTH extracted from adenomatous glands. Tracer is prepared by labeling hPTH (53-84), presumably at the histidine residue, with /sup 125/I by the Chloramine T method at pH 8.6. Dilution curves for hPTH extracted from adenomas are superimposable on dilution curves for the synthetic 53-84 fragment. Dilution of sera from hyperparathyroid patients showed linearity of response with concentration in the present assay, but non-linearity in the heterologous radioimmunoassay. In contrast to the heterologous system, which discriminated 28 of 32 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism from 32 normals (normal range: undetectable to 54 pmol/L, omitting the highest and lowest values from controls), the present assay separated these groups without overlap.

  13. Assessment of secondary crop residues. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashare, E.; Leuschner, A.P.; West, C.E.; Langton, B.

    1981-03-01

    This report is the first of three reports assessing the feasibility of converting secondary agricultural residues to energy in the form of either methane gas or ethyl alcohol. Secondary agricultural residues are defined in this study as those residues resulting from biomass processing to produce primary products; e.g., whey from cheese processing, vegetable processing wastes, residues from paper pulping, etc. This report summarizes the first two phases of this study, data compilation, and evaluation. Subsequent reports will analyze the technical and economic feasibility of converting these residues to energy and the implementability of this technology. The industries for which data has been compiled in this report include vegetable, fruit, seafood, meat, poultry, and dairy processing and the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry. The data collected include raw product input, final processed product output, residue types, and quantity, residue concentration, biodegradability, seasonality of production, and geographic distribution of processing facilities. In general, these industries produce a relatively solid residue ranging in total solids concentration from 10 to 50% and a dilute liquid residue with an organic content (measured as COD or BOD) ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand mg/l. Due to the significant quantities of residues generated in each of the industries, it appears that the potential exists for generating a substantial quantity of energy. For a particular industry this quantity of energy can range from only one percent upwards to nearly thirty-five percent of the total processing energy required. The total processing energy required for the industries included in this study is approximately 2.5 quads per year. The potential energy which can be generated from these industrial residues will be 0.05 to 0.10 quads per year or approximately 2 to 4 percent of the total demand.

  14. Double field theory inspired cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Houwen; Yang, Haitang E-mail: hyanga@scu.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    Double field theory proposes a generalized spacetime action possessing manifest T-duality on the level of component fields. We calculate the cosmological solutions of double field theory with vanishing Kalb-Ramond field. It turns out that double field theory provides a more consistent way to construct cosmological solutions than the standard string cosmology. We construct solutions for vanishing and non-vanishing symmetry preserving dilaton potentials. The solutions assemble the pre- and post-big bang evolutions in one single line element. Our results show a smooth evolution from an anisotropic early stage to an isotropic phase without any special initial conditions in contrast to previous models. In addition, we demonstrate that the contraction of the dual space automatically leads to both an inflation phase and a decelerated expansion of the ordinary space during different evolution stages.

  15. Supergravity with doubled spacetime structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chen-Te; Pezzella, Franco

    2017-03-01

    Double field theory (DFT) is a low-energy effective theory of a manifestly O (D ,D ) -invariant formulation of the closed-string theory. The theory is based on a doubling of the D -dimensional spacetime structure and, in order to preserve the gauge symmetry provided by the invariance under generalized diffeomorphisms, a constraint has to be imposed on fields and gauge parameters. In this paper, we consider a DFT-inspired supergravity by using a suitable commutative star product of fields and gauge parameters with the aim of studying the corresponding algebraic structure. This star product is not associative, implying the nonclosure of the gauge transformations. Despite this, we get a consistent theory in which an orthogonality condition of momenta associated with double fields is also necessary to have a closed gauge algebra. We first start from the simplest case of one compact spatial dimension. Then, the extension to the case of d spatial dimensions is taken into consideration.

  16. New double soft emission theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachazo, Freddy; He, Song; Yuan, Ellis Ye

    2015-09-01

    We study the behavior of the tree-level S-matrix of a variety of theories as two particles become soft. By analogy with the recently found subleading soft theorems for gravitons and gluons, we explore subleading terms in double soft emissions. We first consider double soft scalar emissions and find subleading terms that are controlled by the angular momentum operator acting on hard particles. The order of the subleading theorems depends on the presence or not of color structures. Next we obtain a compact formula for the leading term in a double soft photon emission. The theories studied are a special Galileon, Dirac-Born-Infeld, Einstein-Maxwell-Scalar, nonlinear sigma model and Yang-Mills-Scalar. We use the recently found Cachazo-He-Yuan representation of these theories in order to give a simple proof of the leading order part of all these theorems.

  17. Azeglio Bemporad and the "BEM" Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Steven; Prunotto, Marco

    2017-07-01

    This paper aims to describe the scientific context and the life of early 20th century Italian astronomer Azeglio Bemporad (1875-1945), his work on double stars, and how the “BEM” doubles were incorporated into the Washington Double Star catalog. Included are new measures, a complete photo gallery of all 61 of his double star systems, and copies of his double star publications.

  18. Comparison of the ability of double-robust estimators to correct bias in propensity score matching analysis. A Monte Carlo simulation study.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tri-Long; Collins, Gary S; Spence, Jessica; Devereaux, Philip J; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Landais, Paul; Le Manach, Yannick

    2017-10-06

    As covariates are not always adequately balanced after propensity score matching and double- adjustment can be used to remove residual confounding, we compared the performance of several double-robust estimators in different scenarios. We conducted a series of Monte Carlo simulations on virtual observational studies. After estimating the propensity scores by logistic regression, we performed 1:1 optimal, nearest-neighbor, and caliper matching. We used 4 estimators on each matched sample: (1) a crude estimator without double-adjustment, (2) double-adjustment for the propensity scores, (3) double-adjustment for the unweighted unbalanced covariates, and (4) double-adjustment for the unbalanced covariates, weighted by their strength of association with the outcome. The crude estimator led to highest bias in all tested scenarios. Double-adjustment for the propensity scores effectively removed confounding only when the propensity score models were correctly specified. Double-adjustment for the unbalanced covariates was more robust to misspecification. Double-adjustment for the weighted unbalanced covariates outperformed the other approaches in every scenario and using any matching algorithm, as measured by the mean squared error. Double-adjustment can be used to remove residual confounding after propensity score matching. The unbalanced covariates with the strongest confounding effects should be adjusted. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Use of Combined Uncertainty of Pesticide Residue Results for Testing Compliance with Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs).

    PubMed

    Farkas, Zsuzsa; Slate, Andrew; Whitaker, Thomas B; Suszter, Gabriella; Ambrus, Árpád

    2015-05-13

    The uncertainty of pesticide residue levels in crops due to sampling, estimated for 106 individual crops and 24 crop groups from residue data obtained from supervised trials, was adjusted with a factor of 1.3 to accommodate the larger variability of residues under normal field conditions. Further adjustment may be necessary in the case of mixed lots. The combined uncertainty of residue data including the contribution of sampling is used for calculation of an action limit, which should not be exceeded when compliance with maximum residue limits is certified as part of premarketing self-control programs. On the contrary, for testing compliance of marketed commodities the residues measured in composite samples should be greater than or equal to the decision limit calculated only from the combined uncertainty of the laboratory phase of the residue determination. The options of minimizing the combined uncertainty of measured residues are discussed. The principles described are also applicable to other chemical contaminants.

  20. Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.M.

    1999-02-10

    This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS).

  1. Residue dynamics of fenamidone and mancozeb on gherkin under two agro climatic zones in the state of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M

    2012-04-01

    Residue dynamics of fenamidone and mancozeb on gherkin was evaluated at two different agro climatic zones i.e. at Bangalore (Zone-1) and Dharwad (Zone-2) in the state of Karnataka, India. Two treatments of the combination formulation (fenamidone 10% + mancozeb 50%) were given at the standard dose 150 + 750 g a.i. ha(-1) and double dose 300 + 1,500 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of fenamidone were 0.467 and 0.474 mg kg(-1) at Zone-1 and 2, respectively from standard dose treatment. From double dose treatment they were 0.964 and 0.856 mg kg(-1), respectively. Fenamidone residues persisted for 15 and 10 days and dissipated with the half-life of 4 and 3 days at Zone-1 and 2, respectively. Mancozeb residue deposits on gherkin were 0.383 and 0.428 mg kg(-1) from standard dose and 0.727 and 0.626 mg kg(-1) from double dose treatment at Zone-1 and 2, respectively. Mancozeb residues dissipated with the half-life of 2 and 1 day, respectively. Residues of both fenamidone and mancozeb dissipated faster at Zone-2 compared to Zone-1. The limit of quantification of fenamidone and mancozeb were 0.02 and 0.1 mg kg(-1), respectively in both gherkin and soil. Residues of fenamidone and mancozeb in soil collected on the 20th day from the 2 locations were found to be below quantifiable limit of both fungicides.

  2. Recent Argon Double Shell Experiments on Double Eagle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sze, H.; Fisher, A.; Coleman, P.; Failor, B.; Levine, J.; Song, Y.; Waisman, E.; Cochran, F.; Velikovich, A.; Davis, J.

    1999-11-01

    With the objective of improved x-ray yield and pinch quality for long (200 nanoseconds) implosion time z-pinches, we have tested a double shell nozzle on the Double Eagle generator. Theory and some experiments on GIT-12 suggest that the double shell may help mitigate instability growth during the runin phase of the implosion. For our experiments, argon gas, with a freon (chlorine) tracer in some cases, was imploded using peak currents up to 4 megamps. The nominal shell radii were 1.5 and 3.5 cm. A variety of optical, yield and spectroscopic measurements were made to diagnose the tests. The best radiative output, 12 kJ of K-shell in a 10 ns pulse width, is comparable to that achieved with a 7 cm uniform fill load. We will present data on the pinch’s performance as the ratio of inner to outer masses was varied. (A companion paper, Cochran et. al., discusses MHD modeling of the double shell load.)

  3. Current driven weak double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanteur, Gerard

    1987-01-01

    Double layers in plasmas can be created by different means. For example, a potential difference forms between two plasmas with different temperatures, in a plasma jet flowing along a converging magnetic field, in a quiescent plasma submitted to an external difference of potential, or in a turbulent plasma carrying an electric charge. The first three cases can be current-free, but not necessarily, although the numerical simulations were made under such conditions for the first two points. Apart from the third case, which is mainly of interest for laboratory experiments, these double layers are good candidates for accelerating the auroral electrons to the few kiloelectron volts observed.

  4. Double stranded nucleic acid biochips

    DOEpatents

    Chernov, Boris; Golova, Julia

    2006-05-23

    This invention describes a new method of constructing double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) microarrays based on the use of pre-synthesized or natural DNA duplexes without a stem-loop structure. The complementary oligonucleotide chains are bonded together by a novel connector that includes a linker for immobilization on a matrix. A non-enzymatic method for synthesizing double-stranded nucleic acids with this novel connector enables the construction of inexpensive and robust dsDNA/dsRNA microarrays. DNA-DNA and DNA-protein interactions are investigated using the microarrays.

  5. Double trisomy in spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K S

    1997-12-01

    Cytogenetic data on products of conception from spontaneous abortions studied over a 10-year period have been reviewed for double trisomies. A total of 3034 spontaneous abortions were karyotyped between 1986 and 1997. Twenty-two cases with double trisomy, one case with triple trisomy, and a case with a trisomy and monosomy were found. The tissues studied were mostly sac, villi, or placenta. The gestational age ranged from 6 to 11 weeks and the mean age was 8.2 +/- 1.7 (SD) weeks. The mean maternal age in years was 35.9 +/- 5.3. Of the twenty-two cases, four were mosaics. All but two of the cases involved autosomal aneuploidies. The double trisomies included chromosomes 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, and 22. The chromosomes that were trisomic in more than one double trisomy case were numbers 16 (8 cases), 8 (5 cases), 15 (4 cases), 2, 13, and 21 (3 cases each), and 5, 7, 14, 18, 20, 22, and X (2 cases). The triple trisomy involved chromosomes 18, 21, and X. The monosomy and trisomy case was a mosaic, with a monosomy 21 in all cells and some cells also with a trisomy 5. The double trisomies cited for the first time in this study were 4/13, 5/16, 8/14, 8/15, 14/21, 15/20, and 7/12. The pooled mean maternal age for double trisomy cases (34.1 +/- 5.7 years) was higher than that for single trisomy cases (31 +/- 6.1 years). The difference was statistically significant at P = < 0.001. The pooled mean gestational age of spontaneous abortions was lower for double trisomy (8.7 +/- 2.2 weeks) than for reported single trisomy cases (10.1 +/- 2.9 weeks). This difference is also statistically significant at P = < 0.001. The sex ratio among double trisomies was 15 females to 13 males. This difference was not statistically significant from the expected 1:1.

  6. Double-negative acoustic metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Li, Jensen; Chan, C T

    2004-11-01

    We show here the existence of acoustic metamaterial, in which both the effective density and bulk modulus are simultaneously negative, in the true and strict sense of an effective medium. Our double-negative acoustic system is an acoustic analogue of Veselago's medium in electromagnetism, and shares many unique consequences, such as negative refractive index. The double negativity in acoustics is derived from low-frequency resonances, as in the case of electromagnetism, but the negative density and modulus are derived from a single resonance structure as distinct from electromagnetism in which the negative permeability and negative permittivity originates from different resonance mechanisms.

  7. Double-branched vortex generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, E. R.; Westphal, R. V.; Mehta, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    In order to assess the suitability of using a double branched vortex generator in parametric studies involving vortex interactions, an experimental study of the main vortex and secondary flows produced by a double branched vortex generator was conducted in a 20-by-40 cm indraft wind tunnel. Measurements of the cross flow velocities were made with a five hole pressure probe from which vorticity contours and vortex parameters were derived. The results showed that the optimum configuration consisted of chord extensions with the absence of a centerbody.

  8. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  9. Measurment Of Residual Stress In Ferromagnetic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, Min; Yost, William T.; Kushnick, Peter W.; Grainger, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetoacoustic (MAC) and magnetoacoustic emission (MAE) techniques combined to provide complete characterization of residual stresses in ferromagnetic structural materials. Combination of MAC and MAE techniques makes it possible to characterize residual tension and compression without being limited by surface conditions and unavailability of calibration standards. Significant in field of characterization of materials as well as detection of fatigue failure.

  10. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  11. 40 CFR 158.2290 - Residue chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticide may be used in a food-handling establishment unless data including, but not limited to... show that residues will not occur in food or feed. 4. If an antimicrobial pesticide may be applied to a... residues of concern, as part of programs to monitor pesticides in the U.S. food supply. 12. Data are...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2290 - Residue chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticide may be used in a food-handling establishment unless data including, but not limited to... show that residues will not occur in food or feed. 4. If an antimicrobial pesticide may be applied to a... residues of concern, as part of programs to monitor pesticides in the U.S. food supply. 12. Data are...

  13. 40 CFR 240.208 - Residue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Residue. 240.208 Section 240.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208 Residue. ...

  14. 40 CFR 240.208 - Residue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Residue. 240.208 Section 240.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208 Residue. ...

  15. 40 CFR 240.208 - Residue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Residue. 240.208 Section 240.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208 Residue. ...

  16. Crop Residues: The Rest of the Story

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A recent scientific publication stated that to remove CO2 from the atmosphere, the most permanent and rapid solution would be to sink crop residues to the ocean floor where they would be buried in deep ocean sediments. However, mitigating rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations by removing crop residu...

  17. Unicystic ameloblastoma arising from a residual cyst

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Amit D; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Khurana, Neha M; Shah, Navin

    2014-01-01

    Intraoral swellings involving alveolar ridges in edentulous patients are clinically diagnosed as residual cysts, traumatic bone cysts, Stafne's jaw bone cavity, ameloblastoma and metastatic tumours of the jaw. This case report describes a residual cyst in a 68-year-old edentulous male patient which was enucleated and histopathologically confirmed as a unicystic ameloblastoma. PMID:25199192

  18. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  19. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  20. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  1. Residue decomposition of submodel of WEPS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Residue Decomposition submodel of the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) simulates the decrease in crop residue biomass due to microbial activity. The decomposition process is modeled as a first-order reaction with temperature and moisture as driving variables. Decomposition is a function of ...

  2. RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES FROM RESIDUES

    DOEpatents

    Schaap, W.B.

    1959-08-18

    A process is described for the recovery of uranium from insoluble oxide residues resistant to repeated leaching with mineral acids. The residue is treated with gaseous hydrogen fluoride, then with hydrogen and again with hydrogen fluoride, preferably at 500 to 700 deg C, prior to the mineral acid leaching.

  3. Processing hardwood bark residues by screening

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanuel

    1978-01-01

    Most of the hardwood bark residues removed by floating-cutterhead or rosserhead debarkers can be processed into acceptable bark products by screening alone. And by prescreening bark residues, operators of bark processing plants can use smaller hammermills than otherwise are required, thus lowering investment and energy costs.

  4. 48 CFR 1450.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Residual powers. 1450.104 Section 1450.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 1450.104 Residual powers....

  5. BOOSTER CHLORINATION FOR MANAGING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Booster chlorination is an approach to residual maintenance in which chlorine is applied at strategic locations within the distribution system. Situations in which booster chlorination may be most effective for maintaining a residual are explained informally in the context of a ...

  6. BOOSTER CHLORINATION FOR MANAGING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Booster chlorination is an approach to residual maintenance in which chlorine is applied at strategic locations within the distribution system. Situations in which booster chlorination may be most effective for maintaining a residual are explained informally in the context of a ...

