Science.gov

Sample records for mission measurement synergy

  1. Mars 2001 Lander Mission: Measurement Synergy Through Coordinated Operations Planning And Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Kaplan, D.; Marshall, J.; Mishkin, A.; Saunders, S.; Smith, P.; Squyres, S.

    1999-01-01

    , together with quantitative information on material mineralogy, chemistry, and physical properties (rock textures; soil grain size and shape distributions; degree and nature of soil induration; soil magnetic properties). The calibration targets provide radiometric and mineralogical control surfaces. The magnets allow observations of magnetic phases. Patch plates are imaged to determine adhesive and abrasive properties of soils. Coordinated mission planning is crucial for optimizing the measurement synergy among the packages included on the lander. This planning has already begun through generation of multi-sol detailed operations activities. One focus has been to develop a scenario to use the arm to dig a soil trench to a depth of tens of centimeters. The activity will be monitored through use of Pancam and RAC to ensure nominal operations and to acquire data to determine subsurface physical properties (e.g., angle of repose of trench walls). Pancam and Mini-TES observations would also provide constraints on mineralogy and texture for the walls and bottom of the trench during excavation. If desired, soils excavated at depth could be deposited on the surface and Mossbauer and APXS measurements could be acquired for these materials. Soil samples from various depths would be delivered to MECA for characterization of aqueous geochemistry and physical properties of soil grains, particularly size, shape, and hardness. These physical properties would be determined by optical and atomic force microscopy. When completed, detailed information of soil properties as a function of depth would be obtained. These various data sets would constrain our understanding of whether or not there are systematic variations in soil characteristics as a function of depth. These variations might be related, for example, to evaporative moisture losses and formation of salt deposits, thereby indicating water transport processes occurred fairly recently. Many other value-added measurement scenarios are

  2. Team Synergies in Sport: Theory and Measures

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i) dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii) reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii) interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv), degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context. A primary goal of our analysis is to highlight the principles and tools required to understand coherent and dynamic team behaviors, as well as the performance conditions that make such team synergies possible, through perceptual attunement to shared affordances in individual performers. A key conclusion is that teams can be trained to perceive how to use and share specific affordances, explaining how individual’s behaviors self-organize into a group synergy. Ecological dynamics explanations of team behaviors can transit beyond mere ratification of sport performance, providing a comprehensive conceptual framework to guide the implementation of diagnostic measures by sport scientists, sport psychologists and performance analysts. Complex adaptive systems, synergies, group

  3. Scientific Synergies from the Europa Multiple-Flyby Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, O.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Prockter, L. M.; Senske, D.; Retherford, K. D.; Turtle, E. P.; Blaney, D. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Blankenship, D. D.; Raymond, C. A.; Westlake, J. H.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Kempf, S.; Collins, G. C.; Hand, K. P.; Lunine, J. I.; McGrath, M. A.; Nimmo, F.; Paty, C. S.; Soderblom, J. M.; Spencer, J. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Paranicas, C.

    2015-12-01

    In May 2015, NASA announced selection of a suite of nine instruments for the Europa mission's scientific payload. The payload consists of five remote sensing instruments that cover the wavelength range from ultraviolet through radar and four in situ instruments that measure fields and particles; moreover, gravity science can be achieved via the telecom system, and valuable scientific data could come from the spacecraft's planned radiation monitoring system. The remote sensing instruments are: an ultraviolet spectrograph (Europa-UVS); a wide-angle and narrow-angle visible camera system (EIS); an infrared spectrometer (MISE); a thermal instrument (E-THEMIS); and an ice-penetrating radar (REASON). The fields and particles instruments are: a magnetometer suite (ICEMAG); a plasma instrument (PIMS); a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MASPEX); and a dust analyzer (SUDA). Taken together, the payload has the potential to test hypotheses relevant to the composition, interior, and geology of Europa, in order to address the potential habitability of this intriguing moon. This presentation will introduce the Europa mission's instrument suite, while providing an overview of the synergistic science that can come from this mission.

  4. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Tropical rainfall affects the lives and economics of a majority of the Earth's population. Tropical rain systems, such as hurricanes, typhoons, and monsoons, are crucial to sustaining the livelihoods of those living in the tropics. Excess rainfall can cause floods and great property and crop damage, whereas too little rainfall can cause drought and crop failure. The latent heat release during the process of precipitation is a major source of energy that drives the atmospheric circulation. This latent heat can intensify weather systems, affecting weather thousands of kilometers away, thus making tropical rainfall an important indicator of atmospheric circulation and short-term climate change. Tropical forests and the underlying soils are major sources of many of the atmosphere's trace constituents. Together, the forests and the atmosphere act as a water-energy regulating system. Most of the rainfall is returned to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration, and the atmospheric trace constituents take part in the recycling process. Hence, the hydrological cycle provides a direct link between tropical rainfall and the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, all important trace materials for the Earth's system. Because rainfall is such an important component in the interactions between the ocean, atmosphere, land, and the biosphere, accurate measurements of rainfall are crucial to understanding the workings of the Earth-atmosphere system. The large spatial and temporal variability of rainfall systems, however, poses a major challenge to estimating global rainfall. So far, there has been a lack of rain gauge networks, especially over the oceans, which points to satellite measurement as the only means by which global observation of rainfall can be made. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of

  5. A synergy of values. Catholic healthcare leaders must implement their organization's mission and model its values.

    PubMed

    Clifton, R M; McEnroe, J J

    1994-06-01

    Catholic organizations need to select, develop, and retain healthcare leaders who dedicate themselves to carrying on the Church's healing ministry and the work begun by those who have preceded them. Persons entrusted to carry on Jesus' healing mission perform their duties out of a sense of commitment to the ministry and a love for the persons with whom they work and whom they serve. They recognize a synergy between their own values and the values of the healthcare organizations they lead. Dedication to leadership in Catholic healthcare can be viewed from three perspectives: the Bible and selected documents of the Catholic Church; the transfer of responsibility for Catholic healthcare from religious congregations to evolving forms of sponsorship; and the implications for the selection, development, and retention of healthcare leaders, both lay and religious. Servant-leadership is an integral part of the religious tradition that underlies Catholic healthcare. As cooperation increases between healthcare providers, third-party payers, employers, and other healthcare agents. Catholic healthcare organizations are challenged to reassert a mission and values that will enable healthcare in the United States to be delivered both compassionately and competently.

  6. Ground-based and spacecraft-based data sets: examples of synergy from recent missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buratti, Bonnie; Hicks, Michael; Bauer, James

    2015-08-01

    Missions to small bodies have returned a wealth of observations at high spatial resolution and new wavelengths. Nevertheless, spacecraft data is often deficient in many ways, lacking in temporal coverage, specific viewing geometries, context, spectral range, and calibrations. Several recent examples illustrate how modest ground-based “support” measurements for missions to small bodies have substantially enhanced the results from these missions. Triton, Neptune’s giant moon, was observed by Voyager 2 in 1989: high resolution images showed a sublimating polar cap and explosive plumes of volatiles. This instant in time was placed into context by subsequent ground-based and HST observations of the moon that showed continued volatile transport. Similarly, decades of ground-based observations leading up to the New Horizons fast flyby of Pluto monitored long-term changes in frosts on the dwarf planet’s surface. Another example of synergistic measurements for small-body missions is that of complementary solar phase angle coverage. Space-based missions seldom have small phase angle measurements; similarly, ground-based measurements are often lacking at large solar phase angles (except of course for NEOs). This complementary phase angle coverage enables accurate photometric modeling, including determination of the bolometric Bond albedo, which is a key parameter for thermal modeling. Another key use of ground-based observations is to check and refine spacecraft calibrations, at least at wavelengths that are visible from Earth. In some cases, complete calibration sets are provided by Earth-based observing programs, such as that of ROLO (RObotic Lunar Observatory) for the Moon. Finally, context and the “big picture” in both time and space are provided by telescopic views of spacecraft targets before, during, and after mission durations or critical events.The astronomical community should continue to support, and participate in, teams that make synergistic

  7. Synergies of the European Microwave Remote Sensing Missions SMOS and ASCAT for Monitoring Soil Moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scipal, K.; Wagner, W.

    2003-04-01

    The lack of global soil moisture observations is one of the most glaring and pressing deficiencies in current research activities of related fields, from climate monitoring and ecological applications to the quantification of biogeophysical fluxes. This has implications for important issues of the international political agenda like managing global water resources, securing food production and studying climate change. Currently it is held that only microwave remote sensing offers the potential to produce reliable global scale soil moisture information economically. Recognising the urgent need for a soil moisture mission several international initiatives are planning satellite missions dedicated to monitor the global hydrological cycle among them two European microwave satellites. ESA is planning to launch the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission SMOS, in 2006. SMOS will measure soil moisture over land and ocean salinity over the oceans. The mission rests on a passive microwave sensor (radiometer) operated in L-band which is currently believed to hold the largest potential for soil moisture retrieval. One year before (2005) EUMETSAT will launch the Meteorological Operational satellite METOP which carries the active microwave system Advanced Scatterometer ASCAT on board. ASCAT has been designed to retrieve winds over the oceans but recent research has established its capability to retrieve soil moisture. Although currently it is hold that, using active microwave techniques, the effect of surface roughness dominates that of soil moisture (while the converse is true for radiometers), the ERS scatterometer was successfully used to derive global soil moisture information at a spatial resolution of 50 km with weekly to decadal temporal resolution. The quality of the soil moisture products have been assessed by independent experts in several pilot projects funded by the European Space Agency. There is evidence to believe that both missions will provide a flow of

  8. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Gail

    2014-05-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core satellite, scheduled for launch at the end of February 2014, is well designed estimate precipitation from 0.2 to 110 mm/hr and to detect falling snow. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The design of the GPM Core Observatory is an advancement of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s highly successful rain-sensing package [3]. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of 8 or more dedicated and operational, U.S. and international passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will provide measurements of 3-D precipitation structures and microphysical properties, which are key to achieving a better understanding of precipitation processes and improving retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. The combined use of DPR and GMI measurements will place greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. The GPM Core Observatory was developed and tested at NASA

  9. Measure and exploitation of multisensor and multiwavelength synergy for remote sensing: 2. Application to the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and water vapor from MetOp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aires, Filipe; Paul, Maxime; Prigent, Catherine; Rommen, BjöRn; Bouvet, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In the companion paper, classical information content (IC) analysis was used to measure the potential synergy between the microwave (MW) and infrared (IR) observations from Atmospheric Microwave Sounding Unit-A, Microwave Humidity Sounder, and Improved Atmospheric Sounding in the Infrared instruments, used to retrieve the atmospheric profiles of temperature and water vapor over ocean, under clear-sky conditions. Some limitations of IC were pointed out that questioned the reliability of this technique for synergy characterization. The goal of this second paper is to develop a methodology to measure realistic potential synergies and to construct retrieval methods able to exploit them. Three retrieval methods are considered: the k nearest neighbors, the linear regression, and the neural networks (NN). These statistical retrieval schemes are tested on an application involving IR and MW synergy. Only clear-sky, near-nadir radiances over ocean are considered. The IR/MW synergy is expected to be stronger in cloudy cases, but it will be shown that it can also be observed in clear situations. The inversion algorithms are calibrated and tested with simulated observations, without any loss of generality, using similar theoretical assumption (same radiative transfer model, observational noise, and a priori information) in order to truly compare the IC and the direct statistical retrieval approaches. Multivariate and nonlinear methods such as the NN approach show that there is a strong potential for synergy. Synergy measurement tools such as the method proposed in this study should be considered in the future for the definition of new missions: The instrument characteristics should be determined not independently, sensor by sensor, but taking into account all the instruments together as a whole observing system.

  10. Cis-Lunar Synergies with Human Missions to the Martian Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupisella, M. L.; Mazanek, D. D.; Antol, J.; Bass, D.; Beaty, D.; Daugherty, K.; Graham, L.; Lewis, R.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation will a review recent work from the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team outlining a number of promising activities to conduct in cis-lunar space to help prepare for a human mission to the Martian system.

  11. Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: Architecture and Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundas, David

    2005-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and other partners, with the goal of monitoring the diurnal and seasonal variations in precipitation over the surface of the earth. These measurements will be used to improve current climate models and weather forecasting, and enable improved storm and flood warnings. This paper gives an overview of the mission architecture and addresses some of the key trades that have been completed, including the selection of the Core Observatory s orbit, orbit maintenance trades, and design issues related to meeting orbital debris requirements.

  12. Precursor Asteroid Missions and Synergies to Human Exploration of Phobos and Deimos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025 and then on to the Martian system in the 2030s. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. space exploration policy. These missions would be the first human expeditions to interplanetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and its moons, as well as other Solar System destinations. Robotic precursor missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, which may play a vital role in leveraging potential resources from the Martian moons that in turn could enable robotic and human exploration of Mars.

  13. Space Interferometry Mission: Measuring the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, James; Dallas, Saterios; Laskin, Robert; Unwin, Stephen; Yu, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will be the NASA Origins Program's first space based long baseline interferometric observatory. SIM will use a 10 m Michelson stellar interferometer to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute position measurements of stars down to 20th magnitude over its 5 yr. mission lifetime. SIM will also provide technology demonstrations of synthesis imaging and interferometric nulling. This paper describes the what, why and how of the SIM mission, including an overall mission and system description, science objectives, general description of how SIM makes its measurements, description of the design concepts now under consideration, operations concept, and supporting technology program.

  14. Mars X: A Mars Mission Architecture with Lunar-Mars Synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    A human mission to Mars, if it is to be cost effective, should take maximum advantage of previous efforts at the Moon, in terms of habitats, heavy lift boosters, and vehicles. It must also make use of nuclear site power for bases. However, to make such an effort sustainable over many administrations, it should not make use of nuclear propulsion. It is proposed in this architecture that high power Solar Electric Propulsion based around the MET (Microwave Electro-Thermal) thruster with water propellant, as an upper stage for a heavy lift booster, will allow a 46MT basic payload package to be sent to Mars. ISRU is utilized on Mars for production of RP1 and LOX to achieve Mars ascent and Mars Orbit rendezvous with an interplanetary stage. Two full tests of ISRU and Mars ascent are assumed for a human-rating of the system and to preposition water and RP1 in Mars orbit for abort to Earth from Mars orbit.

  15. The Lunar Prospector Discovery mission: Mission and measurement description

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, G.S.; Binder, A.B.; Feldman, W.

    1998-06-01

    Lunar Prospector, the first competitively selected planetary mission in NASA`s Discovery Program, is described with emphasis on the radiation spectrometer instrumentation and anticipated scientific data return. Scheduled to be launched in January 1998, the mission will conduct a one year orbital survey of the Moon`s composition and structure. The suite of five instruments are outlined: neutron spectrometer, alpha particle spectrometer, gamma-ray spectrometer, electron reflectometer and magnetometer. Scientific requirements and measurement approach to detect water/ice to a sensitivity of 50 ppm (hydrogen), measure key elemental constituents, detect radioactive gas release events and accurately map the Moon`s gravitational and magnetic fields are given. A brief overview of the programmatic accomplishments in meeting a tightly constrained schedule and budget is also provided.

  16. Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Operation Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nio, Tomomi; Saito, Susumu; Stocker, Erich; Pawloski, James H.; Murayama, Yoshifumi; Ohata, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) is a joint U.S. and Japan mission to observe tropical rainfall, which was launched by H-II No. 6 from Tanegashima in Japan at 6:27 JST on November 28, 1997. After the two-month commissioning of TRMM satellite and instruments, the original nominal mission lifetime was three years. In fact, the operations has continued for approximately 17.5 years. This paper provides a summary of the long term operations of TRMM.

  17. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azarbarzin, Ardeshir Art

    2011-01-01

    Mission Objective: (1) Improve scientific understanding of the global water cycle and fresh water availability (2) Improve the accuracy of precipitation forecasts (3) Provide frequent and complete sampling of the Earth s precipitation Mission Description (Class B, Category I): (1) Constellation of spacecraft provide global precipitation measurement coverage (2) NASA/JAXA Core spacecraft: Provides a microwave radiometer (GMI) and dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) to cross-calibrate entire constellation (3) 65 deg inclination, 400 km altitude (4) Launch July 2013 on HII-A (5) 3 year mission (5 year propellant) (6) Partner constellation spacecraft.

  18. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Mission and Synergies with LISA and LIGO-Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Spergel, D.; WFIRST SDT Project

    2015-05-01

    The Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA space mission in study for launch in 2024. It has a 2.4 m telescope, wide-field IR instrument operating in the 0.7 - 2.0 micron range and an exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument operating in the 400 - 1000 nm range. The observatory will perform galaxy surveys over thousands of square degrees to J=27 AB for dark energy weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements and will monitor a few square degrees for dark energy SN Ia studies. It will perform microlensing observations of the galactic bulge for an exoplanet census and direct imaging observations of nearby exoplanets with a pathfinder coronagraph. The mission will have a robust and well- funded guest observer program for 25% of the observing time. WFIRST will be a powerful tool for time domain astronomy and for coordinated observations with gravitational wave experiments. Gravitational wave events produced by mergers of nearby binary neutron stars (LIGO-Virgo) or extragalactic supermassive black hole binaries (LISA) will produce electromagnetic radiation that WFIRST can observe.

  19. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Mission and Synergies with LISA and LIGO-Virgo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Spergel, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA space mission in study for launch in 2024. It has a 2.4 m telescope, wide-field IR instrument operating in the 0.7 - 2.0 micron range and an exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument operating in the 400 - 1000 nm range. The observatory will perform galaxy surveys over thousands of square degrees to J=27 AB for dark energy weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements and will monitor a few square degrees for dark energy SN Ia studies. It will perform microlensing observations of the galactic bulge for an exoplanet census and direct imaging observations of nearby exoplanets with a pathfinder coronagraph. The mission will have a robust and wellfunded guest observer program for 25% of the observing time. WFIRST will be a powerful tool for time domain astronomy and for coordinated observations with gravitational wave experiments. Gravitational wave events produced by mergers of nearby binary neutron stars (LIGO-Virgo) or extragalactic supermassive black hole binaries (LISA) will produce electromagnetic radiation that WFIRST can observe.

  20. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission - Algorithm and Cal/Val Activities and Synergies with SMOS and Other L-Band Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Jackson, Tom; Kellogg, Kent; Entin, Jared

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, planned for launch in late 2014, has as its key measurement objective the frequent, global mapping of near-surface soil moisture and its freeze-thaw state. SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements at 10 km and 3 km resolutions respectively, would enable significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between the land and atmosphere. Soil moisture control of these fluxes is a key factor in the performance of atmospheric models used for weather forecasts and climate projections Soil moisture measurements are also of great importance in assessing floods and for monitoring drought. In addition, observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw timing over the boreal latitudes can help reduce uncertainties in quantifying the global carbon balance. The SMAP measurement concept utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The SMAP radiometer and radar flight hardware and ground processing designs are incorporating approaches to identify and mitigate potential terrestrial radio frequency interference (RFI). The radar and radiometer instruments are planned to operate in a 680 km polar orbit, viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width, providing 3-day global coverage. Data from the instruments would yield global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state to be provided at 10 km and 3 km resolutions respectively, every two to three days. Plans are to provide also a radiometer-only soil moisture product at 40-km spatial resolution. This product and the underlying brightness temperatures have characteristics similar to those provided by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. As a result, there are unique opportunities for common data product development and continuity between the two missions. SMAP also has commonalities with other satellite missions having L-band radiometer and/or radar sensors

  1. Global Precipitation Measurement Mission Launch and Commissioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Nikesha; Deweese, Keith; Vess, Missie; Welter, Gary; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    During launch and early operation of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, the Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) analysis team encountered four main on orbit anomalies. These include: (1) unexpected shock from Solar Array deployment, (2) momentum buildup from the Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTBs) phasing errors, (3) transition into Safehold due to albedo-induced Course Sun Sensor (CSS) anomaly, and (4) a flight software error that could cause a Safehold transition due to a Star Tracker occultation. This paper will discuss ways GNC engineers identified and tracked down the root causes. Flight data and GNC on board models will be shown to illustrate how each of these anomalies were investigated and mitigated before causing any harm to the spacecraft. On May 29, 2014, GPM was handed over to the Mission Flight Operations Team after a successful commissioning period. Currently, GPM is operating nominally on orbit, collecting meaningful scientific data that will significantly improve our understanding of the Earth's climate and water cycle.

  2. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theon, John S.

    1994-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is a cooperative effort between National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan and NASA of the USA. TRMM is designed to measure rain rates from space using a combination of high resolution radar, passive microwave radiometer and visible-infrared radiometer measurements from a spacecraft in a rapid precession, 350 km orbit inclined at 35 deg. These measurements, averaged over a 500 km grid for a month, are expected to provide monthly mean rainfall to an accuracy of 10 to 15 percent. TRMM will also make it possible to analyze the diurnal component of the rainfall and to derive the vertical distribution of latent heating. An accurate measure of the oceanic rainfall distribution will provide unprecedented insight into the halocline distribution and the stability of the oceanic surface layers. A status of the program is presented.

  3. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joanne; Kummerow, Christian D.; Meneghini, Robert; Hou, Arthur; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Barkstrom, Bruce; Wielicki, Bruce; Goodman, Steven J.; Christian, Hugh; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of rain in the tropics and the accompanying latent heat release, NASA for the U.S. and NASDA for Japan have partnered in the design, construction and flight of an Earth Probe satellite to measure tropical rainfall and calculate the associated heating. Primary mission goals are: 1) the understanding of crucial links in climate variability by the hydrological cycle, 2) improvement in the large-scale models of weather and climate, and 3) improvement in understanding cloud ensembles and their impacts on larger scale circulations. The linkage with the tropical oceans and landmasses are also emphasized. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was launched in November 1997 with fuel enough to obtain a four to five year data set of rainfall over the global tropics from 37 deg N to 37 deg S. This paper reports progress from launch date through the spring of 1999. The data system and its products and their access is described, as are the algorithms used to obtain the data. Some exciting early results from TRMM are described. Some important algorithm improvements are shown. These will be used in the first total data reprocessing, scheduled to be complete in early 2000. The reader is given information on how to access and use the data.

  4. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joanne

    1999-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of rain in the tropics and the accompanying latent heat release, NASA for the U.S. and NASDA for Japan have partnered in the design, construction and flight of an Earth Probe satellite to measure tropical rainfall and calculate the associated heating. Primary mission goals are 1) the understanding of crucial links in climate variability by the hydrological cycle, 2) improvement in the large-scale models of weather and climate 3) improvement in understanding cloud ensembles and their impacts on larger scale circulations. The linkage with the tropical oceans and landmasses are also emphasized. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was launched in November 1997 with fuel enough to obtain a four to five year data set of rainfall over the global tropics from 37 N to 37 S. This paper reports progress from launch date through the spring of 1999. The data system and its products and their access is described, as are the algorithms used to obtain the data. Some exciting early results from TRMM are described. Some important algorithm improvements are shown. These will be used in the first total data reprocessing, scheduled to be complete in early 2000. The reader is given information on how to access and use the data.

  5. Muscle Synergies in Cycling after Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: Correlation with Clinical Measures of Motor Function and Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Filipe O.; Torricelli, Diego; Bravo-Esteban, Elisabeth; Taylor, Julian; Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Santos, Cristina; Moreno, Juan C.; Pons, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: After incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), patients suffer important sensorimotor impairments, such as abnormal locomotion patterns and spasticity. Complementary to current clinical diagnostic procedures, the analysis of muscle synergies has emerged as a promising tool to study muscle coordination, which plays a major role in the control of multi-limb functional movements. Objective: Based on recent findings suggesting that walking and cycling share similar synergistic control, the analysis of muscle synergies during cycling might be explored as an early descriptor of gait-related impaired control. This idea was split into the following two hypotheses: (a) iSCI patients present a synergistic control of muscles during cycling; (b) muscle synergies outcomes extracted during cycling correlate with clinical measurements of gait performance and/or spasticity. Methods: Electromyographic (EMG) activity of 13 unilateral lower limb muscles was recorded in a group of 10 healthy individuals and 10 iSCI subjects during cycling at four different cadences. A non-negative matrix factorization (NNMF) algorithm was applied to identify synergistic components (i.e., activation coefficients and muscle synergy vectors). Reconstruction goodness scores (VAF and r2) were used to evaluate the ability of a given number of synergies to reconstruct the EMG signals. A set of metrics based on the similarity between pathologic and healthy synergies were correlated with clinical scales of gait performance and spasticity. Results: iSCI patients preserved a synergistic control of muscles during cycling. The similarity with the healthy reference was consistent with the degree of the impairment, i.e., less impaired patients showed higher similarities with the healthy reference. There was a strong correlation between reconstruction goodness scores at 42 rpm and motor performance scales (TUG, 10-m test and WISCI II). On the other hand, the similarity between the healthy and affected

  6. Global Precipitation Measurement Mission Launch and Commissioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Nikesha; DeWeese, Keith; Vess, Melissa; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Welter, Gary

    2015-01-01

    During launch and early operation of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) analysis team encountered four main on-orbit anomalies. These include: (1) unexpected shock from Solar Array deployment, (2) momentum buildup from the Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTBs) phasing errors, (3) transition into Safehold due to albedo induced Course Sun Sensor (CSS) anomaly, and (4) a flight software error that could cause a Safehold transition due to a Star Tracker occultation. This paper will discuss ways GN&C engineers identified the anomalies and tracked down the root causes. Flight data and GN&C on-board models will be shown to illustrate how each of these anomalies were investigated and mitigated before causing any harm to the spacecraft. On May 29, 2014, GPM was handed over to the Mission Flight Operations Team after a successful commissioning period. Currently, GPM is operating nominally on orbit, collecting meaningful scientific data that will significantly improve our understanding of the Earth's climate and water cycle.

  7. Low energy neutron measurements aboard encounter missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmer, N.; Maksimovic, M.; Trottet, G.

    Neutrons in the MeV to GeV range are produced by interaction of flare accelerated ions with the solar atmosphere. Because of their lifetime, only high energy neutrons (> 100 MeV) have a high probability to be detected at earth's orbit. So far, around fifteen solar neutron events have been observed either by high energy detectors aboard spacecrafts at 1 AU or by ground based neutron monitors. Neutrons between 10 and 100 MeV have also been detected for a few events through their proton decay. Measurements of solar neutrons closer to the Sun aboard encounter missions will allow to probe for the first time the MeV neutrons which are produced by the nuclear reactions of energetic ions with thresholds around 1 MeV/nuc and will provide information on the accelerated ion spectrum in the energy range between ˜ 1 MeV and 100 MeV/nuc in complementarity with what can be deduced from γ -ray line emission. The close proximity of the Sun would allow to measure neutron events for many more flares opening a new field of solar physics. Combined with near in-situ ion measurements and γ -ray observations, neutrons will bring information on the link between interacting and escaping ions while getting rid of most of the transport effects.

  8. TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission): A satellite mission to measure tropical rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joanne (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is presented. TRMM is a satellite program being studied jointly by the United States and Japan which would carry out the systematic study of tropical rainfall required for major strides in weather and climate research. The scientific justification for TRMM is discussed. The implementation process for the scientific community, NASA management, and the other decision-makers and advisory personnel who are expected to evaluate the priority of the project is outlined.

  9. Measuring galaxy environment with the synergy of future photometric and spectroscopic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucciati, O.; Marulli, F.; Cimatti, A.; Merson, A. I.; Norberg, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Baugh, C. M.; Branchini, E.

    2016-10-01

    We exploit the synergy between low-resolution spectroscopy and photometric redshifts to study environmental effects on galaxy evolution in slitless spectroscopic surveys from space. As a test case, we consider the future Euclid Deep survey (˜40 deg2), which combines a slitless spectroscopic survey limited at Hα flux ≥5 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 and a photometric survey limited in H band (H ≤ 26). We use Euclid-like galaxy mock catalogues, in which we anchor the photometric redshifts to the 3D galaxy distribution of the available spectroscopic redshifts. We then estimate the local density contrast by counting objects in cylindrical cells with radius from 1 to 10 h-1Mpc, over the redshift range 0.9 < z < 1.8. We compare this density field with the one computed in a mock catalogue with the same depth as the Euclid Deep survey (H = 26) but without redshift measurement errors. We find that our method successfully separates high- from low-density environments (the last from the first quintile of the density distribution), with higher efficiency at low redshift and large cells: the fraction of low-density regions mistaken by high-density peaks is <1 per cent for all scales and redshifts explored, but for scales of 1 h-1Mpc for which is a few per cent. These results show that we can efficiently study environment in photometric samples if spectroscopic information is available for a smaller sample of objects that sparsely samples the same volume. We demonstrate that these studies are possible in the Euclid Deep survey, i.e. in a redshift range in which environmental effects are different from those observed in the local Universe, hence providing new constraints for galaxy evolution models.

  10. Utilizing The Synergy of Airborne Backscatter Lidar and In-Situ Measurements for Evaluating CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekeri, Alexandra; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marenco, Franco; Marinou, Eleni; Rosenberg, Phil; Solomos, Stavros; Trembath, Jamie; Allan, James; Bacak, Asan; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-06-01

    Airborne campaigns dedicated to satellite validation are crucial for the effective global aerosol monitoring. CALIPSO is currently the only active remote sensing satellite mission, acquiring the vertical profiles of the aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients. Here we present a method for CALIPSO evaluation from combining lidar and in-situ airborne measurements. The limitations of the method have to do mainly with the in-situ instrumentation capabilities and the hydration modelling. We also discuss the future implementation of our method in the ICE-D campaign (Cape Verde, August 2015).

  11. Precipitation Measurements from Space: The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2007-01-01

    Water is fundamental to the life on Earth and its phase transition between the gaseous, liquid, and solid states dominates the behavior of the weather/climate/ecological system. Precipitation, which converts atmospheric water vapor into rain and snow, is central to the global water cycle. It regulates the global energy balance through interactions with clouds and water vapor (the primary greenhouse gas), and also shapes global winds and dynamic transport through latent heat release. Surface precipitation affects soil moisture, ocean salinity, and land hydrology, thus linking fast atmospheric processes to the slower components of the climate system. Precipitation is also the primary source of freshwater in the world, which is facing an emerging freshwater crisis in many regions. Accurate and timely knowledge of global precipitation is essential for understanding the behavior of the global water cycle, improving freshwater management, and advancing predictive capabilities of high-impact weather events such as hurricanes, floods, droughts, and landslides. With limited rainfall networks on land and the impracticality of making extensive rainfall measurements over oceans, a comprehensive description of the space and time variability of global precipitation can only be achieved from the vantage point of space. This presentation will examine current capabilities in space-borne rainfall measurements, highlight scientific and practical benefits derived from these observations to date, and provide an overview of the multi-national Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission scheduled to bc launched in the early next decade.

  12. Prehension Synergies

    PubMed Central

    Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The precision grip requires the control of the normal and tangential forces exerted by the fingers as well as the control of the rotational equilibrium of the grasped object. Prehension synergies involve the conjoint changes in finger forces and moments during multifinger gripping tasks. Some of these adjustments are dictated by mechanics, whereas others are the result of a choice by the performer. PMID:15064652

  13. Synergy between cellulolytic enzymes during the biodegradation of cellulose microfibrils measured using angle-scanning surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raegen, Adam; Dion, Alexander; Reiter, Kyle; Clarke, Anthony; Lipkowski, Jacek; Dutcher, John

    2014-03-01

    The use of cellulosic ethanol, a promising emerging energy source, is limited by the energy intensive and costly step of first converting the cellulose fibers into their constituent glucose monomers. Industrial processes mimic those that occur in nature, using mixtures or ``cocktails'' of different classes of cellulolytic enzymes derived from fungi. Despite several decades of investigation, the molecular mechanisms for enzyme synergy remain poorly understood. To gain additional insight, we have used a custom angle-scanning surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging apparatus to obtain a sensitive measure of enzymatic degradation. By implementing a novel SPR data analysis procedure, we have been able to track the thickness and roughness of laterally heterogeneous cellulose microfibril-coated substrates as enzymatic degradation proceeds. This has allowed us to measure the synergistic actions of the different enzymes, providing data that are directly relevant to the cellulosic ethanol industry.

  14. Prototype of NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement Mission Ground Validation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, M. R.; Morris, K. R.; Petersen, W. A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing a Ground Validation System (GVS) as one of its contributions to the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM). The GPM GVS provides an independent means for evaluation, diagnosis, and ultimately improvement of GPM spaceborne measurements and precipitation products. NASA's GPM GVS consists of three elements: field campaigns/physical validation, direct network validation, and modeling and simulation. The GVS prototype of direct network validation compares Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite-borne radar data to similar measurements from the U.S. national network of operational weather radars. A prototype field campaign has also been conducted; modeling and simulation prototypes are under consideration.

  15. Aquarius Satellite Salinity Measurement Mission Status, and Science Results from the initial 3-Year Prime Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Kao, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Aquarius satellite microwave sensor, launched June 2011, as part of the US-Argentina joint Aquarius/SAC-D mission, and commenced observations on 25 Aug2011, and completed three years of ocean surface salinity measurements in late August 2014. The Aquarius measurement objectives are to describe unknown features in the sea surface salinity (SSS) field, and document seasonal and interannual variations on regional and basin scales. This presentation will first describe the structure of the mean annual global salinity field compared with the previous in situ climatology and contemporary in situ measurements , including small persistent biases of opposite sign in high latitudes versus low latitudes, currently under intense investigation, as well as global and regional error statistics. Then we summarize highlights of various studies and papers submitted to the JGR-Oceans special section on satellite salinity (2014). The most prominent seasonal variations, most notably the extant and variability of the SSS signature of the Atlantic and Pacific inter-tropical convergence zones, Amazon-Orinoco and other major rivers, and other important regional patterns of seasonal variability. Lastly we will examine the trends observed during the three Sep-Aug measurement years beginning Sep2011, Sep2012 and Sep2013, respectively, in relation to ENSO and other climate indices, as the first step in analyzing interannual SSS variability. An outline for extended mission operations beyond the initial three-year prime mission will be presented.

  16. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission to unify and advance global precipitation measurements from a constellation of dedicated and operational microwave sensors. The GPM concept centers on the deployment of a Core Spacecraft in a non-Sun-synchronous orbit at 65 degrees inclination carrying a dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and a multi-frequency passive microwave radiometer (GMI) with high-frequency capabilities to serve as a precipitation physics observatory and calibration standard for the constellation radiometers. The baseline GPM constellation is envisioned to comprise conical-scanning microwave imagers (e.g., GMI, SSMIS, AMSR, MIS, MADRAS, GPM-Brazil) augmented with cross-track microwave temperature/humidity sounders (e.g., MHS, ATMS) over land. In addition to the Core Satellite, the GPM Mission will contribute a second GMI to be flown in a low-inclination (approximately 40 deg.) non-Sun-synchronous orbit to improve near real-time monitoring of hurricanes. GPM is a science mission with integrated applications goals aimed at (1) advancing the knowledge of the global water/energy cycle variability and freshwater availability and (2) improving weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of global precipitation. The GPM Mission is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), with opportunities for additional partners in satellite constellation and ground validation activities. Within the framework of the inter-governmental Group ob Earth Observations (GEO) and Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), GPM has been identified as a cornerstone for the Precipitation Constellation (PC) being developed under the auspices of Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The GPM Core Observatory is scheduled for launch in 2013, followed by the launch of the GPM Low-Inclination Observatory in

  17. ARIM-1: The Atmospheric Refractive Index Measurements Sounding Rocket Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, B. Ian (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the ARIM-1 sounding rocket mission, whose goal is to study atmospheric turbulence in the tropopause region of the atmosphere, is presented. The study was conducted by an interdisciplinary team of students at the University of Alaska Fairbanks who were enrolled in a Space Systems Engineering course. The implementation of the ARIM-1 mission will be carried out by students participating in the Alaska Student Rocket Program (ASRP), with a projected launch date of August 1997. The ARIM-1 vehicle is a single stage sounding rocket with a 3:1 ogive nose cone, a payload diameter of 8 in., a motor diameter of 7.6 in., and an overall height of 17.0 ft including the four fins. Emphasis is placed on standardization of payload support systems. The thermosonde payload will measure the atmospheric turbulence by direct measurement of the temperature difference over a distance of one meter using two 3.45-micron 'hot-wire' probes. The recovery system consists of a 6 ft. diameter ribless guide surface drogue chute and a 33 ft. diameter main cross parachute designed to recover a payload of 31 pounds and slow its descent rate to 5 m/s through an altitude of 15 km. This document discusses the science objectives, mission analysis, payload mechanical configuration and structural design, recovery system, payload electronics, ground station, testing plans, and mission implementation.

  18. Program control on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennington, Dorothy J.; Majerowicw, Walter

    1994-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), an integral part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, is the first satellite dedicated to measuring tropical rainfall. TRMM will contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms through which tropical rainfall influences global circulation and climate. Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Flight Projects Directorate is responsible for establishing a Project Office for the TRMM to manage, coordinate, and integrate the various organizations involved in the development and operation of this complex satellite. The TRMM observatory, the largest ever developed and built inhouse at GSFC, includes state-of-the-art hardware. It will carry five scientific instruments designed to determine the rate of rainfall and the total rainfall occurring between the north and south latitudes of 35 deg. As a secondary science objective, TRMM will also measure the Earth's radiant energy budget and lightning.

  19. ATMOS: Long term atmospheric measurements for mission to planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A long-term, space-based measurement program, together with continued balloon and aircraft-borne investigations, is essential to monitor the predicted effects in the atmosphere, to determine to what extent the concentration measurements agree with current models of stratospheric chemistry, and to determine the condition of the ozone layer. The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment is currently making comprehensive, global measurements of Earth's atmosphere as part of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) program on the Space Shuttle. Part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, ATLAS is a continuing series of missions to study Earth and the Sun and provide a more fundamental understanding of the solar influences on Earth's atmosphere. The ATMOS program, instruments, and science results are presented.

  20. NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission for Science and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Gail

    2016-04-01

    Water is fundamental to life on Earth. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, launched February 27, 2014, is an international satellite mission to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational sensors to provide "next-generation" precipitation products. The joint NASA-JAXA GPM Core Observatory serves as the cornerstone and anchor to unite the constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory carries a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. As a science mission with integrated application goals, GPM is designed to (1) advance precipitation measurement capability from space through combined use of active and passive microwave sensors, (2) advance the knowledge of the global water/energy cycle and freshwater availability through better description of the space-time variability of global precipitation, and (3) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of instantaneous precipitation rates and time-integrated rainfall accumulation. Since launch, the instruments have been collecting outstanding precipitation data. New scientific insights resulting from GPM data, an overview of the GPM mission concept and science activities in the United States

  1. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Applications: Activities, Challenges, and Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Hou, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission to provide nextgeneration observations of rain and snow worldwide every three hours. NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will launch a "Core" satellite carrying advanced instruments that will set a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The data they provide will be used to unify precipitation measurements made by an international network of partner satellites to quantify when, where, and how much it rains or snows around the world. The GPM mission will help advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycles, improve the forecasting of extreme events that cause natural disasters, and extend current capabilities of using satellite precipitation information to directly benefit society. Building upon the successful legacy of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), GPM's next-generation global precipitation data will lead to scientific advances and societal benefits within a range of hydrologic fields including natural hazards, ecology, public health and water resources. This talk will highlight some examples from TRMM's IS-year history within these applications areas as well as discuss some existing challenges and present a look forward for GPM's contribution to applications in hydrology.

  2. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Applications: Activities, challenges, and vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, D. B.; Hou, A. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission to provide next-generation observations of rain and snow worldwide every three hours. NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will launch a "Core" satellite carrying advanced instruments that will set a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The data they provide will be used to unify precipitation measurements made by an international network of partner satellites to quantify when, where, and how much it rains or snows around the world. The GPM mission will help advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycles, improve the forecasting of extreme events that cause natural disasters, and extend current capabilities of using satellite precipitation information to directly benefit society. Building upon the successful legacy of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), GPM's next-generation global precipitation data will lead to scientific advances and societal benefits within a range of hydrologic fields including natural hazards, ecology, public health and water resources. This talk will highlight some examples from TRMM's 15-year history within these applications areas as well as discuss some existing challenges and present a look forward for GPM's contribution to applications in hydrology.

  3. Summary of Global lightning and sprite measurements (GLIMS) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushio, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Sato, M.; Morimoto, T.; Suzuki, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Hobara, Y.; Kikuchi, M.; Adachi, T.; Takahashi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Global lightning and sprite measurements (GLIMS) mission aims to study the generation mechanism of lightning-associated transient luminous events (TLEs) and the relationship between lightning and TLEs. Four types of sensors attached to the International Space Station are used to observe a lightning and TLEs. All four types of sensors work synchronously. Two complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor cameras at two different wavelengths (lightning and sprite imager: LSI) are used to capture a position of optical emission from lightning and TLEs. Six photometers at six different wavelengths (PHs) record an optical emission intensity at high temporal resolution. Each photometer works to detect an altitude of optical mission through the use of the optical spectrum that are absorbed by atmospheric gases. A very low frequency (VLF) receiver is used for recording Whistler mode waves from lightning. Very high frequency interferometer (VITF) with two VHF sensors estimates the radiation source direction using phase interference technique. In JEM-GLIMS mission, it is notable that it is possible to conduct a simultaneous observation of optical and radio instruments. The mission has been conducted since November 2012. In this paper, we will show the findings of experimental work conducted during the past 3 years (2013-2015).

  4. Validation procedure for GOCE mission using balloon borne gradient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latka, J.

    2003-04-01

    VALIDATION PROCEDURE FOR GOCE MISSION USING BALLOON BORNE GRADIENT MEASUREMENTS. J.K.Latka (1) (1)Space Research Centre PAS jkl@cbk.waw.pl VALIDATION PROCEDURE FOR GOCE MISSION USING BALLOON BORNE GRADIENT MEASUREMENTS. J.K.Latka (1) (1)Space Research Centre PAS jkl@cbk.waw.pl Amelioration of the global mode of the EARTH gravity field is the aim of the satellite mission GOCE. In order to accomplish such a task,especially careful investigation of experiment itself errors ought to be made. Validation of the results is one of the important tasks. Together with the laboratory calibration they will give the estimation of experiment systematic errors. There are several concepts of a validation process. One of them is the measurement of the gradients using a gradiometer situated on board of a balloon travelling in the Mediterranean area, from Sicily to Spain. Upward continuation procedure should give data for comparisons with GOCE results. In the paper the method of least square collocation is presented as a tool for upward continuation. For calculations one use the simulated values of gradients. The covriance function is based on the models of the Earth gravity field. The models EGM96,OSU81 and their modifications are used.

  5. Case study of extreme aerosol pollution events in the Paris area by synergy between optical measurements from multiple platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totems, Julien; Chazette, Patrick; Royer, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Major pollution events encountered in the Paris area are mainly due to anticyclonic conditions where air masses are blocked and recycled (horizontal wind speed less than 1 m.s-1) or advected from northestern Europe. Such events with aerosol optical thickness larger than 0.4 at 355 nm have been documented by in situ sensors (AirParif network), ground-based sunphotometers (Aeronet network) and fixed and mobile ground-based Rayleigh-Mie lidars. The first studied event occurred during the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) summer experiment, on July 1st, 2009. Another favorable period for major pollution events is the spring season and we have highlighted two of them using the opportunity given by lidar experimental tests at LSCE in march 2011. Ground-based observations have been complemented by spaceborne measurements from MODIS and CALIPSO/CALIOP that give information on the spatial extent of the pollution plume in 3 dimensions. From this instrumental synergy we determine the aerosol optical properties (extinction coefficients in the atmospheric column, optical thickness, lidar ratio, ...). The probable aerosol sources have also been investigated using back-trajectories analyses computed by the HYSPLIT model (http://ready.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php) ; they lie in the French Lorraine, Benelux, and German Saarland and Ruhr industrialized regions.

  6. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2012-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission specifically designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. NASA and JAXA will deploy a Core Observatory in 2014 to serve as a reference satellite to unify precipitation measurements from the constellation of sensors. The GPM Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a conical-scanning multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will be the first dual-frequency radar in space to provide not only measurements of 3-D precipitation structures but also quantitative information on microphysical properties of precipitating particles. The DPR and GMI measurements will together provide a database that relates vertical hydrometeor profiles to multi-frequency microwave radiances over a variety of environmental conditions across the globe. This combined database will be used as a common transfer standard for improving the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. For global coverage, GPM relies on existing satellite programs and new mission opportunities from a consortium of partners through bilateral agreements with either NASA or JAXA. Each constellation member may have its unique scientific or operational objectives but contributes microwave observations to GPM for the generation and dissemination of unified global precipitation data products. In addition to the DPR and GMI on the Core Observatory, the baseline GPM constellation consists of the following sensors: (1) Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) instruments on the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, (2) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR-2) on the GCOM-W1 satellite of JAXA, (3) the Multi-Frequency Microwave Scanning Radiometer (MADRAS) and the multi-channel microwave humidity sounder

  7. Atmospheric Measurements by the 2002 Geoscience Laser Altimeter System Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program is a multiple platform NASA initiative for the study of global change. As part of the EOS project, the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) was selected as a laser sensor filling complementary requirements for several earth science disciplines including atmospheric and surface applications. Late in 2002, the GaAs instrument is to be launched for a three to five year observational mission. For the atmosphere, the instrument is designed to full fill comprehensive requirements for profiling of radiatively significant cloud and aerosol. Algorithms have been developed to process the cloud and aerosol data and provide standard data products. After launch there will be a three-month project to analyze and understand the system performance and accuracy of the data products. As an EOS mission, the GaAs measurements and data products will be openly available to all investigators. An overview of the instrument, data products and evaluation plan is given.

  8. Ground truth observations for TRMM. [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiele, Otto W.

    1989-01-01

    Plans to obtain ground truth data for the validation of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) are examined. The experimental rainfall measuring techniques considered for the program are discussed, including optical and Doppler rain gages, satellite beacon attenuation, underwater hydrophones, profilers, microwave attenuation, multiple frequency/polarization radar, and scanning and airborne Doppler radar. The TRMM validation program is considered, noting observations to compare averaged TRMM rainfall data with similar ground truth data and to compare the rainfall and height distribution data from TRMM with instantaneous ground truth data.

  9. Synergy benefit in temperature, humiditiy and cloud property profiling by integrating ground based and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebell, K.; Orlandi, E.; Hünerbein, A.; Crewell, S.; Löhnert, U.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate, highly vertically resolved temperature, humidity and cloud property profiles are needed for many applications. They are essential for climate monitoring, a better process understanding and the subsequent improvement of parameterizations in numerical weather prediction and climate models. In order to provide such profiles with a high temporal resolution, multiple wavelength active and passive remote sensing techniques available at ground based observatories, e.g. the Atmospheric Radiation Measruement (ARM) Program and Cloudnet facilities, need to be exploited. In particular, the Integrated Profiling Technique (IPT, Löhnert et al., 2008) has been successfully applied to simultaneously derive profiles of temperature, humidity and liquid water by a Bayesian based retrieval using a combination of ground based microwave radiometer, cloud radar and a priori information. Within the project ICOS (Integrating Cloud Observations from Ground and Space - a Way to Combine Time and Space Information), we develop a flexible IPT, which allows for the combination of a variety of ground based measurements from cloud radar, microwave radiometer (MWR) and IR spectrometer as well as satellite based information from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) onboard of METEOSAT. As ground based observations are mainly sensitive to the lower parts of the troposphere, the satellite measurements provide complementary information and are thus expected to improve the estimates of the thermodynamic and cloud property profiles, i. e. hydrometeor content and effective radius, considerably. In addition to the SEVIRI IR measurements, which are provided with a high repetition time, information from polar orbiting satellites could be included. In paticular, the potential of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) and Microwave Sounding Unit (MHS) in the retrieval is investigated. In order to understand the improvement by integrating the measurements of the above

  10. Aerosol Sources, Absorption, and Intercontinental Transport: Synergies among Models, Remote Sensing, and Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Kaufman, Yoram; chu, Allen; Anderson, Tad; Quinn, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Aerosol climate forcing is one of the largest uncertainties in assessing the anthropogenic impact on the global climate system. This uncertainty arises from the poorly quantified aerosol sources, especially black carbon emissions, our limited knowledge of aerosol mixing state and optical properties, and the consequences of intercontinental transport of aerosols and their precursors. Here we use a global model GOCART to simulate atmospheric aerosols, including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt, from anthropogenic, biomass burning, and natural sources. We compare the model calculated aerosol extinction and absorption with those quantities from the ground-based sun photometer measurements from AERONET at several different wavelengths and the field observations from ACE-Asia, and model calculated total aerosol optical depth and fine mode fractions with the MODIS satellite retrieval. We will also estimate the intercontinental transport of pollution and dust aerosols from their source regions to other areas in different seasons.

  11. Aerosol Sources, Absorption, and Intercontinental Transport: Synergies Among Models, Remote Sensing, and Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Chu, Allen; Levy, Robert; Remer, Lorraine; Kaufman, Yoram; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Eck, Tom; Anderson, Tad; Quinn, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol climate forcing is one of the largest uncertainties in assessing the anthropogenic impact on the global climate system. This uncertainty arises from the poorly quantified aerosol sources, especially black carbon emissions, our limited knowledge of aerosol mixing state and optical properties, and the consequences of intercontinental transport of aerosols and their precursors. Here we use a global model GOCART to simulate atmospheric aerosols, including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt, from anthropogenic, .biomass burning, and natural sources. We compare the model calculated aerosol extinction and absorption with those quantities from the ground-based sun photometer measurements from AERON" at several different wavelengths and the field observations from ACE-Asia, and model calculated total aerosol optical depth and fine mode fractions with the MODIS satellite retrieval. We will also estimate the intercontinental transport of pollution and dust aerosols from their source regions to other areas in different seasons.

  12. Earthquake-Lightning Signature Probed by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hao; Liu, Jann-Yenq Tiger

    2016-04-01

    The lightning activity is one of the key parameters to understand the atmospheric electric fields near the Earth's surface and the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling during the earthquake preparation period. A statistical study shows more lightning before magnitude M>=5.0 earthquakes in Taiwan during 1993-2004. In this paper, the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is used to statistically exam the lightning activity 30 days before and after 198 M>=7.0 earthquakes in the tropical area of the globe during the 17-year period of 1988-2014. The statistical results show that lightning activities over epicenter significantly enhance before the earthquakes.

  13. Analysis of TRMM Microphysical Measurements: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    SPEC Incorporated participated in three of the four TRMM field campaigns (TEFLUN-A, TEFLUN-B and KWAJEX), installing and operating a cloud particle imager (CPI) and a high volume precipitation spectrometer (HVPS) on the SPEC Learjet in TEFLUN-A, the University of North Dakota Citation in TEFLUN-B and KWAJEX, and a CPI on the NASA DC-8 in KWAJEX. This report presents and discusses new software tools and algorithms that were developed to analyze microphysical data collected during these field campaigns, as well as scientific interpretations of the data themselves. Software algorithms were developed to improve the analysis of microphysical measurements collected by the TRMM aircraft during the field campaigns. Particular attention was paid to developing and/or improving algorithms used to compute particle size distributions and ice water content. Software was also developed in support of production of the TRMM Common Microphysical Product (CMP) data files. CMP data files for TEFLUN-A field campaign were produced and submitted to the DAAC. Typical microphysical properties of convective and stratiform regions from TEFLUN-A and KWAJEX clouds were produced. In general, it was found that in the upper cloud region near -20 to -25 C, stratiform clouds contain very high (greater than 1 per cubic centimeter) concentrations of small ice particles, which are suspected to be a residual from homogeneous freezing and sedimentation of small drops in a convective updraft. In the upper cloud region near -20 to -25 C, convective clouds contain aggregates, which are not found lower in the cloud. Stratiform clouds contain aggregates at all levels, with the majority in the lowest levels. Convective cloud regions contain much higher LWC and drop concentrations than stratiform regions at all levels, and higher LWC in the middle and upper regions. Stratiform clouds contain higher IWC than convective clouds only at the lowest level. Irregular shaped ice particles are found in very high

  14. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joanne; Meneghini, Robert; Kummerow, Christian D.; Meneghini, Robert; Hou, Arthur; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Barkstrom, Bruce; Wielicki, Bruce; Goodman, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of rain in the tropics and the accompanying latent heat release, NASA for the U.S. and NASDA for Japan have partnered in the design, construction and flight of an Earth Probe satellite to measure tropical rainfall and calculate the associated heating. Primary mission goals are 1) the understanding of crucial links in climate variability by the hydrological cycle, 2) improvement in the large-scale models of weather and climate 3) Improvement in understanding cloud ensembles and their impacts on larger scale circulations. The linkage with the tropical oceans and landmasses are also emphasized. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was launched in November 1997 with fuel enough to obtain a four to five year data set of rainfall over the global tropics from 37'N to 37'S. This paper reports progress from launch date through the spring of 1999. The data system and its products and their access is described, as are the algorithms used to obtain the data. Some exciting early results from TRMM are described. Some important algorithm improvements are shown. These will be used in the first total data reprocessing, scheduled to be complete in early 2000. The reader is given information on how to access and use the data.

  15. Development of a prototype fluid volume measurement system. [for urine volume measurement on space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Sabin, C. M.; Meckel, P. T.

    1974-01-01

    The research is reported in applying the axial fluid temperature differential flowmeter to a urine volume measurement system for space missions. The fluid volume measurement system is described along with the prototype equipment package. Flowmeter calibration, electronic signal processing, and typical void volume measurements are also described.

  16. Successes with the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Huffman, George; Stocker, Erich; Petersen, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential to our planet Earth. Knowing when, where and how precipitation falls is crucial for understanding the linkages between the Earth's water and energy cycles and is extraordinarily important for sustaining life on our planet during climate change. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory spacecraft launched February 27, 2014, is the anchor to the GPM international satellite mission to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational sensors to provide "next-generation" precipitation products. GPM is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Status and successes in terms of spacecraft, instruments, retrieval products, validation, and impacts for science and society will be presented. Precipitation, microwave, satellite

  17. Charge measurements for an asteroid sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfaden, A.; Aplin, K. L.; Bowles, N. E.

    2013-09-01

    Photoelectric charging of asteroid regolith material influences particle motion and escape. Differing spacecraft and asteroid charges may also affect sample return on missions such as Marco Polo-R. To study this, bespoke 2D particle-in-cell code simulating the behaviour of photoelectrons trapped near a photoemitting surface (photosheath) has been written and implemented. The spacecraft- photosheath system reaches equilibrium in 1 ms, which is rapid compared to the descent timescale. Equilibria reached in simulations are therefore assumed representative of the dynamic spacecraft environment. Predicted potentials at different heightsand with different solar zenith angle are presented, so that an instrument to measure the potential difference across the spacecraft can be defined. The distorting effect of the spacecraft significantly modifies the potential difference and displacement currents during the terminal descent, by introducing an equipotential body, creating a shadow, and photoemitting itself. By considering the distortion from different parts of the spacecraft, optimal locations for a set of electrodes to measure the potential difference are suggested. Potential differences of about 100 mV are expected to be generated across the electrodes, which should be representative of the electrical environment. The results demonstrate that a simple set of electrodes can measure the asteroid's surface electric field during sample collection.

  18. Space acceleration measurement system description and operations on the First Spacelab Life Sciences Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; Finley, Brian D.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) project and flight units are briefly described. The SAMS operations during the STS-40 mission are summarized, and a preliminary look at some of the acceleration data from that mission are provided. The background and rationale for the SAMS project is described to better illustrate its goals. The functions and capabilities of each SAMS flight unit are first explained, then the STS-40 mission, the SAMS's function for that mission, and the preparation of the SAMS are described. Observations about the SAMS operations during the first SAMS mission are then discussed. Some sample data are presented illustrating several aspects of the mission's microgravity environment.

  19. Vertical profiling of marine aerosol, dust and their mixtures utilizing the synergy of sunphotometer and lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekeri, Alexandra; Amiridis, Vassilis; Lopatin, Anton; Marinou, Eleni; Engelman, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Wandinger, Ulla; Ansmann, Albert; Solomos, Stavros; Dubovik, Oleg; Schüttemeyer, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Current and future lidar products from space missions (CALIPSO, ADM-Aeolus, EarthCARE) aim to improve our understanding of atmospheric dynamics and aerosol/cloud interactions on global scale. However, the lidar instruments onboard these three missions (CALIOP, ALADIN, ATLID) are different systems, operating at different wavelengths and providing different sets of measured parameters. In order to spectrally homogenize the datasets, aerosol/cloud-type-dependent spectral conversion factors are needed to be applied to all lidar-related properties (extinction, backscatter and depolarization), based on the aerosol/cloud classification of the space-borne observations. The well-established European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) offers the unique opportunity to support such an effort. However, EARLINET database suffers from lack of information for specific aerosol types such as marine and mixed dust/marine cases. Unfortunately, these types are not observed in EARLINET's core stations, since the stations are mostly located at continental sites and are influenced by urban pollution. Moreover, the lidar systems near the coastlines suffer from the inability to measure at the first few hundred meters (500-1000 m) due to their technical design, which results in an incomplete laser/telescope overlap region. Towards the study of marine and marine-dust aerosol mixtures we organized the experimental campaign of "Characterization of Aerosol mixtures of Dust And Marine origin" (CHARADMexp), on June 20 to July 10, at Finokalia, Grete, Greece. Our aim was to derive optical, microphysical and chemical properties of the marine component and its mixtures with dust, employing sophisticated instrumentation installed on the site of Finokalia ACTRIS station, where only marine and dust particles are present 95% of the time. Specifically, aerosol characterization was established by the "Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data" (GARRLiC), a technique that

  20. Measurements of Aged Aircraft Exhaust in the ACCENT Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedl, R.; Ross, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry of Combustion Emissions Near the Tropopause (ACCENT) mission is a multi-agency sponsored effort to evaluate the roles of aircraft and rocket exhaust in perturbing ozone chemistry and modifying aerosols and clouds.

  1. (abstract) MEASURE-Jupiter: Low Cost Missions to Explore Jupiter in the Post-Galileo Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Stern, S. A.; Ayon, J. A.; Lane, A. L.; Nunez, C. L.; Sauer, C. G.; Stetson, D. G.; West, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    MEASURE-Jupiter is a new mission concept for the exploration of giant planets, with initial application to Jupiter. By flying sets of lightweight spacecraft with highly focused measurement objectives, it is designed to break the apparent impass in giant planet exploration beyond Cassini. The MEASURE-Jupiter concept is characterized by: 1) intensive exploration of a giant planet system, 2) multiple small missions flown in focused waves using spacecraft costing $100M to $200M, and 3) mission sets launched every 2 to 3 years. Why Jupiter? Jupiter is the most complex planetary system in the Solar System with many scientifically intriguing bodies and phenomena to explore. The Galileo mission will scratch the surface of the exploration of Jupiter, posing many questions for the MEASURE-Jupiter missions to address. Jupiter is also the easiest planet in the Outer Solar System to reach, making possible flight times of 2 years and total mission durations of 3 years or less. Concept design studies have uncovered a number of scientifically rewarding, simple, low-cost mission options. These options have the additional attraction of being able to launch on 2-year trajectories to Jupiter with low-cost Delta II expendable launch vehicles. A partial list of mission concepts studied to date include: Io Very Close Flyby, Jupiter Close Polar Pass, Mini-Orbiters, and Galilean Satellite Penetrators. Key to the realization of the MEASURE-Jupiter missions is the judicious use of the new low power consuming advanced technology and applicable systems from the Pluto Fast Flyby mission spacecraft design. Foremost of the new technologies planned for inclusion are the elements of hybrid solar array/battery power systems which make it possible to perform the identified missions without the need for Radioactive Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). This relieves the mission design of the attendant programmatic complexities, cost, and constraints attendant with the use of RTGs.

  2. Heat capacity mapping mission. [satellite for earth surface temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    A Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM), part of a series of Applications Explorers Missions, is designed to provide data on surface heating as a response to solar energy input. The data is obtained by a two channel scanning radiometer, with one channel covering the visible and near-IR band between 0.5 and 1.1 micrometers, and the other covering the thermal-IR between 10.5 and 12.5 micrometers. The temperature range covered lies between 260 and 340 K, in 0.3 deg steps, with an accuracy at 280 K of plus or minus 0.5 K. Nominal altitude is 620 km, with a ground swath 700 km wide.

  3. Measuring Staff Perceptions of University Identity and Activities: The Mission and Values Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Velcoff, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Higher education institutions need to ascertain whether their stakeholders understand the school's mission, vision, and values. In the present study, the psychometric properties of a mission identity and activity measure were investigated with two staff samples. Using a principal component factor analysis (varimax rotation), respondents in Sample…

  4. Terrestrial outgoing radiation measurements with small satellite mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Dewitte, Steven; Karatekin, Ozgur; Chevalier, André; Conscience, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The solar force is the main driver of the Earth's climate. For a balanced climate system, the incoming solar radiation is equal to the sum of the reflected visible and reemitted thermal radiation at top of the atmosphere (TOA). Thus the energy imbalance plays an important role to diagnose the health of nowadays climate. However it remains a challenge to directly track the small Energy imbalance in Earth's Radiation Budget (EIERB) from space due to the complicities of the Earth's climate system and the limitation on long term stability of space instrument. The terrestrial outgoing radiation (TOR) has been recoded with a Bolometric Oscillation Sensor onboard PICAD microsatellite. In this presentation, we will report the three years TOR observed with PICARD-BOS and its further comparison with the CERES product. However the data acquired from this mission is still not enough to derive the EIERB. But the heritage gained from this experiment shields a light on the EIERB tracking with the small satellite even a cubesat mission.

  5. SELENE mission: mathematical model for SST Doppler measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, J.; Kono, Y.; Kawano, N.; Hanada, H.; Matsumoto, K.

    2001-09-01

    Japanese lunar exploration mission, SELENE, has been planned to be launched into space by using H II-a rocket in the Summer of 2004. This mission is composed of 3 subsatellites, a main lunar orbiter, a relay satellite and a free flying VLBI radio source. One of its main scientific objectives is the estimation of high order and degree spherical harmonic coefficients for the lunar gravity field. Different tracking methods will be employed in SELENE. The key tracking method is 4 way Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) technique. By this way, the tracking data can be obtained through the relay when the low altitude main orbiter is flying at the far-side of the Moon and can not be "seen" from the Earth. To success the historical tracking data, a complete coverage of Doppler tracking from an orbiter at sufficiently low altitude with high tracking accuracy can be obtained. The 4 way SST has various configurations. For SELENE, the SST tracking mode is introduced here, the mathematical relation between range rate and 4 way Doppler count number is established, and a data processing stream frame by using GEODYN II is suggested.

  6. Future instrumentation and missions for measurements of tropospheric trace species from space: Workshop recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    It was recommended that gas filter correlation radiometry and high-resolution interferometry be exploited and expanded for measurements of the distribution of tropospheric trace gases. Instruments and missions were identified and discussed. Several instrument/measurement/mission feasibility studies were recommended, including: a three-layer measurement of carbon monoxide, using a nadir-viewing gas filter correlation radiometer; a lower or middle tropospheric measurement of methane, using a nadir-viewing gas filter correlation radiometer; and a survey of lower, middle, and upper tropospheric trace gases using a nadir-viewing high-resolution interferometer operating in the thermal emission mode. It was also concluded that lidar systems appear to have the potential of obtaining measurments of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols from space. In addition to the specific instrument/mission recommendations, the panels made several general recommendations that may lead to future spaceborne instruments, techniques, and missions for tropospheric research.