  7. Distribution of veterinary drug residues among muscles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which muscle should be sampled for analysis. The goal of this research was to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type. In this study, penicillin G (Pen G) d...

  8. 48 CFR 1450.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Residual powers. 1450.104 Section 1450.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 1450.104 Residual powers....

  9. 48 CFR 1450.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Residual powers. 1450.104 Section 1450.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 1450.104 Residual powers....

  10. 48 CFR 1450.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Residual powers. 1450.104 Section 1450.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 1450.104 Residual powers....

  11. 48 CFR 1450.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 1450.104 Section 1450.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 1450.104 Residual powers....

  12. Residue management: Back to the roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Addressing the issues of climate change and sustainable biomass feedstocks have soil as a common theme. Managing crop residues is directly related to soil management. Understanding how soil and crop residue management interact provides insight on how to assure agricultural soil can serve as a carbon...

  13. Multi-state complex angular momentum residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thylwe, Karl-Erik

    2006-09-01

    A relation between a multi-state complex angular momentum (CAM) pole residue and the corresponding CAM-state wavefunction is derived for a real symmetric potential matrix. The result generalizes a residue formula available for single-channel atomical collision systems and it is based on a diagonalization of the S matrix together with the use of exact Wronskian relations.

  14. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L. N.; Shine, E. P.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  15. 40 CFR 240.208 - Residue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residue. 240.208 Section 240.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208 Residue. ...

  16. Residue contact-count potentials are as effective as residue-residue contact-type potentials for ranking protein decoys

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, Dan M; Filippis, Ioannis; Stehr, Henning; Duarte, Jose; Lappe, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background For over 30 years potentials of mean force have been used to evaluate the relative energy of protein structures. The most commonly used potentials define the energy of residue-residue interactions and are derived from the empirical analysis of the known protein structures. However, single-body residue 'environment' potentials, although widely used in protein structure analysis, have not been rigorously compared to these classical two-body residue-residue interaction potentials. Here we do not try to combine the two different types of residue interaction potential, but rather to assess their independent contribution to scoring protein structures. Results A data set of nearly three thousand monomers was used to compare pairwise residue-residue 'contact-type' propensities to single-body residue 'contact-count' propensities. Using a large and standard set of protein decoys we performed an in-depth comparison of these two types of residue interaction propensities. The scores derived from the contact-type and contact-count propensities were assessed using two different performance metrics and were compared using 90 different definitions of residue-residue contact. Our findings show that both types of score perform equally well on the task of discriminating between near-native protein decoys. However, in a statistical sense, the contact-count based scores were found to carry more information than the contact-type based scores. Conclusion Our analysis has shown that the performance of either type of score is very similar on a range of different decoys. This similarity suggests a common underlying biophysical principle for both types of residue interaction propensity. However, several features of the contact-count based propensity suggests that it should be used in preference to the contact-type based propensity. Specifically, it has been shown that contact-counts can be predicted from sequence information alone. In addition, the use of a single-body term allows

  17. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polybrominated ion-exchange resin (as a source of bromine) under the supervision of trained personnel. (2... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food...

  18. Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning

    2012-01-01

    The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…

  19. Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning

    2012-01-01

    The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…

  20. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:22316154

  1. Process for treatment of residual gas

    SciTech Connect

    Nolden, K.

    1980-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the treatment of the residual gases which are produced when hydrogen sulfide is reduced, by combustion, to elementary sulfur by the Claus process. The residual gases are fed through a heated conduit and gas scrubber, wherein the temperature of those residual gases are maintained above the melting point of sulfur. A portion of the raw coke oven gas condensate is admitted to the gas scrubber to be returned to the coke oven battery main from the flushing liquid separator as flushing liquor. The residual gases are then conducted through the coke oven gas purification process equipment along with the raw coke oven gas where the residual gases are intermixed with the raw coke oven gas prior to tar separation.

  2. Recycling of auto shredder residue.

    PubMed

    Nourreddine, Menad

    2007-01-31

    Currently, about 75% of end-of-life vehicle's (ELV) total weight is recycled in EU countries. The remaining 25%, which is called auto shredder residues (ASR) or auto fluff, is disposed of as landfill because of its complexity. It is a major challenge to reduce this percentage of obsolete cars. The European draft directive states that by the year 2006, only 15% of the vehicle's weight can be disposed of at landfill sites and by 2015, this will be reduced to 5%. The draft directive states that a further 10% can be incinerated. The quantities of shredder fluff are likely to increase in the coming years. This is because of the growing number of cars being scrapped, coupled with the increase in the amount of plastics used in cars. In Sweden, some current projects are focusing on recycling of ASR material. In this paper some different alternatives for using this material are reported. The hypothetical injection of ASR into a blast furnace concentrating on ASR's effect to some blast furnace (BF) parameters has been completed using a blast furnace mass balance model. As a result, in principle, ASR can be used as reducing agent in the BF process if certain conditions are met. The particle size of ASR material must be controlled to ensure optimal gasification of the material in the raceway. Regarding the chemical composition of ASR, the non-ferrous content can affect the pig iron quality, which is difficult to rectify at a later point. The most attractive recycling alternative is to use the products obtained from pyrolysis of ASR in appropriate metallurgical processes.

  3. Residues of veterinary drugs at injection sites.

    PubMed

    Reeves, P T

    2007-02-01

    Residues of veterinary drugs have potential implications for human food safety and international trade in animal-derived food commodities. A particular concern is the slow depletion of residues of some injectable formulations from the site of administration. Licensing authorities have adopted different approaches to the human food safety assessment of injection site residues. European agencies apply the maximum residue limit (MRL) for muscle to muscle at the injection site and specify a withdrawal period sufficient to ensure the ingestion of a 300 g portion of muscle, if comprised entirely of injection site tissue, does not exceed the acceptable daily intake. The agencies in Australia, Canada and the USA also exclude injection site residues from the MRL-setting process. These agencies evaluate the risk to consumers posed by potential acute manifestations resulting from the infrequent ingestion of injection site residues based on acute dietary exposure considerations. While all of these approaches protect the safety of consumers, the adoption of different approaches has potential implications for residue surveillance programs in the international trade in meat. In particular, when an exporting country establishes standards for residues at injection sites based on acute dietary exposure considerations and the importing country assesses these residues against the MRL for muscle, the unnecessary condemnation of meat and disruption to market access may result. The latter may represent a potential economical impost to the exporting country. An internationally harmonized approach to the risk analysis of residues of veterinary drugs at injection sites, which protects the safety of consumers and facilitates the international trade in meat, is needed.

  4. Natural products: DNA double whammy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Kent S.

    2014-06-01

    The lomaiviticins are exceedingly potent antibiotic agents, but the mechanism responsible for this activity has so far been unclear. Now, efficient generation of double-strand breaks in DNA by lomaiviticin A has been linked to the remarkable cytotoxicity of these diazobenzofluorene-containg natural products.

  5. The double well mass filter

    DOE PAGES

    Gueroult, Renaud; Rax, Jean -Marcel; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-02-03

    Various mass filter concepts based on rotating plasmas have been suggested with the specific purpose of nuclear waste remediation. We report on a new rotating mass filter combining radial separation with axial extraction. Lastly, the radial separation of the masses is the result of a “double-well” in effective radial potential in rotating plasma with a sheared rotation profile.

  6. Double spaces with isolated singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Cheltsov, I A

    2008-02-28

    The non-rationality is proved for double covers of P{sup n} branched over a hypersurface F subset of P{sup n} of degree 2n>=8 with isolated singularities such that the multiplicity of each singular point of F does not exceed 2(n-2) and the projectivization of its tangent cone is smooth. Bibliography: 15 titles.

  7. A Double-Minded Fractal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a fun activity of generating a double-minded fractal image for a linear algebra class once the idea of rotation and scaling matrices are introduced. In particular the fractal flip-flops between two words, depending on the level at which the image is viewed. (Contains 5 figures.)

  8. Biphoton double-slit experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Brida, G.; Cagliero, E.; Falzetta, G.; Genovese, M.; Gramegna, M.; Predazzi, E.

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we present a double-slit experiment where two indistinguishable photons produced by type-I parametric down-conversion are each sent to a well-defined slit. Data about the diffraction and interference patterns for coincidences are presented and discussed. An analysis of these data allows a test of standard quantum mechanics against the de Broglie-Bohm theory.

  9. A Double-Minded Fractal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a fun activity of generating a double-minded fractal image for a linear algebra class once the idea of rotation and scaling matrices are introduced. In particular the fractal flip-flops between two words, depending on the level at which the image is viewed. (Contains 5 figures.)

  10. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of Residual Stresses in the Circumferential Butt GTAW of Incoloy 800H Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purmohamad, H.; Kermanpur, A.; Shamanian, M.

    2010-02-01

    The residual stresses developed during the circumferential butt gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process of Incoloy 800H pipes were simulated using the finite element method. A decoupled thermostructural model was developed in three dimensions. The element birth and death technique was used for the addition of filler material in the weld pool. The Goldak double ellipsoidal model was used to simulate the distribution of arc heat during welding. The plastic behavior of the material was described by Von Mises yield function and the bilinear kinematics hardening was assumed. To validate the thermostructural model, both temperature and residual stress distributions within the pipes were measured using thermocouples and strain gages, respectively. Good agreements were found between the experimental and simulation results. The model was then used to predict distribution of residual stresses during the GTAW of Incoloy 800H pipes and to study effects of process parameters on the residual stresses.

  11. Neutron diffraction investigation of residual stresses in transverse/oblique rail slices subjected to different grinding strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Gnaeupel-Herold, T.; Brand, P.C.; Prask, H.J.

    1999-05-01

    Using the Double Axis system for Residual stress, Texture, and Single crystal analysis (DARTS) at NIST, neutron diffraction residual stress measurements were carried out in the head region of five pairs of transverse and oblique cut slices of railroad track, each having a thickness of 6.35 mm. The slices were taken from a 300 HB rail of CFI 136 RE size. All slices except one unworn reference piece had the same accumulated tonnage but were ground in different intervals. The measurements confirm the results previously found which indicated the existence of high sub-surface residual tensile stresses, while the regional close to the wheel-rail contact line shows high residual compressive stresses.

  12. Keepers of the double stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    2013-03-01

    Astronomers have long tracked double stars in efforts to find those that are gravitationally-bound binaries and then to determine their orbits. Early catalogues by the Herschels, Struves, and others began with their own discoveries. In 1906 court reporter and amateur astronomer Sherburne Wesley Burnham published a massive double star catalogue containing data from many observers on more than 13,000 systems. Lick Observatory astronomer Robert Grant Aitken produced a much larger catalogue in 1932 and coordinated with Robert Innes of Johannesburg, who catalogued the southern systems. Aitken maintained and expanded Burnham's records of observations on handwritten file cards, and eventually turned them over to the Lick Observatory, where astrometrist Hamilton Jeffers further expanded the collection and put all the observations on punched cards. With the aid of Frances M. "Rete" Greeby he made two catalogues: an Index Catalogue with basic data about each star, and a complete catalogue of observations, with one observation per punched card. He enlisted Willem van den Bos of Johannesburg to add southern stars, and together they published the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0. As Jeffers approached retirement he became greatly concerned about the disposition of the catalogues. He wanted to be replaced by another "double star man," but Lick Director Albert E. Whitford had the new 120-inch reflector, the world's second largest telescope, and he wanted to pursue modern astrophysics instead. Jeffers was vociferously opposed to turning over the card files to another institution, and especially against their coming under the control of Kaj Strand of the United States Naval Observatory. In the end the USNO got the files and has maintained the records ever since, first under Charles Worley, and, since 1997, under Brian Mason. Now called the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS), it is completely online and currently contains more than 1,200,000 measures of more than 125

  13. A laboratory investigation of potential double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Philip

    1987-01-01

    In a triple plasma device, the injection of electron current from the source chamber to the target chamber causes the formation of a potential double layer. At a low current density, the space charge of the injected current produces a virtual cathode-type potential double layer. This double layer is stable, and various wave instabilities are observed to associate with this double layer. As the current density is increased, the double layer becomes unstable, and a moving double layer results. As the current density is increased further, the enhanced ionization causes the neutralization of the space charge of the electron beam, and the beam plasma discharge is ignited.

  14. A laboratory investigation of potential double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Philip

    1987-01-01

    In a triple plasma device, the injection of electron current from the source chamber to the target chamber causes the formation of a potential double layer. At a low current density, the space charge of the injected current produces a virtual cathode-type potential double layer. This double layer is stable and various wave instabilities are observed to associate with this double layer. As the current density is increased, the double layer becomes unstable and a moving double layer results. As the current density is increased further, the enhanced ionization causes the neutralization of the space charge of the electron beam and the 'beam plasma discharge' is ignited.

  15. A laboratory investigation of potential double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Philip

    1987-01-01

    In a triple plasma device, the injection of electron current from the source chamber to the target chamber causes the formation of a potential double layer. At a low current density, the space charge of the injected current produces a virtual cathode-type potential double layer. This double layer is stable and various wave instabilities are observed to associate with this double layer. As the current density is increased, the double layer becomes unstable and a moving double layer results. As the current density is increased further, the enhanced ionization causes the neutralization of the space charge of the electron beam and the 'beam plasma discharge' is ignited.

  16. Non-local residue-residue contacts in proteins are more conserved than local ones.

    PubMed

    Noivirt-Brik, Orly; Hazan, Gershon; Unger, Ron; Ofran, Yanay

    2013-02-01

    Non-covalent residue-residue contacts drive the folding of proteins and stabilize them. They may be local-i.e. involve residues that are close in sequence, or non-local. It has been suggested that, in most proteins, local contacts drive protein folding by providing crucial constraints of the conformational space, thus allowing proteins to fold. We compared residues that are involved in local contacts to residues that are involved in non-local contacts and found that, in most proteins, residues in non-local contacts are significantly more conserved evolutionarily than residues in local contacts. Moreover, non-local contacts are more structurally conserved: a contact between positions that are distant in sequence is more likely to exist in many structural homologues compared with a contact between positions that are close in sequence. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of protein folding and may allow for better prediction of critical intra-chain contacts.

  17. Antioxidant properties of roasted coffee residues.

    PubMed

    Yen, Wen-Jye; Wang, Bor-Sen; Chang, Lee-Wen; Duh, Pin-Der

    2005-04-06

    The antioxidant activity of roasted coffee residues was evaluated. Extraction with four solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, and n-hexane) showed that water extracts of roasted coffee residues (WERCR) produced higher yields and gave better protection for lipid peroxidation. WERCR showed a remarkable protective effect on oxidative damage of protein. In addition, WERCR showed scavenging of free radicals as well as the reducing ability and to bind ferrous ions, indicating that WERCR acts as both primary and secondary antioxidants. The HPLC analyses showed that phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid) and nonphenolic compounds [caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfuraldehyde] remained in roasted coffee residues. These compounds showed a protective effect on a liposome model system. The concentrations of flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds in roasted coffee residues were 8,400 and 20,400 ppm, respectively. In addition, the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) remaining in roasted coffee residues were believed to show antioxidant activity. These data indicate that roasted coffee residues have excellent potential for use as a natural antioxidant source because the antioxidant compounds remained in roasted coffee residues.

  18. Prediction of machining induced residual stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramod, Monangi; Reddy, Yarkareddy Gopi; Prakash Marimuthu, K.

    2017-07-01

    Whenever a component is machined, residual stresses are induced in it. These residual stresses induced in the component reduce its fatigue life, corrosion resistance and wear resistance. Thus it is important to predict and control the machining-induced residual stress. A lot of research is being carried out in this area in the past decade. This paper aims at prediction of residual stresses during machining of Ti-6Al-4V. A model was developed and under various combinations of cutting conditions such as, speed, feed and depth of cut, the behavior of residual stresses were simulated using Finite Element Model. The present work deals with the development of thermo-mechanical model to predict the machining induced residual stresses in Titanium alloy. The simulation results are compared with the published results. The results are in good agreement with the published results. Future work involves optimization or the cutting parameters that effect the machining induced residual stresses. The results obtained were validated with previous work.

  19. Electrostatic painting residues as an alternative raw material for red clay industry.

    PubMed

    Basegio, Tania; Machado, Andréa; Bernardes, Andréa Moura; Bergmann, Carlos Pérez

    2006-12-01

    In this study, the viability of using electrostatic painting residues--paint sludge--as a raw material to the red clay industry was investigated. Red clay-based ceramic masses containing electrostatic paint residues were formulated during the study. The clays were obtained from the Rio do Rastro deposit, in Gravataí, and were of the standard formulation used in industry. Different ceramic mass formulations with additions of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 wt.% electrostatic painting residue in addition to a formulation with no residue addition (standard formulation), were evaluated. The samples were uniaxially pressed in a double-effect press and were fired in an electric oven at 900, 950 and 1000 degrees C. The firing at constant temperature lasted 8 h, and heating rate was 150 K h(-1). After processing the samples were characterized in terms of their physical and mechanical properties. Environmental compatibility was also considered by the evaluation of gaseous emissions and leaching and solubilization tests according to the Brazilian standards NBR 10.005 and NBR 10.006, respectively. The results showed that it was possible to produce ceramic materials containing electrostatic painting residues within their formulations.

  20. Double Photoionization into Double Core-Hole States in Xe

    SciTech Connect

    Hikosaka, Y.; Kaneyasu, T.; Shigemasa, E.; Lablanquie, P.; Penent, F.; Eland, J. H. D.; Aoto, T.; Ito, K.

    2007-05-04

    Double photoionization (DPI) leading to double core-hole states of Xe{sup 2+} 4d{sup -2} has been studied using a magnetic bottle time-of-flight spectrometer. The assignments of the Xe{sup 2+} 4d{sup -2} states are confirmed by the Auger lines extracted from fourfold coincidences including two photoelectrons and two Auger electrons. It is estimated that the core-core DPI into Xe{sup 2+} 4d{sup -2} at a photon energy of 301.6 eV has a favored cross section of about 0.3 MB. The intense core-core DPI is due to mixing of the 4d{sup -2} continuum with the 4p single photoionization, which is manifested in the relative intensities of the Xe{sup 2+} 4d{sup -2} components.

  1. Pathways to doubled haploidy: chromosome doubling during androgenesis.

    PubMed

    Seguí-Simarro, J M; Nuez, F

    2008-01-01

    Production of doubled haploid (DH) plants through androgenesis induction is a promising and convenient alternative to conventional selfing techniques for the generation of pure lines for breeding programs. This process comprises two main steps: induction of androgenesis and duplication of the haploid genome. Such duplication is sometimes indirectly induced by the treatments used to promote androgenic development. But usually, an additional step of direct chromosome doubling must be included in the protocol. Duplication of the haploid genome of androgenic individuals has been thought to occur through three mechanisms: endoreduplication, nuclear fusion and c-mitosis. In this review we will revise and analyze the evidences supporting each of the proposed mechanisms and their relevance during androgenesis induction, embryo/callus development and plant regeneration. Special attention will be devoted to nuclear fusion, whose evidences are accumulating in the last years.

  2. Double Standard/Double Bind: The Sexual Double Standard and Women's Communication about Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlenhard, Charlene L.; McCoy, Marcia L.

    1991-01-01

    College women (n=403) attending the University of Kansas (Lawrence) commented on situations of refusal of desire for sexual relations when they actually did want them (scripted refusal). Consistent with theories of proximal determinants of gender-related behavior, scripted refusal provides a way of dealing with the sexual double standard. (SLD)

  3. Simple approach for ranking structure determining residues.

    PubMed

    Luna-Martínez, Oscar D; Vidal-Limón, Abraham; Villalba-Velázquez, Miryam I; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón; Uversky, Vladimir N; Becerril, Baltazar

    2016-01-01

    Mutating residues has been a common task in order to study structural properties of the protein of interest. Here, we propose and validate a simple method that allows the identification of structural determinants; i.e., residues essential for preservation of the stability of global structure, regardless of the protein topology. This method evaluates all of the residues in a 3D structure of a given globular protein by ranking them according to their connectivity and movement restrictions without topology constraints. Our results matched up with sequence-based predictors that look up for intrinsically disordered segments, suggesting that protein disorder can also be described with the proposed methodology.

  4. Simple approach for ranking structure determining residues

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Martínez, Oscar D.; Vidal-Limón, Abraham; Villalba-Velázquez, Miryam I.; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Mutating residues has been a common task in order to study structural properties of the protein of interest. Here, we propose and validate a simple method that allows the identification of structural determinants; i.e., residues essential for preservation of the stability of global structure, regardless of the protein topology. This method evaluates all of the residues in a 3D structure of a given globular protein by ranking them according to their connectivity and movement restrictions without topology constraints. Our results matched up with sequence-based predictors that look up for intrinsically disordered segments, suggesting that protein disorder can also be described with the proposed methodology. PMID:27366642

  5. Diazinon residues in insects from sprayed tobacco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; Beyer, W.N.; Kolbe, E.

    1982-01-01

    Pooled samples of tobacco hornworms collected from a field sprayed with 0.84 kg/ha of diazinon were analyzed for residues at various intervals after application. No residues of the toxic metabolite diazoxon were detected (sensitivity 0.5 ppm) in any sample. Only one sample exceeded 1.0 ppm of the parent compound and was collected 4 hours after spraying. Residues declined over time (P<0.01) and none were detected (sensitivity 0.1 ppm) 18 days after spraying. the potential hazard to birds eating these insects appeared to be minimal.

  6. Residual entanglement of accelerated fermions is useful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahmand, Mehrnoosh; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Rahimi, Robabeh; Mehri-Dehnavi, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    The non-vanishing residual entanglement, between the fermionic modes in the infinite acceleration limit, does not violate CHSH inequality, therefore it is not non-local. In this paper, we study the usefulness of the residual fermionic entanglement in single mode approximation and beyond single mode approximation. It is shown that there are some cases where the CHSH inequality is not violated by the residual entanglement, but the state is useful for quantum teleportation. Conditions for the violation of the CHSH inequality in terms of the ;presence probability; of the particle in different Rindler regions are given for the state to be useful for teleportation and superdense coding.

  7. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: PCE DRY CLEANERS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the residual risk assessement for the Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaners source category. For stationary sources, section 112(f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate additional standards. The purpose of this document is to describe the methodology and results of teh residual risk assessment performed for the Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaners source category. The results of this analysis will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  8. Biomass energy from crop and forest residues.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, D; Moran, M A; Fast, S; Weber, G; Bukantis, R; Balliett, L; Boveng, P; Cleveland, C; Hindman, S; Young, M

    1981-06-05

    Residues remaining after the harvest of crop and forestry products are being proposed as a substantial energy source for the nation. An estimated 22 percent of the residues might be utilized, providing a renewable source of high-grade energy with the potential of supplying 1 percent of the current U.S. gasoline consumption as ethanol or 4 percent of the total electrical energy used. These net energy benefits are limited by high energy costs to collect, transport, and process the residues. Environmental threats include soil erosion, water runoff, and nutrient loss.

  9. Double layers and double wells in arbitrary degenerate plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Using the generalized hydrodynamic model, the possibility of variety of large amplitude nonlinear excitations is examined in electron-ion plasma with arbitrary electron degeneracy considering also the ion temperature effect. A new energy-density relation is proposed for plasmas with arbitrary electron degeneracy which reduces to the classical Boltzmann and quantum Thomas-Fermi counterparts in the extreme limits. The pseudopotential method is employed to find the criteria for existence of nonlinear structures such as solitons, periodic nonlinear structures, and double-layers for different cases of adiabatic and isothermal ion fluids for a whole range of normalized electron chemical potential, η0, ranging from dilute classical to completely degenerate electron fluids. It is observed that there is a Mach-speed gap in which no large amplitude localized or periodic nonlinear excitations can propagate in the plasma under consideration. It is further revealed that the plasma under investigation supports propagation of double-wells and double-layers the chemical potential and Mach number ranges of which are studied in terms of other plasma parameters. The Mach number criteria for nonlinear waves are shown to significantly differ for cases of classical with η0 < 0 and quantum with η0 > 0 regimes. It is also shown that the localized structure propagation criteria possess significant dissimilarities for plasmas with adiabatic and isothermal ions. Current research may be generalized to study the nonlinear structures in plasma containing positrons, multiple ions with different charge states, and charged dust grains.

  10. Double layers and double wells in arbitrary degenerate plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2016-06-15

    Using the generalized hydrodynamic model, the possibility of variety of large amplitude nonlinear excitations is examined in electron-ion plasma with arbitrary electron degeneracy considering also the ion temperature effect. A new energy-density relation is proposed for plasmas with arbitrary electron degeneracy which reduces to the classical Boltzmann and quantum Thomas-Fermi counterparts in the extreme limits. The pseudopotential method is employed to find the criteria for existence of nonlinear structures such as solitons, periodic nonlinear structures, and double-layers for different cases of adiabatic and isothermal ion fluids for a whole range of normalized electron chemical potential, η{sub 0}, ranging from dilute classical to completely degenerate electron fluids. It is observed that there is a Mach-speed gap in which no large amplitude localized or periodic nonlinear excitations can propagate in the plasma under consideration. It is further revealed that the plasma under investigation supports propagation of double-wells and double-layers the chemical potential and Mach number ranges of which are studied in terms of other plasma parameters. The Mach number criteria for nonlinear waves are shown to significantly differ for cases of classical with η{sub 0} < 0 and quantum with η{sub 0} > 0 regimes. It is also shown that the localized structure propagation criteria possess significant dissimilarities for plasmas with adiabatic and isothermal ions. Current research may be generalized to study the nonlinear structures in plasma containing positrons, multiple ions with different charge states, and charged dust grains.

  11. Thermo-mechanical and experimental analysis of double pass line heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Pankaj; Mandal, N. R.; Sha, O. P.; Mahapatra, M. M.

    2011-06-01

    The present investigation deals with process analysis of oxy-acetylene flame assisted double pass line heating for varying plate thickness. oxy-acetylene flame as the heat source for multi pass line heating to achieve 3-D bending of plates with varying thicknesses was studied. The oxy-acetylene flame was modeled as the moving heat source in the FEM analysis. The transient thermal histories were predicted taking into account the temperature dependent thermo-mechanical properties. A comparative study between single pass and double pass line heating residual deformation was also carried out. The temperature distribution and residual deformations predicted by the numerical model developed in the present work compared fairly well with those of the experimental ones.

  12. Basic residues within the ebolavirus VP35 protein are required for its viral polymerase cofactor function.

    PubMed

    Prins, Kathleen C; Binning, Jennifer M; Shabman, Reed S; Leung, Daisy W; Amarasinghe, Gaya K; Basler, Christopher F

    2010-10-01

    The ebolavirus (EBOV) VP35 protein binds to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), inhibits host alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) production, and is an essential component of the viral polymerase complex. Structural studies of the VP35 C-terminal IFN inhibitory domain (IID) identified specific structural features, including a central basic patch and a hydrophobic pocket, that are important for dsRNA binding and IFN inhibition. Several other conserved basic residues bordering the central basic patch and a separate cluster of basic residues, called the first basic patch, were also identified. Functional analysis of alanine substitution mutants indicates that basic residues outside the central basic patch are not required for dsRNA binding or for IFN inhibition. However, minigenome assays, which assess viral RNA polymerase complex function, identified these other basic residues to be critical for viral RNA synthesis. Of these, a subset located within the first basic patch is important for VP35-nucleoprotein (NP) interaction, as evidenced by the inability of alanine substitution mutants to coimmunoprecipitate with NP. Therefore, first basic patch residues are likely critical for replication complex formation through interactions with NP. Coimmunoprecipitation studies further demonstrate that the VP35 IID is sufficient to interact with NP and that dsRNA can modulate VP35 IID interactions with NP. Other basic residue mutations that disrupt the VP35 polymerase cofactor function do not affect interaction with NP or with the amino terminus of the viral polymerase. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of conserved basic residues from the EBOV VP35 C-terminal IID and validate the VP35 IID as a potential therapeutic target.

  13. Mutagenesis of bacteriophage IKe major coat protein transmembrane domain: role of an interfacial proline residue.

    PubMed

    Williams, K A; Deber, C M

    1993-10-15

    The transmembrane (TM) domain of the 53-residue major coat protein of the M13-related bacteriophage IKe (residues 24-42: LISQTWPVVTTVVVAGVLI) has been subjected to randomized mutagenesis to probe the conformation and stability of the TM domain, as well as the effect of structurally-important residues such as proline. TM mutants were obtained by the Eckstein method of site-directed mutagenesis using the IKe genome as template so as to eliminate the need for subcloning. Over 40 single- and double-site viable mutants of bacteriophage IKe were isolated. Every residue in the TM segment, except the highly conserved Trp29, could be mutated to at least one other residue; polar and charged mutations occurred in the TM segment adjacent to the N-terminal domain (residues 24-28), while non-polar substitutions predominated in the C-terminal portion (residues 30-42). The Pro30 locus tolerated four mutations-Ala, Gly, Cys, and Ser- which represent the four side chains of least volume. Mutant coat proteins obtained directly from the phage in milligram quantities were studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE gels. Wild type IKe coat protein solubilized in sodium deoxycholate micelles was found to occur as an alpha-helical, monomeric species which is stable at 95 degrees C, whereas the mutant Pro30-->Gly undergoes an irreversible conformational transition at ca. 90 degrees C to an aggregated beta-sheet structure. The result that Pro30 stabilizes the TM helix in the micellar membrane suggests a sterically-restricted location for the wild type Pro pyrrolidine side chain in the bulky Trp-Pro-Val triad, where it may be positioned to direct the initiation of the subsequent TM core domain helix.

  14. Extension of UNRES force field to treat polypeptide chains with D-amino-acid residues

    PubMed Central

    Sieradzan, Adam K.; Hansmann, Ulrich H.E.; Scheraga, Harold A.; Liwo, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Coarse-grained force fields for protein simulations are usually designed and parameterized to treat proteins composed of natural L-amino-acid residues. However, D-amino-acid residues occur in bacterial, fungal (e.g., gramicidins), as well as human-designed proteins. For this reason, we have extended the UNRES coarse-grained force field developed in our laboratory to treat systems with D-amino-acid residues. We developed the respective virtual-bond-torsional and double-torsional potentials for rotation about the Cα · · · Cα virtual-bond axis and two consecutive Cα · · · Cα virtual-bond axes, respectively, as functions of virtual-bond-dihedral angles γ. In turn, these were calculated as potentials of mean force (PMFs) from the diabatic energy surfaces of terminally-blocked model compounds for glycine, alanine, and proline. The potential-energy surfaces were calculated by using the ab initio method of molecular quantum mechanics at the Møller-Plesset (MP2) level of theory and the 6-31G(d,p) basis set, with the rotation angles of the peptide groups about Ci-1α⋯Ciα(λ(1)) and Ciα⋯Ci+1α(λ(2)) used as variables, and the energy was minimized with respect to the remaining degrees of freedom. The PMFs were calculated by numerical integration for all pairs and triplets with all possible combinations of types (glycine, alanine, and proline) and chirality (D or L); however, symmetry relations reduce the number of non-equivalent torsional potentials to 13 and the number of double-torsional potentials to 63 for a given C-terminal blocking group. Subsequently, one- (for torsional) and two-dimensional (for double-torsional potentials) Fourier series were fitted to the PMFs to obtain analytical expressions. It was found that the torsional potentials of the x-Y and X-y types, where X and Y are Ala or Pro, respectively, and a lowercase letter denotes D-chirality, have global minima for small absolute values of γ, accounting for the double-helical structure of

  15. Asp residues of βDELSEED-motif are required for peptide binding in the Escherichia coli ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Tayou, Junior; Laughlin, Thomas F

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates the requirement of Asp-380 and Asp-386 in the βDELSEED-motif of Escherichia coli ATP synthase for peptide binding and inhibition. We studied the inhibition profiles of wild-type and mutant E. coli ATP synthase in presence of c-terminal amide bound melittin and melittin related peptide. Melittin and melittin related peptide inhibited wild-type ATPase almost completely while only partial inhibition was observed in single mutations with replacement of Asp to Ala, Gln, or Arg. Additionally, very little or no inhibition occurred among double mutants βD380A/βD386A, βD380Q/βD386Q, or βD380R/βD386R signifying that removal of one Asp residue allows limited peptide binding. Partial or substantial loss of oxidative phosphorylation among double mutants demonstrates the functional requirement of βD380 and βD386 Asp residues. Moreover, abrogation of wild-type E. coli cell growth and normal growth of mutant cells in presence of peptides provides strong evidence for the requirement of βDELSEED-motif Asp residues for peptide binding. It is concluded that while presence of one Asp residue may allow partial peptide binding, both Asp residues, βD380 and βD386, are essential for proper peptide binding and inhibition of ATP synthase.

  16. Image-based Measurement of Post-Swallow Residue: The Normalized Residue Ratio Scale

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, William G.; Smith, Zachary M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2012-01-01

    Post-swallow residue is considered a sign of swallowing impairment. Existing methods for capturing post-swallow residue (perceptual and quantitative) have inherent limitations. We employed several different perceptual and quantitative (ratio) methods for measuring post-swallow residue on the same 40 swallows and addressed the following questions: (1) Do perceptual and quantitative methods demonstrate good agreement? (2) What differences in precision are apparent by measurement method (one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and circumscribed area ratios)? (3) Do residue ratios agree strongly with residue area measures that are anatomically normalized? Based on the findings of this series of questions, a new method for capturing residue is proposed: the Normalized Residue Ratio Scale (NRRS). The NRRS is a continuous measurement that incorporates both the ratio of residue relative to the available pharyngeal space and the residue proportionate to the size of the individual. A demonstration of this method is presented to illustrate the added precision of the NRRS measurement in comparison to other approaches for measuring residue severity. PMID:23089830

  17. Recovery of transuranics from process residues

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.; Gray, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Process residues are generated at both the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) during aqueous chemical and pyrochemical operations. Frequently, process operations will result in either impure products or produce residues sufficiently contaminated with transuranics to be nondiscardable as waste. Purification and recovery flowsheets for process residues have been developed to generate solutions compatible with subsequent Purex operations and either solid or liquid waste suitable for disposal. The ''scrub alloy'' and the ''anode heel alloy'' are examples of materials generated at RFP which have been processed at SRP using the developed recovery flowsheets. Examples of process residues being generated at SRP for which flowsheets are under development include LECO crucibles and alpha-contaminated hydraulic oil.

  18. Quantifying logging residue - before the fact

    SciTech Connect

    Bones, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    Tree biomass estimation, which is being integrated into the U.S. Forest Service Renewable Resources Evaluation Program, will give foresters the ability to estimate the amount of logging residues they might expect from harvested treetops and branches and residual rough, rotten, and small trees before the actual harvest. With planning, and increased demand for such timber products as pulpwood and fuelwood, product recovery could be increased by up to 43 percent in softwood stands and 99% in hardwoods. Recovery levels affect gross product receipts and site preparation costs. An example of product recovery and residue generation is presented for three harvesting options in Pennsylvania hardwood stands. Under the whole-tree harvesting option, 46% more product was recovered than in single product harvesting, and logging residue levels were reduced by 58%.