  7. On the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM): Bringing NASA's Earth System Science Program to the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall

    1998-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission is the first mission dedicated to measuring tropical and subtropical rainfall using a variety of remote sensing instrumentation, including the first spaceborne rain-measuring radar. Since the energy released when tropical rainfall occurs is a primary "fuel" supply for the weather and climate "engine"; improvements in computer models which predict future weather and climate states may depend on better measurements of global tropical rainfall and its energy. In support of the STANYS conference theme of Education and Space, this presentation focuses on one aspect of NASA's Earth Systems Science Program. We seek to present an overview of the TRMM mission. This overview will discuss the scientific motivation for TRMM, the TRMM instrument package, and recent images from tropical rainfall systems and hurricanes. The presentation also targets educational components of the TRMM mission in the areas of weather, mathematics, technology, and geography that can be used by secondary school/high school educators in the classroom.

  8. Radiation dosimetry measurements during U.S. Space Shuttle missions with the RME-III.

    PubMed

    Golightly, M J; Hardy, K; Quam, W

    1994-01-01

    Time-resolved radiation dosimetry measurements inside the crew compartment have been made during recent Shuttle missions with the U.S. Air Force Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III), a portable battery-powered four-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter. Results from the first six missions are presented and discussed. Half of the missions had orbital inclinations of 28.5 degrees with the remainder at inclinations of 57 degrees or greater; altitudes ranged from 300 to 600 km. The determined dose equivalent rates ranged from 70 to 5300 microSv/day. The RME-III measurements are in good agreement with other dosimetry measurements made aboard the vehicles. Measurements indicate that medium- and high-LET particles contribute less than 2% of the particle fluence for all missions, but up to 50% of the dose equivalent, depending on the spacecraft's altitude and orbital inclination. Isocontours of fluence, dose and dose equivalent rate have been developed from measurements made during the STS-28 mission. The drift rate of the South Atlantic Anomaly is estimated to be 0.49 degrees W/yr and 0.12 degrees N/yr. The calculated trapped proton and GCR dose for the STS-28 mission was significantly lower than the measured values.

  9. Science, Measurement, and Technology Requirements for Infrared Climate Benchmark Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David G.; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying climate change in the presence of natural variability requires highly accurate global measurements covering more than a decade. Instrument design considerations for trending terrestrial emitted radiance are described.

  10. Onboard Processing of Electromagnetic Measurements for the Luna - Glob Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruska, F.; Kolmasova, I.; Santolik, O.; Skalski, A.; Pronenko, V.; Belyayev, S.; Lan, R.; Uhlir, L.

    2013-12-01

    The LEMRA-L instrument (Long-wavelength Electro-Magnetic Radiation Analyzer) will be implemented on the LUNA-GLOB spacecraft. It will analyze the data of the three-axial flux gate (DC - 10Hz) and searchcoil (1Hz - 10kHz) magnetometers LEMI. It will measure intensity, polarization, and coherence properties of waves in plasmas of the solar wind, in the lunar wake and its boundaries, and study the magnetic anomalies. We will use new modern robust onboard analysis methods to estimate the wave coherence, sense of polarization, ellipticity, and wave-vector direction, and thus substantially compress the transmitted data volumes, while conserving the important scientific information. In the burst mode data set intended for studying nonlinear phenomena, we will conserve the continuous flux-gate magnetometer data and discrete snapshots of three axial waveform measurements. In the survey-mode data set, continuous flux-gate magnetometer data will be transmitted together with onboard analyzed and averaged spectral matrices from the higher-frequency wave measurements or with onboard calculated propagation and polarization parameters.

  11. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurement for STS-87, Launched November 19, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Hrovat, Kenneth; McPherson, Kevin; DeLombard, Richard; Reckart, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    Two accelerometer systems, the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment and the Space Acceleration Measurement System, were used to measure and record the microgravity environment of the Orbiter Columbia during the STS-87 mission in November-December 1997. Data from two separate Space Acceleration Measurement System units were telemetered to the ground during the mission and data plots were displayed for investigators of the Fourth United States Microgravity Payload experiments in near real-time using the World Wide Web. Plots generated using Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment data (telemetered to the ground using a tape delay) were provided to the investigators using the World Wide Web approximately twelve hours after data recording. Disturbances in the microgravity environment as recorded by these instruments are grouped by source type: Orbiter systems, on-board activities, payload operations, and unknown sources. The environment related to the Ku-band antenna dither, Orbiter structural modes, attitude deadband collapses, water dump operations, crew sleep, and crew exercise was comparable to the effects of these sources on previous Orbiter missions. Disturbances related to operations of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment and Space Acceleration Measurement Systems that were not observed on previous missions are detailed. The effects of Orbiter cabin and airlock depressurization and extravehicular activities are also reported for the first time. A set of data plots representing the entire mission is included in the CD-ROM version of this report.

  12. Carbon cycle relevant measurements with the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel 5 Precursor mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aben, I.; aan de Brugh, J.; Hu, H.; Borsdorff, T.; Scheepmaker, R. A.; van Hees, R.; Krijger, M.; Tol, P.; Hoogeveen, R.; Butz, A.; Frankenberg, C.; Guanter, L.; Koehler, P.; Houweling, S.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Veefkind, P.; Landgraf, J.

    2015-12-01

    In 2016 Q2 the Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) mission will be launched with the TROPOMI instrument as its single instrument payload. It comprises global measurements of the atmospheric composition for air quality and climate application as part of the Copernicus atmospheric services. To this purpose it will perform nadir observations in the UV-VIS (270 - 500 nm), NIR (675-725 nm), and SWIR (2305-2385 nm) measuring key species such as O3, NO2, CO, CH4, CH2O, SO2. TROPOMI is a push broom grating spectrometer combining a large swath (~2600 km) with high spatial resolution (7x7km2 in nadir) measurements, and has heritage from OMI and SCIAMACHY. The S5P will extend the data records from these missions, as well as being a preparatory (precursor) mission for the Sentinel-5 missions planned for 2020 onward. In this presentation we will address the Carbon cycle relevant SWIR products from TROPOMI (CH4, CO) as well as a fluorescence product from the NIR. In particular, this presentation will focus on the potential for CH4 measurements also in respect to other existing missions.

  13. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurement for STS-87: Launched November 19, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Hrovat, Kenneth; McPherson, Kevin; DeLombard, Richard; Reckart, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    Two accelerometer systems, the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment and the Space Acceleration Measurement System, were used to measure and record the microgravity environment of the Orbiter Columbia during the STS-87 mission in November-December 1997. Data from two separate Space Acceleration Measurement System units were telemetered to the ground during the mission and data plots were displayed for investigators of the Fourth United States Microgravity Payload experiments in near real-time using the World Wide Web. Plots generated using Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment data (telemetered to the ground using a tape delay) were provided to the investigators using the World Wide Web approximately twelve hours after data recording. Disturbances in the microgravity environment as recorded by these instruments are grouped by source type: Orbiter systems, on-board activities, payload operations, and unknown sources. The environment related to the Ku-band antenna dither, Orbiter structural modes, attitude deadband collapses, water dump operations, crew sleep, and crew exercise was comparable to the effects of these sources on previous Orbiter missions. Disturbances related to operations of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment and Space Acceleration Measurement Systems that were not observed on previous missions are detailed. The effects of Orbiter cabin and airlock depressurization and extravehicular activities are also reported for the first time. A set of data plots representing the entire mission is included in the CD-ROM version of this report.

  14. Interpretative synergy of starphotometry and lidar measurements at two high-Arctic stations during the Polar Winter of 2010-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baibakov, K.; O'Neill, N. T.; Herber, A.; Ritter, C.; Duck, T. J.; Schulz, K.; Schrems, O.

    2011-12-01

    -mode (super-micron) optical depths that are derived from the star extinction measurements. We also show how the starphotometry-lidar synergy can be used in a routine analysis to better detect and characterize aerosol events. Finally, based on the preliminary evidence from satellite data and backward trajectories, we give some examples of potential aerosol transport into the Arctic during the Polar Winter.

  15. Synergy of debris mitigation and removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Hugh G.; White, Adam E.; Crowther, Richard; Stokes, Hedley

    2012-12-01

    Since the end of the 20th Century there has been considerable effort made to devise mitigation measures to limit the growth of the debris population. This activity has led to the implementation of a "25-year rule" by a number of space-faring nations for the post-mission disposal of spacecraft and orbital stages intersecting the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) region. Through the use of projections made by computer models, it was anticipated that this 25-year rule, together with passivation and suppression of mission-related debris, would be sufficient to prevent the unconstrained growth of the LEO debris population. In the last decade both the LEO debris environment and the debris modelling capability have seen significant changes. In particular, recent population growth has been driven by a number of major break-ups, including the intentional destruction of the Fengyun-1C spacecraft and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251. State-of-the-art evolutionary models indicate that the LEO debris population will continue to grow in spite of good compliance with the commonly adopted mitigation measures and even in the absence of new launches. Consequently, this has led to considerable interest in the development of remediation measures and, especially, in debris removal. In this paper, we present a new and large study of debris mitigation and removal using the University of Southampton's evolutionary model, DAMAGE, together with the latest MASTER model population of objects ≥10 cm in LEO. Here, we have employed a concurrent approach to mitigation and remediation, whereby changes to the PMD rule and the inclusion of other mitigation measures have been considered together with multiple removal strategies. In this way, we have been able to demonstrate the synergy of these mitigation and remediation measures and to identify potential, aggregate solutions to the space debris problem. The results suggest that reducing the PMD rule offers benefits that include an increase in

  16. Global precipitation measurement (GPM) mission and its application for flood monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachi, Misako; Oki, Riko; Shimizu, Shuji; Kojima, Masahiro

    2006-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an expanded follow-on mission of the current Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The concept of GPM is, 1) TRMM-like, non-sun-synchronous core satellite carrying the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) to be developed by Japan and a microwave radiometer to be developed by United States, and 2) constellation of satellites in polar orbit, each carrying a microwave radiometer provided by international partner. The constellation system of GPM will make it possible every three-hour global precipitation measurement. Because of its concept on focusing high-accurate and high-frequent global precipitation observation, GPM has a unique position among future Earth observation missions. GPM international partnerships will embody concept of GEOSS. Observation data acquired by the GPM mission are expected to be used for both Earth environmental research and various societal benefit areas. One of most expected application fields is weather prediction. Use of high-frequent observation in numerical weather prediction models will improve weather forecasting especially for extreme events such as tropical cyclones and heavy rain. Another example is application to flood monitoring and forecasting. Recent increasing needs of real-time flood information required from many countries especially in Asia will strongly support operational application of GPM products in this field.

  17. DXL: A sounding rocket mission measuring Solar Wind Charge eXchange properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeazzi, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Solar Wind interacts with the interstellar neutrals via charge exchange mechanism to produce spatially and temporally varying x-rays making it difficult to separate from other diffuse sources. The Diffuse X-rays from the Local Galaxy (DXL) mission measured the spatial signature of Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) emission due to the helium focusing cone. The mission used 2 large area proportional counters and was able to separate the SWCX contribution from Local Hot Bubble emission. The data from the mission provide a robust estimate of the SWCX contribution to the ROSAT maps, measuring the compound SWCX cross section with He in all ROSAT bands. The results showed that the total SWCX contribution in the ¼ keV band is, on average, ~27%. A new mission, DXL-2, was launched on December 4, 2015 with two new counters for a better understanding of the energy distribution of heliospheric SWCX photons, by using a multi-band approach. A dedicated scan to accurately measure the cone position and solve the IBEX controversy was also performed. The talk will discuss the DXL mission, the results from the first flight, and the preliminary results from the latest flight.Submitted for the DXL Collaboration

  18. Compliant Synergies in Locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travers, Matthew; Choset, Howie; Goldman @ Georgia Tech. Physics Department Collaboration

    Biological systems appear to have natural mechanisms that allow them to readily compensate for unexpected environmental variations when compared to their mechanical (i.e., robotic) counterparts. We hypothesize that the basis for this discrepancy is almost innate: what biology appears to be born with, built-in mechanisms for coordinating their many degrees of freedom, we struggle to ``program.'' We therefore look toward biology for inspiration. In particular, we are interested in kinematic synergies, low-dimensional representations that explicitly encode the underlying structure of how systems coordinate their internal degrees of freedom to achieve high-level tasks. In this work, we derive parametric representations of kinematic synergies and present a new compliant locomotion control framework that enables the parameters to be directly controlled in response to external disturbances. We present results of this framework implemented on two separate platforms, a snake-like and hexapod robot. Our results show that, using synergies, the locomotion control of these very different systems can be reduced to simple, extremely capable, and common forms, thus offering new insights into both robotic as well as biological locomotion in complex terrains.

  19. A Plan for Measuring Climatic Scale Global Precipitation Variability: The Global Precipitation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The outstanding success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) stemmed from a near flawless launch and deployment, a highly successful measurement campaign, achievement of all original scientific objectives before the mission life had ended, and the accomplishment of a number of unanticipated but important additional scientific advances. This success and the realization that satellite rainfall datasets are now a foremost tool in the understanding of decadal climate variability has helped motivate a comprehensive global rainfall measuring mission, called 'The Global Precipitation Mission' (GPM). The intent of this mission is to address looming scientific questions arising in the context of global climate-water cycle interactions, hydrometeorology, weather prediction, the global carbon budget, and atmosphere-biosphere-cryosphere chemistry. This paper addresses the status of that mission currently planed for launch in the early 2007 time frame. The GPM design involves a nine-member satellite constellation, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like 'core' satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band radar (df-PR) and a TMI-like radiometer. The other eight members of the constellation can be considered drones to the core satellite, each carrying some type of passive microwave radiometer measuring across the 10.7-85 GHz frequency range, likely based on both real and synthetic aperture antenna technology and to include a combination of new lightweight dedicated GPM drones and both co-existing operational and experimental satellites carrying passive microwave radiometers (i.e., SSM/l, AMSR, etc.). The constellation is designed to provide a minimum of three-hour sampling at any spot on the globe using sun-synchronous orbit architecture, with the core satellite providing relevant measurements on internal cloud precipitation microphysical processes. The core satellite also enables 'training' and 'calibration' of the drone retrieval process. Additional

  20. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and U.S. Science Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, an international satellite mission to unify and advance space-based precipitation measurements around the globe, is a science mission with integrated application goals. The mission is designed to (1) advance the knowledge of the global water cycle and freshwater availability, and (2) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of global precipitation. The cornerstone of GPM is the deployment of a Core Spacecraft in a unique 65 deg-inclined orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve the accuracy of precipitation measurements by a heterogeneous constellation of dedicated and operational passive microwave sensors. The Core Spacecraft will carry a dual-frequency (Ku-Ka band) radar and a multi-channel microwave radiometer with high-frequency capabilities to provide measurements of 3-D precipitation structures and microphysical properties, which are key to achieving a better understanding of precipitation processes and improved retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. The GPM constellation is envisioned to comprise 5 or more conical-scanning microwave radiometers provided by partners, augmented by cross-track microwave sounders on operational satellites such as the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), POES, NPOESS, and MetOp satellites for improved sampling over land. The GPM Mission is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), with opportunities for additional international partners in constellation satellites and ground validation. An overview of the GPM mission concept and science activities in the United States will be presented.

  1. Investigating aerosol properties in Peninsular Malaysia via the synergy of satellite remote sensing and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanniah, Kasturi Devi; Lim, Hui Qi; Kaskaoutis, Dimitris G.; Cracknell, Arthur P.

    2014-03-01

    Spatio-temporal variation and trends in atmospheric aerosols as well as their impact on solar radiation and clouds are crucial for regional and global climate change assessment. These topics are not so well-documented over Malaysia, the fact that it receives considerable amounts of pollutants from both local and trans-boundary sources. The present study aims to analyse the spatio-temporal evolution and decadal trend of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from Terra and Aqua MODIS sensors, to identify different types and origin of aerosols and explore the link between aerosols and solar radiation. AOD and fine-mode fraction (FMF) products from MODIS, AOD and Ångström Exponent (AE) values from AERONET stations along with ground-based PM10 measurements and solar radiation recordings at selected sites in Peninsular Malaysia are used for this scope. The MODIS AODs exhibit a wide spatio-temporal variation over Peninsular Malaysia, while Aqua AOD is consistently lower than that from Terra. The AOD shows a neutral-to-declining trend during the 2000s (Terra satellite), while that from Aqua exhibits an increasing trend (~ 0.01 per year). AERONET AODs exhibit either insignificant diurnal variation or higher values during the afternoon, while their short-term availability does not allow for a trend analysis. Moreover, the PM10 concentrations exhibit a general increasing trend over the examined locations. The sources and destination of aerosols are identified via the HYSPLIT trajectory model, revealing that aerosols during the dry season (June to September) are mainly originated from the west and southwest (Sumatra, Indonesia), while in the wet season (November to March) they are mostly associated with the northeast monsoon winds from the southern China Sea. Different aerosol types are identified via the relationship of AOD with FMF, revealing that the urban and biomass-burning aerosols are the most abundant over the region contributing to a significant reduction (~- 0.21 MJ m- 2) of

  2. Vertical mass impact and features of Saharan dust intrusions derived from ground-based remote sensing in synergy with airborne in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Andrey-Andrés, Javier; Gómez, Laura; Adame, José Antonio; Sorribas, Mar; Navarro-Comas, Mónica; Puentedura, Olga; Cuevas, Emilio; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    A study of the vertical mass impact of Saharan dust intrusions is presented in this work. Simultaneous ground-based remote-sensing and airborne in-situ measurements performed during the AMISOC-TNF campaign over the Tenerife area (Canary Islands) in summertime from 01 July to 11 August 2013 were used for that purpose. A particular dusty (DD) case, associated to a progressively arriving dust intrusion lasting for two days on 31 July (weak incidence) and 01 August (strong incidence), is especially investigated. AERONET AOD and AEx values were ranging, respectively, from 0.2 to 1.4 and 0.35 to 0.05 along these two days. Vertical particle size distributions within fine and coarse modes (0.16-2.8 μm range) were obtained from aircraft aerosol spectrometer measurements. Extinction profiles and Lidar Ratio (LR) values were derived from MPLNET/Micro Pulse Lidar observations. MAXDOAS measurements were also used to retrieve the height-resolved aerosol extinction for evaluation purposes in comparison to Lidar-derived profiles. The synergy between Lidar observations and airborne measurements is established in terms of the Mass Extinction Efficiency (MEE) to calculate the vertical mass concentration of Saharan dust particles. Both the optical and microphysical profilings show dust particles mostly confined in a layer of 4.3 km thickness from 1.7 to 6 km height. LR ranged between 50 and 55 sr, typical values for Saharan dust particles. In addition, this 2-day dust event mostly affected the Free Troposphere (FT), being less intense in the Boundary Layer (BL). In particular, rather high Total Mass Concentrations (TMC) were found on the stronger DD day (01 August 2013): 124, 70 and 21 μg m-3 were estimated, respectively, at FT and BL altitudes and on the near-surface level. This dust impact was enhanced due to the increase of large particles affecting the FT, but also the BL, likely due to their gravitational settling. However, the use of an assumed averaged MEE value can be

  3. Summary report of mission acceleration measurements for Spacehab-01, STS-57 launched 21 June 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Brian; Grodsinsky, Carlos; Delombard, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The maiden voyage of the commercial Spacehab laboratory module onboard the STS-57 mission was integrated with several accelerometer packages, one of which was the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS). The June 21st 1993, launch was the seventh successful mission for the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Application's (OLMSA) SAMS unit. This flight was also complemented by a second accelerometer system. The Three Dimensional Microgravity Accelerometer (3-DMA), a Code C funded acceleration measurement system, offering an on-orbit residual calibration as a reference for the unit's four triaxial accelerometers. The SAMS accelerometer unit utilized three remote triaxial sensor heads mounted on the forward Spacehab module bulkhead and on one centrally located experiment locker door. These triaxial heads had filter cut-offs set to 5, 50, and 1000 Hz. The mission also included other experiment specific accelerometer packages in various locations.

  4. Summary report of mission acceleration measurements for Spacehab-01, STS-57 launched 21 June 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, Brian; Grodsinsky, Carlos; Delombard, Richard

    1994-03-01

    The maiden voyage of the commercial Spacehab laboratory module onboard the STS-57 mission was integrated with several accelerometer packages, one of which was the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS). The June 21st 1993, launch was the seventh successful mission for the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Application's (OLMSA) SAMS unit. This flight was also complemented by a second accelerometer system. The Three Dimensional Microgravity Accelerometer (3-DMA), a Code C funded acceleration measurement system, offering an on-orbit residual calibration as a reference for the unit's four triaxial accelerometers. The SAMS accelerometer unit utilized three remote triaxial sensor heads mounted on the forward Spacehab module bulkhead and on one centrally located experiment locker door. These triaxial heads had filter cut-offs set to 5, 50, and 1000 Hz. The mission also included other experiment specific accelerometer packages in various locations.

  5. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-78. Launched June 20, 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakimzadeh, Roshanak; Hrovat, Kenneth; McPherson, Kevin M.; Moskowitz, Milton E.; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1997-01-01

    The microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle Columbia was measured during the STS-78 mission using accelerometers from three different instruments: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment, the Space Acceleration Measurement System and the Microgravity Measurement Assembly. The quasi-steady environment was also calculated in near real-time during the mission by the Microgravity Analysis Workstation. The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment provided investigators with real-time quasi-steady acceleration measurements. The Space Acceleration Measurement System recorded higher frequency data on-board for post-mission analysis. The Microgravity Measurement Assembly provided investigators with real-time quasi-steady and higher frequency acceleration measurements. The Microgravity Analysis Workstation provided calculation of the quasi-steady environment. This calculation was presented to the science teams in real-time during the mission. The microgravity environment related to several different Orbiter, crew and experiment operations is presented and interpreted in this report. A radiator deploy, the Flight Control System checkout, and a vernier reaction control system reboost demonstration had minimal effects on the acceleration environment, with excitation of frequencies in the 0.01 to 10 Hz range. Flash Evaporator System venting had no noticeable effect on the environment while supply and waste water dumps caused excursions of 2 x lO(exp -6) to 4 x 10(exp -6) g in the Y(sub b) and Z(sub b) directions. Crew sleep and ergometer exercise periods can be clearly seen in the acceleration data, as expected. Accelerations related to the two Life Science Laboratory Equipment Refrigerator/Freezers were apparent in the data as are accelerations caused by the Johnson Space Center Projects Centrifuge. As on previous microgravity missions, several signals are present in the acceleration data for which a source has not been identified. The causes of these accelerations

  6. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Precipitation Processing System (PPS) GPM Mission Gridded Text Products Provide Surface Precipitation Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Kelley, O.; Kummerow, C.; Huffman, G.; Olson, W.; Kwiatkowski, J.

    2015-01-01

    In February 2015, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite will complete its first year in space. The core satellite carries a conically scanning microwave imager called the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), which also has 166 GHz and 183 GHz frequency channels. The GPM core satellite also carries a dual frequency radar (DPR) which operates at Ku frequency, similar to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar, and a new Ka frequency. The precipitation processing system (PPS) is producing swath-based instantaneous precipitation retrievals from GMI, both radars including a dual-frequency product, and a combined GMIDPR precipitation retrieval. These level 2 products are written in the HDF5 format and have many additional parameters beyond surface precipitation that are organized into appropriate groups. While these retrieval algorithms were developed prior to launch and are not optimal, these algorithms are producing very creditable retrievals. It is appropriate for a wide group of users to have access to the GPM retrievals. However, for researchers requiring only surface precipitation, these L2 swath products can appear to be very intimidating and they certainly do contain many more variables than the average researcher needs. Some researchers desire only surface retrievals stored in a simple easily accessible format. In response, PPS has begun to produce gridded text based products that contain just the most widely used variables for each instrument (surface rainfall rate, fraction liquid, fraction convective) in a single line for each grid box that contains one or more observations.This paper will describe the gridded data products that are being produced and provide an overview of their content. Currently two types of gridded products are being produced: (1) surface precipitation retrievals from the core satellite instruments GMI, DPR, and combined GMIDPR (2) surface precipitation retrievals for the partner constellation

  7. Coordinated science with the Solar Orbiter, Solar Probe Plus, Interhelioprobe and SPORT missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimovic, Milan; Vourlidas, Angelos; Zimovets, Ivan; Velli, Marco; Zhukov, Andrei; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Liu, Ying; Bale, Stuart; Ming, Xiong

    The concurrent science operations of the ESA Solar Orbiter (SO), NASA Solar Probe Plus (SPP), Russian Interhelioprobe (IHP) and Chinese SPORT missions will offer a truly unique epoch in heliospheric science. While each mission will achieve its own important science objectives, taken together the four missions will be capable of doing the multi-point measurements required to address many problems in Heliophysics such as the coronal origin of the solar wind plasma and magnetic field or the way the Solar transients drive the heliospheric variability. In this presentation, we discuss the capabilities of the four missions and the Science synergy that will be realized by concurrent operations

  8. Neural bases of hand synergies

    PubMed Central

    Santello, Marco; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Jörntell, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The human hand has so many degrees of freedom that it may seem impossible to control. A potential solution to this problem is “synergy control” which combines dimensionality reduction with great flexibility. With applicability to a wide range of tasks, this has become a very popular concept. In this review, we describe the evolution of the modern concept using studies of kinematic and force synergies in human hand control, neurophysiology of cortical and spinal neurons, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of hand muscles. We go beyond the often purely descriptive usage of synergy by reviewing the organization of the underlying neuronal circuitry in order to propose mechanistic explanations for various observed synergy phenomena. Finally, we propose a theoretical framework to reconcile important and still debated concepts such as the definitions of “fixed” vs. “flexible” synergies and mechanisms underlying the combination of synergies for hand control. PMID:23579545

  9. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, B.; Davis, K.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Browell, E. V.; Chen, G.; Dobler, J. T.; Fried, A.; Lauvaux, T.; Lin, B.; McGill, M. J.; Miles, N. L.; Nehrir, A. R.; Obland, M. D.; O'Dell, C.; Sweeney, C.; Yang, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital - 2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT - America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT - America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2 and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  10. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, Byron; Davis, Ken; Barrick, John; Browell, Edward; Chen, Gao; Dobler, Jeremy; Fried, Alan; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lin, Bing; McGill, Matt; Miles, Natasha; Nehrir, Amin; Obland, Michael; O'Dell, Chris; Sweeney, Colm; Yang, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital -2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport -America (ACT -America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT -America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  11. The high-LET radiation component measured during the EUROMIR-94 mission.

    PubMed

    Leugner, D; Streibel, T; Rocher, H; Reitz, G; Heinrich, W

    1998-01-01

    Stacks of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors were mounted inside the MIR-station during the EUROMIR-94-mission. We present LET-spectra determined separately for long range cosmic ray heavy ions and for short range target fragments produced in nuclear interactions of cosmic rays and measured charge distributions for relativistic and stopping particles.

  12. Operating the Dual-Orbiter GRAIL Mission to Measure the Moon's Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beerer, Joseph G.; Havens, Glen G.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's mission to measure the Moon's gravity and determine the interior structure, from crust to core, has almost completed its 3-month science data collection phase. The twin orbiters of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission were launched from Florida on September 10, 2011, on a Delta-II launch vehicle. After traveling for nearly four months on a low energy trajectory to the Moon, they were inserted into lunar orbit on New Year's Eve and New Year's Day. In January 2012 a series of circularization maneuvers brought the orbiters into co-planar near-circular polar orbits. In February a distant (75- km) rendezvous was achieved and the science instruments were turned on. A dual- frequency (Ka and S-band) inter-orbiter radio link provides a precise orbiter-to-orbiter range measurement that enables the gravity field estimation. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA, manages the GRAIL project. Mission management, mission planning and sequencing, and navigation are conducted at JPL. Lockheed Martin, the flight system manufacturer, operates the orbiters from their control center in Denver, Colorado. The orbiters together have performed 28 propulsive maneuvers to reach and maintain the science phase configuration. Execution of these maneuvers, as well as the payload checkout and calibration activities, has gone smoothly due to extensive pre-launch operations planning and testing. The key to the operations success has been detailed timelines for product interchange between the operations teams and proven procedures from previous JPL/LM planetary missions. Once in science phase, GRAIL benefitted from the payload operational heritage of the GRACE mission that measures the Earth's gravity.

  13. Greenhouses and their humanizing synergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Paterson, Carrie; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Greenhouses in space will require advanced technical systems of automatic watering, soil-less cultivation, artificial lighting, and computerized observation of plants. Functions discussed for plants in space habitats include physical/health requirements and human psychology, social cohesion, as well as the complex sensorial benefits of plants for humans. The authors consider the role of plants in long-term space missions historically since 1971 (Salyut 1) and propose a set of priorities to be considered within the design requirements for greenhouses and constructed environments given a range of benefits associated with plant-human relationships. They cite recent research into the use of greenhouses in extreme environments to reveal the relative importance of greenhouses for people living in isolated locations. Additionally, they put forward hypotheses about where greenhouses might factor into several strata of human health. In a recent design-in-use study of astronauts' experiences in space habitats discussed in Architecture for Astronauts (Springer Press 2011) it was found that besides the basic advantages for life support there are clearly additional "side benefits" for habitability and physical wellbeing, and thus long-term mission success. The authors have composed several key theses regarding the need to promote plant-human relationships in space, including areas where synergy and symbiosis occur. They cite new comprehensive research into the early US Space Program to reveal where programmatic requirements could be added to space architecture to increase the less quantifiable benefits to astronauts of art, recreation, and poetic engagement with their existential condition of estrangement from the planet. Specifically in terms of the technological requirements, the authors propose the integration of a new greenhouse subsystem component into space greenhouses—the Mobile Plant Cultivation Subsystem—a portable, personal greenhouse that can be integrated

  14. Combined Infrared Stereo and Laser Ranging Cloud Measurements from Shuttle Mission STS-85

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, R. S.; Spinhirne, J. D.; Manizade, K. F.

    2004-01-01

    Multiangle remote sensing provides a wealth of information for earth and climate monitoring, such as the ability to measure the height of cloud tops through stereoscopic imaging. As technology advances so do the options for developing spacecraft instrumentation versatile enough to meet the demands associated with multiangle measurements. One such instrument is the infrared spectral imaging radiometer, which flew as part of mission STS-85 of the space shuttle in 1997 and was the first earth- observing radiometer to incorporate an uncooled microbolometer array detector as its image sensor. Specifically, a method for computing cloud-top height with a precision of +/- 620 m from the multispectral stereo measurements acquired during this flight has been developed, and the results are compared with coincident direct laser ranging measurements from the shuttle laser altimeter. Mission STS-85 was the first space flight to combine laser ranging and thermal IR camera systems for cloud remote sensing.

  15. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Phase B: Data capture facility definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Aerospace Administration (NASA) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) initiated the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to obtain more accurate measurements of tropical rainfall then ever before. The measurements are to improve scientific understanding and knowledge of the mechanisms effecting the intra-annual and interannual variability of the Earth's climate. The TRMM is largely dependent upon the handling and processing of the data by the TRMM Ground System supporting the mission. The objective of the TRMM is to obtain three years of climatological determinations of rainfall in the tropics, culminating in data sets of 30-day average rainfall over 5-degree square areas, and associated estimates of vertical distribution of latent heat release. The scope of this study is limited to the functions performed by TRMM Data Capture Facility (TDCF). These functions include capturing the TRMM spacecraft return link data stream; processing the data in the real-time, quick-look, and routine production modes, as appropriate; and distributing real time, quick-look, and production data products to users. The following topics are addressed: (1) TRMM end-to-end system description; (2) TRMM mission operations concept; (3) baseline requirements; (4) assumptions related to mission requirements; (5) external interface; (6) TDCF architecture and design options; (7) critical issues and tradeoffs; and (8) recommendation for the final TDCF selection process.

  16. History of satellite missions and measurements of the Earth Radiation Budget (1957-1984)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, F. B.; Gruber, A.; Hunt, G. E.; Mecherikunnel, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    The history of satellite missions and their measurements of the earth radiation budget from the beginning of the space age until the present time are reviewed. The survey emphasizes the early struggle to develop instrument systems to monitor reflected shortwave and emitted long-wave exitances from the earth, and the problems associated with the interpretation of these observations from space. In some instances, valuable data sets were developed from satellite measurements whose instruments were not specifically designed for earth radiation budget observations.

  17. Relationship of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission to Global Change Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In late 2001, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was approved as a new start by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This new mission is motivated by a number of scientific questions that are posed over a range of space and time scales that generally fall within the discipline of the global water and energy cycle (GWEC). Recognizing that satellite rainfall datasets are now a foremost tool for understanding global climate variability out to decadal scales and beyond, for improving weather forecasting, and for producing better predictions of hydrometeorological processes including short-term hazardous flooding and seasonal fresh water resources assessment, a comprehensive and internationally sanctioned global measuring strategy has led to the GPM mission. The GPM mission plans to expand the scope of rainfall measurement through use of a multi-member satellite constellation that will be contributed by a number of world nations. This talk overviews the GPM scientific research program that has been fostered within NASA, then focuses on scientific progress that is being made in various research areas in the course of the mission formulation phase that are of interest to the global change scientific community. This latter part of the talk addresses research issues that have become central to the GPM science implementation plan concerning: (1) the rate of global water cycling through the atmosphere and surface and the relationship of precipitation variability to the sustained rate of the water cycle; (2) the relationship between climate change and cloud macrophysical- microphysical processes; and (3) the general improvement in measuring precipitation at the fundamental microphysical level that will take place during the GPM era and an explanation of how these improvements are expected to come about.

  18. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-65, Launched 8 July 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Delombard, Richard

    1995-01-01

    The second flight of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) payload on board the STS-65 mission was supported by three accelerometer instruments: The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) located close to the orbiter center of mass; the Quasi-Steady Acceleration Measurement experiment, and the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), both in the Spacelab module. A fourth accelerometer, the Microgravity Measuring Device recorded data in the middeck in support of exercise isolation tests.Data collected by OARE and SAMS during IML-2 are displayed in this report. The OARE data represent the microgravity environment below 1 Hz. The SAMS data represent the environment in the 0.01 Hz to 100 Hz range. Variations in the environment caused by unique activities are presented. Specific events addressed are: crew activity, crew exercise, experiment component mixing activities, experiment centrifuge operations, refrigerator/freezer operations and circulation pump operations. The analyses included in this report complement analyses presented in other mission summary reports.

  19. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: U.S. Program and Science Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, A.; Azarbarzin, A.; Kakar, R.; Neeck, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors to provide next-generation precipitation data products for scientific research and societal applications. NASA and JAXA will deploy the GPM Core Observatory carrying an advanced radar-radiometer system to serve as a physics observatory and calibration reference for constellation radiometers. NASA will deploy the GPM Low-Inclination Observatory to enhance the near real-time monitoring of hurricanes and mid-latitude storms, and JAXA will contribute data from the Global Change Observation Mission-Water (GCOM-W) satellite. Partnerships are under development to include additional conical-scanning microwave imagers on the French-Indian Megha-Tropiques satellite and U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, as well as cross-track scanning humidity sounders on operational satellites such as the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), POES, NPOESS, and European MetOp satellites, which are used to improve the precipitation sampling over land. In addition, Brazil has in its national space plan for a GPM low-inclination radiometer, and data from Chinese and Russian microwave radiometers could potentially become available through international collaboration under the auspices of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and Group on Earth Observations (GEO). As a science mission with integrated application goals, GPM is expected to (1) provide new measurement standards for precipitation estimation from space, (2) improve understanding of precipitation physics, the global water cycle variability, and freshwater availability, and (3) advance weather/climate/hydrological prediction capabilities to directly benefit the society. An overview of the GPM mission concept, program

  20. Science and Measurement Requirements for a Plant Physiology and Functional Types Mission: Measuring the Composition, Function and Health of Global Land and Coastal Ocean Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Rogez, Francois; Green, Rob; Ungar, Steve; Knox, Robert; Asner, Greg; Muller-Karger, Frank; Bissett, Paul; Chekalyuk, Alex; Dierssen, Heidi; Gamon, John; Hook, Simon; Meister, Gerhard; Middleton, Betsy; Ollinger, Scott; Roberts, Dar; Siegel, Dave; Townsend, Phil; Saatchi, Sassan; Unstin, Susan; Turner, Woody; Wickland, Diane; Bontempi, Paula; Emanuel, Bill

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the proposed Plant Physiology and Functional Types (PPFT) Mission. The National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, placed a critical priority on a Mission to observe distribution and changes in ecosystem functions. The PPFT satellite mission provides the essential measurements needed to assess drivers of change in biodiversity and ecosystem services that affect human welfare. The presentation reviews the science questions that the mission will be designed to answer, the science rationale, the science measurements, the mission concept, the planned instrumentation, the calibration method, and key signal to noise ratios and uniformity requirements.

  1. Towards the Development of a Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Marshall; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The scientific success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and additional satellite-focused precipitation retrieval projects have paved the way for a more advanced global precipitation mission. A comprehensive global measuring strategy is currently under study - Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM). The GPM study could ultimately lead to the development of the Global Precipitation Mission. The intent of GPM is to address looming scientific questions arising in the context of global climate-water cycle interactions, hydrometeorology, weather prediction and prediction of freshwater resources, the global carbon cycle, and biogeochemical cycles. This talk overviews the status and scientific agenda of this proposed mission currently planned for launch in the 2007-2008 time frame. GPM is planning to expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of 6-10 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carry dual-frequency Ku-Ka band radar and a microwave radiometer (e.g. TMI-like). The other constellation members will likely include new lightweight satellites and co-existing operational/research satellites carrying passive microwave radiometers. The goal behind the constellation is to achieve no worse than 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe. The constellation's orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-su n -synchronous satellites with the "core" satellite providing measurement of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus "training calibrating" information to be used with the retrieval algorithms for the constellation satellite measurements. The GPM is organized internationally, currently involving a partnership between NASA in the US, NASDA in Japan, and ESA in Europe (representing the European community). The program is expected to involve additional international partners, other federal agencies, and a diverse collection of scientists from academia

  2. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and U.S. Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. NASA and JAXA will deploy the GPM Core Observatory carrying an advanced radar-radiometer system to serve as a physics observatory and a transfer standard for inter-calibration of constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory is scheduled for launch in July 2013. NASA will provide a second radiometer to be flown on a partner-provided GPM Low-Inclination Observatory to enhance the near real-time monitoring of hurricanes and mid-latitude storms. JAXA will also contribute data from the Global Change Observation Mission-Water (GCOM-W) satellite. Additional partnerships are under development to include microwave radiometers on the French-Indian Megha-Tropiques satellite and U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, as well as cross-track scanning humidity sounders on operational satellites such as the NPP, POES, JPSS, and MetOp satellites, which are used to improve the precipitation sampling over land. Brazil has in its national space plan for a GPM low-inclination radiometer, and data from Chinese and Russian microwave radiometers could potentially become available through international collaboration under the auspices of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and Group on Earth Observations (GEO). The current generation of global rainfall products combines observations from a network of uncoordinated satellite missions using a variety of merging techniques. GPM will provide "next-generation" precipitation data products characterized by: (1) more accurate instantaneous precipitation measurement (especially for light rain and cold-season solid precipitation), (2) more frequent sampling by an expanded constellation of microwave radiometers including operational humidity sounders over land, (3) intercalibrated microwave

  3. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: U.S. Program and Science Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Arthur; Azarbarzin, Ardeshir; Kakar, Ramesh; Neeck, Steven

    2010-05-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. NASA and JAXA will deploy the GPM Core Observatory carrying an advanced radar-radiometer system to serve as a physics observatory and a transfer standard for inter-calibration of constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory is scheduled for launch in July 2013. In addition, NASA will provide a second radiometer to be flown on a partner-provided GPM Low-Inclination Observatory to enhance the near real-time monitoring of hurricanes and mid-latitude storms. JAXA will also contribute data from the Global Change Observation Mission-Water (GCOM-W) satellite. Additional partnerships are under development to include conical-scanning microwave imagers on the French-Indian Megha-Tropiques satellite and U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, as well as cross-track scanning humidity sounders on operational satellites such as the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), POES, NPOESS, and European MetOp satellites, which are used to improve the precipitation sampling over land. Currently, Brazil has in its national space plan for a GPM low-inclination radiometer, and data from Chinese and Russian microwave radiometers could potentially become available through international collaboration under the auspices of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and Group on Earth Observations (GEO). The current generation of global rainfall products combines observations from a network of uncoordinated satellite missions using a variety of merging techniques. GPM will provide "next-generation" precipitation data products characterized by: (1) more accurate instantaneous precipitation measurement (especially for light rain and cold-season solid precipitation), (2) more

  4. Observing System Simulations for the NASA ASCENDS Lidar CO2 Mission Concept: Substantiating Science Measurement Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, Stephan R.; Baker, David Frank; Schuh, Andrew E.; Abshire, James Brice; Browell, Edward V.; Michalak, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons) is envisioned as the next generation of dedicated, space-based CO2 observing systems, currently planned for launch in about the year 2022. Recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, active (lidar) sensing of CO2 from space has several potentially significant advantages, in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments, that promise to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle understanding into the next decade. Assessment and testing of possible lidar instrument technologies indicates that such sensors are more than feasible, however, the measurement precision and accuracy requirements remain at unprecedented levels of stringency. It is, therefore, important to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for the prospective active system in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. This amounts to establishing minimum requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we present results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, for a range of possible mission implementation options that are intended to substantiate science measurement requirements for a laser-based CO2 space instrument.

  5. Drop Size Distribution Measurements Supporting the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: Infrastructure and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawerence D.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Wingo, Matthew; Tokay, Ali; Wolff, David B.; Bringi, V. N.

    2011-01-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) retrieval algorithm validation requires datasets that characterize the 4-D structure, variability, and correlation properties of hydrometeor particle size distributions (PSD) and accumulations over satellite fields of view (5 -- 50 km). Key to this process is the combined use of disdrometer and polarimetric radar platforms. Here the disdrometer measurements serve as a reference for up-scaling dual-polarimetric radar observations of the PSD to the much larger volumetric sampling domain of the radar. The PSD observations thus derived provide a much larger data set for assessing DSD variability, and satellite-based precipitation retrieval algorithm assumptions, in all three spatial dimensions for a range of storm types and seasons. As one component of this effort, the GPM Ground Validation program recently acquired five 3rd generation 2D Video disdrometers as part of its Disdrometer and Radar Observations of Precipitation Facility (DROP), currently hosted in northern Alabama by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. These next-generation 2DVDs were operated and evaluated in different phases of data collection under the scanning domain of the UAH ARMOR C-band dual-polarimetric radar. During this period approximately 7500 minutes of PSD data were collected and processed to create gamma size distribution parameters using a truncated method of moments approach. After creating the gamma parameter datasets the DSDs were then used as input to T-matrix code for computation of polarimetric radar moments at C-band. The combined dataset was then analyzed with two basic objectives in mind: 1) the investigation of seasonal variability in the rain PSD parameters as observed by the 2DVDs; 2) the use of combined polarimetric moments and observed gamma distribution parameters in a functional form to retrieve PSD parameters in 4-D using the ARMOR radar for precipitation occurring in different

  6. Measurement of precipitation induced FUV emission and Geocoronal Lyman Alpha from the IMI mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, Stephen B.; Fuselier, S. A.; Rairden, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    This final report describes the activities of the Lockheed Martin Palo Alto Research Laboratory in studying the measurement of ion and electron precipitation induced Far Ultra-Violet (FUV) emissions and Geocoronal Lyman Alpha for the NASA Inner Magnetospheric Imager (IMI) mission. this study examined promising techniques that may allow combining several FUV instruments that would separately measure proton aurora, electron aurora, and geocoronal Lyman alpha into a single instrument operated on a spinning spacecraft. The study consisted of two parts. First, the geocoronal Lyman alpha, proton aurora, and electron aurora emissions were modeled to determine instrument requirements. Second, several promising techniques were investigated to determine if they were suitable for use in an IMI-type mission. Among the techniques investigated were the Hydrogen gas cell for eliminating cold geocoronal Lyman alpha emissions, and a coded aperture spectrometer with sufficient resolution to separate Doppler shifted Lyman alpha components.

  7. Assimilation of Precipitation Measurement Missions Microwave Radiance Observations With GEOS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Jianjun; Kim, Min-Jeong; McCarty, Will; Akella, Santha; Gu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Core Observatory satellite was launched in February, 2014. The GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) is a conically scanning radiometer measuring 13 channels ranging from 10 to 183 GHz and sampling between 65 S 65 N. This instrument is a successor to the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), which has observed 9 channels at frequencies ranging 10 to 85 GHz between 40 S 40 N since 1997. This presentation outlines the base procedures developed to assimilate GMI and TMI radiances in clear-sky conditions, including quality control methods, thinning decisions, and the estimation of, observation errors. This presentation also shows the impact of these observations when they are incorporated into the GEOS-5 atmospheric data assimilation system.

  8. CLAIRE: a Canadian Small Satellite Mission for Measurement of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, James; Grant, Cordell; Germain, Stephane; Durak, Berke; McKeever, Jason; Latendresse, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    CLAIRE, a Canadian mission operated by GHGSat Inc. of Montreal, is the world's first satellite designed to measure greenhouse gas emissions from single targeted industrial facilities. Claire was launched earlier this year into a 500 km polar sun-synchronous orbit selected to provide an acceptable balance between return frequency and spatial resolution. Extensive simulations of oil & gas facilities, power plants, hydro reservoirs and even animal feedlots were used to predict the mission performance. The principal goal is to measure the emission rates of carbon dioxide and methane from selected targets with greater precision and lower cost than ground-based alternatives. CLAIRE will measure sources having surface areas less than 10 x 10 km2 with a spatial resolution better than 50 m, thereby providing industrial site operators and government regulators with the information they need to understand, manage and ultimately to reduce greenhouse gas emissions more economically. The sensor is based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer, coupled with a 2D InGaAs focal plane array operating in the short-wave infrared with a spectral resolution of about 0.1 nm. The patented, high étendue, instrument design provides signal to noise ratios that permit quantification of emission rates with accuracies adequate for most regulatory reporting thresholds. The very high spatial resolution of the density maps produced by the CLAIRE mission resolves plume shapes and emitter locations so that advanced dispersion models can derive accurate emission rates of multiple sources within the field of view. The satellite bus, provided by the University of Toronto's Space Flight Laboratory, is based on the well-characterized NEMO architecture, including hardware that has significant spaceflight heritage. The mission is currently undergoing initial test and validation measurements in preparation for commercial operation later this year.

  9. An Intercomparison of Lidar Ozone and Temperature Measurements From the SOLVE Mission With Predicted Model Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burris, John; McGee, Thomas J.; Hoegy, Walt; Lait, Leslie; Sumnicht, Grant; Twigg, Larry; Heaps, William

    2000-01-01

    Temperature profiles acquired by Goddard Space Flight Center's AROTEL lidar during the SOLVE mission onboard NASA's DC-8 are compared with predicted values from several atmospheric models (DAO, NCEP and UKMO). The variability in the differences between measured and calculated temperature fields was approximately 5 K. Retrieved temperatures within the polar vortex showed large regions that were significantly colder than predicted by the atmospheric models.

  10. Mission Simulation of Space Lidar Measurements for Seasonal and Regional CO2 Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, Stephan; Collatz, G. J.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Sun, X.; Weaver, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    Results of mission simulation studies are presented for a laser-based atmospheric [82 sounder. The simulations are based on real-time carbon cycle process modeling and data analysis. The mission concept corresponds to the Active Sensing of [82 over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey of Earth Science and Applications from Space. One prerequisite for meaningful quantitative sensor evaluation is realistic CO2 process modeling across a wide range of scales, i.e., does the model have representative spatial and temporal gradients? Examples of model comparison with data will be shown. Another requirement is a relatively complete description of the atmospheric and surface state, which we have obtained from meteorological data assimilation and satellite measurements from MODIS and [ALIPS0. We use radiative transfer model calculations, an instrument model with representative errors ' and a simple retrieval approach to complete the cycle from "nature" run to "pseudo-data" CO2, Several mission and instrument configuration options are examined/ and the sensitivity to key design variables is shown. We use the simulation framework to demonstrate that within reasonable technological assumptions for the system performance, relatively high measurement precision can be obtained, but errors depend strongly on environmental conditions as well as instrument specifications. Examples are also shown of how the resulting pseudo - measurements might be used to address key carbon cycle science questions.

  11. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Anantharaman; Modenese, Luca; Phillips, Andrew T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a “muscle synergy” based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings) and their control signals (termed synergy controls) have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements—movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of “simulated” synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1) synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution) (2) along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution). On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy) to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy) did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures. PMID:25520645

  12. GlobCurrent: Sentinel-3 Synergy in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannessen, J. A.; Chapron, B.; Collard, F.; Rio, M.-H.; Piolle, J.-F.; Quartly, G.; Shutler, J.; Escola, R.; Donlon, C.; Danielson, R.; Korosov, A.; Raj, R. P.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Roca, M.; Tournadre, J.; Larnicol, G.; Labroue, S.; Miller, P.; Nencioli, F.; Warren, M.; Hansen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ESA Data User Element (DUE) funded GlobCurrent project (http://www.globcurrent.org) aims to: (i) advance the quantitative estimation of ocean surface currents from satellite sensor synergy; and (ii) demonstrate impact in user-led scientific, operational and commercial applications that, in turn, will improve and strengthen the uptake of satellite measurements. Today, a synergetic approach for quantitative analysis can build on high-resolution imaging radar and spectrometer data, infrared radiometer data and radar altimeter measurements. It will further integrate Sentinel-3 in combination with Sentinel-1 SAR data. From existing and past missions, it is often demonstrated that sharp gradients in the sea surface temperature (SST) field and the ocean surface chlorophyll-a distribution are spatially correlated with the sea surface roughness anomaly fields at small spatial scales, in the sub-mesocale (1-10 km) to the mesoscale (30-80 km). At the larger mesoscale range (>50 km), information derived from radar altimeters often depict the presence of coherent structures and eddies. The variability often appears largest in regions where the intense surface current regimes (>100 - 200 km) are found. These 2-dimensional structures manifested in the satellite observations represent evidence of the upper ocean (~100-200 m) dynamics. Whereas the quasi geostrophic assumption is valid for the upper ocean dynamics at the larger scale (>100 km), possible triggering mechanisms for the expressions at the mesoscale-to-sub-mesoscale may include spiraling tracers of inertial motion and the interaction of the wind-driven Ekman layer with the quasi-geostrophic current field. This latter, in turn, produces bands of downwelling (convergence) and upwelling (divergence) near fronts. A regular utilization of the sensor synergy approach with the combination of Sentinel-3 and Sentinel-1 will provide a highly valuable data set for further research and development to better relate the 2

  13. Short and long term efficiencies of debris risk reduction measures: Application to a European LEO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, T.; Kervarc, R.; Bertrand, S.; Carle, P.; Donath, T.; Destefanis, R.; Grassi, L.; Tiboldo, F.; Schäfer, F.; Kempf, S.; Gelhaus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent numerical studies indicate that the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment has reached a point such that even if no further space launches were conducted, the Earth satellite population would remain relatively constant for only the next 50 years or so. Beyond that, the debris population would begin to increase noticeably, due to the production of collisional debris (Liou and Johnson, 2008). Measures to be enforced play thus a major role to preserve an acceptable space mission risk and ensure sustainable space activities. The identification of such measures and the quantification of their efficiency over time for LEO missions is of prime concern in the decision-making process, as it has been investigated for the last few decades by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). This paper addresses the final results of a generic methodology and the characteristics of a tool developed to assess the efficiency of the risk reduction measures identified for the Sentinel-1 (S1) mission. This work is performed as part of the 34-month P2-ROTECT project (Prediction, Protection & Reduction of OrbiTal Exposure to Collision Threats), funded by the European Union within the Seventh Framework Programme. Three ways of risk reduction have been investigated, both in short and long-term, namely: better satellite protection, better conjunction prediction, and cleaner environment. According to our assumptions, the S1 mission vulnerability evaluations in the long term (from 2093 to 2100) show that full compliance to the mitigation measures leads to a situation twice safer than that induced by an active debris removal of 5 objects per year in a MASTER2009 Business-As-Usual context. Because these measures have visible risk reduction effects in the long term, complementary measures with short response time are also studied. In the short term (from 2013 to 2020), a better prediction of the conjunctions is more efficient than protecting the satellite S1 itself. By

  14. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission contributions to terrestrial hydrology and societal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, D.; Skofronick Jackson, G.; Huffman, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Too much or too little rain can serve as a tipping point for triggering catastrophic flooding and landslides or widespread drought. Knowing when, where and how much rain is falling globally is vital to understanding how vulnerable areas may be more or less impacted by these disasters. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international constellation of satellites coordinated through a partnership with NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to provide next-generation global observations of rain and snow. The GPM mission centers on the deployment of a Core Observatory satellite that serves as a reference standard to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational satellites. This satellite launched from Tanegashima Space Complex in Japan on January 28th, 2014 and carries advanced instruments setting a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The GPM Core Observatory satellite measures rain and snow using two science instruments: the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR). The GMI captures precipitation intensities and horizontal patterns, while the DPR provides insights into the three dimensional structure of precipitating particles. Together these two instruments provide a database of measurements against which other partner satellites' microwave observations can be meaningfully compared and combined to make a global precipitation dataset. GPM has already provided unprecedented views of typhoons, extratropical systems, light rain, snow storms and extreme precipitation. Through improved measurements of precipitation globally, the GPM mission provides new insights into measuring the fluxes of Earth's water cycle. This presentation will outline new findings and advancements of GPM in understanding and modeling of Earth's water and energy cycles, improving forecasting of extreme events that cause natural hazards and disasters, and extending current

  15. Eight years of OMI measurements and what we can learn from these for the Sentinel missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levelt, Pieternel; Veefkind, Pepijn; Bhartia, Pawan; Joiner, Joanna; Taminen, Johanna; Omi Science Team

    2013-04-01

    Eight years of OMI measurements and what we can learn from these for the Sentinel missions P.F. Levelt, P. Veefkind, PK Bhartia, J. Joiner, J. Tamminen, OMI Science Team The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is an UV/VIS nadir solar backscatter imaging spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial resolution of 13 x 24 km2. OMI measures solar irradiance and Earth radiances in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm with a spectral resolution of about 0.5 nm. The OMI instrument was launched at July 15, 2004 on NASA's EOS-Aura satellite. OMI is a third party mission of ESA. OMI's unique capabilities rely in measuring tropospheric trace gases with a small footprint and daily global coverage. The unprecedented spatial resolution of the instrument revealed for the first time tropospheric pollution maps on a daily basis with urban scale resolution, and also enables research improving our understanding of air pollutants and aerosols in the interaction between air quality and climate change. The data are used for obtaining emission maps using inverse modelling or related techniques. The sentinel missions (S5p/TROPOMI and Sentinel 4 and 5) will have an even better spatial resolution than OMI. In order to exploit their capability for tropospheric research and actual monitoring of emission sources the calibration and validation of these instruments and their data products are of high importance. In this presentation new findings of OMI will be presented and what we can learn from that for the preparation of the Sentinel missions, their validation and their scientific exploitation. Also lessons learned from the NASA methodology for OMI validation will be discussed and results of validation campaigns that supported OMI validation (i.e. SAUNA, DANDELIONS, CINDI, DISCOVER AQ, etc etc) will be shown.

  16. Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the ICESat Mission: Science Measurement Performance since Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiao-Li; Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; McGarry, Jan; Sirota, Marcos

    2004-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System is the primary space lidar on NASA's ICESat mission. Since launch in January 2003 GLAS has produced about 544 million measurements of the Earth's surface and atmosphere. It has made global measurements of the Earth's icesheets, land topography and atmosphere with unprecedented vertical resolution and accuracy. GLAS was first activated for science measurements in February 2003. Since then its operation and performance has confirmed many pre-launch expectations and exceed a few of the most optimistic expectations in vertical resolution. However GLAS also suffered an unexpected failure of its first laser, and the GLAS measurements have yielded some surprises in other areas. The talk will give a post launch assessment of the science measurement performance of the GLAS instrument, and compare the science measurements and engineering operation to pre-launch expectations. It also will address some of what has been learned from the GLAS operations and data, which may benefit future space lidar.

  17. Functional muscle synergies constrain force production during postural tasks

    PubMed Central

    McKay, J. Lucas; Ting, Lena H.

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a set of five functional muscle synergies were sufficient to characterize both hindlimb muscle activity and active forces during automatic postural responses in cats standing at multiple postural configurations. This characterization depended critically upon the assumption that the endpoint force vector (synergy force vector) produced by the activation of each muscle synergy rotated with the limb axis as the hindlimb posture varied in the sagittal plane. Here, we used a detailed, 3D static model of the hindlimb to confirm that this assumption is biomechanically plausible: as we varied the model posture, simulated synergy force vectors rotated monotonically with the limb axis in the parasagittal plane (r2 = 0.94 ± 0.08). We then tested whether a neural strategy of using these five functional muscle synergies provides the same force-generating capability as controlling each of the 31 muscles individually. We compared feasible force sets (FFS) from the model with and without a muscle synergy organization. FFS volumes were significantly reduced with the muscle synergy organization (F = 1556.01, p ≪ 0.01), and as posture varied, the synergy-limited FFSs changed in shape, consistent with changes in experimentally-measured active forces. In contrast, nominal FFS shapes were invariant with posture, reinforcing prior findings that postural forces cannot be predicted by hindlimb biomechanics alone. We propose that an internal model for postural force generation may coordinate functional muscle synergies that are invariant in intrinsic limb coordinates, and this reduced-dimension control scheme reduces the set of forces available for postural control. PMID:17980370

  18. Atmospheric Airborne Pressure Measurements Using the Oxygen A Band for the ASCENDS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riris, Haris; Rodriguez, Mike; Stephen, Mark; Hasselbrack, William; Allan, Graham; Mao, Jianping; Kawa, Stephen R.; Weaver, Clark J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on airborne atmospheric pressure measurements using new fiber-based laser technology and the oxygen A-band at 765 nm. Remote measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure are required for a number of NASA Earth science missions and specifically for the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions Over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. Accurate measurements of tropospheric CO2 on a global scale are very important in order to better understand its sources and sinks and to improve predictions on any future climate change. The ultimate goal of a CO2 remote sensing mission, such as ASCENDS, is to derive the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere in terms of mole fraction in unit of parts-per-million (ppmv) with regard to dry air. Therefore, both CO2 and the dry air number of molecules in the atmosphere are needed in deriving this quantity. O2 is a stable molecule and uniformly mixed in the atmosphere. Measuring the O2 absorption in the atmosphere can thus be used to infer the dry air number of molecules and then used to calculate CO2 concentration. With the knowledge of atmospheric water vapor, we can then estimate the total surface pressure needed for CO2 retrievals. Our work, funded by the ESTO IIP program, uses fiber optic technology and non-linear optics to generate 765 nm laser radiation coincident with the Oxygen A-band. Our pulsed, time gated technique uses several on- and off-line wavelengths tuned to the O2 absorption line. The choice of wavelengths allows us to measure the pressure by using two adjacent O2 absorptions in the Oxygen A-band. Our retrieval algorithm fits the O2 lineshapes and derives the pressure. Our measurements compare favorably with a local weather monitor mounted outside our laboratory and a local weather station.

  19. Atmospheric Airborne Pressure Measurements Using the Oxygen A Band for the ASCENDS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riris, Haris; Rodriguez, Mike; Stephen, Mark; Hasselbrack, William; Allan, Graham; Mao, Jiamping,; Kawa, Stephan R.; Weaver, Clark J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on airborne atmospheric pressure measurements using new fiber-based laser technology and the oxygen A-band at 765 nm. Remote measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure are required for a number of NASA Earth science missions and specifically for the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions Over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. Accurate measurements of tropospheric CO2 on a global scale are very important in order to better understand its sources and sinks and to improve predictions on any future climate change. The ultimate goal of a CO2 remote sensing mission, such as ASCENDS, is to derive the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere in terms of mole fraction in unit of parts-per-million (ppmv) with regard to dry air. Therefore, both CO2 and the dry air number of molecules in the atmosphere are needed in deriving this quantity. O2 is a stable molecule and uniformly mixed in the atmosphere. Measuring the O2 absorption in the atmosphere can thus be used to infer the dry air number of molecules and then used to calculate CO2 concentration. With the knowledge of atmospheric water vapor, we can then estimate the total surface pressure needed for CO2 retrievals. Our work, funded by the ESTO IIP program, uses fiber optic technology and non-linear optics to generate 765 nm laser radiation coincident with the Oxygen A-band. Our pulsed, time gated technique uses several on- and off-line wavelengths tuned to the O2 absorption line. The choice of wavelengths allows us to measure the pressure by using two adjacent O2 absorptions in the Oxygen A-band. Our retrieval algorithm fits the O2 lineshapes and derives the pressure. Our measurements compare favorably with a local weather monitor mounted outside our laboratory and a local weather station.

  20. Ocean Surface reconstruction from the synergy of Sentinel-3 sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Haro, C.; Autret, E.; Isern-Fontanet, J.; Tandeo, P.; Le Goff, C.; Garello, R.; Fablet, R.

    2015-12-01

    Along-track altimetric measurements of Sea Surface Heights (SSH) are very well suited to quantify across-track currents. However, the spatial resolution of derived 2D velocities is restricted to scales above 100-150 km and the limited number of altimeters can lead to errors in the location of currents. On the contrary, infrared measurements of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) are well suited to locate flow patterns but it is difficult to extract quantitative estimations of ocean currents. During the last years, some works began to exploit the synergy of SST and altimetry measurements in order to retrieve ocean currents. Nevertheless, all this previous works employed measurements which were near in time but not simultaneous. In that sense, Sentinel-3 is a multi-instrument mission that will circumvent this temporal limitation, providing simultaneous measurements of SST and altimetry with high-end accuracy and reliability. Our approach, based on the spectral properties of simultaneous SST and SSH observations, is tested using ENVISAT (RA, AATSR) data, since its geometry is similar to that of Sentinel-3 (SRAL, SLSTR).

  1. NanoSWARM - A nano-satellite mission to measure particles and fields around the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Russell, Christopher; Pieters, Carle; Weiss, Benjamin; Halekas, Jasper; Poppe, Andrew; Larson, Davin; Lawrence, David; Elphic, Richard; Hayne, Paul; Blakely, Richard; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Choi, Young-Jun; Jin, Ho; Hemingway, Doug; Nayak, Michael; Puig-Suari, Jordi; Jaroux, Belgacem; Warwick, Steven

    2015-04-01

    The NanoSWARM mission concept uses a fleet of cubesats around the Moon to address a number of open problems in planetary science: 1) The mechanisms of space weathering, 2) The origins of planetary magnetism, 3) The origins, distributions, and migration processes of surface water on airless bodies, and 4) The physics of small-scale magnetospheres. To accomplish these goals, NanoSWARM targets scientifically rich features on the Moon known as swirls. Swirls are high-albedo features correlated with strong magnetic fields and low surface-water. NanoSWARM cubesats will make the first near-surface (<500 m altitude) measurements of solar wind flux and magnetic fields at swirls. NanoSWARM cubesats will also perform low-altitude neutron measurements to provide key constraints on the distribution of polar hydrogen concentrations, which are important volatile sinks in the lunar water cycle. To release its cubesats, NanoSWARM uses a high-heritage mother ship in a low altitude, polar, circular orbit. NanoSWARM's results will have direct applications to the geophysics, volatile distribution, and plasma physics of numerous other bodies, in particular asteroids and the terrestrial planets. The technologies and methods used by NanoSWARM will enable many new cubesat missions in the next decade, and expand the cubesat paradigm into deep space. NanoSWARM will be proposed as a NASA Discovery mission in early 2015.

  2. NanoSWARM: A Nano-satellite Mission to Measure Particles and Fields Around the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick-Bethell, I.

    2015-12-01

    The NanoSWARM mission concept uses a fleet of cubesats around the Moon to address a number of open problems in planetary science: 1) The mechanisms of space weathering, 2) The origins of planetary magnetism, 3) The origins, distributions, and migration processes of surface water on airless bodies, and 4) The physics of small-scale magnetospheres. To accomplish these goals, NanoSWARM targets scientifically rich features on the Moon known as swirls. Swirls are high-albedo features correlated with strong magnetic fields and low surface-water. NanoSWARM cubesats will make the first near-surface (<1 km altitude) measurements of solar wind flux and magnetic fields at swirls. NanoSWARM cubesats will also perform low-altitude neutron measurements to provide key constraints on the distribution of polar hydrogen concentrations, which are important volatile sinks in the lunar water cycle. To release its cubesats, NanoSWARM uses a high-heritage mother ship in a low altitude, polar, circular orbit. NanoSWARM's results will have direct applications to the geophysics, volatile distribution, and plasma physics of numerous other bodies, in particular asteroids and the terrestrial planets. The technologies and methods used by NanoSWARM will enable many new cubesat missions in the next decade. NanoSWARM was proposed as a NASA Discovery mission in February 2015.

  3. Design and Performance of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Super NiCd Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Anisa J.; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Jallice, Doris E.; Moran Vickie E.

    1999-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is a joint mission between NASA and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. The observatory is designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall and the associated release of energy that helps to power the global atmospheric circulation shaping both weather and climate around the globe. The spacecraft was launched from Japan on November 27,1997 via the NASDA H-2 launch vehicle. The TRMM Power Subsystem is a Peak Power Tracking system that can support the maximum TRMM load of 815 watts at the end of its three year life. The Power Subsystem consists of two 50 Ampere Hour Super NiCd batteries, Gallium Arsenide Solar Array and the Power System Electronics. This paper describes the TRMM Power Subsystem, battery design, cell and battery ground test performance, and in-orbit battery operations and performance.

  4. Summary Report of mission acceleration measurements for STS-66. Launched November 3, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Delombard, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Experiments flown in the middeck of Atlantis during the STS-66 mission were supported by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS). In particular, the three triaxial SAMS sensor heads collected data in support of protein crystal growth experiments. Data collected during STS-66 are reviewed in this report. The STS-66 SAMS data represent the microgravity environment in the 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz range. Variations in the environment related to differing levels of crew activity are discussed in the report. A comparison is made among times when the crew was quiet during a public affairs conference, working quietly, and exercising. These levels of activity are also compared to levels recorded by a SAMS unit in the Spacelab on Columbia during the STS-65 mission.

  5. Water vapor and cloud water measurements over Darwin during the STEP 1987 tropical mission

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K.K.; Proffitt, M.H. ); Chan, K.R.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J.R. ); Strahan, S.E. ); Wilson, J.C. ); Kley, D. )

    1993-05-20

    The authors report results of total water, and water vapor measurements made in the upper troposphere and stratosphere during the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP) Tropical mission over Darwin, Australia. Measurements were made from an ER-2 aircraft by lyman-[alpha] hygrometers. The average lower stratosphere water vapor was 2.4 parts per million by volume (ppmv), at a potential temperature of 375 K. This level is lower than the 3 to 4 ppmv water vapor level typical of the stratosphere.

  6. Combined Infrared Stereo and Laser Ranging Cloud Measurements from Shuttle Mission STS-85

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, Redgie S.; Spinhirne, James D.; OCStarr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Multi-angle remote sensing provides a wealth of information for earth and climate monitoring. And, as technology advances so do the options for developing instrumentation versatile enough to meet the demands associated with these types of measurements. In the current work, the multiangle measurement capability of the Infrared Spectral Imaging Radiometer is demonstrated. This instrument flew as part of mission STS-85 of the space shuttle Columbia in 1997 and was the first earth-observing radiometer to incorporate an uncooled microbolometer array detector as its image sensor. Specifically, a method for computing cloud-top height from the multi-spectral stereo measurements acquired during this flight has been developed and the results demonstrate that a vertical precision of 10.6 km was achieved. Further, the accuracy of these measurements is confirmed by comparison with coincident direct laser ranging measurements from the Shuttle Laser Altimeter. Mission STS-85 was the first space flight to combine laser ranging and thermal IR camera systems for cloud remote sensing.

  7. DopSCAT: A mission concept for simultaneous measurements of marine winds and surface currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fois, Franco; Hoogeboom, Peter; Le Chevalier, François; Stoffelen, Ad; Mouche, Alexis

    2015-12-01

    A radar scatterometer operates by transmitting a pulse of microwave energy toward the ocean's surface and measuring the normalized (per-unit-surface) radar backscatter coefficient (σ°). The primary application of scatterometry is the measurement of near-surface ocean winds. By combining σ° measurements from different azimuth angles, the 10 m vector wind can be determined through a Geophysical Model Function (GMF), which relates wind and backscatter. This paper proposes a mission concept for the measurement of both oceanic winds and surface currents, which makes full use of earlier C-band radar remote sensing experience. For the determination of ocean currents, in particular, the novel idea of using two chirps of opposite slope is introduced. The fundamental processing steps required to retrieve surface currents are given together with their associated accuracies. A detailed description of the mission proposal and comparisons between real and retrieved surface currents are presented. The proposed ocean Doppler scatterometer can be used to generate global surface ocean current maps with accuracies better than 0.2 m/s at a spatial resolution better than 25 km (i.e., 12.5 km spatial sampling) on a daily basis. These maps will allow gaining some insights on the upper ocean mesoscale dynamics. The work lies at a frontier, given that the present inability to measure ocean currents from space in a consistent and synoptic manner represents one of the greatest weaknesses in ocean remote sensing.

  8. Measuring Earth's radiation imbalance with RAVAN: A CubeSat mission to measure the driver of global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, W. H.; Dyrud, L. P.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Lorentz, S. R.; Papadakis, S.; Summers, R. A.; Smith, A. W.; Wu, D. L.; Deglau, D. M.; Arnold, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth radiation imbalance (ERI) is the single most important quantity for predicting the course of climate change over the next century. It is also the single most important metric for any geo-engineering scheme. We review the current scientific understanding of ERI and present a recently funded CubeSat mission, the Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN), that will demonstrate an affordable, accurate radiometer that directly measures Earth-leaving fluxes of total and solar-reflected radiation. Coupled with knowledge of the incoming radiation from the Sun, RAVAN directly gives ERI. The objective of RAVAN is to demonstrate that a compact spaceborne radiometer that is absolutely accurate to NIST-traceable standards can be built for low cost. The key technologies that enable a radiometer with all these attributes are: a gallium fixed-point blackbody as a built-in calibration source and a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) absorber. VACNTs are the blackest known substance, making them ideal radiometer absorbers with order-of-magnitude improvements in spectral flatness and stability over the existing art. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory heritage 3U Multi-Mission Nanosat will host RAVAN, providing the reliability, agility, and resources needed. RAVAN will pave the way for a constellation Earth radiation budget mission that can provide the measurements needed to enable vastly superior predictions of future climate change.

  9. New Mission to Measure Global Lightning from the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T. O.; Pavelitz, S. D.; Coker, C.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The observations included measurements from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) that acquired global observations of total lightning (i.e., intracloud and cloud-to-ground discharges) from November 1997 to April 2015 between 38° N/S latitudes, and its Optical Transient Detector predecessor that acquired observation from May 1995 to April 2000 over 75° N/S latitudes. In February 2016, as an exciting follow-on to these prior missions, a space-qualified LIS built as a flight-spare for TRMM will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) for a 2 year or longer mission, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission. The LIS on ISS will continue observations of the amount, rate, and radiant energy of total lightning over the Earth. More specifically, LIS measures lightning during both day and night, with storm scale resolution (~4 km), millisecond timing, and high, uniform detection efficiency, without any land-ocean bias. Lightning is a direct and most impressive response to intense atmospheric convection. ISS LIS lightning observations will continue to provide important gap-filling inputs to pressing Earth system science issues across a broad range of disciplines. This mission will also extend TRMM time series observations, expand the latitudinal coverage to 54° latitude, provide real-time lightning data to operational users, espically over data sparse oceanic regions, and enable cross-sensor observations and calibrations that includes the new GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and the Meteosat

  10. Summary report of mission acceleration measurements for STS-60, SPACEHAB2, launched 11 February 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Delombard, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The STS-60 mission, which launched on 11 February 1994, carried seven accelerometer systems. This report describes the configuration of each of these systems, where they were located on the Orbiter and the name of a contact person for each system. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) was one of the accelerometer systems on-board and this mission marked its eighth successful flight. Acceleration data are provided here for SAMS which flew under an agreement between the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications division and the NASA office of Advanced Concepts and Technology. Acceleration data for the other accelerometer systems are not presented here. SAMS was located in the commercial SPACEHAB laboratory, on its second flight. The SAMS system was configured with three triaxial sensor heads with filter cut-offs of 5, 10, and 50 Hz. The acceleration environment related to an experiment centrifuge, an experiment refrigerator freezer unit, a SAMS sensor head rotation, an Orbiter shudder, and payload deploy activities are discussed. In the Appendices, all of the data from SAMS Head B (10 Hz) are plotted to provide an overview of the environment during the majority of the STS-60 mission. An evaluation form is included at the end of the report to solicit users' comments about the usefulness of this series of reports.

  11. Conceptual design study for the use of COBE rocket engines on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this conceptual design study is to verify that the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Hydrazine Propulsion Subsystem (HPS) Rocket Engine Assembly (REA) will satisfy the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) requirements and to develop a preliminary thruster module design using the existing REAs. The performance of the COBE HPS 5 lbf thrusters meet the TRMM mission requirements. The preliminary design consists of a single 5 lbf REA REM which is isolation mounted to a spacecraft interface angle bracket (5 or 10 deg angle). The REM incorporates a catalyst bed heater and sensor assembly, and propellant thermal control is achieved by thermostatically controlled heaters on the thruster valves. A ROM cost of approx. $950 K has been estimated for the phase 2 program to finalize the design, fabricate, and test the hardware using mechanical thermostats for thermal control. In the event that solid state thermostats are used, the cost is estimated to be $160 K higher. A ROM cost is approx. $145 K is estimated to study the effects of using Japanese manufactured hydrazine for the TRMM mission.

  12. Global Precipitation Measurement. Report 2; Benefits of Partnering with GPM Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich F.; Smith, Eric A. (Editor); Adams, W. James (Editor); Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An important goal of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is to maximize participation by non-NASA partners both domestic and international. A consequence of this objective is the provision for NASA to provide sufficient incentives to achieve partner buy-in and commitment to the program. NASA has identified seven specific areas in which substantive incentives will be offered: (1) partners will be offered participation in governance of GPM mission science affairs including definition of data products; (2) partners will be offered use of NASA's TDRSS capability for uplink and downlink of commands and data in regards to partner provided spacecraft; (3) partners will be offered launch support for placing partner provided spacecraft in orbit conditional upon mutually agreeable co-manifest arrangements; (4) partners will be offered direct data access at the NASA-GPM server level rather than through standard data distribution channels; (5) partners will be offered the opportunity to serve as regional data archive and distribution centers for standard GPM data products; and (6) partners will be offered the option to insert their own specialized filtering and extraction software into the GPM data processing stream or to obtain specialized subsets and products over specific areas of interest (7) partners will be offered GPM developed software tools that can be run on their platforms. Each of these incentives, either individually or in combination, represents a significant advantage to partners who may wish to participate in the GPM mission.

  13. Measurement requirements for a Near-Earth Asteroid impact mitigation demonstration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolters, Stephen D.; Ball, Andrew J.; Wells, Nigel; Saunders, Christopher; McBride, Neil

    2011-10-01

    A concept for an Impact Mitigation Preparation Mission, called Don Quijote, is to send two spacecrafts to a Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA): an Orbiter and an Impactor. The Impactor collides with the asteroid while the Orbiter measures the resulting change in the asteroid's orbit, by means of a Radio Science Experiment (RSE) carried out before and after the impact. Three parallel Phase A studies on Don Quijote were carried out for the European Space Agency: the research presented here reflects the outcomes of the study by QinetiQ. We discuss the mission objectives with regard to the prioritisation of payload instruments, with emphasis on the interpretation of the impact. The Radio Science Experiment is described and it is examined how solar radiation pressure may increase the uncertainty in measuring the orbit of the target asteroid. It is determined that to measure the change in orbit accurately a thermal IR spectrometer is mandatory, to measure the Yarkovsky effect. The advantages of having a laser altimeter are discussed. The advantages of a dedicated wide-angle impact camera are discussed and the field-of-view is initially sized through a simple model of the impact.

  14. Synergy and other interactions in phytomedicines.

    PubMed

    Williamson, E M

    2001-09-01

    Synergistic interactions are of vital importance in phytomedicines, to explain difficulties in always isolating a single active ingredient, and explain the efficacy of apparently low doses of active constituents in a herbal product. This concept, that a whole or partially purified extract of a plant offers advantages over a single isolated ingredient, also underpins the philosophy of herbal medicine. Evidence to support the occurrence of synergy in within phytomedicines is now accumulating and is reviewed here. Synergistic interactions are documented for constituents within a total extract of a single herb, as well as between different herbs in a formulation. Positive and negative aspects of interactions are discussed together with the methods used to identify and measure synergy. The evidence is divided into experimental, in vitro instances, as well as clinical examples where available. Herbs discussed include Ginkgo biloba, Piper methysticum (Kava-Kava), Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis, Cannabis sativa, Salix alba and others.

  15. Forest Biomass Mapping From Lidar and Radar Synergies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Guoqing; Ranson, K. Jon; Guo, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Montesano, P.; Kimes, D.

    2011-01-01

    The use of lidar and radar instruments to measure forest structure attributes such as height and biomass at global scales is being considered for a future Earth Observation satellite mission, DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice). Large footprint lidar makes a direct measurement of the heights of scatterers in the illuminated footprint and can yield accurate information about the vertical profile of the canopy within lidar footprint samples. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is known to sense the canopy volume, especially at longer wavelengths and provides image data. Methods for biomass mapping by a combination of lidar sampling and radar mapping need to be developed. In this study, several issues in this respect were investigated using aircraft borne lidar and SAR data in Howland, Maine, USA. The stepwise regression selected the height indices rh50 and rh75 of the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) data for predicting field measured biomass with a R(exp 2) of 0.71 and RMSE of 31.33 Mg/ha. The above-ground biomass map generated from this regression model was considered to represent the true biomass of the area and used as a reference map since no better biomass map exists for the area. Random samples were taken from the biomass map and the correlation between the sampled biomass and co-located SAR signature was studied. The best models were used to extend the biomass from lidar samples into all forested areas in the study area, which mimics a procedure that could be used for the future DESDYnI Mission. It was found that depending on the data types used (quad-pol or dual-pol) the SAR data can predict the lidar biomass samples with R2 of 0.63-0.71, RMSE of 32.0-28.2 Mg/ha up to biomass levels of 200-250 Mg/ha. The mean biomass of the study area calculated from the biomass maps generated by lidar- SAR synergy 63 was within 10% of the reference biomass map derived from LVIS data. The results from this study are preliminary, but do show the

  16. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and U.S. Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Azarbarzin, Ardeshir A.; Kakar, Ramesh K.; Neeck, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission specifically designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. Building upon the success of the U.S.-Japan Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the Japan Aerospace and Exploration Agency (JAXA) will deploy in 2013 a GPM "Core" satellite carrying a KulKa-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a conical-scanning multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) to establish a new reference standard for precipitation measurements from space. The combined active/passive sensor measurements will also be used to provide common database for precipitation retrievals from constellation sensors. For global coverage, GPM relies on existing satellite programs and new mission opportunities from a consortium of partners through bilateral agreements with either NASA or JAXA. Each constellation member may have its unique scientific or operational objectives but contributes microwave observations to GPM for the generation and dissemination of unified global precipitation data products. In addition to the DPR and GMI on the Core Observatory, the baseline GPM constellation consists of the following sensors: (1) Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) instruments on the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, (2) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer- 2 (AMSR-2) on the GCOM-Wl satellite of JAXA, (3) the Multi-Frequency Microwave Scanning Radiometer (MADRAS) and the multi-channel microwave humidity sounder (SAPHIR) on the French-Indian Megha-Tropiques satellite, (4) the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-19, (5) MHS instruments on MetOp satellites launched by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological

  17. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and U.S. Science Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Stocker, Erich F.

    2013-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is a satellite mission specifically designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors provided by a consortium of international partners. NASA and JAXA will deploy a Core Observatory in 2014 to serve as a reference satellite for precipitation measurements by the constellation sensors. The GPM Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a conical-scanning multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR, the first dual-frequency radar in space, will provide not only measurements of 3-D precipitation structures but also quantitative information on microphysical properties of precipitating particles. The DPR and GMI measurements will together provide a database that relates vertical hydrometeor profiles to multi-frequency microwave radiances over a variety of environmental conditions across the globe. This combined database will serve as a common transfer standard for improving the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. In addition to the Core Observatory, the GPM constellation consists of (1) Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) instruments on the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, (2) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR-2) on the GCOM-W1 satellite of JAXA, (3) the Multi-Frequency Microwave Scanning Radiometer (MADRAS) and the multi-channel microwave humidity sounder (SAPHIR) on the French-Indian Megha-Tropiques satellite, (4) the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), (5) MHS instruments on MetOp satellites launched by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), (6) the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on the National Polar

  18. Pulsed Lidar for Measurement of C02 Concentrations for the ASCENDS Mission - Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham; Sun, Xiaoli; Mao, Jianping; Weaver, Clark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Rodriquez, Michael; Kawa, S. Randy

    2011-01-01

    We have been developing a laser-based sounding technique for the remote measurement of the tropospheric CO2 concentrations from orbit for NASA is ASCENDS mission. The mission's goals are to provide measurements of tropospheric CO2 abundance with global-coverage, a few hundred km spatial and monthly temporal resolution. These are needed to better understand CO2 fluxes and the processes that regulate CO2 storage by the land and oceans. For the lIP, we are developing and demonstrating the lidar techniques and key lidar technology that will permit measurements of the CO2 column abundance in the lower troposphere from aircraft. Our final goal is to demonstrate the key capabilities needed for a space lidar and mission approach for the ASCENDS mission. We use a pulsed lidar technique, which is much less sensitive to errors from cloud and atmospheric scattering and to noise from solar background. It allows continuous measurements of CO2 mixing ratio in the lower troposphere during day and night. Our approach uses the 1570nm CO2 band and a two-wavelength laser absorption spectrometer, which continuously measures at nadir from a circular polar orbit. It directs the narrow co-aligned laser beams from the instrument's lasers toward nadir, and measures the energy of the laser echoes reflected from land and water surfaces. It uses a pair of tunable laser transmitters, which allowing measurement of the extinction from a single selected CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band and from a line pair in the Oxygen A-band near 765 nm. These regions have temperature insensitive absorption lines are free from interference from other gases. The lasers pulse at 10KHz, use tunable diode seed lasers followed by laser amplifiers, and have MHz spectral widths. During the measurement the lasers are stepped across the selected lines at a kHz rate. The receiver uses a 1-m class telescope and photon sensitive detectors and measures the background light and energies of the laser echoes from the

  19. TRMM ground truth in a monsoon environment - Darwin, Australia. [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, T. D.; Holland, G. J.; Manton, M. J.; Simpson, J.

    1988-01-01

    A ground truth station for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is described. The station is situated in Darwin, Australia in a monsoon environment typical for Southeast Asia. The climatological features of the site, and the Darwin observational program are examined. The instruments and operations at the station are discussed, including a Doppler radar making full upper tropospheric soundings every 12 hrs and wind soundings every 6 hrs, and a mesoscale raingauge and surface observing network operating continuously through the summer monsoon seasons. The spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall in the area and an outline of the research objectives of the program are presented.

  20. Oceanographic measurement capabilities of the NASA P-3 aircraft. [ERS-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollo-Christensen, Erik; Jackson, F. C.; Walsh, E. J.; Hoge, F.

    1986-01-01

    Instrumentation on NASA P3 aircraft available to provide ground truth for ERS-1 is described. The wave sensors include the 36 GHz Surface Contour Radar (SCR), the Ku-band Radar Ocean Wave Spectrometer (ROWS), and the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar. The other sensors include a C-band scatterometer, video camera, radiation thermometer, and AXRTs. The SCR and ROWS directional spectrum measurements are discussed. When planning for an underflight mission, the limited endurance of the aircraft (6 hr) and flight cost (2.7 K$/hr) must be considered. The advantage of the redundancy afforded by the several wave instruments is another important consideration.

  1. Continuous metabolic and cardiovascular measurements on a monkey subject during a simulated 6-day Spacelab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Mains, R. C.; Kodama, A. M.; Mccutcheon, E. P.

    1978-01-01

    An adult male pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina) with surgically implanted biotelemetry unit was inserted into a fiberglass pod system which was installed in a Spacelab mock-up to simulate a 6-day mission during which extensive physiological measurements were obtained. The purpose of the pod was to make possible the study of respiratory gas exchange. Body temperature and selected cardiovascular parameters were recorded continuously for 2.6 days prior to 'launch', 6.3 days during 'flight', and 1.8 days after 'landing'. The results are surveyed, and it is concluded that it is feasible to perform sound physiological experiments on nonhuman primates in the Spacelab environment

  2. From mission to measures: performance measure development for a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Farb, Amy Feldman; Burrus, Barri; Wallace, Ina F; Wilson, Ellen K; Peele, John E

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) sought to create a comprehensive set of performance measures to capture the performance of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program. This performance measurement system needed to provide measures that could be used internally (by both OAH and the TPP grantees) for management and program improvement as well as externally to communicate the program's progress to other interested stakeholders and Congress. This article describes the selected measures and outlines the considerations behind the TPP measurement development process. Issues faced, challenges encountered, and lessons learned have broad applicability for other federal agencies and, specifically, for TPP programs interested in assessing their own performance and progress.

  3. High resolution Microwave Spectrometer Sounder (HIMSS) instrument program. Appendix: TRMM study (an instrument for NASA's tropical rainfall measuring mission)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobl, E. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The TRMM (Tropical Rain Measuring Mission) Study shows the feasibility of a conically scanned, total power radiometer. The heritage of the TRMM radiometer is the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) flying for the Air Force DMSP.

  4. Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission status and application of satellite-based global rainfall map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachi, Misako; Shimizu, Shuji; Kubota, Takuji; Yoshida, Naofumi; Oki, Riko; Kojima, Masahiro; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji

    2010-05-01

    As accuracy of satellite precipitation estimates improves and observation frequency increases, application of those data to societal benefit areas, such as weather forecasts and flood predictions, is expected, in addition to research of precipitation climatology to analyze precipitation systems. There is, however, limitation on single satellite observation in coverage and frequency. Currently, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is scheduled under international collaboration to fulfill various user requirements that cannot be achieved by the single satellite, like the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). The GPM mission is an international mission to achieve high-accurate and high-frequent rainfall observation over a global area. GPM is composed of a TRMM-like non-sun-synchronous orbit satellite (GPM core satellite) and constellation of satellites carrying microwave radiometer instruments. The GPM core satellite carries the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR), which is being developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), and microwave radiometer provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Development of DPR instrument is in good progress for scheduled launch in 2013, and DPR Critical Design Review has completed in July - September 2009. Constellation satellites, which carry a microwave imager and/or sounder, are planned to be launched around 2013 by each partner agency for its own purpose, and will contribute to extending coverage and increasing frequency. JAXA's future mission, the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) - Water (GCOM-W) satellite will be one of constellation satellites. The first generation of GCOM-W satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2011, and it carries the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), which is being developed based on the experience of the AMSR-E on EOS Aqua satellite

  5. Advances in Understanding Global Water Cycle with Advent of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Within this decade the internationally organized Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams beginning with very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and then on to blends of the former datastreams with additional lower-caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of the now emerging global water & energy cycle (GWEC) programs of a number of research agencies throughout the world, GPM serves as a centerpiece space mission for improving our understanding of the global water cycle from a global measurement perspective. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in climate, e.g., climate warming. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination. This paper presents an overview of the GPM Mission and how its observations can be used within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine whether a given perturbation in precipitation is indicative of an actual rate change in the global water cycle, consistent with required responses in water storage and/or water flux transport processes, or whether it is the natural variability of a fixed rate cycle.

  6. Validation for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission: Lessons Learned and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, D. B.; Amitai, E.; Marks, D. A.; Silberstein, D.; Lawrence, R. A.

    2005-05-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) was launched in November 1997 and was a highly regarded and successful mission. A major component of the TRMM program was its Ground Validation (GV) program. Through dedicated research and hard work by many groups, both the GV and satellite-retrieved rain estimates have shown a convergence at key GV sites, lending credibility to the global TRMM estimates. To be sure, there are some regional differences between the various satellite estimates themselves which still need to be addressed; however, it can be said with some certainty that TRMM has provided a high-quality, long-term climatological data set for researchers that provides errors on the order of 10-20%, rather than pre-TRMM-era error estimates on the order of 50-10%. The TRMM GV program's main operational task was to provide rainfall products for four sites: Darwin, Australia; Houston, Texas; Kwajalein, Republic of the Marshall Islands; and, Melbourne, Florida. A comparison between TRMM GV (Version 5) and satellite (Version 6) rain intensity estimates is presented. The gridded satellite product (3G-68) will be compared to GV Level II rain-intensity and -type maps. The 3G-68 product represents a 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg data grid providing estimates of rain intensities from the TRMM Precipitation Radar, Microwave Imager and Combined algorithms. The comparisons will be classified according to geographical type (land, coast or ocean). The convergence of the GV and satellite estimates bodes well for expectations for the proposed Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) program, but it is now well understood that providing uncertainties of the estimates is perhaps more important than convergence on its own. Further, while TRMM originally focused on monthly and climatological validation, future precipitation missions should concentrate on instantaneous validation in order to avoid inevitable and large sampling errors.

  7. Atmospheric Airborne Pressure Measurements Using the Oxygen A Band for the ASCENDS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Riris, H.; Abshire, J. B.; Allan, G. R.; Stephen, M.; Hasselbrack, W.; Mao, J.

    2012-12-01

    We report on airborne atmospheric pressure measurements using fiber-based laser technology and the oxygen A-band at 765 nm. Remote atmospheric temperature and pressure measurements are needed for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions Over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. ASCENDS will measure atmospheric CO2 dry mixing ratios on a global scale. Remote atmospheric pressure measurements are necessary to normalize ASCENDS CO2 measurements. Our work, funded by the ESTO IIP program, uses erbium doped fiber optic amplifiers and non-linear optics technology to tune laser radiation over the Oxygen A-band between 764.5 nm and 765 nm. Surface reflections are fiber-coupled from a receiver telescope to photon counting detectors. Our pulsed, time gated approach resolves ground reflections from cloud returns. This system successfully recorded O2 absorption spectra during two airborne campaigns aboard a NASA DC-8. Airborne data has been analyzed and fitted to HITRAN reference spectra based upon aircraft meteorological data. Our algorithm linearly scales the HITRAN reference until measurement errors are minimized. Atmospheric pressure changes are estimated by comparing the differential optical depth of the optimum scaled HITRAN spectra to the differential optical depth of the nominal HITRAN spectra. On flights over gradually sloping terrain, these results compare favorably with ground-based observations and predictions from computer models. Measurement uncertainty is commensurate with photon counting noise. We plan to reduce measurement uncertainty in future campaigns by improving transmitter pulse energy and increasing wavelength sweep frequency.

  8. The RAVAN CubeSat mission: Progress toward a new measurement of Earth outgoing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, B. H.; Dyrud, L. P.; Lorentz, S. R.; Wu, D. L.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Papadakis, S.; Huang, P. M.; Smith, A.; Deglau, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth radiation imbalance (ERI) is the single most important quantity for predicting the course of climate change over the next century. The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat mission, funded by NASA's Earth Science Technology Office, will demonstrate an affordable, accurate radiometer that directly measures Earth-leaving fluxes of total and solar-reflected radiation. The objective of RAVAN is to demonstrate that a compact spaceborne radiometer that is absolutely accurate to NIST-traceable standards can be built for low cost. The key technologies that enable a radiometer with all these attributes are: a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) absorber and a gallium fixed-point blackbody as a built-in calibration source. VACNTs are exceedingly black and spectrally flat, making them ideal radiometer absorbers. We present results from the fabrication and calibration of the RAVAN radiometer and plans for CubeSat hosting and launch. RAVAN will help enable the development of a constellation Earth radiation budget mission that can provide the measurements needed for superior predictions of future climate change.

  9. The PICARD Mission: an investigation based on measurements dedicated to solar and climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuillier, Gerard; Schmutz, Werner; Dewitte, Steven

    PICARD mission is dedicated to the study of the solar activity origin using several key solar measurements. The project also includes development of the solar convective zone and climate models to evaluate the consequences for the Earth'climate of the solar activity. The measure-ments are the total and spectral solar irradiance, solar diameter, limb shape, solar asphericity, and helioseismic waves, which are key inputs for solar physics modeling. The measurements will be carried out by two absolute radiometers, sunphotometers, and a metrological imag-ing telescope onboard a microsatellite built by the French Space Agency CNES, with launch scheduled for March 2010. The radiometers are similar to the ones flown on board SOHO. The imaging telescope contains an angular reference allowing a permanent control of the instrument geometric scale, which is referred to angular stars distances. Optical distortion and flatfield of the imaging telescope are foreseen to be regularly measured. The measurements in space will have correlative measurements from ground using an identical imaging telescope, associated to the measurement of the local turbulence and aerosols localization and concentration. The op-portunity of diameter measurements by solar eclipse method will be used and finally the Solar Disk Sextant instrument will be regularly flown as an external measurement validation. An after launch activities is scheduled for three months, which consists in several instrument checks and recording of some scientific data. Given the launch date, these preliminary measurements will be shown. Images in UV, CaII line and solar photospheric continuum will be presented with some analysis of their contains. Furthermore, preliminary information concerning the radiometric and spectrometric measurements will be given.

  10. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite: Assessment and Lessons Learned After Three Flight Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joanne; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) is an experiment in measuring rainfall and the associated latent heat release from space. A primary goal is to help in initializing the large-scale weather and climate models for crucial improvement in location and profile of atmospheric heat release. For this, precipitation and latent heating profiles are needed. This goal requires cloud-resolving models. The basic approach was to use passive microwave and rain radar in combination to issue a limited number of products, improving the retrieval algorithms by testing during flight, so the products are updated annually. Despite a tight budget, the TRMM observatory and data system worked excellently from launch for the past three years. A basic philosophy has been to do physical validation as much as possible, in preference to empirical adjustments for algorithm improvement. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-73, Launched October 20, 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; DeLombard, Richard

    1996-01-01

    The microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle Columbia was measured during the STS-73 mission using accelerometers from five different instruments: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment, the Space Acceleration Measurement System, the Three-dimensional Microgravity Accelerometer, the Microgravity Measuring Device, and Suppression of Transient Accelerations by Levitation Evaluation System. The Microgravity Analysis Workstation quasi-steady environment calculation and comparison of this calculation with Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment data was used to assess how appropriate a planned attitude was expected to be for one Crystal Growth Facility experiment sample. The microgravity environment related to several different Orbiter, crew, and experiment operations is presented and interpreted in this report. Data are examined to show the effects of vernier reaction control system jet firings for Orbiter attitude control. This is compared to examples of data when no thrusters were firing, when the primary reaction control system jets were used for attitude control, and when single vernier jets were fired for test purposes. In general, vernier jets, when used for attitude control, cause accelerations in the 3 x 10(exp -4) g to 7 x 10(exp -4) g range. Primary jets used in this manner cause accelerations in the 0.01 to 0.025 g range. Other significant disturbance sources characterized are water dump operations, with Y(sub b) axis acceleration deviations of about 1 x 10(exp -6) g; payload bay door opening motion, with Y(sub o) and Z(sub o) axis accelerations of frequency 0.4 Hz; and probable Glovebox fan operations with notable frequency components at 20, 38, 43, 48, and 53 Hz. The STS-73 microgravity environment is comparable to the environments measured on earlier microgravity science missions.

  12. Polarized Imaging Nephelometer Scattering Measurements from the Winter of 2013 Discover-AQ Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, R.; Martins, J.; Dolgos, G.; Dubovik, O.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (Discover-AQ) mission. This presentation will focus on the results of the PI-Neph's twelve successful science flights during this past winter's Discover-AQ mission. These flights focused primarily on vehicle traffic, agriculture and biomass burning emissions over the San Joaquin Valley in central California. PI-Neph scattering data from this mission will be analyzed with an emphasis on evaluating horizontal, vertical and temporal variation in the sampled aerosol to asses the reliability of column measurements made by remote sensing platforms in determining air quality. Measured PI-Neph phase functions during spirals over AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) stations will also be compared with retrieved phase functions from AERONET. In an effort to further validate AERONET retrievals an inversion method (Dubovik et al., J. Geophys. Res., 111, D11208, doi:10.1029/2005JD006619d, 2006) similar to the AERONET inversion will be applied to PI-NEPH data to obtain size distribution estimates. These results will be compared to measurements of the same sample made by particle counters on board the aircraft.

  13. On the Synergy Between Gaia and Transit Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzetti, A.

    2012-09-01

    With a nominal launch date of September 2013, ESA's Gaia global astrometry mission will soon herald us into the era of micro-arcsecond-level (μas) precision positional astronomy. In its all-sky survey, Gaia will monitor astrometrically hundreds of thousands of main-sequence stars within ≈ 200 pc, looking for the presence of giant planetary companions within a few AUs from their host stars. Indeed, the wealth of information in the Gaia catalogue of exoplanets will constitute a fundamental contribution to several areas of exoplanet science (e.g., [1]), in particular when seen as a complement to other techniques for planet detection and characterization [2]. I will briefly address some of the relevant technical issues (choose your preferred algorithm, make sure your solution is robust, then double-check using a completely different approach!) associated with the precise and accurate determination of astrometric orbits of planetary systems using Gaia data (see e.g., [3], and references therein, for details). I will then highlight some of the important synergies between Gaia high-precision astrometry and other on-going and planned, indirect and direct planetfinding and (atmospheric) characterization programs, both from the ground (e.g., HARPS-N, APACHE, SPHERE) and in space (e.g., Kepler, TESS, ECho), and over a broad range of wavelengths, utilizing the connection between Gaia and space-borne and ground-based transit surveys as a proxy. I will particularly focus on the potential for improved understanding of planetary systems orbital architecture and physical properties when Kepler's exquisitely accurate photometry (supported by high-precision groundbased radial-velocity measurements where possible) will be combined with Gaia's superbly precise distance estimates (<1%) for all bright Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs, V < 14.5) in the Kepler field and with the 5-yr time baseline of Gaia astrometry. For example, as a direct consequence of the use of Gaia parallaxes in

  14. CHASER: An Innovative Satellite Mission Concept to Measure the Effects of Aerosols on Clouds and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, N.; Williams, E.; Rosenfeld, D.; Fischer, D.; Fischer, J.; Kremic, T.; Agrawal, A.; Andreae, M.; Bierbaum, R.; Blakeslee, R.; Boerner, A.; Bowles, N.; Christian, H.; Dunion, J.; Horvath, A.; Huang, X.; Khain, A.; Kinne, S.; Lemos, M.-C.; Penner, J.

    2012-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets on aerosol particles, technically known as the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), is the fundamental process driving the interactions of aerosols with clouds and precipitation. Knowledge of these interactions is foundational to our understanding of weather and climate. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Decadal Survey (NRC 2007) indicate that the uncertainty in how clouds adjust to aerosol perturbations dominates the uncertainty in the overall quantification of the radiative forcing attributable to human activities. The Clouds, Hazards, and Aerosols Survey for Earth Researchers (CHASER) mission concept responds to the IPCC and Decadal Survey concerns by studying the activation of CCN and their interactions with clouds and storms. CHASER proposes to revolutionize our understanding of the interactions of aerosols with clouds by making the first global measurements of the fundamental physical entity linking them: activated cloud condensation nuclei. The CHASER mission was conceptualized to measure all quantities necessary for determining the interactions of aerosols with clouds and storms. Measurements by current satellites allow the determination of crude profiles of cloud particle size but not of the activated CCN that seed them. CHASER uses a new technique (Freud et al. 2011; Rosenfeld et al. 2012) and high-heritage instruments to produce the first global maps of activated CCN and the properties of the clouds associated with them. CHASER measures the CCN concentration and cloud thermodynamic forcing simultaneously, allowing their effects to be distinguished. Changes in the behavior of a group of weather systems in which only one of the quantities varies (a partial derivative of the intensity with the desirable quantity) allow the determination of each effect statistically. The high uncertainties of current climate predictions limit their much-needed use in decision-making. CHASER mitigates this

  15. Development of An Instrumented, Modular "mole" For In-situ Subsurface Measurements On Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Kochan, H.; Michaelis, H.; Möhlmann, D.; Neuhaus, D.; Popp, J.; Spohn, T.; Stuffler, T.; Tokano, T.; Wernecke, R.

    On the Beagle 2 lander of ESA's Mars Express mission in 2003, a small mechanical "Mole" on a tether will be used to achieve percussive penetration into the Martian regolith to a maximum depth of some 1E1.5 m with the main objective of acquiring subsurface soil samples for analysis on the lander. For future planetary missions it is proposed to develop this concept further in order to accommodate a number of instru- ment sensor heads inside the Mole, enabling different measurements to be performed in the regolith as a function of depth. Such an instrumented, and perhaps even modular, Mole could be utilized to probe the regolith of solar system objects such as Mercury, Mars, the Earth's moon or asteroids. Depending on the mission target, different in- struments to be deployed to the subsurface will be of relevance. Candidates include thermal sensors, volatile detection sensors (including water vapor and adsorbed water for Mars applications), a multispectral imaging sensor head (soil texture and spectral reflectance) and a Raman spectrometer optical head (detailed soil mineralogy). Based on applications on various space missions, most of these instruments are already under development and will be small enough that at least their front ends can be accommo- dated inside a compact cylindrical Mole having an expected internal diameter between 20E35 mm. A particular design challenge is going to be the internal electronics and the electrical/optical interface required to pre-process sensor data and transmit them to the lander above the surface. To minimize the overall mass and length of the instrumented Mole, internal electronics should serve common functions among the accommodated instruments. Another area to be closely studied is temperature rise of the Mole due to its internal dissipation while in the subsurface which could jeopardize thermal mea- surements or could even render internal equipment inoperable. Where the physical integration of sensors is concerned

  16. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission: Monitoring the Global Tropics for 3 Years and Beyond. 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Marshall; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) was launched in November 1997 as a joint U.S.-Japanese mission to advance understanding of the global energy and water cycle by providing distributions of rainfall and latent heating over the global tropics. As a part of NASA's Earth System Enterprise, TRMM seeks to understand the mechanisms through which changes in tropical rainfall influence global circulation. Additionally, a goal is to improve the ability to model these processes in order to predict global circulations and rainfall variability at monthly and longer time scales. Such understanding has implications for assessing climate processes related to El Nino/La Nina and Global Warming. TRMM has also provided unexpected and exciting new knowledge and applications in areas related to hurricane monitoring, lightning, pollution, hydrology, and other areas. This CD-ROM includes a self-contained PowerPoint presentation that provides an overview of TRMM and significant science results; a set of data movies or animation; and listings of current TRMM-related publications in the literature.

  17. Acquisition and Analysis of NASA Ames Sunphotometer Measurements during SAGE III Validation Campaigns and other Tropospheric and Stratospheric Research Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC2-1251 provided funding from April 2001 through December 2003 for Mr. John Livingston of SRI International to collaborate with NASA Ames Research Center scientists and engineers in the acquisition and analysis of airborne sunphotometer measurements during various atmospheric field studies. Mr. Livingston participated in instrument calibrations at Mauna Loa Observatory, pre-mission hardware and software preparations, acquisition and analysis of sunphotometer measurements during the missions, and post-mission analysis of data and reporting of scientific findings. The atmospheric field missions included the spring 2001 Intensive of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the Asian Dust Above Monterey-2003 (ADAM-2003) experiment, and the winter 2003 Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II).

  18. Overview and early results of the Global Lightning and Sprite Measurements mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Ushio, T.; Morimoto, T.; Kikuchi, M.; Kikuchi, H.; Adachi, T.; Suzuki, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Inan, U.; Linscott, I.; Ishida, R.; Sakamoto, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Hobara, Y.; Sano, T.; Abe, T.; Nakamura, M.; Oda, H.; Kawasaki, Z.-I.

    2015-05-01

    Global Lightning and Sprite Measurements on Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-GLIMS) is a space mission to conduct the nadir observations of lightning discharges and transient luminous events (TLEs). The main objectives of this mission are to identify the horizontal distribution of TLEs and to solve the occurrence conditions determining the spatial distribution. JEM-GLIMS was successfully launched and started continuous nadir observations in 2012. The global distribution of the detected lightning events shows that most of the events occurred over continental regions in the local summer hemisphere. In some events, strong far-ultraviolet emissions have been simultaneously detected with N2 1P and 2P emissions by the spectrophotometers, which strongly suggest the occurrence of TLEs. Especially, in some of these events, no significant optical emission was measured by the narrowband filter camera, which suggests the occurrence of elves, not sprites. The VLF receiver also succeeded in detecting lightning whistlers, which show clear falling-tone frequency dispersion. Based on the optical data, the time delay from the detected lightning emission to the whistlers was identified as ˜10 ms, which can be reasonably explained by the wave propagation with the group velocity of whistlers. The VHF interferometer conducted the spaceborne interferometric observations and succeeded in detecting VHF pulses. We observed that the VHF pulses are likely to be excited by the lightning discharge possibly related with in-cloud discharges and measured with the JEM-GLIMS optical instruments. Thus, JEM-GLIMS provides the first full set of optical and electromagnetic data of lightning and TLEs obtained by nadir observations from space.

  19. Advanced Soil Moisture Network Technologies; Developments in Collecting in situ Measurements for Remote Sensing Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M.; Silva, A. R. D.; Akbar, R.; Clewley, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) wireless sensor network has been developed to support Calibration and Validation activities (Cal/Val) for large scale soil moisture remote sensing missions (SMAP and AirMOSS). The technology developed here also readily supports small scale hydrological studies by providing sub-kilometer widespread soil moisture observations. An extensive collection of semi-sparse sensor clusters deployed throughout north-central California and southern Arizona provide near real time soil moisture measurements. Such a wireless network architecture, compared to conventional single points measurement profiles, allows for significant and expanded soil moisture sampling. The work presented here aims at discussing and highlighting novel and new technology developments which increase in situ soil moisture measurements' accuracy, reliability, and robustness with reduced data delivery latency. High efficiency and low maintenance custom hardware have been developed and in-field performance has been demonstrated for a period of three years. The SoilSCAPE technology incorporates (a) intelligent sensing to prevent erroneous measurement reporting, (b) on-board short term memory for data redundancy, (c) adaptive scheduling and sampling capabilities to enhance energy efficiency. A rapid streamlined data delivery architecture openly provides distribution of in situ measurements to SMAP and AirMOSS cal/val activities and other interested parties.

  20. The HYSPIRI Decadal Survey Mission: Update on the Mission Concept and Science Objectives for Global Imaging Spectroscopy and Multi-Spectral Thermal Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Hook, Simon J.; Middleton, Elizabeth; Turner, Woody; Ungar, Stephen; Knox, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The NASA HyspIRI mission is planned to provide global solar reflected energy spectroscopic measurement of the terrestrial and shallow water regions of the Earth every 19 days will all measurements downlinked. In addition, HyspIRI will provide multi-spectral thermal measurements with a single band in the 4 micron region and seven bands in the 8 to 12 micron region with 5 day day/night coverage. A direct broadcast capability for measurement subsets is also planned. This HyspIRI mission is one of those designated in the 2007 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey: Earth Science and Applications from Space. In the Decadal Survey, HyspIRI was recognized as relevant to a range of Earth science and science applications, including climate: "A hyperspectral sensor (e.g., FLORA) combined with a multispectral thermal sensor (e.g., SAVII) in low Earth orbit (LEO) is part of an integrated mission concept [described in Parts I and II] that is relevant to several panels, especially the climate variability panel." The HyspIRI science study group was formed in 2008 to evaluate and refine the mission concept. This group has developed a series of HyspIRI science objectives: (1) Climate: Ecosystem biochemistry, condition & feedback; spectral albedo; carbon/dust on snow/ice; biomass burning; evapotranspiration (2) Ecosystems: Global plant functional types, physiological condition, and biochemistry including agricultural lands (3) Fires: Fuel status, fire frequency, severity, emissions, and patterns of recovery globally (4) Coral reef and coastal habitats: Global composition and status (5) Volcanoes: Eruptions, emissions, regional and global impact (6) Geology and resources: Global distributions of surface mineral resources and improved understanding of geology and related hazards These objectives are achieved with the following measurement capabilities. The HyspIRI imaging spectrometer provides: full spectral coverage from 380 to 2500 at 10 nm sampling; 60 m spatial sampling

  1. Performance of the Falling Snow Retrieval Algorithms for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Munchak, Stephen J.; Ringerud, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Retrievals of falling snow from space represent an important data set for understanding the Earth's atmospheric, hydrological, and energy cycles, especially during climate change. Estimates of falling snow must be captured to obtain the true global precipitation water cycle, snowfall accumulations are required for hydrological studies, and without knowledge of the frozen particles in clouds one cannot adequately understand the energy and radiation budgets. While satellite-based remote sensing provides global coverage of falling snow events, the science is relatively new and retrievals are still undergoing development with challenges remaining). This work reports on the development and testing of retrieval algorithms for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Core Satellite, launched February 2014.

  2. Long Duration Exposure Facility post-flight data as it influences the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straka, Sharon A.

    1995-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is an earth observing satellite that will be in a low earth orbit (350 kilometers) during the next period of maximum solar activity. The TRMM observatory is expected to experience an atomic oxygen fluence of 8.9 x 10(exp 22) atoms per square centimeter. This fluence is ten times higher than the atomic oxygen impingement incident to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Other environmental concerns on TRMM include: spacecraft glow, silicon oxide contaminant build-up, severe spacecraft material degradation, and contamination deposition resulting from molecular interactions with the dense ambient atmosphere. Because of TRMM's predicted harsh environment, TRMM faces many unique material concerns and subsystem design issues. The LDEF data has influenced the design of TRMM and the TRMM material selection process.

  3. Measurements of heavy solar wind and higher energy solar particles during the Apollo 17 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.; Zinner, E.; Maurette, M.

    1973-01-01

    The lunar surface cosmic ray experiment, consisting of sets of mica, glass, plastic, and metal foil detectors, was successfully deployed on the Apollo 17 mission. One set of detectors was exposed directly to sunlight and another set was placed in shade. Preliminary scanning of the mica detectors shows the expected registration of heavy solar wind ions in the sample exposed directly to the sun. The initial results indicate a depletion of very-heavy solar wind ions. The effect is probably not real but is caused by scanning inefficiencies. Despite the lack of any pronounced solar activity, energetic heavy particles with energies extending to 1 MeV/nucleon were observed. Equal track densities of approximately 6000 tracks/cm sq 0.5 microns in length were measured in mica samples exposed in both sunlight and shade.

  4. EGPM - The proposed European contribution to the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnai, A.; Egpm Mission Advisory Group

    2003-04-01

    At the beginning of January 2002, an international scientific consortium (the EGPM Science Team) constituted by numerous scientists involved in several disciplines related to precipitation, submitted to the European Space Agency (ESA) a proposal titled "EGPM: European contribution to the Global Precipitation Mission" in response to ESA's second call for proposals for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions (EEOMs). The principle objective of the EGPM proposal was to encourage ESA to directly engage in the international organization for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission formulated by NASA and NASDA, by providing one member of the GPM constellation of satellites aimed at providing frequent global rainfall observations for an extended operations period starting in the time frame of 2007. Noteworthy, a large part of the European scientific and operational community is strongly interested in GPM. Especially, the operational community related to NWP, nowcasting and hydrological hazards would take advantage of Europe being part of the constellation, because this would guarantee direct access to real-time data. The proposed EGPM satellite should satisfy, in association with the overall GPM constellation, the following "regional" requirements: - Improve the rainfall estimation accuracy with respect to SSM/I; - Enhance the detectability of light rain and snowfall, specifically over land, as appropriate for Northern Europe and Canada and in mid-latitude oceanic perturbations; - Provide a significant contribution to the monitoring and the understanding of hazardous and flash-flood producing storms along the Mediterranean coasts; - Improve the forecast skill of global and regional NWP models through data assimilation of precipitation measurements; - Provide direct-read-out data for real-time applications, as well as global data acquisition. To this end, the scientific payload of the EGPM satellite would consist of an advanced conically scanning microwave radiometer

  5. Open Imaging Nephelometer Scattering Measurements from the 2014 Discover-AQ Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, R.; Orozco, D.; Dolgos, G.; Martins, J. V.

    2014-12-01

    After greenhouse gases, aerosols are thought to have the largest contribution to total atmospheric radiative forcing, but they are frequently cited as the single largest source of uncertainty among all anthropogenic radiative forcing components. Remote sensing allows for global measurements of aerosol properties, however validation of these measurements and the climatological assumptions used in their retrieval algorithms require high quality in situ sampling. The Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics (LACO) at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) has developed the Imaging Nephelometer, a novel and highly accurate instrument concept designed to significantly aid in situ optical scattering measurements. Imaging Nephelometers allow for measurements of scattering coefficient, phase function and polarized phase function over a wide angular range of 2 to 178 degrees with an angular resolution of less than half of a degree. The simple layout of these devices also permits the construction of an instrument that is compact enough to be deployed on a variety of airborne platforms. Additionally, a version of this instrument that is capable of in situ sampling in open-air, free from sample biases potentially introduced by an inlet or containment apparatus, has recently been constructed. This instrument, known as the Open Imaging NEPHelometer (OI-NEPH), was flown on the P3 aircraft in the summer of 2014 during the Colorado portion of the Discover-AQ field mission (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality). This presentation will focus on the results of the OI-NEPH's successful science flights during this field experiment. The P3's flights during this mission focused primarily on vehicle, agriculture, biomass burning and industrial processing emissions over the Colorado Front Range. Emphasis will be placed on any observed differences in scattering properties between the measurements

  6. Validation for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission: Lessons Learned and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, David B.; Amitai, E.; Marks, D. A.; Silberstein, D.; Lawrence, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) was launched in November 1997 and is a highly regarded and successful mission. A major component of the TRMM program was its Ground Validation (GV) program. Through dedicated research and hard work by many groups, both the GV and satellite-retrieved rain estimates have shown a convergence at key GV sites, lending credibility to the global TRMM estimates. To be sure, there are some regional differences between the various satellite estimates themselves, which still need to be addressed; however, it can be said with some certainty that TRMM has provided a high-quality, long-term climatological data set for researchers that provides errors on the order of 10-20%, rather than pre-TRMM era error estimates on the order of 50-100%. The TRMM GV program's main operational task is to provide rainfall products for four sites: Darwin, Australia (DARW); Houston, Texas (HSTN); Kwajalein, Republic of the Marshall Islands (KWAJ); and, Melbourne, Florida (MELB). A comparison between TRMM Ground Validation (Version 5) and Satellite (Version 6) rain intensity estimates is presented. The gridded satellite product (3668) will be compared to GV Level II rain-intensity and -type maps (2A53 and 2A54, respectively). The 3G68 product represents a 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg data grid providing estimates of rain intensities from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR), Microwave Imager (TMI) and Combined (COM) algorithms. The comparisons will be sub-setted according to geographical type (land, coast and ocean). The convergence of the GV and satellite estimates bodes well for expectations for the proposed Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) program and this study and others are being leveraged towards planning GV goals for GPM. A discussion of lessons learned and future plans for TRMM GV in planning for GPM will also be provided.

  7. On pressure measurement and seasonal pressure variations during the Phoenix mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Peter A.; Kahanpää, Henrik; Weng, Wensong; Akingunola, Ayodeji; Cook, Clive; Daly, Mike; Dickinson, Cameron; Harri, Ari-Matti; Hill, Darren; Hipkin, Victoria; Polkko, Jouni; Whiteway, Jim

    2010-03-01

    In situ surface pressures measured at 2 s intervals during the 150 sol Phoenix mission are presented and seasonal variations discussed. The lightweight Barocap®/Thermocap® pressure sensor system performed moderately well. However, the original data processing routine had problems because the thermal environment of the sensor was subject to more rapid variations than had been expected. Hence, the data processing routine was updated after Phoenix landed. Further evaluation and the development of a correction are needed since the temperature dependences of the Barocap sensor heads have drifted after the calibration of the sensor. The inaccuracy caused by this appears when the temperature of the unit rises above 0°C. This frequently affects data in the afternoons and precludes a full study of diurnal pressure variations at this time. Short-term fluctuations, on time scales of order 20 s are unaffected and are reported in a separate paper in this issue. Seasonal variations are not significantly affected by this problem and show general agreement with previous measurements from Mars. During the 151 sol mission the surface pressure dropped from around 860 Pa to a minimum (daily average) of 724 Pa on sol 140 (Ls 143). This local minimum occurred several sols earlier than expected based on GCM studies and Viking data. Since battery power was lost on sol 151 we are not sure if the timing of the minimum that we saw could have been advanced by a low-pressure meteorological event. On sol 95 (Ls 122), we also saw a relatively low-pressure feature. This was accompanied by a large number of vertical vortex events, characterized by short, localized (in time), low-pressure perturbations.

  8. Measurement of the PPN-beta parameter in the GAME mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchiato, Alberto; Bernardi, Gabriella; Gai, Mario

    GAME (Gamma Astrometric Measurement Experiment) is a proposal for a space mission whose main scientific goal is the estimation of the γ parameter of the Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. A possible configuration as a small mission, and its possible performances for the main scientific case, has already been described in some recent papers (Gai et al. 2009, Vecchiato et al. 2009). However, simple considerations on the applicable observation strategy suggest that GAME can also provide outstanding results on other topics. We address the possible application to another classical test of General Relativity, i.e. the determination of the β parameter of the PPN formalism, or more precisely of the (2γ - β - 1) combination, by means of the reconstruction of the orbit of Mercury. The present accepted limit for this combination is |2γ - β - 1| < 10-3 (Will, 2006), while the proposed ESA Bepi-Colombo Mercury orbiter is expected to improve this limit to 3 × 10-4 after 2020. Preliminary estimations, based on the astrometric accuracy of the satellite measurements, suggest that GAME, in the baseline configuration, could reach the 10-4 -level of accuracy or better, hence calling for a more accurate evaluation which takes into account a relativistic model of the observable. The astrometric position of the planet, in fact, is influenced by the well-known light deflection effect whose lower limit, in the case of Mercury, is of the order of 10-2 arcsec, i.e. well above the expected sub-mas astrometric accuracy of GAME for bright objects. We describe the results of some simulations based on this relativistic model applied to the case of Mercury. Further work will assess in more detail the GAME performance by optimization of the observation strategy and the possible inclusion of other observational targets (high ellipticity orbit asteroids) which could improve on the overall accuracy of the estimate of the β parameter.

  9. The Measurements of The Phobos Magnetic Field During The Phobos-2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordovskaya, V. G.; Oraevsky, V. N.

    The measurements obtained by the magnetometers during the Phobos-2 mission from March 22 to March 26, 1989, are discussed. In particular it is suggested that the solar wind interaction with Phobos and the rotating direction of the magnetic field in the circular orbits around Mars are the evidence for the existence of an intrinsic plane- tary field of Phobos with a dipole moment of the order of 10^18 Gauss cm^3 . The discovery of the Phobos magnetic field was studied in [1,2]. The magnetization of the Phobos substance is 0.15 CGS. It should be noted that there are some meteorites with a magnetization of 3 CGS [3]. Phobos is the magnetized body, rotating around Mars so; it always presents the same face to a hypothetical observer on Mars. The peculiarity of the rotation of the magnetized Phobos supplies the magnetic field signatures, which, specifically the direction, are phase locked with Phobos rotation rate. To resolve this issue completely, in situ measurements from Phobos vicinity are required. The Pho- bos space project had had a very complicated scheme of flight relative to Phobos and the organization of a unique experiment named "Celestial Mechanics". The spacecraft was inserted into such an orbit around Mars on 22 March 1989 that it remained perma- nently within the vicinity of Phobos until 27 March. The direct experimental evidence of the Phobos magnetic field was obtained from the observations during the Phobos mission. Reference: [1] Mordovskaya, V.G., V.N. Oraevsky, and J. Rustenbach, The Phobos interaction with the solar wind plasma, Cosmic Research, vol. 39, iss. 5, 2001. [2] Mordovskaya, V.G., V.N. Oraevsky, V.A. Styashkin, and J. Rustenbach, Experimental evidence of the Phobos magnetic field, JETP Letters, vol. 74, iss. 6, pp. 293-297, 2001. [3] Gus'kova, E.G., Magnetic properties of meteorites, M.: Nayka, 1972.

  10. Atmospheric Airborne Pressure Measurements using the Oxygen A Band for the ASCENDS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riris, H.; Rodriguez, M.

    2014-12-01

    We report on an airborne demonstration of atmospheric oxygen optical depth measurements with an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar using a fiber-based laser system and a photon counting detector. Accurate knowledge of atmospheric temperature and pressure is required for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission, and climate modeling studies. The lidar uses a doubled Erbium Doped Fiber amplifier and single photon counting detector to measure oxygen absorption at 765 nm. Our approach uses a sequence of laser pulses at increasing wavelengths that sample a pair of absorption lines in the Oxygen A-band at 764.7 nm. The O2 lines were selected after careful spectroscopic analysis to minimize the O2 line temperature dependence and the availability of the transmitter and receiver technology to maximize transmitter power, doubling efficiency, and detector sensitivity. We compare our 2013 and 2014 Oxygen IPDA lidar measurements and evaluate the impact of receiver dynamic range, transmitter stability and signal to noise ratio on the differential optical depth measurements.

  11. On theory of motor synergies.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Peter D; Neilson, Megan D

    2010-10-01

    Recently Latash, Scholz, and Schöner (2007) proposed a new view of motor synergies which stresses the idea that the nervous system does not seek a unique solution to eliminate redundant degrees of freedom but rather uses redundant sets of elemental variables that each correct for errors in the other to achieve a performance goal. This is an attractive concept because the resulting flexibility in the synergy also provides for performance stability. But although Latash et al. construe this concept as the consequence of a "neural organization" they do not say what that may be, nor how it comes about. Adaptive model theory (AMT) is a computational theory developed in our laboratory to account for observed sensory-motor behavior. It gives a detailed account, in terms of biologically feasible neural adaptive filters, of the formation of motor synergies and control of synergistic movements. This account is amplified here to show specifically how the processes within the AMT computational framework lead directly to the flexibility/stability ratios of Latash et al. (2007). Accordingly, we show that quantitative analyses of experimental data, based on the uncontrolled manifold method, do not and indeed cannot refute the possibility that the nervous system tries to find a unique (optimal) solution to eliminate redundant degrees of freedom. We show that the desirable interplay between flexibility and stability demonstrated by uncontrolled manifold analysis can be equally well achieved by a system that forms and deploys optimized motor synergies, as in AMT.

  12. Particle Size Distributions Measured in the Stratospheric Plumes of Three Rockets During the ACCENT Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Brock, C. A.; Reeves, J. M.; Ross, M. N.; Schmid, O.; Toohey, D.; Wilson, J. C.

    2001-12-01

    The global impact of particles emitted by rocket engines on stratospheric ozone is not well understood, mainly due to the lack of comprehensive in situ measurements of the size distributions of these emitted particles. During the Atmospheric Chemistry of Combustion Emissions Near the Tropopause (ACCENT) missions in 1999, the NASA WB-57F aircraft carried the University of Denver N-MASS and FCAS instruments into the stratospheric plumes from three rockets. Size distributions of particles with diameters from 4 to approximately 2000 nm were calculated from the instrument measurements using numerical inversion techniques. The data have been averaged over 30-second intervals. The particle size distributions observed in all of the rocket plumes included a dominant mode near 60 nm diameter, probably composed of alumina particles. A smaller mode at approximately 25 nm, possibly composed of soot particles, was seen in only the plumes of rockets that used liquid oxygen and kerosene as a propellant. Aircraft exhaust emitted by the WB-57F was also sampled; the size distributions within these plumes are consistent with prior measurements in aircraft plumes. The size distributions for all rocket intercepts have been fitted to bimodal, lognormal distributions to provide input for global models of the stratosphere. Our data suggest that previous estimates of the solid rocket motor alumina size distributions may underestimate the alumina surface area emission index, and so underestimate the particle surface area available for heterogeneous chlorine activation reactions in the global stratosphere.

  13. Surge Pressure Mitigation in the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission Core Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scroggins, Ashley R.; Fiebig, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international partnership between NASA and JAXA whose Core spacecraft performs cutting-edge measurements of rainfall and snowfall worldwide and unifies data gathered by a network of precipitation measurement satellites. The Core spacecraft's propulsion system is a blowdown monopropellant system with an initial hydrazine load of 545 kg in a single composite overwrapped propellant tank. At launch, the propulsion system contained propellant in the tank and manifold tubes upstream of the latch valves, with low-pressure helium gas in the manifold tubes downstream of the latch valves. The system had a relatively high beginning-of- life pressure and long downstream manifold lines; these factors created conditions that were conducive to high surge pressures. This paper discusses the GPM project's approach to surge mitigation in the propulsion system design. The paper describes the surge testing program and results, with discussions of specific difficulties encountered. Based on the results of surge testing and pressure drop analyses, a unique configuration of cavitating venturis was chosen to mitigate surge while minimizing pressure losses during thruster maneuvers. This paper concludes with a discussion of overall lessons learned with surge pressure testing for NASA Goddard spacecraft programs.