  19. Properties of Rasch residual fit statistics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Margaret; Adams, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the residual-based fit statistics commonly used in Rasch measurement. In particular, the paper analytically examines some of the theoretical properties of the residual-based fit statistics with a view to establishing the inferences that can be made using these fit statistics. More specifically, the relationships between the distributional properties of the fit statistics and sample size are discussed; some research that erroneously concludes that residual-based fit statistics are unstable is reviewed; and finally, it is analytically illustrated that, for dichotomous items, residual-based fit statistics provide a measure of the relative slope of empirical item characteristic curves. With a clear understanding of the theoretical properties of the fit statistics, the use and limitations of these statistics can be placed in the right light.

  20. Residual strength of damaged marine structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Dhruba J.; Nappi, Natale S.; Wiernicki, Christopher J.

    1994-09-01

    Traditionally assessment of ship's longitudinal strength has been made by comparing the elastic stresses at the deck or bottom shell to fractions of the material yield strength. This results in high reserve capacity due to inherent redundancies in ship structures. Residual strength, which is defined as the strength of the structure after damage, has rarely been considered either during design or at the time of repair. In this report, key elements required to undertake an engineering analysis to evaluate the residual strength have been identified. Emphasis has been placed on assessing the residual strength of marine structures damaged due to normal operating loads. Methods available to industry for evaluation of damage such as, fracture and ultimate strength have been summarized. An example problem, illustrating the application of an integrated approach to residual strength assessment on a particular ship type, is presented.

  1. SAR impulse response with residual chirps.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2009-06-01

    A Linear Frequency-Modulated (LFM) chirp is a function with unit amplitude and quadratic phase characteristic. In a focused Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image, a residual chirp is undesired for targets of interest, as it coarsens the manifested resolution. However, for undesired spurious signals, a residual chirp is often advantageous because it spreads the energy and thereby diminishes its peak value. In either case, a good understanding of the effects of a residual LFM chirp on a SAR Impulse Response (IPR) is required to facilitate system analysis and design. This report presents an analysis of the effects of a residual chirp on the IPR. As reference, there is a rich body of publications on various aspects of LFM chirps. A quick search reveals a plethora of articles, going back to the early 1950s. We mention here purely as trivia one of the earlier analysis papers on this waveform by Klauder, et al.

  2. Ultrasonics used to measure residual stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Ultrasonic method is used to measure residual stress in metal structures. By using this method, various forms of wave propagation in metals are possible, and more thorough analysis of complex geometric structures may be had.

  3. Study of Selected Petroleum Refining Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The document describes EPA's approach to conducting the industry study required by the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF)/EPA consent decree and characterizes the study residuals and how they are managed.

  4. Hierarchy in a double braneworld

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, Rommel; Rodriguez, R. Omar; Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson

    2006-10-15

    We show that the hierarchy between the Planck and the weak scales can follow from the tendency of gravitons and fermions to localize at different edges of a thick double wall embedded in an AdS{sub 5} spacetime without reflection symmetry. This double wall is a stable BPS thick-wall solution with two subwalls located at its edges; fermions are coupled to the scalar field through Yukawa interactions, but the lack of reflection symmetry forces them to be localized in one of the subwalls. We show that the graviton zero-mode wave function is suppressed in the fermion edge by an exponential function of the distance between the subwalls, and that the massive modes decouple so that Newtonian gravity is recuperated.

  5. Double agency in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Marie; Chalmers, Karen

    2002-06-01

    The current focus on evidence-based practice in nursing may result in nurses playing 2 roles concurrently--that is, acting as researcher and caregiver at the same time and with the same people. Given the fiduciary nature of the patient-caregiver relationship, this double agency can give rise to problems, both real and perceived. In this paper, the issues associated with assuming dual roles in research with humans will be examined, particularly in relation to recruitment and informed consent, data collection, and participant withdrawal from a study. In addition, strategies to prevent or minimize problems related to double agency are identified, with attention to the guidance provided by professional codes of ethics and the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans.

  6. Neuberger's double-pass algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ting-Wai; Hsieh, Tung-Han

    2003-12-01

    We analyze Neuberger’s double-pass algorithm for the matrix-vector multiplication R(H)ṡY [where R(H) is (n-1,n)th degree rational polynomial of positive definite operator H], and show that the number of floating-point operations is independent of the degree n, provided that the number of sites is much larger than the number of iterations in the conjugate gradient. This implies that the matrix-vector product (H)-1/2Y≃R(n-1,n)(H)ṡY can be approximated to very high precision with sufficiently large n, without noticeably extra costs. Further, we show that there exists a threshold nT such that the double-pass is faster than the single pass for n>nT, where nT≃12 25 for most platforms.

  7. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2010-06-14

    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  8. Edwards syndrome with double trisomy.

    PubMed

    Tennakoon, J; Kandasamy, Y; Alcock, G; Koh, T H

    2008-07-01

    Double trisomy is rare and the only case reported in the literature died soon after birth. We present another case of double trisomy (48XYY, +18) in a male neonate, who was born to a 28-year-old gravida three parity one mother at 35 weeks of gestation. The baby had features of trisomy 18. Karyotype of the patient showed 48, XYY, +18, Ish (DYZ3*2), (D18Z1*3), nuc ish (DYZ3*2), (D18Z1*3) . The patient had clinical features of trisomy 18. There was no family history of diabetes mellitus and no exposure to chemicals. It has been suggested that the rarity of Y-chromosome involvement in trisomy 18 may be due to discrepancy between the sexes.

  9. Effects of heavy ions on inactivation and DNA double strand breaks in Deinococcus radiodurans R1.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, H; Schafer, M; Schmitz, C; Bucker, H

    1994-10-01

    Inactivation and double strand break (dsb) induction after heavy ion irradiation were studied in stationary phase cells of the highly radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans R1. There is evidence that the radiation sensitivity of this bacterium is nearly independent on energy in the range of up to 15 MeV/u for lighter ions (Ar). The responses to dsb induction for charged particles show direct relationship between increasing radiation dose and residual intact DNA.

  10. Double Negative Materials (DNM), Phenomena and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Nanoparticles Formed by Pairs Of Concentric Double-Negative (DNG), Single-Negative ( SNG ) and/or Double-Positive (DPS) Metamaterial Layers.” J. Appl...material RRL Rapid Research Letters SHG second-harmonic generation SNG single-negative SSR split-ring resonator A-1 Appendix A. October 2008...Pairs of Concentric Double-Negative (DNG), Single-Negative ( SNG ), and/or Double-Positive (DPS) Metamaterial Layers.” J. Appl. Phys. 97, no. 9 (May

  11. Atomic resolution structure of the double mutant (K53,56M) of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, K. E-mail: sekar@serc.iisc.ernet.in; Yogavel, M.; Gayathri, D.; Velmurugan, D.; Krishna, R.; Poi, M.-J.; Dauter, Z.; Dauter, M.; Tsai, M.-D.

    2006-01-01

    The atomic resolution crystal structure of the double mutant (K53,56M) of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A{sub 2} is reported. The structure of the double mutant K53,56M has previously been refined at 1.9 Å resolution using room-temperature data. The present paper reports the crystal structure of the same mutant K53,56M refined against 1.1 Å data collected using synchrotron radiation. A total of 116 main-chain atoms from 29 residues and 44 side chains are modelled in alternate conformations. Most of the interfacial binding residues are found to be disordered and alternate conformations could be recognized. The second calcium ion-binding site residue Glu92 adopts two alternate conformations. The minor and major conformations of Glu92 correspond to the second calcium ion bound and unbound states.

  12. Current double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, A.

    2005-01-01

    After an introduction about double beta decay and the deep connections between the lepton-violating channel and the neutrino properties, the most sensitive experimental approaches to the search for this rare nuclear transition are described. An overview of the experiments presently running is then given, with particular emphasis on the adopted techniques and their possible extrapolation to next-generation, higher-sensitivity experiments. The present situation about the experimental determination of the Majorana neutrino mass is presented and discussed.

  13. RESIDUAL STRESS IN HARDENED STEEL CYLINDERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ultimate strength of the steel and in some instances caused cracking, and (4) stress patterns of interrupted quench specimens were not consistent enough to warrant a conclusion. (Author)...A study was conducted to (1) measure residual stress in hardened steel solid cylinders, (2) correlate the stress values with heat treatments, and (3...develop a dissolution technique. Residual stress patterns for 12 solid cylinders of 4160 steel, heat treated by various methods, were determined

  14. GLC determination of quinaldine residue in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Sills, J.B.

    1970-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of quinaldine residue in various fish tissues is described. Homogenized tissues are extracted wi th hexane-ethyl ether, the extracts are concentrated by partitioning through O.IN sulfuric acid, and the residues are measured by alkali Harne ionization gas chromatography. Muscle tissues containing from 0.01 to 10.0 ppm quinaldine were successfully analyzed with recoveries from 75 to 100%.

  15. Double-Plate Penetration Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashida, K. B.; Robinson, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    This report compares seven double-plate penetration predictor equations for accuracy and effectiveness of a shield design. Three of the seven are the Johnson Space Center original, modified, and new Cour-Palais equations. The other four are the Nysmith, Lundeberg-Stern-Bristow, Burch, and Wilkinson equations. These equations, except the Wilkinson equation, were derived from test results, with the velocities ranging up to 8 km/sec. Spreadsheet software calculated the projectile diameters for various velocities for the different equations. The results were plotted on projectile diameter versus velocity graphs for the expected orbital debris impact velocities ranging from 2 to 15 km/sec. The new Cour-Palais double-plate penetration equation was compared to the modified Cour-Palais single-plate penetration equation. Then the predictions from each of the seven double-plate penetration equations were compared to each other for a chosen shield design. Finally, these results from the equations were compared with test results performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Because the different equations predict a wide range of projectile diameters at any given velocity, it is very difficult to choose the "right" prediction equation for shield configurations other than those exactly used in the equations' development. Although developed for various materials, the penetration equations alone cannot be relied upon to accurately predict the effectiveness of a shield without using hypervelocity impact tests to verify the design.

  16. Revisiting double Dirac delta potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zafar; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Mayank; Sharma, Vibhu

    2016-07-01

    We study a general double Dirac delta potential to show that this is the simplest yet still versatile solvable potential to introduce double wells, avoided crossings, resonances and perfect transmission (T = 1). Perfect transmission energies turn out to be the critical property of symmetric and anti-symmetric cases wherein these discrete energies are found to correspond to the eigenvalues of a Dirac delta potential placed symmetrically between two rigid walls. For well(s) or barrier(s), perfect transmission (or zero reflectivity, R(E)) at energy E=0 is non-intuitive. However, this has been found earlier and called the ‘threshold anomaly’. Here we show that it is a critical phenomenon and we can have 0≤slant R(0)\\lt 1 when the parameters of the double delta potential satisfy an interesting condition. We also invoke a zero-energy and zero curvature eigenstate (\\psi (x)={Ax}+B) of the delta well between two symmetric rigid walls for R(0)=0. We resolve that the resonant energies and the perfect transmission energies are different and they arise differently.

  17. Double excitations in finite systems.

    PubMed

    Romaniello, P; Sangalli, D; Berger, J A; Sottile, F; Molinari, L G; Reining, L; Onida, G

    2009-01-28

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is widely used in the study of linear response properties of finite systems. However, there are difficulties in properly describing excited states, which have double- and higher-excitation characters, which are particularly important in molecules with an open-shell ground state. These states would be described if the exact TDDFT kernel were used; however, within the adiabatic approximation to the exchange-correlation (xc) kernel, the calculated excitation energies have a strict single-excitation character and are fewer than the real ones. A frequency-dependent xc kernel could create extra poles in the response function, which would describe states with a multiple-excitation character. We introduce a frequency-dependent xc kernel, which can reproduce, within TDDFT, double excitations in finite systems. In order to achieve this, we use the Bethe-Salpeter equation with a dynamically screened Coulomb interaction W(omega), which can describe these excitations, and from this we obtain the xc kernel. Using a two-electron model system, we show that the frequency dependence of W does indeed introduce the double excitations that are instead absent in any static approximation of the electron-hole screening.

  18. Latest results from Double Chooz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minotti, A.

    2017-01-01

    Double Chooz is a short-baseline neutrino disappearance experiment. It detects ν¯ e produced in the power plant of Chooz, France, where is located. The main goal of the experiment is the measurement of θ13 mixing angle and in 2011 for the first time the experiment observed an indication for a non zero value of such an oscillation parameter. The mixing angle was successively measured using only the far detector finding the best fit value of sin2(2θ13) = 0.090 -0.029 +0.032 . The near detector is under construction and will start data taking by the middle of 2014 allowing the reduction of the systematic errors. In this paper I make a review of the Double Chooz experiment, focusing in particular on the latest results of the measurement of the mixing angle θ13 relying on the neutron absorption on Gadolinium. I also present results proving the capability of Double Chooz to identify the ortho-positronium. This has been done in an event-by-event basis for the first time in a large liquid scintillator experiments, and can be an additional handle for the electron/positron discrimination in future detectors based on such technology.

  19. Pair extended coupled cluster doubles

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Bulik, Ireneusz W.

    2015-06-07

    The accurate and efficient description of strongly correlated systems remains an important challenge for computational methods. Doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI), in which all electrons are paired and no correlations which break these pairs are permitted, can in many cases provide an accurate account of strong correlations, albeit at combinatorial computational cost. Recently, there has been significant interest in a method we refer to as pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD), a variant of coupled cluster doubles in which the electrons are paired. This is simply because pCCD provides energies nearly identical to those of DOCI, but at mean-field computational cost (disregarding the cost of the two-electron integral transformation). Here, we introduce the more complete pair extended coupled cluster doubles (pECCD) approach which, like pCCD, has mean-field cost and reproduces DOCI energetically. We show that unlike pCCD, pECCD also reproduces the DOCI wave function with high accuracy. Moreover, pECCD yields sensible albeit inexact results even for attractive interactions where pCCD breaks down.

  20. Persistence of metalaxyl and mancozeb on potato leaves and their residues in tubers.

    PubMed

    Wani, A Alam; Rewal, H S; Sahoo, Sanjay; Singh, Balwinder; Bhat, J Amad

    2012-01-01

    The persistence of fungicides on two commercial cultivars of potato was determined under field conditions at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab. Initial deposits of mancozeb on potato leaves were found to be 26.9 and 38.7 mg kg(-1), following application of ready mixture of fungicide metalaxyl 8% + mancozeb 64% (Ridomil MZ) at the rate of 1260 and 2520 g a.i. ha(-1), whereas metalaxyl residues were found to be 35.1 and 49.5 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residue level of mancozeb in potato leaves 15 days after application at single and double doze were 19.0 and 27.0 mg kg(-1) showing a loss of 29.6 and 30.3%, whereas the values for metalaxyl at single and double doze were 0.40 and 0.80 mg kg(-1) showing a loss of 98.9 and 98.4%, respectively. Residues of mancozeb and metalaxyl were not detected at 0.04 and 0.02 mg kg(-1) level in potato tubers at harvest (PHI = 53 days) at both the dosages, respectively. The persistence and dissipation of mancozeb with the application of Ridomil MZ followed similar trend as in Indofil M-45. The rate of fungicide dissipation increased with time after application in both the potato cultivars 'Kufri Chandramukhi' and 'Chipsona'. No significant difference was observed on initial deposit, persistence and dissipation of the two molecules between the two potato cultivars.

  1. Detecting organic gunpowder residues from handgun use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCrehan, William A.; Ricketts, K. Michelle; Baltzersen, Richard A.; Rowe, Walter F.

    1999-02-01

    The gunpowder residues that remain after the use of handguns or improvised explosive devices pose a challenge for the forensic investigator. Can these residues be reliably linked to a specific gunpowder or ammunition? We investigated the possibility by recovering and measuring the composition of organic additives in smokeless powder and its post-firing residues. By determining gunpowder additives such as nitroglycerin, dinitrotoluene, ethyl- and methylcentralite, and diphenylamine, we hope to identify the type of gunpowder in the residues and perhaps to provide evidence of a match to a sample of unfired powder. The gunpowder additives were extracted using an automated technique, pressurized fluid extraction (PFE). The conditions for the quantitative extraction of the additives using neat and solvent-modified supercritical carbon dioxide were investigated. All of the major gunpowder additives can be determined with baseline resolution using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with a micellar agent and UV absorbance detection. A study of candidate internal standards for use in the CE method is also presented. The PFE/CE technique is used to evaluate a new residue sampling protocol--asking shooters to blow their noses. In addition, an initial investigation of the compositional differences among unfired and post-fired .22 handgun residues is presented.

  2. Axial residual stresses in boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The axial residual stress distribution as a function of radius was determined from the fiber surface to the core including the average residual stress in the core. Such measurements on boron on tungsten (B/W) fibers show that the residual stresses for 102, 142, 203, and 366 micron diameter fibers were similar, being compressive at the surface and changing monotonically to a region of tensile within the boron. At approximately 25 percent of the original radius, the stress reaches a maximum tensile stress of about 860 mn/sq.m and then decreases to a compressive stress near the tungsten boride core. Data were presented for 203 micron diameter B/W fibers that show annealing above 900 C reduces the residual stresses. A comparison between 102 micron diameter B/W and boron on carbon (b/C) shows that the residual stresses were similar in the outer regions of the fibers, but that large differences near and in the core were observed. The effects of these residual stresses on the fracture of boron fibers were discussed.