  14. The Status of NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission 26 Months After Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Gail; Huffman, George

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential to our planet Earth. Knowing when, where and how precipitation falls is crucial for understanding the linkages between the Earth's water and energy cycles and is extraordinarily important for sustaining life on our planet during climate change. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory spacecraft launched February 27, 2014, is the anchor to the GPM international satellite mission to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational sensors to provide "next-generation" precipitation products [1-2]. GPM is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The unique 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 407 km for the GPM Core Observatory allows for highly sophisticated observations of precipitation in the mid-latitudes where a majority of the population lives. Indeed, the GOM Core Observatory serves as the cornerstone, as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of 8 or more dedicated and operational, U.S. and international passive microwave sensors. GPM's requirements are to measure rain rates from 0.2 to 110 mm/hr and to detect and estimate falling snow. GPM has several retrieval product levels ranging from raw instrument data to Core and partner swath precipitation estimates to gridded and accumulated products and finally to multi-satellite merged products. The latter merged product, called IMERG, is available with a 5-hour latency with temporal resolution of 30 minutes and spatial resolution of 0.1o x 0.1o (~10km x 10km) grid box. Some products have a 1-hour latency for societal applications such as floods, landslides, hurricanes, blizzards, and typhoons and all have late-latency high-quality science products. The GPM mission is well on its way to providing essential data on precipitation (rain and snow) from micro to local to global scales via providing precipitation

  15. Inter-comparison of precipitation retrievals from the Global Precipitation Measurement mission constellation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Chris; Matsui, Toshihisa; Randel, Dave; Stocker, Erich; Kummerow, Chris

    2015-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement mission (GPM) is an international satellite mission that brings together a number of different component satellites and sensors, each contributing observations capable of providing information on precipitation. The joint US-Japan core observatory, launched on 27 February 2014, carries the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR). The core observatory serves as a standard against which other sensors in the constellation are calibrated, providing a consistent observational dataset to ensure the highest quality precipitation retrievals to be made. Precipitation retrievals from the constellation of partner satellites are generated through the common framework of the Goddard-PROFiling (GPROF) scheme, and is applied to both the conically-scanning sensors and the cross-track sensors; the provision of precipitation estimates from all the constellation sensors contributing to the better-than 3-hour average temporal sampling. This study focuses upon the inter-comparison of the products from the different sensors during the first year of GPM operations; March 2014-February 2015. The two regions chosen for the inter-comparison, are the United States and Western Europe, and utilize the extensive radar networks of these regions. Statistical results were generated for instantaneous precipitation retrievals for each of the constellation sensors. Results show that overall the retrievals from the cross-track observations produce higher correlations with the surface radar data sets than the retrievals from the conically-scanning observations, although they tend to have higher root-mean squared errors. Some variation in performance between the individual types of sensors is also noted, which may be attributed to assumptions within the retrieval scheme (e.g. resolution, background fields, etc); other differences require further investigation.

  16. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Data and Services for Research and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, Dana; Teng, William; Kempler, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation is a critical component of the Earth's hydrological cycle. Launched on 27 November 1997, TRMM is a joint U.S.-Japan satellite mission to provide the first detailed and comprehensive data set of the four-dimensional distribution of rainfall and latent heating over vastly under-sampled tropical and subtropical oceans and continents (40 S - 40 N). Over the past 14 years, TRMM has been a major data source for meteorological, hydrological and other research and application activities around the world. The purpose of this short article is to inform that the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) provides TRMM archive and near-real-time precipitation data sets and services for research and applications. TRMM data consist of orbital data from TRMM instruments at the sensor s resolution, gridded data at a range of spatial and temporal resolutions, subsets, ground-based instrument data, and ancillary data. Data analysis, display, and delivery are facilitated by the following services: (1) Mirador (data search and access); (2) TOVAS (TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System); (3) OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol); (4) GrADS Data Server (GDS); and (5) Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) for the GIS community. Precipitation data application services are available to support a wide variety of applications around the world. Future plans include enhanced and new services to address data related issues from the user community. Meanwhile, the GES DISC is preparing for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission which is scheduled for launch in 2014.

  17. Power, Propulsion, and Communications for Microspacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroot, W. A.; Maloney, T. M.; Vanderaar, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    The development of small sized, low weight spacecraft should lead to reduced scientific mission costs by lowering fabrication and launch costs. An order of magnitude reduction in spacecraft size can be obtained by miniaturizing components. Additional reductions in spacecraft weight, size, and cost can be obtained by utilizing the synergy that exists between different spacecraft systems. The state-of-the-art of three major systems, spacecraft power, propulsion, and communications is discussed. Potential strategies to exploit the synergy between these systems and/or the payload are identified. Benefits of several of these synergies are discussed.

  18. TRMM Data from the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) DISC DAAC: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Tropical rainfall affects the lives and economies of a majority of the Earth's population. Tropical rain systems, such as hurricanes, typhoons, and monsoons, are crucial to sustaining the livelihoods of those living in the tropics. Excess rainfall can cause floods and great property and crop damage, whereas too little rainfall can cause drought and crop failure. The latent heat release during the process of precipitation is a major source of energy that drives the atmospheric circulation. This latent heat can intensify weather systems, affecting weather thousands of kilometers away, thus making tropical rainfall an important indicator of atmospheric circulation and short-term climate change. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan, provides visible, infrared, and microwave observations of tropical and subtropical rain systems. The satellite observations are complemented by ground radar and rain gauge measurements to validate satellite rain estimation techniques. Goddard Space Flight Center's involvement includes the observatory, four instruments, integration and testing of the observatory, data processing and distribution, and satellite operations. TRMM has a design lifetime of three years. It is currently in its fifth year of operation. Data generated from TRMM and archived at the GES DAAC are useful not only for hydrologists, atmospheric scientists, and climatologists, but also for the health community studying infectious diseases, the ocean research community, and the agricultural community.

  19. Measured and predicted pressure distributions on the AFTI/F-111 mission adaptive wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Lannie D.; Mccain, William E.; Rose, Lucinda A.

    1988-01-01

    Flight tests have been conducted using an F-111 aircraft modified with a mission adaptive wing (MAW). The MAW has variable-camber leading and trailing edge surfaces that can change the wing camber in flight, while preserving smooth upper surface contours. This paper contains wing surface pressure measurements obtained during flight tests at Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center. Upper and lower surface steady pressure distributions were measured along four streamwise rows of static pressure orifices on the right wing for a leading-edge sweep angle of 26 deg. The airplane, wing, instrumentation, and test conditions are discussed. Steady pressure results are presented for selected wing camber deflections flown at subsonic Mach numbers up to 0.90 and an angle-of-attack range of 5 to 12 deg. The Reynolds number was 26 million, based on the mean aerodynamic chord. The MAW flight data are compared to MAW wind tunnel data, transonic aircraft technology (TACT) flight data, and predicted pressure distributions. The results provide a unique database for a smooth, variable-camber, advanced supercritical wing.

  20. Lidar and Mission Parameter Trade Study of Space-Based Coherent Wind Measurement Centered on NASA's 2006 GWOS Wind Mission Study Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Frehlich, Rod G.

    2007-01-01

    The global measurement of vertical profiles of horizontal vector winds has been highly desired for many years by NASA, NOAA and the Integrated Program Office (IPO) implementing the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite Systems (NPOESS). Recently the global wind mission was one of 15 missions recommended to NASA by the first ever NRC Earth Sciences Decadal Survey. Since before 1978, the most promising method to make this space-based measurement has been pulsed Doppler lidar. The favored technology and technique has evolved over the years from obtaining line-of-sight (LOS) wind profiles from a single laser shot using pulsed CO2 gas laser technology to the current plans to use both a coherent-detection and direct-detection pulsed Doppler wind lidar systems with each lidar employing multiple shot accumulation to produce an LOS wind profile. The idea of using two lidars (hybrid concept) entails coherent detection using the NASA LaRC-developed pulsed 2-micron solid state laser technology, and direct detection using pulsed Nd:YAG laser technology tripled in frequency to 355 nm wavelength.

  1. Leveraging synergy for multiple agent infotaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Gintautas, Vadas; Hagberg, Aric A; Bettencourt, Luis M A

    2008-01-01

    Social computation, whether in the form of a search performed by a swarm of agents or the predictions of markets, often supplies remarkably good solutions to complex problems, which often elude the best experts. There is an intuition, built upon many anecdotal examples, that pervading principles are at play that allow individuals trying to solve a problem locally to aggregate their information to arrive at an outcome superior than any available to isolated parties. Here we show that the general structure of this problem can be cast in terms of information theory and derive general mathematical conditions for information sharing and coordination that lead to optimal multi-agent searches. Specifically we illustrate the problem in terms of the construction of local search algorithms for autonomous agents looking for the spatial location of a stochastic source. We explore the types of search problems -defined in terms of the properties of the source and the nature of measurements at each sensor -for which coordination among multiple searchers yields an advantage beyond that gained by having the same number of independent searchers. We assert that effective coordination corresponds to synergy and that ineffective coordination corresponds to redundancy as defined using information theory. We classify explicit types of sources in terms of their potential for synergy. We show that sources that emit uncorrelated particles based on a Poisson process, provide no opportunity for synergetic coordination while others, particularly sources that emit correlated signals, do allow for strong synergy between searchers. These general considerations are crucial for designing optimal algorithms for particular search problems in real world settings.

  2. Assessment and Mission Planning Capability For Quantitative Aerothermodynamic Flight Measurements Using Remote Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas; Splinter, Scott; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wood, William; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin

    2008-01-01

    High resolution calibrated infrared imagery of vehicles during hypervelocity atmospheric entry or sustained hypersonic cruise has the potential to provide flight data on the distribution of surface temperature and the state of the airflow over the vehicle. In the early 1980 s NASA sought to obtain high spatial resolution infrared imagery of the Shuttle during entry. Despite mission execution with a technically rigorous pre-planning capability, the single airborne optical system for this attempt was considered developmental and the scientific return was marginal. In 2005 the Space Shuttle Program again sponsored an effort to obtain imagery of the Orbiter. Imaging requirements were targeted towards Shuttle ascent; companion requirements for entry did not exist. The engineering community was allowed to define observation goals and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved measurement capability over a series of flights. These imaging opportunities were extremely beneficial and clearly demonstrated capability to capture infrared imagery with mature and operational assets of the US Navy and the Missile Defense Agency. While successful, the usefulness of the imagery was, from an engineering perspective, limited. These limitations were mainly associated with uncertainties regarding operational aspects of data acquisition. These uncertainties, in turn, came about because of limited pre-flight mission planning capability, a poor understanding of several factors including the infrared signature of the Shuttle, optical hardware limitations, atmospheric effects and detector response characteristics. Operational details of sensor configuration such as detector integration time and tracking system algorithms were carried out ad hoc (best practices) which led to low probability of target acquisition and detector saturation. Leveraging from the qualified success during Return-to-Flight, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsored an

  3. The scheme of LLSST based on inter-satellite link for planet gravity field measurement in deep-space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yikang; Li, Xue; Liu, Lei

    2009-12-01

    Gravity field measurement for the interested planets and their moos in solar system, such as Luna and Mars, is one important task in the next step of deep-space mission. In this paper, Similar to GRACE mission, LLSST and DOWR technology of common-orbit master-slave satellites around task planet is inherited in this scheme. Furthermore, by intersatellite 2-way UQPSK-DSSS link, time synchronization and data processing are implemented autonomously by masterslave satellites instead of GPS and ground facilities supporting system. Conclusion is derived that the ISL DOWR based on 2-way incoherent time synchronization has the same precise level to GRACE DOWR based on GPS time synchronization. Moreover, because of inter-satellite link, the proposed scheme is rather autonomous for gravity field measurement of the task planet in deep-space mission.

  4. Synergy for a Strong Future FY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Devore, L; Chrzanowski, P

    2008-11-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC is committed to delivering the best combination of scientific research, technology development, business management, and safe, secure operations in support of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's critical national security mission. LLNS was formed specifically to manage LLNL for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration. LLNS consists of a team of five organizations renowned for their expertise and accomplishments throughout the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and beyond - Bechtel National, University of California, Babcock & Wilcox, Washington Division of URS Corporation, and Battelle. Bechtel is the nation's largest engineering and construction firm and a leader in project management. The University of California is the world's largest public research institution. Babcock & Wilcox and the Washington Division of URS Corporation are top nuclear facilities contractors and between them manage four of DOE's five safest sites. Battelle is a global leader in science and technology development and commercialization. The LLNS Board of Governors provides oversight for the management of the Laboratory and holds the Director and LLNS President responsible for the Laboratory's performance. The Board has seven standing committees that assist in assessing Laboratory performance and monitoring risks and internal controls. Through the Board of Governors, the Laboratory can reach back to LLNS partner organizations to help ensure that it fulfills its national security mission with excellence in scientific research, technology development, business management, and safe, secure operations. LLNS assumed management of LLNL on October 1, 2007. This report highlights LLNS accomplishments in FY2008, its first year as the Laboratory's managing contractor. It is clear that LLNS and the Laboratory have exploited numerous synergies inherent in their relationship - for example, science and engineering, mission and operations

  5. Synergy between middle infrared and millimetre-wave limb sounding of atmospheric temperature and minor constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortesi, U.; Del Bianco, S.; Ceccherini, S.; Gai, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Castelli, E.; Oelhaf, H.; Woiwode, W.; Höpfner, M.; Gerber, D.

    2015-11-01

    Synergistic exploitation of redundant and complementary information from independent observations of the same target remains a major issue in atmospheric remote-sounding and increasing attention is devoted to investigate optimised or innovative methods for the combination of two or more measured data sets. This paper is focusing on the synergy between middle infrared and millimetre-wave limb sounding measurements of atmospheric composition and temperature and reports the results of a study conducted as part of the preparatory activities of the PREMIER (Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre wave Emitted Radiation) mission candidate to the Core Missions of ESA Earth Explorer 7. The activity was based on data acquired by the MIPAS-STR (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - STRatospheric aircraft) and MARSCHALS (Millimetre-wave Airborne Receivers for Spectroscopic CHaracterisation in Atmospheric Limb Sounding) instruments onboard the high altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysica during the flight of the PremierEx (PREMIER Experiment) campaign on 10 March 2010 from Kiruna, Sweden for observation of the Arctic upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The cloud coverage observed along the flight provided representative test cases to evaluate the synergy in three different scenarios: low clouds in the first part, no clouds in the central part and high tropospheric clouds at the end. The calculation of synergistic profiles of four atmospheric targets (i.e., O2, HNO3, H2O and temperature) was performed using a posteriori combination of individual retrieved profiles, i.e., Level 2 (L2) data rather than simultaneous inverse processing of observed radiances, i.e., Level 1 (L1) data. An innovative method of data fusion, based on the Measurement Space Solution (MSS) was applied along with the standard approach of inverse processing of MARSCHALS spectral radiances using MIPAS-STR retrieval products as a priori information (L1

  6. Synergy between middle infrared and millimeter-wave limb sounding of atmospheric temperature and minor constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortesi, Ugo; Del Bianco, Samuele; Ceccherini, Simone; Gai, Marco; Dinelli, Bianca Maria; Castelli, Elisa; Oelhaf, Hermann; Woiwode, Wolfgang; Höpfner, Michael; Gerber, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Synergistic exploitation of redundant and complementary information from independent observations of the same target remains a major issue in atmospheric remote sounding and increasing attention is devoted to investigate optimized or innovative methods for the combination of two or more measured data sets. This paper focuses on the synergy between middle infrared and millimeter-wave limb sounding measurements of atmospheric composition and temperature and reports the results of a study conducted as part of the preparatory activities of the PREMIER (Process Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimeter-wave Emitted Radiation) mission candidate to the Core Missions of the European Space Agency (ESA) Earth Explorer 7. The activity was based on data acquired by the MIPAS-STR (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - STRatospheric aircraft) and MARSCHALS (Millimetre-wave Airborne Receivers for Spectroscopic CHaracterisation in Atmospheric Limb Sounding) instruments on-board the high-altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysica during the flight of the PremierEx (PREMIER Experiment) campaign on 10 March 2010 from Kiruna, Sweden, for observation of the Arctic upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The cloud coverage observed along the flight provided representative test cases to evaluate the synergy in three different scenarios: low clouds in the first part, no clouds in the central part and high tropospheric clouds at the end. The calculation of synergistic profiles of four atmospheric targets (i.e., O3, HNO3, H2O and temperature) was performed using a posteriori combination of individual retrieved profiles, i.e., Level 2 (L2) data rather than simultaneous inversion of observed radiances, i.e., Level 1 (L1) data. An innovative method of data fusion, based on the Measurement Space Solution (MSS) was applied along with the standard approach of inversion of MARSCHALS spectral radiances using MIPAS-STR retrieval products as a priori

  7. Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the ICESat Mission: Initial Science Measurement Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Sun, Xiaoli; Riris, Haris; Sirota, Marcos; McGarry, J.; Palm, Steve

    2003-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System is the space lidar on the NASA ICESat mission. Its design combines an altimeter with 5 cm precision with a laser pointing angle determination system and a dual wavelength cloud and aerosol lidar. GLAS measures the range to the Earth s surface with 1064 nm laser pulses. Each laser pulse produces a precision pointing measurement from the stellar reference system (SRS) and an echo pulse waveform, which permits range determination and waveform spreading analysis. The single shot ranging accuracy is < 10 cm for ice surfaces with slopes < 2 degrees. GLAS also measures atmospheric backscatter profiles at both 1064 and 532 nm. The 1064 nm measurements use an analog Si APD detector and measure the height and profile the backscatter signal from thicker clouds. The measurements at 532 nm use photon counting detectors, and will measure the vertical height distributions of optically thin clouds and aerosol layers Before launch, the measurement performance of GLAS was evaluated using a lidar test instrument called the Bench Check Equipment (BCE). The BCE was developed in parallel with GLAS and served as an inverse altimeter, inverse lidar and a stellar source simulator. It was used to simulate the range of expected optical inputs to the GLAS receiver by illuminating its telescope with simulated background light as well as laser echoes with known powers, energy levels, widths and delay times. The BCE also allowed monitoring of the transmitted laser energy, the angle measurements of the SRS, the co-alignment of the transmitted laser beam to the receiver line of sight, and performance of the flight science algorithms. Performance was evaluated during the GLAS development, before and after environmental tests, and after delivery to the spacecraft. The ICESat observatory was launched into a 94 degree inclination, 590 km altitude circular polar orbit on January 12,2003. Beginning in early February, GLAS was powered on tested in stages. Its 1064 nm

  8. Aqueous history of Mars as inferred from landed mission measurements of rocks, soils, and water ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    2016-09-01

    The missions that have operated on the surface of Mars acquired data that complement observations acquired from orbit and provide information that would not have been acquired without surface measurements. Data from the Viking Landers demonstrated that soils have basaltic compositions, containing minor amounts of salts and one or more strong oxidants. Pathfinder with its rover confirmed that the distal portion of Ares Vallis is the site of flood-deposited boulders. Spirit found evidence for hydrothermal deposits surrounding the Home Plate volcanoclastic feature. Opportunity discovered that the hematite signature on Meridiani Planum as seen from orbit is due to hematitic concretions concentrated on the surface as winds eroded sulfate-rich sandstones that dominate the Burns formation. The sandstones originated as playa muds that were subsequently reworked by wind and rising groundwater. Opportunity also found evidence on the rim of the Noachian Endurance Crater for smectites, with extensive leaching along fractures. Curiosity acquired data at the base of Mount Sharp in Gale Crater that allows reconstruction of a sustained fluvial-deltaic-lacustrine system prograding into the crater. Smectites and low concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons have been identified in the lacustrine deposits. Phoenix, landing above the Arctic Circle, found icy soils, along with low concentrations of perchlorate salt. Perchlorate is considered to be a strong candidate for the oxidant found by the Viking Landers. It is also a freezing point depressant and may play a role in allowing brines to exist at and beneath the surface in more modern periods of time on Mars.

  9. A pose and position measurement system for the Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balch, Michael; Tandy, Dave

    2007-04-01

    As NASA develops the new space explorations systems required for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) also known as ORION, there is a growing need for hardware and algorithms to support Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) technology for both manned and unmanned flights. A new definition of space hardware is also emerging based on reconfigurable computing. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed a high processing bandwidth hardware platform based on the latest Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology. This platform, called SpaceCube, incorporates the processing power of immersed PowerPC core technology with an extremely flexible I/O capability. The result is an adaptable, reconfigurable computing platform well suited for hosting computationally intensive AR&D algorithms. Advanced Optical Systems, Inc. (AOS) has developed several electro-optical sensor systems for both NASA and the Department of Defense. ULTOR ® is one such sensor technology, developed for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) in missile guidance systems. AOS has applied ULTOR ® to target position and attitude measurements in space, commonly referred to as pose estimation. Under GSFC funding, AOS has successfully integrated ULTOR ® into the SpaceCube platform. GSFC plans to demonstrate on-station pose estimation using the integrated ULTOR ® SpaceCube system on the next shuttle mission to the service the Hubble Space Telescope.

  10. Space weathering of primitive bodies: From laboratory measurements to space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, Cateline; Brunetto, Rosario; Barucci, Maria Antonieta; Fornasier, Sonia; Clark, Beth Ellen; Binzel, Richard; Fulchignoni, Marcello

    2016-10-01

    Space weathering (SpWe) is a combination of micrometeorite bombardment and irradiation by energetic particles leading to surface alterations of airless bodies and affecting their reflectance spectra. Numerous studies have been made on S-type asteroids, including laboratory experiments on silicate materials and a direct confirmation measured on Itokawa grains showing darkening and reddening trends. Few results have been obtained for C-types, no general trend has been found. In order to understand the influence of SpWe on primitive asteroids, we present an experimental study on ion irradiation of carbonaceous chondrites, simulating solar wind. The goal of our work is to better constrain the SpWe processes of low albedo objects and to develop a model that will also support sample return missions (OSIRIS-REx/NASA and Hayabusa-2/JAXA).The irradiations were performed on pressed pellets of several CC types, as well as on some silicate samples. We used 40 keV He+ with fluences up to 6.1016 ions/cm2. Reflectance spectra were acquired ex situ before and after irradiations in the visible to mid-infrared range (0.4 – 16 µm). In the MIR range, we observe a shift of the phyllosilicates (near 3 and 10 µm) and silicates (near 10 µm) bands toward longer wavelength. In the visible-NIR range, we confirm the red/dark trends on silicates, but CCs present a continuum of behaviors after ion irradiation correlated with the initial albedo/composition: from red to blue and from dark to bright.We propose a model for SpWe effects on low albedo objects, showing that those with initial albedo between 5 and 9 % do not suffer SpWe effects in the visible range.These new spectral alterations due to SpWe can be used by future and ongoing space missions to detect pristine/altered materials. To do so, we have started looking at VIR data on Ceres. Craters are ideal for this purpose as they expose both old and young surfaces in the same area. We have been looking at HAMO data on several craters

  11. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-89: Launched January 22, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrovat, Kenneth; McPherson, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Support of microgravity research on the 89th flight of the Space Transportation System (STS-89) and a continued effort to characterize the acceleration environment of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and the Mir Space Station form the basis for this report. For the STS-89 mission, the Space Shuttle Endeavour was equipped with a Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) unit, which collected more than a week's worth of data. During docked operations with Mir, a second SAMS unit collected approximately a day's worth of data yielding the only set of acceleration measurements recorded simultaneously on the two spacecraft. Based on the data acquired by these SAMS units, this report serves to characterize a number of acceleration events and quantify their impact on the local nature of the accelerations experienced at the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment location. Crew activity was shown to nearly double the median root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration level calculated below 10 Hz, while the Enhanced Orbiter Refrigerator/Freezer operating at about 22 Hz was a strong acceleration source in the vicinity of the MGM location. The MGM science requirement that the acceleration not exceed q I mg was violated numerous times during their experiment runs; however, no correlation with sample instability has been found to this point. Synchronization between the SAMS data from Endeavour and from Mir was shown to be close much of the time, but caution with respect to exact timing should be exercised when comparing these data. When orbiting as a separate vehicle prior to docking, Endeavour had prominent structural modes above 3 Hz, while Mir exhibited a cluster of modes around 1 Hz. When mated, a transition to common modes was apparent in the two SAMS data sets. This report is not a comprehensive analysis of the acceleration data, so those interested in further details should contact the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services team at the National Aeronautics and Space

  12. Measuring Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide from Space: The GOSAT and OCO-2 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) is providing new insight into atmospheric carbon dioxide trends. The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)Mission will build on this record with increased sensitivity resolution, and coverage.

  13. Simulation of Meteosat Third Generation-Lightning Imager through tropical rainfall measuring mission: Lightning Imaging Sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biron, Daniele; De Leonibus, Luigi; Laquale, Paolo; Labate, Demetrio; Zauli, Francesco; Melfi, Davide

    2008-08-01

    The Centro Nazionale di Meteorologia e Climatologia Aeronautica recently hosted a fellowship sponsored by Galileo Avionica, with the intent to study and perform a simulation of Meteosat Third Generation - Lightning Imager (MTG-LI) sensor behavior through Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - Lightning Imaging Sensor data (TRMM-LIS). For the next generation of earth observation geostationary satellite, major operating agencies are planning to insert an optical imaging mission, that continuously observes lightning pulses in the atmosphere; EUMETSAT has decided in recent years that one of the three candidate mission to be flown on MTG is LI, a Lightning Imager. MTG-LI mission has no Meteosat Second Generation heritage, but users need to evaluate the possible real time data output of the instrument to agree in inserting it on MTG payload. Authors took the expected LI design from MTG Mission Requirement Document, and reprocess real lightning dataset, acquired from space by TRMM-LIS instrument, to produce a simulated MTG-LI lightning dataset. The simulation is performed in several run, varying Minimum Detectable Energy, taking into account processing steps from event detection to final lightning information. A definition of the specific meteorological requirements is given from the potential use in meteorology of lightning final information for convection estimation and numerical cloud modeling. Study results show the range of instrument requirements relaxation which lead to minimal reduction in the final lightning information.

  14. Understanding Human Motion Skill with Peak Timing Synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Ken; Furukawa, Koichi

    The careful observation of motion phenomena is important in understanding the skillful human motion. However, this is a difficult task due to the complexities in timing when dealing with the skilful control of anatomical structures. To investigate the dexterity of human motion, we decided to concentrate on timing with respect to motion, and we have proposed a method to extract the peak timing synergy from multivariate motion data. The peak timing synergy is defined as a frequent ordered graph with time stamps, which has nodes consisting of turning points in motion waveforms. A proposed algorithm, PRESTO automatically extracts the peak timing synergy. PRESTO comprises the following 3 processes: (1) detecting peak sequences with polygonal approximation; (2) generating peak-event sequences; and (3) finding frequent peak-event sequences using a sequential pattern mining method, generalized sequential patterns (GSP). Here, we measured right arm motion during the task of cello bowing and prepared a data set of the right shoulder and arm motion. We successfully extracted the peak timing synergy on cello bowing data set using the PRESTO algorithm, which consisted of common skills among cellists and personal skill differences. To evaluate the sequential pattern mining algorithm GSP in PRESTO, we compared the peak timing synergy by using GSP algorithm and the one by using filtering by reciprocal voting (FRV) algorithm as a non time-series method. We found that the support is 95 - 100% in GSP, while 83 - 96% in FRV and that the results by GSP are better than the one by FRV in the reproducibility of human motion. Therefore we show that sequential pattern mining approach is more effective to extract the peak timing synergy than non-time series analysis approach.

  15. New discoveries enabled by OMI SO2 measurements and future missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay

    2010-05-01

    -sulfur coal in its many coal-fired power plants. Recently, China's government has instituted nationwide measures to control SO2 emissions through the adoption of flue-gas desulfurization technology (FGD) on new power plants; and even greater measures were adopted in the Beijing area in anticipation of the Olympic Games. We demonstrate that the OMI can pick up both SO2 and NO2 emissions from large point sources in northern China, where large increases in both gases were observed from 2005 to 2007, over areas with newly established power plants. The OMI SO2/NO2 ratio generally agrees with the estimated emission factors for coal-fired power plants based on a bottom-up approach. Between 2007 and 2008, OMI detected little change in NO2 but dramatic decline in SO2 over the same areas. While the almost constant NO2 levels between the two years imply steady electricity generation from the power plants, the large reduction in SO2 confirms the effectiveness of the FGD units, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. Further development of satellite detection and monitoring of point pollution sources requires better than 10km ground resolution. We show how planned Dutch /ESA TROPOMI and NASA GEOCape missions will advance the art of measuring point source emissions in coming decade.

  16. Analysis of rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hye-Kyung

    The properties of tropical precipitation are investigated by estimating the probability density function (PDF) of rain rates using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. The gamma and lognormal distributions are utilized to fit the observed precipitation data. The minimum chi2 method is employed to a find a generalized PDF to represent each location and the resulting chi2 values are used to compare the performance. The two test functions both match the TRMM rain rates well, but the gamma outperforms the lognormal distribution in rainy regions, while the reverse is true in dry regions. Compared with the sample means, the parametric means from the fitted lognormal distributions overestimate and the gamma distributions underestimate. Constraining the shape of the distribution can decrease the difference between the sample means and the parametric mean from the gamma distribution significantly, although the chi2 values increase slightly. Tropical wave characteristics are investigated using the TRMM rainfall and the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data. By using space-time cross-section analysis, lagged correlations, and space-time spectral analysis, wave modes are detected and their seasonal evolution and regional preferences are investigated. The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and tropical depression (TD)-type disturbances are observed, as are waves that can be theoretically interpreted as linear equatorial waves. The cross-spectrum analysis indicates coherent wave variations in both OLR and rainfall fields. The asynoptic TRMM data may be contaminated by the diurnal cycle. Combining TRMM data with other satellites is desirable to avoid aliasing of the TRMM data.

  17. The Status of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) after 2 Years in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerow, C.; Simpson, J.; Thiele, O.; Barnes, W.; Chang, A. T. C.; Stocker, E.; Adler, R. F.; Hou, A.; Kakar, R.; Wentz, F.

    1999-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was launched on November 27, 1997, and data from all the instruments first became available approximately 30 days after launch. Since then, much progress has been made in the calibration of the sensors, the improvement of the rainfall algorithms, in related modeling applications and in new datasets tailored specifically for these applications. This paper reports the latest results regarding the calibration of the TRMM Microwave Imager, (TMI), Precipitation Radar (PR) and Visible and Infrared Sensor (VIRS). For the TMI, a new product is in place that corrects for a still unknown source of radiation leaking in to the TMI receiver. The PR calibration has been adjusted upward slightly (by 0.6 dBZ) to better match ground reference targets, while the VIRS calibration remains largely unchanged. In addition to the instrument calibration, great strides have been made with the rainfall algorithms as well, with the new rainfall products agreeing with each other to within less than 20% over monthly zonally averaged statistics. The TRMM Science Data and Information System (TSDIS) has responded equally well by making a number of new products, including real-time and fine resolution gridded rainfall fields available to the modeling community. The TRMM Ground Validation (GV) program is also responding with improved radar calibration techniques and rainfall algorithms to provide more accurate GV products which will be further enhanced with the new multiparameter 10 cm radar being developed for TRMM validation and precipitation studies. Progress in these various areas has, in turn, led to exciting new developments in the modeling area where Data Assimilation, and Weather Forecast models are showing dramatic improvements after the assimilation of observed rainfall fields.

  18. Global Elemental Maps of the Moon Using Gamma Rays Measured by the Kaguya (SELENE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, Robert C.; Hasebe, N.; Yamashita, N.; Karouji, Y.; Kobayashi, S.; Hareyama, M.; Hayatsu, K.; Okudaira, O.; Kobayashi, M.; d'Uston, C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Diez, B.; Kim, K.

    2009-09-01

    The Kaguya spacecraft was in a circular polar lunar orbit from 17 October 2007 until 10 June 2009 as part of JAXA's SELENE lunar exploration program. Among the 13 instruments, an advanced gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) studied the distributions of many elements. The gamma rays were from the decay of the naturally-radioactive elements K, Th, and U and from cosmic-ray interactions with H, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and other elements. They are emitted from the top few tens of centimeters of the lunar surface. The main detector of the GRS was high-purity germanium, which was surrounded by bismuth germanate and plastic scintillators to reduce backgrounds. Gamma-ray spectra were sent to the Earth every 17 seconds (1 degree of the lunar surface) with energies from 0-12 MeV. These spectra were adjusted to a standard gain and then summed over many lunar regions. Background spectra were also determined. Over 200 gamma rays have been observed, with most being backgrounds but many being from the lunar surface, an order more gamma rays than from any previous lunar GRS missions. Elemental results have been determined for K, Th, and U. Results for K and Th are consistent with those from the GRS on Apollo and Lunar Prospector. The first lunar global maps for U have been determined. These 3 elements show strong correlations among themselves, which implies that the Moon is homogeneous in these elements over the entire Moon. Their elemental ratios agree well with those measured in lunar samples and meteorites. Preliminary maps for Fe are consistent with earlier maps. Other elements, including O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, are being mapped, and their distributions vary over the lunar surface and appear consistent with previous lunar elemental results. This work was supported by JAXA, NASA, and CNRS, France.

  19. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-79. Launched 16 Sep. 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Moskowitz, Milton E.; Hrovat, Kenneth; Reckart, Timothy A.

    1997-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) collected acceleration data in support of the Mechanics of Granular Materials experiment during the STS-79 Mir docking mission, September 1996. STS-79 was the first opportunity to record SAMS data on an Orbiter while it was docked to Mir. Crew exercise activities in the Atlantis middeck and the Mir base module are apparent in the data. The acceleration signals related to the Enhanced Orbiter Refrigerator Freezer had different characteristics when comparing the data recorded on Atlantis on STS-79 with the data recorded on Mir during STS-74. This is probably due, at least in part, to different transmission paths and SAMS sensor head mounting mechanisms. Data collected on Atlantis during the STS-79 docking indicate that accelerations due to vehicle and solar array structural modes from Mir transfer to Atlantis and that the structural modes of the Atlantis-Mir complex are different from those of either vehicle independently. A 0.18 Hz component of the SAMS data, present while the two vehicles were docked, was probably caused by the Mir solar arrays. Compared to Atlantis structural modes of about 3.9 and 4.9 Hz, the Atlantis-Mir complex has structural components of about 4.5 and 5.1 Hz. After docking, apparent structural modes appeared in the data at about 0.8 and 1.8 Hz. The appearance, disappearance, and change in the structural modes during the docking and undocking phases of the joint Atlantis-Mir operations indicates that the structural modes of the two spacecraft have an effect on the microgravity environment of each other. The transfer of structural and equipment related accelerations between vehicles is something that should be considered in the International Space Station era.

  20. ATLAS-2 and UARS correlative measurement opportunities during Space Shuttle mission on April 8-17, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Edwin F.; Denn, Fred M.; Gibson, Gary G.

    1993-01-01

    The second ATmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-2) mission was flown aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery from 8-17 Apr. 1993. The nighttime launch at 0529 Greenwich Mean Time provided maximum solar occultation sunrise coverage of the northern latitudes by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument. The ATLAS-2 Earth-viewing instruments provided a large number of measurements which were nearly coincident with observations from experiments on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Based on instrument operating schedules during the ATLAS-2 mission, simulations were performed to determine when and where correlative measurements between ATLAS and UARS instruments occurred. Results of these orbital and instrument simulations provide valuable information for the ATLAS and UARS scientists to compare measurements between various instruments on the two satellites.

  1. Airborne Polarimetric, Two-Color Laser Altimeter Measurements of Lake Ice Cover: A Pathfinder for NASA's ICESat-2 Spaceflight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David; Dabney, Philip; Valett, Susan; Yu, Anthony; Vasilyev, Aleksey; Kelly, April

    2011-01-01

    The ICESat-2 mission will continue NASA's spaceflight laser altimeter measurements of ice sheets, sea ice and vegetation using a new measurement approach: micropulse, single photon ranging at 532 nm. Differential penetration of green laser energy into snow, ice and water could introduce errors in sea ice freeboard determination used for estimation of ice thickness. Laser pulse scattering from these surface types, and resulting range biasing due to pulse broadening, is assessed using SIMPL airborne data acquired over icecovered Lake Erie. SIMPL acquires polarimetric lidar measurements at 1064 and 532 nm using the micropulse, single photon ranging measurement approach.

  2. On the sensitivity of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager channels to overland rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yalei; Liu, Guosheng; Wang, Yu; Cao, Jie

    2011-06-01

    The response of brightness temperatures at different microwave frequencies to overland precipitation is investigated by using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) and Microwave Imager (TMI) data. The Spearman correlation coefficients between observations at TMI channels or channel combinations and PR-measured near-surface rain are computed using 3 years of TRMM data. The results showed that the brightness temperature combinations from 19 and 37 GHz, that is, V19-V37 (the letter V denotes vertical polarization, and the numbers denote frequency in GHz) or V21-V37, can explain ˜10% more variance of near-surface rainfall rate than can the V85 brightness temperature. Also, the global distribution of the above correlation revealed that over almost all of the tropical land area covered by TRMM satellite, the V19-V37 channel has a closer response to the overland rainfall than does the V85 channel. This result is somewhat counterintuitive, because it has been long believed that the dominant signature of overland rainfall is the brightness temperature depression caused by ice scattering at high microwave frequencies (e.g., 85 GHz). To understand the underlying physics of this better low-frequency response, data analysis and radiative transfer modeling have been conducted to assess the influence on brightness temperatures from clouds with different ice and liquid water partitions. The results showed that under the condition of low frozen water and medium liquid water in the atmospheric column, the signal from the V19-V37 channel responded better to rainfall rate than did the one from the V85 channel. A plausible explanation to this result is that in addition to ice scattering signature, the V19-V37 channel contains liquid water information as well, which is more directly related to surface rain than to ice water aloft. At heavy rainfall conditions, the V19-V37, V37, and V85 channels all are correlated with near-surface rain reasonably well

  3. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Distributions and Properties during the NASA DISCOVER-AQ Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Scarino, A. J.; Burton, S. P.; Harper, D. B.; Cook, A. L.; Berkoff, T.; Rogers, R. R.; Seaman, S. T.; Fenn, M. A.; Sawamura, P.; Clayton, M.; Mueller, D.; Chemyakin, E.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crawford, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars, HSRL-1 and HSRL-2, were deployed for the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) missions. DISCOVER-AQ provided systematic and concurrent observations of column-integrated, surface, and vertically-resolved distributions of aerosols and trace gases to improve the interpretation of satellite observations related to air quality. HSRL-1, deployed during the first DISCOVER-AQ mission over the Washington DC-Baltimore region, measured profiles of aerosol backscatter and depolarization (532, 1064 nm) and aerosol extinction and optical thickness (AOT) (532 nm). HSRL-2, the first airborne multiwavelength HSRL, was deployed for the following three DISCOVER-AQ missions over the California Central Valley, Houston, and Denver. HSRL-2 measures profiles of aerosol backscatter and depolarization (355, 532, 1064 nm) and aerosol extinction and AOT (355, 532 nm). Additional HSRL-2 data products include aerosol type, mixed layer depth, and range-resolved aerosol microphysical parameters. The HSRL measurements reveal the temporal, spatial, and vertical variability of aerosol optical properties over these locations. HSRL measurements show that surface PM2.5 concentrations were better correlated with near surface aerosol extinction than AOT scaled by the mixed layer height. During the missions over Washington DC-Baltimore, Houston, and Denver, only about 20-65% of AOT was within the mixed layer. In contrast, nearly all of the AOT was within the mixed layer over the California Central Valley. HSRL-2 retrievals of aerosol fine mode volume concentration and effective radius compare well with coincident airborne in situ measurements and vary with relative humidity. HSRL-2 retrievals of aerosol fine mode volume concentration were also used to derive PM2.5 concentrations which compare well with surface PM2.5 measurements.

  4. Verification of Satellite Rainfall Estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission over Ground Validation Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, B. L.; Wolff, D. B.; Silberstein, D. S.; Marks, D. M.; Pippitt, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Ground Validation (GV) Program was originally established with the principal long-term goal of determining the random errors and systematic biases stemming from the application of the TRMM rainfall algorithms. The GV Program has been structured around two validation strategies: 1) determining the quantitative accuracy of the integrated monthly rainfall products at GV regional sites over large areas of about 500 km2 using integrated ground measurements and 2) evaluating the instantaneous satellite and GV rain rate statistics at spatio-temporal scales compatible with the satellite sensor resolution (Simpson et al. 1988, Thiele 1988). The GV Program has continued to evolve since the launch of the TRMM satellite on November 27, 1997. This presentation will discuss current GV methods of validating TRMM operational rain products in conjunction with ongoing research. The challenge facing TRMM GV has been how to best utilize rain information from the GV system to infer the random and systematic error characteristics of the satellite rain estimates. A fundamental problem of validating space-borne rain estimates is that the true mean areal rainfall is an ideal, scale-dependent parameter that cannot be directly measured. Empirical validation uses ground-based rain estimates to determine the error characteristics of the satellite-inferred rain estimates, but ground estimates also incur measurement errors and contribute to the error covariance. Furthermore, sampling errors, associated with the discrete, discontinuous temporal sampling by the rain sensors aboard the TRMM satellite, become statistically entangled in the monthly estimates. Sampling errors complicate the task of linking biases in the rain retrievals to the physics of the satellite algorithms. The TRMM Satellite Validation Office (TSVO) has made key progress towards effective satellite validation. For disentangling the sampling and retrieval errors, TSVO has developed

  5. Photolysis frequency measurements using actinic flux spectroradiometry during the PEM-Tropics mission: Instrumentation description and some results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetter, Richard E.; Müller, Martin

    1999-03-01

    The in situ photolysis frequencies for 11 molecules were determined using new actinic flux spectroradiometer systems mounted on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the Pacific Exploratory Mission (PEM)-Tropics mission. Photolysis frequencies for O3, NO2, HONO, CH2O, H2O2, CH3OOH, HNO3, PAN, CH3NO3, CH3CH2NO3, and acetone were calculated from the 30 s averaged actinic flux measurements. The accuracy of the actinic flux measurements was approximately ±11.5% in the UV-B range and 8% in the UV-A range. Uncertainties of the reported photolysis frequencies vary between ±15% and ±20% dependent on the quality of the molecular absorption cross section and quantum yield data. Approximately 139 hours of data were taken during 17 flights over the Pacific Ocean, and photolysis frequencies have been reported to the mission archive. During the mission, latitudes range from 45°N to 72.5°S, the longitude ranges from 10°W to 173°E, and the altitude ranges from sea level to 11.9 km. The geographical extents covered, combined with local times from sunrise to sunset, encompass solar zenith angles between 1° and >90° resulting in a broad range of photolysis frequencies. Persistent scattered clouds created photolysis frequency enhancements of approximately a factor of 2 over clear-sky values and reductions of greater than 90% of clear-sky values for portions of the mission.

  6. The instrument on NASA's GRACE Mission: Augmentation of GPS to achieve unprecedented gravity field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, C.; Bertiger, W.; Franklin, G.; Harris, I.; Kruizinga, G.; Meehan, T.; Nandi, S.; Nguyen, D.; Rogstad, T.; Thomas, J. B.; Tien, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will describe the design and on-orbit performance of the GRACE Instrument Processing Unit (IPU) that integrates most of the critical science functions required by the GRACE mission to perform its gravity science and atmospheric radio occultation tasks.

  7. Visualization of Space-Time Ambiguities to be Explored by NASA GEC Mission with a Critique of Synthesized Measurements for Different GEC Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sojka, Jan J.

    2003-01-01

    The Grant supported research addressing the question of how the NASA Solar Terrestrial Probes (STP) Mission called Geospace electrodynamics Connections (GEC) will resolve space-time structures as well as collect sufficient information to solve the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere- magnetosphere dynamics and electrodynamics. The approach adopted was to develop a high resolution in both space and time model of the ionosphere-thermosphere (I-T) over altitudes relevant to GEC, especially the deep-dipping phase. This I-T model was driven by a high- resolution model of magnetospheric-ionospheric (M-I) coupling electrodynamics. Such a model contains all the key parameters to be measured by GEC instrumentation, which in turn are the required parameters to resolve present-day problems in describing the energy and momentum coupling between the ionosphere-magnetosphere and ionosphere-thermosphere. This model database has been successfully created for one geophysical condition; winter, solar maximum with disturbed geophysical conditions, specifically a substorm. Using this data set, visualizations (movies) were created to contrast dynamics of the different measurable parameters. Specifically, the rapidly varying magnetospheric E and auroral electron precipitation versus the slower varying ionospheric F-region electron density, but rapidly responding E-region density.

  8. Space Propulsion Synergy Group ETO technology assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, James

    The Space Propulsion Synergy Group (SPSG), which was chartered to support long-range strategic planning, has, using a broad industry/government team, evaluated and achieved consensus on the vehicles, propulsion systems, and propulsion technologies that have the best long-term potential for achieving desired system attributes. The breakthrough that enabled broad consensus was developing criteria that are measurable a priori. The SPSG invented a dual prioritization approach that balances long-term strategic thrusts with current programmatic constraints. This enables individual program managers to make decisions based on both individual project needs and long-term strategic needs. Results indicate that an SSTO using an integrated modular engine has the best long-term potential for a 20 Klb class vehicle, and that health monitoring and control technologies are among the highest dual priority liquid rocket technologies.

  9. A New Approach to Micro-arcsecond Astrometry with SIM Allowing Early Mission Narrow Angle Measurements of Compelling Astronomical Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklan, Stuart; Pan, Xiaopei

    2004-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is capable of detecting and measuring the mass of terrestrial planets around stars other than our own. It can measure the mass of black holes and the visual orbits of radio and x-ray binary sources. SIM makes possible a new level of understanding of complex astrophysical processes. SIM achieves its high precision in the so-called narrow-angle regime. This is defined by a 1 degree diameter field in which the position of a target star is measured with respect to a set of reference stars. The observation is performed in two parts: first, SIM observes a grid of stars that spans the full sky. After a few years, repeated observations of the grid allow one to determine the orientation of the interferometer baseline. Second, throughout the mission, SIM periodically observes in the narrow-angle mode. Every narrow-angle observation is linked to the grid to determine the precise attitude and length of the baseline. The narrow angle process demands patience. It is not until five years after launch that SIM achieves its ultimate accuracy of 1 microarcsecond. The accuracy is degraded by a factor of approx. 2 at mid-mission. Our work proposes a technique for narrow angle astrometry that does not rely on the measurement of grid stars. This technique, called Gridless Narrow Angle Astrometry (GNAA) can obtain microarcsecond accuracy and can detect extra-solar planets and other exciting objects with a few days of observation. It can be applied as early as during the first six months of in-orbit calibration (IOC). The motivations for doing this are strong. First, and obviously, it is an insurance policy against a catastrophic mid-mission failure. Second, at the start of the mission, with several space-based interferometers in the planning or implementation phase, NASA will be eager to capture the public's imagination with interferometric science. Third, early results and a technique that can duplicate those results throughout the mission will

  10. Magnetopause Current Measurements Using the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission: A Dynamic Current-Strength in Regions of Opposing Magnetic Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Christopher T.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Zhao, Cong; Anderson, Brian J.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Bromund, Kenneth R.; Fischer, David; Kepko, Larry; Le, Guan; Leinweber, Hannes K.; Magnes, Werner; Nakamura, Rumi; Torbert, Roy B.; Burch, James L.

    2016-04-01

    The fluxgate magnetometers on the MMS mission with the aid of the electron drift instruments have been turned into an extremely precise curlometer, probing the currents in volumes down to about 10 km across. These measurements have revealed that the magnetopause is a dynamic boundary in more than just its location, but also in its thickness, current strength and force balance. We examine sample magnetopause crossings and illustrate this unexpected behavior of the boundary.

  11. Systematic synergy modeling: understanding drug synergy from a systems biology perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Liu, Xi; Yang, Yiping; Yang, Hongjun; Lu, Peng

    2015-09-16

    Owing to drug synergy effects, drug combinations have become a new trend in combating complex diseases like cancer, HIV and cardiovascular diseases. However, conventional synergy quantification methods often depend on experimental dose-response data which are quite resource-demanding. In addition, these methods are unable to interpret the explicit synergy mechanism. In this review, we give representative examples of how systems biology modeling offers strategies toward better understanding of drug synergy, including the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network-based methods, pathway dynamic simulations, synergy network motif recognitions, integrative drug feature calculations, and "omic"-supported analyses. Although partially successful in drug synergy exploration and interpretation, more efforts should be put on a holistic understanding of drug-disease interactions, considering integrative pharmacology and toxicology factors. With a comprehensive and deep insight into the mechanism of drug synergy, systems biology opens a novel avenue for rational design of effective drug combinations.

  12. Synergy between measurements of gravitational waves and the triple-Higgs coupling in probing the first-order electroweak phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashino, Katsuya; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Kanemura, Shinya; Matsui, Toshinori

    2016-07-01

    Probing the Higgs potential and new physics behind the electroweak symmetry breaking is one of the most important issues of particle physics. In particular, the nature of the electroweak phase transition is essential for understanding the physics of the early Universe, such that the strongly first-order phase transition is required for a successful scenario of electroweak baryogenesis. The strongly first-order phase transition is expected to be tested by precisely measuring the triple Higgs boson coupling at future colliders like the International Linear Collider. It can also be explored via the spectrum of stochastic gravitational waves to be measured at future space-based interferometers such as eLISA and DECIGO. We discuss the complementarity of both the methods in testing the strongly first-order phase transition of the electroweak symmetry in models with additional isospin singlet scalar fields with and without classical scale invariance. We find that they are synergetic in identifying specific models of electroweak symmetry breaking in more detail.

  13. Continuous measurements of PM at ground level over an industrial area of Evia (Greece) using synergy of a scanning Lidar system and in situ sensors during TAMEX campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoussis, G.; Papayannis, A.; Remoudaki, E.; Tsaknakis, G.; Mamouri, R.; Avdikos, G.; Chontidiadis, C.; Kokkalis, P.; Tzezos, M.; Veenstra, M.

    2009-09-01

    During the TAMEX (Tamyneon Air pollution Mini EXperiment) field Campaign, which took place in the industrial site of Aliveri (38o,24'N, 24o 01'E), Evia (Greece) between June 25 and September 25, 2008, continuous measurements of airborne particulate matter (PM) were performed by in situ sensors at ground level. Additional aerosol measurements were performed by a single-wavelength (355 nm) eye-safe scanning lidar, operating in the Range-Height Indicator (RHI) mode between July 22 and 23, 2008. The industrial site of the city of Aliveri is located south-east of the city area at distance of about 2.5 km. The in situ aerosol sampling site was located at the Lykeio area at 62 m above sea level (ASL) and at a distance of 2,8 km from the Public Power Corporation complex area (DEI Corporation) and 3,3 km from a large cement industrial complex owned by Hercules/Lafarge SA Group of Companies (HLGC) and located at Milaki area. According to the European Environment Agency (EEA) report for the year 2004, this industry emits about 302 tons per year of PM10, 967,000 tons of CO2, 16700 tons of SOx and 1410 tons of NOx while the second industrial complex (HLGC) emits about 179 tons per year of PM10, 1890 tons of CO, 1,430,000 tons of CO2, 3510 tons of NOx, 15.4 Kg of cadmium and its compounds, 64.2 kg of mercury and its compounds and 2.2 tons of benzene. The measuring site was equipped with a full meteorological station (Davis Inc., USA), and 3 aerosol samplers: two Dust Track optical sensors from TSI Inc. (USA) and 1 Skypost PM sequential atmospheric particulate matter. The Dust Track sensors monitored the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration levels, with time resolution ranging from 1 to 3 minutes, while a Tecora sensor was taking continuous PM monitoring by the sampling method on 47 mm diameter filter membrane. The analysis of the PM sensors showed that, systematically, during nighttime large quantities of PM2.5 particles were detected (e.g. exceeding 50 ug/m3). During daytime

  14. Mission analysis for earth atmospheric measurements using solar occultation experiments on Shuttle Spacelabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, E. F.; Lawrence, G. F.; Lamkin, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    The maximum geographical coverage of solar occultation experiments for various Shuttle-Spacelab mission concepts is defined and an analysis that includes trade-offs between parameters such as launch time, season, orbital inclination and altitude is presented as well as the mission design data for the Spacelab-3 flight. The effects of orbital ranges from 220 to 600 km on geographical coverage are examined with inclinations up to 97 deg for sun-synchronous orbit. Results show that the widest band of latitude coverage in the tropics and the temperate zones can be achieved with a mid-inclined (i.e., 57 deg) orbit and a mid-morning or late-night launch time.

  15. Synergy Between Entry Probes and Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard E.

    2005-01-01

    We identify two catagories of probe-orbiter interactions which benefit the science return from a particular mission. The first category is termed "Mission Design Aspects". This category is meant to describe those aspects of the mission design involving the orbiter that affect the science return from the probe(s). The second category of probe-orbiter interaction is termed "Orbiter-Probe Science Interactions", and is meant to include interactions between oribter and probe(s) that directly involve science measurements made from each platform. Two mission related aspects of probe-orbiter interactions are delivery of a probe(s) to the entry site(s) by an orbiter, and communication between each probe and the orbiter. We consider four general probe-orbiter science interactions that greatly enhance, or in certain cases are essential for, the mission science return. The four topics are, global context of the probe entry site(s), ground truth for remote sensing observations of an orbiter, atmospheric composition measurements, and wind measurements.

  16. Estimation of Effective Doses for Radiation Cancer Risks on ISS, Lunar, and Mars Missions with Space Radiation Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, M.Y.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation protection practices define the effective dose as a weighted sum of equivalent dose over major sites for radiation cancer risks. Since a crew personnel dosimeter does not make direct measurement of effective dose, it has been estimated with skin-dose measurements and radiation transport codes for ISS and STS missions. The Phantom Torso Experiment (PTE) of NASA s Operational Radiation Protection Program has provided the actual flight measurements of active and passive dosimeters which were placed throughout the phantom on STS-91 mission for 10 days and on ISS Increment 2 mission. For the PTE, the variation in organ doses, which is resulted by the absorption and the changes in radiation quality with tissue shielding, was considered by measuring doses at many tissue sites and at several critical body organs including brain, colon, heart, stomach, thyroid, and skins. These measurements have been compared with the organ dose calculations obtained from the transport models. Active TEPC measurements of lineal energy spectra at the surface of the PTE also provided the direct comparison of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) or trapped proton dose and dose equivalent. It is shown that orienting the phantom body as actual in ISS is needed for the direct comparison of the transport models to the ISS data. One of the most important observations for organ dose equivalent of effective dose estimates on ISS is the fractional contribution from trapped protons and GCR. We show that for most organs over 80% is from GCR. The improved estimation of effective doses for radiation cancer risks will be made with the resultant tissue weighting factors and the modified codes.

  17. CONSTRAINING SATURN'S CORE PROPERTIES BY A MEASUREMENT OF ITS MOMENT OF INERTIA-IMPLICATIONS TO THE CASSINI SOLSTICE MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Helled, R.

    2011-07-01

    Knowledge of Saturn's axial moment of inertia can provide valuable information on its internal structure. We suggest that Saturn's angular momentum may be determined by the Solstice Mission (Cassini XXM) by measuring Saturn's pole precession rate and the Lense-Thirring acceleration on the spacecraft, and therefore put constraints on Saturn's moment of inertia. It is shown that Saturn's moment of inertia can change up to {approx}2% due to different core properties. However, a determination of Saturn's rotation rate is required to constrain its axial moment of inertia. A change of about seven minutes in rotation period leads to a similar uncertainty in the moment of inertia value as different core properties (mass, radius). A determination of Saturn's angular momentum and rotation period by the Solstice Mission could reveal important information on Saturn's internal structure, in particular, its core properties.

  18. Coherent infrared lidar mission and technology needs for measurements of transport and concentration of tropospheric trace species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. V.; Brockman, P.; Bair, C. H.; Staton, L. D.; Lytle, C. D.; Laughman, L. M.; Kaplan, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The science justification and the feasibility of aircraft-based CO2 Doppler lidar measurements of transport between the free troposphere and the stratosphere (or planetary boundary layer) are discussed for a wide range of seasonal and geographic conditions. Ground-based coherent CO2 lidar aerosol scattering experiments using a stable ring resonator (about 50 mJ/pulse) CO2 laser with external injection locking are reported. Comparative studies of injection-locked CO2 laser unstable resonators and master oscillator power amplifiers are reported for future CO2 lidar missions with respect to requirements of pulse energy, duration/shape, frequency chirp, efficiency for heterodyne detection, and combined Doppler lidar and Differential Absorption Lidar missions.

  19. Four-Dimensional Oceanic and Atmosperic Data Assimilation with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takano, Kenji

    1996-01-01

    An oceanic data assimilation system which allows to utilize the forthcoming Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data has been developed and applied to the Pacific Ocean to produce the velocity field. The assimilated data will be indispensable to examine the effects of rainfall and its variability on the structure and circulation of the tropical oceans and to assess the impact of global warming due to the increase of carbon dioxide on the ocean circulation system and the marine pollution caused by oil spill and ocean damping of radionuclide. The data will also provide the verification for the oceanic and ocean-atmosphere coupled General Circulation Models (GCM's). The system consists of oceanic GCM, analysis scheme and data. In the system the flow field has been determined to be physically consistent with the observed density field and the sea surface winds derived from the Special Sensor Microwave Imagery (SSM/I) data which drive the ocean current. The time integration has been performed for five years until the flow field near the surface attained the steady state starting from the rest ocean with observed temperature and salinity fields, and the SSM/I surface wind velocity. The resultant flow field showed high producibility of the system. Especially the flow near the ocean surface agreed well with available observed data. The system, for the first time, succeeded to produce the eastward subtropical current which has been discovered in the joint investigation on Kuroshio current (CSK) in the 1960s. To verify the quality of the flow field a trajectory analysis has been carried out and compared with the Algos buoy data. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DATA ASSIMILATION SYSTEM ## Oceanic GCM and analysis scheme--The basic equations are much the same as used for the GCM's, except for the Newtonian damping terms introduced into the prediction equations for the potential temperature and salinity to maintain these fields as observed. The C grid of 2'lat. by 2'long. in

  20. Precipitation measurements with GNSS polarimetric Radio Occultations: Status of the ROHP-PAZ mission and anticipated retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padullés, Ramon; Cardellach, Estel; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Tomás, Sergio; Turk, F. Joseph; Ao, Chi O.; Rius, Toni; Oliveras, Santi

    2016-04-01

    The upcoming ROHP-PAZ (Radio Occultations and Heavy Precipitation experiment aboard the spanish PAZ satellite) mission aims to detect, for the first time, precipitation using Global Navigation Satellite System Radio Occultations (GNSS-RO). The electromagnetic signals coming from the GNSS satellites travel tangentially through the atmosphere and will be collected in the PAZ Low Earth Orbiter at two polarizations (vertical and horizontal). This sounding-like technique of the atmosphere will measure all the atmospheric phenomena that are inducing depolarization effects, in addition to all the thermodynamic profiles that standard RO are nowadays providing. The main contributors to depolarization in the troposphere are known to be the hydrometeors, both rain drops from heavy precipitation events and horizontally oriented ice particles in the top of clouds. Their effects on the GNSS signals were predicted in Cardellach et. al. 2015 (IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.), and measured in the ROHP-PAZ field campaign Padullés et. al. 2016 (Atmos. Chem. Phys.). Prior to the launch, a complete characterization of all the possible effects, including hydrometeors but also taking into account other elements was needed. To do so, actual data from the COSMIC - FORMOSAT 3 mission (Radio Occultation events) have been collocated with the TRMM, GPM and CloudSat missions (precipitation and clouds missions). Thousands of events have been analyzed, in terms of SNR and phase delays. For the same events, the effect of hydrometeors has been simulated as well as the most known ionospheric effects, such as Faraday Rotation and Cotton-Mouton effects. And finally, the predicted noise, actual measurements of the antenna pattern and some tolerance in the purity of the emitted signal have been included. This has resulted in an extensive data base that is key in the understanding of the upcoming actual data, as well as for the characterization of all the unpredicted effects. We will discuss here the

  1. Miniature GC-Minicell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) for In Situ Measurements in Astrobiology Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Holland, Paul M.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    Astrobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of volatile chemical species and minerals present in the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and asteroids. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The use of land rovers and balloon aero-rovers place additional emphasis on miniaturization of the analytical instrumentation. In addition, smaller instruments, using tiny amounts of consumables, allow the use of more instrumentation and/or ionger mission life for stationary landers/laboratories. The miniCometary Ice and Dust Experiment (miniCIDEX), which combined Gas Chromatography (GC) with helium Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), was capable of providing the wide range of analytical information required for Astrobiology missions. The IMS used here was based on the PCP model 111 IMS. A similar system, the Titan Ice and Dust Experiment (TIDE), was proposed as part of the Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission (TOAM). Newer GC systems employing Micro Electro- Mechanical System (MEMS) based technology have greatly reduced both the size and resource requirements for space GCs. These smaller GCs, as well as the continuing miniaturization of Astrobiology analytical instruments in general, has highlighted the need for smaller, dry helium IMS systems. We describe here the development of a miniature, MEMS GC-IMS system (MEMS GC developed by Thorleaf Research Inc.), employing the MiniCell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS), from Ion Applications Inc., developed through NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development (ASTID) Program and NASA s Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program.

  2. Taking the Measure of the Universe: Cosmology from the WMAP Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2003-01-01

    The data from the first year of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide the first detailed full sky map of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The anisotropy in the radiation temperature provides a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. These and other aspects of the mission will be discussed. The WMAP satellite was built in a close partnership between Princeton University and the Goddard Space Flight Center.

  3. Taking the Measure of the Universe: Cosmology from the WMAP Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2007-01-01

    The data from the first three years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy and new full-sky maps of the polarization. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. These and other aspects of the mission will be discussed.

  4. Precise methane absorption measurements in the 1.64 μm spectral region for the MERLIN mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaye, T.; Maxwell, S. E.; Reed, Z. D.; Lin, H.; Hodges, J. T.; Sung, K.; Devi, V. M.; Warneke, T.; Spietz, P.; Tran, H.

    2016-06-01

    In this article we describe a high-precision laboratory measurement targeting the R(6) manifold of the 2ν3 band of 12CH4. High-fidelity modeling of this absorption spectrum for atmospheric temperature and pressure conditions will be required by the Franco-German, Methane Remote Sensing LIDAR (MERLIN) space mission for retrievals of atmospheric methane. The analysis uses the Hartmann-Tran profile for modeling line shape and also includes line-mixing effects. To this end, six high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio absorption spectra of air-broadened methane were recorded using a frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy apparatus. Sample conditions corresponded to room temperature and spanned total sample pressures of 40 hPa-1013 hPa with methane molar fractions between 1 µmol mol-1 and 12 µmol mol-1. All spectroscopic model parameters were simultaneously adjusted in a multispectrum nonlinear least squares fit to the six measured spectra. Comparison of the fitted model to the measured spectra reveals the ability to calculate the room temperature, methane absorption coefficient to better than 0.1% at the online position of the MERLIN mission. This is the first time that such fidelity has been reached in modeling methane absorption in the investigated spectral region, fulfilling the accuracy requirements of the MERLIN mission. We also found excellent agreement when comparing the present results with measurements obtained over different pressure conditions and using other laboratory techniques. Finally, we also evaluated the impact of these new spectral parameters on atmospheric transmissions spectra calculations.

  5. The Atmospheric Measurements of ICESat-2: Scientific Applications and an Aide to Mission Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, S. P.; Herzfeld, U. C.; Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Carrying the Advanced Topographic Lidar Altimeter System (ATLAS), ICESat-2 is scheduled for launch in 2017. Though the primary science objective of the 3 year mission is the high resolution altimetry mapping of the Earth's major ice sheets, ATLAS will also acquire atmospheric backscatter profiles from the 3 strong 532 nm laser beams (ATLAS utilizes 6 beams in total). The main intent of the atmospheric channel is to characterize the atmosphere to aide in the interpretation and filtering of altimetry data, as clouds, fog and blowing snow can adversely affect the ranging accuracy due to signal attenuation and multiple scattering. But aside from their use as an aide to altimetry, the ATLAS atmospheric data have potential scientific uses in their own right such as Global and especially polar cloud studies, aerosol sources and transport and blowing snow over the polar regions. This presentation will discuss the characteristics of the ATLAS atmospheric data, the planned atmospheric data products and their potential for contributing to atmospheric science and the success of the ICESat-2 mission.

  6. COBRAS/SAMBA: the ESA Medium Size Mission for measurements of CBR anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolesi, N.; Bersanelli, M.; Cesarsky, C.; Danese, L.; Efstathiou, G.; Griffin, M.; Lamarre, J. M.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Pace, O.; Puget, J. L.; Raisanen, A.; Smoot, G. F.; Tauber, J.; Volonte, S.

    1995-02-01

    The COBRAS/SAMBA mission is designed for extensive, accurate mapping of the anisotropy of the Cosmic Background Radiation. with angular sensitivity from scales of a few arcminutes up to and overlapping with the > 7° COBE-DMR resolution. This will allow a full identification of the primordial density perturbations which grew to Corm the large-scale structures observed in the present universe. The COBRAS/SAMBA maps will provide a major source of information relevant to several cosmological and astrophysical issues, such as testing theories of the early universe and the origin of cosmic structure. One of the main diffuse foreground emissions will be from interstellar dust, and the mission will provide relevant information on its components and emission properties. A combination of bolometric and radiometric detection techniques will ensure the sensitivity and wide spectral coverage required for accurate foreground discrimination. A far-Earth orbit has been selected to minimize the unwanted emission from the Earth as a source of contamination. The project is currently undergoing a feasibility study within the European Space Agency M3 programme.

  7. Implementation of a complex of measures to fulfill the planetary protection requirements of the ExoMars-2016 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamidullina, Natalia; Novikova, Nataliya; Deshevaya, Elena; Orlov, Oleg; Guridov, Alexander; Zakharenko, Dmitry; Zaytseva, Olga

    2016-07-01

    The major purpose of the planetary protection program in the ExoMars-2016 mission is to forestall Mars contamination by terrestrial microorganisms. Since Martian descent module is not intended for biological experiments, ExoMars-2016 mission falls under COSPAR category IVa. Within the joint project co-sponsored by ESA and Roscosmos the European side holds full responsibility for ensuring a prescribed level of SC microbiological purity, while the Russian side is charged with compliance of the launch services provided on Baikonur technical complex with the planetary protection requirements that is, specifically, prevention of SC recontamination. To this end, a complex of measures was executed to control microbial contamination of cosmodrome facilities on the prescribed level which included: - regular decontamination of clean rooms using an effective disinfectant and impulse ultraviolet radiation that created favorable conditions for reliable functioning of the ESA clean tent, - replacement of airline filters in the Thermal Conditioning Unit (TCU) air duct for SC conditioning with pure air. The results of microbiological tests performed in the period of 2015 - 2016 lead to the conclusion that the Baikonur clean rooms (ISO class 8), TCU air ducts and Air Thermal Control System (ATCS) at launch site are ready for the launch campaign and that the Russian side fulfilled the planetary protection requirements of the ExoMars-2016 mission.

  8. Visualization of Space-Time Ambiguities to be Explored by the NASA GEC Mission with a Critique of Synthesized Measurements for Different GEC Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sojka, Jan J.; Zhu, Lie; Fuller-Rowell, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this grant was to study how a multi-satellite mission configuration can be optimized for maximum exploratory scientific return. NASA's Solar Terrestrial Probe (STP) concept mission Geospace Electrodynamic Connections (GEC) was the target mission for this pilot study. GEC prime mission characteristics were two fold: (i) a series of three satellites in the same orbit plane with differential spacing, and (ii) a deep-dipping phase in which these satellites could dip to altitudes as low as 130 km to explore the lower ionosphere and thermosphere. Each satellite would carry a full suite of plasma and neutral in-situ sensors and have the same dipping capability. This latter aspect would be envisaged as a series, up to 10, of deep-dipping campaigns, each lasting 10 days during which the perigee would be lowered to the desired probing depth. The challenge in optimization is to establish the scientific problems that can best be addressed by varying or selecting satellite spacing during a two-year mission while also interspersing, in this two year time frame, the deep-dipping campaigns. Although this sounds like a straightforward trade-off situation, it is complicated by the orbit precession in local time, the location of perigee, and that even the dipping campaigns will have preferred satellite spacing requirements.

  9. Future space missions and ground observatory for measurements of coronal magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Gibson, Sarah; Bemporad, Alessandro; Zhukov, Andrei; Damé, Luc; Susino, Roberto; Larruquert, Juan

    2016-07-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the near-future perspectives for probing coronal magnetism from space missions (i.e., SCORE and ASPIICS) and ground-based observatory (ESCAPE). Spectro-polarimetric imaging of coronal emission-lines in the visible-light wavelength-band provides an important diagnostics tool of the coronal magnetism. The interpretation in terms of Hanle and Zeeman effect of the line-polarization in forbidden emission-lines yields information on the direction and strength of the coronal magnetic field. As study case, this presentation will describe the Torino Coronal Magnetograph (CorMag) for the spectro-polarimetric observation of the FeXIV, 530.3 nm, forbidden emission-line. CorMag - consisting of a Liquid Crystal (LC) Lyot filter and a LC linear polarimeter. The CorMag filter is part of the ESCAPE experiment to be based at the French-Italian Concordia base in Antarctica. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV)can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Space-based UV spectro-polarimeters would provide an additional tool for the disgnostics of coronal magnetism. As a case study of space-borne UV spectro-polarimeters, this presentation will describe the future upgrade of the Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment (SCORE) to include new generation, high-efficiency UV polarizer with the capability of imaging polarimetry of the HI Lyman-α, 121.6 nm. SCORE is a multi-wavelength imager for the emission-lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and visible-light broad-band emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009. The second lauch is scheduled in 2016. Proba-3 is the other future solar mission that would provide the opportunity of diagnosing the coronal magnetic field. Proba-3 is the first precision formation-flying mission to launched in 2019). A pair of satellites will fly together maintaining a fixed configuration as a 'large rigid

  10. Common Spacecraft Bus for Earth Science Decadal Survey Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, T.; Klaus, K.; Elsperman, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    Our study assessed the overall technical and programmatic viability of a Common Spacecraft Bus (CSB) approach that could satify the requirements of multiple Earth Science Decadal Mission programs resulting in cost and schedule savings over individual programs. Our approach developed a Common Payload Interface (CPIF) concept based on assessment of TIER I mission requirements to enable flexibility to the payloads while maintaining maximum commonality in the bus design. Satellite missions in Tier 1 of the Decadal Survey are missions with a launch period beginning in 2014. Four missions are planned and will measure climate change by examining solar and earth radiation, soil moisture and freeze/thaw cycles, ice sheet height differences, surface and ice sheet deformation from natural hazards, and vegetation structure (SMAP, ICESat-2, CLARREO, and DESDynI). Our study goals and objectives were: Develop a Common Spacecraft Bus (CSB) that incorporates the defined CPIF that can be configured to meet the individual Tier I mission specific requirements with minimal impacts or changes; Develop a efficient Assembly, Integration and Test (AI&T) flow and program schedule that can accommodate multiple Observatory level spacecraft processing and provide the flexibility to respond to program changes and other schedule perturbations; Develop a ROM cost for the CSB program approach, based on the reference design and schedules; Evaluate the CSB capability to host payloads of opportunity on the Tier I spacecraft; Evaluate the CSB capability to host the Tier II missions and what changes are required from the Tier I CSB We concluded: CSB approach for Tier I missions is feasible with very good synergy; Program Execution and AI&T approaches can be defined to take maximum advantage of CSB program approach and meet required launch readiness dates; ROM cost analysis indicates that a CSB approach is viable and offers substantial savings over separate procurements The Common Spacecraft Bus

  11. Planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, William I.

    1989-01-01

    The scientific and engineering aspects of near-term missions for planetary exploration are outlined. The missions include the Voyager Neptune flyby, the Magellan survey of Venus, the Ocean Topography Experiment, the Mars Observer mission, the Galileo Jupiter Orbiter and Probe, the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby mission, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Cassini mission to Saturn and Titan, and the Daedalus probe to Barnard's star. The spacecraft, scientific goals, and instruments for these missions are noted.

  12. Surface temperature variations as measured by the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The AEM-1 satellite, the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, has acquired high-quality thermal infrared data at times of day especially suited for studying the earth's surface and the exchange of heat and moisture with the atmosphere. Selected imagery illustrates the considerable variability of surface temperature in and around cities, in the dry southwestern United States, in the Appalachian Mountains, and in agricultural areas. Through simplifying assumptions, an analytic experience is derived that relates day/night temperature differences to the near-surface layer (thermal inertia) and to meteorological factors. Analysis of the result suggests that, in arid regions, estimates of relative thermal inertia may be inferred, whereas, in agricultural areas, a hydrologic interpretation is possible.

  13. Measuring forest canopy height using ICESat/GLAS data for applying to Japanese spaceborne lidar mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masato; Saigusa, Nobuko; Oguma, Hiroyuki; Yamagata, Yoshiki; Takao, Gen; Sawada, Haruo; Mizutani, Kohei; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Asai, Kazuhiro

    2012-11-01

    We developed a methodology to estimate the canopy height from the ICESat/GLAS waveform for the purpose of contributing to the design of the Japanese spaceborne LiDAR mission; iss-jem LiDAR for Observation of Vegetation Environment (i-LOVE). We adopted an estimation method using a terrain index, which indicates the steepness of ground surface, to accurately estimate the canopy height in sloped areas. The study area is Hokkaido Island. We conducted a ground survey and collected airborne LiDAR data to use as the ground truth for the canopy height. We then developed some models to estimate the canopy height from a GLAS waveform. As a result, the estimation accuracy decreased in steep sloped areas where the terrain index exceeded 15 m. To reduce the influence of this effect, the estimation equation was separated for a gentle slope (terrain index <= 15 m) and a steep slope (terrain index < 15 m). In this case, RMSE was 3 to 5 m. These findings indicated that an accurate estimation method would be ensured by using a footprint of less than 15 m of terrain index for the i-LOVE mission. On the assumption of a forested area located primarily at less than a 30° surface slope on a global scale, it is recommended that the diameter of the i-LOVE footprint should be less than 25 m. i- LOVE is planned to transmit four laser pulses arranged at 2×2 simultaneously. This characteristic of i-LOVE, which does not require DEM, makes it possible to calculate the terrain index accurately and has a large advantage for accurately estimating the canopy height on a global scale.

  14. The MESSENGER Venus Flybys: Opportunities for Synergy with Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, S. C.; McNutt, R. L.; Domingue, D. L.; Gold, R. E.; Svedhem, H.; Titov, D.; Helbert, J.

    2006-12-01

    The trajectory of the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft, launched by NASA on 3 August 2004 and destined to be the first probe to orbit Mercury, includes two flybys of Venus during the period that the ESA Venus Express mission is operational in Venus orbit. MESSENGER's first Venus flyby occurred on 24 October 2006, at a closest approach distance of 3140 km, but no scientific observations were made because Venus was at superior conjunction and no direct communication with the MESSENGER spacecraft (or with Venus Express) was possible for an extended period. All MESSENGER instruments, however, will be trained on Venus during the spacecraft's second flyby on 6 June 2007, when closest approach will be at 300 km altitude over 12°S, 107°E, in the uplands of Ovda Regio. The Mercury Dual Imaging System will image the night side in near-infrared bands, and color and higher-resolution monochrome mosaics will be made of both the approaching and departing hemispheres. The Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer on the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) instrument will make profiles of atmospheric species on the day and night sides as well as observations of the exospheric tail on departure. The Visible and Infrared Spectrograph on MASCS will observe the planet near closest approach to sense cloud chemical properties and near-infrared returns from the lower atmosphere and surface. The laser altimeter will serve as a passive 1064-nm radiometer and will measure the range to one or more cloud decks for several minutes near closest approach. The combined observations of Venus Express and MESSENGER will permit simultaneous and complementary observations of particular value for characterization of the particle and field environment at Venus. MESSENGER's Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) will observe charged particle acceleration at the Venus bow shock and elsewhere. The Magnetometer will

  15. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Satellite Mission - An Assessment of Swath Altimetry Measurements of River Hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Matthew D.; Durand, Michael; Alsdorf, Douglas; Chul-Jung, Hahn; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Lee, Hyongki

    2012-01-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission, scheduled for launch in 2020 with development commencing in 2015, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water surface elevations, which will allow for the estimation of river and floodplain flows via the water surface slope. In this paper, we characterize the measurements which may be obtained from SWOT and illustrate how they may be used to derive estimates of river discharge. In particular, we show (i) the spatia-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT, (ii) the errors which maybe expected in swath altimetry measurements of the terrestrial surface water, and (iii) the impacts such errors may have on estimates of water surface slope and river discharge, We illustrate this through a "virtual mission" study for a approximately 300 km reach of the central Amazon river, using a hydraulic model to provide water surface elevations according to the SWOT spatia-temporal sampling scheme (orbit with 78 degree inclination, 22 day repeat and 140 km swath width) to which errors were added based on a two-dimension height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. Water surface elevation measurements for the Amazon mainstem as may be observed by SWOT were thereby obtained. Using these measurements, estimates of river slope and discharge were derived and compared to those which may be obtained without error, and those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. It was found that discharge can be reproduced highly accurately from the water height, without knowledge of the detailed channel bathymetry using a modified Manning's equation, if friction, depth, width and slope are known. Increasing reach length was found to be an effective method to reduce systematic height error in SWOT measurements.

  16. A Neptune Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.

  17. Synergy, redundancy and unnormalized Granger causality.

    PubMed

    Stramaglia, S; Angelini, L; Cortes, J M; Marinazzo, D

    2015-08-01

    We analyze by means of Granger causality the effect of synergy and redundancy in the inference (from time series data) of the information flow between subsystems of a complex network. Whilst fully conditioned Granger causality is not affected by synergy, the pairwise analysis fails to put in evidence synergetic effects. We show that maximization of the total Granger causality to a given target, over all the possible partitions of the set of driving variables, puts in evidence redundant multiplets of variables influencing the target, provided that an unnormalized definition of Granger causality is adopted. Along the same lines we also introduce a pairwise index of synergy (w.r.t. to information flow to a third variable) which is zero when two independent sources additively influence a common target; thus, this definition differs from previous definitions of synergy.

  18. Measurements from the Daytime Dynamo Sounding Rocket missions: Altitude Profiles of Neutral Temperature, Density, Winds, and Con Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmons, J. H.; Bishop, R. L.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Rowland, D. E.; Larsen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Results from the two Daytime Dynamo sounding rocket missions launched from Wallops Island, Virginia, in July 2011 and July 2013 are presented and discussed. Measurements returned by the rockets' multiple-sensor ionization gauge instrumentation are used to derive profiles vs. altitude of neutral temperature, density, and, using a new technique, winds. The techniques used are described in detail and the resulting profiles discussed in the context of the daytime atmospheric dynamo. The profiles are also compared to those of established models. Also presented are measurements returned by the high-speed ion mass spectrometer on the 2011 flight. The measurements show the dominance of NO+ ions up to apogee at 160 km, but also reveal a significant admixture of O2+ ions below an intense daytime sporadic-E layer observed at 100.5 km.

  19. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration

    PubMed Central

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler. PMID:25628523

  20. Are muscle synergies useful for neural control?

    PubMed

    de Rugy, Aymar; Loeb, Gerald E; Carroll, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    The observation that the activity of multiple muscles can be well approximated by a few linear synergies is viewed by some as a sign that such low-dimensional modules constitute a key component of the neural control system. Here, we argue that the usefulness of muscle synergies as a control principle should be evaluated in terms of errors produced not only in muscle space, but also in task space. We used data from a force-aiming task in two dimensions at the wrist, using an electromyograms (EMG)-driven virtual biomechanics technique that overcomes typical errors in predicting force from recorded EMG, to illustrate through simulation how synergy decomposition inevitably introduces substantial task space errors. Then, we computed the optimal pattern of muscle activation that minimizes summed-squared muscle activities, and demonstrated that synergy decomposition produced similar results on real and simulated data. We further assessed the influence of synergy decomposition on aiming errors (AEs) in a more redundant system, using the optimal muscle pattern computed for the elbow-joint complex (i.e., 13 muscles acting in two dimensions). Because EMG records are typically not available from all contributing muscles, we also explored reconstructions from incomplete sets of muscles. The redundancy of a given set of muscles had opposite effects on the goodness of muscle reconstruction and on task achievement; higher redundancy is associated with better EMG approximation (lower residuals), but with higher AEs. Finally, we showed that the number of synergies required to approximate the optimal muscle pattern for an arbitrary biomechanical system increases with task-space dimensionality, which indicates that the capacity of synergy decomposition to explain behavior depends critically on the scope of the original database. These results have implications regarding the viability of muscle synergy as a putative neural control mechanism, and also as a control algorithm to restore

  1. Examining the Synergy of Practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Public health nurses in Ireland are charged with conducting a home visit to every postnatal mother within 48 hours of hospital discharge. This represents the beginning of a long-term relationship, not only with the mother and newborn child but also with the family. This article fundamentally demonstrates the essential work of the public health nurse in promoting the health of the baby within a family. In this article, the expertise the public health nurse uses in the first visit is examined in the context of 3 competencies: communication, partnerships with the family, and partnerships with individual family members. This expertise provides the foundation for a long-term therapeutic relationship with the family to the essential benefit of the baby’s early childhood growth and developmental milestones. Consequently, the first postnatal visit by public health nursing in Ireland represents a synergy of practice, which provides the foundation for enduring family relationships focused on potentializing both individual family members’ health and the family as a dynamic unit. PMID:27335911

  2. Results of time-resolved radiation exposure measurements made during U.S. Shuttle missions with a tissue equivalent proportional counter.

    PubMed

    Golightly, M J; Hardy, A C; Hardy, K

    1994-10-01

    Time-resolved radiation exposure measurements inside the crew compartment have been made during recent Shuttle missions with the USAF Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III), a portable four-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter. Results from the first six missions are presented and discussed. The missions had orbital inclinations ranging from 28.5 degrees to 57 degrees, and altitudes from 200-600 km. Dose equivalent rates ranged from 40-5300 micro Sv/dy. The RME-III measurements are in good agreement with other dosimetry measurements made aboard the vehicle. Measurements indicate that medium- and high-LET particles contribute less than 2% of the particle fluence for all missions, but up to 50% of the dose equivalent, depending on the spacecraft's altitude and orbital inclination. Iso-dose rate contours have been developed from measurements made during the STS-28 mission. The drift rate of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is estimated to be 0.49 degrees W/yr and 0.12 degrees N/yr. The calculated trapped proton and Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) dose for the STS-28 mission were significantly lower than the measured values.

  3. Taking the Measure of the Universe: Cosmology from the WMAP Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2006-01-01

    The data from the first three years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy and new full-sky maps of the polarization. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. These and other aspects of the mission will be discussed. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30,2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Cornel1 University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; University of Pennsylvania; and University of California, Los Angeles

  4. Active measurement of the thermal electron density and temperature on the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter of the BepiColombo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotignon, J. G.; Béghin, C.; Lagoutte, D.; Michau, J. L.; Matsumoto, H.; Kojima, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Kasaba, Y.; Blomberg, L. G.; Lebreton, J. P.; Masson, A.; Hamelin, M.; Pottelette, R.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal component of Mercury's electron population has never been measured. One scientific objective of the Plasma Wave Investigation consortium, PWI, is to determine the influence of the thermal plasma upon the formation and dynamics of the planetary magnetosphere, as a function of solar activity. The Active Measurement of Mercury's Plasma experiment, AM 2P, has been proposed as part of PWI, to monitor the density and temperature of the thermal electron population, during the whole mission of the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter of BepiColombo. These two physical parameters will be deduced from the measurements of the self- and mutual-impedances of the MEFISTO (Mercury Electric Field In Situ TOol) double-sphere antenna, in a frequency range comprising the expected plasma frequency. The in situ measurement of the antenna impedance is also essential for calibrating the electric antenna which measures the natural waves; it will allow, in particular, the effective length of the antenna to be calculated as a function of frequency and plasma conditions. The purpose of this paper is to define the scientific objectives of AM 2P, to explain the principle of the measurement, to describe the electronic device, and to show the ability of AM 2P to make reliable and accurate measurements of the thermal plasma density and temperature in the Hermean magnetosphere, as well as in the solar wind at heliocentric distances of 0.31-0.47 AU. The potential performance of this instrument has been evaluated using both an analytical approach and numerical simulations.

  5. Measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility in Support of Global Security Mission Space

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, Sy; Mayo, Douglas R.; Herrera, Gary D.; McLaughlin, Anastasia D.; Montoya, Charles M.; Quihuis, Becky A.; Trujillo, Julio B.; Van Pelt, Craig E.; Wenz, Tracy R.

    2012-07-13

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility at Technical Area (TA) 55 is one of a few nuclear facilities in the United States where Research & Development measurements can be performed on Safeguards Category-I (CAT-I) quantities of nuclear material. This capability allows us to incorporate measurements of CAT-IV through CAT-I materials as a component of detector characterization campaigns and training courses conducted at Los Alamos. A wider range of measurements can be supported. We will present an overview of recent measurements conducted in support of nuclear emergency response, nuclear counterterrorism, and international and domestic safeguards. This work was supported by the NNSA Office of Counterterrorism.

  6. Last call for Spitzer support of sample-return mission Hayabusa 2: measuring the thermal inertia of 1999 JU3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael; Emery, Joshua; Rivkin, Andrew; Trilling, David; Hora, Joe; Delbo, Marco; Sugita, Seiji; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Choi, Young-Jun; Mommert, Michael

    2012-12-01

    The JAXA mission Hayabusa 2, scheduled to launch in 2014/2015, will visit the low-albedo near-Earth asteroid 1999 JU3, and will return a regolith sample to Earth in 2020. An international observation campaign has amassed a large body of data toward the physical characterization of the target asteroid, informing the mission planning and maximizing the mission's scientific return. While the physical characterization of JU3 has advanced significantly in the past years, open questions remain that only Spitzer can answer: * Just what is the object's thermal inertia? Thermal inertia governs the surface temperature distribution, crucial knowledge for near-surface operations and sampling, and is an indicator for the presence or absence of regolith. Previous thermal observations led to inconclusive results. * Is there any surface variability in thermal inertia or albedo? There is tantalizing evidence for a variable 0.7-micron spectral feature, which may indicate further reaching surface heterogeneity. The only way to answer these questions before Hayabusa-2's arrival at its target is through Spitzer observations in 2013. Only Spitzer affords the required sensitivity and repeatability at thermal-infrared wavelengths. Additionally, due to JU3's peculiar orbit, 2013 is the last chance to obtain Spitzer observations through the end of 2016 (Horizons does not provide Spitzer-centric ephemerides beyond this date). JU3 is already too poorly placed for Earth-based observations to be obtained of sufficient quality to address these critical science questions. The 2013 apparition is uniquely favorable for thermal-inertia measurements from Spizter due to the wide range spanned in solar phase angle and sub-Spitzer latitude. We propose observations at 2 times 7 phase angles, with Spitzer-centric latitudes on both the Northern and Southern hemisphere. Additional thermal lightcurves will provide evidence for the presence of absence of thermal-inertia variegation over the surface.

  7. Leveraging Improvements in Precipitation Measuring from GPM Mission to Achieve Prediction Improvements in Climate, Weather and Hydrometeorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    The main scientific goal of the GPM mission, currently planned for start in the 2007 time frame, is to investigate important scientific problems arising within the context of global and regional water cycles. These problems cut across a hierarchy of scales and include climate-water cycle interactions, techniques for improving weather and climate predictions, and better methods for combining observed precipitation with hydrometeorological prediction models for applications to hazardous flood-producing storms, seasonal flood/draught conditions, and fresh water resource assessments. The GPM mission will expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of some 9 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band precipitation radar and an advanced, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer with vertical-horizontal polarization discrimination. The other constellation members will include new dedicated satellites and co-existing Operational/research satellites carrying similar (but not identical) passive microwave radiometers. The goal of the constellation is to achieve approximately 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe. The constellation's orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous satellites with the core satellite providing measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus calibration-quality rainrate retrievals to be used with the other retrieval information to ensure bias-free constellation coverage. GPM is organized internationally, currently involving a partnership between NASA in the US and the National Space Development Agency in Japan. Additionally, the program is actively pursuing agreements with other international partners and domestic scientific agencies and institutions, as well as participation by individual scientists from academia, government, and the private sector to fulfill mission goals and to pave

  8. In Vivo Measurements in Mice in the Bion-M 1 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Popova, Anfisa; Borovik, Anatoliy; Dolgov, Oleg; Anokhin, Konstantin; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vinogradova, Olga

    The main aim of BION-M 1 mission was to reveal morphological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms of adaptation to prolonged exposure in microgravity. Besides that functional state and behavior were assessed in vivo using test battery, home cage observations and implantable telemetry in space-flown mice (SF), control mice from the ground replica of the flight experiment (GC) and in mice kept in vivarium (SFV and GCV). Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously in a subgroup of mice using implantable telemetry throughout the flight as well as before and after it. After 30-days flight aboard BION-M 1 biosatellite SF mice have gained more weight than GC, SFV or GCV mice (11%). SF mice displayed pronounced motor impairment upon examination shortly after landing. 1 day after the flight mice were less active and more anxious in the open-field test, less coordinated in the Rotarod and aerial drop test and had less grip force compared to both control and pre-flight values. Exercise performance was greatly reduced after 30-days flight and recovered by day 7 post-flight. Before the flight mice were trained to perform a simple task using positively reinforced free operant conditioning approach. After the flight performance in the same task was preserved, however learning ability was impaired. Mice displayed drastic reduction of heart rate during launch and reentry acceleration periods. Heart rate (by 8-10%) and, to a lesser extent blood pressure (by 5%) were elevated during the 30-days flight. After return heart rate in SF mice remained elevated throughout the 7-days observation period with no apparent recovery. In summary, mice display pronounced disadaptation to 1g after 30-days exposure in microgravity with different physiological systems having different recovery dynamics. Of particular interest, hemodynamic reactions in mice closely resemble reactions in larger organisms, implying that factors that govern the cardiovascular system adaptation to

  9. Airborne lidar measurements of ozone and aerosols during the pacific exploratory mission-tropics A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenn, Marta A.; Browell, Edward V.; Grant, William B.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.; Clayton, Marian B.; Brackett, Vincent G.; Gregory, Gerald L.

    1998-01-01

    Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol and ozone distributions from the surface to above the tropopause over the South Pacific Ocean are presented. The measurements illustrate large-scale features of the region, and are used to quantify the relative contributions of different ozone sources to the tropospheric ozone budget in this remote region.

  10. A modular neural model of motor synergies.

    PubMed

    Byadarhaly, Kiran V; Perdoor, Mithun C; Minai, Ali A

    2012-08-01

    Animals such as reptiles, amphibians and mammals (including humans) are mechanically extremely complex. It has been estimated that the human body has between 500 and 1400 degrees of freedom! And yet, these animals can generate an infinite variety of very precise, complicated and goal-directed movements in continuously changing and uncertain environments. Understanding how this is achieved is of great interest to both biologists and engineers. There are essentially two questions that must be addressed: (1) What type of control strategy is used to handle the large number of degrees of freedom involved? and (2) How is this strategy instantiated in the substrate of neural and musculoskeletal elements comprising the animal bodies? The first question has been studied intensively for several decades, providing strong indications that, rather than using standard feedback control based on continuous tracking of desired trajectories, animals' movements emerge from the controlled combination of pre-configured movement primitives or synergies. These synergies represent coordinated activity patterns over groups of muscles, and can be triggered as a whole with controlled amplitude and temporal offset. Complex movements can thus be constructed from the appropriate combination of a relatively small number of synergies, greatly simplifying the control problem. Although experimental studies on animal movements have confirmed the existence of motor synergies, and their utility has been demonstrated in the control of fairly complex robots, their neural basis remains poorly understood. In this paper, we introduce a simple but plausible and general neural model for motor synergies based on the principle that these functional modules reflect the structural modularity of the underlying physical system. Using this model, we show that a small set of synergies selected through a redundancy-reduction principle can generate a rich motor repertoire in a model two-jointed arm system. We

  11. Interpersonal synergies: static prehension tasks performed by two actors.

    PubMed

    Solnik, Stanislaw; Reschechtko, Sasha; Wu, Yen-Hsun; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2016-08-01

    We investigated multidigit synergies stabilizing components of the resultant force vector during joint performance of a static prehension task by two persons as compared to similar tasks performed by a single person using both hands. Subjects transferred the instrumented handle from the right hand to the left hand (one-person condition) or passed that handle to another person (two-person condition) while keeping the handle's position and orientation stationary. Only three digits were involved per hand, the thumb, the index finger, and the middle finger; the forces and moments produced by the digits were measured by six-component sensors. We estimated the performance-stabilizing synergies within the uncontrolled manifold framework by quantifying the intertrial variance structure of digit forces and moments. The analysis was performed at three levels: between hands, between virtual finger and virtual thumb (imagined digits producing the same mechanical variables as the corresponding actual digits combined) produced by the two hands (in both interpersonal and intrapersonal conditions), and between the thumb and virtual finger for one hand only. Additionally, we performed correlation and phase synchronization analyses of resultant tangential forces and internal normal forces. Overall, the one-person conditions were characterized by higher amount of intertrial variance that did not affect resultant normal force components, higher internal components of normal forces, and stronger synchronization of the normal forces generated by the hands. Our observations suggest that in two-person tasks, when participants try to achieve a common mechanical outcome, the performance-stabilizing synergies depend on non-visual information exchange, possibly via the haptic and proprioceptive systems. Therefore, synergies quantified in tasks using visual feedback only may not be generalizable to more natural tasks. PMID:27021074

  12. Factors Affecting Crater Size-Frequency Distribution Measurements: Insights Supported by the LRO Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.; Zanetti, M.; Plescia, J. B.; Ostrach, L. R.; Mahanti, P.; Meyer, H. M.; McEwen, A. S.; Pasckert, J. H.; Michael, G.; Kneissl, T.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-05-01

    CSFD measurements are affected by illumination angle, count area size/slope, secondary cratering, target property effects, and differential degradation. Investigations using LRO data have made progress characterizing and quantifying these factors.

  13. Air fluorescence efficiency measurements for AIRWATCH based mission: Experimental set-up

    SciTech Connect

    Biondo, B.; Catalano, O.; Celi, F.; Fazio, G.; Giarrusso, S.; La Rosa, G.; Mangano, A.; Bonanno, G.; Cosentino, R.; Di Benedetto, R.; Scuderi, S.; Richiusa, G.; Gregorio, A.

    1998-06-15

    In the framework of the AIRWATCH project we present an experimental set-up to measure the efficiency of the UV fluorescence production of the air using hard X-ray stimulus. The measures will be carried out at different pressure and temperature to emulate the same condition of the upper layers of the atmosphere where X-ray and gamma ray photons of Gamma Ray Bursts are absorbed.

  14. PC/CIC: A Tandem 3U CubeSat Mission for Global Cloud Ice Mass Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Sanders, B. T.; Gallaher, D. W.; Periasamy, L.; Alvarenga, G.; Scambos, T. A.; Weaver, R.; Evans, K. F.; Heymsfield, A.; Pilewskie, P.; Buehler, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    PolarCube and CloudIceCube (PC/CIC) are twin tandem 3U CubeSat satellites based on a common and existing bus design (ALL-STAR) and a common Earth-imaging passive microwave instrument payload architecture with suborbital aircraft flight heritage. These instrument payloads are being miniaturized for an orbital opportunity to provide atmospheric temperature profile measurements, cloud ice mass statistics, sea ice/ice-free ocean detection and mapping, and ice sheet surface snow properties that complement and extend existing passive microwave measurements from space. Collectively, these instruments, currently being prototyped, will comprise the first multi-frequency millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave (MMW/SMMW) passive microwave imaging sensors flown in space. The objective is to map the brightness temperature spectra of several critical cryospheric and tropospheric Earth systems at high spatial resolution (~18.5 km) and high radiometric precision (~0.3-2.0K) at three key bands (118.7503, 325.153-340, and 670 GHz) over the entire globe during a nominal one year mission beginning in 2016. We discuss the application of the integrated PC/CIC data sets to climatological cloud modeling, determination of the vertical temperature and water vapor structure of polar regions, polar climate and atmosphere change studies, sea ice mapping, and ice sheet snow accumulation. Importantly, global cloud ice mass and mean particle size mapping will be supported at ~2o spatial scale using a new and independent passive MMW/SMMW technique as a means to constrain general circulation model cloud statistics. The PC/CIC mission will provide an important snapshot of global cloud ice mass statistics in the current era years prior to operational passive microwave cloud ice measurement. It will also demonstrate the use of compact, multi-frequency, scanning microwave radiometers that are prototypes of a new low-cost class of spaceborne microwave weather and climate sensors.

  15. Active measurements of the thermal electron density and temperature from the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter of the BepiColombo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotignon, J. G.; Beghin, C.; Matsumoto, H.; Kojima, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Blomberg, L.; Lebreton, J. P.; Masson, A.; Hamelin, M.; Pottelette, R.

    The thermal component of the Mercury's electron population remains to be investigated. It is one of the scientific objectives of the Plasma Wave Investigation, PWI, consortium to determine its influence on the formation and dynamics of the planetary magnetosphere as a function of the solar activity. The Active Measurement of Mercury's Plasma, AM2P, experiment has therefore been proposed as part of the PWI to measure the density and temperature of the thermal electron population all along the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter of the BepiColombo mission. These two aeronomical parameters shall be deduced from the measurements of the self- and mutual-impedances of the MEFISTO (Mercury Electric Field In Situ TOol) double-sphere antenna in a frequency range comprising the expected plasma frequency. The purpose of the current presentation is: 1) to set the AM2P scientific objectives, 2) to give the principle of measurements, 3) to describe the electronics device, and 4) to show the ability of the AM2P to make reliable and accurate measurements of the thermal plasma density and temperature in the Hermean magnetosphere, as well as in the solar wind at 0.31-0.47 AU from the Sun. The latter point has been established from analytical and numerical simulations.

  16. Modelling natural and artificial hands with synergies

    PubMed Central

    Bicchi, Antonio; Gabiccini, Marco; Santello, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We report on recent work in modelling the process of grasping and active touch by natural and artificial hands. Starting from observations made in human hands about the correlation of degrees of freedom in patterns of more frequent use (postural synergies), we consider the implications of a geometrical model accounting for such data, which is applicable to the pre-grasping phase occurring when shaping the hand before actual contact with the grasped object. To extend applicability of the synergy model to study force distribution in the actual grasp, we introduce a modified model including the mechanical compliance of the hand's musculotendinous system. Numerical results obtained by this model indicate that the same principal synergies observed from pre-grasp postural data are also fundamental in achieving proper grasp force distribution. To illustrate the concept of synergies in the dual domain of haptic sensing, we provide a review of models of how the complexity and heterogeneity of sensory information from touch can be harnessed in simplified, tractable abstractions. These abstractions are amenable to fast processing to enable quick reflexes as well as elaboration of high-level percepts. Applications of the synergy model to the design and control of artificial hands and tactile sensors are illustrated. PMID:21969697

  17. Exploration Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Levels and Ultrasound Measures of the Eye During ISS Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, M.; Mason, S.; Schaefer, C.; Wear, M. L.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Coble, C.; Gruschkus, S.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Meyers, V.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced screening for the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome, including in-flight ultrasound, was implemented in 2010 to better characterize the changes in vision observed in some long-duration crewmembers. Suggested possible risk factors for VIIP include cardiovascular changes, diet, anatomical and genetic factors, and environmental conditions. As a potent vasodilator, carbon dioxide (CO (sub 2)), which is chronically elevated on the International Space Station (ISS) relative to typical indoor and outdoor ambient levels on Earth, seems a plausible contributor to VIIP. In an effort to understand the possible associations between CO (sub 2) and VIIP, this study analyzes the relationship between ambient CO (sub 2) levels on ISS and ultrasound measures of the eye obtained from ISS fliers. CO (sub 2) measurements will be pulled directly from Operational Data Reduction Complex for the Lab and Node 3 major constituent analyzers (MCAs) on ISS or from sensors located in the European Columbus module, as available. CO (sub 2) measures between ultrasound sessions will be summarized using standard time series class metrics in MATLAB including time-weighted means and variances. Cumulative CO (sub 2) exposure metrics will also be developed. Regression analyses will be used to quantify the relationships between the CO (sub 2) metrics and specific ultrasound measures. Generalized estimating equations will adjust for the repeated measures within individuals. Multiple imputation techniques will be used to adjust for any possible biases in missing data for either CO (sub 2) or ultrasound measures. These analyses will elucidate the possible relationship between CO (sub 2) and changes in vision and also inform future analysis of inflight VIIP data.

  18. MOLA 1064nm Radiometry Measurements: Status and Prospects in Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, G. A.; Abshire, J. B.; Smith, D. E.; Sun, X.; Zuber, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument has measured the brightness of the Mars surface at 1064 nm in a passive mode, from background noise counts, since 1997. After ceasing altimetry collection July 2001, MOLA has taken >50 million high-resolution radiometer observations. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Solar X-ray Emission Measured by the Vernov Mission During September - October of 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myagkova, I. N.; Bogomolov, A. V.; Kashapova, L. K.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Svertilov, S. I.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Rozhkov, G. V.

    2016-08-01

    Solar hard X-ray and γ-ray emissions were measured by the Detector of the Roentgen and Gamma-ray Emissions (DRGE) instrument, which is part of the RELEC set of instruments operated onboard the Russian satellite Vernov, from July 8, 2014 until December 10, 2014 (on a solar-synchronous orbit with an apogee of 830 km, perigee of 640 km, and an inclination of 98.4°. RELEC measurements of 18 flares with X-ray energy {>} 30 keV, taken in September - October 2014, were connected with the same active region with the number AR 12172 during the first rotation and AR 12192 during the next one. These measurements were compared to the data obtained with RHESSI, Konus-Wind, Fermi Observatory, Radio Solar Telescope Net (RSTN), and the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) operating at the same time. Quasi-periodicities with similar periods of 7±2 s were found in about one third of all flares measured by RELEC (Vernov) from September 24 until October 30, 2014.

  20. Global Lightning Climatology from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the Optical Transient Detector (OTD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) has been collecting observations of total lightning in the global tropics and subtropics (roughly 38 deg S - 38 deg N) since December 1997. A similar instrument, the Optical Transient Detector, operated from 1995-2000 on another low earth orbit satellite that also saw high latitudes. Lightning data from these instruments have been used to create gridded climatologies and time series of lightning flash rate. These include a 0.5 deg resolution global annual climatology, and lower resolution products describing the annual cycle and the diurnal cycle. These products are updated annually. Results from the update through 2013 will be shown at the conference. The gridded products are publicly available for download. Descriptions of how each product can be used will be discussed, including strengths, weaknesses, and caveats about the smoothing and sampling used in various products.

  1. Preliminary Results of a New Type of Surface Property Measurement Ideal for a Future Mars Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhler, C. R.; Calle, C. I.; Mantovani, J. G.; Buehler, M. G.; Nowicki, A. W.; Ritz, M.

    2004-01-01

    The success of the recent rover missions to Mars has stressed the importance of acquiring the maximum amount of geological information with the least amount of data possible. We have designed, tested and implemented special sensors mounted on a rover s wheel capable of detecting minute changes in surface topology thus eliminating the need for specially- made science platforms. These sensors, based on the previously designed, flight qualified Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) Electrometer, measure the static electricity (triboelectricity) generated between polymer materials and the Martian regolith during rover transverses. The sensors are capable of detecting physical changes in the soil that may not be detectable by other means, such as texture, size and moisture content. Although triboelectricity is a surface phenomenon, the weight of a rover will undoubtedly protrude the sensors below the dust covered layers, exposing underlying regolith whose properties may not be detectable through other means.

  2. The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM): Studying the geophysics of small binaries, measuring asteroid deflection and studying impact physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, Michael; Michel, Patrick; AIM team

    2016-10-01

    Binary asteroids and their formation mechanisms are of particular interest for understanding the evolution of the small bodies in the solar system. Also, hazards to Earth from impact of near-Earth asteroids and their mitigation have drawn considerable interest over the last decades.Those subjects are both addressed by ESA's Asteroid Impact mission, which is part of the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) currently under study in collaboration between NASA and ESA. NASA's DART mission will impact a projectile into the minor component of the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos in 2022. The basic idea is to demonstrate the effect of the impact on the orbital period of the secondary around the primary. ESA's AIM will monitor the Didymos system for several months around the DART impact time.AIM will be launched in aurumn 2020. It is foreseen to arrive at Didymos in April 2022. The mission takes advantage of a close approach of Didymos to Earth. The next opportunity would arise in 2040 only.AIM will stay near Didymos for approximately 6 months. Most of the time it will be placed on the illuminated side of the system, at distances of approximately 35 km and 10 km. AIM is expected to move away from Didymos for some time around the DART impact.The reference payload for AIM includes two visual imagers, a hyperspectral camera, a lidar, a thermal infrared imager, a monostatic high frequency radar, and a bistatic low frequency radar. In addition, AIM will deploy a small lander on the secondary asteroid, and two cubesats that will be used for additional, more risky investigations close to or on the surface of the asteroid.Major contributions from AIM are expected in the study of the geophysics of small asteroids (including for the first time, radar measurements of an interior structure), the formation of binary asteroids, the momentum enhancement factor from the DART impact (through measuring the mass and the change of orbit of the seondary), and impact physics

  3. A Japanese New Altimetry Mission, COMPIRA - Towards High Temporal and Spatial Sampling of Sea Surface Height Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, N.; Uematsu, A.; Yajima, Y.; Isoguchi, O.

    2014-12-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is working on a conceptual study of altimeter mission named Coastal and Ocean measurement Mission with Precise and Innovative Radar Altimeter (COMPIRA), which will carry a wide-swath altimeter named Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Height Imaging Oceanic Sensor with Advanced Interferometry (SHIOSAI). Capturing meso/submeso-scale phenomena is one of important objectives of the COMPIRA mission, as well as operational oceanography and fishery. For operational oceanography including coastal forecast, swath of SHIOSAI is selected to be 80 km in left and right sides to maximize temporal and spatial sampling of the sea surface height. Orbit specifications are also designed to be better sampling especially for mid-latitude region. That is, a spatial grid sampling is 5 km and an observation times per revisit period (about 10 days) is 2 to 3 times. In order to meet both sampling frequency and spatial coverage requirements as much as possible, orbit inclination was set relatively low, 51 degrees. Although this sampling frequency is, of course, not enough high to capture time evolution of coastal phenomena, an assimilation process would compensate its time evolution if 2D SSH fields was observed at least once within decal time scale of phenomena. JAXA has launched a framework called "Coastal forecast core team" to aim at developing coastal forecast system through pre-launch activities toward COMPIRA. Assimilation segment as well as satellite and in situ data provision will play an important role on these activities. As a first step, we evaluated effects of ocean current forecast improvement with COMPIRA-simulated wide-swath and high sampling sea surface heights (SSH) data. Simulated SSH data are generated from regional ocean numerical models and the COMPIRA orbit and error specifications. Then, identical twin experiments are conducted to investigate the effect of wide-swath SSH measurements on coastal forecast in the Tohoku Pacific coast

  4. Adapting an existing visualization application for browser-based deployment: A case study from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Owen A.

    2013-02-01

    THOR, the Tool for High-resolution Observation Review, is a data viewer for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. THOR began as a desktop application, but now it can be accessed with a web browser, making THOR one of the first online tools for visualizing TRMM satellite data (http://pps.gsfc.nasa.gov/thor). In this effort, the reuse of the existing visualization code was maximized and the complexity of new code was minimized by avoiding unnecessary functionality, frameworks, or libraries. The simplicity of this approach makes it potentially attractive to researchers wishing to adapt their visualization applications for online deployment. To enable THOR to run within a web browser, three new pieces of code are written. First, the graphical user interface (GUI) of the desktop application is translated into HTML, JavaScript, and CSS. Second, a simple communication mechanism is developed over HTTP. Third, a virtual GUI is created on the server that interfaces with the image-generating routines of the existing desktop application so that these routines do not need to be modified for online use. While the basic functionality of THOR is now available online, prototyping is ongoing for enhanced 3D imaging and other aspects of both THOR Desktop and THOR Online. Because TRMM data products are complex and periodically reprocessed with improved algorithms, having a tool such as THOR is important to analysts at the Precipitation Processing System where the algorithms are tested and the products generated, stored, and distributed. Researchers also have found THOR useful for taking a first look at individual files before writing their own software to perform specialized calculations and analyses.

  5. Ground Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Lou; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Direndra K.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Bolden, William C.; Wilson, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers will measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emmitted,longwave radiances, at the top-of-the-atmosphere. The measurements are performed in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5.0 micron) and longwave (5.0 - >100 micron) spectral regions as well as in the 8 -12 micron water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. The CERES measurements are designed to improve our knowledge of the earth's natural climate processes, in particular those related to clouds, and man's impact upon climate as indicated by atmospheric temperature. November 1997, the first set of CERES bolometers is scheduled for launch on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft. The CERES bolometers were calibrated radiometrically in a vacuum ground facility using absolute reference sources, tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Accurate bolometer calibrations are dependent upon the derivations of the radiances from the spectral properties [reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.] of both the sources and bolometers. In this paper, the overall calibration approaches are discussed for the longwave and shortwave calibrations. The spectral responses for the TRMM bolometer units are presented and applied to the bolometer ground calibrations in order to determine pre-launch calibration gains.

  6. Water vapor and cloud water measurements over Darwin during the STEP 1987 tropical mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, K. K.; Proffitt, M. H.; Chan, K. R.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Strahan, E.; Wilson, J. C.; Kley, D.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of stratospheric and upper tropospheric cloud water plus water vapor (total water) and water vapor were made with two Lyman alpha hygrometers as part of the STEP tropical experiment. The in situ measurements were made in the Darwin, Australia, area in January and February of 1987 on an ER-2 aircraft. Average stratospheric water vapor at a potential temperature of 375 K (the average value of Theta at the tropopause) was 2.4 parts per million by volume (ppmv). This water mixing ratio is below the 3.0 to 4.0 ppmv necessary to be consistent with the observed upper stratospheric dryness. Saturation with respect to ice and the potential for dehydration was observed up to Theta = 402 K.

  7. Hierarchies of Synergies in Human Movements

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.; Gorniak, Stacey; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2009-01-01

    This brief review addresses the problem of motor redundancy, which exists at many levels of the neuromotor hierarchies involved in the production of voluntary movements. An approach to this problem is described based on the principle of abundance. This approach offers an operational definition for motor synergies using the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis. It is shown that hierarchical systems have inherent trade-offs between synergies at different control levels. These trade-offs have been demonstrated in experimental studies of human multi-finger pressing and prehension. They are likely to be present in other hierarchical systems, for example those involved in the control of large groups of muscles. The framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis offers a physiologically based mechanism, which may form the basis for hierarchies of synergies. PMID:20354578

  8. Instrumentation for the Future Lunar Missions: Multicomponent Electromagnetic Measurements at Long Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmasova, Ivana; Santolik, Ondrej; Belyayev, Serhiy; Uhlir, Ludek; Skalsky, Alexander; Pronenko, Vira; Lan, Radek

    The LEMRA-L instrument (Long-wavelength Electro-Magnetic Radiation Analyzer) will be implemented on the LUNA-GLOB spacecraft. It will analyze the data of the three-axial flux gate (DC - 10Hz) and searchcoil (1Hz - 10kHz) magnetometers LEMI. It will measure intensity, polarization, and coherence properties of waves in plasmas of the solar wind, in the lunar wake and its boundaries, and study the magnetic anomalies. We will use new modern robust onboard analysis methods to estimate the wave coherence, sense of polarization, ellipticity, and wave-vector direction, and thus substantially compress the transmitted data volumes, while conserving the important scientific information. In the burst mode data set intended for studying nonlinear phenomena, we will conserve the continuous flux-gate magnetometer data and discrete snapshots of three axial waveform measurements. In the survey-mode data set, continuous flux-gate magnetometer data will be transmitted together with onboard analyzed and averaged spectral matrices from the higher-frequency wave measurements or with onboard calculated propagation and polarization parameters.

  9. Exploratory Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Levels and Ultrasound Measures of the Eye During ISS Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, C.; Young, M.; Mason, S.; Coble, C.; Wear, M. L.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Law. J.; Alexander, D.; Ryder, V. Myers; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on ISS have typically averaged 2.3 to 5.3mm Hg, with large fluctuations occurring over periods of hours and days. CO2 has effects on cerebral vascular tone, resulting in vasodilation and alteration of cerebral blood flow(CBF). Increased CBF leads to elevated intracranial pressure(ICP), which is a factor leading to visual disturbance, headaches, and other central nervous system symptoms. Ultrasound of the optic nerve provides a surrogate measurement of ICP. Inflight ultrasounds were implemented as an enhanced screening tool for the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome. This analysis examines the relationships between ambient CO2 levels on ISS and ultrasound measures of the eye in an effort to understand how CO2 may be associated with VIIP and to inform future analysis of inflight VIIP data. Results as shown in Figure2, there was a large timeframe where CO2 readings were removed due to sensor fault errors(see Limitations), from June 2011 to January 2012. After extensive cleaning of the CO2 data, metrics for all of the data were calculated (Table2). Preliminary analyses showed possible associations between variability measures of CO2 and AP diameter (Figure3),and average CO2 exposure and ONSD(Figure4). Adjustments for multiple comparisons were not made due to the exploratory nature of the analysis.

  10. Bilateral synergies in foot force production tasks.

    PubMed

    Sarabon, Nejc; Markovic, Goran; Mikulic, Pavle; Latash, Mark L

    2013-05-01

    We analysed the effects of task symmetry during bilateral accurate force production tasks performed by the two feet. In particular, we tested a hypothesis that bilateral deficit would lead to higher indices of synergies defined as co-varied adjustments in the two forces across trials that reduced total force variability. The subjects produced steady-state force followed by a quick force pulse into the target. The two feet could be acting both into plantar flexion and into dorsiflexion (symmetrical tasks), or in opposite directions (asymmetrical task). We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to quantify two variance components, one of which did not change total force (V UCM), while the other did (V ORT). Synergy indices during the asymmetrical task were higher than in either symmetrical task. The difference was due to higher V UCM (compared to the symmetrical plantar flexion task) or lower V ORT (compared to the symmetrical dorsiflexion task). The synergy index showed a drop (anticipatory synergy adjustment, ASA) starting 100-150 ms prior to the force pulse initiation. The ASA tended to be shorter and of a smaller magnitude for the asymmetrical task. This is the first demonstration of bilateral synergies during accurate force production by the legs. We conclude that bilateral deficit has no or weak effects on two-leg synergies. The results fit the earlier introduced scheme with two groups of neural variables defining average performance of a redundant system and patterns of co-variation among its elemental variables, respectively. PMID:23568657

  11. Laboratory measurements of dielectric properties of compact and granular materials, in relation with Rosetta mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouet, Y.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Encrenaz, P.; Gheudin, M.; Ciarletti, V.; Gulkis, S.; Jambon, A.; Ruffié, G.; Prigent, C.

    2012-04-01

    The European Rosetta spacecraft (s/c), launched in 2004, will be the first s/c to orbit a comet and place a lander module on its surface. In 2014, the s/c will rendezvous with the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and place the lander on its surface thereby allowing in situ and remote sensing of the comet nucleus. Two radio experiments, one passive (MIRO [1]) and one active (CONSERT [2]), are aboard the Rosetta s/c. MIRO, composed of two radiometers, with center band frequencies at 190 GHz and at 563 GHz to determine the brightness temperatures of the target surfaces and sub-surfaces, has already observed asteroids (2867) Steins [3] and (21) Lutetia [4]. CONSERT will investigate the deep interior of the nucleus using 90 MHz radio-waves transmitted from the orbiter through the nucleus and returned to the orbiter from the lander. To support interpretations of MIRO and CONSERT observations, a program of dielectric properties measurements is under development on a large range of frequencies encompassing those of the above-mentioned experiments. Several instruments for dielectric constant determination are available at IMS laboratory (Bordeaux, France): impedance analyzer, coaxial sensor, resonant cavities (measuring respectively at 100 MHz, 0.5-6 GHz, 1.2-13.4 GHz). Millimeter benches are available at both IMS and LERMA laboratories (measuring respectively at 30-110 GHz and 70-230 GHz). Taking into account the possible presence of regolith layers on the surface of asteroids or nuclei and the very low density of cometary nuclei [5], the dependence of the dielectric constant on the structure and porosity of given granular materials needs also to be investigated (while the thermal and hygrometric conditions are carefully monitored). We have already reported measurements obtained on various meteorites, possibly representative of some asteroid surfaces [6, 7]. We will also report systematic measurements obtained on a large sample of pyroclastic deposits from Etna, providing

  12. Intercomparison of Remote and Flight Level Measured Aerosol Backscatter Coefficient During GLOBE 2 Pacific Survey Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutten, D. R.; Spinhime, J. D.; Menzies, R. T.; Bowdle, D. A.; Srivastava, V.; Pueschel, R. F.; Clarke, A. D.; Rothermel, J.

    1998-01-01

    Aerosol backscatter coefficient data are examined from two local flights undertaken during NASA's GLObal Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) in May - June, 1990. During each of these two flights the aircraft traversed different altitudes within a region of the atmosphere defined by the same set of latitude and longitude coordinates. This provides an ideal opportunity to allow flight level measured or modeled aerosol backscafter to be compared with pulsed lidar aerosol backscafter data that were obtained at these same altitudes either earlier or later than the flight level measurements. Aerosol backscafter comparisons were made at 1.06-, 9.11- and 9.25-mm wavelengths, using data from three lidar systems and two aerosol optical counters. The best agreement between all sensor's was found in the altitude region below 7 km where backscafter values were moderately high at all three wavelengths. Above this altitude the pulsed lidar backscafter data at 1.06- and 9.25-mm wavelengths were higher than the flight level data obtained from the CW lidar or derived from the optical counters. Possible reasons are offered to explain this discrepancy. During the Japan local flight, microphysics analysis revealed: (1) evidence of a strong advected seasalt aerosol plume from the marine boundary layer, and (2) where backscatter was low, the large lidar sampling volume included many large particles which were of different chemical composition to the small particle category sampled by the particle counters.

  13. Feasibility study of a RADARSAT-1 and 2 cross InSAR mission to measure topography and ground deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabus, B.; McCardle, A.

    2006-12-01

    InSAR users have voiced interest in assessing the potential cross InSAR capability of a planned joint mission of RADARSAT-1 with its successor satellite RADARSAT-2 to be launched in spring 2007. The motivation is similar than for ESA's joint mission of ERS and ENVISAT, where both satellites follow the same ground track with a time difference of 30 min. The latter mission has seen application demonstrations for measuring coastal topography and fast ground motion with cross InSAR. Cross InSAR between RADARSAT-1 and 2 is complicated by two factors: (i) RADARSAT-2 will have a frequency offset of 105 MHz with respect to RADARSAT-1 and (ii) RADARSAT-2 will be yaw steered while RADARSAT-1 is not. The range spectral shift associated with the frequency offset is three times larger than that between ERS-2 and ENVISAT (30 MHz frequency offset), however this disadvantage is partially offset by the considerably larger bandwidth of the RADARSAT satellites (100 MHz for RADARSAST-2). Nevertheless, the much larger spatial baseline necessary to achieve spectral overlap in range effectively translates into a smaller latitude range where conditions for cross InSAR could be met. Decorrelation with variations of surface slope will also be more severe than for the ERS-ENVISAT case. A bigger problem, however is to achieve azimuth spectral overlap in the face of significant squint angles for the RADARSAT-1 satellite. Squint is due to a superposition of the rotational velocity of the earth surface onto the motion vector of the spacecraft (ERS-2 and ENVISAT both compensate for this effect through yaw steering, and so will RADARSAT-2). Squint angle is about 4 degrees at the equator and goes to zero at the latitudes where the satellite turns (~80 degrees north and south). The small opening angle of the radar illumination cone (0.3 degrees) will likely limit the latitude band of natural azimuth spectral overlap to ~ few degrees off the turning latitude. This study will analyze the spectral

  14. Extra dose due to extravehicular activity during the NASA4 mission measured by an on-board TLD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Hejja, I.; Lang, E.; Feher, I.

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET.

  15. The Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS): Energetic Particle Measurements for the Solar Probe Plus Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, D. J.; Christian, E. R.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; McNutt, R. L.; Cummings, A. C.; Desai, M. I.; Giacalone, J.; Hill, M. E.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Krimigis, SA. M.; Livi, S. A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Roelof, E. C.; Stone, E. C.; Schwardron, N. A.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major goals of NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission is to determine the mechanisms that accelerate and transport high-energy particles from the solar atmosphere out into the heliosphere. Processes such as coronal mass ejections and solar flares, which peak roughly every 11 years around solar maximum, release huge quantities of energized matter, magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation into space. The high-energy particles, known as solar energetic particles or SEPs, present a serious radiation threat to human explorers living and working outside low-Earth orbit and to technological assets such as communications and scientific satellites in space. This talk describes the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS) - Energetic Particle Instrument suite. ISIS measures key properties such as intensities, energy spectra, composition, and angular distributions of the low-energy suprathermal source populations, as well as the more hazardous, higher energy particles ejected from the Sun. By making the first-ever direct measurements of the near-Sun regions where the acceleration takes place, ISIS will provide the critical measurements that, when integrated with other SPP instruments and with solar and interplanetary observations, will lead to a revolutionary new understanding of the Sun and major drivers of solar system space weather.

  16. Extra dose due to extravehicular activity during the NASA4 mission measured by an on-board TLD system.

    PubMed

    Deme, S; Apathy, I; Hejja, I; Lang, E; Feher, I

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET.

  17. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in the land use sector: from complementarity to synergy.

    PubMed

    Duguma, Lalisa A; Minang, Peter A; van Noordwijk, Meine

    2014-09-01

    Currently, mitigation and adaptation measures are handled separately, due to differences in priorities for the measures and segregated planning and implementation policies at international and national levels. There is a growing argument that synergistic approaches to adaptation and mitigation could bring substantial benefits at multiple scales in the land use sector. Nonetheless, efforts to implement synergies between adaptation and mitigation measures are rare due to the weak conceptual framing of the approach and constraining policy issues. In this paper, we explore the attributes of synergy and the necessary enabling conditions and discuss, as an example, experience with the Ngitili system in Tanzania that serves both adaptation and mitigation functions. An in-depth look into the current practices suggests that more emphasis is laid on complementarity-i.e., mitigation projects providing adaptation co-benefits and vice versa rather than on synergy. Unlike complementarity, synergy should emphasize functionally sustainable landscape systems in which adaptation and mitigation are optimized as part of multiple functions. We argue that the current practice of seeking co-benefits (complementarity) is a necessary but insufficient step toward addressing synergy. Moving forward from complementarity will require a paradigm shift from current compartmentalization between mitigation and adaptation to systems thinking at landscape scale. However, enabling policy, institutional, and investment conditions need to be developed at global, national, and local levels to achieve synergistic goals.

  18. Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in the Land Use Sector: From Complementarity to Synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguma, Lalisa A.; Minang, Peter A.; van Noordwijk, Meine

    2014-09-01

    Currently, mitigation and adaptation measures are handled separately, due to differences in priorities for the measures and segregated planning and implementation policies at international and national levels. There is a growing argument that synergistic approaches to adaptation and mitigation could bring substantial benefits at multiple scales in the land use sector. Nonetheless, efforts to implement synergies between adaptation and mitigation measures are rare due to the weak conceptual framing of the approach and constraining policy issues. In this paper, we explore the attributes of synergy and the necessary enabling conditions and discuss, as an example, experience with the Ngitili system in Tanzania that serves both adaptation and mitigation functions. An in-depth look into the current practices suggests that more emphasis is laid on complementarity—i.e., mitigation projects providing adaptation co-benefits and vice versa rather than on synergy. Unlike complementarity, synergy should emphasize functionally sustainable landscape systems in which adaptation and mitigation are optimized as part of multiple functions. We argue that the current practice of seeking co-benefits (complementarity) is a necessary but insufficient step toward addressing synergy. Moving forward from complementarity will require a paradigm shift from current compartmentalization between mitigation and adaptation to systems thinking at landscape scale. However, enabling policy, institutional, and investment conditions need to be developed at global, national, and local levels to achieve synergistic goals.

  19. The ground truth analysis of rain gauge data for the TRMM project. [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalewsky, Karen J.; Thiele, Otto

    1989-01-01

    As a part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Missioin (TRMM) ground truth program to determine the diurnal variability of the area wide rain rates, the rain rate PDFs, and their effect on the area integral algorithm, rain rate data have been collected from a network of gages located in the area near the Cape Canaveral and Kennedy Space Center, in the period beginning in September 1987. In the preliminary statistical analysis, based on the rain rates derived from the eleven gages, the seasonal diurnal rainfall and network averaged rain rates are determined. The analysis was performed in two steps: determination of the hourly and daily rain accumulations and rain rates; and computation of the fraction of hourly and daily rain rates that exceed a particular threshold, and analysis of the hourly and daily rain rate PDFs for the network. The results indicate that there are diurnal and seasonal variations in the components which determine the network rain rate PDFs.

  20. ECOSTRESS: NASA'S Next-Generation Mission to Measure Evapotranspiration from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. B.; Hook, S. J.; Allen, R. G.; Anderson, M. C.; French, A. N.; Hain, C.; Hulley, G. C.; Wood, E. F.

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, NASA selected the ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) as part of the call for Earth Venture Instruments. Built and led out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), ECOSTRESS will produce Land Surface Temperature, Evapotranspiration, Water Use Efficiency, and Evaporative Stress Index data products at 38x57 m spatial resolution every few days from the International Space Station. Moreover, because of the shifting orbit of the Space Station, ECOSTRESS will be able to construct a diurnal cycle of measurements enabling detection of, for example, afternoon stomatal closure in water stressed areas; detection is further enhanced in heterogeneous environments (e.g., mixed-species forests, agricultural areas) by the high spatial resolution. ECOSTRESS is scheduled for launch in 2017.

  1. Continuous metabolic and cardiovascular measurements on a monkey subject during a simulated 6-day Spacelab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Mains, R. C.; Kodama, A. M.; Mccutcheon, E. P.