  3. Method for residual household waste composition studies.

    PubMed

    Sahimaa, Olli; Hupponen, Mari; Horttanainen, Mika; Sorvari, Jaana

    2015-12-01

    The rising awareness of decreasing natural resources has brought forward the idea of a circular economy and resource efficiency in Europe. As a part of this movement, European countries have identified the need to monitor residual waste flows in order to make recycling more efficient. In Finland, studies on the composition of residual household waste have mostly been conducted using different methods, which makes the comparison of the results difficult. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method for residual household waste composition studies. First, a literature review on European study methods was performed. Also, 19 Finnish waste composition studies were compared in order to identify the shortcomings of the current Finnish residual household waste composition data. Moreover, the information needs of different waste management authorities concerning residual household waste were studied through a survey and personal interviews. Stratification, sampling, the classification of fractions and statistical analysis were identified as the key factors in a residual household waste composition study. The area studied should be divided into non-overlapping strata in order to decrease the heterogeneity of waste and enable comparisons between different waste producers. A minimum of six subsamples, each 100 kg, from each stratum should be sorted. Confidence intervals for each waste category should be determined in order to evaluate the applicability of the results. A new three-level classification system was created based on Finnish stakeholders' information needs and compared to four other European waste composition study classifications.

  4. Residues of oxytetracycline in cultured rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Sharafati-Chaleshtori, R; Mardani, G; Rafieian-Kopaei, M; Sharafati-Chaleshtori, A; Drees, F

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, antibiotics are widely used in aquatic animals to control and treatment of infections or as food supplement for growth increase and animal output. With increasing use of veterinary drugs in food production, there is global consideration about the consumption of antimicrobial residues in aquatic foods and their effects on human health. This study was aimed to evaluate the Oxytetracycline (OTC) residues in Rainbow trout meat in Shahre-kord (Iran) markets before and after frying. After randomized collection of 50 samples of fish in Shahre-kord markets in a six months period were examined. The prepared samples were examined for OTC residues using HPLC analytical method before and after frying. Results showed that 3 (6%) of the samples before frying and 12 (24%) after frying were having lower than Maximum residual limits (MRLs) in Codex alimentarius. However, mean OTC residues before and after frying samples were above MRLs. The mean amounts of OTC were 2260 +/- 1090 and 1110 +/- 930 ng g(-1) before and after frying, respectively. These findings show that the frying of fish reduces OTC residual. Nevertheless, the usage of OTC should be reduced to an acceptable level in fishery industry.

  5. Pyrethroid insecticide residues on vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Ripley, B D; Ritcey, G M; Harris, C R; Denommé, M A; Brown, P D

    2001-08-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides were applied on various vegetable crops as foliar treatments to determine dissipation rates. On Chinese broccoli (Guy Lon), Chinese mustard (Pak Choi) and Chinese cabbage (Kasumi, napa), fenvalerate was persistent with residues of 0.10, 0.14 and 0.11 mg kg-1, respectively, by day 21. Cypermethrin residues on head lettuce were below 0.1 mg kg-1 by day 10 but on the leafier romaine and endive varieties it was more persistent and required 14-19 days to dissipate below this concentration. After three applications, residues of cypermethrin in harvested carrots and of permethrin in eggplant were not detected on the day of application. On asparagus, deltamethrin and cypermethrin residues declined to less than 0.1 mg kg-1 by days 1 and 2, respectively; permethrin was more persistent, requiring more than 2 days to decline to less than 0.1 mg kg-1. Deltamethrin on dry (cooking) and Spanish onions was not detected on the day of application. On tomatoes, the concentration of permethrin was 0.093 mg kg-1 on the day of application and declined to about 0.05 mg kg-1 after 2-4 days. In general, permethrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin residues declined to acceptable concentrations within an acceptable pre-harvest interval. Fenvalerate may be too persistent on these speciality crops unless a maximum residue limit > 0.1 mg kg-1 is permitted.

  6. RESIDUAL ENERGY SPECTRUM OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C. H. K.; Bale, S. D.; Salem, C. S.; Maruca, B. A.

    2013-06-20

    It has long been known that the energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is not in equipartition. In this paper, we present an analysis of 5 yr of Wind data at 1 AU to investigate the reason for this. The residual energy (difference between energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations) was calculated using both the standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normalization for the magnetic field and a kinetic version, which includes temperature anisotropies and drifts between particle species. It was found that with the kinetic normalization, the fluctuations are closer to equipartition, with a mean normalized residual energy of {sigma}{sub r} = -0.19 and mean Alfven ratio of r{sub A} = 0.71. The spectrum of residual energy, in the kinetic normalization, was found to be steeper than both the velocity and magnetic field spectra, consistent with some recent MHD turbulence predictions and numerical simulations, having a spectral index close to -1.9. The local properties of residual energy and cross helicity were also investigated, showing that globally balanced intervals with small residual energy contain local patches of larger imbalance and larger residual energy at all scales, as expected for nonlinear turbulent interactions.

  7. Total residual chlorine as a regulatory tool

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, J.S.; Tsai, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    Inherent in the choice of total residual chlorine (TRC) as a basis for establishing water quality criteria or effluent guidelines for chlorine are assumptions that components of TRC are roughly equivalent in toxicity to aquatic species and that the toxicities of these components are additive. Most of the studies of this assumption involved comparisons of mixtures of residual chlorine components and thus led to conflicting conclusions. In addition, studies designed to avoid the mixture problem omitted one or more of the most likely products of chlorination from the comparison(s). On the other hand, the assumption of additive toxicity of residual chlorine species has largely been ignored. In view of the continuing controversy that focused on the levels of residual chlorine which can be discharged without deleterious impact on receiving waters, it is important that these assumptions be evaluated comprehensively. New data on the toxicities to the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, of inorganic monochloramine, inorganic dichloramine, a mixture of these two compounds, and two mixtures with free chlorine are reported. These and other data on the toxicity of residual chlorine species to mosquitofish are then used to examine the questions of toxicity equivalence and additivity of species of residual chlorine. (ERB)

  8. Fluorescence imaging to quantify crop residue cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Chappelle, E. W.

    1994-01-01

    Crop residues, the portion of the crop left in the field after harvest, can be an important management factor in controlling soil erosion. Methods to quantify residue cover are needed that are rapid, accurate, and objective. Scenes with known amounts of crop residue were illuminated with long wave ultraviolet (UV) radiation and fluorescence images were recorded with an intensified video camera fitted with a 453 to 488 nm band pass filter. A light colored soil and a dark colored soil were used as background for the weathered soybean stems. Residue cover was determined by counting the proportion of the pixels in the image with fluorescence values greater than a threshold. Soil pixels had the lowest gray levels in the images. The values of the soybean residue pixels spanned nearly the full range of the 8-bit video data. Classification accuracies typically were within 3(absolute units) of measured cover values. Video imaging can provide an intuitive understanding of the fraction of the soil covered by residue.

  9. 7 CFR 51.2846 - Doubles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Doubles. 51.2846 Section 51.2846 Agriculture... Creole Types) Definitions § 51.2846 Doubles. Doubles means onions which have developed more than one distinct bulb joined only at the base....

  10. 7 CFR 51.3207 - Doubles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Doubles. 51.3207 Section 51.3207 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Definitions § 51.3207 Doubles. Doubles means onions which have developed more than one distinct bulb joined only at the base....

  11. 7 CFR 51.3207 - Doubles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Doubles. 51.3207 Section 51.3207 Agriculture... § 51.3207 Doubles. Doubles means onions which have developed more than one distinct bulb joined only at the base....

  12. 7 CFR 51.3207 - Doubles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Doubles. 51.3207 Section 51.3207 Agriculture... § 51.3207 Doubles. Doubles means onions which have developed more than one distinct bulb joined only at the base....

  13. 7 CFR 51.2846 - Doubles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Doubles. 51.2846 Section 51.2846 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Onions (Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano and Creole Types) Definitions § 51.2846 Doubles. Doubles means onions which have developed more than one distinct bulb joined only at the base....

  14. 7 CFR 51.3207 - Doubles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Doubles. 51.3207 Section 51.3207 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Definitions § 51.3207 Doubles. Doubles means onions which have developed more than one distinct bulb joined only at the base....

  15. 7 CFR 51.2846 - Doubles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Doubles. 51.2846 Section 51.2846 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Onions (Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano and Creole Types) Definitions § 51.2846 Doubles. Doubles means onions which have developed more than one distinct bulb joined only at the base....

  16. 7 CFR 51.2846 - Doubles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Doubles. 51.2846 Section 51.2846 Agriculture... Creole Types) Definitions § 51.2846 Doubles. Doubles means onions which have developed more than one distinct bulb joined only at the base....

  17. Double mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with alterations in global genome and transcription-coupled repair.

    PubMed Central

    Verhage, R A; van Gool, A J; de Groot, N; Hoeijmakers, J H; van de Putte, P; Brouwer, J

    1996-01-01

    The nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway is thought to consist of two subpathways: transcription-coupled repair, limited to the transcribed strand of active genes, and global genome repair for nontranscribed DNA strands. Recently we cloned the RAD26 gene, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of human CSB/ERCC6, a gene involved in transcription-coupled repair and the disorder Cockayne syndrome. This paper describes the analysis of yeast double mutants selectively affected in each NER subpathway. Although rad26 disruption mutants are defective in transcription-coupled repair, they are not UV sensitive. However, double mutants of RAD26 with the global genome repair determinants RAD7 and RAD16 appeared more UV sensitive than the single rad7 or rad16 mutants but not as sensitive as completely NER-deficient mutants. These findings unmask a role of RAD26 and transcription-coupled repair in UV survival, indicate that transcription-coupled repair and global genome repair are partially overlapping, and provide evidence for a residual NER modality in the double mutants. Analysis of dimer removal from the active RPB2 gene in the rad7/16 rad26 double mutants revealed (i) a contribution of the global genome repair factors Rad7p and Rad16p to repair of the transcribed strand, confirming the partial overlap between both NER subpathways, and (ii) residual repair specifically of the transcribed strand. To investigate the transcription dependence of this repair activity, strand-specific repair of the inducible GAL7 gene was investigated. The template strand of this gene was repaired only under induced conditions, pointing to a role for transcription in the residual repair in the double mutants and suggesting that transcription-coupled repair can to some extent operate independently from Rad26p. Our findings also indicate locus heterogeneity for the dependence of transcription-coupled repair on RAD26. PMID:8552076

  18. 40 CFR 180.417 - Triclopyr; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 180.417 Triclopyr; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the herbicide...) Tolerances for the combined residues of the herbicide triclopyr ((3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy)...

  19. 40 CFR 180.417 - Triclopyr; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 180.417 Triclopyr; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the herbicide...) Tolerances for the combined residues of the herbicide triclopyr ((3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy)...

  20. 40 CFR 180.417 - Triclopyr; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 180.417 Triclopyr; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the herbicide...) Tolerances for the combined residues of the herbicide triclopyr ((3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy)...

  1. 40 CFR 180.417 - Triclopyr; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 180.417 Triclopyr; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the herbicide...) Tolerances for the combined residues of the herbicide triclopyr ((3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy)...

  2. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... for residues of the herbicide lactofen, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the...

  3. 40 CFR 180.339 - MCPA; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide MCPA ((4... for residues of the herbicide MCPA ((4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid) resulting from the direct...

  4. 40 CFR 180.339 - MCPA; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide MCPA ((4... for residues of the herbicide MCPA ((4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid) resulting from the direct...

  5. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... for residues of the herbicide lactofen, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the...

  6. 40 CFR 180.339 - MCPA; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide MCPA ((4... for residues of the herbicide MCPA ((4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid) resulting from the direct...

  7. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... for residues of the herbicide lactofen, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the...

  8. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... for residues of the herbicide lactofen, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the...

  9. 40 CFR 180.339 - MCPA; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide MCPA ((4... for residues of the herbicide MCPA ((4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid) resulting from the direct...

  10. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide lactofen, 1... residues of the herbicide, lactofen, 1-(carboethoxy)ethyl 5- -2- nitrobenzoate, in or on the following food...

  11. Fate of quinoxyfen residues in grapes, wine, and their processing products.

    PubMed

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Garau, V L; Pirisi, F M; Cabitza, F; Pala, M; Farris, G A

    2000-12-01

    Quinoxyfen is a new fungicide that belongs to the family of the quinolines, recently introduced to control powdery mildew (Uncinula necator). In this paper the fate of quinoxyfen residues from vine to wine and in their processing products was studied. After the last of four applications at the recommended rate, 0.38 mg/kg of residue was found on the grapes, which is under the legal limit fixed in Italy (0.5 mg/kg). The degradation rate was according to a pseudo-first-order kinetics (r = 0.964) and the half-life was 7.24 days. Vinification was carried out with and without maceration. During the vinifications without maceration <50% of the residues passed from the grapes to the musts. Separation of the lees (8%) from the must by centrifugation caused no detectable residues in centrifuged must. At the end of fermentation with and without maceration no quinoxyfen residues were determinable in the wine. No effect on the alcoholic or malolactic fermentation was observed even in the presence of higher quinoxyfen concentrations than those found in the grapes at harvest time. During fermentation, the yeasts partially degraded the pesticides and completly adsorbed them. Bacteria, on the other hand, do not have any degradative effect on the pesticides. The raisins obtained by sun-drying did not contain any residues, whereas those obtained by oven-drying show the same amount of residues as in the fresh grapes. During the sun-drying process the fruit weight decreased by a factor of 4; the decrease in the oven-drying was equivalent. Samples of dregs and liquid lees, fortified with high levels of quinoxyfen. were double-distilled. The first dregs distillate, with an alcohol content of 32.1%, did not show any residues, whereas the first lees distillate, with an alcohol content of 34.5%, showed 7% of the initial residues. After the second lees distillation, the obtained product showed an alcoholic content of 81.2% and no residues of quinoxyfen (<0.01 mg/kg).

  12. Genetic control of residual variance of yearling weight in Nellore beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Iung, L H S; Neves, H H R; Mulder, H A; Carvalheiro, R

    2017-04-01

    There is evidence for genetic variability in residual variance of livestock traits, which offers the potential for selection for increased uniformity of production. Different statistical approaches have been employed to study this topic; however, little is known about the concordance between them. The aim of our study was to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of residual variance on yearling weight (YW; 291.15 ± 46.67) in a Nellore beef cattle population; to compare the results of the statistical approaches, the two-step approach and the double hierarchical generalized linear model (DHGLM); and to evaluate the effectiveness of power transformation to accommodate scale differences. The comparison was based on genetic parameters, accuracy of EBV for residual variance, and cross-validation to assess predictive performance of both approaches. A total of 194,628 yearling weight records from 625 sires were used in the analysis. The results supported the hypothesis of genetic heterogeneity of residual variance on YW in Nellore beef cattle and the opportunity of selection, measured through the genetic coefficient of variation of residual variance (0.10 to 0.12 for the two-step approach and 0.17 for DHGLM, using an untransformed data set). However, low estimates of genetic variance associated with positive genetic correlations between mean and residual variance (about 0.20 for two-step and 0.76 for DHGLM for an untransformed data set) limit the genetic response to selection for uniformity of production while simultaneously increasing YW itself. Moreover, large sire families are needed to obtain accurate estimates of genetic merit for residual variance, as indicated by the low heritability estimates (<0.007). Box-Cox transformation was able to decrease the dependence of the variance on the mean and decreased the estimates of genetic parameters for residual variance. The transformation reduced but did not eliminate all the genetic heterogeneity of residual variance

  13. A survey of residual analysis and a new test of residual trend.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J; Calvin, Olivia L; Klapes, Bryan

    2016-05-01

    A survey of residual analysis in behavior-analytic research reveals that existing methods are problematic in one way or another. A new test for residual trends is proposed that avoids the problematic features of the existing methods. It entails fitting cubic polynomials to sets of residuals and comparing their effect sizes to those that would be expected if the sets of residuals were random. To this end, sampling distributions of effect sizes for fits of a cubic polynomial to random data were obtained by generating sets of random standardized residuals of various sizes, n. A cubic polynomial was then fitted to each set of residuals and its effect size was calculated. This yielded a sampling distribution of effect sizes for each n. To test for a residual trend in experimental data, the median effect size of cubic-polynomial fits to sets of experimental residuals can be compared to the median of the corresponding sampling distribution of effect sizes for random residuals using a sign test. An example from the literature, which entailed comparing mathematical and computational models of continuous choice, is used to illustrate the utility of the test.

  14. Flexibility of active-site gorge aromatic residues and non-gorge aromatic residues in acetylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Ghattyvenkatakrishna, Pavan K; Uberbacher, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    The presence of an unusually large number of aromatic residues in the active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase has been a topic of great interest. Flexibility of these residues has been suspected to be a key player in controlling ligand traversal in the gorge. This raises the question of whether the over representation of aromatic residues in the gorge implies higher than normal flexibility of those residues. The current study suggests that it does not. Large changes in the hydrophobic cross sectional area due to dihedral oscillations are probably the reason behind their presence in the gorge.

  15. Heat generation in double layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, Julia; Linzen, Dirk; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    Thermal management is a key issue concerning lifetime and performance of double layer capacitors and battery technologies. Double layer capacitor modules for hybrid vehicles are subject to heavy duty cycling conditions and therefore significant heat generation occurs. High temperature causes accelerated aging of the double layer capacitors and hence reduced lifetime. To investigate the thermal behavior of double layer capacitors, thermal measurements during charge/discharge cycles were performed. These measurements show that heat generation in double layer capacitors is the superposition of an irreversible Joule heat generation and a reversible heat generation caused by a change in entropy. A mathematical representation of both parts is provided.

  16. 40 CFR 180.439 - Thifensulfuron methyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of thifensulfuron methyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the commodities... established for residues of thifensulfuron methyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on...

  17. 40 CFR 180.659 - Pyroxasulfone; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide pyroxasulfone, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the commodities....015 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide pyroxasulfone, including its...

  18. Evidence of a double-lid movement in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipase: insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Cherukuvada, Subbulakshmi Latha; Seshasayee, Aswin Sai Narain; Raghunathan, Krishnan; Anishetty, Sharmila; Pennathur, Gautam

    2005-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipase is a 29-kDa protein that, following the determination of its crystal structure, was postulated to have a lid that stretched between residues 125 and 148. In this paper, using molecular dynamics simulations, we propose that there exists, in addition to the above-mentioned lid, a novel second lid in this lipase. We further show that the second lid, covering residues 210-222, acts as a triggering lid for the movement of the first. We also investigate the role of hydrophobicity in the movement of the lids and show that two residues, Phe214 and Ala217, play important roles in lid movement. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a double-lid movement of the type described in our manuscript has been presented to the scientific community. This work also elucidates the interplay of hydrophobic interactions in the dynamics, and hence the function, of an enzyme.

  19. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-06-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today’s waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous longterm management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by externalintrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the longterm success of the prescribed system. In fact

  20. Crop Residue Coverage Estimation Using ASTER Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, D.; Yao, H.; Kincaid, R.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion and its related runoff is a serious problem in U.S. agriculture. USDA has classified 33 percent of U.S. agricultural land as being highly erodible. It is well recognized that residue coverage on the soil surface can reduce soil erosion. The National Food Security Act of 1985 requires that agricultural producers protect all highly erodible cropland from excessive erosion. The 2002 Farm Bill gave U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) the authority to make a determination of compliance. NRCS is currently running several programs to implement conservation practices and to monitor compliance. To be in compliance, growers must keep crop residue cover more than 30 percent of the field. This requires field-level assessment. The NRCS does not have the resources to regularly survey every field. One potential approach for compliance decision making is using data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor onboard NASA's Terra satellite. ASTER data provides 15 bands of 15 meter visible/NIR (VNIR) and 30 meter SWIR resolution data. Both the spatial resolution and spectral wavelength range and resolution are suitable for field level residue cover estimation. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of using ASTER data for crop residue cover estimation. The results indicate that ASTER imagery has good capability to identify residue within the corn fields and moderate capability in soybean residue estimation. SWIR bands have the most promise in separating crop residue when compared to the VNIR bands. Satellite based remote sensing imagery could be a potential rapid decision making tool for NRCS's compliance programs.

  1. Simulation of plasma double-layer structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovsky, J. E.; Joyce, G.

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic plasma double layers are numerically simulated by means of a magnetized 2 1/2 dimensional particle in cell method. The investigation of planar double layers indicates that these one dimensional potential structures are susceptible to periodic disruption by instabilities in the low potential plasmas. Only a slight increase in the double layer thickness with an increase in its obliqueness to the magnetic field is observed. Weak magnetization results in the double layer electric field alignment of accelerated particles and strong magnetization results in their magnetic field alignment. The numerical simulations of spatially periodic two dimensional double layers also exhibit cyclical instability. A morphological invariance in two dimensional double layers with respect to the degree of magnetization implies that the potential structures scale with Debye lengths rather than with gyroradii. Electron beam excited electrostatic electron cyclotron waves and (ion beam driven) solitary waves are present in the plasmas adjacent to the double layers.

  2. Enhanced nonlinear susceptibility via double-double electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaibi, Hessa M. M.; Sanders, Barry C.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the nonlinear optical susceptibility of an alkali-metal atom with tripod electronic configuration responsible for generating cross-phase modulation and self-phase modulation under the condition of double-double electromagnetically induced transparency. Our investigation demonstrates an enhancement in the nonlinear optical susceptibility of an alkali-metal atom by a factor of 1000 in the region of the second transparency window. This enhancement is in comparison with the atom's susceptibility in the first transparency window for the same parameters under the same conditions. Nonlinear-absorption enhancement arises by canceling Raman-gain generation, which arises when the probe and signal fields have equal intensities. At the center of the second transparency window, we obtain the condition required to attain a nonvanishing nonlinear optical susceptibility. In the bare-state picture, the coupling field must be off resonant from a bare-to-bare-state transition, while working in the semiclassical dressed picture required the signal field to be tuned off resonantly with a bare-to-dressed-state transition. The relation that governs the values of coupling- and signal-field detuning are also obtained. Our scheme exhibits the fact that the second transparency window has advantages over the first transparency window with respect to obtaining an enhanced Kerr effect, and our calculation includes simulation of both low-temperature and Doppler-broadened regimes.

  3. New insight on double-double radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Sumana

    2016-07-01

    Striking examples of episodic jet activity in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are the double-double radio galaxies (DDRGs) with two pairs of lobes emerging from the same central engine. The number of DDRGs reported so far is very limited, and it is important to identify more of these to provide a significant statistical overview of the conditions to trigger the jets and the role of jets in terms of feedback mechanisms that affect the host galaxies. Although most DDRGs were believed initially to be giant radio sources with sizes more than a Mpc, a significant number of smaller sized candidate DDRGs have also been identified in our recent study. We started GMRT observation of this sample to confirm that the sources are related to distinct epochs of nuclear activity. In addition to this radio observation we have also investigated the properties of the host galaxies and their environments to understand the triggering mechanisms for recurrent jet emission. Here, I will highlight the main results from these observations and discuss on the possible scenarios responsible for the episodic activity in different types of DDRGs .

  4. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous

  5. Residual gravimetric method to measure nebulizer output.

    PubMed

    Vecellio None, Laurent; Grimbert, Daniel; Bordenave, Joelle; Benoit, Guy; Furet, Yves; Fauroux, Brigitte; Boissinot, Eric; De Monte, Michele; Lemarié, Etienne; Diot, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a residual gravimetric method based on weighing dry filters to measure the aerosol output of nebulizers. This residual gravimetric method was compared to assay methods based on spectrophotometric measurement of terbutaline (Bricanyl, Astra Zeneca, France), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement of tobramycin (Tobi, Chiron, U.S.A.), and electrochemical measurements of NaF (as defined by the European standard). Two breath-enhanced jet nebulizers, one standard jet nebulizer, and one ultrasonic nebulizer were tested. Output produced by the residual gravimetric method was calculated by weighing the filters both before and after aerosol collection and by filter drying corrected by the proportion of drug contained in total solute mass. Output produced by the electrochemical, spectrophotometric, and HPLC methods was determined after assaying the drug extraction filter. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the residual gravimetric method (x axis) and assay methods (y axis) in terms of drug mass output (y = 1.00 x -0.02, r(2) = 0.99, n = 27). We conclude that a residual gravimetric method based on dry filters, when validated for a particular agent, is an accurate way of measuring aerosol output.

  6. Analytical electron microscopy of LDEF impactor residues

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard, R.P.; Barrett, R.A.; Zolensky, M.E.

    1995-02-01

    The LDEF contained 57 individual experiment trays or tray portions specifically designed to characterize critical aspects of meteoroid and debris environment in low-Earth orbit (LEO). However, it was realized from the beginning that the most efficient use of the satellite would be to characterize impact features from the entire surface of the LDEF. With this in mind particular interest has focused on common materials facing in all 26 LDEF facing directions; among the most important of these materials has been the tray clamps. Therefore, in an effort to better understand the nature and flux of particulates in LEO, and their effects on spacecraft hardware, the authors are analyzing residues found in impact features on LDEF tray clamp surfaces. This paper summarizes all data from 79 clamps located on Bay A & B of the LDEF. The authors also describe current efforts to characterize impactor residues recovered from the impact craters, and they have found that a low, but significant, fraction of these residues have survived in a largely unmelted state. These residues can be characterized sufficiently to permit resolution of the impactor origin. The authors have concentrated on the residue from chondritic interplanetary dust particles (micrometeoroids), as these represent the harshest test of their analytical capabilities.

  7. Analytical electron microscopy of LDEF impactor residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Barrett, Ruth A.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    The LDEF contained 57 individual experiment trays or tray portions specifically designed to characterize critical aspects of meteoroid and debris environment in low-Earth orbit (LEO). However, it was realized from the beginning that the most efficient use of the satellite would be to characterize impact features from the entire surface of the LDEF. With this in mind particular interest has focused on common materials facing in all 26 LDEF facing directions; among the most important of these materials has been the tray clamps. Therefore, in an effort to better understand the nature and flux of particulates in LEO, and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impact features on LDEF tray clamp surfaces. This paper summarizes all data from 79 clamps located on Bay A & B of the LDEF. We also describe current efforts to characterize impactor residues recovered from the impact craters, and we have found that a low, but significant, fraction of these residues have survived in a largely unmelted state. These residues can be characterized sufficiently to permit resolution of the impactor origin. We have concentrated on the residue from chondritic interplanetary dust particles (micrometeoroids), as these represent the harshest test of our analytical capabilities.

  8. Emerging pesticide residue issues and analytical approaches.

    PubMed

    Fintschenko, Yolanda; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Wong, Jon W

    2010-05-26

    The 46th Annual Florida Pesticide Residue Workshop of 2009 (FPRW 2009) held in St. Pete Beach, FL, is the latest in an annual tradition drawing scientists from U.S. federal and state government laboratories, industry, and other laboratories worldwide. In 2009, selected FPRW presenters were invited to contribute to this special issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry with a section devoted to emerging pesticide residue issues and analytical approaches. What follows is the written record of what should become a scientific conversation launched at FPRW 2009. There are two distinct approaches to organic residue analysis: instrumental methods and assays. In much of the world, scientists primarily rely on laboratories equipped with instrumentation for analysis, usually gas chromatography and liquid chromatography with some type of selective detector. In the discussion of instrumental approaches, the focus is on chromatography with mass spectrometry as a detection method. Approaches such as biomonitoring and assays fall outside the traditional instrumental method approach to residue analysis. Assays that do not require laboratory equipment are of greater interest for screening and are well-suited to field use. Regardless of the analytical method, the success of multiresidue analysis relies on the appropriate choice of sample preparation and cleanup methodologies. Many new sample preparation and cleanup approaches used for pesticide and other small molecule contaminant residue analyses in a variety of complex sample matrices are discussed in this special issue. The goal of these approaches is to reduce overall analysis time and solvent consumption without compromising the analytical results.

  9. Treatment of vacuum residues in hydroconversion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, A. Y.; Mendoza, D. L.; Espinosa, J. O.; Laverde, D.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper the use of a liquid homogeneous catalyst has been studied in reactivity vacuum residues by hydroconversion under different conditions. To cover a wide range of compositions, six (6) vacuum residues were selected from crude mixtures. Hydroconversion test were performed in batch reactor with hydrogen atmosphere at about 2000psi in a temperature range between 430 and 480°C. The results allowed to establish that the reactivity hydroconversion conditions about coke formation is higher in vacuum residues with higher content of resins and asphaltenes. The reaction conditions promote distillate formation, however, with increasing stringency conditions, the distillate yield decreases due to distillate transformation into temperature range 430 and 460°C compared to the tests performed without catalyst demonstrating that the use of homogeneous catalyst is an alternative to treating vacuum residues and results are satisfactory in the conversion processes. Finally, predictive expressions have been developed in the formation of products depending on the conditions of temperature and physicochemical properties of processed vacuum residue.

  10. Residual stress characterization for laminated composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shao-Chun

    With increasing applications of advanced laminated composites, process-induced residual stress has drawn more and more attention in recent years. Efforts have been devoted to understanding residual stress both quantitatively and qualitatively. In the current study, a novel technique called the Cure Referencing Method was developed which has the capability for measuring the residual stress on the symmetric laminated composite plates. It can also differentiate residual stress into two components: one is due to the mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion, the other is caused by the matrix chemical curing shrinkage. The chemical curing shrinkage of the polymer matrix was investigated in further detail. A technique was developed to measure the post-gel chemical curing shrinkage which is the portion of curing shrinkage that really induces the residual stress in the polymer matrix composites. Time-dependent material property is another issue associated with polymer matrix composite materials. The data of several short-term tensile creep tests run at different temperature were used to construct a linear viscoelastic: model for describing the behavior of the composites over a long period of time. It was found that physical aging of the polymer matrix needs to be taken into account in order to have a more accurate representation of the long-term behavior. A fair agreement was obtained between the result of the long-term creep test and the master curve constructed from several momentary creep tests.

  11. Selenomethionine and selenocysteine double labeling strategy for crystallographic phasing.

    PubMed

    Strub, Marie Paule; Hoh, François; Sanchez, Jean Frédéric; Strub, Jean Marc; Böck, August; Aumelas, André; Dumas, Christian

    2003-11-01

    A protocol for the quantitative incorporation of both selenomethionine and selenocysteine into recombinant proteins overexpressed in Escherichia coli is described. This methodology is based on the use of a suitable cysteine auxotrophic strain and a minimal medium supplemented with selenium-labeled methionine and cysteine. The proteins chosen for these studies are the cathelin-like motif of protegrin-3 and a nucleoside-diphosphate kinase. Analysis of the purified proteins by electrospray mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography revealed that both cysteine and methionine residues were isomorphously replaced by selenocysteine and selenomethionine. Moreover, selenocysteines allowed the formation of unstrained and stable diselenide bridges in place of the canonical disulfide bonds. In addition, we showed that NDP kinase contains a selenocysteine adduct on Cys122. This novel selenium double-labeling method is proposed as a general approach to increase the efficiency of the MAD technique used for phase determination in protein crystallography.

  12. Reactions with the double-Borromean nucleus {sup 8}He

    SciTech Connect

    Lemasson, A.; Navin, A.; Rejmund, M.; France, G. de; Jacquot, B.; Raabe, R.; Stefan, I.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bazin, D.; Beaumel, D.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Gupta, D.; Scarpaci, J. A.; Labiche, M.; Lemmon, R.; Nanal, V.

    2010-10-15

    Differential cross sections for elastic-scattering and neutron-transfer reactions along with cross sections for fusion in the {sup 8}He+{sup 65}Cu system are reported at energies above the Coulomb barrier (E{sub lab}= 19.9 and 30.6 MeV). The present work demonstrates the feasibility of using inclusive measurements of characteristic in-beam {gamma} rays with low-intensity ({approx}10{sup 5} pps) radioactive ion beams to obtain the residue cross sections for fusion and neutron transfer. Exclusive measurements of {gamma} rays in coincidence with light charged particles have been used to further characterize the direct reactions induced by this double-Borromean nucleus. Coupled reaction channels calculations are used to illustrate the important role played by the transfer channels and to help in understanding the influence of the structure of {sup 8}He on the reaction mechanism.

  13. Reactions with the double-Borromean nucleus He8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemasson, A.; Navin, A.; Keeley, N.; Rejmund, M.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Shrivastava, A.; Bazin, D.; Beaumel, D.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Chatterjee, A.; Gupta, D.; de France, G.; Jacquot, B.; Labiche, M.; Lemmon, R.; Nanal, V.; Nyberg, J.; Pillay, R. G.; Raabe, R.; Ramachandran, K.; Scarpaci, J. A.; Simenel, C.; Stefan, I.; Timis, C. N.

    2010-10-01

    Differential cross sections for elastic-scattering and neutron-transfer reactions along with cross sections for fusion in the He8+Cu65 system are reported at energies above the Coulomb barrier (Elab= 19.9 and 30.6 MeV). The present work demonstrates the feasibility of using inclusive measurements of characteristic in-beam γ rays with low-intensity (~105 pps) radioactive ion beams to obtain the residue cross sections for fusion and neutron transfer. Exclusive measurements of γ rays in coincidence with light charged particles have been used to further characterize the direct reactions induced by this double-Borromean nucleus. Coupled reaction channels calculations are used to illustrate the important role played by the transfer channels and to help in understanding the influence of the structure of He8 on the reaction mechanism.

  14. Proton-deuteron double scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    A simple but accurate form for the proton-deuteron elastic double scattering amplitude, which includes both projectile and target recoil motion and is applicable at all momentum transfer, is derived by taking advantage of the restricted range of Fermi momentum allowed by the deuteron wave function. This amplitude can be directly compared to approximations which have neglected target recoil or are limited to small momentum transfer; the target recoil and large momentum transfer effects are evaluated explicitly within the context of a Gaussian model.

  15. Double window viewing chamber assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W. (Inventor); Owen, R. B. (Inventor); Elkins, B. R. (Inventor); White, W. T. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A viewing chamber which permits observation of a sample retained therein includes a pair of double window assemblies mounted in opposed openings in the walls thereof so that a light beam can directly enter and exit from the chamber. A flexible mounting arrangement for the outer windows of the window assemblies enables the windows to be brought into proper alignment. An electrical heating arrangement prevents fogging of the outer windows whereas desiccated air in the volume between the outer and inner windows prevents fogging of the latter.

  16. Semiconductor double quantum dot micromaser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y-Y; Stehlik, J; Eichler, C; Gullans, M J; Taylor, J M; Petta, J R

    2015-01-16

    The coherent generation of light, from masers to lasers, relies upon the specific structure of the individual emitters that lead to gain. Devices operating as lasers in the few-emitter limit provide opportunities for understanding quantum coherent phenomena, from terahertz sources to quantum communication. Here we demonstrate a maser that is driven by single-electron tunneling events. Semiconductor double quantum dots (DQDs) serve as a gain medium and are placed inside a high-quality factor microwave cavity. We verify maser action by comparing the statistics of the emitted microwave field above and below the maser threshold. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Booster Double Harmonic Setup Notes

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-02-17

    The motivation behind implementing a booster double harmonic include the reduced transverse space charge force from a reduced peak beam current and reduced momentum spread of the beam, both of which can be achieved from flattening the RF bucket. RF capture and acceleration of polarized protons (PP) is first set up in the single harmonic mode with RF harmonic h=1. Once capture and acceleration have been set up in the single harmonic mode, the second harmonic system is brought on and programmed to operate in concert with the single harmonic system.

  18. Surface-exposed amino acid residues of HPV16 L1 protein mediating interaction with cell surface heparan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Knappe, Maren; Bodevin, Sabrina; Selinka, Hans-Christoph; Spillmann, Dorothe; Streeck, Rolf E; Chen, Xiaojiang S; Lindahl, Ulf; Sapp, Martin

    2007-09-21

    Efficient infection of cells by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and pseudovirions requires primary interaction with cell surface proteoglycans with apparent preference for species carrying heparan sulfate (HS) side chains. To identify residues contributing to virus/cell interaction, we performed point mutational analysis of the HPV16 major capsid protein, L1, targeting surface-exposed amino acid residues. Replacement of lysine residues 278, 356, or 361 for alanine reduced cell binding and infectivity of pseudovirions. Various combinations of these amino acid exchanges further decreased cell attachment and infectivity with residual infectivity of less than 5% for the triple mutant, suggesting that these lysine residues cooperate in HS binding. Single, double, or triple exchanges for arginine did not impair infectivity, demonstrating that interaction is dependent on charge distribution rather than sequence-specific. The lysine residues are located within a pocket on the capsomere surface, which was previously proposed as the putative receptor binding site. Fab fragments of binding-neutralizing antibody H16.56E that recognize an epitope directly adjacent to lysine residues strongly reduced HS-mediated cell binding, further corroborating our findings. In contrast, mutation of basic surface residues located in the cleft between capsomeres outside this pocket did not significantly reduce interaction with HS or resulted in assembly-deficient proteins. Computer-simulated heparin docking suggested that all three lysine residues can form hydrogen bonds with 2-O-, 6-O-, and N-sulfate groups of a single HS molecule with a minimal saccharide domain length of eight monomer units. This prediction was experimentally confirmed in binding experiments using capsid protein, heparin molecules of defined length, and sulfate group modifications.

  19. [Natural history study of postoperative residual non-functioning pituitary adenomas].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhe-bao; Chen, Yong; Lü, Qing-ping; Wang, Cheng-de; Su, Zhi-Peng; Wu, Jin-sen; Zheng, Wei-ming; Zhuge, Qi-chuan

    2010-03-09

    To observe the postoperative residual non-functioning pituitary adenomas (PR-NFPAs) without postoperative radiotherapy and to analyze the natural history of PR-NFPAs' growth in order to provide a basis for selecting appropriate strategies of clinical treatment. We evaluated the natural history of 20 patients with PR-NFPAs who did not receive postoperative radiotherapy and drug therapy. Through MRI images, the residual tumor volumes of those patients were serially measured. We further calculated the monthly growth rate and the tumor volume doubling time (TVDT) and analyzed the correlations between the patient age, gender, volume of residual tumor, cavernous sinus (CS) invasion and TVDT. All patients received observation alone. Among which, 17 adenomas increased in volume and 3 remained unchanged during a follow-up period of 7 months to 17 years (mean 3.90 yr). The mean patient age was 41.8 years. As to 17 patients with tumor regrowth, the tumor volume at the beginning of MRI observation period was 4.73 cm(3) and tumor volume at the last MRI observation was 16.98 cm(3). During the mean 4-year follow-up period, the average monthly growth rate of PR-NFPAs was 7.87% and the mean TVDT was 724 days. Such factors as patient age, gender, volume of residual tumor and CS invasion did not affect the TVDT of PR-NFPAs. The tumor growth rate of PR-NFPAs is not significantly correlated with the patient gender, age, volume of residual tumor and CS invasion. In conjunctions with the volume of PR-NFPAs and the distance between residual adenoma and optic chiasm, we should take the TVDT into consideration and determine the appropriate and safe follow-up period.

  20. Redesign of substrate specificity and identification of aminoglycoside binding residues of Eis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Benjamin C.; Labby, Kristin J.; Green, Keith D.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    The upsurge of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is an emerging global problem. Increased expression of the enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) protein is responsible for clinical resistance to aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotics in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Eis from M. tuberculosis (Eis_Mtb) and from M. smegmatis (Eis_Msm) both function as acetyltransferases capable of acetylating multiple amines of many AGs; however, these Eis homologs differ in AG substrate preference and number of acetylated amine groups per AG. The AG binding cavity of Eis_Mtb is divided into two narrow channels, whereas Eis_Msm contains one large cavity. Five bulky residues lining one of the AG binding channels of Eis_Mtb, His119, Ile268, Trp289, Gln291, and Glu401, have significantly smaller counterparts in Eis_Msm, Thr119, Gly266, Ala287, Ala289, and Gly401, respectively. To identify the residue(s) responsible for AG binding in Eis_Mtb and functional differences from Eis_Msm, we have generated single, double, triple, quadruple, and quintuple mutants of these residues in Eis_Mtb into their Eis_Msm counterparts and tested their acetylation activity with three structurally diverse AGs: kanamycin A (KAN), paromomyin (PAR), and apramycin (APR). We show that the penultimate C-terminal residue Glu401 plays a critical role in the overall activity of Eis_Mtb. We also demonstrate that the identities of residues Ile268, Trp289, and Gln291 (in Eis_Mtb nomenclature) dictate the differences between acetylation efficiencies of Eis_Mtb and Eis_Msm for KAN and PAR. Finally, we show that the mutation of Trp289 in Eis_Mtb into Ala plays a role in APR acetylation. PMID:23837529

  1. Interaction between DNA Gyrase and Quinolones: Effects of Alanine Mutations at GyrA Subunit Residues Ser83 and Asp87

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Faye M.; Maxwell, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    DNA gyrase is a target of quinolone antibacterial agents, but the molecular details of the quinolone-gyrase interaction are not clear. Quinolone resistance mutations frequently occur at residues Ser83 and Asp87 of the gyrase A subunit, suggesting that these residues are involved in drug binding. Single and double alanine substitutions were created at these positions (Ala83, Ala87, and Ala83 Ala87), and the mutant proteins were assessed for DNA supercoiling, DNA cleavage, and resistance to a number of quinolone drugs. The Ala83 mutant was fully active in supercoiling, whereas the Ala87 and the double mutant were 2.5- and 4- to 5-fold less active, respectively; this loss in activity may be partly due to an increased affinity of these mutant proteins for DNA. Supercoiling inhibition and cleavage assays revealed that the double mutant has a high level of resistance to certain quinolones while the mutants with single alanine substitutions show low-level resistance. Using a drug-binding assay we demonstrated that the double-mutant enzyme-DNA complex has a lower affinity for ciprofloxacin than the wild-type complex. Based on the pattern of resistance to a series of quinolones, an interaction between the C-8 group of the quinolone and the double-mutant gyrase in the region of residues 83 and 87 is proposed. PMID:11408214

  2. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  7. Distribution of Penicillin G Residues in Culled Dairy Cow Muscles: Implications for Residue Monitoring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which type of muscle should be analyzed. In order to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type, 7 culled dairy cows were dosed with Penicillin G (Pen G) from ...

  8. Residues of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos in/on mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi

    2011-01-01

    Mango, the major fruit crop of India is affected by stone weevil, which can cause serious damage to the fruits. Acephate gives good control of mango stone weevil. Residues of acephate and its major metabolite, methamidophos were evaluated on mango fruits following repeated spray applications at the recommended dose (0.75 kg a.i. ha⁻¹) and double the recommended dose (1.5 kg a.i. ha⁻¹). Acephate residues mostly remained on the fruit peel which persisted up to 30 days. Movement of residues to the fruit pulp was detected after 1 day of application, increased to maximum of 0.14 and 0.26 mg kg⁻¹ after 3 days and reached to below detectable level (BDL) after 20 days. Methamidophos, a metabolite of acephate, was detected from 3rd day onwards in both peel and pulp and persisted up to 15 days. The residues (acephate + methamidophos) dissipated with the half-life of 5 days in peel and pulp. A safe pre-harvest interval of 30 days is recommended for consumption of mango fruits following treatment of acephate at the recommended dose of 0.75 kg a.i. ha⁻¹.

  9. Analysis of Residual DSBs in Ataxia-Telangiectasia Lymphoblast Cells Initiating Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Anglada, Teresa; Terradas, Mariona; Hernández, Laia; Genescà, Anna; Martín, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine the relationship between accumulation of residual DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and cell death, we have used a control and an ATM (Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated) defective cell line, as Ataxia-Telangiectasia (AT) cells tend to accumulate residual DSBs at long times after damage infliction. After irradiation, AT cells showed checkpoint impairment and a fraction of cells displayed an abnormal centrosome number and tetraploid DNA content, and this fraction increased along with apoptosis rates. At all times analyzed, AT cells displayed a significantly higher rate of radiation-induced apoptosis than normal cells. Besides apoptosis, 70–85% of the AT viable cells (TUNEL-negative) carried ≥10 γH2AX foci/cell, while only 12–27% of normal cells did. The fraction of AT and normal cells undergoing early and late apoptosis were isolated by flow cytometry and residual DSBs were concretely scored in these populations. Half of the γH2AX-positive AT cells undergoing early apoptosis carried ≥10 γH2AX foci/cell and this fraction increased to 75% in late apoptosis. The results suggest that retention of DNA damage-induced γH2AX foci is an indicative of lethal DNA damage, as cells undergoing apoptosis are those accumulating more DSBs. Scoring of residual γH2AX foci might function as a predictive tool to assess radiation-induced apoptosis. PMID:27057549

  10. Detection of gunshot residues using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Taudte, Regina Verena; Beavis, Alison; Blanes, Lucas; Cole, Nerida; Doble, Philip; Roux, Claude

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, forensic scientists have become increasingly interested in the detection and interpretation of organic gunshot residues (OGSR) due to the increasing use of lead- and heavy metal-free ammunition. This has also been prompted by the identification of gunshot residue- (GSR-) like particles in environmental and occupational samples. Various techniques have been investigated for their ability to detect OGSR. Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to a chromatographic system is a powerful tool due to its high selectivity and sensitivity. Further, modern MS instruments can detect and identify a number of explosives and additives which may require different ionization techniques. Finally, MS has been applied to the analysis of both OGSR and inorganic gunshot residue (IGSR), although the "gold standard" for analysis is scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray microscopy (SEM-EDX). This review presents an overview of the technical attributes of currently available MS and ionization techniques and their reported applications to GSR analysis.

  11. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection

    SciTech Connect

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue.

  12. Residual Stress Analysis in Thick Uranium Films

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, A M; Foreman, R J; Gallegos, G F

    2004-12-06

    Residual stress analysis was performed on thick, 1.0 to 25 {micro}m, depleted Uranium (DU) films deposited on an Al substrate by magnetron sputtering. Two distinct characterization techniques were used to measure substrate curvature before and after deposition. Stress evaluation was performed using the Benabdi/Roche equation, which is based on beam theory of a bi-layer material. The residual stress evolution was studied as a function of coating thickness and applied negative bias voltage (0-300V). The stresses developed were always compressive; however, increasing the coating thickness and applying a bias voltage presented a trend towards more tensile stresses and thus an overall reduction of residual stresses.

  13. Residual neuromuscular blockade in critical care.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jason; Collins, Angela S; Rowan, Brea O

    2012-06-01

    Neuromuscular blockade is a pharmacological adjunct for anesthesia and for surgical interventions. Neuromuscular blockers can facilitate ease of instrumentation and reduce complications associated with intubation. An undesirable sequela of these agents is residual neuromuscular blockade. Residual neuromuscular blockade is linked to aspiration, diminished response to hypoxia, and obstruction of the upper airway that may occur soon after extubation. If an operation is particularly complex or requires a long anesthesia time, residual neuromuscular blockade can contribute to longer stays in the intensive care unit and more hours of mechanical ventilation. Given the risks of this medication class, it is essential to have an understanding of the mechanism of action of, assessment of, and factors affecting blockade and to be able to identify factors that affect pharmacokinetics.

  14. Plasma treatment of air pollution control residues.

    PubMed

    Amutha Rani, D; Gomez, E; Boccaccini, A R; Hao, L; Deegan, D; Cheeseman, C R

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from waste incineration have been blended with silica and alumina and the mix melted using DC plasma arc technology. The chemical composition of the fully amorphous homogeneous glass formed has been determined. Waste acceptance criteria compliance leach testing demonstrates that the APC residue derived glass releases only trace levels of heavy metals (Pb (<0.007mg/kg) and Zn (0.02mg/kg)) and Cl(-) (0.2mg/kg). These are significantly below the limit values for disposal to inert landfill. It is concluded that plasma treatment of APC residues can produce an inert glass that may have potential to be used either in bulk civil engineering applications or in the production of higher value glass-ceramic products.

  15. Residual bone growth after lengthening procedures.

    PubMed

    Journeau, Pierre; Lascombes, Pierre; Barbier, Dominique; Popkov, Dmitry

    2016-12-01

    The prognosis of limb length discrepancy is a major subject in paediatric orthopaedic surgery. The strategy depends on the prognosis and must be adapted to each patient. The residual growth of the lengthened segment often remains unknown, but is dependent on age, the percentage of lengthening and other factors. Using a large cohort of 150 children who had undergone bone lengthening procedures, we describe five patterns of post-intervention growth and identify factors that are favourable for normal residual growth. The criteria for bone lengthening which should maintain good residual growth are-bone age at lengthening should be before the pubertal growth spurt; the interval between two lengthening procedures should be over three years; the percentage of lengthening should be <30% of the initial segment; and no more than two lengthening procedures should be carried out during infancy.

  16. Residual Defect Density in Random Disks Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Topic, Nikola; Pöschel, Thorsten; Gallas, Jason A. C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the residual distribution of structural defects in very tall packings of disks deposited randomly in large channels. By performing simulations involving the sedimentation of up to 50 × 109 particles we find all deposits to consistently show a non-zero residual density of defects obeying a characteristic power-law as a function of the channel width. This remarkable finding corrects the widespread belief that the density of defects should vanish algebraically with growing height. A non-zero residual density of defects implies a type of long-range spatial order in the packing, as opposed to only local ordering. In addition, we find deposits of particles to involve considerably less randomness than generally presumed. PMID:26235809

  17. System and method for measuring residual stress

    DOEpatents

    Prime, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a method and system for determining the residual stress within an elastic object. In the method, an elastic object is cut along a path having a known configuration. The cut creates a portion of the object having a new free surface. The free surface then deforms to a contour which is different from the path. Next, the contour is measured to determine how much deformation has occurred across the new free surface. Points defining the contour are collected in an empirical data set. The portion of the object is then modeled in a computer simulator. The points in the empirical data set are entered into the computer simulator. The computer simulator then calculates the residual stress along the path which caused the points within the object to move to the positions measured in the empirical data set. The calculated residual stress is then presented in a useful format to an analyst.

  18. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

  19. Firearms discharge residue sample collection techniques.

    PubMed

    Goleb, J A; Midkiff, C R

    1975-10-01

    Critical comparisons of Ba and Sb in firearms discharge residue were made on samples collected by three independent collection technqiues. Collection materials studied were transparent adhesive tape, (Scotch Brand), a solution of cellulose acetate in acetone ("Film Lift"), and plastic-shafted cotton swabs wetted with dilute nitric acid. Flameless atomic absorption analyses were performed with a Jarrell-Ash Model 810 instrument equipped with a tantalum strip atomizer. Tape and cotton swabs gave comparable positive indications of residue, with frequencies of 90 and 80%, respectively. The plastic Film Lift gave fewer positives, with a frequency of 50%. With the transparent tape lift, gunshot residue particles are discernible, making nondestructive microscopic identification possible prior to destructive elemental analysis.

  20. Electromagnetic corrections to the zonal flow residual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusztai, Istvan; Catto, Peter J.; Parra, Felix I.

    2014-10-01

    The axisymmetric zonal flow residual calculation in tokamak plasmas is generalized to include electromagnetic perturbations. Instead of imposing magnetic perturbations externally, we formulate and solve a description retaining the fully self-consistent temporal and spatial perturbations in the electric and magnetic fields. Simple expressions for the electrostatic, shear and compressional magnetic residual responses derived provide a fully electromagnetic test of the zonal flow residual in gyrokinetic codes. We find that at β ~ O (1) the most easily testable quantity is the compressional magnetic perturbation generated by the density perturbation corresponding to the zonal flow potential, while at small values of β, the electrostatic and shear magnetic responses to an initial compressional magnetic perturbation can also be detectable. Without collisions any initial magnetic perturbation remain completely undamped. Supported by US Department of Energy grant at DE-FG02-91ER-54109 at MIT. IP is supported by the International Postdoc grant of Vetenskapsradet.

  1. Genomic Prediction Accounting for Residual Heteroskedasticity.

    PubMed

    Ou, Zhining; Tempelman, Robert J; Steibel, Juan P; Ernst, Catherine W; Bates, Ronald O; Bello, Nora M

    2015-11-12

    Whole-genome prediction (WGP) models that use single-nucleotide polymorphism marker information to predict genetic merit of animals and plants typically assume homogeneous residual variance. However, variability is often heterogeneous across agricultural production systems and may subsequently bias WGP-based inferences. This study extends classical WGP models based on normality, heavy-tailed specifications and variable selection to explicitly account for environmentally-driven residual heteroskedasticity under a hierarchical Bayesian mixed-models framework. WGP models assuming homogeneous or heterogeneous residual variances were fitted to training data generated under simulation scenarios reflecting a gradient of increasing heteroskedasticity. Model fit was based on pseudo-Bayes factors and also on prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values computed on a validation data subset one generation removed from the simulated training dataset. Homogeneous vs. heterogeneous residual variance WGP models were also fitted to two quantitative traits, namely 45-min postmortem carcass temperature and loin muscle pH, recorded in a swine resource population dataset prescreened for high and mild residual heteroskedasticity, respectively. Fit of competing WGP models was compared using pseudo-Bayes factors. Predictive ability, defined as the correlation between predicted and observed phenotypes in validation sets of a five-fold cross-validation was also computed. Heteroskedastic error WGP models showed improved model fit and enhanced prediction accuracy compared to homoskedastic error WGP models although the magnitude of the improvement was small (less than two percentage points net gain in prediction accuracy). Nevertheless, accounting for residual heteroskedasticity did improve accuracy of selection, especially on individuals of extreme genetic merit. Copyright © 2016 Ou et al.

  2. Genomic Prediction Accounting for Residual Heteroskedasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Zhining; Tempelman, Robert J.; Steibel, Juan P.; Ernst, Catherine W.; Bates, Ronald O.; Bello, Nora M.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome prediction (WGP) models that use single-nucleotide polymorphism marker information to predict genetic merit of animals and plants typically assume homogeneous residual variance. However, variability is often heterogeneous across agricultural production systems and may subsequently bias WGP-based inferences. This study extends classical WGP models based on normality, heavy-tailed specifications and variable selection to explicitly account for environmentally-driven residual heteroskedasticity under a hierarchical Bayesian mixed-models framework. WGP models assuming homogeneous or heterogeneous residual variances were fitted to training data generated under simulation scenarios reflecting a gradient of increasing heteroskedasticity. Model fit was based on pseudo-Bayes factors and also on prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values computed on a validation data subset one generation removed from the simulated training dataset. Homogeneous vs. heterogeneous residual variance WGP models were also fitted to two quantitative traits, namely 45-min postmortem carcass temperature and loin muscle pH, recorded in a swine resource population dataset prescreened for high and mild residual heteroskedasticity, respectively. Fit of competing WGP models was compared using pseudo-Bayes factors. Predictive ability, defined as the correlation between predicted and observed phenotypes in validation sets of a five-fold cross-validation was also computed. Heteroskedastic error WGP models showed improved model fit and enhanced prediction accuracy compared to homoskedastic error WGP models although the magnitude of the improvement was small (less than two percentage points net gain in prediction accuracy). Nevertheless, accounting for residual heteroskedasticity did improve accuracy of selection, especially on individuals of extreme genetic merit. PMID:26564950

  3. Double-Front Detonation Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubin, S. A.; Sumskoi, S. I.; Victorov, S. B.

    According to the theory of detonation, in a detonation wave there is a sound plane, named Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) plane. There are certain stationary parameters for this plane. In this work the possibility of the second CJ plane is shown. This second CJ plane is stationary as well. The physical mechanism of non-equilibrium transition providing the existence of the second CJ plane is presented. There is a non-equilibrium state, when the heat is removed from the reaction zone and the heat capacity decreases sharply. As a result of this non-equilibrium state, the sound velocity increases, and the local supersonic zone with second sonic plane (second CJ plane) appears. So the new mode of detonation wave is predicted. Equations describing this mode of detonation are presented. The exact analytical solution for the second CJ plane parameters is obtained. The example of double-front detonation in high explosive (TNT) is presented. In this double-front structure "nanodiamond-nanographite" phase transition takes place in condensed particles of detonation products.

  4. ATHLETE : Double Auger Anchoring Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The All-Terrain Hex-Legged Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) is a six-limbed robot designed to support surface explorations on Near Earth Objects, the Moon and Mars. ATHLETE can carry large payloads on its top deck and can carry a fully equipped pressurized habitat in low gravity. The robot has wheels on each of its six articulated limbs, allowing it to actively conform to terrain while driving and to walk when driving is impractical. With the use of a tool adapter, ATHLETE limbs can be equipped with end effectors to support various mission objectives. For work on Near Earth Objects and other microgravity environments, an anchoring mechanism is needed to keep the ATHLETE from floating off the surface. My goal for this spring session at JPL was to design and build a counter rotating, double auger, anchoring mechanism. The mechanism mates to the tool adapter and is driven off the wheel motor. The double auger anchoring mechanism will be tested in a regolith simulant that will determine the uplift capacity of the anchoring mechanism.

  5. Double Photoionization of Atomic Beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Frank L.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2010-03-01

    One-photon double ionization (DPI) of beryllium represents the next step in the evolution of DPI investigations that began with helium in order to sensitively probe electron correlation. Beryllium is the simplest atomic species of the alkaline earth elements which, in general, possess two electrons outside of a fully occupied inner shell that spherically screens the nucleus. This provides a natural basis for comparison to 1s^2 helium DPI. However, the valence state of beryllium has n=2, thus making the valence excited target 2s2p more accessible relative to the 2s^2 ground state as compared to ground-state and metastable helium. Also, the symmetry of photoionizing from either the ^1S or ^1P initial state will have consequences for the angular distributions for double ionization. Triply differential cross sections (TDCS) are presented for DPI from both ground state 2s^2 and excited state 2s2p beryllium calculated using exterior complex scaling (ECS) for the valence electrons.

  6. Double Standards in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Admay, Catherine; Shakow, Aaron; Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The human rights arguments that underpinned the fight against HIV over the last three decades were poised, but ultimately failed, to provide a similar foundation for success against multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and other diseases of the poor. With more than 1.5 million deaths since 2000 attributed to strains of MDR-TB, and with half a million new, and mostly untreated, MDR-TB cases in the world each year, the stakes could not be higher. The World Health Organization (WHO), whose mandate is to champion the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health, recommended unsound medical treatment for MDR-TB patients in resource-poor settings from 1993-2002. Citing cost considerations, WHO did not recommend the available standard of care that had been successfully used to contain and defeat MDR-TB in rich countries. By acting as a strategic gatekeeper in its technical advisory role to donor agencies and countries, it also facilitated the global implementation of a double standard for TB care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), upending important legal and scientific priorities. This raises serious questions about whether the organization violated international human rights standards and those established in its own constitution. While calling for additional analysis and discussion on this topic, the authors propose that policymakers should reject double standards of this kind and instead embrace the challenge of implementing the highest standard of care on a global level. PMID:27781001

  7. ATHLETE : Double Auger Anchoring Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The All-Terrain Hex-Legged Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) is a six-limbed robot designed to support surface explorations on Near Earth Objects, the Moon and Mars. ATHLETE can carry large payloads on its top deck and can carry a fully equipped pressurized habitat in low gravity. The robot has wheels on each of its six articulated limbs, allowing it to actively conform to terrain while driving and to walk when driving is impractical. With the use of a tool adapter, ATHLETE limbs can be equipped with end effectors to support various mission objectives. For work on Near Earth Objects and other microgravity environments, an anchoring mechanism is needed to keep the ATHLETE from floating off the surface. My goal for this spring session at JPL was to design and build a counter rotating, double auger, anchoring mechanism. The mechanism mates to the tool adapter and is driven off the wheel motor. The double auger anchoring mechanism will be tested in a regolith simulant that will determine the uplift capacity of the anchoring mechanism.

  8. Vesicles with a double bilayer.

    PubMed

    Zawada, Zygmunt H

    2004-01-01

    A modified reverse phase evaporation method was used to prepare intermediate unilamellar vesicles coated with an additional membrane, or large vesicles in which several vesicles were coated with a common membrane. In both kinds of vesicle, the outer and inner membranes are usually of different phospholipid composition. The preparation involves the formation of a double emulsion: vesicles in a buffer are emerged in a low-boiling point organic solution of phospholipids. Then the organic solvent is evaporated during the heating and mixing process. As result large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), about 100 nm in diameter, were coated with an additional membrane from egg lecithin or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. The highest yield of the coating was about 50%. When DPPC was used for coating above the phase transition temperature Tm, the data suggested the formation of vesicles that were slightly larger than the starting LUVs. It might be concluded that many of these had a double bilayer. If the coating was done below Tm, the micrographs suggested the formation of structures resembling multi-vesicular vesicles. They looked like LUV clusters coated with a common membrane.

  9. Double-diffusive layer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaussinger, Florian; Kupka, Friedrich; Hücker, Sebastian; Egbers, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Double-diffusive convection plays an important role in geo- and astrophysical applications. The special case, where a destabilising temperature gradient counteracts a stabilising solute gradient leads to layering phenomena under certain conditions. Convectively mixed layers sandwiched in diffusive interfaces form a so-called stack. Well-known double-diffusive systems are observed in rift lakes in Africa and even from the coffee drink Latte Macciatto. Stacks of layers are also predicted to occur inside massive stars and inside giant planets. Their dynamics depend on the thermal, the solute and the momentum diffusivities, as well on the ratio of the gradients of the opposing stratifications. Since the layering process cannot be derived from linear stability analysis, the full nonlinear set of equations has to be investigated. Numerical simulations have become feasible for this task, despite the physical processes operate on a vast range of length and time scales, which is challenging for numerical hydrodynamical modelling. The oceanographically relevant case of fresh and salty water is investigated here in further details. The heat and mass transfer is compared with theoretical results and experimental measurements. Additionally, the initial dynamic of layering, the transient behaviour of a stack and the long time evolution are presented using the example of Lake Kivu and the interior of a giant planet.

  10. Infinite sets and double binds.

    PubMed

    Arden, M

    1984-01-01

    There have been many attempts to bring psychoanalytical theory up to date. This paper approaches the problem by discussing the work of Gregory Bateson and Ignacio Matte-Blanco, with particular reference to the use made by these authors of Russell's theory of logical types. Bateson's theory of the double bind and Matte-Blanco's bilogic are both based on concepts of logical typing. It is argued that the two theories can be linked by the idea that neurotic symptoms are based on category errors in thinking. Clinical material is presented from the analysis of a middle-aged woman. The intention is to demonstrate that the process of making interpretations can be thought of as revealing errors in thinking. Changes in the patient's inner world are then seen to be the result of clarifying childhood experiences based on category errors. Matte-Blanco's theory of bilogic and infinite experiences is a re-evaluation of the place of the primary process in mental life. It is suggested that a combination of bilogic and double bind theory provides a possibility of reformulating psychoanalytical theory.

  11. Double Exposure: Photographing Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, D. P.; Wake, C. P.; Romanow, G. B.

    2008-12-01

    Double Exposure, Photographing Climate Change, is a fine-art photography exhibition that examines climate change through the prism of melting glaciers. The photographs are twinned shots of glaciers, taken in the mid-20th century by world-renowned photographer Brad Washburn, and in the past two years by Boston journalist/photographer David Arnold. Arnold flew in Washburn's aerial "footprints", replicating stunning black and white photographs, and documenting one irreversible aspect of climate change. Double Exposure is art with a purpose. It is designed to educate, alarm and inspire its audiences. Its power lies in its beauty and the shocking changes it has captured through a camera lens. The interpretive text, guided by numerous experts in the fields of glaciology, global warming and geology, helps convey the message that climate change has already forced permanent changes on the face of our planet. The traveling exhibit premiered at Boston's Museum of Science in April and is now criss-crossing the nation. The exhibit covers changes in the 15 glaciers that have been photographed as well as related information about global warming's effect on the planet today.

  12. Double layers and circuits in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, Hannes

    1986-01-01

    As the rate of energy release in a double layer with voltage delta V is P approx I delta V, a double layer must be treated as a part of a circuit which delivers the current I. As neither double layer nor circuit can be derived from magnetofluid models of a plasma, such models are useless for treating energy transfer by means of double layers. They must be replaced by particle models and circuit theory. A simple circuit is suggested which is applied to the energizing of auroral particles, to solar flares, and to intergalactic double radio sources. Application to the heliospheric current systems leads to the prediction of two double layers on the Sun's axis which may give radiations detectable from Earth. Double layers in space should be classified as a new type of celestial object (one example is the double radio sources). It is tentatively suggested in X-ray and Gamma-ray bursts may be due to exploding double layers (although annihilation is an alternative energy source). A study of how a number of the most used textbooks in astrophysics treat important concepts like double layers, critical velocity, pinch effects and circuits is made.

  13. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  14. Mechanically induced residual stresses: Modelling and characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranart, Jean-Claude E.

    Accurate characterisation of residual stress represents a major challenge to the engineering community. This is because it is difficult to validate the measurement and the accuracy is doubtful. It is with this in mind that the current research program concerning the characterisation of mechanically induced residual stresses was undertaken. Specifically, the cold expansion of fastener holes and the shot peening treatment of aerospace alloys, aluminium 7075 and titanium Ti-6Al-4V, are considered. The objective of this study is to characterise residual stresses resulting from cold working using three powerful techniques. These are: (i) theoretical using three dimensional non-linear finite element modelling, (ii) semi-destructive using a modified incremental hole drilling technique and (iii) nondestructive using a newly developed guided wave method supplemented by traditional C-scan measurements. The three dimensional finite element results of both simultaneous and sequential cold expansion of two fastener holes revealed the importance of the separation distance, the expansion level and the loading history upon the development and growth of the plastic zone and unloading residual stresses. It further showed that the commonly adopted two dimensional finite element models are inaccurate and incapable of predicting these residual stresses. Similarly, the dynamic elasto-plastic finite element studies of shot peening showed that the depth of the compressed layer, surface and sub-surface residual stresses are significantly influenced by the shot characteristics. Furthermore, the results reveal that the separation distance between two simultaneously impacting shots governs the plastic zone development and its growth. In the semi-destructive incremental hole drilling technique, the accuracy of the newly developed calibration coefficients and measurement techniques were verified with a known stress field and the method was used to measure peening residual stresses. Unlike

  15. 51st North American Chemical Residue Workshop.

    PubMed

    Yang, Paul; Martos, Perry; Barrett, Brad

    2015-06-03

    Manuscripts collected in this 51st North American Chemical Residue Workshop (NACRW) Symposium issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (JAFC) were originally presented at the 51st NACRW meeting. The 2014 NACRW JAFC symposium collects 14 publications representing the broad range of topics in chemical analyses presented at the 2014 meeting. These include the analysis of chemical residues and contaminants in food, environment, feed, botanical, and bee samples as well as the application of quality control/quality assurance protocols in routine and method development.

  16. [Total amitraz residues in bee honeys].

    PubMed

    Hemmerling, C; Augustyniak, B; Risto, C

    1991-01-01

    A total of 330 bee honey samples was analysed in 1986-1990, and the results are reported. Analysis was performed according to the method for the amitraz total residue determination by hydrolysis and steam distillation as described. 60% of the honeys were practically not contamined (total residue content amounting to 0.01 mg/kg), 8.5% of the honeys contained more than 0.05 mg/kg. Maximal values of 0.2-0.5 mg/kg were stated. 54% of the rape-honeys contained more than 0.01 mg/kg, 19% more than 0.05 mg/kg.

  17. Residual contact stresses in cryotechnical environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretegny, J. F.; Demonicault, J. M.

    Two examples were chosen to show the use of residual stress measurements in the evaluation and comprehension of possible ruptures of parts subjected to the working conditions of cryogenic turbomachines which induce wear of the surfaces in dry contact. The examples concern the ball bearings and spline of the liquid hydrogen pump of the Vulcain engine to be used on Ariane 5. The Ariane program is introduced and tribological problems of the cryogenic technique are discussed. The utility of the residual stress measurements is assessed.

  18. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    PubMed

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Continuous Removal of Coal-Gasification Residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.; Suitor, J.; Dubis, D.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous-flow hopper processes solid residue from coal gasification, converting it from ashes, cinders, and clinkers to particles size of sand granules. Unit does not require repeated depressurization of lockhopper to admit and release materials. Therefore consumes less energy. Because unit has no airlock valves opened and closed repeatedly on hot, abrasive particles, subjected to lesser wear. Coal-gasification residue flows slowly through pressure-letdown device. Material enters and leaves continuously. Cleanout door on each pressure-letdown chamber allows access for maintenance and emergencies.

  20. Pesticide residue levels in Argentinian pasteurised milk.

    PubMed

    Maitre, M I; de la Sierra, P; Lenardon, A; Enrique, S; Marino, F

    1994-10-14

    Pasteurised milk--120 samples--was analysed (in Santa Fe City, Argentina) to determine organochlorinated pesticides. Almost all samples showed the presence of such residues; the compounds more frequently detected being: heptachlor and its epoxide (98%) and hexachlorocyclohexane .HCH. alpha and gamma isomers. Residues of aldrin and dieldrin; chlordane (alpha and gamma); endosulfan (I and II); DDT (o,p-DDT, p,p'-DDE, o,p-DDD, p,p'-DDD) as well as hexachlorocyclobenzene (HCB) were also found. Despite their presence high concentrations are sporadic, the mean values being less than FAO/OMS tolerance limits. Relations between maxima concentrations and seasons were not found.