    1979-01-01

    A 10-kg male pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina) was selected as an optimal species for spaceflight studies on weightlessness. Three days before the simulated launch, the animal was placed in a fiberglass pod system to provide continuous measurement of respiratory gas exchange. Attention is given to examining the effects of weightlessness on several basic parameters of metabolic and cardiovascular function in an adult nonhuman primate. The 10.7-day total simulated-experiment period consisted of preflight 2.6 days, inflight 6.3 days, and postflight 1.8 days. Statistically significant diurnal variation was noted in oxygen consumption and CO2 production rates, body temperature and HR, but not in respiratory quotient or blood pressure. The high quality of the continuous data obtained demonstrates the feasibility of performing sound physiological experimentation on nonhuman primates in the Spacelab environment.

  2. A proposed space mission around the Moon to measure the Moon Radio-Quiet Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonietti, N.; Pagana, G.; Pluchino, S.; Maccone, C.

    In a series of papers published since 2000 mainly in Acta Astronautica the senior author Maccone dealt with the advantages of the Farside of the Moon for future utilization Clearly the Moon Farside is free from RFI Radio Frequency Interference produced in larger and larger amounts by the increasing human exploitation of radio technologies That author suggested that crater Daedalus located at the center of the Farside was the best possible location to build up in the future one or more radiotelescopes or phased arrays to achieve the maximum sensitivity in radioastronomical and SETI searches Also a radio-quiet region of space above the Farside of the Moon exists and is called the Quiet Cone The Quiet Cone actual size however is largely unknown since it depends on the orbits of radio-emitting satellites around the Earth that are themselves largely unknown due to the military involvements In addition diffraction of electromagnetic waves grazing the surface of the Moon causes further changes in the geometrical shape of the Quiet Cone This riddle can be solved only by direct measurements of the radio attenuation above the Farside of the Moon performed by satellites orbiting the Moon itself In this paper we propose to let one or more low cost radiometers be put into orbit around the Moon to measure the RFI attenuation at different frequencies and altitudes above the Moon The opportunity of adding more payload s such as an ion detector and or a temperature sensor is evaluated also In this regard we present in this paper the experience gained by

  3. Family Synergy, A Variant Family Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFollette, Patrick

    1975-01-01

    This article describes "Family Synergy" which is a non-profit organization for people interested in or exploring nontraditional marriage and family forms. It acts as a clearinghouse for the exchange of ideas and also provides a supportive community for people actually exploring these new lifestyles. (Author)

  4. IT Portfolio Selection and IT Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Woo Je

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. The primary objectives of this dissertation are: (1) to provide a methodological framework of IT (Information Technology) portfolio management, and (2) to identify the effect of IT synergy on IT portfolio selection of a firm. The first chapter presents a methodological framework for IT project…

  5. Complete positive ion, electron, and ram negative ion measurements near Comet Halley (COPERNIC) plasma experiment for the European Giotto Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Robert P.

    1988-01-01

    Participation of U.S. scientists on the COPERNIC (COmplete Positive ions, Electrons and Ram Negative Ion measurements near Comet Halley) plasma experiment on the Giotto mission is described. The experiment consisted of two detectors: the EESA (electron electrostatic analyzer) which provided three-dimensional measurements of the distribution of electrons from 10 eV to 30 keV, and the PICCA (positive ion cluster composition analyzer) which provided mass analysis of positively charged cold cometary ions from mass 10 to 210 amu. In addition, a small 3 deg wide sector of the EESA looking in the ram direction was devoted to the detection of negatively charged cold cometary ions. Both detectors operated perfectly up to near closest approach (approx. 600 km) to Halley, but impacts of dust particles and neutral gas on the spacecraft contaminated parts of the data during the last few minutes. Although no flight hardware was fabricated in the U.S., The U.S. made very significant contributions to the hardware design, ground support equipment (GSE) design and fabrication, and flight and data reduction software required for the experiment, and also participated fully in the data reduction and analysis, and theoretical modeling and interpretation. Cometary data analysis is presented.

  6. Europa Lander Mission: A Challenge to Find Traces of Alien Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Korablev, Oleg; Vorobyova, Elena; Martynov, Maxim; Akim, Efraim L.; Zakahrov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    An international effort dedicated to science exploration of Jupiter system planned by ESA and NASA in the beginning of next decade includes in-depth science investigation of Europa. In parallel to EJSM (Europa-Jupiter System Mission) Russian Space Agency and the academy of Science plan Laplace-Europa Lander mission, which will include the small telecommunication and science orbiter and the surface element: Europa Lander. In-situ methods on the lander provide the only direct possibility to assess environmental conditions, and to perform the search for signatures of life. A critical advantage of such in situ analysis is the possibility to enhance concentration and detection limits and to provide ground truth for orbital measurements. The science mission of the lander is biological, geophysical, chemical, and environmental characterizations of the Europa surface. Remote investigations from the orbit around Europa would not be sufficient to address fully the astrobiology, geodesy, and geology goals. The science objectives of the planned mission, the synergy between the Europa Lander and EJSM mission elements, and a brief description of the Laplace-Europa Lander mission are presented.

  7. Health, supervisory support, and workplace culture in relation to work-family conflict and synergy.

    PubMed

    Beutell, Nicholas J

    2010-08-01

    This research examined health, supervisory support, and workplace culture as predictors of work interfering with family, family interfering with work, and work-family synergy. The analysis of data from 2,796 respondents from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce yielded significant relations among measures of mental health, self-rated health, supervisory support, and work-family culture with a focus on career concerns. Support was found for a measure of work-family synergy. Implications and directions for research are discussed.

  8. 10+ more years of Chandra-XMM-Newton Synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, B.

    2016-06-01

    In this current golden age of X-ray astronomy, the frontiers of the X-ray Universe are continually expanding in multiple, often unexpected, directions, due to the extraordinary success and longevity of both ESA's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These two ground-breaking, major observatories are supported by a number of smaller, more focused missions which feed into and expand the discovery space of X-ray astronomy even further. With the prospect of another decade of observing, now is an excellent time to take stock of how far we have come, and to look forward to the future with a view to maximizing the scientific legacy of both XMM-Newton and Chandra. This not only involves optimizing the contents of the archives and the impact of the science results, but also laying the ground-work for the next generation of X-ray telescopes, led by ESA's Athena mission in the late 2020s. I will summarize the synergy between XMM-Newton and Chandra, including complementary capabilities which facilitate coordinated observations and science programs, and overlapping capabilities which often provide the necessary confirmation (or not) of new, marginal and/or controversial results.

  9. Exploring Synergy between Classic Mutagens and Antibiotics To Examine Mechanisms of Synergy and Antibiotic Action

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lisa Yun; D'Souza, Sara; Lam, Karen; Kang, Tina Manzhu

    2015-01-01

    We used classical mutagens in Gram-negative Escherichia coli to study synergies with different classes of antibiotics, test models of antibiotic mechanisms of action, and examine the basis of synergy. We used 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO), zebularine (ZEB), 5-azacytidine (5AZ), 2-aminopurine (2AP), and 5-bromodeoxyuridine (5BrdU) as mutagens (with bactericidal potency of 4NQO > ZEB > 5AZ > 2AP > 5BrdU) and vancomycin (VAN), ciprofloxacin (CPR), trimethoprim (TMP), gentamicin (GEN), tetracycline (TET), erythromycin (ERY), and chloramphenicol (CHL) as antibiotics. We detected the strongest synergies with 4NQO, an agent that oxidizes guanines and ultimately results in double-strand breaks when paired with the bactericidal antibiotics VAN, TMP, CPR, and GEN, but no synergies with the bacteriostatic antibiotics TET, ERY, and CHL. Each of the other mutagens displays synergies with the bactericidal antibiotics to various degrees that reflect their potencies, as well as with some of the other mutagens. The results support recent models showing that bactericidal antibiotics kill bacteria principally by ultimately generating more double-strand breaks than can be repaired. We discuss the synergies seen here and elsewhere as representing dose effects of not the proximal target damage but rather the ultimate resulting double-strand breaks. We also used the results of pairwise tests to place the classic mutagens into functional antibacterial categories within a previously defined drug interaction network. PMID:26711761

  10. Mars 2020 Science Rover: Science Goals and Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, John F.; Beaty, D.; Bass, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Mars 2020 Science Definition Team (SDT), chartered in January 2013 by NASA, formulated a spacecraft mission concept for a science-focused, highly mobile rover to explore and investigate in detail a site on Mars that likely was once habitable. The mission, based on the Mars Science Laboratory landing and rover systems, would address, within a cost- and time-constrained framework, four objectives: (A) Explore an astrobiologically relevant ancient environment on Mars to decipher its geological processes and history, including the assessment of past habitability; (B) Assess the biosignature preservation potential within the selected geological environment and search for potential biosignatures; (C) Demonstrate significant technical progress towards the future return of scientifically selected, well-documented samples to Earth; and (D) provide an opportunity for contributed instruments from Human Exploration or Space Technology Programs. The SDT addressed the four mission objectives and six additional charter-specified tasks independently while specifically looking for synergy among them. Objectives A and B are each ends unto themselves, while Objective A is also the means by which samples are selected for objective B, and together they motivate and inform Objective C. The SDT also found that Objective D goals are well aligned with A through C. Critically, Objectives A, B, and C as an ensemble brought the SDT to the conclusion that exploration oriented toward both astrobiology and the preparation of a returnable cache of scientifically selected, well documented surface samples is the only acceptable mission concept. Importantly the SDT concluded that the measurements needed to attain these objectives were essentially identical, consisting of six types of field measurements: 1) context imaging 2) context mineralogy, 3) fine-scale imaging, 4) fine-scale mineralogy, 5) fine-scale elemental chemistry, and 6) organic matter detection. The mission concept fully addresses

  11. NASA Earth Remote Sensing Programs: An Overview with Special Emphasis on the NASA/JAXA Led Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of NASA's operations monitoring the earth from space. It includes information on NASA's administrative divisions and key operating earth science missions with specific information on the Landsat satellites, Seastar spacecraft, and the TRMM satellite.

  12. A synergy-based hand control is encoded in human motor cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Leo, Andrea; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bianchi, Matteo; Marino, Hamal; Gabiccini, Marco; Guidi, Andrea; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Pietrini, Pietro; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    How the human brain controls hand movements to carry out different tasks is still debated. The concept of synergy has been proposed to indicate functional modules that may simplify the control of hand postures by simultaneously recruiting sets of muscles and joints. However, whether and to what extent synergic hand postures are encoded as such at a cortical level remains unknown. Here, we combined kinematic, electromyography, and brain activity measures obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects performed a variety of movements towards virtual objects. Hand postural information, encoded through kinematic synergies, were represented in cortical areas devoted to hand motor control and successfully discriminated individual grasping movements, significantly outperforming alternative somatotopic or muscle-based models. Importantly, hand postural synergies were predicted by neural activation patterns within primary motor cortex. These findings support a novel cortical organization for hand movement control and open potential applications for brain-computer interfaces and neuroprostheses. PMID:26880543

  13. Power Systems for Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    Power system options were reviewed for their appropriateness to meet mission requirements and guidelines. Contending system technologies include: solar, nuclear, isotopic, electro-chemical and chemical. Mission elements can basically be placed into two categories; in-space transportation systems, both cargo and piloted; and surface systems, both stationary and mobile. All transportation and surface element power system requirements were assessed for application synergies that would suggest common hardware (duplicates of the same or similar design) or multi-use (reuse system in a different application/location), wherever prudent.

  14. Establishing sustainable international burn missions: lessons from India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anup; Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra F; Sinha, Indranil; Watkins, James F; Magee, William P; Persing, John A

    2013-07-01

    Burns constitute a significant portion of the worldwide disability adjusted life years by compromising form and function. Through the field's numerous reconstructive techniques, plastic surgery can treat many of these deficiencies stemming from burn injuries. We describe the steps necessary to establish international burn missions including realizing synergies among nonprofits and academic plastic surgery centers to restore form and function to burn patients.

  15. Cassini Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-08-10

    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint NASA/European Space Agency/Italian Space Agency project which has a spacecraft currently in orbit about Saturn, and has successfully sent an atmospheric probe through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan and down to its previously hidden surface. This presentation will describe the overall mission, how it got a rather massive spacecraft to Saturn, and will cover some of the scientific results of the mission to date.

  16. Cassini Solstice Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda J.; Pappalardo, R.; Scientists, Cassini

    2009-09-01

    Our understanding of the Saturn system has been greatly enhanced by the Cassini-Huygens mission. Fundamental new discoveries have altered our views of Saturn, Titan, the rings, moons, and magnetosphere of the system. The proposed 7-year Cassini Solstice Mission will address new questions that have arisen during the Prime and Equinox Missions, and observe seasonal and temporal change in the Saturn system to prepare for future missions. The proposed Solstice Mission will provide new science in three ways: first, by observing seasonally and temporally dependent processes on Titan, Saturn, and other icy satellites, and within the rings and magnetosphere, in a hitherto unobserved seasonal phase from equinox to solstice; second, by addressing new questions that have arisen during the mission thus far, for example providing qualitatively new measurements of Enceladus which could not be accommodated in the earlier mission phases, and third, by conducting a close-in mission at Saturn that will provide a unique comparison to the Juno observations at Jupiter. These types of observations, absent Cassini, will not be fulfilled for decades to come. This poster summarizes a white paper that has been prepared for the Space Studies Board 2013-2022 Planetary Science Decadal Survey on the Cassini Solstice mission. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2009 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  17. The "Synergies" Research-Practice Partnership Project: A "2020 Vision" Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, John H.; Dierking, Lynn D.; Staus, Nancy L.; Wyld, Jennifer N.; Bailey, Deborah L.; Penuel, William R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper, describes "Synergies," an on-going longitudinal study and design effort, being conducted in a diverse, under-resourced community in Portland, Oregon, with the goal of measurably improving STEM learning, interest and participation by early adolescents, both in school and out of school. Authors examine how the work of this…

  18. Discovering Pair-wise Synergies in Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Cao, Dan; Gao, Jun; Yuan, Zheming

    2016-01-01

    Informative gene selection can have important implications for the improvement of cancer diagnosis and the identification of new drug targets. Individual-gene-ranking methods ignore interactions between genes. Furthermore, popular pair-wise gene evaluation methods, e.g. TSP and TSG, are helpless for discovering pair-wise interactions. Several efforts to discover pair-wise synergy have been made based on the information approach, such as EMBP and FeatKNN. However, the methods which are employed to estimate mutual information, e.g. binarization, histogram-based and KNN estimators, depend on known data or domain characteristics. Recently, Reshef et al. proposed a novel maximal information coefficient (MIC) measure to capture a wide range of associations between two variables that has the property of generality. An extension from MIC(X; Y) to MIC(X1; X2; Y) is therefore desired. We developed an approximation algorithm for estimating MIC(X1; X2; Y) where Y is a discrete variable. MIC(X1; X2; Y) is employed to detect pair-wise synergy in simulation and cancer microarray data. The results indicate that MIC(X1; X2; Y) also has the property of generality. It can discover synergic genes that are undetectable by reference feature selection methods such as MIC(X; Y) and TSG. Synergic genes can distinguish different phenotypes. Finally, the biological relevance of these synergic genes is validated with GO annotation and OUgene database. PMID:27470995

  19. Discovering Pair-wise Synergies in Microarray Data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Cao, Dan; Gao, Jun; Yuan, Zheming

    2016-01-01

    Informative gene selection can have important implications for the improvement of cancer diagnosis and the identification of new drug targets. Individual-gene-ranking methods ignore interactions between genes. Furthermore, popular pair-wise gene evaluation methods, e.g. TSP and TSG, are helpless for discovering pair-wise interactions. Several efforts to discover pair-wise synergy have been made based on the information approach, such as EMBP and FeatKNN. However, the methods which are employed to estimate mutual information, e.g. binarization, histogram-based and KNN estimators, depend on known data or domain characteristics. Recently, Reshef et al. proposed a novel maximal information coefficient (MIC) measure to capture a wide range of associations between two variables that has the property of generality. An extension from MIC(X; Y) to MIC(X1; X2; Y) is therefore desired. We developed an approximation algorithm for estimating MIC(X1; X2; Y) where Y is a discrete variable. MIC(X1; X2; Y) is employed to detect pair-wise synergy in simulation and cancer microarray data. The results indicate that MIC(X1; X2; Y) also has the property of generality. It can discover synergic genes that are undetectable by reference feature selection methods such as MIC(X; Y) and TSG. Synergic genes can distinguish different phenotypes. Finally, the biological relevance of these synergic genes is validated with GO annotation and OUgene database. PMID:27470995

  20. PERCIVAL mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, David W.; Lilley, Stewart; Sirman, Melinda; Bolton, Paul; Elliott, Susan; Hamilton, Doug; Nickelson, James; Shelton, Artemus

    1992-01-01

    With the downturn of the world economy, the priority of unmanned exploration of the solar system has been lowered. Instead of foregoing all missions to our neighbors in the solar system, a new philosophy of exploration mission design has evolved to insure the continued exploration of the solar system. The 'Discovery-class' design philosophy uses a low cost, limited mission, available technology spacecraft instead of the previous 'Voyager-class' design philosophy that uses a 'do-everything at any cost' spacecraft. The Percival Mission to Mars was proposed by Ares Industries as one of the new 'Discovery-class' of exploration missions. The spacecraft will be christened Percival in honor of American astronomer Percival Lowell who proposed the existence of life on Mars in the early twentieth century. The main purpose of the Percival mission to Mars is to collect and relay scientific data to Earth suitable for designing future manned and unmanned missions to Mars. The measurements and observations made by Percival will help future mission designers to choose among landing sites based on the feasibility and scientific interest of the sites. The primary measurements conducted by the Percival mission include gravity field determination, surface and atmospheric composition, sub-surface soil composition, sub-surface seismic activity, surface weather patterns, and surface imaging. These measurements will be taken from the orbiting Percival spacecraft and from surface penetrators deployed from Mars orbit. The design work for the Percival Mission to Mars was divided among four technical areas: Orbits and Propulsion System, Surface Penetrators, Gravity and Science Instruments, and Spacecraft Structure and Systems. The results for each of the technical areas is summarized and followed by a design cost analysis and recommendations for future analyses.

  1. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Luce, M.; Barnett, J.; Beer, R.; Waters, J.; Gille, J.; Levelt, P. F.; DeCola, P.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The EOS Aura Mission is designed to make comprehensive chemical measurements of the troposphere and stratosphere. In addition the mission will make measurements of important climate variables such as aerosols, and upper tropospheric water vapor and ozone. Aura will launch in late 2003 and will fly 15 minutes behind EOS Aqua in a polar sun synchronous ascending node orbit with a 1:30 pm equator crossing time.

  2. Muscle synergies may improve optimization prediction of knee contact forces during walking.

    PubMed

    Walter, Jonathan P; Kinney, Allison L; Banks, Scott A; D'Lima, Darryl D; Besier, Thor F; Lloyd, David G; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2014-02-01

    The ability to predict patient-specific joint contact and muscle forces accurately could improve the treatment of walking-related disorders. Muscle synergy analysis, which decomposes a large number of muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals into a small number of synergy control signals, could reduce the dimensionality and thus redundancy of the muscle and contact force prediction process. This study investigated whether use of subject-specific synergy controls can improve optimization prediction of knee contact forces during walking. To generate the predictions, we performed mixed dynamic muscle force optimizations (i.e., inverse skeletal dynamics with forward muscle activation and contraction dynamics) using data collected from a subject implanted with a force-measuring knee replacement. Twelve optimization problems (three cases with four subcases each) that minimized the sum of squares of muscle excitations were formulated to investigate how synergy controls affect knee contact force predictions. The three cases were: (1) Calibrate+Match where muscle model parameter values were calibrated and experimental knee contact forces were simultaneously matched, (2) Precalibrate+Predict where experimental knee contact forces were predicted using precalibrated muscle model parameters values from the first case, and (3) Calibrate+Predict where muscle model parameter values were calibrated and experimental knee contact forces were simultaneously predicted, all while matching inverse dynamic loads at the hip, knee, and ankle. The four subcases used either 44 independent controls or five synergy controls with and without EMG shape tracking. For the Calibrate+Match case, all four subcases closely reproduced the measured medial and lateral knee contact forces (R2 ≥ 0.94, root-mean-square (RMS) error < 66 N), indicating sufficient model fidelity for contact force prediction. For the Precalibrate+Predict and Calibrate+Predict cases, synergy controls yielded better contact force

  3. IMP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program requirements and operations requirements for the IMP mission are presented. The satellite configuration is described and the missions are analyzed. The support equipment, logistics, range facilities, and responsibilities of the launching organizations are defined. The systems for telemetry, communications, satellite tracking, and satellite control are identified.

  4. Broadband permittivity measurements on porous planetary regoliths simulants, in relation with the Rosetta mission to 67P/C-G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouet, Yann; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Encrenaz, Pierre; Sabouroux, Pierre; Heggy, Essam; Kofman, Wlodek; Thomas, Nick

    2015-04-01

    The Rosetta mission has successfully rendezvous comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P) last year and landed Philae module on its nucleus on 12 November it 2014. Among instruments onboard Rosetta, MIRO [1], composed of two radiometers, with receivers at 190 GHz and 563 GHz (center-band), is dedicated to the measurements of the subsurface and surface brightness temperatures. These values depend on the complex relative permittivity (hereafter permittivity) with ɛ' and ɛ'' the real and imaginary parts. The permittivity of the material depends on frequency, bulk density/porosity, composition and temperature [2]. Considering the very low bulk density of 67P nucleus (about 450 kg.m-3 [3]) and the suspected presence of a dust mantle in many areas of the nucleus [4], investigations on the permittivity of porous granular samples are needed to support the interpretation of MIRO data, as well as of other microwave experiments onboard Rosetta, e.g. CONSERT [5], a bistatic penetrating radar working at 90 MHz. We have developed a programme of permittivity measurements on porous granular samples over a frequency range from 50 MHz to 190 GHz under laboratory conditions (e.g. [6] and [7]). We present new results obtained on JSC-1A lunar soil simulant and ashes from Etna. The samples were split into several sub-samples with different size ranges covering a few to 500 μm. Bulk densities of the sub-samples were carefully measured and found to be in the 800-1400 kg.m-3 range. Sub-samples were also dried and volumetric moisture content was found to be below 0.6%. From 50 MHz to 6 GHz and at 190 GHz, the permittivity has been determined, respectively with a coaxial cell and with a quasi-optical bench mounted in transmission, both connected to a vector network analyzer. The results demonstrate the dispersive behaviours of ɛ' between 50 MHz and 190 GHz. Values of ɛ' remain within the 3.9-2.6 range for all sub-samples. At CONSERT frequency, ɛ'' is within the 0.01-0.09 range

  5. Development and evaluation of a questionnaire to measure the perceived implementation of the mission statement of a competency based curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A mission statement (MS) sets out the long-term goals of an institution and is supposed to be suited for studying learning environments. Yet, hardly any study has tested this issue so far. The aim of the present study was the development and psychometric evaluation of an MS-Questionnaire (MSQ) focusing on explicit competencies. We investigated to what extent the MSQ captures the construct of learning environment and how well a faculty is following - in its perception - a competency orientation in a competency-based curriculum. Methods A questionnaire was derived from the MS “teaching” (Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf) which was based on (inter-) nationally accepted goals and recommendations for a competency based medical education. The MSQ was administered together with the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) to 1119 students and 258 teachers. Cronbach’s alpha was used to analyze the internal consistency of the items. Explorative factor analyses were performed to analyze homogeneity of the items within subscales and factorial validity of the MSQ. Item discrimination was assessed by means of part-whole corrected discrimination indices, and convergent validity was analyzed with respect to DREEM. Demographic variations of the respondents were used to analyze the inter-group variations in their responses. Results Students and teachers perceived the MS implementation as “moderate” and on average, students differed significantly in their perception of the MS. They thought implementation of the MS was less successful than faculty did. Women had a more positive perception of educational climate than their male colleagues and clinical students perceived the implementation of the MS on all dimensions significantly worse than preclinical students. The psychometric properties of the MSQ were very satisfactory: Item discrimination was high. Similarly to DREEM, the MSQ was highly reliable among students (α = 0.92) and

  6. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L. D.; Weissman, P.

    1980-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, launched about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low-energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and the mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. The mission should extend to 400-1000 AU from the sun. A heliocentric hyperbolic escape velocity of 50-100 km/sec or more is needed to attain this distance within a reasonable mission duration (20-50 years). The trajectory should be toward the incoming interstellar gas. For a year 2000 launch, a Pluto encounter and orbiter can be included. A second mission targeted parallel to the solar axis would also be worthwhile. The mission duration is 20 years, with an extended mission to a total of 50 years. A system using one or two stages of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) was selected as a possible baseline. The most promising alternatives are ultralight solar sails or laser sailing, with the lasers in earth orbit, for example. The NEP baseline design allows the option of carrying a Pluto orbiter as a daughter spacecraft.

  7. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for MSL-1: STS-83, Launched April 14, 1997; STS-94, Launched July 1, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskowitz, Milton E.; Hrovat, Kenneth; Tschen, Peter; McPherson, Kevin; Nati, Maurizio; Reckart, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    The microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle Columbia was measured during the STS-83 and STS-94 flights of the Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission using four different accelerometer systems: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), the Microgravity Measurement Assembly (MMA), and the Quasi-Steady Acceleration Measurement (QSAM) system. All four accelerometer systems provided investigators with acceleration measurements downlinked in near-real-time. Data from each system was recorded for post-mission analysis. The OARE measured the Shuttle's acceleration with high resolution in the quasi-steady frequency regime below about 0.1 Hz. The SAMS provided investigators with higher frequency acceleration measurements up to 25 Hz. The QSAM and MMA systems provided investigators with quasi-steady and higher frequency (up to 100 Hz) acceleration measurements, respectively. The microgravity environment related to various Orbiter maneuvers, crew activities, and experiment operations as measured by the OARE and MMA is presented and interpreted in section 8 of this report.

  8. Marine parameters from synergy of optical and radar satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, S.; Hoja, D.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, J.

    In 2001 the European Space Agency ESA will launch the earth observation satellite ENVISAT. It will carry several instruments that provide new opportunities to measure oceanographic variables. Together, they represent the main measurement techniques of satellite oceanography, and complement each other in an ideal manner. These instruments are to be used in synergy to: Improve the analysis of measured wind and ocean wave fields, and thereby improve weather forecasting at weather centers; Determine the extent and variables of sea ice and develop a five-day sea ice prediction model, to support maritime shipping and offshore activities; Monitor and map sediment and suspended matter transport in coastal regions, especially in areas with large river estuaries, which greatly affects shipping lanes, harbors, and dredging activities; Monitor hydrobiological and bio-geochemical variables related to water quality in coastal regions and large inland waters, which affects ecology, coastal development, aquaculture, drinking water supplies, and tourism. To prepare the oceanographic community to make best use of the ENVISAT sensors in the pre-launch phase, existing algorithms to derive marine parameters are used and validated using data from the ERS SAR, the ERS RA, SeaWiFS and IRS MOS sensors now in operation. Derived products are used to address problems that can best be tackled using the synergy of radar and optical data, such as the effect of surface slicks on radar wind measurements, of sea state on ocean color, of wind and waves on the resuspension of suspended matter, and of wind and waves on sea ice variables.

  9. Measurements of micron-scale meteoroids and orbital debris with the Space Dust (SPADUS) instrument on the upcoming ARGOS P91-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKibben, R. B.; Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    The space dust (SPADUS) experiment, to be launched into a sun-synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of 833 km onboard the USAF ARGOS P91-1 mission, will provide time-resolved measurements of the intensity, size spectrum and geocentric trajectories of dust particles encountered during the nominal three year mission. The experiment uses polyvinylidene fluoride dust sensors with a total detector area of 576 sq cm. The SPADUS will measure particle sizes between 2 and 200 microns, particle velocities between 1 and 10 km/s to better than 4 percent, and the direction of incidence with a mean error of 7 percent. These data will identify the particles as being debris or of natural origin.

  10. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  11. Anomalies and synergy in the caloric effects of magnetoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Shashwat; Waghmare, Umesh V.

    2014-12-01

    We determine isothermal entropy changes (Δ S) associated with electrocaloric, magnetocaloric, and the corresponding multicaloric effects in a model type-I multiferroic system using Landau-Devonshire thermodynamic analysis. We show that (a) the magnetocaloric effect exhibits an unexpected anomaly at the ferroelectric transition occurring at a high temperature, even in the absence of magnetic ordering, and (b) the synergy between electro- and magnetocaloric effects leads to a significantly enhanced multicaloric effect (\\mid Δ {{S}MultiCE}\\mid \\gt \\mid Δ {{S}ECE}\\mid +\\mid Δ {{S}MCE}\\mid ) over a wide temperature range when the difference in temperatures of magnetic and ferroelectric ordering (\\mid Δ {{T}C}\\mid =\\mid TCE-TCM\\mid ) is small. This result originate from the coupled thermal fluctuations of magnetic and electric order parameters. While the former is useful in detecting multiferroic materials from the measurements covering higher temperature transition alone, the latter augurs well for caloric applications of multiferroics.

  12. Air surface microdischarge-photon synergy in antibacterial plasma-activated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, David; Pavlovich, Mathew; Chang, Hung-Wen; Sakiyama, Yuki; Clark, Douglas

    2013-09-01

    We show that the antibacterial effects of air plasma on water can be amplified by synergy with ultraviolet (UV) photons. We use the surface microdischarge configuration (SMD) in atmospheric air adjacent to bacteria-laden water coupled with UVA (360 nm) photons from a light emitting diode (LED) to demonstrate this synergy. Air SMD, especially if operated in a confined space, can operate in different modes: low power mode (<0.1 W/cm2) generates primarily O3 whereas higher powers generate mainly nitrogen oxides; we focus here on the latter. The nitrogen oxide mode creates a powerful antibacterial mixture in water, including NO2-, NO3- and H2O2. Although these species alone can be strongly antibacterial, especially at low pH, we show that addition of UVA photons greatly amplifies the antibacterial effect. We first measured log reductions with only photons and then only plasma. Only when UVA exposes water after plasma does the synergy appear. Synergy appears to be due to UVA photolysis of plasma-generated NO2- to form NO and OH. We conclude that combining plasma-generated chemical species with activating photons can amplify and strengthen plasma effectiveness in many biological and other applications. Supported by Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Science Plasma Science Center.

  13. A New Web-based Tool for Aerosol Data Analysis: the AERONET Data Synergy Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Slutsker, I.; Welton, E. J.; Chin, M.; Schmaltz, J.; Kucsera, T.; Diehl, T.

    2006-12-01

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) provides important aerosol microphysical and optical properties via an extensive distribution of continental sites and sparsely-distributed coastal and oceanic sites among the major oceans and inland seas. These data provide only spatial point measurements while supplemental data are needed for a complete aerosol analysis. Ancillary data sets (e.g., MODIS true color imagery and back trajectory analyses) are available by navigating to several web data sources. In an effort to streamline aerosol data discovery and analysis, a new web data tool called the "AERONET Data Synergy Tool" was launched from the AERONET web site. This tool provides access to ground-based (AERONET and MPLNET), satellite (MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, and OMI) and model (GOCART and back trajectory analyses) databases via one web portal. The Data Synergy Tool user can access these data sources to obtain properties such as the optical depth, composition, absorption, size, spatial and vertical distribution, and source region of aerosols. AERONET Ascension Island and COVE platform site data will be presented to highlight the Data Synergy Tool capabilities in analyzing urban haze, smoke, and dust aerosol events over the ocean. Future development of the AERONET Data Synergy Tool will include the expansion of current data sets as well as the implementation of other Earth Science data sets pertinent to advancing aerosol research.

  14. Measurements of LET-distribution, dose equivalent and quality factor with the RRMD-III on the Space Shuttle Missions STS-84, -89 and -91.

    PubMed

    Doke, T; Hayashi, T; Kikuchi, J; Sakaguchi, T; Terasawa, K; Yoshihira, E; Nagaoka, S; Nakano, T; Takahashi, S

    2001-06-01

    Dosimetric measurements on the Space Shuttle Missions STS-84, -89 and -91 have been made by the real-time radiation monitoring device III (RRMD-III). Simultaneously, another dosimetry measurement was made by the Dosimetry Telescope (DOSTEL) on STS-84 and by the tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on STS-91. First, the RRMD-III instrument is described in detail and its results summarized. Then, the results of DOSTEL and TEPC are compared with those of the RRMD-III. Also, the absorbed doses obtained by TLD (Mg2SiO4) and by RRMD-III on board STS-84 and -91 are compared.

  15. Tapping Geography's Potential for Synergy with Creative Instructional Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway-Gomez, Kristen; Williams, Nikki; Atkinson-Palombo, Carol; Ahlqvist, Ola; Kim, Eje; Morgan, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    We define synergy, explain its importance within the context of rapidly changing academia, and provide examples of how geographic educators have used creative instructional approaches to create synergies. Both the content of geography and some of the instructional approaches used by geographic educators support the discipline's ability to deliver…

  16. Solar cosmic ray measurements at high heliocentric latitudes. [proposed space missions of solar probes to study solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, K. A.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review is presented of what might result from a program of solar cosmic ray observations on 'out-of-the-ecliptic' spacecraft. The following topics are discussed: (1) The magnetic fields of the sun at high latitudes, (2) propagation of fast charged particles in the solar corona and in interplanetary space at high latitudes, (3) origin of interplanetary particle populations and the solar wind, (4) other particle phenomena in interplanetary space (e.g., acceleration of shock waves), and (5) effect of spacecraft mission characteristics on solar cosmic ray studies at high latitudes. Maps of polar coronal magnetic fields are shown.

  17. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R. G.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L.; Weissman, P.

    1977-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, with launch about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. Candidate science instruments are suggested. Individual spacecraft systems for the mission were considered, technology requirements and problem areas noted, and a number of recommendations made for technology study and advanced development. The most critical technology needs include attainment of 50-yr spacecraft lifetime and development of a long-life NEP system.

  18. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed eLISA mission. The technologies required for eLISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical eLISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the eLISA constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the eLISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  19. Muscle synergy analysis in children with cerebral palsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lu; Li, Fei; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu; Wu, De; Chen, Xiang

    2015-08-01

    Objective. To explore the mechanism of lower extremity dysfunction of cerebral palsy (CP) children through muscle synergy analysis. Approach. Twelve CP children were involved in this study, ten adults (AD) and eight typically developed (TD) children were recruited as a control group. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were collected bilaterally from eight lower limb muscles of the subjects during forward walking at a comfortable speed. A nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm was used to extract muscle synergies. In view of muscle synergy differences in number, structure and symmetry, a model named synergy comprehensive assessment (SCA) was proposed to quantify the abnormality of muscle synergies. Main results. There existed larger variations between the muscle synergies of the CP group and the AD group in contrast with the TD group. Fewer mature synergies were recruited in the CP group, and many abnormal synergies specific to the CP group appeared. Specifically, CP children were found to recruit muscle synergies with a larger difference in structure and symmetry between two legs of one subject and different subjects. The proposed SCA scale demonstrated its great potential to quantitatively assess the lower-limb motor dysfunction of CP children. SCA scores of the CP group (57.00 ± 16.78) were found to be significantly less (p < 0.01) than that of the control group (AD group: 95.74 ± 2.04; TD group: 84.19 ± 11.76). Significance. The innovative quantitative results of this study can help us to better understand muscle synergy abnormality in CP children, which is related to their motor dysfunction and even the physiological change in their nervous system.

  20. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, M. Hongchul; Ting, Lena H.

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., <5°). Generalizable muscle activation patterns were suboptimal in terms of effort, often exceeding 50% of the maximum possible effort (cf. ~5% in minimum-effort muscle activation patterns). The feasible muscle activation ranges of individual

  1. Solar spectral irradiance observations between 200 and 360 NM made during the Atlas 1 mission: Comparisons between the SOLSPEC, SUSIM, and SSBUV measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuillier, G. O.; VanHoosier, M. E.; Cebula, R. P.

    1995-01-01

    The SOLSPEC, SSBUV, and SUSIM spectrometers observed the solar spectral irradiance simultaneously during the ATLAS-1 mission flown on board the Space Shuttle in March 1992. The three instruments use different methods and means of absolute calibration and were calibrated pre- and post-flight. The three data sets are reported from 200-360 nm at 1.1 nm resolution. The method of comparing the three independent data sets will be discussed. The importance of a common precise wavelength scale will be shown when comparing the data in the wavelength region of the strong Fraunhofer lines. The consistency of the three measurements is better than 5%. The fact that the calibrations of the three instruments were based on three independent national standards ensures that the absolute solar spectral irradiance in the range of 200-360 nm is now known with an accuracy of better than 5%. The data taken from this mission are compared with solar observations from other space based missions.

  2. The United States' Next Generation of Atmospheric Composition and Coastal Ecosystem Measurements: NASA's Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, J.; Iraci, Laura T.; Al-Saddi, J.; Chance, K.; Chavez, F.; Chin, M.; Coble, P.; Davis, C.; DiGiacomo, P. M.; Edwards, D.; Eldering, A.; Goes, J.; Herman, J.; Hu, C.; Jacob, D. J.; Jordan, C.; Kawa, S. R.; Key, R.; Liu, X.; Lohrenz, S.; Mannino, A.; Natraj, V.; Neil, D.; Neu, J.; Newchurch, M.; Pickering, K.; Salisbury, J.; Sosik, H.; Subramaniam, A.; Tzortziou, M; Wang, J.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission was recommended by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Earth Science Decadal Survey to measure tropospheric trace gases and aerosols and coastal ocean phytoplankton, water quality, and biogeochemistry from geostationary orbit, providing continuous observations within the field of view. To fulfill the mandate and address the challenge put forth by the NRC, two GEO-CAPE Science Working Groups (SWGs), representing the atmospheric composition and ocean color disciplines, have developed realistic science objectives using input drawn from several community workshops. The GEO-CAPE mission will take advantage of this revolutionary advance in temporal frequency for both of these disciplines. Multiple observations per day are required to explore the physical, chemical, and dynamical processes that determine tropospheric composition and air quality over spatial scales ranging from urban to continental, and over temporal scales ranging from diurnal to seasonal. Likewise, high-frequency satellite observations are critical to studying and quantifying biological, chemical, and physical processes within the coastal ocean. These observations are to be achieved from a vantage point near 95deg-100degW, providing a complete view of North America as well as the adjacent oceans. The SWGs have also endorsed the concept of phased implementation using commercial satellites to reduce mission risk and cost. GEO-CAPE will join the global constellation of geostationary atmospheric chemistry and coastal ocean color sensors planned to be in orbit in the 2020 time frame.

  3. Synergy of β-Lactams with Vancomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Correlation of Disk Diffusion and Checkerboard Methods.

    PubMed

    Sy, Cheng Len; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chen, Chii Shiang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Wann, Shue-Renn; Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Chen, Jui-Kuang; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Liu, Yung-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Modified disk diffusion (MDD) and checkerboard tests were employed to assess the synergy of combinations of vancomycin and β-lactam antibiotics for 59 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mu50 (ATCC 700699). Bacterial inocula equivalent to 0.5 and 2.0 McFarland standard were inoculated on agar plates containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 μg/ml of vancomycin. Oxacillin-, cefazolin-, and cefoxitin-impregnated disks were applied to the surface, and the zones of inhibition were measured at 24 h. The CLSI-recommended checkerboard method was used as a reference to detect synergy. The MICs for vancomycin were determined using the Etest method, broth microdilution, and the Vitek 2 automated system. Synergy was observed with the checkerboard method in 51% to 60% of the isolates when vancomycin was combined with any β-lactam. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices were significantly lower in MRSA isolates with higher vancomycin MIC combinations (P < 0.05). The overall agreement between the MDD and checkerboard methods to detect synergy in MRSA isolates with bacterial inocula equivalent to McFarland standard 0.5 were 33.0% and 62.5% for oxacillin, 45.1% and 52.4% for cefazolin, and 43.1% and 52.4% for cefoxitin when combined with 0.5 and 2 μg/ml of vancomycin, respectively. Based on our study, the simple MDD method is not recommended as a replacement for the checkerboard method to detect synergy. However, it may serve as an initial screening method for the detection of potential synergy when it is not feasible to perform other labor-intensive synergy tests. PMID:26677253

  4. Measurements of nitric acid, carboxylic acids, and selected aerosol species for the NASA/GTE Pacific Mission - West (PEM-WEST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, Robert W.; Dibb, Jack E.

    1993-01-01

    The research investigation funded through this grant to the University of New Hampshire was performed during a major field expedition conducted by the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program. The NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) executed an airborne science mission (PEM-WEST A) aboard the NASA Ames DC-8 over the Pacific Ocean during Sep./Oct. 1981. The atmosphere over the central Pacific Ocean is the only major region in the Northern Hemisphere that is relatively free from direct anthropogenic influence. Thus, this environment is ideally suited to study the natural biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, ozone, sulfur, and aerosols without serious confounding problems related to anthropogenic emissions. Asian sources account for about 17 percent of the global budgets of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The Pacific Rim region therefore provides the opportunity to study the anthropogenic impact on natural atmospheric chemical cycles. The PEM-WEST A flights were focused on contrasting the chemistry of 'clean' air over the central Pacific with anthropogenically impacted air advected off the Asian continent. The principal objectives of PEM-WEST A were to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of ozone (O3) and its precursors, and to study important aspects of the atmospheric sulfur cycle over the western Pacific Ocean. Measurements conducted by the University of New Hampshire contributed directly to both of these objectives. Subsequent PEM-WEST field missions are planned by GTE in the mid-1990's to contrast atmospheric chemistry documented during PEM-WEST A with other time periods. This report presents preliminary findings from the PEM-WEST A field mission. Data interpretation is currently ongoing with the goal of manuscript submission of scientific results to a special issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres in Feb. 1994. The reader is strongly encouraged to review this suite of profession articles to appreciate the overall

  5. Representation of Muscle Synergies in the Primate Brain

    PubMed Central

    d'Avella, Andrea; Roh, Jinsook; Carmena, Jose M.; Bizzi, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the CNS uses motor primitives to simplify movement control, but whether it actually stores primitives instead of computing solutions on the fly to satisfy task demands is a controversial and still-unanswered possibility. Also in contention is whether these primitives take the form of time-invariant muscle coactivations (“spatial” synergies) or time-varying muscle commands (“spatiotemporal” synergies). Here, we examined forelimb muscle patterns and motor cortical spiking data in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) handling objects of variable shape and size. From these data, we extracted both spatiotemporal and spatial synergies using non-negative decomposition. Each spatiotemporal synergy represents a sequence of muscular or neural activations that appeared to recur frequently during the animals' behavior. Key features of the spatiotemporal synergies (including their dimensionality, timing, and amplitude modulation) were independently observed in the muscular and neural data. In addition, both at the muscular and neural levels, these spatiotemporal synergies could be readily reconstructed as sequential activations of spatial synergies (a subset of those extracted independently from the task data), suggestive of a hierarchical relationship between the two levels of synergies. The possibility that motor cortex may execute even complex skill using spatiotemporal synergies has novel implications for the design of neuroprosthetic devices, which could gain computational efficiency by adopting the discrete and low-dimensional control that these primitives imply. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We studied the motor cortical and forearm muscular activity of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) as they reached, grasped, and carried objects of varied shape and size. We applied non-negative matrix factorization separately to the cortical and muscular data to reduce their dimensionality to a smaller set of time-varying “spatiotemporal” synergies. Each synergy

  6. COMET: a planned airborne mission to simultaneously measure CO2 and CH4 columns using airborne remote sensing and in-situ techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fix, A.; Amediek, A.; Büdenbender, C.; Ehret, G.; Wirth, M.; Quatrevalet, M.; Rapp, M.; Gerilowski, K.; Bovensmann, H.; Gerbig, C.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Zöger, M.; Giez, A.

    2013-12-01

    To better predict future trends in the cycles of the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases, CO2 and CH4, there is a need to measure and understand their distribution and variation on various scales. To address these requirements it is envisaged to deploy a suite of state-of-the-art airborne instruments that will be capable to simultaneously measure the column averaged dry-air mixing ratios (XGHG) of both greenhouse gases along the flight path. As the measurement platform serves the research aircraft HALO, a modified Gulfstream G550, operated by DLR. This activity is dubbed CoMet (CO2 and Methane Mission). The instrument package of CoMet will consist of active and passive remote sensors as well as in-situ instruments to complement the column measurements by highly-resolved profile information. As an active remote sensing instrument CHARM-F, the integrated-path differential absorption lidar currently under development at DLR, will provide both, XCO2 and XCH4, below flight altitude. The lidar instrument will be complemented by MAMAP which is a NIR/SWIR absorption spectrometer developed by University of Bremen and which is also capable to derive XCH4 and XCO2. As an additional passive instrument, mini-DOAS operated by University of Heidelberg will contribute with additional context information about the investigated air masses. In order to compare the remote sensing instruments with integrated profile information, in-situ instrumentation is indispensable. The in-situ package will therefore comprise wavelength-scanned Cavity-Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) for the detection of CO2, CH4, CO and H2O and a flask sampler for collection of atmospheric samples and subsequent laboratory analysis. Furthermore, the BAsic HALO Measurement And Sensor System (BAHAMAS) will provide an accurate set of meteorological and aircraft state parameters for each scientific flight. Within the frame of the first CoMet mission scheduled for the 2015 timeframe it is planned to concentrate

  7. Synergies among extinction drivers under global change.

    PubMed

    Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2008-08-01

    If habitat destruction or overexploitation of populations is severe, species loss can occur directly and abruptly. Yet the final descent to extinction is often driven by synergistic processes (amplifying feedbacks) that can be disconnected from the original cause of decline. We review recent observational, experimental and meta-analytic work which together show that owing to interacting and self-reinforcing processes, estimates of extinction risk for most species are more severe than previously recognised. As such, conservation actions which only target single-threat drivers risk being inadequate because of the cascading effects caused by unmanaged synergies. Future work should focus on how climate change will interact with and accelerate ongoing threats to biodiversity, such as habitat degradation, overexploitation and invasive species.

  8. Mission Possible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittle, Penny, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    As teachers, our most important mission is to turn our students into readers. It sounds so simple, but it's hard work, and we're all on a deadline. Kittle describes a class in which her own expectations that students would become readers combined with a few impassioned strategies succeeded ... at least with a young man named Alan.

  9. NASA Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM): Effects of tropical rainfall on upper ocean dynamics, air-sea coupling and hydrologic cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, Gary; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Liu, W. Timothy; Lukas, Roger B.; Niiler, Pern P.; Swift, Calvin T.

    1995-01-01

    This was a Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) modeling, analysis and applications research project. Our broad scientific goals addressed three of the seven TRMM Priority Science Questions, specifically: What is the monthly average rainfall over the tropical ocean areas of about 10(exp 5) sq km, and how does this rain and its variability affect the structure and circulation of the tropical oceans? What is the relationship between precipitation and changes in the boundary conditions at the Earth's surface (e.g., sea surface temperature, soil properties, vegetation)? How can improved documentation of rainfall improve understanding of the hydrological cycle in the tropics?

  10. In-flight verification of avalanche photodiodes: avenue to a low-cost solution to measure suprathermal particles for future missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, K.; Bonnell, J. W.; Christian, E. R.; Desai, M. I.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Jahn, J. M.; Livi, S. A.; Kanekal, S. G.; Llera, K.; McComas, D. J.; Michell, R.; Samara, M.; Vines, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Flight operation results and plans of Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) to measure suprathermal particles (a ~few keV up to ~100s of keV) are summarized in this presentation. Ions and electrons in this energy range play crucial roles in many fundamental processes of space plasmas including particle heating and acceleration, providing source material for the energetic particles accelerated near the Sun, the heliosphere, and in geospace. Characterizing these populations poses serious technical challenges because this energy region lies between the two most commonly used particle detection techniques, i.e., that used by thermal or plasma instruments and by Solid-State Detector (SSD)-based energetic particle telescopes, which are limited by typical SSD threshold energies of >10s keV. Our previous work has already demonstrated that a new type of low-noise, low-threshold Avalanche Photo-Diode (APD) has an intrinsic noise level of 0.9 keV, and can therefore enable high-energy resolution measurements of suprathermal electrons and ions. In addition, APDs provide suitable solutions for space plasma detectors in low-cost missions/platform because of their light-weight, small-size, power-saving features. This study presents two low-cost missions (a sounding rocket and a CubeSat) that implement APDs as particle detectors: (1) The Medium-energy Electron SPectrometer (MESP) sensor aboard a sounding rocket was launched from Poker Flat Research Range on 3 March 2014 as a part of Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics-Electrons Correlative Experiment (GREECE) mission. MESP successfully measured the precipitating electrons from 2 to 200 keV in 100-ms time resolution by using 2 APDs and 1 SSD. We show the overall results and the comparison with an MCP-based instrument results. (2) The Miniaturized Electron and pRoton Telescope (MERiT) on the Compact Radiation bElt Explorer (CeREs) to study charged particle dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts. CeREs will be flown as part of a 3U CubeSat in a

  11. Clarifying socio-economic impacts and mitigation measures related to potential changes in missions at the Rocky Flats Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Research conducted to clarify the socioeconomic impacts on the Denver-Boulder area of potential changes in missions at the Rocky Flats Plant and the mitigation measures taken to contain these impacts are described. Two primary alternatives have been examined, including the relocation of certain activities associated with radioactive materials, as well as a total phase out of the plant over the next decade. These perspectives include an assessment of alternative uses for Rocky Flats by both governmental agencies and private sector developers. Major findings address location, employment, public involvement, private enterprises, community attitudes, employee relocation; land use; and environment. (PSB)

  12. Motor Synergies and the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The article offers a way to unite three recent developments in the field of motor control and coordination: (1) The notion of synergies is introduced based on the principle of motor abundance; (2) The uncontrolled manifold hypothesis is described as offering a computational framework to identify and quantify synergies; and (3) The equilibrium-point hypothesis is described for a single muscle, single joint, and multi-joint systems. Merging these concepts into a single coherent scheme requires focusing on control variables rather than performance variables. The principle of minimal final action is formulated as the guiding principle within the referent configuration hypothesis. Motor actions are associated with setting two types of variables by a controller, those that ultimately define average performance patterns and those that define associated synergies. Predictions of the suggested scheme are reviewed, such as the phenomenon of anticipatory synergy adjustments, quick actions without changes in synergies, atypical synergies, and changes in synergies with practice. A few models are briefly reviewed. PMID:20702893

  13. Anticipatory synergy adjustments reflect individual performance of feedforward force control.

    PubMed

    Togo, Shunta; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    We grasp and dexterously manipulate an object through multi-digit synergy. In the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis, multi-digit synergy is defined as the coordinated control mechanism of fingers to stabilize variable important for task success, e.g., total force. Previous studies reported anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) that correspond to a drop of the synergy index before a quick change of the total force. The present study compared ASA's properties with individual performances of feedforward force control to investigate a relationship of those. Subjects performed a total finger force production task that consisted of a phase in which subjects tracked target line with visual information and a phase in which subjects produced total force pulse without visual information. We quantified their multi-digit synergy through UCM analysis and observed significant ASAs before producing total force pulse. The time of the ASA initiation and the magnitude of the drop of the synergy index were significantly correlated with the error of force pulse, but not with the tracking error. Almost all subjects showed a significant increase of the variance that affected the total force. Our study directly showed that ASA reflects the individual performance of feedforward force control independently of target-tracking performance and suggests that the multi-digit synergy was weakened to adjust the multi-digit movements based on a prediction error so as to reduce the future error.

  14. NEEMO 7 undersea mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran

    2007-02-01

    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  15. Hierarchical control of static prehension: II. Multi-digit synergies.

    PubMed

    Gorniak, Stacey L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to organize synergies at two levels of a hypothetical control hierarchy involved in two-hand multi-finger prehension tasks with one or more persons participating in the task together. At the higher level of the hierarchy, the total force and moment of force produced on an object are distributed between the thumb and the virtual finger (an imagined finger with mechanical output equal to the involved fingers of the hand), while at the lower level the virtual finger action is distributed among the four fingers. We tested a hypothesis that the CNS is able to organize synergies at only one level of the hierarchy. The subjects held vertically one of the two handles, a narrow one and a wide one. They used the four fingers of the right hand opposed by the right hand thumb, the left hand thumb, the left hand index finger, the thumb of an experimenter, the index finger of an experimenter, or an inanimate object. Forces and moments of force produced by each digit were recorded. Indices of synergies stabilizing the mechanical output variables at each of the two levels were computed. Contrary to the expectations, force and moment of force stabilizing synergies were found at one or both levels of the hierarchy across all tasks. Unimanual tasks exhibited higher synergy indices compared to all tasks, while intrapersonal synergy indices were higher than those of interpersonal synergies. The results suggest that both feed-forward and feedback mechanisms may be used to create force and moment of force stabilizing synergies. We invoke the notion of chain effects and generalize it for relations among variance components related to stabilization of different mechanical variables. The reference configuration hypothesis offers a fruitful framework for analysis of prehension synergies. PMID:19048236

  16. Hierarchical control of static prehension: II. Multi-digit synergies

    PubMed Central

    Gorniak, Stacey L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to organize synergies at two levels of a hypothetical control hierarchy involved in two-hand multi-finger prehension tasks with one or more persons participating in the task together. At the higher level of the hierarchy, the total force and moment of force produced on an object are distributed between the thumb and the virtual finger (an imagined finger with mechanical output equal to the involved fingers of the hand), while at the lower level the virtual finger action is distributed among the four fingers. We tested a hypothesis that the CNS is able to organize synergies at only one level of the hierarchy. The subjects held vertically one of the two handles, a narrow one and a wide one. They used the four fingers of the right hand opposed by either the right hand thumb, the left hand thumb, the left hand index finger, the thumb of an experimenter, the index finger of an experimenter, or an inanimate object. Forces and moments of force produced by each digit were recorded. Indices of synergies stabilizing the mechanical output variables at each of the two levels were computed. Contrary to the expectations, force and moment of force stabilizing synergies were found at one or both levels of the hierarchy across all tasks. Unimanual tasks exhibited higher synergy indices compared to all tasks, while intrapersonal synergy indices were higher than those of interpersonal synergies. The results suggest that both feed-forward and feedback mechanisms may be used to create force and moment of force stabilizing synergies. We invoke the notion of chain effects and generalize it for relations among variance components related to stabilization of different mechanical variables. The reference configuration hypothesis offers a fruitful framework for analysis of prehension synergies. PMID:19048236

  17. [Physiological problems of manned mission to Mars].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, A I

    2007-05-01

    Harsh environment and extreme factors related to the supposed exploration missions to Mars are considered as well as concomitant human organism reactions. Further investigations are required to get insight into the effects of gravity ranging from microgravity to hypogravity to hypergravity the crew will be exposed to during this voyage. A special emphasis should be placed on the studies of artificial gravity as an alternative to the existing in-flight countermeasures. Other issues to be attended include transitory states of human organism as a response to changes in gravity, effects of ionizing radiation and synergy of the variety of flight factors, and mechanisms of the hypomagnetic effects.

  18. Measurements of Acidic Gases and Aerosol Species Aboard the NASA DC-8 Aircraft During the Pacific Exploratory Mission in the Tropics (PEM-Tropics A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, Robert W.; Dibb, Jack E.

    1999-01-01

    We received funding to provide measurements of nitric acid (HNO3), formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), and the chemical composition of aerosols aboard the NASA Ames DC-8 research aircraft during the PEM-Tropics A mission. These measurements were successfully completed and the final data resides in the electronic archive (ftp-gte.larc.nasa.gov) at NASA Langley Research Center. For the PEM-Tropics A mission the University of New Hampshire group was first author of four different manuscripts. Three of these have now appeared in the Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, included in the two section sections on PEM-Tropics A. The fourth manuscript has just recently been submitted to this same journal as a stand alone paper. All four of these papers are included in this report. The first paper (Influence of biomass combustion emissions on the distribution of acidic trace gases over the Southern Pacific basin during austral springtime) describes the large-scale distributions of HNO3, HCOOH, and CH3COOH. Arguments were presented to show, particularly in the middle tropospheric region, that biomass burning emissions from South America and Africa were a major source of acidic gases over the South Pacific basin. The second paper (Aerosol chemical composition and distribution during the Pacific Exploratory Mission (PEM) Tropics) covers the aerosol aspects of our measurement package. Compared to acidic gases, O3, and selected hydrocarbons, the aerosol chemistry showed little influence from biomass burning emissions. The data collected in the marine boundary layer showed a possible marine source of NH3 to the troposphere in equatorial areas. This source had been speculated on previously, but our data was the first collected from an airborne platform to show its large-scale features. The third paper (Constraints on the age and dilution of Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics biomass burning plumes from the natural radionuclide tracer Pb-210) utilized the unexpectedly

  19. The Euclid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, Giuseppe; Laureijs, Rene

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing their signatures on the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of large structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid is optimised for two primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for a launch date in the first half of 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. The Payload Module consists of a 1.2 m three-mirror Korsch type telescope and of two instruments, the visible imager and the near-infrared spectro-photometer, both covering a large common field-of-view enabling to survey more than 35% of the entire sky. The ground segment is broken down into three elements: the Mission Operations, the Science Operations under the responsibility of ESA and the Science Data Centres belonging to the Euclid Consortium. We will describe the overall mission, the mission elements architecture and the current project status.

  20. The capability of satellite borne remote sensors to measure stratospheric trace constituents. Volume 2: Ozone and aerosol related missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Stratospheric trace constituent measurement requirements are separated into two somewhat overlapping areas. In the first area, it is assumed that the only problem of interest is ozone; its chemistry chain, environmental effects and measurement requirements. In like manner, in the second area it is assumed that the only problem of interest is stratospheric aerosols; their chemistry, effects and measurement requirements.

  1. PhyLM: A Mission Design Concept for an Optical/Lidar Instrument to Measure Ocean Productivity and Aerosols from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, Janette C.; Behrenfeld, Michael; McClain, Charles R.; Spinhirne, James; Purves, Lloyd; Wood, H. John; Roberto, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The Physiology Lidar-Multispectral Mission (PhyLM) is intended to explore the complex ecosystems of our global oceans. New "inversion" methods and improved understanding of marine optics have opened the door to quantifying a range of critical ocean properties. This new information could revolutionize our understanding of global ocean processes, such as phytoplankton growth, harmful algal blooms, carbon fluxes between major pools and the productivity equation. The new science requires new measurements not addressed by currently planned space missions. PhyLM will combine active and advanced passive remote sensing technologies to quantify standing stocks and fluxes of climate-critical components of the Ocean carbon cycle to meet these science providing multispectral bands from the far UV through the near infrared (340 - 1250 nm) at a ground resolution of 250 m. Improved detectors, filters, mirrors, digitization and focal plane design will offer an overall higher-quality data product. The unprecedented accuracy and precision of the absolute water-leaving radiances will support inversion- based quantification of an expanded set of ocean carbon cycle components. The dual- wavelength (532 & 1064 nm) Nd:Yag Lidar will enhance the accuracy and precision of the passive data by providing aerosol profiles for atmospheric correction and coincident active measurements of backscattering. The Lidar will also examine dark-side fluorescence as an additional approach to quantifying phytoplankton biomass in highly productive regions.

  2. HYDROS: The Hydrosphere State Exploratory Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entekhabi, D.; Njoku, E.; Houser, P.; Belair, S.; Jackson, T.; Kerr, Y.; Kimball, J.; Koster, R.; McDonald, K.; O'Neill, P.; Pulz, T.; Running, S.; Shi, J.; van Zyl, J.; Wood, E.

    2001-12-01

    In order to better understand and monitor the total Earth system, to learn how it is changing, and to predict the effects of changes on the global environment the HYDROS - the Hydrosphere State Exploratory Mission - is proposed to investigate two high-priority science questions about the Earth system: (1) How are global precipitation, evaporation, and the cycling of water changing? and (2) How do ecosystems respond to and affect global environmental change and the carbon cycle? HYDROS will provide global observations of the Earth's changing soil moisture and surface freeze/thaw conditions which together define the land hydrosphere state. Knowledge of this state is vital to understanding the Earth system cycling of water, energy, and carbon because fluxes of these quantities at the land-atmosphere boundary are strongly influenced by a surface resistance that is linked to the soil moisture and surface freeze/thaw condition. This resistance exerts the primary control on evaporation, transpiration, and carbon exchange over most of the global land surface and, hence, is a fundamental determinant of the global water, energy and carbon cycles. The characteristics of a space-borne and high-resolution mapping system is presented. The baseline mission builds on the heritage of ground-based and airborne passive and active low-frequency microwave measurements that have demonstrated and validated the effectiveness of the measurements. The radiometer design provides polarized brightness temperature fields at 1.4 GHz across a wide swath ( ~900 km) at a resolution of 40 km. The 1.2 GHz (VV, HH, and HV) radar design is capable of high-resolution mapping (<3 km) over 70 percent of the swath and low-resolution across the remainder. All terrestrial land regions are revisited within 2-3 days. A light-weight deployable mesh reflector rotates at 6rpm to make conical scans at a constant-incidence angle. Finally we present a strategy for using data assimilation to use the synergy of

  3. Development of Ground-Based Auroral Photometry Techniques Using In-Situ Electron Precipitation Measurements from the GREECE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubbs, G. A., II; Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Hampton, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics-Electrons Correlative Experiment (GREECE) mission successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska on 03 March 2014 at 11:09:50 UT and reached an apogee of approximately 335 km during a luminous auroral event. Multiple ground-based electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) imagers were positioned at Venetie, Alaska and aimed along magnetic zenith in order to observe the brightness of different auroral emission lines (427.8, 557.7, and 844.6 nm with a 47 degree field of view) at the magnetic footpoint of the payload, near apogee. Emission line brightness data are presented at the footpoint of the rocket flight and correlated with electron characteristics taken by the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) on-board instrument. Ratios of different auroral emission lines are also compared to previously published methods and models. This research aims to describe the auroral emissions produced from a known precipitating electron distribution, such that we can more accurately use ground-based imaging and photometry to infer the characteristics of the precipitating electrons. These techniques can then be applied over larger scales and longer times, when only multi-spectral imaging data are available with no corresponding in situ data.

  4. Generational differences in work-family conflict and synergy.

    PubMed

    Beutell, Nicholas J

    2013-06-19

    This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502). Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work) but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  5. Generational Differences in Work-Family Conflict and Synergy

    PubMed Central

    Beutell, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502). Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work) but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23783221

  6. Apollo 16 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Information is provided on the operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 16 mission. Customary units of measurement are used in those sections of the report pertaining to spacecraft systems and trajectories. The International System of Units is used in sections pertaining to science activities.

  7. The OASIS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Binns, W. robert; Christl, Mark; Cosse, Charles B.; Guzik, T. Gregory; deNolfo, Georgia A.; Hams,Thomas; Isbert, Joachim; Israel, Martin H.; Krizmanic, John F.; Labrador, Allan W.; Link, Jason T.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Mitchell, Martin H.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Sasaki, Makoto; Stochaj, Steven J.; Stone, Edward C.; Steitmatter, Robert E.; Waddington, C. Jake; Watts, John W.; Wefel, John P.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    The Orbiting Astrophysical Observatory in Space (OASIS) is a mission to investigate Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), a major feature of our galaxy. OASIS will use measurements of GCRs to determine the cosmic ray source, where they are accelerated, to investigate local accelerators and to learn what they can tell us about the interstellar medium and the processes that occur in it. OASIS will determine the astrophysical sources of both the material and acceleration of GCRs by measuring the abundances of the rare actinide nuclei and make direct measurements of the spectrum and anisotropy of electrons at energies up to approx.10 TeV, well beyond the range of the Fermi and AMS missions. OASIS has two instruments. The Energetic Trans-Iron Composition Experiment (ENTICE) instrument measures elemental composition. It resolves individual elements with atomic number (Z) from 10 to 130 and has a collecting power of 60m2.str.yrs, >20 times larger than previous instruments, and with improved resolution. The sample of 10(exp 10) GCRs collected by ENTICE will include .100 well-resolved actinides. The High Energy Particle Calorimeter Telescope (HEPCaT) is an ionization calorimeter that will extend the electron spectrum into the TeV region for the first time. It has 7.5 sq m.str.yrs of collecting power. This talk will describe the scientific objectives of the OASIS mission and its discovery potential. The mission and its two instruments which have been designed to accomplish this investigation will also be described.

  8. A Full Mission Simulator Study of Aircrew Performances: the Measurement of Crew Coordination and Decisionmaking Factors and Their Relationships to Flight Task Performances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.; Randle, R. J.; Tanner, T. A.; Frankel, R. M.; Goguen, J. A.; Linde, C.

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen three man crews flew a full mission scenario in an airline flight simulator. A high level of verbal interaction during instances of critical decision making was located. Each crew flew the scenario only once, without prior knowledge of the scenario problem. Following a simulator run and in accord with formal instructions, each of the three crew members independently viewed and commented on a videotape of their performance. Two check pilot observers rated pilot performance across all crews and, following each run, also commented on the video tape of the crew's performance. A linguistic analysis of voice transcript is made to provide assessment of crew coordination and decision making qualities. Measures of crew coordination and decision making factors are correlated with flight task performance measures.

  9. Synergy optimization and operation management on syndicate complementary knowledge cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Kai-Jan

    2014-10-01

    The number of multi enterprises knowledge cooperation has grown steadily, as a result of global innovation competitions. I have conducted research based on optimization and operation studies in this article, and gained the conclusion that synergy management is effective means to break through various management barriers and solve cooperation's chaotic systems. Enterprises must communicate system vision and access complementary knowledge. These are crucial considerations for enterprises to exert their optimization and operation knowledge cooperation synergy to meet global marketing challenges.

  10. Do muscle synergies reduce the dimensionality of behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Kuppuswamy, Naveen; Harris, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The muscle synergy hypothesis is an archetype of the notion of Dimensionality Reduction (DR) occurring in the central nervous system due to modular organization. Toward validating this hypothesis, it is important to understand if muscle synergies can reduce the state-space dimensionality while maintaining task control. In this paper we present a scheme for investigating this reduction utilizing the temporal muscle synergy formulation. Our approach is based on the observation that constraining the control input to a weighted combination of temporal muscle synergies also constrains the dynamic behavior of a system in a trajectory-specific manner. We compute this constrained reformulation of system dynamics and then use the method of system balancing for quantifying the DR; we term this approach as Trajectory Specific Dimensionality Analysis (TSDA). We then investigate the consequence of minimization of the dimensionality for a given task. These methods are tested in simulations on a linear (tethered mass) and a non-linear (compliant kinematic chain) system. Dimensionality of various reaching trajectories is compared when using idealized temporal synergies. We show that as a consequence of this Minimum Dimensional Control (MDC) model, smooth straight-line Cartesian trajectories with bell-shaped velocity profiles emerged as the optima for the reaching task. We also investigated the effect on dimensionality due to adding via-points to a trajectory. The results indicate that a trajectory and synergy basis specific DR of behavior results from muscle synergy control. The implications of these results for the synergy hypothesis, optimal motor control, motor development, and robotics are discussed. PMID:25002844

  11. STS-52 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The STS-52 insignia, designed by the mission's crew members, features a large gold star to symbolize the crew's mission on the frontiers of space. A gold star is often used to symbolize the frontier period of the American West. The red star in the shape of the Greek letter lambda represents both the laser measurements taken from the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS II) and the Lambda Point Experiment, which was part of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-l). The remote manipulator and maple leaf are emblematic of the Canadian payload specialist who conducted a series of Canadian flight experiments (CANEX-2), including the Space Vision System test.

  12. Optimization of the dust sensor in the Mars MetNet Mission; extension to in situ CO2 concentration and surface temperature measurements by infrared multispectral sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, F.; González, A.; Llopis, A.; de Castro, A. J.; Meléndez, J.; López, F.

    2012-12-01

    Martian atmosphere contains two main mechanisms leading the heat transfer process: CO2 and suspended dust. The flight model (FM) of the current Dust Sensor (DS) of the Mars MetNet Mission has already been fabricated providing only with the ability for measuring the particle size distribution. The optimized DS proposed in this work includes two sub-instruments more for measuring both, CO2 concentration and ground temperature. This DS will allow correlate the particle size distribution of the airborne dust, the CO2 concentration and the ground temperature, in a specific location on the Martian surface. All of these parameters will be measured as an in-situ parameter, giving very valuable information about the Martian Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). The scope of the Mars MetNet Mission is to deploy, in successive flights, several tens of mini atmospheric stations on the Martian surface. Infrared Lab in University Carlos III (LIR- UC3M) is in charge of the design and development of the DS, a micro-sensor (mass <100 g and mean power <1W) which scope is the characterization of airborne dust and other parameters of interest in the heat transfer process. The DS detection principle is of MIE scattering wavelength dependence when particle size is similar to that., so the sensor is provided with spectral resolution,. The optimized DS incorporates angular dependence, so the data retrieval algorithm takes both spectral and angular information making the algorithm most robust. The incorporation of new parameters such as CO2 and ground temperature is possible thanks to the addition of new sensor elements, properly spectrally tuned. As in the previous DS each parameter is also measured within the MWIR range and the spectral resolution is provided by a interference filter, specifically designed for.

  13. Global mental health and neuroscience: potential synergies.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. PMID:26359754

  14. Synergies with CTA and VHE Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.

    2016-06-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a next-generation observatory for very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy. With one array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes each in the northern and southern hemispheres, CTA will provide full-sky coverage, enhance flux sensitivity by one order of magnitude compared to current instruments, cover gamma-ray energies from 20 GeV to 300 TeV, and provide angular resolution of a few arc-minutes across a multi-degree field of view. In the context of its Key Science Projects (KSPs), CTA will conduct a census of particle acceleration in the universe, with quarter-sky extragalactic, full-plane Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud surveys planned. Additional KSPs are focused on transients, acceleration up to PeV energies in our own galaxy, active galaxies, star-forming systems on a wide range of scales, and the Perseus cluster of galaxies. A major element of the programme is the search for dark matter, in particular the annihilation signature of WIMPs. Like for current-generation VHE instruments, CTA science will strongly rely upon multiwavelength observations of sources, with the X-ray domain playing a particularly crucial role. The presentation will briefly introduce CTA, summarize its science perspectives, and address the synergies with instruments in other wavebands.

  15. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S.

    2014-01-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following:Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer productsLevel-2 Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner productsLevel-3 daily and monthly productsIntegrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govgpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http:mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http:giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time

  16. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Deshong, B.; Greene, M.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following: 1. Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products. 2. Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products. 3. Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products. (early, late, and final)A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govgpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http:mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http:giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding; data

  17. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.; Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http://pmm.nasa.gov/GPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM "Core Observatory" satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following: Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding

  18. Inter-joint coupling and joint angle synergies of human catching movements.

    PubMed

    Bockemühl, Till; Troje, Nikolaus F; Dürr, Volker

    2010-02-01

    A central question in motor control is how the central nervous system (CNS) deals with redundant degrees of freedom (DoFs) inherent in the musculoskeletal system. One way to simplify control of a redundant system is to combine several DoFs into synergies. In reaching movements of the human arm, redundancy occurs at the kinematic level because there is an unlimited number of arm postures for each position of the hand. Redundancy also occurs at the level of muscle forces because each arm posture can be maintained by a set of muscle activation patterns. Both postural and force-related motor synergies may contribute to simplify the control problem. The present study analyzes the kinematic complexity of natural, unrestrained human arm movements, and detects the amount of kinematic synergy in a vast variety of arm postures. We have measured inter-joint coupling of the human arm and shoulder girdle during fast, unrestrained, and untrained catching movements. Participants were asked to catch a ball launched towards them on 16 different trajectories. These had to be reached from two different initial positions. Movement of the right arm was recorded using optical motion capture and was transformed into 10 joint angle time courses, corresponding to 3 DoFs of the shoulder girdle and 7 of the arm. The resulting time series of the arm postures were analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). We found that the first three principal components (PCs) always captured more than 97% of the variance. Furthermore, subspaces spanned by PC sets associated with different catching positions varied smoothly across the arm's workspace. When we pooled complete sets of movements, three PCs, the theoretical minimum for reaching in 3D space, were sufficient to explain 80% of the data's variance. We assumed that the linearly correlated DoFs of each significant PC represent cardinal joint angle synergies, and showed that catching movements towards a multitude of targets in the arm's workspace

  19. Construction of synergy networks from gene expression data related to disease.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Prantik; Pal, Nikhil Ranjan

    2016-09-30

    A few methods have been developed to determine whether genes collaborate with each other in relation to a particular disease using an information theoretic measure of synergy. Here, we propose an alternative definition of synergy and justify that our definition improves upon the existing measures of synergy in the context of gene interactions. We use this definition on a prostate cancer data set consisting of gene expression levels in both cancerous and non-cancerous samples and identify pairs of genes which are unable to discriminate between cancerous and non-cancerous samples individually but can do so jointly when we take their synergistic property into account. We also propose a very simple yet effective technique for computation of conditional entropy at a very low cost. The worst case complexity of our method is O(n) while the best case complexity of a state-of-the-art method is O(n(2)). Furthermore, our method can also be extended to find synergistic relation among triplets or even among a larger number of genes. Finally, we validate our results by demonstrating that these findings cannot be due to pure chance and provide the relevance of the synergistic pairs in cancer biology.

  20. Construction of synergy networks from gene expression data related to disease.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Prantik; Pal, Nikhil Ranjan

    2016-09-30

    A few methods have been developed to determine whether genes collaborate with each other in relation to a particular disease using an information theoretic measure of synergy. Here, we propose an alternative definition of synergy and justify that our definition improves upon the existing measures of synergy in the context of gene interactions. We use this definition on a prostate cancer data set consisting of gene expression levels in both cancerous and non-cancerous samples and identify pairs of genes which are unable to discriminate between cancerous and non-cancerous samples individually but can do so jointly when we take their synergistic property into account. We also propose a very simple yet effective technique for computation of conditional entropy at a very low cost. The worst case complexity of our method is O(n) while the best case complexity of a state-of-the-art method is O(n(2)). Furthermore, our method can also be extended to find synergistic relation among triplets or even among a larger number of genes. Finally, we validate our results by demonstrating that these findings cannot be due to pure chance and provide the relevance of the synergistic pairs in cancer biology. PMID:27222483

  1. The Influence of Dopaminergic Striatal Innervation on Upper Limb Locomotor Synergies

    PubMed Central

    Isaias, Ioannis U.; Volkmann, Jens; Marzegan, Alberto; Marotta, Giorgio; Cavallari, Paolo; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    To determine the role of striatal dopaminergic innervation on upper limb synergies during walking, we measured arm kinematics in 13 subjects with Parkinson disease. Patients were recruited according to several inclusion criteria to represent the best possible in vivo model of dopaminergic denervation. Of relevance, we included only subjects with normal spatio-temporal parameters of the stride and gait speed to avoid an impairment of upper limbs locomotor synergies as a consequence of gait impairment per se. Dopaminergic innervation of the striatum was measured by FP-CIT and SPECT. All patients showed a reduction of gait-associated arms movement. No linear correlation was found between arm ROM reduction and contralateral dopaminergic putaminal innervation loss. Still, a partition analysis revealed a 80% chance of reduced arm ROM when putaminal dopamine content loss was >47%. A significant correlation was described between the asymmetry indices of the swinging of the two arms and dopaminergic striatal innervation. When arm ROM was reduced, we found a positive correlation between upper-lower limb phase shift modulation (at different gait velocities) and striatal dopaminergic innervation. These findings are preliminary evidence that dopaminergic striatal tone plays a modulatory role in upper-limb locomotor synergies and upper-lower limb coupling while walking at different velocities. PMID:23236504

  2. The PROBA-3 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    PROBA-3 is the next ESA mission in the PROBA line of small technology demonstration satellites. The main goal of PROBA-3 is in-orbit demonstration of formation flying techniques and technologies. The mission will consist of two spacecraft together forming a giant (150 m long) coronagraph called ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun). The bigger spacecraft will host the telescope, and the smaller spacecraft will carry the external occulter of the coronagraph. ASPIICS heralds the next generation of solar coronagraphs that will use formation flying to observe the inner corona in eclipse-like conditions for extended periods of time. The occulter spacecraft will also host the secondary payload, DARA (Davos Absolute RAdiometer), that will measure the total solar irradiance. PROBA-3 is planned to be launched in 2019. The scientific objectives of PROBA-3 will be discussed in the context of other future solar and heliospheric space missions.

  3. Multiple asteroid rendezvous missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, D. F.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1979-01-01

    Asteroid missions, centered on multiple asteroid rendezvous missions to main belt asteroids, are discussed and the required solar electric propulsion for these missions as well as the current performance estimates are examined. A brief statistical analysis involving asteroid availability transfer requirements and propulsion system capabilities is given, leading to a prediction that 5 to 8 asteroids can be encountered with a single launch. Measurement techniques include visual imaging, radio tracking, magnetometry, and in the case of landers, seismometry. The spacecraft will be propelled by a solar electric system with a power level of 25 kW to 40 kW and tour possibilities for 13 different asteroids have been developed. Preliminary estimates of asteroid triaxiality are made to calculate the effect of close orbits.

  4. Geospace Magnetospheric Dynamics Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Kluever, C.; Burch, J. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Hack, K.; Hillard, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Lopez, R. E.; Luhmann, J. G.; Martin, J. B.; Hanson, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The Geospace Magnetospheric Dynamics (GMD) mission is designed to provide very closely spaced, multipoint measurements in the thin current sheets of the magnetosphere to determine the relation between small scale processes and the global dynamics of the magnetosphere. Its trajectory is specifically designed to optimize the time spent in the current layers and to minimize radiation damage to the spacecraft. Observations are concentrated in the region 8 to 40 R(sub E) The mission consists of three phases. After a launch into geostationary transfer orbit the orbits are circularized to probe the region between geostationary orbit and the magnetopause; next the orbit is elongated keeping perigee at the magnetopause while keeping the line of apsides down the tail. Finally, once apogee reaches 40 R(sub E) the inclination is changed so that the orbit will match the profile of the noon-midnight meridian of the magnetosphere. This mission consists of 4 solar electrically propelled vehicles, each with a single NSTAR thruster utilizing 100 kg of Xe to tour the magnetosphere in the course of a 4.4 year mission, the same thrusters that have been successfully tested on the Deep Space-1 mission.

  5. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    LISA Pathfinder (formerly known as SMART-2) is an ESA mission designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission by testing in flight the critical technologies required for space-borne gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system LISA Pathfinder is scheduled to be launched in the first half of 2010 to a Lissajous orbit around the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point, L1. In addition to a complete European technology package (the LISA Technology Package, or LTP), LISA Pathfinder will also carry thrusters and software, known as ST-7, a part of NASA's New Millennium Program. Here I will give an introduction to, and status of, the mission, followed by a discussion on the technologies to be tested. Finally I will discuss the ways in which the LISA Pathfinder mission will be used for preparation of LISA (e.g. ground segment development as well as technology development) and for other future missions (formation flying, Fundamental Physics Explorer, etc.).

  6. Locus equations are an acoustic expression of articulator synergy

    PubMed Central

    Iskarous, Khalil; Fowler, Carol A.; Whalen, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the articulatory basis of locus equations, regression lines relating F2 at the start of a Consonant-Vowel (CV) transition to F2 at the middle of the vowel, with C fixed and V varying. Several studies have shown that consonants of different places of articulation have locus equation slopes that descend from labial to velar to alveolar, and intercept magnitudes that increase in the opposite order. Using formulas from the theory of bivariate regression that express regression slopes and intercepts in terms of standard deviations and averages of the variables, it is shown that the slope directly encodes a well-established measure of coarticulation resistance. It is also shown that intercepts are directly related to the degree to which the tongue body assists the formation of the constriction for the consonant. Moreover, it is shown that the linearity of locus equations and the linear relation between locus equation slopes and intercepts originates in linearity in articulation between the horizontal position of the tongue dorsum in the consonant and to that in the vowel. It is concluded that slopes and intercepts of acoustic locus equations are measures of articulator synergy. PMID:20968373

  7. Global phosphorus scarcity: identifying synergies for a sustainable future.

    PubMed

    Neset, Tina-Simone S; Cordell, Dana

    2012-01-15

    Global food production is dependent on constant inputs of phosphorus. In the current system this phosphorus is not predominantly derived from organic recycled waste, but to a large degree from phosphate-rock based mineral fertilisers. However, phosphate rock is a finite resource that cannot be manufactured. Our dependency therefore needs to be addressed from a sustainability perspective in order to ensure global food supplies for a growing global population. The situation is made more urgent by predictions that, for example, the consumption of resource intensive foods and the demand for biomass energy will increase. The scientific and societal debate has so far been focussed on the exact timing of peak phosphorus and on when the total depletion of the global reserves will occur. Even though the timing of these events is important, all dimensions of phosphorus scarcity need to be addressed in a manner which acknowledges linkages to other sustainable development challenges and which takes into consideration the synergies between different sustainability measures. Many sustainable phosphorus measures have positive impacts on other challenges; for example, shifting global diets to more plant-based foods would not only reduce global phosphorus consumption, but also reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce nitrogen fertiliser demand and reduce water consumption.

  8. Non-Contact Measurement of the Spectral Emissivity through Active/Passive Synergy of CO₂ Laser at 10.6 µm and 102F FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ren-Hua; Su, Hong-Bo; Tian, Jing; Mi, Su-Juan; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    In the inversion of land surface temperature (LST) from satellite data, obtaining the information on land surface emissivity is most challenging. How to solve both the emissivity and the LST from the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation is a hot research topic related to quantitative thermal infrared remote sensing. The academic research and practical applications based on the temperature-emissivity retrieval algorithms show that directly measuring the emissivity of objects at a fixed thermal infrared waveband is an important way to close the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation. Based on the prior research results of both the authors and others, this paper proposes a new approach of obtaining the spectral emissivity of the object at 8-14 µm with a single-band CO₂ laser at 10.6 µm and a 102F FTIR spectrometer. Through experiments, the spectral emissivity of several key samples, including aluminum plate, iron plate, copper plate, marble plate, rubber sheet, and paper board, at 8-14 µm is obtained, and the measured data are basically consistent with the hemispherical emissivity measurement by a Nicolet iS10 FTIR spectrometer for the same objects. For the rough surface of materials, such as marble and rusty iron, the RMSE of emissivity is below 0.05. The differences in the field of view angle and in the measuring direction between the Nicolet FTIR method and the method proposed in the paper, and the heterogeneity in the degree of oxidation, polishing and composition of the samples, are the main reasons for the differences of the emissivities between the two methods. PMID:27347964

  9. Non-Contact Measurement of the Spectral Emissivity through Active/Passive Synergy of CO2 Laser at 10.6 µm and 102F FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ren-Hua; Su, Hong-Bo; Tian, Jing; Mi, Su-Juan; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    In the inversion of land surface temperature (LST) from satellite data, obtaining the information on land surface emissivity is most challenging. How to solve both the emissivity and the LST from the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation is a hot research topic related to quantitative thermal infrared remote sensing. The academic research and practical applications based on the temperature-emissivity retrieval algorithms show that directly measuring the emissivity of objects at a fixed thermal infrared waveband is an important way to close the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation. Based on the prior research results of both the authors and others, this paper proposes a new approach of obtaining the spectral emissivity of the object at 8–14 µm with a single-band CO2 laser at 10.6 µm and a 102F FTIR spectrometer. Through experiments, the spectral emissivity of several key samples, including aluminum plate, iron plate, copper plate, marble plate, rubber sheet, and paper board, at 8–14 µm is obtained, and the measured data are basically consistent with the hemispherical emissivity measurement by a Nicolet iS10 FTIR spectrometer for the same objects. For the rough surface of materials, such as marble and rusty iron, the RMSE of emissivity is below 0.05. The differences in the field of view angle and in the measuring direction between the Nicolet FTIR method and the method proposed in the paper, and the heterogeneity in the degree of oxidation, polishing and composition of the samples, are the main reasons for the differences of the emissivities between the two methods. PMID:27347964

  10. Non-Contact Measurement of the Spectral Emissivity through Active/Passive Synergy of CO₂ Laser at 10.6 µm and 102F FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ren-Hua; Su, Hong-Bo; Tian, Jing; Mi, Su-Juan; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2016-06-24

    In the inversion of land surface temperature (LST) from satellite data, obtaining the information on land surface emissivity is most challenging. How to solve both the emissivity and the LST from the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation is a hot research topic related to quantitative thermal infrared remote sensing. The academic research and practical applications based on the temperature-emissivity retrieval algorithms show that directly measuring the emissivity of objects at a fixed thermal infrared waveband is an important way to close the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation. Based on the prior research results of both the authors and others, this paper proposes a new approach of obtaining the spectral emissivity of the object at 8-14 µm with a single-band CO₂ laser at 10.6 µm and a 102F FTIR spectrometer. Through experiments, the spectral emissivity of several key samples, including aluminum plate, iron plate, copper plate, marble plate, rubber sheet, and paper board, at 8-14 µm is obtained, and the measured data are basically consistent with the hemispherical emissivity measurement by a Nicolet iS10 FTIR spectrometer for the same objects. For the rough surface of materials, such as marble and rusty iron, the RMSE of emissivity is below 0.05. The differences in the field of view angle and in the measuring direction between the Nicolet FTIR method and the method proposed in the paper, and the heterogeneity in the degree of oxidation, polishing and composition of the samples, are the main reasons for the differences of the emissivities between the two methods.

  11. Quantifying consistency and biases between aircraft, balloon and remote sensing measurements of UT/LS water vapor during the WB-57 NASA MACPEX mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.; Rollins, A.; Thornberry, T. D.; Hall, E.; Jordan, A.; Hurst, D. F.; Smith, J. B.; Sargent, M. R.; Fahey, D. W.

    2011-12-01

    Mixing ratios of water vapor in Earth's upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) are low (< 10 ppmv), yet water in this region is a significant driver of climate. Significant discrepancies have repeatedly been observed between multiple high precision measurements of water vapor at these low values in the UT/LS, leading to uncertainty in the absolute value of the direct radiative forcing from stratospheric water vapor. During the NASA Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) mission in March and April of 2011, measurements of water vapor in the UT/LS were made using the NOAA chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) and Harvard Lyman-α water vapor (HWV) instruments integrated on the NASA WB-57 based out of Ellington Field, TX. This was the first aircraft deployment of the CIMS instrument configured to measure water vapor. The CIMS carried a novel in situ calibration system using two independent water vapor standards that were in excellent agreement throughout the campaign. CIMS was also in excellent agreement with HWV, which operates and is calibrated using fundamentally different principles. The redundant and independent calibration systems of CIMS and HWV afford new confidence in the accuracy of these aircraft measurements. We compare these aircraft measurements of water vapor to those made with the MLS instrument on the AURA satellite, and to frost point balloon borne (NOAA FPH and CFH) measurements coordinated with the WB-57 descents from the LS. A persistent bias of 0.7 ppmv is observed between the frost point and aircraft measurements in the 3 to 10 ppmv range, with frost point being lower. The MLS measurements are less precise, but generally fall between the balloon and aircraft measurements in the LS. These measurements renew interest in comparisons in the tropics where even lower mixing ratios and higher saturations with respect to ice are encountered.

  12. Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering, the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is a 0.95 m aperture photometer scheduled to be launched in 2006. It is designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the relation to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. Based on the results of the current Doppler - velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare.

  13. Payload missions integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights of the Payload Missions Integration Contract (PMIC) are summarized. Spacelab Missions no. 1 to 3, OSTA partial payloads, Astro-1 Mission, premission definition, and mission peculiar equipment support structure are addressed.

  14. Observed Differences Between Imaging Nephelometer Scattering Measurements and AERONET Retrievals During the Discover-AQ Field Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, R.; Remer, L. A.; Orozco, D.; Dolgos, G.; Martins, J. V.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols, clouds, and their interaction play a central role in the climate of our planet. Satellite remote sensing allows for global measurements of aerosol radiative properties; however high confidence in these measurements, and their corresponding retrieval algorithms, requires in situ validation. The Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics (LACO) at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) has developed the Imaging Nephelometer, a uniquely accurate instrument concept for the measurement of in situ optical scattering properties. Imaging Nephelometers provide measurements of the scattering coefficient, phase function and polarized phase function over an angular range of 3 to 177 degrees with an angular resolution better than one degree. The first of these instruments, the Polarized Imaging NEPHelometer (PI-NEPH) has taken part in five airborne field experiments and shown high accuracy in a wide variety of validation studies. In 2014 the open path, Open Imaging NEPHhelometer (OI-NEPH), was constructed at UMBC. This instrument provides measurements that are free from size biases introduced by a sampling inlet as well as changes in hydroscopic growth resulting from relative humidity changes. This presentation will provide an intercomparison between the aerosol properties that are measured and retrieved by LACO Imaging Nephelometers and the corresponding remote sensing retrievals obtained during the California and Colorado DISCOVER-AQ field experiments. The primary goal of this work will be to compare the scattering-weighted, column-averaged in situ phase functions measured by Imaging Nephelometers with the corresponding phase function retrievals performed by collocated AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun photometers. These comparisons will include profiles with a wide range of aerosol loadings, including cases with low optical depth where the AERONET retrieval is less frequently evaluated and the quality of the resulting products is not well known.

  15. European Crew Personal Active Dosimeter (EuCPAD), a novel dosimetry system utilizing operational and scientific synergies for the benefit of humans in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas

    A significant expansion of Human presence in space can be recognized over the last decade. Not only the frequency of human space mission did rise, but also time in space, mission duration with extended flights lasting half a year or more are becoming "standard". Despite the challenges to human health and well-being are still significant, or may even increase with mission length and work density. Also radiation exposure in space remains one of the inevitable and dominating factors relevant to crew- health, -safety and therefore mission success. The radiation environment that the space crews are exposed to differs significantly as compared to earth. Exposure in flight exceed doses that are usually received by terrestrial radiation workers on ground. Expanding "medical" demands are not a solely characteristics of current and current and upcoming mission scenarios. Likewise the margins for what is understood as "efficient utilization" for the fully operational science platform ISS, are immense. Understanding, accepting and approaching these challenges ESA-HSO did choose a particular pass of implementation for one of their current developments. Exploiting synergies of research, science and medical operational aspects, the "European Crew Personal Active Dosimeter for Astronauts (EuCPAD)" development exactly addresses these circumstances. It becomes novel part of ESA Radiation Protection Initiative for astronauts. The EuCPAD project aims at the development and manufacturing of an active (powered) dosimeter system to measure astronaut's exposures, support risk assessment dose management by providing a differentiated data set. Final goal is the verification of the system capabilities for medical monitoring at highest standards. The EuCPAD consists of several small portable Personal Active Dosimeters (MU = Mobile Unitas) and a rack mounted docking station “Personal Storage Device (PSD)” for MU storage, data read out and telemetry. The PSD furthermore contains a Tissue

  16. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  17. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L. I.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2015-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter. The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper

  18. Prehension synergies and control with referent hand configurations

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jason; Kim, Sun Wook; Feldman, Anatol G.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    We used the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis (in its updated form based on the notion of referent configuration) to investigate the multi-digit synergies at two levels of a hypothetical hierarchy involved in prehensile actions. Synergies were analyzed at the thumb–virtual finger (VF) level (VF is an imaginary digit with the mechanical action equivalent to that of the four actual fingers) and at the individual finger level. The subjects performed very quick vertical movements of a handle into a target. A load could be attached off-center to provide a pronation or supination torque. In a few trials, the handle was unexpectedly fixed to the table and the digits slipped off the sensors. In such trials, the hand stopped at a higher vertical position and rotated into pronation or supination depending on the expected torque. The aperture showed non-monotonic changes with a large, fast decrease and further increase, ending up with a smaller distance between the thumb and the fingers as compared to unperturbed trials. Multi-digit synergies were quantified using indices of co-variation between digit forces and moments of force across unperturbed trials. Prior to the lifting action, high synergy indices were observed at the individual finger level while modest indices were observed at the thumb–VF level. During the lifting action, the synergies at the individual finger level disappeared while the synergy indices became higher at the thumb–VF level. The results support the basic premise that, within a given task, setting a referent configuration may be described with a few referent values of variables that influence the equilibrium state, to which the system is attracted. Moreover, the referent configuration hypothesis can help interpret the data related to the trade-off between synergies at different hierarchical levels. PMID:20033397

  19. A synergy-based hand control is encoded in human motor cortical areas

    PubMed Central

    Leo, Andrea; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bianchi, Matteo; Marino, Hamal; Gabiccini, Marco; Guidi, Andrea; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Pietrini, Pietro; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    How the human brain controls hand movements to carry out different tasks is still debated. The concept of synergy has been proposed to indicate functional modules that may simplify the control of hand postures by simultaneously recruiting sets of muscles and joints. However, whether and to what extent synergic hand postures are encoded as such at a cortical level remains unknown. Here, we combined kinematic, electromyography, and brain activity measures obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects performed a variety of movements towards virtual objects. Hand postural information, encoded through kinematic synergies, were represented in cortical areas devoted to hand motor control and successfully discriminated individual grasping movements, significantly outperforming alternative somatotopic or muscle-based models. Importantly, hand postural synergies were predicted by neural activation patterns within primary motor cortex. These findings support a novel cortical organization for hand movement control and open potential applications for brain-computer interfaces and neuroprostheses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13420.001 PMID:26880543

  20. Decline of North Atlantic eels: a fatal synergy?

    PubMed

    Wirth, Thierry; Bernatchez, Louis

    2003-04-01

    Panmictic species pose particular problems for conservation because their welfare can be addressed effectively only on a global scale. We recently documented by means of microsatellite analysis that the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is not panmictic but instead shows genetic isolation by distance. In this study, we extended the analysis to the American eel (A. rostrata) by applying identical analytical procedures and statistical power. Results obtained for the American eel were in sharp contrast with those obtained for the European eel: the null hypothesis of panmixia could not be rejected, and no isolation by distance was detected. This implies that the species must be managed as a single population. Using Bayesian statistics, we also found that the effective population sizes for both species were surprisingly low and that the populations had undergone severe contractions, most probably during the Wisconsinan glaciation. The apparent sensitivity of eels to climatic changes affecting the strength and position of the Gulf Stream 20,000 years ago is particularly worrying, given the effects of the ongoing global warming on the North Atlantic climate. Moreover, additional short-term stresses such as surging glass eel prizes, overfishing and lethal parasitic infections negatively affect eel population size. The fascinating transatlantic migration and life cycle of Atlantic eels is also their Achilles' heel as these negative short- and long-term effects will probably culminate in a fatal synergy if drastic conservation measures are not implemented to protect these international biological resources.

  1. Euclid Mission: Mapping the Geometry of the Dark Universe. Mission and Consortium Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Euclid concept: (1) High-precision survey mission to map the geometry of the Dark Universe (2) Optimized for two complementary cosmological probes: (2a) Weak Gravitational Lensing (2b) Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (2c) Additional probes: clusters, redshift space distortions, ISW (3) Full extragalactic sky survey with 1.2m telescope at L2: (3a) Imaging: (3a-1) High precision imaging at visible wavelengths (3a-2) Photometry/Imaging in the near-infrared (3b) Near Infrared Spectroscopy (4) Synergy with ground based surveys (5) Legacy science for a wide range of in astronomy

  2. 3D Online Visualization and Synergy of NASA A-Train Data Using Google Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Aijun; Kempler, Steven; Leptoukh, Gregory; Smith, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This poster presentation reviews the use of Google Earth to assist in three dimensional online visualization of NASA Earth science and geospatial data. The NASA A-Train satellite constellation is a succession of seven sun-synchronous orbit satellites: (1) OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory) (will launch in Feb. 2013), (2) GCOM-W1 (Global Change Observation Mission), (3) Aqua, (4) CloudSat, (5) CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar & Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations), (6) Glory, (7) Aura. The A-Train makes possible synergy of information from multiple resources, so more information about earth condition is obtained from the combined observations than would be possible from the sum of the observations taken independently

  3. Visual-motor response of crewmen during a simulated 90-day space mission as measured by the critical task battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.; Jex, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    In order to test various components of a regenerative life support system and to obtain data on the physiological and psychological effects of long duration exposure to confinement in a space station atmosphere, four carefully screened young men were sealed in a space station simulator for 90 days and administered a tracking test battery. The battery included a clinical test (Critical Instability Task) designed to measure a subject's dynamic time delay, and a more conventional steady tracking task, during which dynamic response (describing functions) and performance measures were obtained. Good correlation was noted between the clinical critical instability scores and more detailed tracking parameters such as dynamic time delay and gain-crossover frequency. The levels of each parameter span the range observed with professional pilots and astronaut candidates tested previously. The chamber environment caused no significant decrement on the average crewman's dynamic response behavior, and the subjects continued to improve slightly in their tracking skills during the 90-day confinement period.

  4. A Preliminary Interpretation of the First Results from the REMS Surface Pressure Measurements of the MSL Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; dalaTorreJuarez, M.; Harri, A-M.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Kahanapaa, H.; Kahre, M. A.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Mischna, M.; Newman, C.; Ratfkin, S. C. R.; Renno, N.; Richardson, M. I.; Rodriquez-Manfredi, J. A.; Vasavada, A. R.; Zorzano-Mier, M-P

    2013-01-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover consists of a suite of meteorological instruments that measure pressure, temperature (air and ground), wind (speed and direction), relative humidity, and the UV flux. A description of the instruments is described elsewhere.. Here we focus on interpreting the first 90 sols of REMS operations with a particular emphasis on the pressure data.

  5. Solutions Network Formulation Report. The Potential Contributions of the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission to Estuary Management in Acadia National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Daniel; Hilbert, Kent; Lewis, David

    2007-01-01

    This candidate solution suggests the use of GPM precipitation observations to enhance the Acadia National Park NLERDSS. Simulated GPM data should provide measurements that would enable analysis of how precipitation affects runoff and nutrient load in the park?s wetlands. This solution benefits society by aiding park and resource managers in making predictions based on hypothetical changes and in identifying effective mitigation scenarios. This solution supports the Coastal Management, Water Management, and Ecological Forecasting National Applications.

  6. Exploratory Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Levels, Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomography Measures of the Eye During ISS Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, C.; Young, M.; Mason, S.; Coble, C.; Wear, M. L.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Patel, N.; Gibson, C.; Alexander, D.; Van Baalen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced screening for the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome has been implemented to better characterize the ocular and vision changes observed in some long-duration crewmembers. This includes implementation of in-flight ultrasound in 2010 and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 2013. Potential risk factors for VIIP include cardiovascular health, diet, anatomical and genetic factors, and environmental conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2), a potent vasodilator, is chronically elevated on the International Space Station (ISS) relative to ambient levels on Earth, and is a plausible risk factor for VIIP. In an effort to understand the possible associations between CO2 and VIIP, this study explores the relationship of ambient CO2 levels on ISS compared to inflight ultrasound and OCT measures of the eye obtained from ISS crewmembers. CO2 measurements were aggregated from Operational Data Reduction Complex and Node 3 major constituent analyzers (MCAs) on ISS or from sensors located in the European Columbus module, as available. CO2 levels in the periods between each ultrasound and OCT session are summarized using timeseries metrics, including time-weighted means and variances. Partial least squares regression analyses are used to quantify the complex relationship between specific ultrasound and OCT measures and the CO2 metrics simulataneously. These analyses will enhance our understanding of the possible associations between CO2 levels and structural changes to the eye which will in turn inform future analysis of inflight VIIP data.

  7. Outer planet probe navigation. [considering Pioneer space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, L.

    1974-01-01

    A series of navigation studies in conjunction with outer planet Pioneer missions are reformed to determine navigation requirements and measurement systems in order to target probes. Some particular cases are established where optical navigation is important and some cases where radio alone navigation is suffucient. Considered are a direct Saturn mission, a Saturn Uranus mission, a Jupiter Uranus mission, and a Titan probe mission.

  8. Evaluating the Global Precipitation Measurement mission with NOAA/NSSL Multi-Radar Multisensor: current status and future directions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirstetter, P. E.; Hong, Y.; Gourley, J. J.; Carr, N.; Petersen, W. A.; Schwaller, M.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Kummerow, C. D.; Ferraro, R. R.; Wang, N. Y.; Tanelli, S.; Turk, J.; Huffman, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate characterization of uncertainties in precipitation estimates derived from space-borne measurements is critical for many applications including water budget studies or prediction of natural hazards caused by extreme rainfall events. The GPM precipitation Level II (active and passive) and Level III (IMERG) estimates are compared to the NEXRAD-based precipitation estimates derived from NOAA/NSSL's Multi-Radar, Multi-Sensor (MRMS) platform. The NEXRAD network has undergone an upgrade in technology with dual-polarization capabilities and the MRMS products, after having been adjusted by rain gauges and passing several quality controls and filtering procedures, are 1) accurate with known uncertainty bounds and 2) measured at a resolution below the pixel sizes any GPM estimates. They are used by a number of NASA investigators to evaluate Level II and Level III satellite precipitation algorithms. A comparison framework was developed to examine the consistency of the ground and space-based sensors in term of precipitation detection, typology (e.g. convective, stratiform) and quantification. At the Level II precipitation features are introduced to analyze satellite estimates under various precipitation processes. Specific factors for passive (e.g. surface conditions for GMI) and active (e.g. attenuation of the radar signal, non uniform beam filling for DPR) sensors are investigated. Prognostic analysis directly provides feedback to algorithm developers on how to improve the satellite estimates. Comparison with TRMM products serves as a benchmark to evaluate GPM precipitation estimates. A the Level III the contribution of Level II is explicitly characterized and a rigorous characterization is performed to migrate across scales fully understanding the propagation of errors. This cross products characterization acts as a bridge to intercalibrate microwave measurements from the GPM constellation satellites and propagate to the combined and global precipitation estimates

  9. On the Relative Stability of CERES Reflected Shortwave and MISR and MODIS Visible Radiance Measurements During the Terra Satellite Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbett, J. G.; Loeb, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen years of visible, near-infrared, and broadband shortwave radiance measurements from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on board NASA's Terra satellite are analyzed in order to assess their long-term relative stability for climate purposes. A regression-based approach between CERES, MODIS, and MISR (An camera only) reflectances is used to calculate the bias between the different reflectances relative to a reference year. When compared to the CERES shortwave broadband reflectance, relative drift between the MISR narrowbands is within 1%/decade. Compared to the CERES shortwave reflectance, the MODIS narrowband reflectances show a relative drift of less than -1.33%/decade. When compared to MISR, the MODIS reflectances show a relative drift of between -0.36%/decade and -2.66%/decade. We show that the CERES Terra SW measurements are stable over the time period relative to CERES Aqua. Using this as evidence that CERES Terra may be absolutely stable, we suggest that the CERES, MISR, and MODIS instruments meet the radiometric stability goals for climate applications set out in Ohring et al. (2005).

  10. The Hydrosphere State (Hydros) Satellite Mission: An Earth System Pathfinder for Global Mapping of Soil Moisture and Land Freeze/Thaw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entekhabi, D.; Njoku, E. G.; Spencer, M.; Kim, Y.; Smith, J.; McDonald, K. C.; vanZyl, J.; Houser, P.; Dorion, T.; Koster, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Girard, R.; Belair, S.; Crow, W.; Jackson, T. J.; Kerr, Y. H.; Kimball, J. S.; Running, S. W.; Pultz, T.; Shi, J.; Wood, E.

    2004-01-01

    The Hydrosphere State Mission (Hydros) is a pathfinder mission in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science Pathfinder Program (ESSP). The objective of the mission is to provide exploratory global measurements of the earth's soil moisture at 10-km resolution with two- to three-days revisit and land-surface freeze/thaw conditions at 3-km resolution with one- to two-days revisit. The mission builds on the heritage of ground-based and airborne passive and active low-frequency microwave measurements that have demonstrated and validated the effectiveness of the measurements and associated algorithms for estimating the amount and phase (frozen or thawed) of surface soil moisture. The mission data will enable advances in weather and climate prediction and in mapping processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles. The Hydros instrument is a combined radar and radiometer system operating at 1.26 GHz (with VV, HH, and HV polarizations) and 1.41 GHz (with H, V, and U polarizations), respectively. The radar and the radiometer share the aperture of a 6-m antenna with a look-angle of 39 with respect to nadir. The lightweight deployable mesh antenna is rotated at 14.6 rpm to provide a constant look-angle scan across a swath width of 1000 km. The wide swath provides global coverage that meet the revisit requirements. The radiometer measurements allow retrieval of soil moisture in diverse (nonforested) landscapes with a resolution of 40 km. The radar measurements allow the retrieval of soil moisture at relatively high resolution (3 km). The mission includes combined radar/radiometer data products that will use the synergy of the two sensors to deliver enhanced-quality 10-km resolution soil moisture estimates. In this paper, the science requirements and their traceability to the instrument design are outlined. A review of the underlying measurement physics and key instrument performance parameters are also presented.

  11. Evaluating the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission with NOAA/NSSL Multi-Radar Multisensor: Past, Current Status and Future Directions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirstetter, P. E.; Hong, Y.; Gourley, J. J.; Carr, N.; Petersen, W. A.; Schwaller, M.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Kummerow, C. D.; Ferraro, R. R.; Wang, N. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate characterization of uncertainties in precipitation estimates derived from space-borne measurements is critical for many applications including water budget studies or prediction of natural hazards caused by extreme rainfall events. GPM precipitation level II estimates are compared to the NEXRAD-based precipitation estimates derived from NOAA/NSSL's Multi-Radar, Multisensor (MRMS) platform. The NEXRAD network has undergone an upgrade in technology with dual-polarization capabilities. These new polarimetric variables are being incorporated in MRMS to improve quality control of reflectivity data and to correct for partial beam blockages. The MRMS products, after having been adjusted by rain gauges and passing several quality controls and filtering procedures, are 1) accurate with known uncertainty bounds and 2) measured at a resolution below the pixel sizes of the GPM radar and radiometer observations. They are used by a number of NASA investigators to evaluate level II and level III satellite rainfall algorithms. The at-launch GPM Radiometer algorithm uses matches of coincident overpasses of various radiometers with surface rainfall from the MRMS database developed for the GPM project. Statistics from TRMM level II products serve as a benchmark to evaluate GPM precipitation estimates. Comparisons have been carried out at fine scale (e.g. instantaneous and 5 km for DPR) within a comparison framework developed to examine the consistency of the ground and space-based sensors in term of precipitation detection, characterization (e.g. convective, stratiform) and quantification. Specific error factors for passive (e.g. surface conditions for GMI) and active (e.g. attenuation of the radar signal, non uniform beam filling for DPR) sensors are investigated. Systematic biases and random errors quantified at the satellite estimation scale are useful for satellite-based Level III precipitation products. An online validation tool was designed to provide, for the first

  12. Laboratory permittivity measurements of icy planetary analogs in the millimeter and submillimeter domains, in relation with JUICE mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouet, Y.; Jacob, K.; Murk, A.; Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency's JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) spacecraft is planned for launch in 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in 2030. It will observe the planet Jupiter and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. One instrument on the JUICE spacecraft is the Sub-millimeter Wave Instrument (SWI), which will measure brightness temperatures from Jupiter's stratosphere and troposphere, and from subsurfaces of Jupiter's icy moons. In the baseline configuration SWI consists of two tunable sub-millimeter wave receivers operating from 530 to 625 GHz. As an alternative one of the receivers could cover the range of 1080 and 1275 GHz. Inversion models are strongly dependent on the knowledge of the complex relative permittivity (hereafter permittivity) of the target material to retrieve the physical properties of the subsurface (e.g. [1][2]). We set up a laboratory experiment allowing us to perform reproducible measurements of the complex scattering parameters S11 and S21 in the ranges of 70 to 110 GHz, of 100 to 160 GHz, of 140 to 220 GHz, of 140 to 220 GHz and of 510 to 715 GHz. These scattering parameters can be used to retrieve the permittivity of icy analogs of the surfaces and subsurfaces of Jupiter's icy moons in order to prepare the data interpretation of SWI [3]. The measurements are performed under laboratory conditions with a quasi-optical bench (Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern). The icy analogs that we prepare in the Laboratory for Outflow Studies of Sublimating Materials (LOSSy, Physics Institute, University of Bern), include two different porous water ice samples composed of fine-grained ice particles with a size range of 4 to 6 microns and ice particles with a size range of 50 to 100 microns [4][5]; and possibly CO2 ice. We will present the general experimental set-up and the first results in the context to prepare the data interpretation of SWI. [1] Ulaby, F. T., Long, D. G., 2014. Microwave radar and radiometric remote

  13. The geodetic-geophysical flight mission GEOHALO to acquire measurements of the gravity and magnetic fields, of GNSS remote sensing and of laser altimetry over the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheinert, Mirko

    2013-04-01

    The new German research aircraft HALO was equiped with an ensemble of geodetic-geophysical instrumentation to carry out geoscientific research in the tectonically active region of the Mediterranean and to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of this instrumentation. This so-called GEOHALO flight mission could finally be realized in the time period from June 2 to 12, 2012. The mission flights took place taking off and landing at the special airfield Oberpfaffenhofen (near Munich, Germany), close to the premises of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The flights were conducted over Italy and the adjacent seas, comprising seven parallel profiles directing from north-west to south-east, in a height of about 3,500 m, with a length of about 1,000 km each and a line spacing of about 40 km. These long profiles were complemented by four crossing profiles and a profile at an altitude of approx. 10 km along the same track as the center long profile. We will give an overview on the challenges to integrate the scientific instrumentation aboard the aircraft, which comprised two airborne spring-type gravity meters, scalar and vector magnetometers, GNSS zenith, sideward and nadir antennas, and a laser altimeter. We discuss the performance of this instrumentation and present preliminary results to accomplish measurements of the gravity and magnetic fields, of GNSS reflectometry, scatterometry and occultation, and of laser altimeter distances over the ocean. The gathered data shall finally be used to investigate the lithospheric structure in the working area, which is characterized by a puzzle of tectonic microplates, yielding to an increased georisk of earthquakes and volcanism. Altogether, GEOHALO is the first geoscientific mission utilizing HALO. Its success was possible only by the joint efforts of the group of German, Swiss and Spanish universities and research institutions, Italian authorities and institutions as well as by the financial and logistic support of the

  14. GPM Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational sensors to provide "next-generation" precipitation products. Relative to current global rainfall products, GPM data products will be characterized by: (1) more accurate instantaneous precipitation measurements (especially for light rain and cold-season solid/snow precipitation), (2) more frequent sampling by an expanded constellation of microwave radiometers that include operational humidity sounders over land, (3) inter-calibrated microwave brightness temperatures from constellation radiometers within a unified framework, and (4) physical-based precipitation retrievals from constellation radiometers using a common a priori cloud hydrometeor database derived from GPM Core sensor measurements. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65 degree non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of dedicated and operational passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory will carry a KulKa-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The combined use ofDPR and GMI measurements will place greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. As a science mission with integrated application goals, GPM is designed to (1) advance precipitation measurement capability from space through combined use of active and passive microwave sensors, (2) advance the knowledge of the global water/energy cycle and freshwater availability through better description of the space-time variability of global precipitation, and (3) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction

  15. Resource synergy in stream periphyton communities

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Walter; Fanta, S.E.; Roberts, Brian J; Francoeur, Steven N.

    2011-03-01

    1. Light and nutrients play pivotal roles in determining the growth of autotrophs, yet the potential for synergistic interactions between the two resources in algal communities is poorly understood, especially in stream ecosystems. In this study, light and phosphorus were manipulated in large experimental streams to examine resource colimitation and synergy in stream periphyton. 2. Whole-stream metabolism was simultaneously limited by light and phosphorus. Increasing the supply of either light or phosphorus resulted in significant increases in primary production and the transformation of the streams from heterotrophy to autotrophy. 3. Resource-driven changes in periphyton community structure occurred in concert with changes in production. Algal assemblages in highly shaded streams were composed primarily of small diatoms such as Achnanthidium minutissima, whereas larger diatoms such as Melosira varians predominated at higher irradiances. Phosphorus enrichment had relatively little effect on assemblage structure, but it did substantially diminish the abundance of Meridion circulare, a diatom whose mucilaginous colonies were conspicuously abundant in phosphorus-poor, high-light streams. Bacterial biomass declined relative to algal biomass with increases in primary productivity, regardless of whether the increases were caused by light or phosphorus. 4. Synergistic effects on primary production appeared to occur because the availability of one resource facilitated the utilization of the other. Light increased the abundance of large diatoms, which are known to convert high concentrations of nutrients into primary production more effectively than smaller taxa. Phosphorus enrichment led to the replacement of Meridion circulare by non-mucilaginous taxa in phosphorus-enriched streams, and we hypothesize that this change enabled more efficient use of light in photosynthesis. Higher ratios of chlorophyll a : biomass in phosphorus-enriched streams may have also led to more

  16. Space and Terrestrial Photovoltaics: Synergy and Diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Raffaelle, Ryne; Emery, Keith

    2002-01-01

    A historical view of the research and development in photovoltaics from the perspective of both the terrestrial and the space communities is presented from the early days through the '70s and '80s and the '90s and beyond. The synergy of both communities in the beginning and once again in the present and hopefully future are highlighted, with examples of the important features in each program. The space community which was impressed by the light-weight and reliability of photovoltaics drove much of the early development. Even up to today, nearly every satellites and other scientific space probe that has been launched has included some solar power. However, since the cost of these power systems were only a small fraction of the satellite and launch cost, the use of much of this technology for the terrestrial marketplace was not feasible. It was clear that the focus of the terrestrial community would be best served by reducing costs. This would include addressing a variety of manufacturing issues and raising the rate of production. Success in these programs and a resulting globalization of effort resulted in major strides in the reduction of PV module costs and increased production. Although, the space community derived benefit from some of these advancements, its focus was on pushing the envelope with regard to cell efficiency. The gap between theoretical efficiencies and experimental efficiencies for silicon, gallium arsenide and indium phosphide became almost non-existent. Recent work by both communities have focused on the development thin film cells of amorphous silicon, CuInSe2 and CdTe. These cells hold the promise of lower costs for the terrestrial community as well as possible flexible substrates, better radiation resistance, and higher specific power for the space community. It is predicted that future trends in both communities will be directed toward advances through the application of nanotechnology. A picture is emerging in which the space and

  17. Planetary cubesats - mission architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, Pierre W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Clark, Pamela; Komarek, Tomas; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Yano, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Miniaturisation of technologies over the last decade has made cubesats a valid solution for deep space missions. For example, a spectacular set 13 cubesats will be delivered in 2018 to a high lunar orbit within the frame of SLS' first flight, referred to as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1). Each of them will perform autonomously valuable scientific or technological investigations. Other situations are encountered, such as the auxiliary landers / rovers and autonomous camera that will be carried in 2018 to asteroid 1993 JU3 by JAXA's Hayabusas 2 probe, and will provide complementary scientific return to their mothership. In this case, cubesats depend on a larger spacecraft for deployment and other resources, such as telecommunication relay or propulsion. For both situations, we will describe in this paper how cubesats can be used as remote observatories (such as NEO detection missions), as technology demonstrators, and how they can perform or contribute to all steps in the Deep Space exploration sequence: Measurements during Deep Space cruise, Body Fly-bies, Body Orbiters, Atmospheric probes (Jupiter probe, Venus atmospheric probes, ..), Static Landers, Mobile landers (such as balloons, wheeled rovers, small body rovers, drones, penetrators, floating devices, …), Sample Return. We will elaborate on mission architectures for the most promising concepts where cubesat size devices offer an advantage in terms of affordability, feasibility, and increase of scientific return.

  18. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Nuclear and Renewable Energy Synergies Workshop: Report of Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Antkowiak, M.; Gossett, S.

    2011-12-01

    Two of the major challenges the U.S. energy sector faces are greenhouse gas emissions and oil that is both imported and potentially reaching a peak (the point at which maximum extraction is reached). Interest in development of both renewable and nuclear energy has been strong because both have potential for overcoming these challenges. Research in both energy sources is ongoing, but relatively little research has focused on the potential benefits of combining nuclear and renewable energy. In September 2011, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) convened the Nuclear and Renewable Energy Synergies Workshop at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to identify potential synergies and strategic leveraging opportunities between nuclear energy and renewable energy. Industry, government, and academic thought leaders gathered to identify potential broad categories of synergies and brainstorm topic areas for additional analysis and research and development (R&D). This report records the proceedings and outcomes of the workshop.

  20. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  1. A Space weather information service based upon remote and in-situ measurements of coronal mass ejections heading for Earth. A concept mission consisting of six spacecraft in a heliocentric orbit at 0.72 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Birgit; Meskers, Arjan J. H.; Miles, Oscar; Rußwurm, Michael; Scully, Stephen; Roldán, Andrés; Hartkorn, Oliver; Jüstel, Peter; Réville, Victor; Lupu, Sorina; Ruffenach, Alexis

    2015-02-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere is formed as a consequence of interaction between the planet's magnetic field and the solar wind, a continuous plasma stream from the Sun. A number of different solar wind phenomena have been studied over the past 40 years with the intention of understanding and forecasting solar behavior. One of these phenomena in particular, Earth-bound interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs), can significantly disturb the Earth's magnetosphere for a short time and cause geomagnetic storms. This publication presents a mission concept consisting of six spacecraft that are equally spaced in a heliocentric orbit at 0.72 AU. These spacecraft will monitor the plasma properties, the magnetic field's orientation and magnitude, and the 3D-propagation trajectory of CMEs heading for Earth. The primary objective of this mission is to increase space weather forecasting time by means of a near real-time information service, that is based upon in-situ and remote measurements of the aforementioned CME properties. The obtained data can additionally be used for updating scientific models. This update is the mission's secondary objective. In-situ measurements are performed using a Solar Wind Analyzer instrumentation package and fluxgate magnetometers, while for remote measurements coronagraphs are employed. The proposed instruments originate from other space missions with the intention to reduce mission costs and to streamline the mission design process. Communication with the six identical spacecraft is realized via a deep space network consisting of six ground stations. They provide an information service that is in uninterrupted contact with the spacecraft, allowing for continuous space weather monitoring. A dedicated data processing center will handle all the data, and then forward the processed data to the SSA Space Weather Coordination Center which will, in turn, inform the general public through a space weather forecast. The data processing center will

  2. ESA CHEOPS mission: development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rando, N.; Asquier, J.; Corral Van Damme, C.; Isaak, K.; Ratti, F.; Safa, F.; Southworth, R.; Broeg, C.; Benz, W.

    2016-07-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Science Programme Committee (SPC) selected CHEOPS (Characterizing Exoplanets Satellite) in October 2012 as the first S-class mission (S1) within the Agency's Scientific Programme, targeting launch readiness by the end of 2017. The CHEOPS mission is devoted to the first-step characterization of known exoplanets orbiting bright stars, to be achieved through the precise measurement of exo-planet radii using the technique of transit photometry. It is implemented as a partnership between ESA and a consortium of Member States led by Switzerland. CHEOPS is considered as a pilot case for implementing "small science missions" in ESA with the following requirements: science driven missions selected through an open Call for missions (bottom-up process); spacecraft development schedule much shorter than for M and L missions, in the range of 4 years; and cost-capped missions to ESA with possibly higher Member States involvement than for M or L missions. The paper describes the CHEOPS development status, focusing on the performed hardware manufacturing and test activities.

  3. Effects of fatigue on synergies in a hierarchical system

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tarkeshwar; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fatigue produced by timed maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the index finger of one of the hands on performance in MVC and accurate cyclic force production tasks in right-handed subjects. Based on earlier studies, we hypothesized that fatigue would produce an increase in the indices of force-stabilizing synergies in both hands as well as between the hands in two-hand tasks. Synergies were defined as co-varied adjustments of commands to fingers (modes) across cycles that stabilized total force. Fatigue caused a significant reduction in the MVC of the exercised as well as the non-exercised hand. Indices of finger enslaving (lack of individuation) increased with fatigue in both hands, although the increase was significant in the exercised hand only. In contrast to the significant effects of fatigue on MVC forces performed by the non-exercised hand, there were no comparable transfer effects on the root mean square errors during accurate force production. During one-hand tasks, both hands showed high indices of force-stabilizing synergies. These indices were larger in the left hand. Fatigue led to a general increase in synergy indices. Exercise by the left hand had stronger effects on synergy indices seen in both hands. Exercise by the right hand showed ipsilateral effects only. Smaller effects of fatigue were observed on accuracy of performance of the force-down segments of the force cycles compared to the force-up segments. For the bimanual tasks, synergies were analyzed at two hierarchical levels, two-hand (four-finger) and within-a-hand (two-finger). An increase in the synergy index with fatigue was observed at the lower (two-finger) level of the hierarchy only. We interpret the lack of effects of fatigue at the upper (two-hand) level as a consequence of a trade-off between synergies at different levels of the hierarchy. The differences between the hands are discussed within the dynamic dominance hypothesis. PMID:23182434

  4. Effects of fatigue on synergies in a hierarchical system.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tarkeshwar; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the effect of fatigue produced by timed maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the index finger of one of the hands on performance in MVC and accurate cyclic force production tasks in right-handed subjects. Based on earlier studies, we hypothesized that fatigue would produce an increase in the indices of force-stabilizing synergies in both hands as well as between the hands in two-hand tasks. Synergies were defined as co-varied adjustments of commands to fingers (modes) across cycles that stabilized total force. Fatigue caused a significant reduction in the MVC of the exercised as well as the non-exercised hand. Indices of finger enslaving (lack of individuation) increased with fatigue in both hands, although the increase was significant in the exercised hand only. In contrast to the significant effects of fatigue on MVC forces performed by the non-exercised hand, there were no comparable transfer effects on the root mean square errors during accurate force production. During one-hand tasks, both hands showed high indices of force-stabilizing synergies. These indices were larger in the left hand. Fatigue led to a general increase in synergy indices. Exercise by the left hand had stronger effects on synergy indices seen in both hands. Exercise by the right hand showed ipsilateral effects only. Smaller effects of fatigue were observed on accuracy of performance of the force-down segments of the force cycles compared to the force-up segments. For the bimanual tasks, synergies were analyzed at two hierarchical levels, two-hand (four-finger) and within-a-hand (two-finger). An increase in the synergy index with fatigue was observed at the lower (two-finger) level of the hierarchy only. We interpret the lack of effects of fatigue at the upper (two-hand) level as a consequence of a trade-off between synergies at different levels of the hierarchy. The differences between the hands are discussed within the dynamic dominance hypothesis. PMID:23182434

  5. Method of Drawing Up a Road Map that Considers the Synergy Effect for IT Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Tadasuke; Tani, Shigeyuki; Akatsu, Masaharu; Komoda, Norihisa

    IT governance lacks a comprehensive vision of the investment in two or more projects. It is necessary to decide the priority level that maximizes the effect under the constraint conditions. The problem is complex because while sometimes a greater effect can be obtained by introducing two or more measures at the same time, other times the effect of two measures introduced at the same time might not be significant. Although there is thus a synergy effect when two or more measures are introduced, no method for drawing up an investment-decision road map considered that effect. We therefore developed one. What a decision-maker thinks about when considering the introduction of two or more measures can be visualized by drawing up a comprehensive road map that satisfies constraint conditions such as effectiveness of measure, budget, time, staff size, order of introduction, the synergy effect. Road map users can easily reach a consensus because the map, by taking into account the constraint conditions and the investment decision-making process, helps them logically explain the order in which the measures should be introduced.

  6. Measuring Students' Perceptions of Institutional Identity: Validating the DePaul Mission and Values Inventory at a Franciscan University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteo, Elizabeth K.; Bottom, Todd L.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    The "DePaul Mission and Values Inventory" ("DMV") was validated based on the mission, identity, and values of a large, urban, Catholic, Vincentian institution. We examined the suitability of the "DMV" at a small, suburban, Catholic, Franciscan university. A sample of 275 undergraduates (218 women, 57 men:…

  7. NEEMO - NASA's Extreme Environment Mission Operations: On to a NEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Baskin, P. J.; Todd, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    During NEEMO missions, a crew of six Aquanauts lives aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aquarius Underwater Laboratory the world's only undersea laboratory located 5.6 km off shore from Key Largo, Florida. The Aquarius habitat is anchored 62 feet deep on Conch Reef which is a research only zone for coral reef monitoring in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. The crew lives in saturation for a week to ten days and conducts a variety of undersea EVAs (Extra Vehicular Activities) to test a suite of long-duration spaceflight Engineering, Biomedical, and Geoscience objectives. The crew also tests concepts for future lunar exploration using advanced navigation and communication equipment in support of the Constellation Program planetary exploration analog studies. The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, Texas support this effort to produce a high-fidelity test-bed for studies of human planetary exploration in extreme environments as well as to develop and test the synergy between human and robotic curation protocols including sample collection, documentation, and sample handling. The geoscience objectives for NEEMO missions reflect the requirements for Lunar Surface Science outlined by the LEAG (Lunar Exploration Analysis Group) and CAPTEM (Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials) white paper [1]. The BHP objectives are to investigate best meas-ures and tools for assessing decrements in cogni-tive function due to fatigue, test the feasibility study examined how teams perform and interact across two levels, use NEEMO as a testbed for the development, deployment, and evaluation of a scheduling and planning tool. A suite of Space Life Sciences studies are accomplished as well, ranging from behavioral health and performance to immunology, nutrition, and EVA suit design results of which will

  8. To bioethanol through genomics of microbial synergies

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein,

    2013-08-27

    The strategic goal of this project was to advance our understanding of activities and interactions of microorganisms through the advancement of microbial cultivation approaches. In this project we aimed to develop, advance, and use both culture-dependent techniques to address our main hypothesis: “uncultivable” microorganisms and their consortia represent a untapped source of novel species for efficient production of bioethanol. This project has two specific goals: 1. To develop and optimize a high throughput diffusion chamber cultivation approach to isolation of novel environmental bacteria relevant to DOE missions. 2. To use the optimized method to identify and cultivate novel microbial species and their consortia that synergistically hydrolyze various substrates and ferment the sugars to ethanol.

  9. The Juno Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in July 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Jupiter's formation is fundamental to the evolution of our solar system and to the distribution of volatiles early in the solar system's history. Juno's measurements of the abundance of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, and the detailed maps of Jupiter's gravity and magnetic field structure will constrain theories of early planetary development. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. The Juno design enables the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's interior structure, and deep atmosphere as well as the first in depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the origin of Jupiter will be presented.

  10. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, james; McNamara, P. W.

    2011-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a dedicated technology demonstration space mission for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a NASA/ESA collaboration to operate a space-based observatory for gravitational waves in the milli-Hertz band. Although the formal partnership between the agencies was dissolved in the Spring of 2011, both agencies are actively pursuing concepts for LISA-like gravitational wave observatories. These concepts take advantage of the significant technology development efforts that have already been made, especially those of the LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder, which is in the late stages of implementation, will place two test masses in drag-free flight and measure the relative acceleration between them. This measurement will validate a number of technologies that are critical to LISA-like gravitational wave instruments including sensing and control of the test masses, drag-free control laws, microNewton thrusters, and picometer-level laser metrology. We will present the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission and associated activities.

  11. Conductivity and Dielectric Characteristics of Planetary Surfaces Measured with Mutual Impedance Probes: From Huygens and Rosetta Lander to Netlanders and Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, M.; Grard, R.; Laakso, H.; Ney, R.; Schmidt, W.; Simoes, F.; Trautner, R.

    2004-04-01

    Both conductivity and dielectric constant measurements can contribute to the identification of sub-surface materials. They are of great interest in the case of water and ice possibly embedded in other materials due to the high variability with frequency of the dielectric constant of water ice, the high contrast between rocks and liquid water and also the high conductivity generally observed in wet terrains. A first instrument, Permittivity, Waves and Altimetry (PWA-HASI), on the HUYGENS probe should measure the complex permittivity of Titan after landing in January 2005. It consists of a particular mode of the Mutual Impedance (MI) probe designed mainly for atmospheric conductivity measurements. The success of the measurement depends strongly on the configuration of the probe after an uncontrolled landing and in any case the data analysis will be complex as the electrodes are very close to the probe body. A second instrument, the Permittivity Probe (PP-SESAME), on the Rosetta Lander is ready to be launched towards the GuerassimoChuryumov comet in February 2004. In this case safe landing is a major requirement of the mission. The electrode array, using the lander feet and two other hosting deployable parts, is less influenced by the lander body than in the HUYGENS case. However the perturbing influence of neighbouring sensors has to be suppressed by active methods and such a system is better but again complex. In the Netlander project to the surface of Mars, actually in pause after its phase B study, the opportunity to use long GPR electric antennas deployed on the ground as permittivity sensors has been studied and will be implemented in the design with minor modifications. Our goal is to design the future generation of permittivity probes not considered as `add on's but fully optimised for their task, making simpler the analysis and providing also the possibility to calibrate the former space pioneer instruments on selected earth targets. In addition, these future

  12. Interplanetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A long range plan for solar system exploration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) science payload for first Jupiter orbiters, (2) Mercury orbiter mission study, (3) preliminary analysis of Uranus/Neptune entry probes for Grand Tour Missions, (4) comet rendezvous mission study, (5) a survey of interstellar missions, (6) a survey of candidate missions to explore rings of Saturn, and (7) preliminary analysis of Venus orbit radar missions.

  13. Winds and Ion Drifts Measured in the Thermospheric Footprint of Earth's Northern Magnetic Cusp During the C-REX Sounding Rocket Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, M.; Larsen, M. F.; Hampton, D.; Dhadly, M. S.; Ahrns, M. J.; Aruliah, A. L.; Kakinami, Y.; Barker, B.; Kiene, A.; Sigernes, F.; Lorentzen, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    We report here on neutral wind and ion drift measurements recorded during the November 24, 2014, "C-REX" sounding rocket mission into the thermosphere beneath Earth's northern geomagnetic cusp. The rocket released ten tracer clouds, each comprised of a mixture of barium and strontium, at altitudes between 190 and 400 km. The clouds were created by launching rocket-propelled "grenades" at high velocity out from the parent payload, and were dispersed across a 3D volume extending over many tens of km around the main trajectory. Cameras located at Longyearbyen, Ny-Alesund, and aboard an aircraft stationed north of Bear Island were used to image the tracer clouds and to triangulate on their position and 3D motion. Sunlight striking the clouds ionized the barium within a few tens of seconds, whereas the strontium remained neutral. We were thus able to independently measure the flow velocity of both neutrals and ions at the release locations. Here we will present high-resolution maps of the tracer cloud motion, along with the resulting estimates of neutral and ion flow velocities. These results show very substantial ion-neutral velocity differences: the ions' drift direction was roughly perpendicular to that of the neutrals, while the magnitude of their velocity difference was of order 500 meters per second. Combining these data with ground-based measurements of temperature and electron density allows us to estimate that the specific power density for Joule heating at heights above 200 km was very substantial during the time of this experiment. If such Joule heating is typical, it is very likely to play a major role in establishing the (currently poorly understood) permanent enhancements in the neutral mass density of Earth's thermosphere in the geomagnetic cusp regions at altitudes of around 400 km.

  14. SMOS/SMAP Synergy for SMAP Level 2 Soil Moisture Algorithm Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Thomas J.; Zhao, Tianjie; Cosh, Michael; Chan, Steven; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Colliander, Andreas; Kerr, Yann

    2011-01-01

    Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite has been proposed to provide global measurements of soil moisture and land freeze/thaw state at 10 km and 3 km resolutions, respectively. SMAP would also provide a radiometer-only soil moisture product at 40-km spatial resolution. This product and the supporting brightness temperature observations are common to both SMAP and European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. As a result, there are opportunities for synergies between the two missions. These include exploiting the data for calibration and validation and establishing longer term L-band brightness temperature and derived soil moisture products. In this investigation we will be using SMOS brightness temperature, ancillary data, and soil moisture products to develop and evaluate a candidate SMAP L2 passive soil moisture retrieval algorithm. This work will begin with evaluations based on the SMOS product grids and ancillary data sets and transition to those that will be used by SMAP. An important step in this analysis is reprocessing the multiple incidence angle observations provided by SMOS to a global brightness temperature product that simulates the constant 40 degree incidence angle observations that SMAP will provide. The reprocessed brightness temperature data provide a basis for evaluating different SMAP algorithm alternatives. Several algorithms are being considered for the SMAP radiometer-only soil moisture retrieval. In this first phase, we utilized only the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA), which is based on the radiative transfer equation and uses the channel that is most sensitive to soil moisture (H-pol). Brightness temperature is corrected sequentially for the effects of temperature, vegetation, roughness (dynamic ancillary data sets) and soil texture (static ancillary data set). European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) estimates of soil temperature for the top layer (as provided as part of the SMOS

  15. SAMPEX Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    SAMPEX was the first of the small explorer (SMEX) series of missions begun by NASA in 1989 to perform heliosphysics and astrophysics investigations with small, rapidly developed satellites. Launched in July 1992 just 39 months after selection, SAMPEX used an 82° inclination low altitude orbit selected to allow studies of solar and interplanetary particles over the polar caps, charge state measurements when the satellite slipped under the geomagnetic cutoff, and a full sampling of magnetospheric L-shells. SAMPEX's three US and one German instrument were ion and electron detectors much more sensitive than previously flown, allowing novel new studies. SAMPEX showed that the anomalous cosmic ray (ACR) component consisted of singly and doubly ionized ions whose acceleration time in the heliosphere was approximately one year, and mapped the trapped radiation belt of ACRs around Earth. SAMPEX produced the first evidence of energy dependence in solar energetic particle ionization states, providing evidence of possible ion stripping in the solar corona. Comparing the low altitude SAMPEX measurements with higher altitude Earth orbiting satellites, SAMPEX discovered a remarkable coherence of the magnetosphere, with all L-shells sampled every ~45 minutes for its 20 year lifetime. These studies helped put the magnetospheric response into context with the changing solar activity cycle, and will provide a key baseline for the new RBSP mission. SAMPEX also traced the precipitation of relativistic electrons into the polar regions and helped illustrate the role of these particles in the production of nitrogen compounds that affect the atmospheric chemistry of ozone destruction. In addition to the science goals, the SMEX program featured development of new technologies and training, including many students at Bowie State University who received NASA Mission Control certification from flying SMEX satellites. This talk will give an overview of the mission and its scientific

  16. Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer: mission status after the Definition Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitri; Barabash, Stas; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Dougherty, Michele; Erd, Christian; Fletcher, Leigh; Gare, Philippe; Gladstone, Randall; Grasset, Olivier; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Langevin, Yves; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Sarri, Giuseppe; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Witasse, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    ultraviolet to the sub-millimetre wavelengths (MAJIS, UVS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a powerful particle environment package (PEP), a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The mission scenario will include a Jovian tour with multiple flybys of Callisto and Ganymede, the phase with more than 20 degrees inclination orbits, and two Europa flybys. The Ganymede tour will include high (5000 km) and low (500 km) almost polar orbits around the moon. The mission scenario has evolved slightly during the definition phase, reassuring that the mission will still be able to fulfil all major science objectives. The talk will give an overview of the mission status at the end of the definition phase, focusing on the evolution of science performance and payload synergies in achieving the mission goals.

  17. Action Direction of Muscle Synergies in Three-Dimensional Force Space

    PubMed Central

    Hagio, Shota; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    Redundancy in the musculoskeletal system was supposed to be simplified by muscle synergies, which modularly organize muscles. To clarify the underlying mechanisms of motor control using muscle synergies, it is important to examine the spatiotemporal contribution of muscle synergies in the task space. In this study, we quantified the mechanical contribution of muscle synergies as considering spatiotemporal correlation between the activation of muscle synergies and endpoint force fluctuations. Subjects performed isometric force generation in the three-dimensional force space. The muscle-weighting vectors of muscle synergies and their activation traces across different trials were extracted from electromyogram data using decomposing technique. We then estimated mechanical contribution of muscle synergies across each trial based on cross-correlation analysis. The contributing vectors were averaged for all trials, and the averaging was defined as action direction (AD) of muscle synergies. As a result, we extracted approximately five muscle synergies. The ADs of muscle synergies mainly depended on the anatomical functions of their weighting muscles. Furthermore, the AD of each muscle indicated the synchronous activation of muscles, which composed of the same muscle synergy. These results provide the spatiotemporal characteristics of muscle synergies as neural basis. PMID:26618156

  18. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  19. Urinary albumin in space missions.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina; Norsk, Peter; Elmann-Larsen, Benny; Bellini, Luigi; Stellato, Davide; Drummer, Christian

    2002-07-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity).

  20. Authentic Tasks Online: A Synergy among Learner, Task, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Jan; Reeves, Thomas C.; Oliver, Ron

    2006-01-01

    Fostering synergies amongst "learner," "task," and "technology" to create innovative and immersive distance learning environments runs counter to the widespread practice of incorporating traditional classroom pedagogical strategies into Web-based delivery of courses. The most widely accepted model of online higher education appears to be one of…

  1. syNErgy: A Case Study in Workforce Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, John; Grosskopf, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    With high unemployment and structural changes to industry, workforce development in the United States is a growing concern. Many semiskilled workers lack knowledge, skills, and abilities to be competitive for reemployment to green jobs. Nebraska's syNErgy research grant was introduced to address the training needs of unemployed and…

  2. Practice effects on intra-team synergies in football teams.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Chung, Dante; Carvalho, Thiago; Cardoso, Tiago; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-04-01

    Developing synchronised player movements for fluent competitive match play is a common goal for coaches of team games. An ecological dynamics approach advocates that intra-team synchronization is governed by locally created information, which specifies shared affordances responsible for synergy formation. To verify this claim we evaluated coordination tendencies in two newly-formed teams of recreational players during association football practice games, weekly, for fifteen weeks (thirteen matches). We investigated practice effects on two central features of synergies in sports teams - dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation here captured through near in-phase modes of coordination and time delays between coupled players during forward and backwards movements on field while attacking and defending. Results verified that synergies were formed and dissolved rapidly as a result of the dynamic creation of informational properties, perceived as shared affordances among performers. Practising once a week led to small improvements in the readjustment delays between co-positioning team members, enabling faster regulation of coordinated team actions. Mean values of the number of player and team synergies displayed only limited improvements, possibly due to the timescales of practice. No relationship between improvements in dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation were found for number of shots, amount of ball possession and number of ball recoveries made. Findings open up new perspectives for monitoring team coordination processes in sport.

  3. Peace Education, ESD and the Earth Charter: Interconnections and Synergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Swee-Hin; Cawagas, Virginia Floresca

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of how the values and principles of the Earth Charter initiative relate to two specific innovative movements of educational transformation, namely peace education and education for sustainable development (ESD). The interconnections and synergies between these movements and the Earth Charter are highlighted.…

  4. Learning Motor Synergies by Persons with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latash, M. L.

    2007-01-01

    Persons with Down syndrome are frequently described as "clumsy". The recent progress in the development of quantitative approaches to motor synergies has allowed researchers to move towards an understanding of "clumsiness" at the level of underlying control mechanisms. This progress has also offered an opportunity to quantify changes in motor…

  5. Frequency of tropical precipitating clouds as observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar and ICESat/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Sean P. F.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Schumacher, Courtney

    2007-07-01

    Convective clouds in the tropics can be grouped into three categories: shallow clouds with cloud top heights near 2 km above the surface, midlevel congestus clouds with tops near the 0°C level, and deep convective clouds capped by the tropopause. This trimodal distribution is visible in cloud data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), carried aboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), as well as in precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR). Fractional areal coverage (FAC) data is calculated at each of the three levels to describe how often optically thick clouds or precipitation are seen at each level. By dividing the FAC of TRMM PR-observed precipitation by the FAC of thick GLAS/ICESat-observed clouds, we derive the fraction of clouds that are precipitating. We find that the tropical mean precipitating cloud fraction is low: 3.7% for shallow clouds, 6.5% for midlevel clouds, and 24.1% for deep clouds.

  6. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. VIII. CoRoT-7b: the first super-Earth with measured radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, A.; Rouan, D.; Schneider, J.; Barge, P.; Fridlund, M.; Samuel, B.; Ollivier, M.; Guenther, E.; Deleuil, M.; Deeg, H. J.; Auvergne, M.; Alonso, R.; Aigrain, S.; Alapini, A.; Almenara, J. M.; Baglin, A.; Barbieri, M.; Bruntt, H.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Catala, C.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Foing, B.; Fressin, F.; Gandolfi, D.; Gillon, M.; Gondoin, Ph.; Grasset, O.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Hébrard, G.; Jorda, L.; Lammer, H.; Llebaria, A.; Loeillet, B.; Mayor, M.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Pätzold, M.; Pont, F.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Renner, S.; Samadi, R.; Shporer, A.; Sotin, Ch.; Tingley, B.; Wuchterl, G.; Adda, M.; Agogu, P.; Appourchaux, T.; Ballans, H.; Baron, P.; Beaufort, T.; Bellenger, R.; Berlin, R.; Bernardi, P.; Blouin, D.; Baudin, F.; Bodin, P.; Boisnard, L.; Boit, L.; Bonneau, F.; Borzeix, S.; Briet, R.; Buey, J.-T.; Butler, B.; Cailleau, D.; Cautain, R.; Chabaud, P.-Y.; Chaintreuil, S.; Chiavassa, F.; Costes, V.; Cuna Parrho, V.; de Oliveira Fialho, F.; Decaudin, M.; Defise, J.-M.; Djalal, S.; Epstein, G.; Exil, G.-E.; Fauré, C.; Fenouillet, T.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gallic, A.; Gamet, P.; Gavalda, P.; Grolleau, E.; Gruneisen, R.; Gueguen, L.; Guis, V.; Guivarc'h, V.; Guterman, P.; Hallouard, D.; Hasiba, J.; Heuripeau, F.; Huntzinger, G.; Hustaix, H.; Imad, C.; Imbert, C.; Johlander, B.; Jouret, M.; Journoud, P.; Karioty, F.; Kerjean, L.; Lafaille, V.; Lafond, L.; Lam-Trong, T.; Landiech, P.; Lapeyrere, V.; Larqué, T.; Laudet, P.; Lautier, N.; Lecann, H.; Lefevre, L.; Leruyet, B.; Levacher, P.; Magnan, A.; Mazy, E.; Mertens, F.; Mesnager, J.-M.; Meunier, J.-C.; Michel, J.-P.; Monjoin, W.; Naudet, D.; Nguyen-Kim, K.; Orcesi, J.-L.; Ottacher, H.; Perez, R.; Peter, G.; Plasson, P.; Plesseria, J.-Y.; Pontet, B.; Pradines, A.; Quentin, C.; Reynaud, J.-L.; Rolland, G.; Rollenhagen, F.; Romagnan, R.; Russ, N.; Schmidt, R.; Schwartz, N.; Sebbag, I.; Sedes, G.; Smit, H.; Steller, M. B.; Sunter, W.; Surace, C.; Tello, M.; Tiphène, D.; Toulouse, P.; Ulmer, B.; Vandermarcq, O.; Vergnault, E.; Vuillemin, A.; Zanatta, P.

    2009-10-01

    Aims: We report the discovery of very shallow (Δ F/F ≈ 3.4× 10-4), periodic dips in the light curve of an active V = 11.7 G9V star observed by the CoRoT satellite, which we interpret as caused by a transiting companion. We describe the 3-colour CoRoT data and complementary ground-based observations that support the planetary nature of the companion. Methods: We used CoRoT colours information, good angular resolution ground-based photometric observations in- and out- of transit, adaptive optics imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, and preliminary results from radial velocity measurements, to test the diluted eclipsing binary scenarios. The parameters of the host star were derived from optical spectra, which were then combined with the CoRoT light curve to derive parameters of the companion. Results: We examined all conceivable cases of false positives carefully, and all the tests support the planetary hypothesis. Blends with separation >0.40´´or triple systems are almost excluded with a 8 × 10-4 risk left. We conclude that, inasmuch we have been exhaustive, we have discovered a planetary companion, named CoRoT-7b, for which we derive a period of 0.853 59 ± 3 × 10-5 day and a radius of Rp = 1.68 ± 0.09 R_Earth. Analysis of preliminary radial velocity data yields an upper limit of 21 M_Earth for the companion mass, supporting the finding. Conclusions: CoRoT-7b is very likely the first Super-Earth with a measured radius. This object illustrates what will probably become a common situation with missions such as Kepler, namely the need to establish the planetary origin of transits in the absence of a firm radial velocity detection and mass measurement. The composition of CoRoT-7b remains loosely constrained without a precise mass. A very high surface temperature on its irradiated face, ≈1800-2600 K at the substellar point, and a very low one, ≈50 K, on its dark face assuming no atmosphere, have been derived. The CoRoT space mission, launched on 27

  7. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  8. Mir Mission Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Dockings, module additions, configuration changes, crew changes, and major mission events are tracked for Mir missions 17 through 21 (November 1994 through August 1996). The international aspects of these missions are presented, comprising joint missions with ESA and NASA, including three U.S. Space Shuttle dockings. New Mir modules described are Spektr, the Docking Module, and Priroda.

  9. Missions and Moral Judgement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushnell, Amy Turner

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the history of Spanish-American missions, discussing the view of missions in church history, their role in the Spanish conquest, and the role and ideas of Herbert E. Bolton. Focuses on differences among Spanish borderlands missions, paying particular attention to the Florida missions. (CMK)

  10. A Numerical Testbed for Remote Sensing of Aerosols, and its Demonstration for Evaluating Retrieval Synergy from a Geostationary Satellite Constellation of GEO-CAPE and GOES-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Ding, Shouguo; Zeng, Jing; Spurr, Robert; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical testbed for remote sensing of aerosols, together with a demonstration for evaluating retrieval synergy from a geostationary satellite constellation. The testbed combines inverse (optimal-estimation) software with a forward model containing linearized code for computing particle scattering (for both spherical and non-spherical particles), a kernel-based (land and ocean) surface bi-directional reflectance facility, and a linearized radiative transfer model for polarized radiance. Calculation of gas absorption spectra uses the HITRAN (HIgh-resolution TRANsmission molecular absorption) database of spectroscopic line parameters and other trace species cross-sections. The outputs of the testbed include not only the Stokes 4-vector elements and their sensitivities (Jacobians) with respect to the aerosol single scattering and physical parameters (such as size and shape parameters, refractive index, and plume height), but also DFS (Degree of Freedom for Signal) values for retrieval of these parameters. This testbed can be used as a tool to provide an objective assessment of aerosol information content that can be retrieved for any constellation of (planned or real) satellite sensors and for any combination of algorithm design factors (in terms of wavelengths, viewing angles, radiance and/or polarization to be measured or used). We summarize the components of the testbed, including the derivation and validation of analytical formulae for Jacobian calculations. Benchmark calculations from the forward model are documented. In the context of NASA's Decadal Survey Mission GEOCAPE (GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events), we demonstrate the use of the testbed to conduct a feasibility study of using polarization measurements in and around the O2 A band for the retrieval of aerosol height information from space, as well as an to assess potential improvement in the retrieval of aerosol fine and coarse mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) through the

  11. Software Construction and Analysis Tools for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA and its international partners will increasingly depend on software-based systems to implement advanced functions for future space missions, such as Martian rovers that autonomously navigate long distances exploring geographic features formed by surface water early in the planet's history. The software-based functions for these missions will need to be robust and highly reliable, raising significant challenges in the context of recent Mars mission failures attributed to software faults. After reviewing these challenges, this paper describes tools that have been developed at NASA Ames that could contribute to meeting these challenges; 1) Program synthesis tools based on automated inference that generate documentation for manual review and annotations for automated certification. 2) Model-checking tools for concurrent object-oriented software that achieve memorability through synergy with program abstraction and static analysis tools.

  12. Gaia: status, upcoming data releases and the mission archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luri, X.

    2016-06-01

    The Gaia mission, launched in December 2013, is now nearing two years of scientific operations. This talk will review the status of the mission, from the satellite operations to its updated scientific performances, with a focus on the expected contents of the successive mission data releases. Specifically the first Gaia Data Release, scheduled for end of summer 2016, will be discussed in detail along with the features of the Gaia archive from which the data will be served. The overall goal of the talk will be to provide the XMM community a clear picture of the astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic data that Gaia will produce in the next five years in view of identifying possible synergies with XMM.

  13. Muscle synergy organization is robust across a variety of postural perturbations.

    PubMed

    Torres-Oviedo, Gelsy; Macpherson, Jane M; Ting, Lena H

    2006-09-01

    We recently showed that four muscle synergies can reproduce multiple muscle activation patterns in cats during postural responses to support surface translations. We now test the robustness of functional muscle synergies, which specify muscle groupings and the active force vectors produced during postural responses under several biomechanically distinct conditions. We aimed to determine whether such synergies represent a generalized control strategy for postural control or if they are merely specific to each postural task. Postural responses to multidirectional translations at different fore-hind paw distances and to multidirectional rotations at the preferred stance distance were analyzed. Five synergies were required to adequately reconstruct responses to translation at the preferred stance distance-four were similar to our previous analysis of translation, whereas the fifth accounted for the newly added background activity during quiet stance. These five control synergies could account for > 80% total variability or r2 > 0.6 of the electromyographic and force tuning curves for all other experimental conditions. Forces were successfully reconstructed but only when they were referenced to a coordinate system that rotated with the limb axis as stance distance changed. Finally, most of the functional muscle synergies were similar across all of the six cats in terms of muscle synergy number, synergy activation patterns, and synergy force vectors. The robustness of synergy organization across perturbation types, postures, and animals suggests that muscle synergies controlling task-variables are a general construct used by the CNS for balance control.

  14. Evaluating Mission Drift in Microfinance: Lessons for Programs with Social Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hishigsuren, Gaamaa

    2007-01-01

    The article contributes to a better understanding of implications of scaling up on the social mission of microfinance programs. It proposes a methodology to measure the extent, if any, to which a microfinance program with a poverty alleviation mission drifts away from its mission during rapid scaling up and presents findings from a field research…

  15. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoebert, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Barnett, J.; Gille, J.; Beer, R.; Gunson, M.; Waters, J.; Levelt, P. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite is scheduled to launch in the second quarter of 2004. The Aura mission is designed to attack three science questions: (1) Is the ozone layer recovering as expected? (2) What are the sources and processes that control tropospheric pollutants? (3) What is the quantitative impact of constituents on climate change? Aura will answer these questions by globally measuring a comprehensive set of trace gases and aerosols at high vertical and horizontal resolution. Fig. 1 shows the Aura spacecraft and its four instruments.

  16. Analysis of Hand and Wrist Postural Synergies in Tolerance Grasping of Various Objects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Jiang, Li; Yang, Dapeng; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Human can successfully grasp various objects in different acceptable relative positions between human hand and objects. This grasp functionality can be described as the grasp tolerance of human hand, which is a significant functionality of human grasp. To understand the motor control of human hand completely, an analysis of hand and wrist postural synergies in tolerance grasping of various objects is needed. Ten healthy right-handed subjects were asked to perform the tolerance grasping with right hand using 6 objects of different shapes, sizes and relative positions between human hand and objects. Subjects were wearing CyberGlove attaching motion tracker on right hand, allowing a measurement of the hand and wrist postures. Correlation analysis of joints and inter-joint/inter-finger modules were carried on to explore the coordination between joints or modules. As the correlation between hand and wrist module is not obvious in tolerance grasping, individual analysis of wrist synergies would be more practical. In this case, postural synergies of hand and wrist were then presented separately through principal component analysis (PCA), expressed through the principal component (PC) information transmitted ratio, PC elements distribution and reconstructed angle error of joints. Results on correlation comparison of different module movements can be well explained by the influence factors of the joint movement correlation. Moreover, correlation analysis of joints and modules showed the wrist module had the lowest correlation among all inter-finger and inter-joint modules. Hand and wrist postures were both sufficient to be described by a few principal components. In terms of the PC elements distribution of hand postures, compared with previous investigations, there was a greater proportion of movement in the thumb joints especially the interphalangeal (IP) and opposition rotation (ROT) joint. The research could serve to a complete understanding of hand grasp, and the design

  17. Analysis of Hand and Wrist Postural Synergies in Tolerance Grasping of Various Objects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Jiang, Li; Yang, Dapeng; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Human can successfully grasp various objects in different acceptable relative positions between human hand and objects. This grasp functionality can be described as the grasp tolerance of human hand, which is a significant functionality of human grasp. To understand the motor control of human hand completely, an analysis of hand and wrist postural synergies in tolerance grasping of various objects is needed. Ten healthy right-handed subjects were asked to perform the tolerance grasping with right hand using 6 objects of different shapes, sizes and relative positions between human hand and objects. Subjects were wearing CyberGlove attaching motion tracker on right hand, allowing a measurement of the hand and wrist postures. Correlation analysis of joints and inter-joint/inter-finger modules were carried on to explore the coordination between joints or modules. As the correlation between hand and wrist module is not obvious in tolerance grasping, individual analysis of wrist synergies would be more practical. In this case, postural synergies of hand and wrist were then presented separately through principal component analysis (PCA), expressed through the principal component (PC) information transmitted ratio, PC elements distribution and reconstructed angle error of joints. Results on correlation comparison of different module movements can be well explained by the influence factors of the joint movement correlation. Moreover, correlation analysis of joints and modules showed the wrist module had the lowest correlation among all inter-finger and inter-joint modules. Hand and wrist postures were both sufficient to be described by a few principal components. In terms of the PC elements distribution of hand postures, compared with previous investigations, there was a greater proportion of movement in the thumb joints especially the interphalangeal (IP) and opposition rotation (ROT) joint. The research could serve to a complete understanding of hand grasp, and the design

  18. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z.; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Kempler, S.; Deshong, B.; Greene, M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is also home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 17 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available: -Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products, DPR products -Level-2 Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products, DPR products -Level-3 daily and monthly products, DPR products -Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding; data version control and provenance; documentation; science support for proper data usage, FAQ, help desk; monitoring services (e.g. Current Conditions) for applications. The United User Interface (UUI) is the next step in the evolution of the GES DISC web site. It attempts to provide seamless access to data, information and services through a single interface without sending the user to different applications or URLs (e.g., search, access

  19. The variable nature of convection in the tropics and subtropics: A legacy of 16 years of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Kristen L.; Zuluaga, Manuel D.; Brodzik, Stella R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For over 16 years, the Precipitation Radar of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite detected the three‐dimensional structure of significantly precipitating clouds in the tropics and subtropics. This paper reviews and synthesizes studies using the TRMM radar data to present a global picture of the variation of convection throughout low latitudes. The multiyear data set shows convection varying not only in amount but also in its very nature across the oceans, continents, islands, and mountain ranges of the tropics and subtropics. Shallow isolated raining clouds are overwhelmingly an oceanic phenomenon. Extremely deep and intense convective elements occur almost exclusively over land. Upscale growth of convection into mesoscale systems takes a variety of forms. Oceanic cloud systems generally have less intense embedded convection but can form very wide stratiform regions. Continental mesoscale systems often have more intense embedded convection. Some of the most intense convective cells and mesoscale systems occur near the great mountain ranges of low latitudes. The Maritime Continent and Amazonia exhibit convective clouds with maritime characteristics although they are partially or wholly land. Convective systems containing broad stratiform areas manifest most strongly over oceans. The stratiform precipitation occurs in various forms. Often it occurs as quasi‐uniform precipitation with strong melting layers connected with intense convection. In monsoons and the Intertropical Convergence Zone, it takes the form of closely packed weak convective elements. Where fronts extend into the subtropics, broad stratiform regions are larger and have lower and sloping melting layers related to the baroclinic origin of the precipitation. PMID:27668295

  20. The flexion synergy, mother of all synergies and father of new models of gait

    PubMed Central

    Duysens, Jacques; De Groote, Friedl; Jonkers, Ilse

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in the modular organization of leg movements, in particular those related to locomotion. One of the basic modules involves the flexion of the leg during swing and it was shown that this module is already present in neonates (Dominici et al., 2011). In this paper, we question how these finding build upon the original work by Sherrington, who proposed that the flexor reflex is the basic building block of flexion during swing phase. Similarly, the relation between the flexor reflex and the withdrawal reflex modules of Schouenborg and Weng (1994) will be discussed. It will be argued that there is large overlap between these notions on modules and the older concepts of reflexes. In addition, it will be shown that there is a great flexibility in the expression of some of these modules during gait, thereby allowing for a phase-dependent modulation of the appropriate responses. In particular, the end of the stance phase is a period when the flexor synergy is facilitated. It is proposed that this is linked to the activation of circuitry that is responsible for the generation of locomotor patterns (CPG, “central pattern generator”). More specifically, it is suggested that the responses in that period relate to the activation of a flexor burst generator. The latter structure forms the core of a new asymmetric model of the CPG. This activation is controlled by afferent input (facilitation by a broad range of afferents, suppression by load afferent input). Meanwhile, many of these physiologic features have found their way in the control of very flexible walking bipedal robots. PMID:23494365

  1. Shared mission operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradlin, Gary L.; Rudd, Richard P.; Linick, Susan H.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, new JPL flight projects have developed a Mission Operations System (MOS) as unique as their spacecraft, and have utilized a mission-dedicated staff to monitor and control the spacecraft through the MOS. NASA budgetary pressures to reduce mission operations costs have led to the development and reliance on multimission ground system capabilities. The use of these multimission capabilities has not eliminated an ongoing requirement for a nucleus of personnel familiar with a given spacecraft and its mission to perform mission-dedicated operations. The high cost of skilled personnel required to support projects with diverse mission objectives has the potential for significant reduction through shared mission operations among mission-compatible projects. Shared mission operations are feasible if: (1) the missions do not conflict with one another in terms of peak activity periods, (2) a unique MOS is not required, and (3) there is sufficient similarity in the mission profiles so that greatly different skills would not be required to support each mission. This paper will further develop this shared mission operations concept. We will illustrate how a Discovery-class mission would enter a 'partner' relationship with the Voyager Project, and can minimize MOS development and operations costs by early and careful consideration of mission operations requirements.

  2. Predicting Mission Success in Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Mark; Richie, Wayne; Rogers, John; Moore, Arlene

    1992-01-01

    In our global society with its increasing international competition and tighter financial resources, governments, commercial entities and other organizations are becoming critically aware of the need to ensure that space missions can be achieved on time and within budget. This has become particularly true for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science (OSS) which has developed their Discovery and Explorer programs to meet this need. As technologies advance, space missions are becoming smaller and more capable than their predecessors. The ability to predict the mission success of these small satellite missions is critical to the continued achievement of NASA science mission objectives. The NASA Office of Space Science, in cooperation with the NASA Langley Research Center, has implemented a process to predict the likely success of missions proposed to its Discovery and Explorer Programs. This process is becoming the basis for predicting mission success in many other NASA programs as well. This paper describes the process, methodology, tools and synthesis techniques used to predict mission success for this class of mission.

  3. Impaired grip-lift synergy in children with unilateral brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Forssberg, H; Eliasson, A C; Redon-Zouitenn, C; Mercuri, E; Dubowitz, L

    1999-06-01

    Children with spastic hemiplegia have impaired dexterity in the affected extremity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the force co-ordination pattern during precision grip in 13 children between 4 and 10 years of age with predominant unilateral brain lesions is related to manual dexterity and to the location and size of the brain lesion. The force co-ordination pattern was investigated by means of a specially designed object that monitored the isometric fingertip forces applied to the contact surfaces during precision grip. Hand function was measured by means of neurological examination, functional hand-grips and dexterity. Brain lesions were identified by series of ultrasound and MRI scans. Normally, the fingertip forces are applied to the object in the initial phase of the lift in an invariant force co-ordination pattern (i.e. grip-lift synergy), in which the grip and load forces are initiated simultaneously and increase in parallel with unimodal force rate trajectories. A majority of children with unilateral brain lesions had not developed the force co-ordination pattern typical for their age, but produced an immature or a pathological pattern. The developmental level of the grip-lift synergy was determined and quantified according to criteria derived from earlier studies on normally developed children. There was a clear relationship between the developmental level of the grip-lift synergy and impaired dexterity, indicating that proper development of the force co-ordination pattern is important for skilled hand function. The grip-lift synergy correlated with the total extent of lesions in the contralateral cortex and white matter and with lesions in the thalamus/basal ganglia, while no correlation was found for isolated cortical lesions. The results suggest that the neural circuits involved in the control of the precision grip are organized in a parallel and distributed system in the hemispheres, and that the basal ganglia are important

  4. Revealing Exo-Zody and Exo-Planets from Solar System Dust Measurements: ALADDIN-2 for the Solar Power Sail Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime; Hirai, Takayuki

    2016-07-01

    The dust structure of our Solar System provides a benchmark information of dust disks of other exo-planetary systems in general, just like the Sun as the closest main sequence G-star that we can study with the most details. Heliocentric dust distributions and gravitational and orbital interactions with planets such as mean motion resonances (MMRs) of dust flux of our Solar System are what we can transfer the knowledge of our Solar System dust apply to infer anisotropic exo-zodiacal brightness, or spatial structures within a exo-planetary dust disks with information about potentially embedded planets inside. In the coming era of disk resolved observations by ALMA, TMT and other new telescopes, we will be able to apply what we find in the Solar System to the rest of planetary systems. In 2010-11, the IKAROS solar sail spacecraft carried the ALADDIN large area dust detector array to study large meteoroids between the Earth and Venus orbits. Yano et al. directly detected both the Earth's and Venus' MMRs dust structures, being consistent with numerical simulations that predict the existence of such local enhancements of dust distribution around these terrestrial planets, as well as Neptune. JAXA's Solar Power Sail mission plans to carry even larger dust detector inherited the technology onboard IKAROS, namely ALADDIN-2 in order to search for such MMRs in the Mars and Jupiter orbits, as predicted by Kuchner et al.(2000), in addition to make a continuous measurement of large dust flux from 1.0 to 5.2 AU crossing the main asteroid belt up to Jupiter Trojan region. It is also noted that recent reanalysis of the Pioneer 10 and 11 photo polarimeter data suggests a small enhancement of the brightness towards the anti-solar direction near Jupiter the largest planet of our Solar System, implying a possible existence of a dust belt related to the planet. The spatial density of dust particles directly measured by the ALADDIN-2 will provide a more conclusive and direct proof due to

  5. Evaluation of synergy in tire rubber-coal coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Mastral, A.M.; Mayoral, M.C.; Murillo, R.; Callen, M.; Garcia, T.; Tejero, M.P.; Torres, N.

    1998-09-01

    The tire rubber-coal synergy is evaluated through the different roles that rubber can have in coprocessing systems. For that, two different experimental designs were used: a swept fixed-bed reactor and tubing bomb minireactors. In this way, coal was coprocessed with rubber liquids from rubber pyrolysis and rubber hydrogenation, in a hydrogen atmosphere at 400 C. Coal was mixed as well with rubber in different proportions and hydrogenated at 375, 400, and 425 C, and oils obtained were characterized by thin-layer chromatography to obtain hydrocarbon type composition. Rubber behavior was compared to each of the main components of tires, and all the results indicated that the slight synergy found can be due to the small free radicals from vulcanized rubber decomposition, which are able to stabilize coal radicals to light products.

  6. Potential Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; McDonald, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  7. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  8. The EOS-Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    The EOS-Aura atmospheric chemistry mission is scheduled for launch in June 2004. Aura is the third of the large EOS observatories. The spacecraft carries an international instrument payload that has a planned six year lifetime. The Aura mission will collect data to help answer stratospheric and tropospheric atmospheric chemistry questions. The mission has the following four major objectives: 1) Track the ozone layer to determine if it is recovering as predicted. The four Aura instruments, HIRDLS, OMI, MLS, and TES will measure ozone, key source, radical, reservoir, tracer gases, and aerosols. Aura's unique design allows for major ozone controlling gases to be measured within the same air mass within a few minutes. The OMI instrument will continue the trends fiom NASA's TOMS series. 2) Track tropospheric pollutant sources and measure tropospheric ozone precursors. Major pollution sources include urban, industrial and biomass burning regions. Tropospheric trace gases will be measured, using TES and OMI, at an average spatial resolution of about approximately 15 km with near global coverage. 3) Measure key upper tropospheric atmospheric constituents that influence climate. The Aura instruments will monitor O3, H2O, CO, cirrus ice, and aerosols. EOS-Aura will fly in a sun-synchronous polar orbit about 15 minutes behind Aqua and make near coincident and synergistic measurements with the EOS- Aqua, Cloudsat, OCO, PARASOL and Calipso missions. Aura launched July 15,2004.

  9. The EOS-Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    The EOS-Aura atmospheric chemistry mission is scheduled for launch in June 2004. Aura is the third of the large EOS observatories. The spacecraft carries an international instrument payload that has a planned six year lifetime. The Aura mission will collect data to help answer stratospheric and tropospheric atmospheric chemistry questions. The mission has the following four major objectives: 1) Track the ozone layer to determine if it is recovering as predicted. The four Aura instruments, HIRDLS, OMI, MLS, and TES will measure ozone, key source, radical, reservoir, tracer gases, and aerosols. Aura's unique design allows for major ozone controlling gases to be measured within the same air mass within a few minutes. The OMI instrument will continue the trends from NASA's TOMS series. 2) Track tropospheric pollutant sources and measure tropospheric ozone precursors. Major pollution sources include urban, industrial and biomass burning regions. Tropospheric trace gases will be measured, using TES and OMI, at an average spatial resolution of about approx. 15 km with near global coverage. 3) Measure key upper tropospheric atmospheric constituents that influence climate. The Aura instruments will monitor O3, H2O, CO, cirrus ice, and aerosols. EOS-Aura will fly in a sun-synchronous polar orbit about 15 minutes behind Aqua and make near coincident and synergistic measurements with the EOS-Aqua, Cloudsat, OCO, PARASOL and Calipso missions. Aura launched July 15,2004.

  10. The Euclid mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, Giuseppe D.; Laureijs, René; Stagnaro, Luca; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Lorenzo Alvarez, José; Saavedra Criado, Gonzalo; Gaspar Venancio, Luis; Short, Alex; Strada, Paolo; Bönke, Tobias; Colombo, Cyril; Calvi, Adriano; Maiorano, Elena; Piersanti, Osvaldo; Prezelus, Sylvain; Rosato, Pierluigi; Pinel, Jacques; Rozemeijer, Hans; Lesna, Valentina; Musi, Paolo; Sias, Marco; Anselmi, Alberto; Cazaubiel, Vincent; Vaillon, Ludovic; Mellier, Yannick; Amiaux, Jérôme; Berthé, Michel; Sauvage, Marc; Azzollini, Ruyman; Cropper, Mark; Pottinger, Sabrina; Jahnke, Knud; Ealet, Anne; Maciaszek, Thierry; Pasian, Fabio; Zacchei, Andrea; Scaramella, Roberto; Hoar, John; Kohley, Ralf; Vavrek, Roland; Rudolph, Andreas; Schmidt, Micha

    2016-07-01

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid will use two probes of the signature of dark matter and energy: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for launch in 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. In particular the Service Module provides the extremely challenging pointing accuracy required by the scientific objectives. The Payload Module consists of a 1.2 m three-mirror Korsch type telescope and of two instruments, the visible imager and the near-infrared spectro-photometer, both covering a large common field-of-view enabling to survey more than 35% of the entire sky. All sensor data are downlinked using K-band transmission and processed by a dedicated ground segment for science data processing. The Euclid data and catalogues will be made available to the public at the ESA Science Data Centre.

  11. The OHMIC Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, R.; Burch, J. L.; Lotko, W.; Frey, H. U.; Chaston, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Observatory for Heteroscale Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (OHMIC) investigates the coupling of Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere (MI) focusing on the conversion of electromagnetic energy into particle energy in auroral acceleration regions. Energy conversion and acceleration are universal processes that are a critical part of MI coupling and govern the energy deposition into Earth's upper atmosphere. These same processes are known to occur in planetary magnetospheres and in the magnetized plasmas of stars. Energy conversion and acceleration in the auroral regions are known to occur on small spatial scales through dispersive Alfvén waves and nonlinear plasma structures such as double layers. OHMIC advances our understanding of MI coupling over previous missions using two spacecraft equipped with high-time resolution measurements of electron distributions, ion distributions, and vector electric and magnetic fields. One of the spacecraft will carry two high-time and high-spatial resolution imagers and a wide-angle imager in the far ultraviolet. The mission has two phases. The first phase investigates meridional phenomena by using the combination of two-point measurements and high-resolution to distinguishing spatial and temporal phenomena. The second phase investigates field-aligned phenomena with spacecraft separations between 10 and 1100 km. Primary science objectives include (1) determining how energy conversion and transport vary along the magnetic field, (2) determining how ionospheric outflow is mediated by ion heating, convection and field-aligned transport, and (3) determining how charged-particle acceleration and injection vary in time and space.

  12. A synergy-driven approach to a myoelectric hand.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, S B; Ajoudani, A; Catalano, M; Grioli, G; Bicchi, A

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present the Pisa/IIT SoftHand with myoelectric control as a synergy-driven approach for a prosthetic hand. Commercially available myoelectric hands are more expensive, heavier, and less robust than their body-powered counterparts; however, they can offer greater freedom of motion and a more aesthetically pleasing appearance. The Pisa/IIT SoftHand is built on the motor control principle of synergies through which the immense complexity of the hand is simplified into distinct motor patterns. As the SoftHand grasps, it follows a synergistic path with built-in flexibility to allow grasping of a wide variety of objects with a single motor. Here we test, as a proof-of-concept, 4 myoelectric controllers: a standard controller in which the EMG signal is used only as a position reference, an impedance controller that determines both position and stiffness references from the EMG input, a standard controller with vibrotactile force feedback, and finally a combined vibrotactile-impedance (VI) controller. Four healthy subjects tested the control algorithms by grasping various objects. All controllers were sufficient for basic grasping, however the impedance and vibrotactile controllers reduced the physical and cognitive load on the user, while the combined VI mode was the easiest to use of the four. While these results need to be validated with amputees, they suggest a low-cost, robust hand employing hardware-based synergies is a viable alternative to traditional myoelectric prostheses. PMID:24187196

  13. Nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations: synergies between theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Tavernelli, Ivano

    2015-03-17

    Recent developments in nonadiabatic dynamics enabled ab inito simulations of complex ultrafast processes in the condensed phase. These advances have opened new avenues in the study of many photophysical and photochemical reactions triggered by the absorption of electromagnetic radiation. In particular, theoretical investigations can be combined with the most sophisticated femtosecond experimental techniques to guide the interpretation of measured time-resolved observables. At the same time, the availability of experimental data at high (spatial and time) resolution offers a unique opportunity for the benchmarking and the improvement of those theoretical models used to describe complex molecular systems in their natural environment. The established synergy between theory and experiments can produce a better understanding of new ultrafast physical and chemical processes at atomistic scale resolution. Furthermore, reliable ab inito molecular dynamics simulations can already be successfully employed as predictive tools to guide new experiments as well as the design of novel and better performing materials. In this paper, I will give a concise account on the state of the art of molecular dynamics simulations of complex molecular systems in their excited states. The principal aim of this approach is the description of a given system of interest under the most realistic ambient conditions including all environmental effects that influence experiments, for instance, the interaction with the solvent and with external time-dependent electric fields, temperature, and pressure. To this end, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is among the most efficient and accurate methods for the representation of the electronic dynamics, while trajectory surface hopping gives a valuable representation of the nuclear quantum dynamics in the excited states (including nonadiabatic effects). Concerning the environment and its effects on the dynamics, the quantum mechanics

  14. Nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations: synergies between theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Tavernelli, Ivano

    2015-03-17

    Recent developments in nonadiabatic dynamics enabled ab inito simulations of complex ultrafast processes in the condensed phase. These advances have opened new avenues in the study of many photophysical and photochemical reactions triggered by the absorption of electromagnetic radiation. In particular, theoretical investigations can be combined with the most sophisticated femtosecond experimental techniques to guide the interpretation of measured time-resolved observables. At the same time, the availability of experimental data at high (spatial and time) resolution offers a unique opportunity for the benchmarking and the improvement of those theoretical models used to describe complex molecular systems in their natural environment. The established synergy between theory and experiments can produce a better understanding of new ultrafast physical and chemical processes at atomistic scale resolution. Furthermore, reliable ab inito molecular dynamics simulations can already be successfully employed as predictive tools to guide new experiments as well as the design of novel and better performing materials. In this paper, I will give a concise account on the state of the art of molecular dynamics simulations of complex molecular systems in their excited states. The principal aim of this approach is the description of a given system of interest under the most realistic ambient conditions including all environmental effects that influence experiments, for instance, the interaction with the solvent and with external time-dependent electric fields, temperature, and pressure. To this end, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is among the most efficient and accurate methods for the representation of the electronic dynamics, while trajectory surface hopping gives a valuable representation of the nuclear quantum dynamics in the excited states (including nonadiabatic effects). Concerning the environment and its effects on the dynamics, the quantum mechanics

  15. Novel Methods to Enhance Precision and Reliability in Muscle Synergy Identification during Walking

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yushin; Bulea, Thomas C.; Damiano, Diane L.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle synergies are hypothesized to reflect modular control of muscle groups via descending commands sent through multiple neural pathways. Recently, the number of synergies has been reported as a functionally relevant indicator of motor control complexity in individuals with neurological movement disorders. Yet the number of synergies extracted during a given activity, e.g., gait, varies within and across studies, even for unimpaired individuals. With no standardized methods for precise determination, this variability remains unexplained making comparisons across studies and cohorts difficult. Here, we utilize k-means clustering and intra-class and between-level correlation coefficients to precisely discriminate reliable from unreliable synergies. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from eight leg muscles during treadmill walking at self-selected speed. Muscle synergies were extracted from 20 consecutive gait cycles using non-negative matrix factorization. We demonstrate that the number of synergies is highly dependent on the threshold when using the variance accounted for by reconstructed EMG. Beyond use of threshold, our method utilized a quantitative metric to reliably identify four or five synergies underpinning walking in unimpaired adults and revealed synergies having poor reproducibility that should not be considered as true synergies. We show that robust and unreliable synergies emerge similarly, emphasizing the need for careful analysis in those with pathology. PMID:27695403

  16. Novel Methods to Enhance Precision and Reliability in Muscle Synergy Identification during Walking

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yushin; Bulea, Thomas C.; Damiano, Diane L.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle synergies are hypothesized to reflect modular control of muscle groups via descending commands sent through multiple neural pathways. Recently, the number of synergies has been reported as a functionally relevant indicator of motor control complexity in individuals with neurological movement disorders. Yet the number of synergies extracted during a given activity, e.g., gait, varies within and across studies, even for unimpaired individuals. With no standardized methods for precise determination, this variability remains unexplained making comparisons across studies and cohorts difficult. Here, we utilize k-means clustering and intra-class and between-level correlation coefficients to precisely discriminate reliable from unreliable synergies. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from eight leg muscles during treadmill walking at self-selected speed. Muscle synergies were extracted from 20 consecutive gait cycles using non-negative matrix factorization. We demonstrate that the number of synergies is highly dependent on the threshold when using the variance accounted for by reconstructed EMG. Beyond use of threshold, our method utilized a quantitative metric to reliably identify four or five synergies underpinning walking in unimpaired adults and revealed synergies having poor reproducibility that should not be considered as true synergies. We show that robust and unreliable synergies emerge similarly, emphasizing the need for careful analysis in those with pathology.

  17. Consequences of biomechanically constrained tasks in the design and interpretation of synergy analyses

    PubMed Central

    Tresch, Matthew C.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix factorization algorithms are commonly used to analyze muscle activity and provide insight into neuromuscular control. These algorithms identify low-dimensional subspaces, commonly referred to as synergies, which can describe variation in muscle activity during a task. Synergies are often interpreted as reflecting underlying neural control; however, it is unclear how these analyses are influenced by biomechanical and task constraints, which can also lead to low-dimensional patterns of muscle activation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether commonly used algorithms and experimental methods can accurately identify synergy-based control strategies. This was accomplished by evaluating synergies from five common matrix factorization algorithms using muscle activations calculated from 1) a biomechanically constrained task using a musculoskeletal model and 2) without task constraints using random synergy activations. Algorithm performance was assessed by calculating the similarity between estimated synergies and those imposed during the simulations; similarities ranged from 0 (random chance) to 1 (perfect similarity). Although some of the algorithms could accurately estimate specified synergies without biomechanical or task constraints (similarity >0.7), with these constraints the similarity of estimated synergies decreased significantly (0.3–0.4). The ability of these algorithms to accurately identify synergies was negatively impacted by correlation of synergy activations, which are increased when substantial biomechanical or task constraints are present. Increased variability in synergy activations, which can be captured using robust experimental paradigms that include natural variability in motor activation patterns, improved identification accuracy but did not completely overcome effects of biomechanical and task constraints. These results demonstrate that a biomechanically constrained task can reduce the accuracy of estimated synergies and highlight

  18. Mass Spectrometers in Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Niemann, Hasso; Harpold, Dan

    2002-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been included in the payloads of several deep space missions over the past three decades. Our laboratory has designed and developed mass spectrometers for the Galileo Probe into the atmosphere of Jupiter, the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, the Cassini Orbiter Mission to Saturn, the Cassini/Huygens Probe Mission to Saturn's moon Titan, the Nozomi Mission to Mars, and most recently the CONTOUR comet nucleus flyby mission. Each mission has required attention to miniaturization, autonomous sampling, and consideration of the special hazards and measurement requirements of the target environment. Development ongoing in our laboratory includes further miniaturization, improved performance in the areas of sensitivity and precision for the important isotope measurements, and adaptation for the unusual environments to be encountered in locations such as the surface or subsurface of Europa or Mars. Various aspects of both the technical implementation of these delivered and planned experiments and the science drivers will be described.

  19. Cubesat Gravity Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2016-04-01

    CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.

  20. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission: Improving Science Application Tools and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, V. M.; Brown, M. E.; Moran, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    NASA depends on the science community to identify and prioritize leading-edge scientific questions and the observations required to answer them. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission has been identified as a priority for NASA's Science Mission Directorate through the most recent decadal survey. Following launch in 2014, SMAP will deliver global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial hydrologic and carbon cycle applications. The SMAP observatory consists of two multipolarization L-band sensors, a radar and radiometer that share a deployable mesh reflector antenna. The combined observations from the two sensors will allow accurate estimation of soil moisture at spatial scales. The wide-swath (1000 km) measurements will allow global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with a 2-3 day revisit frequency and 1-2 day revisit in boreal latitudes. The synergy of active and passive observations enables measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with unprecedented resolution, sensitivity, area coverage and revisit frequency. SMAP data are valuable for both scientific research and practical applications. SMAP has the potential to drive a diverse range of novel research in drought and flood guidance, agricultural productivity estimation, weather forecasting, climate prediction, human health risk analysis and defense systems. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements will provide new information for many science and applications disciplines. A SMAP Applications Team will explore ways to measure interaction and integration of SMAP data with the Emergency Management User community of Maryland in order to produce quantitative metrics related to long-term projects, milestone completion, and movement of SMAP products into routine operations for emergency response.

  1. Confirmation of Maslow's Hypothesis of Synergy: Developing an Acceptance of Selfishness at the Workplace Scale.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Jiro; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Fujii, Yasuhito

    2016-04-30

    This study aimed to develop a new Acceptance of Selfishness at the Workplace Scale (ASWS) and to confirm Maslow's hypothesis of synergy: if both a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness at the workplace are high, workers are psychologically healthy. In a cross-sectional study with employees of three Japanese companies, 656 workers answered a self-administered questionnaire on paper completely (response rate = 66.8%). Each questionnaire was submitted to us in a sealed envelope and analyzed. The ASWS indicated high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86). Significant (p < 0.001) positive moderate correlations between ASWS scores and job control scores support the ASWS's convergent and discriminant validity. Significant (p < 0.001) associations of ASWS scores with psychological distress and work engagement supported the ASWS's criterion validity. In short, ASWS was a psychometrically satisfactory measure. Significant (p < 0.05) interactions between a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness at the workplace in linear regression models showed that when those two factors are low, psychological distress becomes high. However, when a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness are high, work engagement also becomes high. Thus, Maslow's hypothesis of synergy was confirmed.

  2. Nonlinear Synergies and Multiscale Structural Dynamics in Complex Systems: Theoretical Advances and Applications to Hydroclimate Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdigão, R. A. P.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamical evolution of complex coevolving systems is assessed in a novel nonlinear statistical-dynamical framework formally linking nonlinear statistical measures of codependence and emergence with fundamental dynamical interaction laws. The methodological developments are then used to shed light onto fundamental interactions underlying complex behaviour in hydroclimate dynamics. For that purpose, a dynamical model is presented predicting evolving hydroclimatic quantities and their distributions under nonlinearly coevolving geophysical processes. The functional model is based on first principles regulating the dynamics of each system constituent and their synergies, therefore its applicability is general and data-independent, not requiring local calibrations. Moreover, it enables the dynamical estimation of hydroclimatic variations in space and time from the given knowledge at different spatiotemporal conditions. This paves the way for a robust physically based prediction of hydroclimatic changes in unmonitored areas. Validation is achieved by producing, with the dynamical model, a comprehensive spatiotemporal legacy consistent with the observed distributions along with their dynamical and statistical properties and relations. The similarity between simulated and observed distributions is further assessed with robust information-theoretic diagnostics. This study ultimately brings to light emerging signatures of structural change in hydroclimate dynamics arising from nonlinear synergies across spatiotemporal scales, and contributes to a better dynamical understanding and prediction of spatiotemporal regimes, transitions and extremes. The study further sheds light onto a diversity of emerging properties from harmonic to hyper-chaotic dynamics in hydroclimatic systems.

  3. Confirmation of Maslow's Hypothesis of Synergy: Developing an Acceptance of Selfishness at the Workplace Scale.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Jiro; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Fujii, Yasuhito

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new Acceptance of Selfishness at the Workplace Scale (ASWS) and to confirm Maslow's hypothesis of synergy: if both a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness at the workplace are high, workers are psychologically healthy. In a cross-sectional study with employees of three Japanese companies, 656 workers answered a self-administered questionnaire on paper completely (response rate = 66.8%). Each questionnaire was submitted to us in a sealed envelope and analyzed. The ASWS indicated high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86). Significant (p < 0.001) positive moderate correlations between ASWS scores and job control scores support the ASWS's convergent and discriminant validity. Significant (p < 0.001) associations of ASWS scores with psychological distress and work engagement supported the ASWS's criterion validity. In short, ASWS was a psychometrically satisfactory measure. Significant (p < 0.05) interactions between a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness at the workplace in linear regression models showed that when those two factors are low, psychological distress becomes high. However, when a sense of contribution and acceptance of selfishness are high, work engagement also becomes high. Thus, Maslow's hypothesis of synergy was confirmed. PMID:27144575

  4. The role of muscle synergies in myoelectric control: trends and challenges for simultaneous multifunction control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ison, Mark; Artemiadis, Panagiotis

    2014-10-01

    Myoelectric control is filled with potential to significantly change human-robot interaction due to the ability to non-invasively measure human motion intent. However, current control schemes have struggled to achieve the robust performance that is necessary for use in commercial applications. As demands in myoelectric control trend toward simultaneous multifunctional control, multi-muscle coordinations, or synergies, play larger roles in the success of the control scheme. Detecting and refining patterns in muscle activations robust to the high variance and transient changes associated with surface electromyography is essential for efficient, user-friendly control. This article reviews the role of muscle synergies in myoelectric control schemes by dissecting each component of the scheme with respect to associated challenges for achieving robust simultaneous control of myoelectric interfaces. Electromyography recording details, signal feature extraction, pattern recognition and motor learning based control schemes are considered, and future directions are proposed as steps toward fulfilling the potential of myoelectric control in clinically and commercially viable applications.

  5. Mission Operations Insights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Dave; Parksinson, Lou

    2006-01-01

    The mission description Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES): I) Collect and disseminate worldwide meteorological and environmental data: a) Provide day and night information (AVHRR): 1) cloud cover distribution and type; 2) cloud top temperature; 3) Moisture patterns and ice/snow melt. b) Provide vertical temperature and moisture profiles of atmospheres (HIRS, AMSU, MHS. c) Measure global ozone distribution and solar UV radiation (SBUV). d) Measure proton, electro, and charged particle density to provide solar storm warnings (SEM). d) Collect environmental data (DCS): 1) Stationary platforms in remote locations; 2) Free floating platforms on buoys, balloons, migratory animals. II) Provide Search and Rescue capabilities (SARR, SARP): a) Detection and relay of distress signals. b) Has saved thousands of lives around the world.

  6. Measuring the Dust Flux and Dust Particle Mass Distribution in the Saturn Rings with HRD Dust Instrument on the Cassini Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzzolino, A. J.; Economou, T. E.

    In July 2004, the Cassini spacecraft will go into the Saturn orbit and start a 4 year intensive investigation of the planet itself, its multiple satellites and its rings with a multinational instrument payload. The High Rate Detectors (HRD) instrument provided by the Laboratory of Astrophysics and Space Research of the University of is part of the German Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) and its main scientific objective is to provide quantitative measurements and mass distributions of dust particles in the rings of Saturn in the 10-11 to 10-4 grams mass range. The HRD instrument consists of two dust detectors -- a 20 and a 200 cm2 polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensors -- and an electronic box that contains all the analog and digital electronics and in addition provides interface between the HRD and CDA instrument. The CDA stores all the HRD data in its memory and transmits the data to Earth. The HRD weighs 1.7 kg and consumes 1.8 W of power [1]. The HRD instrument was fully calibrated through the entire mass range using two dust particle accelerators at Heidelberg and Munich in Germany. The HRD electronics is very fast and it will provide spatial and time distributions of up to 0.1 second. It can handle rates up to 104 counts/sec expected to be encountered during the Saturn ring crossings without any dead time. The HRD instrument operated successfully during all of the time that it was under power and detected many interplanetary dust particles. Almost all of these particles were close to the lowest mass threshold. References 1 A.J. TUZZOLINO, T.E. ECONOMOU, R.B. MCKIBBEN, J.A. SIMPSON, J.A.M. MCDONNELL, M.J. BURCHELL, B.A.M. VAUGHAN, P. TSOU, M.S. HANNER, B.C. CLARK AND D.E. BROWNLEE. THE DUST FLUX MONITOR INSTRUMENT FOR THE STARDUST MISSION TO COMET WILD-2, J. GEOPHYS. RES., 108, DOI:10.1029/2003JE002091, 2003.

  7. Laboratory polarization and permittivity measurements to interpret dust polarimetric observations and in-situ radar studies. Significance for Rosetta mission at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Brouet, Yann; Hadamcik, Edith; Heggy, Essam; Hines, Dean; Lasue, Jérémie; Renard, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-08-01

    Polarimetric astronomical observations on dust clouds and regolithic surfaces require laboratory simulations on samples to provide information on properties (size distribution, porosity, refractive index) of the scattering media. Similarly, in-situ radar investigations in the solar system require laboratory studies on samples to infer physical properties (e.g. porosity, ice/dust ratio) of sub-surfaces and interiors. Recent developments are illustrated with present studies related to the Rosetta mission, which begun its rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimeko (C-G) and landed the Philae module on its nucleus in 2014.We will summarize laboratory simulations with the PROGRA2 suite of instruments that study (in the visible to near IR domain) the polarimetric properties of dust samples in microgravity conditions or on surfaces [1], with emphasis on the interpretation of polarimetric observations of C-G, during its previous perihelion passages from Earth observatories, and currently from HST [2,3]. The presence of large dust particles in the pre-perihelion coma previously inferred from remote observations agrees with Rosetta ground truth [4]. We will also present measurements on the permittivity (in the millimeter to meter domain) of various dust samples, with emphasis on porous samples [5,6]. Results provide constraints on the properties of the subsurface and interior of C-G, as explored by MIRO on Rosetta and CONSERT on Philae.Such studies are relevant for the interpretation of polarimetric observations of other dust clouds (e.g. debris disks, interplanetary dust cloud, clouds in planetary atmospheres) and surfaces (e.g. planets, moons), as well as for those of other radar characterization studies (e.g. Mars, moons, asteroids).[1] Levasseur-Regourd et al. In Polarization of stars and planetary systems, Cambridge UP, in press 2015.[2] Hadamcik et al. A&A 517 2010.[3] Hines and Levasseur-Regourd, PSS submitted 2015.[4] Schulz et al. Nature 518 2015.[5] Heggy et al

  8. Soviet Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photo is an overall view of the Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia during the Expedition Seven mission. The Expedition Seven crew launched aboard a Soyez spacecraft on April 26, 2003. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  9. Space missions to comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor); Yeomans, D. K. (Editor); Brandt, J. C. (Editor); Hobbs, R. W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The broad impact of a cometary mission is assessed with particular emphasis on scientific interest in a fly-by mission to Halley's comet and a rendezvous with Tempel 2. Scientific results, speculations, and future plans are discussed.

  10. Editing the Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Fogg, Piper

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the decision by Columbia University's new president to reevaluate the mission of its journalism school before naming a new dean, in order to explore how the journalism school fits into the mission of a research university. (EV)

  11. Introductory remarks to the mission and system aspects session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefoy, Rene; Schuyer, M.

    1991-12-01

    A brief history of the measurement of Earth potential fields is presented. The scientific objectives of the Aristoteles mission are summarized. Cooperation between NASA and ESA in developing the Aristoteles mission constraints are presented in tabular form. Correspondence between major mission and technical constraints is discussed. Program status of the Aristoteles mission and the mission baseline are described. The planned configuration of the Aristoteles satellite is shown in diagrammatic form.

  12. Mission operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  13. Mission objectives and trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the knowledge of asteroids was assessed to identify mission and target priorities for planning asteroidal flights in the 1980's and beyond. Mission objectives, mission analysis, trajectory studies, and cost analysis are discussed. A bibliography of reports and technical memoranda is included.

  14. Threads of Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  15. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA r