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Sample records for mit den screening-tests

  1. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  2. Screening Tests for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... questions you have. Make sure to ask about: Alcohol use Depression Weight Screening tests Screening tests Screening tests Ages ... for high cholesterol, and ways to improve cholesterol levels through lifestyle changes. ... Sheets - Alcohol Use and Health - This fact sheet talks about ...

  3. Manufactured soil screening test

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to provide a screening test that can be used to evaluate the potential for manufacturing artificial soil using dredged material, cellulose waste materials (e.g., yard waste compost, sawdust, wastepaper), and biosolids (e.g., N-Viro-reconditioned sewage sludge, BIONSOIL-reconstituted cow manure). This procedure will allow the most productive blend of any dredged material (uncontaminated or contaminated), cellulose, and biosolids to be determined and recommended for use in an environmentally productive and beneficial manner.

  4. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare or change ...

  5. Head Injury Screening Tests Approved

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160556.html Head Injury Screening Tests Approved Assess brain function after possible concussions To use the sharing features ... HealthDay News) -- New computer software to assess the brain's function after a traumatic head injury have been approved ...

  6. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    Member Login Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs ...

  7. What Screening Tests Are There?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Related Links Stay Informed Cancer Home What Screening Tests Are There? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... packs a day for 15 years. Risks of Screening Lung cancer screening has at least three risks— ...

  8. Preschool visual acuity screening tests.

    PubMed Central

    Friendly, D S

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative merits of two screening tests used for visual acuity assessment of preschool children. The tests that were compared were the Good-Lite Company versions of the E-Test and of the STYCAR (Screening Test for Young Children and Retardates). The former is the most popular method for evaluating central acuity in young children in this nation; the STYCAR is a relatively new letter-matching-test developed in England, where it is widely employed. The E-Test poses left-right orientation problems which are eliminated by the symmetrical letters H, T, O and V utilized in the Letter-Matching-Test. Both visual acuity tests were administered on two separate occasions by personnel from the Prevention of Blindness Society of Metropolitan Washington to 633 preschool children in Washington, D.C. By random selection, 150 of the children received the E-Test at both sessions, 162 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at both sessions, 160 chilt athe the second session, and 161 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at the first session and the E-Test at the second session. The author medically examined the eyes of 408 of the 633 children without knowledge of which test had been initially administered. Statistical analysis of the data obtained from the study indicated that the Letter-Matching-Test was significantly better in terms of testability rates, group and individual instruction time, and performance time. The E-Test was more reliable in terms of test-retest acuity scores and was also more valid in terms of agreement between pass-fail results obtained at the first screening session and two levels of pass-fail refraction criteria. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B PMID:754379

  9. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  10. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer symptoms. There are different kinds of screening tests. Screening tests include the following: Physical exam and ... are linked to some types of cancer. Screening tests have risks. Not all screening tests are helpful ...

  11. Validating the Mandola Colorvision Screen Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandola, John

    1983-01-01

    Tested the validity of the Mandola Colorvision Screening Test, a color confusion test involving geometric designs and a tracing technique, as a screening test for color vision defects in 82 preschool and kindergarten children. Results indicated that MCST separates medium to strong color vision defects from the normal population. (JAC)

  12. How Are Newborn Screening Tests Done?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are newborn screening tests done? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Newborn screening typically consists of a blood test and a ...

  13. Comparison of Two Screening Tests: Gesell Developmental Test and Meeting Street School Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Lenell; Buttery, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Pearson product-moment correlations were computed for selected subtests of The Gesell Developmental Test and The Meeting Street School Screening Test. The selected subtests are moderately correlated, suggesting that either test might be used in a battery. (Author)

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Tests, Strategies, and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stracci, Fabrizio; Zorzi, Manuel; Grazzini, Grazia

    2014-01-01

    Screening has a central role in colorectal cancer (CRC) control. Different screening tests are effective in reducing CRC-specific mortality. Influence on cancer incidence depends on test sensitivity for pre-malignant lesions, ranging from almost no influence for guaiac-based fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) to an estimated reduction of 66–90% for colonoscopy. Screening tests detect lesions indirectly in the stool [gFOBT, fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), and fecal DNA] or directly by colonic inspection [flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, CT colonography (CTC), and capsule endoscopy]. CRC screening is cost-effective compared to no screening but no screening strategy is clearly better than the others. Stool tests are the most widely used in worldwide screening interventions. FIT will soon replace gFOBT. The use of colonoscopy as a screening test is increasing and this strategy has superseded all alternatives in the US and Germany. Despite its undisputed importance, CRC screening is under-used and participation rarely reaches 70% of target population. Strategies to increase participation include ensuring recommendation by physicians, introducing organized screening and developing new, more acceptable tests. Available evidence for DNA fecal testing, CTC, and capsule endoscopy is reviewed. PMID:25386553

  15. Validation of the Quick Cognitive Screening Test.

    PubMed

    Mate-Kole, C C; Major, A; Lenzer, I; Connolly, J F

    1994-08-01

    Reports in the literature suggest that 70% to 80% of cognitive deficits with probable organic basis are undetected in patients at risk, especially if symptoms are minimal. Studies have shown that clinically convenient beside screening tests show low sensitivity with a high rate of false-negative results. The purpose of this study was to validate a sensitive mid-range cognitive screening test to detect cognitive deficits, including those not usually identified by bedside mental status examinations. The Quick Cognitive Screening Test (QCST) was initially developed and subsequently adapted from original unpublished work by the late John McFie. The test was designed to detect global cognitive dysfunction and specific areas of cognitive dysfunction. Areas assessed included orientation, attention and concentration, memory, language, construction, perception, spatial ability, and abstract reasoning. Scoring is multidimensional, each subtest having a score, plus summary and global scores. Thirty-eight neurological patients with a cerebrovascular accident, traumatic brain injury, and other miscellaneous diagnoses, were recruited from a tertiary care center for physical rehabilitation. Fifteen residents from a psychiatric rehabilitation center were also recruited. Thirty-two healthy volunteers from the community served as age-matched controls. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) was used to establish reliability and validity of the QCST. The National Adult Reading Test (NART) was used to estimate premorbid intellectual functioning. Results showed that the QCST identified cognitive impairment in all of the neurological and psychiatric patients assessed. Oneway analyses of variance of five summary scores showed significant differences between the groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  17. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  18. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  19. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  20. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  1. Two Language Screening Tests Compared with Developmental Sentence Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxley, Lynn; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The performance of 90 children between the ages of four and six years on two language screening tests was compared with their performance on Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) to determine the accuracy of these screening tests in identifying language impairments. The Bankson Language Screening Test was generally accurate in the identification of…

  2. Screening tests: a review with examples

    PubMed Central

    Niebo, Ron; Utell, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Screening tests are widely used in medicine to assess the likelihood that members of a defined population have a particular disease. This article presents an overview of such tests including the definitions of key technical (sensitivity and specificity) and population characteristics necessary to assess the benefits and limitations of such tests. Several examples are used to illustrate calculations, including the characteristics of low dose computed tomography as a lung cancer screen, choice of an optimal PSA cutoff and selection of the population to undergo mammography. The importance of careful consideration of the consequences of both false positives and negatives is highlighted. Receiver operating characteristic curves are explained as is the need to carefully select the population group to be tested. PMID:25264934

  3. [Mokken scaling of the Cognitive Screening Test].

    PubMed

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2009-10-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST) is a twenty-item orientation questionnaire in Dutch, that is commonly used to evaluate cognitive impairment. This study applied Mokken Scale Analysis, a non-parametric set of techniques derived from item response theory (IRT), to CST-data of 466 consecutive participants in psychogeriatric day care. The full item set and the standard short version of fourteen items both met the assumptions of the monotone homogeneity model, with scalability coefficient H = 0.39, which is considered weak. In order to select items that would fulfil the assumption of invariant item ordering or the double monotonicity model, the subjects were randomly partitioned into a training set (50% of the sample) and a test set (the remaining half). By means of an automated item selection eleven items were found to measure one latent trait, with H = 0.67 and item H coefficients larger than 0.51. Cross-validation of the item analysis in the remaining half of the subjects gave comparable values (H = 0.66; item H coefficients larger than 0.56). The selected items involve year, place of residence, birth date, the monarch's and prime minister's names, and their predecessors. Applying optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) it was found that the full set of twenty CST items performed best in distinguishing two predefined groups of patients of lower or higher cognitive ability, as established by an independent criterion derived from the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test. The chance corrected predictive value or prognostic utility was 47.5% for the full item set, 45.2% for the fourteen items of the standard short version of the CST, and 46.1% for the homogeneous, unidimensional set of selected eleven items. The results of the item analysis support the application of the CST in cognitive assessment, and revealed a more reliable 'short' version of the CST than the standard short version (CST14).

  4. Qualitative evaluation of the reagin screen test.

    PubMed Central

    Black, D A; Ray, P E; Therrell, B L

    1976-01-01

    After a preliminary study of 557 sera used as a procedural training exercise, the Reagin screen test (RST) for the macroscopic detection of reagin (as an aid to detecting syphilis) was qualitatively compared to the rapid plasma Reagin (RPR) (circle) card test and Veneral Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test on 435 random portions of sera using fluorescent treponemal antibody adsorption (FTA-ABS) results as a comparative base. A comparison of total agreement (positive and negative) with the FTA-ABS results led to the following order. RPRCT (I5.5%), VDRL (79.8%), and RST (74.5%). Of the total samples shown to be reactive by the FTA-ABS procedure, the percentage of these interpreted as nonreactive (i.e., "false negative") by the procedures compared was considerably higher with the RST procedure (29.3%) than with either the RPRCT (10.9%) or the VDRL (7.1%) procedures. Minor problems encountered with procedural techniques are also mentioned. PMID:783187

  5. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  6. Colorectal cancer screening tests: pros and cons, and for whom?

    PubMed

    Forbes, Geoffrey M

    2008-04-01

    The past decade has seen major advances internationally in the implementation of colorectal cancer screening, influenced in differing ways by the profession, the public and by government. Relatively unique to colorectal cancer screening is the availability of so many test alternatives, which have substantial variation in methodology. While perhaps spoilt for choice, discerning the key advantages and disadvantages of each test is often difficult, depending on the perspective from which screening is viewed. Accordingly, this article provides an evaluation of screening tests as might be perceived by governments, the patient and the profession. Aligned issues such as choosing a screening test and provision of informed consent are discussed. Finally, the article identifies current problems with various screening tests that, if attended to, might change the perception of a test's value to a particular interest group. PMID:19072355

  7. Grundlegende Steuerungsverfahren im heterogenen Logistiknetz mit Kanban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Lödding, Hermann; Möller, Niklas; Rücker, Thomas; Schneider, Herfried M.; Zäh, Michael F.

    In vielen Unternehmen werden heterogene (verschiedene) Steuerungen in einem abgestimmten Konzept kombiniert. Je nach Anwendungsfall und Rahmenbedingungen werden Kombinationen allgemein bekannter Steuerungen oder Steuerungsvarianten gemischt eingesetzt, um eine optimale Steuerung für unterschiedliche Fälle zu erreichen. Hierbei stehen neben den bekannten und weit verbreiteten Methoden, wie Material Requirements Planning (MRP) oder Kanban, auch weniger bekannte oder neue Methoden zur Auswahl, wie die Produktionssteuerung mit dezentraler, bestandsorientierter Fertigungsregelung (DBF). Kanban ist ein simples und effizientes Steuerungskonzept, das in der klassischen Form für spezifische einfache Anwendungsfälle umsetzbar ist. Hochentwickelte Steuerungsalgorithmen können helfen, komplexe Abläufe optimal abzubilden. Mit einer grundlegenden Vereinfachung der Abläufe kann allerdings in vielen Fällen ein wesentlich stärkerer und umfassender Verbesserungseffekt erzielt werden. Die wesentliche Fragestellung sollte folglich lauten: Warum ist der Ablauf nicht mit einer einfachen Steuerung wie Kanban abzubilden? Um die Vorteile des Konzepts auch in untypischen Bereichen anwenden zu können, sind jedoch verschiedene Varianten oder Kanban-ähnliche Steuerungsmethoden entstanden. Darüber hinaus sind in der Praxis hybride Steuerungen im Einsatz, welche so kombiniert werden, dass die Zusammensetzung anspruchsvolle Eigenschaftsbilder noch exakt abbildet. In der Praxis basieren die Steuerungsentscheidungen nur zu einem kleinen Teil auf den eigentlichen Steuerungsalgorithmen, wie sie uns das MRP-System zur Verfügung stellt. Moderne Steuerungswelten" schließen alle relevanten Informationsquellen in eine heterogene Entscheidungsmatrix mit ein. Letztlich zählt nicht, ob die Entscheidung auf den Informationen aus dem MRP-System oder auf Softfacts basierend getroffen wurde, sondern nur, ob die Entscheidung erfolgreich war.

  8. MIT: Shaping the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Kenneth R., Ed.

    This book provides 16 essays by faculty and staff of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) concerning what MIT is like today and offering a guide to its possible future. Emphasis is placed on local, national, and global issues, providing a current sampling of the state of concerns and opinions around MIT. Topics include the question of…

  9. [Comparison of eight screening tests for ant-HCV antibody].

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yamashita, Naoko; Nakano, Takasi; Tahara, Kazuko; Asari, Seishi; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2002-09-01

    We compared eight HCV screening tests for detection of anti-HCV antibody; Ortho Quick Chaser HCV Ab (QC), Ortho HCV Ab ELISA III (ELISA), Ortho HVC Ab PA test III (PA), Lumipulse II Ortho HCV (LUMI), IMx HCV.DAINAPACKII (IMx), ARCHITECT HCV (ARCH), Immucheck.F-HCV C50 Ab (Immu), RANREAM HCV Ab Ex II (RAN). Sera from six hundred patients were examined by these eight screening tests. The positive rates of the eight screening tests were from 9.0% to 13.2%. Forty-five sera showed discrepant results between the eight screening tests, and about half of them showed weak positive reaction and/or false positive. Twenty-five of the forty-five sera were negative for ant-HCV antibody in the CHIRON RIBA III confirmatory test, and forty-four of them were negative for HCV-RNA in the PCR method. The agreement rates between the two reagents were from 95.5% to 99.2%, but were not always high between the two reagents that used similar antigen. The specificities and sensitivities evaluated by using the RIBA III confirmatory test were excellent in ELISA, LUMI, IMx, ARCH and Immu. Three BBI seroconversion panels were used to compare the positive readings in the initial stage of HCV infection by eight screening tests. ELISA and ARCH showed the earliest positive readings, and then IMx, LUMI = RAN, PA, QC and Immu in this order. These findings indicate that ELISA and ARCH were the most excellent in the sensitivity, specificity and early diagnosis of HCV infection. However, we must pay attention to the weak positive reaction in the screening tests, because there is a possibility of "false positive".

  10. An Adolescent Version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Mark; Thurber, Steven; Hodgson, Joele M.

    2002-01-01

    Item content of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) was modified to make it more appropriate for young persons. The resulting test was found to have lower internal consistency than the adult MAST, but the elimination of five items with comparatively poor psychometric properties yielded an acceptable alpha coefficient. (Contains 10…

  11. Evaluating the Initial Version of a New Cognitive Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Marcia S.; Deuel, Lois-Lynn Stoyko; Urbano, Richard C.; Fletcher, Kathryn L.; Torres, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    The performance on a cognitive screening test of 37 children (ages 4-6) with mild mental retardation or learning disabilities was compared to their peers. The tasks constituting the initial version of the battery were evaluated in terms of their classification accuracy and yielded a set of five different cognitive tasks. (CR)

  12. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST): A Statistical Validation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Newman, Isadore; Brown, Russ

    2004-01-01

    This study extends the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST; M. L. Selzer, 1971) literature base by examining 4 issues related to the validity of the MAST scores. Specifically, the authors examine the validity of the MAST scores in light of the presence of impression management, participant demographic variables, and item endorsement…

  13. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  14. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  15. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  16. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  17. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420...

  18. Psychometric Characteristics of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Robert

    The Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRST) is widely used to identify "developmentally immature" children for placement in extra-year, transition programs in spite of a problematic absence of psychometric evidence and research support. In this study of psychometric characteristics of the GSRST, teacher ratings of classroom performance and…

  19. Mit Mathematik zu Mehr Intelligenz in der Logistik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhring, Rolf H.; Schenk, Michael

    Die Lösung logistischer Probleme ist ein wichtiger Aspekt menschlichen Handelns seit Menschen gemeinsam zielgerichtet tätig wurden. Die Grundlagen dessen, was wir heute Logistik nennen, entstammen dem militärischen Bereich. So basierte z. B. das römische Imperium in starkem Maße auf militärisch-logistischen Glanzleistungen. Ob damals bereits mathematische Überlegungen eine Rolle spielten, wissen wir heute nicht. Jedoch versuchte z. B. Napoleon, der mit den bedeutendsten Mathematikern seiner Zeit befreundet war, den Transport seiner Truppen und die Verbreitung von Informationen zu optimieren und strategisch einzusetzen.1,2

  20. Improvement of a rapid screening test for chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Iacobini, M; Duse, M; Di Coste, A; Balducci, L

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of CGD is made by demonstrating absent or markedly reduced oxidase activity in stimulated neutrophils. The screening test proposed is based upon the naked eye evaluation of the reduction of NBT on a solid surface. It seems to be a useful tool for rapid and inexpensive detection of CGD patients, especially for large-scale screening purposes. The test was carried out on forty-five subjects: two males affected by CGD, three female carriers and forty healthy donors. The test confirmed the results obtained with flow cytometric and NBT assays. PMID:24067482

  1. The use of screening tests in spacecraft lubricant evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalogeras, Chris; Hilton, Mike; Carre, David; Didziulis, Stephen; Fleischauer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    A lubricant screening test fixture has been devised in order to satisfy the need to obtain lubricant performance data in a timely manner. This fixture has been used to perform short-term tests on potential lubricants for several spacecraft applications. The results of these tests have saved time by producing qualitative performance rankings of lubricant selections prior to life testing. To date, this test fixture has been used to test lubricants for 3 particular applications. The qualitative results from these tests have been verified by life test results and have provided insight into the function of various anti-wear additives.

  2. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin all alcohol screening tests, regardless of the type of testing device you are using: (a) When a specific...

  3. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin all alcohol screening tests, regardless of the type of testing device you are using: (a) When a specific...

  4. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  5. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  6. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  7. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  8. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  9. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  10. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  11. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  12. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  13. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  14. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  15. Kommunikation mit Mitarbeitern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spychala, Anne; Fleischmann, Jürgen

    Kommunikation ist der Austausch von Nachrichten und Informationen zwischen Mitarbeitern eines Unternehmens (O'Hair et al. 1997). Dieser Austausch kann persönlich, aber z.B. auch per Telefon, E-Mail oder durch Computersysteme erfolgen. In diesem Kapitel betrachten wir die persönliche Kommunikation zwischen Vorgesetzten und Mitarbeitern. Zur persönlichen Kommunikation mit Mitarbeitern zählen sowohl formelle Gespräche mit Mitarbeitern als auch eher informelle Gespräche zwischen Tür und Angel. Die Gespräche können dabei mit einzelnen Mitarbeitern (z.B. jährliches Mitarbeitergespräch) oder mit Gruppen von Mitarbeitern (z.B. regelmäßige Projekt- oder Teambesprechungen) stattfinden.

  16. Validation of a brief form of the Competency Screening Test.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, R A

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the predictive validity of a brief, five item version of the Competency Screening Test (CST). Subjects were 140 defendants admitted to the forensic unit of a state hospital for evaluation of competency to stand trial. Scores on the brief version of the CST were used to predict competency decisions made by a multidisciplinary treatment team. In addition, the predictive validity of the brief version was compared with that of the standard CST. Both versions of the test exhibited significant relationships with staff decisions. However, the reliability of the brief version was lower than that of the standard CST because of the smaller number of items involved. Although the brief CST should not provide the sole basis for a decision about competency, it may be a useful component of a comprehensive program of competency evaluation, particularly when a rapid, preliminary screening instrument is needed.

  17. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  18. SIDS reprotoxicity screening test update: testing strategies and use.

    PubMed

    Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Fleig, Helmut; Meder, Matthias

    2004-04-01

    The OECD screening information data set (SIDS) project is a cooperative effort of OECD member countries and industry to assess the hazard/risk posed to human health and the environment by high production volume (HPV) chemicals, and to assign priorities for further work. To date, work has been initiated on about 1000 HPV chemicals. Abbreviated reproduction and developmental toxicity screening tests (OECD test guidelines 421 and 422) were developed specifically for the SIDS project. These tests, though not providing a complete characterization of reproductive or developmental hazard, are accepted in USA and Japan as fulfilling the requirement of an initial reproduction and developmental toxicity evaluation for HPV chemicals. Based on the OECD-approved SIDS initial assessments for 54 substances tested according to guideline 421 or 422, these tests are providing useful data for initial hazard assessment. PMID:15041141

  19. Diagnostic Performance of Visual Screening Tests in the Elderly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lança, Carla Costa; Carolino, Elisabete

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to determine and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of visual screening tests for detecting vision loss in elderly. This study is defined as study of diagnostic performance. The diagnostic accuracy of 5 visual tests -near convergence point, near accommodation point, stereopsis, contrast sensibility and amsler grid—was evaluated by means of the ROC method (receiver operating characteristics curves), sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/LR-). Visual acuity was used as the reference standard. A sample of 44 elderly aged 76.7 years (±9.32), who were institutionalized, was collected. The curves of contrast sensitivity and stereopsis are the most accurate (area under the curves were 0.814-p = 0.001, C.I.95%[0.653;0.975]— and 0.713-p = 0.027, C.I.95%[0,540;0,887], respectively). The scores with the best diagnostic validity for the stereopsis test were 0.605 (sensitivity 0.87, specificity 0.54; LR+ 1.89, LR-0.24) and 0.610 (sensitivity 0.81, specificity 0.54; LR+ 1.75, LR-0.36). The scores with higher diagnostic validity for the contrast sensibility test were 0.530 (sensitivity 0.94, specificity 0.69; LR+ 3.04, LR-0.09). The contrast sensitivity and stereopsis test's proved to be clinically useful in detecting vision loss in the elderly.

  20. Screening tests during prenatal care: does practice follow the evidence?

    PubMed

    Siddique, Juned; Lantos, John D; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2012-01-01

    To examine whether the frequency of four screening tests during prenatal care conforms to evidence of effectiveness. We estimated rates of urine culture, anemia screening, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and urinalysis during prenatal care. To do this, we used national probability samples of office visits to physicians (National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) and to hospital outpatient departments (National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) from 2001 to 2006. We compare observed rates to recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). On average, women received a urine culture in less than half of pregnancies. Women received just over one anemia screening on average per pregnancy. From 2001-2003, women received an average of 5.6 urinalyses per pregnancy; the average dropped to 4.3 urinalyses per pregnancy in 2004-2006. On average, women received just under one OGTT per pregnancy. Minorities and older women tend to get more anemia screenings, urine cultures, and OGTTs than white women and younger women. Compared to USPSTF recommendations, too few women are receiving a urine culture during prenatal care. In contrast, women receive far too many urinalyses, but the rate appears to be falling. Anemia screening conforms closely to recommendations. The USPSTF does not recommend for or against universal diabetes screening using OGTT. Women appear to receive OGTT routinely.

  1. Orbiter Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Advanced Sealant Systems: Screening Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.; Lewis, Ronad K.; Norman, Ignacio; Chao, Dennis; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Oxidation protection for the Orbiter reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC consists of three components: silicon carbide coating, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) impregnated into the carbon substrate and a silicon based surface sealant (designated Type A). The Orbiter Type A sealant is being consumed each mission, which results in increased carbon-carbon substrate mass loss, which adversely impacts the mission life of the RCC components. In addition, the sealant loss in combination with launch pad contamination (salt deposit and zinc oxide) results in RCC pinholes. A sealant refurbishment schedule to maintain mission life and minimize affects of pin hole formation has been implemented in the Orbiter maintenance schedule. The objective of this investigation is to develop an advanced sealant system for the RCC that extends the refurbishment schedule by reducing sealant loss/pin hole formation and that can be applied to existing Orbiter RCC components. This paper presents the results of arc jet screening tests conducted on several sealants that are being considered for application to the Orbiter RCC.

  2. Die Struktur von schlankem Materialfluss mit Lean Production Kanban und Innovationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, Wolf-Michael

    In der Literatur wird Materialfluss überwiegend in Spezialdisziplinen betrachtet, etwa der Steuerungslogik, der Logistiktechnik oder dem Supply Chain Management. Ein charakterisierendes Merkmal des Materialflusses ist jedoch, dass er sich aus vielfältigen Einzelbausteinen zusammensetzt, die alle harmonisch abgestimmt sein müssen. Die maximal erreichbare Effizienz wird nicht durch Höchstleistungen in dem einen oder anderen Spezialthema bestimmt, sondern durch das schwächste Glied im gesamten komplexen Netzwerk. Den Schnittstellen zwischen den betroffenen Fachbereichen in einem Unternehmen kommt hier eine ganz besondere Bedeutung zu: Erst ein harmonischer Einklang ermöglicht hohe Effektivität. Dies setzt umfassendes Verständnis für interdisziplinäre Notwendigkeiten, ein hohes Maß an Abstimmung mit den operativen Prozessen und letztlich einen einvernehmlichen Umgang und den Respekt vor den Problemstellungen des Anderen voraus.

  3. Unfälle mit Kleintransportern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschirschwitz, Christian

    Auf einer außerörtlichen Bundesstraße geriet ein mit vier Personen besetzter Pkw Toyota Corolla aus letztlich nicht vollständig geklärten Gründen ins Schleudern. Nachdem sich das Fahrzeug beträchtlich entgegen dem Uhrzeigersinn ausgedreht hatte, prallte ein entgegenkommender Kleintransporter VW T4 frontal an die rechte Flanke des Toyota. Der Transporter wurde gedreht, ausgehoben und durch einen Pkw Ford Escort unterfahren. Alle Fahrzeuge kamen in Kollisionsortnähe zum Endstand. Die vier Toyota-Insassen wurden getötet. Aus den anderen Fahrzeugen wurden sechs Personen überwiegend schwer verletzt. Unbeteiligte Zeugen waren nicht vorhanden.

  4. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27

    testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in some detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW (Westsik et al. 2012). Included within Westsik et al. (2012) is a section on the near-term needs to address Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-062-40ZZ. The objectives of the testing program to be conducted in FY 2013 and FY 2014 are to: • Determine an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form. • Evaluate sources of dry materials for preparing the LAW Cast Stone. • Demonstrate the robustness of the Cast Stone waste form for a range of LAW compositions. • Demonstrate the robustness of the formulation for variability in the Cast Stone process. • Provide Cast Stone contaminant release data for PA and risk assessment evaluations. The first step in determining an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form is to conduct screening tests to examine expected ranges in pretreated LAW composition, waste stream concentrations, dry-materials sources, and mix ratios of waste feed to dry blend. A statistically designed test matrix will be used to evaluate the effects of these key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. The second phase of testing will focus on selection of a baseline Cast Stone formulation for LAW and demonstrating that Cast Stone can meet expected waste form requirements for disposal in the IDF. It is expected that this testing will use the results of the screening tests to define a smaller suite of tests to refine the composition of the baseline Cast Stone formulation (e.g. waste concentration, water to dry mix ratio, waste loading).

  5. Erlebniseinkauf in der Innenstadt mit hoher Akzeptanz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangels, Rolf

    2002-03-01

    Im Oktober 2000 führte die BAG zum zehnten Mal die über die Grenzen des Einzelhandels bekannte Untersuchung "Kundenverkehr" in mehr als hundertfünfzig deutschen Städten durch. In Kooperation mit der Swiss Retail Federation sowie mit Unterstützung der femged (European Federation of Medium-size and Major Retailers) wurde die Untersuchung erstmals auch in der Schweiz und in Österreich durchgeführt. Es beteiligten sich insgesamt 463 Unternehmen an der Untersuchung, die knapp 9,5 Mio. Besucher gezählt haben und davon mehr als 360.000 Kunden nach bestimmten Parametern befragten. Die Daten für Deutschland wurden, wie in den Jahren zuvor, vom Institut für Handelsforschung an der Universität Köln ausgewertet. Die Zahlen der Untersuchung in der Schweiz und Österreich wurden von der wirtschafts- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Beratungsgesellschaft ECON-Consult in Köln zusammengetragen und analysiert.

  6. Prenatal screening tests may be a warning for the partial molar pregnancy? case report

    PubMed Central

    Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Tug, Niyazi; Yassa, Murat; Yavuz, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening tests are frequently requested for chromosomal abnormalities. Placental pathologies in early pregnancy may be overlooked, especially in partial molar pregnancy. We are reporting an incorrect preliminary diagnosed case with an increased risk of Down syndrome in her first-trimester screening test due to partial molar pregnancy. PMID:26175814

  7. Older adults’ preferences for colorectal cancer-screening test attributes and test choice

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Christine E; Hess, Thomas M; Howard, Kirsten; Pignone, Michael P; Crutchfield, Trisha M; Hawley, Sarah T; Brenner, Alison T; Ward, Kimberly T; Lewis, Carmen L

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding which attributes of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests drive older adults’ test preferences and choices may help improve decision making surrounding CRC screening in older adults. Materials and methods To explore older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening test attributes and screening tests, we conducted a survey with a discrete choice experiment (DCE), a directly selected preferred attribute question, and an unlabeled screening test-choice question in 116 cognitively intact adults aged 70–90 years, without a history of CRC or inflammatory bowel disease. Each participant answered ten discrete choice questions presenting two hypothetical tests comprised of four attributes: testing procedure, mortality reduction, test frequency, and complications. DCE responses were used to estimate each participant’s most important attribute and to simulate their preferred test among three existing CRC-screening tests. For each individual, we compared the DCE-derived attributes to directly selected attributes, and the DCE-derived preferred test to a directly selected unlabeled test. Results Older adults do not overwhelmingly value any one CRC-screening test attribute or prefer one type of CRC-screening test over other tests. However, small absolute DCE-derived preferences for the testing procedure attribute and for sigmoidoscopy-equivalent screening tests were revealed. Neither general health, functional, nor cognitive health status were associated with either an individual’s most important attribute or most preferred test choice. The DCE-derived most important attribute was associated with each participant’s directly selected unlabeled test choice. Conclusion Older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening tests are not easily predicted. Medical providers should actively explore older adults’ preferences for CRC screening, so that they can order a screening test that is concordant with their patients’ values. Effective interventions are

  8. The free running athletic screening test as a screening test for exercise-induced asthma in high school.

    PubMed

    Randolph, C; Fraser, B; Matasavage, C

    1997-01-01

    As part of a multicenter study envisioned by the American College of Allergy Sports Committee to screen for exercise-induced asthma, 303 high school students, freshman and sophomore gym classes, completed a questionnaire concerning exercise-related asthma, chronic asthma, and atopy. The study group included 124 females (41%) and 179 males (59%) with an average and median age of 15 years and a range of 13-17 years, and included 99% Caucasian and 1% nonCaucasian students, all attending the same parochial high school. After obtaining informed consent, 112 (37%) agreed to a free running test with initial challenge on an outdoor cinder track during April-June 1995. All challenges were conducted between 8:00 A.M. and noon with relative-humidity 59% and average temperature 15 degrees C. The challenge consisted of 7 minutes of continuous running on the cinder track with a doubling of pulse rate to 160/min during the run. Peak expiratory flows were taken at baseline, 0, 5, and 10 minutes postexercise. Twenty nine of 112 (26%) of the students were initially assessed as positive challenges, defined as a 15% decline in peak flow following exercise on the first challenge. However, four students self-recovered; thus 25 of 112 (22%) were qualified as true positives. Of these 25, 20 (80%) agreed to be reexercised. Fourteen of 20 (70%) were positive, yielding a prevalence rate of 14/112 (12.5%). Sixteen of these 20 (80%) were then exercised a third time using spirometry pre- and postexercise. Eight were positive, yielding a prevalence rate of 8/112 (7%). The questionnaire correlated significantly with the challenge, particularly when read by section (p = 0.000001) rather than globally positive or negative (p = 0.00008), with a specificity of 64%, sensitivity of 94%, positive predictive value of 44%, and negative predictive value of 97%. In summary, inexpensive and familiar free-running tests can be a useful screening test to confirm the questionnaire which is sensitive (94%) in

  9. Brennraumdruckregelung von Dieselmotoren mit homogener Kompressionszündung (HCCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlhase, Martin

    In den letzten Jahren ist die Zahl der neu zugelassenen Dieselfahrzeuge stark gestiegen. Diese Entwicklung ist zum einen darauf zurückzuführen, dass der Dieselmotor im Vergleich zum Ottomotor einen besseren thermischen Wirkungsgrad aufweist. Einhergehend damit ist der Kraftstoffverbrauch und somit der CO2-Ausstoß im Gegensatz zum Ottomotor deutlich geringer. Zum anderen hat der Dieselmotor im Bereich Fahrspaß und -komfort durch Einzug der Direkteinspritzung basierend auf Common-Rail-Systemen und durch effiziente Abgasturbolader mit variabler Turbinengeometrie (VTG) deutlich an Akzeptanz gewonnen.

  10. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An...

  11. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An...

  12. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An...

  13. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An...

  14. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An...

  15. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... screening test result? 40.247 Section 40.247 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.247 What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using...

  1. Use of clinical movement screening tests to predict injury in sport.

    PubMed

    Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2016-04-18

    Clinical movement screening tests are gaining popularity as a means to determine injury risk and to implement training programs to prevent sport injury. While these screens are being used readily in the clinical field, it is only recently that some of these have started to gain attention from a research perspective. This limits applicability and poses questions to the validity, and in some cases the reliability, of the clinical movement tests as they relate to injury prediction, intervention, and prevention. This editorial will review the following clinical movement screening tests: Functional Movement Screen™, Star Excursion Balance Test, Y Balance Test, Drop Jump Screening Test, Landing Error Scoring System, and the Tuck Jump Analysis in regards to test administration, reliability, validity, factors that affect test performance, intervention programs, and usefulness for injury prediction. It is important to review the aforementioned factors for each of these clinical screening tests as this may help clinicians interpret the current body of literature. While each of these screening tests were developed by clinicians based on what appears to be clinical practice, this paper brings to light that this is a need for collaboration between clinicians and researchers to ensure validity of clinically meaningful tests so that they are used appropriately in future clinical practice. Further, this editorial may help to identify where the research is lacking and, thus, drive future research questions in regards to applicability and appropriateness of clinical movement screening tools. PMID:27114928

  2. Use of clinical movement screening tests to predict injury in sport

    PubMed Central

    Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical movement screening tests are gaining popularity as a means to determine injury risk and to implement training programs to prevent sport injury. While these screens are being used readily in the clinical field, it is only recently that some of these have started to gain attention from a research perspective. This limits applicability and poses questions to the validity, and in some cases the reliability, of the clinical movement tests as they relate to injury prediction, intervention, and prevention. This editorial will review the following clinical movement screening tests: Functional Movement Screen™, Star Excursion Balance Test, Y Balance Test, Drop Jump Screening Test, Landing Error Scoring System, and the Tuck Jump Analysis in regards to test administration, reliability, validity, factors that affect test performance, intervention programs, and usefulness for injury prediction. It is important to review the aforementioned factors for each of these clinical screening tests as this may help clinicians interpret the current body of literature. While each of these screening tests were developed by clinicians based on what appears to be clinical practice, this paper brings to light that this is a need for collaboration between clinicians and researchers to ensure validity of clinically meaningful tests so that they are used appropriately in future clinical practice. Further, this editorial may help to identify where the research is lacking and, thus, drive future research questions in regards to applicability and appropriateness of clinical movement screening tools. PMID:27114928

  3. Multiple marker screening test: identification of fetal cystic hygroma, hydrops, and sex chromosome aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Wenstrom, K D; Boots, L R; Cosper, P C

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if the multiple marker screening test (maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, human chorionic gonadotrophin, and maternal age) detects fetal Turner syndrome or just cystic hygroma/hydrops. Multiple marker screening tests from 4 groups were compared: 1) Turner syndrome with hydrops/ hygroma group (n = 10) = fetuses with cystic hygroma/hydrops and a 45X karyotype, 2) Turner syndrome without hydrops/hygroma (n = 9) = sonographically unremarkable fetal Turner syndrome or Turner mosaic, 3) hydrops group (n = 8) = all cases of fetal cystic hygroma/hydrops excluding Turner syndrome, 4) sex chromosome aneuploidy group (n = 16) = other sonographically normal fetal sex chromosome aneuploidies. Positive screening tests (Down syndrome risk > or = 1:190 or MSAFP > or = 2.5 MOM) were found in 60% (6/10) of the Turner syndrome with hydrops/hygroma group, but only 11% (1/9) of the Turner syndrome without hydrops/hygroma group (P = .04). The incidence of positive screening tests in the Hydrops group was 75% (6/8), while it was only 12.5% (2/16) in the other sex chromosome aneuploidy group. We conclude that the multiple marker screening test identifies fetuses with cystic hygroma/hydrops, and may do so independently of the etiology of the hydrops. PMID:8796763

  4. MIT-CSR XIS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This report outlines the proposers' progress toward MIT's contribution to the X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) experiment on the Japanese ASTRO-E mission. The report discusses electrical system design, mechanical system design, and ground support equipment.

  5. MIT research in telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, T. B.

    1987-01-01

    Ongoing MIT research in telerobotics (vehicles capable of some autonomous sensing and manipulating, having some remote supervisory control by people) and teleoperation (vehicles for sensing and manipulating which are fully controlled remotely by people) is discussed. The current efforts mix human and artificial intelligence/control. The idea of adjustable impedance at either end of pure master-slave teleoperation, and simultaneous coordinated control of teleoperator/telerobotic systems which have more than six degrees of freedom (e.g., a combined vehicle and arm, each with five or six DOF) are discussed. A new cable-controlled parallel link arm which offers many advantages over conventional arms for space is briefly described. Predictor displays to compensate for time delay in teleoperator loops, the use of state estimation to help human control decisions in space, and ongoing research in supervisory command language are covered. Finally, efforts to build a human flyable real-time dynamic computer-graphic telerobot simulator are described. These projects represent most, but not all, of the telerobotics research in our laboratory, supported by JPL, NASA Ames and NOAA.

  6. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  7. Computerized reminders for five preventive screening tests: generation of patient-specific letters incorporating physician preferences.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D. J.; Gross, R.; Buchanan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Compliance with preventive screening tests is inadequate in the United States. We describe a computer based system for generating reminder letters to patients who may have missed their indicated screening tests because they do not visit a provider regularly or missed their tests despite the fact that they do visit a provider. We started with national recommendations and generated a local consensus for test indications. We then used this set of indications and our electronic record to determine test deficiencies in our pilot pool of 3073 patients. The computer generated customized reminder letters targeting several tests. Physicians chose any patients who should not receive letters. The response rate for fecal occult blood (FOB) testing was 33% compared with an 18% historical compliance rate within the same community. FOB reminders generated improved test compliance. Test execution must be considered when commencing a program of screening test reminders. PMID:11079954

  8. Rapid toxicity screening tests for aquatic biota. 1. Methodology and experiments with Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, C.R.; Persoone, G. )

    1993-04-01

    A promising new and rapid toxicity screening test was developed, the concept and principles of which are presented. The method consists of visual observation of in vivo inhibition of an enzymatic process, using a fluorescent substrate. Juvenile Daphnia magna was exposed to a toxicant dilution series for 1 h, after which the substrate was added and the enzymatic inhibition was observed visually, using a long-wave UV light. The 1-h EC50 results of 11 pure compounds are presented and compared to the conventional 24- and 48-h Daphnia magna EC50s. All 1-h fluorescence EC50s were of the same order of magnitude and correlated very well with the 24- and 48-h EC50s. The sensitivity and reproducibility of this cost-effective screening test were compared to those of the Microtox[reg sign] test. The scope for application and the potential of this new rapid toxicity screening test are evaluated.

  9. A Screening Test for Wilson's Disease and its Application to Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Diane Wilson

    1967-01-01

    Varied modes of onset make the early diagnosis of Wilson's disease difficult. A deficiency of serum ceruloplasmin, usually characteristic of the disease, was used as the basis for a screening test. Simple test materials and provision for handling about 50 plasma samples simultaneously made this test feasible for large-scale screening. The screening test was applied to 336 persons hospitalized for psychiatric disorders, to detect patients with Wilson's disease before the classical symptoms appeared. Two patients with ceruloplasmin levels below the normal limits were detected but did not have Wilson's disease. Further application of the screening test to relatives of patients known to have Wilson's disease and to individuals with any symptoms of the disease (hepatic disease, extrapyramidal dysfunction, psychiatric disorders, behaviour problems in children) would aid in early diagnosis and more effective treatment. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:6017170

  10. MIT's interferometer CST testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Tupper; Kim, ED; Anderson, Eric; Blackwood, Gary; Lublin, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    The MIT Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) has developed a controlled structures technology (CST) testbed based on one design for a space-based optical interferometer. The role of the testbed is to provide a versatile platform for experimental investigation and discovery of CST approaches. In particular, it will serve as the focus for experimental verification of CSI methodologies and control strategies at SERC. The testbed program has an emphasis on experimental CST--incorporating a broad suite of actuators and sensors, active struts, system identification, passive damping, active mirror mounts, and precision component characterization. The SERC testbed represents a one-tenth scaled version of an optical interferometer concept based on an inherently rigid tetrahedral configuration with collecting apertures on one face. The testbed consists of six 3.5 meter long truss legs joined at four vertices and is suspended with attachment points at three vertices. Each aluminum leg has a 0.2 m by 0.2 m by 0.25 m triangular cross-section. The structure has a first flexible mode at 31 Hz and has over 50 global modes below 200 Hz. The stiff tetrahedral design differs from similar testbeds (such as the JPL Phase B) in that the structural topology is closed. The tetrahedral design minimizes structural deflections at the vertices (site of optical components for maximum baseline) resulting in reduced stroke requirements for isolation and pointing of optics. Typical total light path length stability goals are on the order of lambda/20, with a wavelength of light, lambda, of roughly 500 nanometers. It is expected that active structural control will be necessary to achieve this goal in the presence of disturbances.

  11. MIT's interferometer CST testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Tupper; Kim, Ed; Anderson, Eric; Blackwood, Gary; Lublin, Leonard

    1990-12-01

    The MIT Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) has developed a controlled structures technology (CST) testbed based on one design for a space-based optical interferometer. The role of the testbed is to provide a versatile platform for experimental investigation and discovery of CST approaches. In particular, it will serve as the focus for experimental verification of CSI methodologies and control strategies at SERC. The testbed program has an emphasis on experimental CST--incorporating a broad suite of actuators and sensors, active struts, system identification, passive damping, active mirror mounts, and precision component characterization. The SERC testbed represents a one-tenth scaled version of an optical interferometer concept based on an inherently rigid tetrahedral configuration with collecting apertures on one face. The testbed consists of six 3.5 meter long truss legs joined at four vertices and is suspended with attachment points at three vertices. Each aluminum leg has a 0.2 m by 0.2 m by 0.25 m triangular cross-section. The structure has a first flexible mode at 31 Hz and has over 50 global modes below 200 Hz. The stiff tetrahedral design differs from similar testbeds (such as the JPL Phase B) in that the structural topology is closed. The tetrahedral design minimizes structural deflections at the vertices (site of optical components for maximum baseline) resulting in reduced stroke requirements for isolation and pointing of optics. Typical total light path length stability goals are on the order of lambda/20, with a wavelength of light, lambda, of roughly 500 nanometers. It is expected that active structural control will be necessary to achieve this goal in the presence of disturbances.

  12. How reliable is the fifty-gram, one-hour glucose screening test?

    PubMed

    Sacks, D A; Abu-Fadil, S; Greenspoon, J S; Fotheringham, N

    1989-09-01

    The Second International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes recommended screening all pregnant women with a 1-hour 50 gm oral glucose screening test, given without regard to time of day or time elapsed from the last meal. This study was designed to evaluate the reproducibility of that test, given under those clinical conditions. Thirty women with gestational diabetes and 80 control volunteers between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation were tested at the same time of day on two successive days. Of the 30 women with diabetes, three (10%) had glucose screening test results below the 135 mg/dl threshold on both days and 10 (33%) had results that straddled the threshold on successive days. Test results of 11 control women also straddled the threshold. Among these 21 women with results that straddled the threshold, there was no difference in mean glucose screening test results in diabetic women compared with nondiabetic ones. We conclude that, as currently recommended, the 1-hour glucose screening test is moderately reproducible. Reliance should not be placed on a single normal test result, particularly among patients with risk factors.

  13. Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.

    1978-01-01

    Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

  14. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the first steps in any alcohol screening... steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin all..., including showing the employee the instructions on the back of the ATF. (f) Complete Step 1 of the ATF....

  15. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the first steps in any alcohol screening... steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin all..., including showing the employee the instructions on the back of the ATF. (f) Complete Step 1 of the ATF....

  16. Early Education Screening Test Battery of Basic Skills Development: Criteria for Personalizing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    The development and content of the Early Education Screening Test Battery are described elsewhere (TM 000 184). This report provides norms for the Gross Motor Test (GMO), Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), four scales of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and the Behavior Rating Scale…

  17. Verbal Fluency as a Rapid Screening Test for Cognitive Impairment in Early Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Torralva, Teresa; Laffaye, Teresa; Báez, Sandra; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Bruno, Diana; Chade, Anabel; Ibañez, Agustin; Manes, Facundo; Gershanik, Oscar; Roca, María

    2015-01-01

    The phonological verbal fluency test can act as a fast screening test to detect cognitive deficits in neurological conditions. In the present study, its utility in the detection of executive deficits in patients with early Parkinson's disease is demonstrated. PMID:26067437

  18. Simple Screening Test for Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm in the Middle School Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Tyler J.; Baker, Rachel H.; Weiss, Jason B.; Weiss, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This article recommends and provides results from a simple screening test that could be incorporated into a standardized school evaluation for all children participating in sports and physical education classes. The test can be employed by physical educators utilizing their own gym to identify children who demonstrate signs of exercise-induced…

  19. The Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) as a Predictor of Third-Grade Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichta, Lawrence J., Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Evaluated the Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) using a sample of 28 third graders. The third graders' scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test were correlated with their total STAR scores from prekindergarten testing. Results showed the STAR is a useful instrument for predicting third grade achievement. (Author/JAC)

  20. Psychometric Characteristics and Appropriate Use of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the adequacy of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRST) to gauge 46 kindergartners' readiness. Found agreement between GSRST and teacher assessments of student readiness. Test-retest and interrater reliability were below acceptable levels, and lower than figures yielded by a quantitative scoring method. Concluded that GSRST…

  1. Predictive Properties of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test within Samples from Two Treatment Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerji, Madhabi

    The predictive properties of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRT) were examined, taking into account the stated purposes of the test and the context of test use. Two samples were used: (1) a control sample of 55 students (21 males and 34 females) whose GSRT scores were not used for placement or tracking; and (2) a treatment sample of…

  2. Manual for the Deaf-Blind Program and Ability Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyall, J.; And Others

    Presented are a manual and a screening test to assist teachers and professionals to determine the functional ability level and individual program needs of deaf blind and multiply handicapped children. It is noted that the individually administered 10-minute test, based on Gesell's developmental theory, consists of items in seven basic…

  3. "Do-It-Yourself" Dementia Testing: Issues regarding an Alzheimer's Home Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kier, Frederick J.; Molinari, Victor

    2003-01-01

    The Early Alert Alzheimer's Home Screening Test (AHST) is a variant of the Smell Identification Test (SIT) and the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT), and recently became available for purchase by the general public. The validity and the practical utility of routine screening for individuals with asymptomatic cognitive impairment…

  4. MIT Space Engineering Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Miller, David W.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) at MIT, started in Jul. 1988, has completed two years of research. The Center is approaching the operational phase of its first testbed, is midway through the construction of a second testbed, and is in the design phase of a third. We presently have seven participating faculty, four participating staff members, ten graduate students, and numerous undergraduates. This report reviews the testbed programs, individual graduate research, other SERC activities not funded by the Center, interaction with non-MIT organizations, and SERC milestones. Published papers made possible by SERC funding are included at the end of the report.

  5. MIT January Operational Internship Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosanac, Natasha; DeVivero, Charlie; James, Jillian; Perez-Martinez, Carla; Pino, Wendy; Wang, Andrew; Willett, Ezekiel; Williams, Kwami

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the MIT January Operational Internship Experience (JOIE) program. The topics include: 1) Landing and Recovery; 2) Transportation; 3) Shuttle Processing; 4) Constellation Processing; 5) External Tank; 6) Launch Pad; 7) Ground Operations; 8) Hypergolic Propellants; 9) Environmental; 10) Logistics; 11) Six Sigma; 12) Systems Engineering; and 13) Human Factors.

  6. Interpretation of Errors Made by Mandarin-Speaking Children on the Preschool Language Scales--5th Edition Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Yonggang; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Wyver, Shirley; Hinton, Amber; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated typical errors made by Mandarin-speaking children when measured by the Preschool Language Scales-fifth edition, Screening Test (PLS-5 Screening Test). The intention was to provide preliminary data for the development of a guideline for early childhood educators and psychologists who use the test with Mandarin-speaking children.…

  7. Detecting Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Deaf People: The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Joanna; Denmark, Tanya; Marshall, Jane; Mummery, Cath; Woll, Bencie

    2015-11-01

    To provide accurate diagnostic screening of deaf people who use signed communication, cognitive tests must be devised in signed languages with normative deaf samples. This article describes the development of the first screening test for the detection of cognitive impairment and dementia in deaf signers. The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test uses standardized video administration to screen cognition using signed, rather than spoken or written, instructions and a large norm-referenced sample of 226 deaf older people. Percentiles are provided for clinical comparison. The tests showed good reliability, content validity, and correlation with age, intellectual ability, and education. Clinical discrimination was shown between the normative sample and 14 deaf patients with dementia. This innovative testing approach transforms the ability to detect dementia in deaf people, avoids the difficulties of using an interpreter, and enables culturally and linguistically sensitive assessment of deaf signers, with international potential for adaptation into other signed languages. PMID:26245349

  8. Relation between perceived driving disability and scores of vision screening tests

    PubMed Central

    van Rijn, L J; Wilhelm, H; Emesz, M; Kaper, R; Heine, S; Nitsch, S; Grabner, G; Völker-Dieben, H J

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine the relation between perceived driving disability and vision screening tests. Methods: 93 subjects, aged 50 years and over, with binocular visual acuity of at least 20/80. Perceived driving disability (PDD) was assessed by a questionnaire. Subtracting daytime from night-time driving question scores revealed PDD at night (PDDN), subtracting scores of questions for driving in familiar places from those in unfamiliar places revealed PDD at unfamiliar places (PDDU). Results: PDD was strongly related to visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and useful field of view (UFOV). Specific relations existed between PDDN and Nyktotests and Mesotests and between PDDU and UFOV. These associations were enhanced in a subset of subjects with better visual acuities. Conclusions: Vision screening tests correlate well with perceived driving disabilities, especially when a subtraction method is used in the questionnaire to reveal condition dependent disabilities. Additional tests for visual acuity are useful, especially in subjects with better visual acuity. PMID:12386085

  9. Research on target information optics communications transmission characteristic and performance in multi-screens testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hanshan

    2016-04-01

    To enhance the stability and reliability of multi-screens testing system, this paper studies multi-screens target optical information transmission link properties and performance in long-distance, sets up the discrete multi-tone modulation transmission model based on geometric model of laser multi-screens testing system and visible light information communication principle; analyzes the electro-optic and photoelectric conversion function of sender and receiver in target optical information communication system; researches target information transmission performance and transfer function of the generalized visible-light communication channel; found optical information communication transmission link light intensity space distribution model and distribution function; derives the SNR model of information transmission communication system. Through the calculation and experiment analysis, the results show that the transmission error rate increases with the increment of transmission rate in a certain channel modulation depth; when selecting the appropriate transmission rate, the bit error rate reach 0.01.

  10. A quick screening test of competency to stand trial for defendants with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Smith, S A; Hudson, R L

    1995-02-01

    19 terms and concepts from evaluations of competency to stand trial of 55 defendants with mental retardation were rated to examine whether a quick screening test could be devised that would differentiate those who were judged competent or not competent. A multiple regression and discriminant analysis gave four items that yielded maximum predictability (R = .84): court strategy, plead, testify, and jury. Guilty, trial, and prosecutor were also significantly more difficult for those who were not competent than those who were.

  11. Statistical studies of animal response data from USF toxicity screening test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical examination of animal response data obtained using Procedure B of the USF toxicity screening test method indicates that the data deviate only slightly from a normal or Gaussian distribution. This slight departure from normality is not expected to invalidate conclusions based on theoretical statistics. Comparison of times to staggering, convulsions, collapse, and death as endpoints shows that time to death appears to be the most reliable endpoint because it offers the lowest probability of missed observations and premature judgements.

  12. A simple screening test for fatty acid oxidation defects using whole-blood palmitate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Seargeant, L E; Balachandra, K; Mallory, C; Dilling, L A; Greenberg, C R

    1999-08-01

    We report that measurement of whole-blood palmitate oxidation is a rapid and inexpensive screening test for fatty acid oxidation defects. The assay has been adapted from published assays using cultured fibroblasts or isolated white blood cells. Micro whole-blood samples are incubated with tritiated palmitic acid as substrate. The tritiated water produced is proportional to the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of palmitic acid. Patients with confirmed beta-oxidation defects show low whole-blood palmitate oxidation.

  13. Assessments of cognitive abilities in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease with a touch screen test.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chuljung; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-03-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience both motor output deficits and cognitive disabilities. Various PD rodent models have been developed to investigate the genetic and brain circuit-related causes of PD and have contributed to the basic and clinical research and to therapeutic strategies for this disease. Most studies using PD rodent models have focused on the motor output deficits, rather than cognitive disabilities due to the lack of appropriate testing tools that do not require significant motor abilities. In this study, we assessed the cognitive disabilities of PD model mice using a touch screen test that required only little motor ability. We found that the PD model mice, which had motor deficits caused by unilateral striatal dopaminergic degeneration, successfully underwent operant conditioning with a touch screen test. Additionally, we found that the PD model mice demonstrated impaired location discrimination, but intact attention and reversal learning in the cognitive tests. Therefore, the touch screen test is useful for assessing hidden cognitive disabilities in disease model animals with decreased motor function. PMID:26698399

  14. Asymptomatic maternal 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria detected by her unaffected baby's neonatal screening test

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Hee

    2014-01-01

    3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (3MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder in which leucine catabolism is hampered, leading to increased urinary excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine. In addition, 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine levels increase in the blood, and the elevated levels form the basis of neonatal screening. 3MCC deficiency symptoms are variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurological abnormality to a normal, asymptomatic phenotype. Although 3MCC deficiency was previously considered to be rare, it has been found to be one of the most common metabolic disorders in newborns after the neonatal screening test using tandem mass spectrometry was introduced. Additionally, asymptomatic 3MCC deficient mothers have been identified due to abnormal results of unaffected baby's neonatal screening test. Some of the 3MCC-deficient mothers show symptoms such as fatigue, myopathy, or metabolic crisis with febrile illnesses. In the current study, we identified an asymptomatic 3MCC deficient mother when she showed abnormal results during a neonatal screening test of a healthy infant. PMID:25114694

  15. Asymptomatic maternal 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria detected by her unaffected baby's neonatal screening test.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Hee; Hong, Yong Hee

    2014-07-01

    3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (3MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder in which leucine catabolism is hampered, leading to increased urinary excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine. In addition, 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine levels increase in the blood, and the elevated levels form the basis of neonatal screening. 3MCC deficiency symptoms are variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurological abnormality to a normal, asymptomatic phenotype. Although 3MCC deficiency was previously considered to be rare, it has been found to be one of the most common metabolic disorders in newborns after the neonatal screening test using tandem mass spectrometry was introduced. Additionally, asymptomatic 3MCC deficient mothers have been identified due to abnormal results of unaffected baby's neonatal screening test. Some of the 3MCC-deficient mothers show symptoms such as fatigue, myopathy, or metabolic crisis with febrile illnesses. In the current study, we identified an asymptomatic 3MCC deficient mother when she showed abnormal results during a neonatal screening test of a healthy infant.

  16. Screening for Language Disorders in Stroke: German Validation of the Language Screening Test (LAST)

    PubMed Central

    Koenig-Bruhin, M.; Vanbellingen, T.; Schumacher, R.; Pflugshaupt, T.; Annoni, J.M.; Müri, R.M.; Bohlhalter, S.; Nyffeler, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening of aphasia in acute stroke is crucial for directing patients to early language therapy. The Language Screening Test (LAST), originally developed in French, is a validated language screening test that allows detection of a language deficit within a few minutes. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate two parallel German versions of the LAST. Methods The LAST includes subtests for naming, repetition, automatic speech, and comprehension. For the translation into German, task constructs and psycholinguistic criteria for item selection were identical to the French LAST. A cohort of 101 stroke patients were tested, all of whom were native German speakers. Validation of the LAST was based on (1) analysis of equivalence of the German versions, which was established by administering both versions successively in a subset of patients, (2) internal validity by means of internal consistency analysis, and (3) external validity by comparison with the short version of the Token Test in another subset of patients. Results The two German versions were equivalent as demonstrated by a high intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.91. Furthermore, an acceptable internal structure of the LAST was found (Cronbach's α = 0.74). A highly significant correlation (r = 0.74, p < 0.0001) between the LAST and the short version of the Token Test indicated good external validity of the scale. Conclusion The German version of the LAST, available in two parallel versions, is a new and valid language screening test in stroke. PMID:27194999

  17. [COPD und Klangtherapie: Pilotstudie zur Wirksamkeit einer Behandlung mit Körpertambura bei COPD-Patienten].

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Bernhard; Schmidt, Stefan; Hartwig, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund: Erkrankungen der Atemorgane treten mit steigendem Alter öfter auf, nehmen weltweit zu und sind häufige Ursachen für Morbidität und Mortalität. In dieser Pilotstudie wurde der Frage nachgegangen, ob eine einmalige 10-minütige Behandlung mit einer Körpertambura eine signifikante und effektive Verbesserung der Lungenfunktion von Patienten mit chronisch-obstruktiver Lungenerkrankung (COPD; GOLD-Stadium A oder B) erbringen kann. Patienten und Methoden: 54 Probanden konnten je zur Hälfte in eine Behandlungsgruppe (Körpertambura) und eine aktive Kontrollgruppe (Atemtherapie) randomisiert werden. Eine Bestimmung der Lungenfunktionsmessparameter «Einsekundenkapazität» (FEV1) und «inspiratorische Vitalkapazität» (IVC) zu den Zeitpunkten T1 (Baseline), T2 (direkt nach Behandlung) und als Follow-up etwa 3 Wochen nach T1 (T3). Ergebnisse: Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte sich der Kontrollgruppe in beiden Werten signifikant überlegen. Die Zeit-×-Gruppe-Interaktion (Varianzanalyse) ergab p = 0,001 (FEV1) bzw. p = 0,04 (IVC). Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte bei beiden Werten eine Verbesserung von klinischer Relevanz. Schlussfolgerung: Diese Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Klangbehandlung mittels einer Körpertambura - neben den schulmedizinischen, leitliniengerechten Therapien - eine zusätzliche, nebenwirkungsarme, aber durchaus klinisch wirksame Option für die Behandlung von COPD-Patienten darstellen kann, um deren Lebensqualität zu stabilisieren und zu verbessern. PMID:27606616

  18. Rückwärtsintegration - Zu den Verhältnissen Gymnasium, Hochschule und Arbeitswelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Gerhard; Heppner, Winfried; Focht, Eva

    In seiner 2007 erschienen Sammlung von Vorträgen und Essays beschäftigt sich Wolfgang Frühwald, mit der Frage "Wieviel Wissen brauchen wir?“ [1] Die Kernproblematik moderner Wissenschaft und Forschung sieht der Autor, emeritierter Ordinarius für Neuere Deutsche Literaturwissenschaft und von 1992 bis 1997 Präsident der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft, einerseits in der zunehmenden Spezialisierung der Wissenschaftsbereiche, andererseits in der Gefahr der Abkoppelung der Naturwissenschaften von den Geisteswissenschaften. Wiederholt plädiert er dafür, über der rasanten Entwicklung beispielsweise in der Biologie und Physik, die historische, gesellschaftliche und besonders die ethische Dimension der Forschung nicht zu übersehen und fordert eine übergeordnete Theorie der Wissenschaft, die nur im Dialog zwischen den einzelnen Fachgebieten zu entwickeln sei.

  19. Applicability of Screening Tests for Oxytetracycline in the Milk of Three Breeds of Goats.

    PubMed

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry, and the presence of antibiotic residues in milk is a health hazard. The objectives of this study were to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in the milk of three breeds of goats using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and screening tests. It was also essential to explore the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats and examine the applicability of Charm ROSA and SNAP screening tests. The qualitative results of these tests were compared with the quantitative results of the HPLC method. Fifteen milking does, five each from the Alpine, LaMancha, and Nubian breeds, were selected from the herd at Prairie View A&M University. Milk samples containing antibiotic residues were deproteinized by HCl and acetonitrile, and then oxytetracycline was extracted from the supernatant. The residues of oxytetracycline in goat's milk up to 110 h after injection were qualitatively detected using the Charm ROSA test. Similarly, the SNAP test detected the antibiotic residues in milk up to 110 h after treatment. The HPLC results indicated that oxytetracycline residues in milk from Alpine goats were below the tolerance level (300 ng/ml) 82 h after drug treatment (72 h for LaManchas, 58 h for Nubians); however, the results of the screening tests would indicate longer withdrawal periods for milk from the breeds of goats studied, which would result in economic losses to goat's milk producers. The results of this study also indicated that oxytetracycline was not stable in raw goat's milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and that the concentrations decreased significantly. Commercial goat's milk is usually exposed to several hours of refrigeration and then to pasteurization. The results of this study indicated that, if oxytetracycline was present in raw goat's milk, the concentration would decrease significantly before it was marketed.

  20. 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II deficiency on newborn screening test.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Vitor Guilherme Brito de; Oliveira, Renata Santarem de; Gameleira, Kallianna Paula Duarte; Cruz, Cátia Barbosa; Lofrano-Porto, Adriana

    2014-08-01

    3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase II (3β-HSD) deficiency represents a rare CAH variant. Newborns affected with its classic form have salt wasting in early infancy and genital ambiguity in both sexes. High levels of 17-hydroxypregnenolone (Δ517OHP) are characteristic, but extra-adrenal conversion to 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) may lead to positive results on newborn screening tests. Filter paper 17OHP on newborn screening test was performed by immunofluorometric assay, and serum determinations of 17OHP and Δ517OHP, by radioimmunoassay. A 46,XY infant with genital ambiguity and adrenal crisis at three months of age presented a positive result on newborn screening for CAH. Serum determinations of 17OHP and Δ517OHP were elevated, and a high Δ517OHP/cortisol relation was compatible with the diagnosis of 3β-HSD deficiency. Molecular analysis of the HSD3B2 gene from the affected case revealed the presence of the homozygous p.P222Q mutation, whereas his parents were heterozygous for it. We present the first report of 3β-HSD type II deficiency genotype-proven detected at the Newborn Screening Program in Brazil. The case described herein corroborates the strong genotype-phenotype correlation associated with the HSD3B2 p.P222Q mutation, which leads to a classic salt-wasting 3β-HSD deficiency. Further evaluation of 17OHP assays used in newborn screening tests would aid in determining their reproducibility, as well as the potential significance of moderately elevated 17OHP levels as an early indicator to the diagnosis of other forms of classic CAH, beyond 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

  1. Adoption of Liquid-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Tests by Family Physicians and Gynecologists

    PubMed Central

    Rappaport, Karen M; Forrest, Christopher B; Holtzman, Neil A

    2004-01-01

    Objective To examine reasons for the adoption of liquid-based cervical cancer screening tests. Data Sources/Study Setting A mailed survey of 250 family physicians and 250 gynecologists in Maryland in 2000. Additional data were obtained from the AMA Master File of Physicians. Study Design Key outcome variables in this cross-sectional survey were early adoption of a liquid-based test by the end of 1997 and overall adoption by the time of the survey. Adoption was viewed in terms of a supply and demand theoretical framework with marketing influencing physician and patient demand as well as supply by insurance companies and laboratories. Data Collection Random samples of family physicians and gynecologists were selected from the AMA Master File of Physicians. The overall response rate was 61.9 percent. Principal Findings By 2000, 96 percent of gynecologists and 75 percent of family physicians in Maryland were using liquid-based cervical cancer screening tests, most commonly the ThinPrep® Pap Test™. Gynecologists were more likely than family physicians to have been early adopters (34 percent versus 5 percent, p<.01). Part of this variation in adoption was due to aggressive marketing to gynecologists, who were more likely than family physicians to receive information in the mail from the test manufacturer (89 percent versus 56 percent, p<.01) and to have been informed by the manufacturer that a patient had inquired about physicians' use of the test (22 percent versus 8 percent, p<.01). Conclusions The rapid diffusion of liquid-based cervical cancer screening tests occurred despite general agreement that the Pap smear has been one of the most successful cancer prevention interventions ever. Commercial marketing campaigns appear to contribute to the more rapid rate of diffusion of technology among specialists compared with generalists. PMID:15230935

  2. Applicability of Screening Tests for Oxytetracycline in the Milk of Three Breeds of Goats.

    PubMed

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry, and the presence of antibiotic residues in milk is a health hazard. The objectives of this study were to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in the milk of three breeds of goats using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and screening tests. It was also essential to explore the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats and examine the applicability of Charm ROSA and SNAP screening tests. The qualitative results of these tests were compared with the quantitative results of the HPLC method. Fifteen milking does, five each from the Alpine, LaMancha, and Nubian breeds, were selected from the herd at Prairie View A&M University. Milk samples containing antibiotic residues were deproteinized by HCl and acetonitrile, and then oxytetracycline was extracted from the supernatant. The residues of oxytetracycline in goat's milk up to 110 h after injection were qualitatively detected using the Charm ROSA test. Similarly, the SNAP test detected the antibiotic residues in milk up to 110 h after treatment. The HPLC results indicated that oxytetracycline residues in milk from Alpine goats were below the tolerance level (300 ng/ml) 82 h after drug treatment (72 h for LaManchas, 58 h for Nubians); however, the results of the screening tests would indicate longer withdrawal periods for milk from the breeds of goats studied, which would result in economic losses to goat's milk producers. The results of this study also indicated that oxytetracycline was not stable in raw goat's milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and that the concentrations decreased significantly. Commercial goat's milk is usually exposed to several hours of refrigeration and then to pasteurization. The results of this study indicated that, if oxytetracycline was present in raw goat's milk, the concentration would decrease significantly before it was marketed. PMID:27296606

  3. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Exercise wheels and oxygen replenishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to improve the University of San Francisco/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the addition of exercise wheels to provide a different measure of incapacitation, and oxygen replenishment to offset any effect of oxygen depletion by the test animals. The addition of exercise wheels limited the number of animals in each test and doubled the required number of tests without any significant improvement in reproducibility. Oxygen replenishment appears to have an effect on survival in the last 5 minutes of the 30-minute test, but the effect is expected to be similar for most materials.

  4. DEVILS DEN ROADLESS AREA, VERMONT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Sabin, Andrew E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was made of the Devils Den Roadless Area, Vermont, Geochemical sampling found traces of gold, copper, barium, lead, molybdenum, silver, tin, and thorium in rocks, stream sediments, and panned concentrates, but not in sufficient quantities to identify any resource potential. The only apparent resources are nonmetallic commodities including abundant rock suitable for crushihg, and very small deposits of sand and gravel and marble; these also occur outside the roadless area. The area was also evaluated for bedrock uranium and thorium deposits, but not anomalously high radioactive bedrock was found. A potential may exist for oil or natural gas at great depth, but this cannot be evaluated by the present study.

  5. Brief screening tests for the diagnosis of dementia: comparison with the mini-mental state exam.

    PubMed

    Kilada, Sandy; Gamaldo, Alyssa; Grant, Elizabeth A; Moghekar, Abhay; Morris, John C; O'Brien, Richard J

    2005-01-01

    Dementia is a common and under-diagnosed problem among the elderly. An accurate screening test would greatly aid the ability of physicians to evaluate dementia and memory problems in clinical practice. We sought to determine whether simple and brief psychometric tests perform similarly to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in screening for dementia. Using a retrospective analysis, a series of standard, brief, psychometric tests were compared with each other and to the MMSE as screening tests for very mild dementia, using DSM-III-R criterion as the gold standard. Two independent cohorts from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging and the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center were evaluated. We found that two brief and simple-to-administer tests appear to offer similar degrees of sensitivity and specificity to the MMSE. These are the recall of a five-item name and address, "John Brown 42 Market Street Chicago" and the one-minute verbal fluency for animals. Combining these two tests further improves sensitivity and specificity, surpassing the MMSE, to detect dementia in individuals with memory complaints. PMID:15764865

  6. Otoacoustic emissions as a screening test for hearing impairment in children.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, M P; Williamson, T J; Lenton, S W; Tarlow, M J; Rudd, P T

    1995-01-01

    Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) are low amplitude sound waves produced by the healthy cochlea. They can be recorded with a microphone in the external ear. TEOAEs are abolished by hearing losses of 30 dB or more. The feasibility of using TEOAEs as a screening test for hearing loss in children was studied. TEOAE recordings were attempted in 56 children attending an audiology clinic. Recordings were possible from both ears in 52 children; of these 104 ears, 32 had hearing deficits of 30 dB or more. Hearing status was compared with the results of six TEOAE screening criteria. All criteria had a sensitivity of 1.00. Four standard TEOAE criteria yielded specificities of 0.46-0.58. Two new criteria derived from analysis of limited frequencies from the TEOAE waveform gave specificities of 0.76 and 0.82. It can be concluded that, when appropriate pass/fail criteria are employed, TEOAEs are a feasible screening test in children. PMID:7763058

  7. Buprenorphine detection in hair samples by immunometric screening test: preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Svaizer, Fiorenza; Lotti, Andrea; Gottardi, Massimo; Miozzo, Maria Pia

    2010-03-20

    The recent introduction of buprenorphine use by the Drug Addiction Services has induced toxicology laboratories to develop new qualitative or semiquantitative screening assay for its determination in hair samples. The aim of this preliminary study was to verify the correlation between the buprenorphine intake and the immunometric screening test results (VMA-T Comedical and buprenorphine CEDIA/Thermo-Fisher/Microgenics reagents) and therefore their comparison with the liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) results. Hair samples were obtained from 32 subjects without buprenorphine-therapy reported and 17 in treatment. In glass test tube with hermetic cap were weighed 33 mg of 49 finely cut hair samples, washed with 1 mL of SLV-VMA-T washing solution, which is then completely sucked and eliminated. The samples were extracted with 400 microL of VMA-T reagent for an hour at 100 degrees C. The extracts were analysed by immunometric screening test on ILab 650 chemistry analyser, using buprenorphine CEDIA reagent assay. From the 32 non-takers of drug, 30 semiquantitative results were less than 10 pg/mg and 2 were over 10 pg/mg; from the 17 subjects with therapy, all were over 10 pg/mg (range 13-50 pg/mg); no samples were false-negative. Results suggest that exist a good relationship between the administration of buprenorphine and its concentration in hair, detectable through this method and reagents line. PMID:20080369

  8. Neighborhood factors associated with time to resolution following an abnormal breast or cervical cancer screening test

    PubMed Central

    Plascak, Jesse J.; Llanos, Adana A.; Pennell, Michael L.; Weier, Rory C.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of neighborhood and healthcare access factors on cancer outcomes among patients enrolled in navigator programs is not clearly understood. This study assessed associations between: 1) neighborhood factors and diagnostic time to resolution (TTR) and, 2) geographic access and TTR following an abnormal breast or cervical cancer screening test among women participating in the Ohio Patient Navigator Research Program (OPNRP). Methods Patient (demographic, socioeconomic status [SES], home-to-clinic distance) and neighborhood (deprivation, racial segregation) characteristics of 801 women living in one of 285 census tracts (CTs) in greater Columbus, Ohio were examined. Randomization to receive navigation occurred at the clinic level. Multilevel Cox regression and spatial analysis were used to estimate effects of various factors on TTR and assess model assumptions, respectively. Results TTR increased as neighborhood deprivation increased. After adjustment for age, friend social support, education and healthcare status, the TTR among women living in a neighborhood with a moderate median household income (between $36,147 and $53,099) was shorter compared to women living in low median household income neighborhoods (< $36,147) (p < 0.05). There is little evidence that unmeasured confounders are geographically patterned. Conclusions Increased neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with longer TTR following an abnormal breast or cervical cancer screening test. Impact These results highlight the need for addressing patient- and neighborhood-level factors to reduce cancer disparities among underserved populations. PMID:25205516

  9. Correlation of pregnancy outcome with quadruple screening test at second trimester

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Shahla; Rouholahnejad, Rahele; Asnafi, Nesa; Sharbatdaran, Majid; Zakershob, Marziihe; Bouzari, Zinatossadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal levels of the markers AFP, hCG, and uE3 could be useful in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study was designed to determine the correlation between second trimester maternal serum markers and adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Methods: In this historical cohort study, we randomly followed 231 obstetric patients with quadruple screening test in 14-18 weeks of gestation from March 2012 to March 2013 in a medical laboratory in Babol, Iran. We measured maternal serum levels of alphafetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), unconjugated estriol (uE3), and inhibin-A. The risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) were then compared between patients with negative and positive test results. We used Chi-square and Fisher-exact tests for qualitative variables and t-test for quantitative variables. Demographic differences between the two groups were minimized by applying logistic regression. Results: The risk of having an APO such as pre-eclampsia (p=0.008), fetal growth restriction (p=0.028) and premature rupture of membrane (p=0.040) increased significantly in patients with abnormal markers. Conclusion: Abnormal results of quadruple screening test could be associated with APO in women with normal appearing fetus. PMID:26913244

  10. [Does education influence the results of the Amsterdam Dementia-Screening Test (ADS)?].

    PubMed

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the correlation between education and the results of five dementia screening tests. In a study of 551 consecutively enrolled psychogeriatric day care attendants individual differences in education explained only very small portions of variance (< or = 0.63%) in four tests (visual recognition memory, orientation, category fluency and alternating sequences) of the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test, a standard neuropsychological battery. The only exception was graphical copying of two- or three-dimensional geometric designs, where education explained 6.25% of the variance in copying accuracy. The more education participants had (from incomplete or complete primary education, through extended primary education, lower technical and vocational training, and secondary to higher education), the better their copying performance was. There was however one exception, in that participants with secondary education copied designs significantly less accurately than participants with lower technical and vocational training. Differences in copying accuracy of subjects with higher versus lower educational attainment were largest for participants matched for high levels of cognitive function. More severe cognitive impairment attenuated education effects. Higher education did not protect against decline of copying performance as a consequence of increasing cognitive impairment. For each of three educational levels, premorbid copying performance was estimated by constructing a regression equation using an independent measure of cognitive functioning (in terms of visual recognition memory, orientation and category fluency) as the predictor variable. The results support the clinical utility of controlling for educational level when interpreting individual copying performance. PMID:12611290

  11. Denning of grizzly bears in the Yellowstone National Park area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Judd, Steven L.; Knight, Richard R.; Blanchard, Bonnie M.

    1986-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to locate 101 grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) dens from 1975 to 1980; 35 dens were examined on the ground. Pregnant females denned in late October, and most other bears denned by mid-November. Duration of denning average 113, 132, and 170 days for males, females, and females with new cubs, respectively. Males emerged from mid-February to late March, followed by single females and females with yearlings and 2-year-olds. Females with new cubs emerged from early mid-April. Den sites were associated with moderate tree cover (26%-75% canopy cover) on 30°-60° slopes. Dens occurred on all aspects, although northerly exposures were most common. Grizzly bears usually dug new dens but occasionally used natural cavities or a den from a previous year. Males usually dug larger dens than females with young. Eight excavated and 2 natural dens of the 35 examined dens were used for more than 1 year.

  12. The DenA/DEN1 Interacting Phosphatase DipA Controls Septa Positioning and Phosphorylation-Dependent Stability of Cytoplasmatic DenA/DEN1 during Fungal Development

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Josua; Kolog Gulko, Miriam; Christmann, Martin; Valerius, Oliver; Stumpf, Sina Kristin; Stirz, Margarita; Braus, Gerhard H.

    2016-01-01

    DenA/DEN1 and the COP9 signalosome (CSN) represent two deneddylases which remove the ubiquitin-like Nedd8 from modified target proteins and are required for distinct fungal developmental programmes. The cellular DenA/DEN1 population is divided into a nuclear and a cytoplasmatic subpopulation which is especially enriched at septa. DenA/DEN1 stability control mechanisms are different for the two cellular subpopulations and depend on different physical interacting proteins and the C-terminal DenA/DEN1 phosphorylation pattern. Nuclear DenA/DEN1 is destabilized during fungal development by five of the eight CSN subunits which target nuclear DenA/DEN1 for degradation. DenA/DEN1 becomes stabilized as a phosphoprotein at S243/S245 during vegetative growth, which is necessary to support further asexual development. After the initial phase of development, the newly identified cytoplasmatic DenA/DEN1 interacting phosphatase DipA and an additional developmental specific C-terminal phosphorylation site at serine S253 destabilize DenA/DEN1. Outside of the nucleus, DipA is co-transported with DenA/DEN1 in the cytoplasm between septa and nuclei. Deletion of dipA resulted in increased DenA/DEN1 stability in a strain which is unresponsive to illumination. The mutant strain is dysregulated in cytokinesis and impaired in asexual development. Our results suggest a dual phosphorylation-dependent DenA/DEN1 stability control with stabilizing and destabilizing modifications and physical interaction partner proteins which function as control points in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. PMID:27010942

  13. Dens invaginatus (dilated odontome) in mandibular canine

    PubMed Central

    Halawar, Sangamesh S; Satyakiran, GVV; Krishnanand, PS; Prashanth, R

    2014-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth related to shape of the teeth. Affected teeth show a deep infolding of enamel and dentin starting from the tip of the cusps and may extend deep into the root. It results from the invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla before calcification has occurred. Teeth most affected are maxillary lateral incisors. The presence of dens invaginatus in mandibular canine is extremely rare. The tooth was symptomatic in that it was mobile and was oriented horizontally. This article presents a case of symptomatic dens invaginatus in mandibular canine. PMID:25364169

  14. Hysterosalpingo contrast sonography as a screening test for tubal patency in infertile women.

    PubMed Central

    Killick, S R

    1999-01-01

    The most informative method for assessing tubal patency in subfertile women is laparoscopy-and-dye. This investigation, however, puts a large burden on services and a screening test is needed that identifies a high likelihood of occlusion. In our infertility programme we introduced hysterosalpingo contrast sonography for this purpose, operated entirely by ultrasonographers. A series of audits indicated that this innovation speeded the process of investigation by several weeks and reduced the number of laparoscopy-and-dye procedures by 75%. The negative predictive value was 89% and the positive predictive value was 44%. The main limitation of the method was the long period required for training, in those without extensive experience of vaginal ultrasonography. PMID:10692884

  15. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Oxygen concentrations with various test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Solis, A. N.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to increase the versatility of the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the use of different test conditions in order to simulate various fire environments. The use of air flow at flow rates of 16 to 48 ml/sec maintains oxygen concentrations above 19 percent throughout the 30 min exposure period, compared to above 16 percent without forced air flow. These levels of oxygen are well within the tolerance range of mice, and approach the oxygen levels found in many real fire situations. Proposed minimum oxygen levels based on experience with rats are unduly restrictive on the use of other species such as mice, and tend to eliminate the cost savings which may more than justify the selection of mice.

  16. The impact of financing of screening tests on utilization and outcomes: The case of amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Shurtz, Ity; Brzezinski, Amnon; Frumkin, Ayala

    2016-07-01

    We use a 1993 policy change in Israel's public healthcare system that lowered the eligibility age for amniocentesis to 35 to study the effects of financing of screening tests. Financing is found to have increased amniocentesis testing by about 35%. At ages above the eligibility threshold, utilization rates rose to roughly 33%, reflection nearly full takeup among prospective users of amniocentesis. Additionally, whereas below the age-35 threshold amniocentesis utilization rates increase with maternal age, this relation is muted above this age. Finally, no evidence is found that financing affects outcomes such as pregnancy terminations and births of children with Down syndrome. These results support the view that women above the eligibility threshold tend to refrain from acquiring inexpensive information about their degree of risk that absent the financing they would acquire, and instead, undergo the accurate and costly test regardless of additional information that noninvasive screening would provide.

  17. [LAST-Q: Adaptation and normalisation in Quebec of the Language Screening Test].

    PubMed

    Bourgeois-Marcotte, J; Flamand-Roze, C; Denier, C; Monetta, L

    2015-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to adapt and to establish normative data for the recently developed Language Screening Test (LAST; Flamand-Roze et al., 2011) in the French-Canadian population according to age and level of education. After an adaptation process, 100 French-Canadian speakers were evaluated with the LAST-Q. As expected, a perfect score of 15/15 was obtained for all high level education participants, and a score of 14/15 was obtained for all participants with a lowest level of education or aged 80 years or more. Thanks to this adaptation, LAST-Q can be used in acute patients in stroke unit in Quebec.

  18. The impact of financing of screening tests on utilization and outcomes: The case of amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Shurtz, Ity; Brzezinski, Amnon; Frumkin, Ayala

    2016-07-01

    We use a 1993 policy change in Israel's public healthcare system that lowered the eligibility age for amniocentesis to 35 to study the effects of financing of screening tests. Financing is found to have increased amniocentesis testing by about 35%. At ages above the eligibility threshold, utilization rates rose to roughly 33%, reflection nearly full takeup among prospective users of amniocentesis. Additionally, whereas below the age-35 threshold amniocentesis utilization rates increase with maternal age, this relation is muted above this age. Finally, no evidence is found that financing affects outcomes such as pregnancy terminations and births of children with Down syndrome. These results support the view that women above the eligibility threshold tend to refrain from acquiring inexpensive information about their degree of risk that absent the financing they would acquire, and instead, undergo the accurate and costly test regardless of additional information that noninvasive screening would provide. PMID:27062339

  19. Evaluation of some candidate materials for automobile thermal reactors in engine-dynamometer screening tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldrieve, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Fourteen materials were evaluated in engine screening tests on full-size thermal reactors for automobile engine pollution control systems. Cyclic test-stand engine operation provided 2 hours at 1040 C and a 20-minute air-cool to 70 C each test cycle. Each reactor material was exposed to 83 cycles in 200 hours of engine testing. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and distortion, the best materials included two ferritic iron alloys (Ge 1541 and Armco 18S/R), several commercial oxidation-resistant coatings on AlSl 651 (19-9 DL), and possibly uncoated AISI 310. The best commercial coatings were Cr-Al, Ni-Cr, and a glass ceramic.

  20. Buffered Plate Antigen Test as a Screening Test for Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Nidia E.; Bolpe, Jorge E.

    1998-01-01

    Brucellosis in Argentina is currently investigated in bank donor blood by the standard plate agglutination test (PAT). This study evaluated the buffered plate antigen test (BPA), now used to screen for bovine brucellosis, as a screen for human disease. Of 57 sera from patients with culture-confirmed brucellosis, 100% were detected with the BPA. Of 142 sera positive by rose bengal (RB) and complement fixation (CF), from patients with clinical evidence of brucellosis, the BPA detected 100%. Of 307 sera from a nonsymptomatic population that were RB and CF negative, the BPA detected 99.67% of the negative sera. The data indicate that the BPA is satisfactory compared to the other agglutination tests employed. It is an inexpensive and practical screening test and reduces the nonspecific reactions detected by the PAT. PMID:9574720

  1. The Development of a Screening Test to Determine the Impact Sound Insulation of Floors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKell (McGregor), Bernadette

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The present situation with regard to the field testing of the impact sound insulation of floors is not satisfactory. Routine testing requires a specialised knowledge of acoustics and is very time consuming in its execution. A simple screening test has been developed which can be used on site by non-specialised personnel with a minimum of training. The ability of the reference curve in ISO 717 -2 to objectively rank order in a manner similar to subjective ratings when the floors are subjected to footstep impacts has been investigated and an alternative shape of reference curve suggested. The choice of the subjective parameter for evaluation has been given consideration and it has been found that although the loudness and annoyance evaluations are interdependent it has not been possible to clearly define the relationship. In developing a measurement technique the effects of measurement parameter, different operators and the position of tapping machine have been quantified. The effect of introducing absorption into the receiving room has also been examined and this has resulted in the standardisation of the correction values for the effect of receiving room conditions. The prediction of the Ln_{ rm T,w} and L_{rm nT,w}^' values is based on regression equations and the limitations of the accuracy of these predictions has been examined for different floor construction. The screening test procedure and method of evaluation for overall denormalised linear and A-weighted levels is given. The evaluation of the corrected level permits the prediction of L_{rm nT,w} and L_{rm nT,w} ^' ratings.

  2. An evaluation of chemical screening test kits for lead in paint

    SciTech Connect

    Oglesby, L.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act (Title X) requires abatement and management of lead-based paint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three chemical screening test kits using materials and methods from one study and subjecting the results to the statistical analysis of another. The three kits were used to predict the presence of lead in paint at ten weight concentrations from 0.04 to 3.97%. Paint was applied to four wood boards yielding a sample size of 40. Four boards were painted with lead-free paint and used as blanks. All of the boards were tested with the three test kits by an untrained individual having no knowledge of the actual lead content. Sensitivity, specificity, and false positive and negative rates were calculated for the test kit results. The manufactures` detection limits, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.80, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.42, false positive ranged from 0 to 58%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. At the 0.5% Federal threshold level, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.94, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.5, false positives ranged from 0 to 11.1%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. The observed false positive and false negative rates for all three kits were found to be significantly lower than those reported in a previous study. These results indicate that the kits perform very well at the Federal threshold, with two of the kits having false negative rates below 12.5% and false positive rates of 3.13%. These results indicate that these two kits would probably be acceptable screening tests for lead in paint.

  3. A comparison between Pap and HPV screening tests and screening methods

    PubMed Central

    Altobelli, Emma; Scarselli, Giorgio; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Fortunato, Carmine; Profeta, Valerio F.

    2016-01-01

    The present study assesses the results of cervical cancer (CC) screening over two 3-year periods (2008–2010 and 2011–2013) by comparing two screening tests [Papanicolaou (Pap) and human papillomavirus (HPV) tests] and two screening methods (organized and spontaneous). The study population includes women aged 25–64 years who underwent CC screening between 2008 and 2010 and/or 2011 and 2013, divided into those who responded to an invitation letter (organized screening) and those who spontaneously underwent testing at a public or private facility (non-programmed screening). Between 2008 and 2010, the response rates increased from 27.7% in 2008 to 44.5% in 2009 and 67.6% in 2010 (P<0.001). Women aged 25–34 years had the lowest response rate, whereas respondents were more frequent among women aged 35–44 and 45–54 years. Significant differences (P<0.001) were identified between organized and spontaneous screening test results with regard to diagnostic categories high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (50.5 vs. 49.5%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (42.8 vs. 57.2%) and undetermined lesion atypical glandular cells (AGC; 57.5 vs. 42.5%) or atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US; 54.2 vs. 45.8%). Compared with spontaneous screening, the organized programme resulted in a larger number of women screened for CC; it reduced the frequency of undetermined diagnoses (AGC, ASC-US), and identified a larger number of high-grade lesions. PMID:27446578

  4. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—Cast Stone and Alkali Alumino-Silicate Geopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Parker, Kent E.; Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2010-06-28

    PNNL is conducting screening tests on the candidate waste forms to provide a basis for comparison and to resolve the formulation and data needs identified in the literature review. This report documents the screening test results on the Cast Stone cementitious waste form and the Geopolymer waste form. Test results suggest that both the Cast Stone and Geopolymer appear to be viable waste forms for the solidification of the secondary liquid wastes to be treated in the ETF. The diffusivity for technetium from the Cast Stone monoliths was in the range of 1.2 × 10-11 to 2.3 × 10-13 cm2/s during the 63 days of testing. The diffusivity for technetium from the Geopolymer was in the range of 1.7 × 10-10 to 3.8 × 10-12 cm2/s through the 63 days of the test. These values compare with a target of 1 × 10-9 cm2/s or less. The Geopolymer continues to show some fabrication issues with the diffusivities ranging from 1.7 × 10-10 to 3.8 × 10-12 cm2/s for the better-performing batch to from 1.2 × 10-9 to 1.8 × 10-11 cm2/s for the poorer-performing batch. In the future more comprehensive and longer term performance testing will be conducted, to further evaluate whether or not these waste forms will meet the regulation and performance criteria needed to cost-effectively dispose of secondary wastes.

  5. A Score Based on Screening Tests to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment from Subjective Memory Complaints

    PubMed Central

    de Gobbi Porto, Fábio Henrique; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Figuerêdo do Vale, Patrícia Helena; Orsini, Marco; Nitrini, Ricardo; Dozzi Brucki, Sonia Maria

    2013-01-01

    It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy. PMID:24147213

  6. Dens in dente: A minimally invasive nonsurgical approach!

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Vivek; Morawala, Abdul; Gupta, Abhilasha; Khandwawala, Naqiyaa

    2016-01-01

    Dens invaginatus, also known as dens in dente, is a rare anomaly affecting human dentition. The condition results in invagination of an amelodental structure within the pulp. This case report discusses the current management protocol of dens invaginatus using a minimally invasive and nonsurgical treatment option. As with most conditions, early diagnosis and preventive measures help minimize complications in dens invaginatus cases. PMID:27656073

  7. Dens in dente: A minimally invasive nonsurgical approach!

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Vivek; Morawala, Abdul; Gupta, Abhilasha; Khandwawala, Naqiyaa

    2016-01-01

    Dens invaginatus, also known as dens in dente, is a rare anomaly affecting human dentition. The condition results in invagination of an amelodental structure within the pulp. This case report discusses the current management protocol of dens invaginatus using a minimally invasive and nonsurgical treatment option. As with most conditions, early diagnosis and preventive measures help minimize complications in dens invaginatus cases.

  8. Identifikationsverfahren zur Analyse von EEG-Signalen bei Epilepsie mit Reaktions-Diffusions Netzwerken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollas, F.; Tetzlaff, R.

    2007-06-01

    Partielle Differentialgleichungen des Reaktions-Diffusions-Typs beschreiben Phänomene wie Musterbildung, nichtlineare Wellenausbreitung und deterministisches Chaos und werden oft zur Untersuchung komplexer Vorgänge auf den Gebieten der Biologie, Chemie und Physik herangezogen. Zellulare Nichtlineare Netzwerke (CNN) sind eine räumliche Anordnung vergleichsweise einfacher dynamischer Systeme, die eine lokale Kopplung untereinander aufweisen. Durch eine Diskretisierung der Ortsvariablen können Reaktions-Diffusions-Gleichungen häufig auf CNN mit nichtlinearen Gewichtsfunktionen abgebildet werden. Die resultierenden Reaktions-Diffusions-CNN (RD-CNN) weisen dann in ihrer Dynamik näherungsweise gleiches Verhalten wie die zugrunde gelegten Reaktions-Diffusions-Systeme auf. Werden RD-CNN zur Identifikation neuronaler Strukturen anhand von EEG-Signalen herangezogen, so besteht die Möglichkeit festzustellen, ob das gefundene Netzwerk lokale Aktivität aufweist. Die von Chua eingeführte Theorie der lokalen Aktivität Chua (1998); Dogaru und Chua (1998) liefert eine notwendige Bedingung für das Auftreten von emergentem Verhalten in zellularen Netzwerken. Änderungen in den Parametern bestimmter RD-CNN könnten auf bevorstehende epileptische Anfälle hinweisen. In diesem Beitrag steht die Identifikation neuronaler Strukturen anhand von EEG-Signalen durch Reaktions-Diffusions-Netzwerke im Vordergrund der dargestellten Untersuchungen. In der Ergebnisdiskussion wird insbesondere auch die Frage nach einer geeigneten Netzwerkstruktur mit minimaler Komplexität behandelt.

  9. Evaluation of a self-rating screening test for areca quid abusers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, M-J; Yang, Y-H; Shieh, T-Y

    2002-07-01

    Areca quid chewing is a popular habit and areca is a well-known ethnopsychopharmalogic agent in southeast Asia. While the chewing habit is legal and also socially acceptable in many places of Taiwan, the public health problem of high oral cancer incidence has remained a priority on the health care list in our local health department. Helping areca quid chewers to reduce or even stop the habit will be paramount in the oral cancer prevention programme. Hence, in order to identify the appropriate strategy for stopping the chewing habit, it is important to distinguish whether an areca quid chewer has reached the level of substance abuse.In accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental disorder (fourth edition, DSM-IV), we developed a specific self-report questionnaire modified from the famous SCAN system, DSM-IV and ICD-10. The initial screening test for areca quid abusers had 52 questions. Its components included the onset age and frequency, subjective craving and feeling, social problems, physical problems, oral symptoms, psychological and abstinence-related problems, the motivation and capacity to abstain, and demographic data. The answers were divided into 'Yes' or 'No'. One hundred and twenty-five areca quid users (53 men, 72 women) were recruited. The abusers tended to have older age, less education, and higher daily consumption of areca quid. There were no differences on motivation to quit chewing (abstinence) between abusers and non-abusers. There were no statistical differences on tobacco-smoking and alcohol-drinking behavior. Based on the statistical analysis of receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves, 11 questions were chosen for the Self-report Screening Test for Areca quid Abuser (SSTAA). An areca quid chewer's answers with a score of 4 or more in these 11 questions would be considered an areca quid abuser. The modified process of SSTAA is performed for the evaluation of the native culture-related substance user. At this current

  10. Unfälle mit Pkw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burg, Heinz

    Der Verkehrsunfall ereignete sich innerorts auf einer Kreuzung mit rechts vor links Regelung. Es galt dort die allgemeine Geschwindigkeitsbegrenzung auf 50 km/h. Zur Unfallzeit war es hell und trocken. Die Fahrbahn hatte eine Schwarzdecke.

  11. Workstation-assisted education at MIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champine, George A.

    1992-06-01

    MIT launched a major new initiative called Project Athena in 1983 to improve the quality of education through the introduction of a high-quality computing infrastructure throughout the campus. Implementation of the Project Athena computing environment required eight years, cost about 100 million, and was sponsored by Digital Equipment and IBM in addition to MIT. The Athena computing environment is based almost entirely on workstations from these two vendors using the Unix operating system. Project Athena is now complete. The resulting computer system has been turned over to the campus computing organization for ongoing operation and maintenance. The computing environment available at MIT for education has been significantly improved. Students are graduating today that have never known life at MIT without the ubiquitous availability of high-quality computing. This article provides an overview of the initial objectives and strategies of Project Athena at MIT relative to its educational use. The specific strategies that MIT employed in the use of work-stations in educational are then described. These strategies are contrasted with other available strategies. Specific examples of the use of workstations are presented. An important element in current and future education delivery is multimedia. Athena in conjunction with the MIT Media Lab has one of the largest efforts in multimedia development of any of the universities, and MIT is using multimedia in education on a daily basis. A new laboratory, the Center for Educational Computing Initiatives, has been established with a major focus on multimedia. Finally the lessons learned from Athena relative to its primary objective — that of improving education — are reviewed.

  12. Photovoltaik Hybrid-Solarzellen mit Nanopartikeln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leute, Angelika

    2004-09-01

    Die organische Photovoltaik auf der Basis halbleitender Polymere bietet eine kostengünstige Alternative zu Solarzellen aus Silizium. Allerdings weisen die organischen Materialien relativ schlechte Ladungstransporteigenschaften auf. Hybrid-Solarzellen, in denen Polymere mit geeigneten anorganischen Halbleitern kombiniert sind, besitzen einerseits die praktischen Vorteile der Organik und andererseits die hohe Elektronenbeweglichkeit der anorganischen Materialien. Wissenschaftler der Technischen Universität Eindhoven haben kürzlich Hybrid-Solarzellen vorgestellt, die aus einem halbleitenden Polymer mit Zinkoxid-Nanopartikeln bestehen.

  13. Development of an electrical conductivity screening test for mine waste assessments.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Warner, Richard C; Honaker, Rick Q

    2016-10-01

    An environmental concern at mining operations is the potential leaching of trace elements from overburden and byproduct streams of processing plants. To provide a timely assessment of this concern, electrical conductivity of the leachate emanating from the plant waste streams can be measured as an indicator of the trace element content levels using the USGS Field Leach Test (FLT). However, the research reported in this publication revealed the need to modify the FLT procedure to improve the precision of the test results. The primary issue involved the importance of leachant volume-to-particle surface area ratio in the assessment of the leaching potential for a given source. To determine the key factors impacting leachability of a given material, a statistically-designed parametric study was performed. The experimental program evaluated the effects of particle surface area, the leachant volume-to-surface area ratio, and the amount of oxidant used to expedite the leaching rate during the test. The results revealed that the significant parameters are leachant volume-to-solid surface area ratio and the amount of oxidant. The findings were used to recommend a modification to the conductivity screening test.

  14. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  15. Proposal for a screening test to evaluate the fate of organic micropollutants in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Roberta; Vismara, Renato; Dal Ben, Ilaria; Gorla, Elena; Romele, Laura

    2011-04-01

    The concentrations of organic micropollutants are usually low in wastewaters (order of magnitude of mg L(-1)). However, their emission standards, especially in the case of carcinogenic and bioaccumulating substances, are often much lower (order of magnitude of microg L(-1)). Since these substances, in some cases, can be adsorbable or volatile, their removal via volatilization, biodegradation or sludge adsorption in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) becomes a significant feature to include in the usual design process, in order to verify the emission standards in gas and sludge too. In this study a simple screening batch test for the evaluation of the fate of organic micropollutants in water, air and sludge is presented. The test is set up by means of simple laboratory instruments and simulates an activated sludge tank process. In this study the results obtained for four substances with different chemical properties (i.e. toluene, benz(a)anthracene, phenol and benzene) are presented. The screening test proposed can be a useful tool to assess in about one month the fate of organic micropollutants in an activated sludge tank of a WWTP. Moreover, the test can constitute a useful support in the use of mathematical models, since it allows the verification of model results and the calibration of the reactions involved in the removal process. PMID:21877546

  16. Properties of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) in the general population.

    PubMed

    Legleye, Stéphane; Guignard, Romain; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Ludwig, Kraus; Pabst, Alexander; Beck, François

    2015-06-01

    This paper explores the DSM-IV latent structure of cannabis users (especially its invariance towards gender and age) and assesses the psychometric properties of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) by confrontation with the theoretical diagnoses [dependence and cannabis use disorders (CUD)] and the latent class structure of the DSM-IV. The random sample comprised 550 French cannabis smokers aged 15-62 years interviewed by telephone. DSM-IV diagnoses were assessed with the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Internal structures of both instruments were assessed using factor analysis and latent class analysis. Optimal CAST cutoffs were determined by sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). CAST and DSM-IV were unidimensional (Cronbach's α = 0.742 and 0.752, respectively), although a two-factor solution showed a better fit for the CAST. CAST cutoffs for screening CUD and dependence were three (AUC = 0.851) and five (AUC = 0.868), respectively. DSM-IV latent class structure varied only marginally in age and gender. Three classes of cannabis smokers were determined, ordered along a continuum of symptoms: non-symptomatic (61.1%), moderate (32.9%) and severe (6.0%). CAST cutoff scores for screening moderate/severe and severe were, respectively, three (AUC = 0.869) and eight (AUC = 0.952). Results are compared to those obtained in previous CAST studies and discussed in line with the DSM-5.

  17. Neither One-Time Negative Screening Tests nor Negative Colposcopy Provides Absolute Reassurance against Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Philip E.; Rodríguez, Ana C.; Burk, Robert D.; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Solomon, Diane; Sherman, Mark E.; Jeronimo, Jose; Alfaro, Mario; Morales, Jorge; Guillén, Diego; Hutchinson, Martha L.; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiffman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A population sample of 10,049 women living in Guanacaste, Costa Rica was recruited into a natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia study in 1993–4. At the enrollment visit, we applied multiple state-of-the-art cervical cancer screening methods to detect prevalent cervical cancer and to prevent subsequent cervical cancers by the timely detection and treatment of precancerous lesions. Women were screened at enrollment with 3 kinds of cytology (often reviewed by more than one pathologist), visual inspection, and Cervicography. Any positive screening test led to colposcopic referral and biopsy and/or excisional treatment of CIN2 or worse. We retrospectively tested stored specimens with an early HPV test (Hybrid Capture Tube Test) and for >40 HPV genotypes using a research PCR assay. We followed women typically 5–7 years and some up to 11 years. Nonetheless, sixteen cases of invasive cervical cancer were diagnosed during follow-up. Six cancer cases were failures at enrollment to detect abnormalities by cytology screening; three of the six were also negative at enrollment by sensitive HPV DNA testing. Seven cancers represent failures of colposcopy to diagnose cancer or a precancerous lesion in screen-positive women. Finally, three cases arose despite attempted excisional treatment of precancerous lesions. Based on this evidence, we suggest that no current secondary cervical cancer prevention technologies applied once in a previously under-screened population is likely to be 100% efficacious in preventing incident diagnoses of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:19569231

  18. Elicited imitation and the Oral Language Sentence Imitation Screening Test (OLSIST): content or context?

    PubMed

    Weber-Olsen, M; Putnam-Sims, P; Gannon, J D

    1983-11-01

    Ten language-normal children, aged 2:1-3:3 (yrs:mos), and eight language-impaired children, 3:7-4:1, in Brown's (1973) Stages II or III received two subtests of the Oral Language Sentence Imitation Screening Test (OLSIST: Zachman, Huisingh, Jorgenson, & Barrett, 1978) in a contextually supported condition and in a standardized test condition. Also, children's generation of eight grammatical morphemes in a spontaneous language sample condition was compared to their imitative control of the same structures on the OLSIST. Results indicated significantly enhanced imitative performance for the language-impaired children but not for the language-normal children in the contextually cued condition. Stage III language-normal children earned significantly better imitative scores than language-impaired subjects and Stage II language-normal children, regardless of test condition, although OLSIST subtests did not differentiate performance of any group. With only one exception, morpheme difficulty orders on the OLSIST did not predict morpheme orders in spontaneous language samples. Presence of cues, moreover, did not significantly increase the OLSIST's predictive ability. With the exception of Stage III language-normal subjects, all children displayed greater productive control of most morphemes in their spontaneous speech. Conclusions were drawn relative to the clinical significance of contextual reliance as well as alternatives to imitation testing for estimating the grammatical skills of the language-impaired child. PMID:6645431

  19. [Validity evidence of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in Chile].

    PubMed

    Soto-Brandt, Gonzalo; Portilla Huidobro, Rodrigo; Huepe Artigas, David; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro; Escobar, María Josefina; Salas Guzmán, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Ibáñez, Agustín; Martínez Guzmán, Claudio; Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to psychometrically validate the Chilean version of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test ASSIST. Specifically, this study is interested in evaluating the reliability, consistency and concurrent and discriminant validity of this instrument. The sample was composed for a total of 400 people from four different settings: treatment centers (residential and ambulatories), primary health care, police stations and companies. The reliability of the ASSIST was high (α = .86 for Alcohol, α = .84 for marijuana and α = .90 for cocaine). The intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) with test-retest comparison was statistically significant for Alcohol (ICC = .66), marijuana (ICC = .74) and cocaine (ICC = .80). There were statistically significant correlations between the ASSIST and the AUDIT score (Pearson’s r = .85), the ASSIST and the ASI-Lite score (r between .66 and .83 for tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine), and the ASSIST and the SDS score (r = .65). The original cutoff point for high risk detection was 27 points, however, in order to have a better balance between sensitivity and specificity the cut was changed to 21 points. The ASSIST presents good psychometric properties and therefore is a reliable and valid instrument to be used as a mechanism to detect risk levels of substance use in the Chilean population.

  20. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis.

    PubMed

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-07-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive samples, 704 fresh syphilis-negative samples, 48 preselected potentially interfering samples, and 30 "borderline" samples and was compared head to head with the commercially available Lumipulse G TP-N. In this study, the HISCL anti-TP assay was in perfect agreement with the applied testing algorithms with an overall agreement of 100%, comparable to that of Lumipulse G TP-N (99.63%). The sensitivity and specificity of the HISCL anti-TP assay were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.42% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.37% to 100%), respectively. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its favorable sensitivity and specificity, the HISCL anti-TP assay may represent a new choice for syphilis screening in high-volume laboratories.

  1. Horizontal lang two-pencil test as a screening test for stereopsis and binocularity

    PubMed Central

    Nongpiur, Monisha E; Sharma, Pradeep

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the horizontal Lang two-pencil test as a bedside test to detect gross stereopsis. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four strabismic subjects divided into two groups based on the amount of deviation, and 40 normal subjects were studied. Sensory status examination including binocularity and stereopsis were evaluated with Bagolini, Titmus test and the Netherlands organisation for applied scientific research (TNO), Randot, synoptophore and horizontal Lang two-pencil test. Results: The subjects in the group with smaller deviation showed better performance on all the four stereo tests and over 90% demonstrated presence of fusion. When compared to TNO and Randot for determining presence of stereopsis, the horizontal Lang two-pencil test demonstrated sensitivity of 100% and 83.9%, specificity of 77.8% and 73.7%, and negative predictive value of 100% and 100% respectively. It also showed 100% specificity as a test for binocularity when compared with the Bagolini striated glass test. Conclusion: Horizontal Lang two-pencil test, an easily performed test with a high sensitivity and negative predictive value can be used as a screening test to detect gross stereopsis and binocularity. PMID:20534917

  2. Postage stamp-sized array sensor for the sensitive screening test of heavy-metal ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Xiao; Li, Hui; Song, Ming; Feng, Liang; Guan, Yafeng

    2014-10-01

    The sensitive determination of heavy-metal ions has been widely investigated in recent years due to their threat to the environment and to human health. Among various analytical detection techniques, inexpensive colorimetric testing papers/strips play a very important role. The limitation, however, is also clear: the sensitivity is usually low and the selectivity is poor. In this work, we have developed a postage stamp-sized array sensor composed of nine commercially available heterocyclic azo indicators. Combining filtration-based enrichment with an array of technologies-based pattern-recognition, we have obtained the discrimination capability for seven heavy-metal ions (Hg(2+), Pb(2+), Ag(+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Co(2+)) at their Chinese wastewater discharge standard concentrations. The allowable detection level of Hg(2+) was down to 0.05 mg L(-1). The heavy-metal ions screening test was readily achieved using a standard chemometric approach. And the array sensor applied well in real water samples.

  3. Short communication: Rapid antibiotic screening tests detect antibiotic residues in powdered milk products.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, J; Tsang, P C W; Townson, D H

    2010-09-01

    Rapid antibiotic screening tests are widely used in the dairy industry to monitor milk for the presence of antibiotic residues above regulated levels. Given the persistent concern over contamination of milk products with antibiotic residues, we investigated the utility of IDEXX Snap test devices (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, ME) as tools for detecting antibiotic residues in powdered milk products. Five powdered milk products were reconstituted according to manufacturer specification with distilled water: Carnation (Nestlé USA Inc., Solon, OH), Nido youth and Nido adult (Nestlé Mexico Inc., Mexico City, Mexico), ELK (Campina, Eindhoven, the Netherlands), and Regilait (Saint-Martin-Belle-Roche, France). Positive samples were generated by spiking reconstituted milk with penicillin G, cephapirin, or tetracycline to either the European Union-regulated maximum residue limit or the FDA-regulated safe/tolerance level, whichever was lower. Control, unspiked negative milk samples and positive samples were tested with appropriate IDEXX Snap test kits (penicillin G and cephapirin with New Beta-Lactam, tetracycline with New Tetracycline). All samples yielded definitive results consistent with expectations, and there were no instances of false-positive or false-negative readings. These results suggest that both the New Beta-Lactam and New Tetracycline IDEXX Snap test kits effectively detect antibiotic residues in commercially available powdered milk samples and are useful tools for monitoring antibiotic residues in reconstituted powdered milk products. PMID:20723670

  4. Thallium scintigraphy during dobutamine infusion: nonexercise-dependent screening test for coronary disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.R.; Palac, R.T.; Freeman, M.L.; Virupannavar, S.; Loeb, H.S.; Kaplan, E.; Gunnar, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    Exercise thallium scintigraphy has proven to be a sensitive method for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD). However, early redistribution of thallium and inadequate exercise can reduce its sensitivity. In this study, dobutamine was infused in incremental doses (5, 10, 15, and 20 micrograms/kg/min) in 24 patients being evaluated for chest pain. Thallium scintigraphy was completed during the maximum dose of dobutamine tolerated and repeated 4 hours later. Significant CAD was present in 16 patients; the remaining eight had normal coronaries. Exercise ECG was obtained in 23 patients. During dobutamine thallium scintigraphy, reversible perfusion defects occurred in 15 of 16 CAD and in one of eight non-CAD patients, resulting in a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 87%. Exercise ECG had a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 63%. We conclude that: (1) dobutamine thallium scintigraphy appears to be a sensitive method for detecting significant CAD and provided a more sensitive screening test than exercise ECG; (2) dobutamine thallium scintigraphy is especially useful in patients who cannot exercise; and (3) because imaging occurs during dobutamine infusion, the problem of early redistribution may be mitigated.

  5. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population. PMID:26990386

  6. Postage stamp-sized array sensor for the sensitive screening test of heavy-metal ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Xiao; Li, Hui; Song, Ming; Feng, Liang; Guan, Yafeng

    2014-10-01

    The sensitive determination of heavy-metal ions has been widely investigated in recent years due to their threat to the environment and to human health. Among various analytical detection techniques, inexpensive colorimetric testing papers/strips play a very important role. The limitation, however, is also clear: the sensitivity is usually low and the selectivity is poor. In this work, we have developed a postage stamp-sized array sensor composed of nine commercially available heterocyclic azo indicators. Combining filtration-based enrichment with an array of technologies-based pattern-recognition, we have obtained the discrimination capability for seven heavy-metal ions (Hg(2+), Pb(2+), Ag(+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Co(2+)) at their Chinese wastewater discharge standard concentrations. The allowable detection level of Hg(2+) was down to 0.05 mg L(-1). The heavy-metal ions screening test was readily achieved using a standard chemometric approach. And the array sensor applied well in real water samples. PMID:25068762

  7. Development of an electrical conductivity screening test for mine waste assessments.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Warner, Richard C; Honaker, Rick Q

    2016-10-01

    An environmental concern at mining operations is the potential leaching of trace elements from overburden and byproduct streams of processing plants. To provide a timely assessment of this concern, electrical conductivity of the leachate emanating from the plant waste streams can be measured as an indicator of the trace element content levels using the USGS Field Leach Test (FLT). However, the research reported in this publication revealed the need to modify the FLT procedure to improve the precision of the test results. The primary issue involved the importance of leachant volume-to-particle surface area ratio in the assessment of the leaching potential for a given source. To determine the key factors impacting leachability of a given material, a statistically-designed parametric study was performed. The experimental program evaluated the effects of particle surface area, the leachant volume-to-surface area ratio, and the amount of oxidant used to expedite the leaching rate during the test. The results revealed that the significant parameters are leachant volume-to-solid surface area ratio and the amount of oxidant. The findings were used to recommend a modification to the conductivity screening test. PMID:27351901

  8. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive samples, 704 fresh syphilis-negative samples, 48 preselected potentially interfering samples, and 30 “borderline” samples and was compared head to head with the commercially available Lumipulse G TP-N. In this study, the HISCL anti-TP assay was in perfect agreement with the applied testing algorithms with an overall agreement of 100%, comparable to that of Lumipulse G TP-N (99.63%). The sensitivity and specificity of the HISCL anti-TP assay were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.42% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.37% to 100%), respectively. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its favorable sensitivity and specificity, the HISCL anti-TP assay may represent a new choice for syphilis screening in high-volume laboratories. PMID:25972403

  9. New Screening Test Developed for the Blanching Resistance of Copper Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's extensive efforts towards more efficient, safer, and more affordable space transportation include the development of new thrust-cell liner materials with improved capabilities and longer lives. For rocket engines fueled with liquid hydrogen, an important metric of liner performance is resistance to blanching, a phenomenon of localized wastage by cycles of oxidation-reduction due to local imbalance in the oxygen-fuel ratio. The current liner of the Space Shuttle Main Engine combustion chamber, a Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr alloy (NARloy-Z) is degraded in service by blanching. Heretofore, evaluating a liner material for blanching resistance involved elaborate and expensive hot-fire tests performed on rocket test stands. To simplify that evaluation, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center developed a screening test that uses simple, in situ oxidation-reduction cycling in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The principle behind this test is that resistance to oxidation or to the reduction of oxide, or both, implies resistance to blanching. Using this test as a preliminary tool to screen alloys for blanching resistance can improve reliability and save time and money. In this test a small polished coupon is hung in a TGA furnace at the desired (service) temperature. Oxidizing and reducing gases are introduced cyclically, in programmed amounts. Cycle durations are chosen by calibration, such that all copper oxides formed by oxidation are fully reduced in the next reduction interval. The sample weight is continuously acquired by the TGA as usual.

  10. Echtzeit-Ultraschallsimulation auf Grafik-Prozessoren mit CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Tobias; Passenger, Josh; Acosta, Oscar; Salvado, Olivier

    Trotz der zunehmenden Verbreitung jüngerer bildgebender Verfahren bleibt medizinischer Ultraschall (US) weiterhin ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel bei chirurgischen Eingriffen und der klinischen Diagnose. Viele US-gestützte medizinische Prozeduren erfordern allerdings ausgiebiges Training, so dass es wünschenswert ist, eine realistische Simulation von US-Bildern zur Verfügung zu stellen. Im Gegensatz zu früheren Ansätzen simulieren wir solche Bilder auf der "Graphics Processing Unit“. Wir erweitern hierzu eine Methode, die von Wein et al. für die Abschätzung von US-Reflexionen aus Daten der Computertomographie (CT) vorgeschlagen wurde, zu einer leichter zu berechnenden Form. Zusätzlich schätzen wir die US-Absorption aus den CT-Daten ab. Mit Hilfe von NVIDIAs "Compute Unified Device Architecture“ (CUDA) simulieren wir Reflexion, Verschattung, Rauschen und radiale Unschärfe, ausgehend von unbearbeiteten CT-Daten in Echtzeit und ohne Vorausberechnung.

  11. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  12. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  13. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  14. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  15. The Screening Test for Emotional Problems--Teacher-Report Version (Step-T): Studies of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Butler, Caitlin; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Screening Test for Emotional Problems-Teacher Version (STEP-T) was designed to identify students aged 7-17 years with wide-ranging emotional disturbances. Coefficients alpha and test-retest reliability were adequate for all subscales except Anxiety. The hypothesized five-factor model fit the data very well and external aspects of validity were…

  16. Developmental Screenings in Rural Settings: A Comparison of the Child Development Review and the Denver II Developmental Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brachlow, Allison; Jordan, Augustus E.; Tervo, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Two developmental screening tests were applied to 73 children, aged 1 month-6.7 years, in Sioux Falls and the Cheyenne River Reservation (South Dakota). There were no racial differences; compared to urban children, rural reservation children of any race were more likely to pass the Child Development Review and to fail the Denver II Developmental…

  17. Test Review: Siegel, B. (2004). "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test--II (PDDST-II)." San Antonio, TX: Harcourt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Janine M.; Duncan, C. Randy; Francis, Garnett C.

    2007-01-01

    The "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test-II (PDDST-II)--Early Childhood Screener for Autistic Spectrum Disorders" is a clinical screening tool for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) designed for use by nonspecialist clinicians. It was designed to differentiate children as young as 18 months who…

  18. The Free-Running Asthma Screening Test: An Approach to Screening for Exercise-Induced Asthma in Rural Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaman, Doris J.; Estes, Jenny

    1997-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in rural elementary schools, examining the use of a free-running asthma screening test and peak expiratory flow-rate measurement for school screening. Results indicated that 5.7% of the students had EIA. Absenteeism and poverty were related to EIA. (SM)

  19. Comparison of three marine screening tests and four Oslo and Paris Commission procedures to evaluate toxicity of offshore chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Weideborg, M.; Vik, E.A.; Oefjord, G.D.; Kjoennoe, O.

    1997-02-01

    The results from the screening toxicity tests Artemia salina, Microtox{reg_sign}, and Mitochondria RET test were compared with those obtained from OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commissions)-authorized procedures for testing of offshore chemicals (Skeletonema costatum, Acartia tonsa, Abra alba, and Corophium volutator). In this study 82 test substances (26 non-water soluble) were included. The Microtox test was found to be the most sensitive of the three screening tests. Microtox and Mitochondria RET test results showed good correlation with results from Acartia and Skeletonema testing, and it was concluded that the Microtox test was a suitable screening test as a base for assessment of further testing, especially regarding water-soluble chemicals. Sensitivity of Artemia salina to the tested chemicals was too low for it to be an appropriate bioassay organism for screening testing. A very good correlation was found between the results obtained with the Skeletonema and Acartia tests. The results indicated no need for more than one of the Skeletonema or Acartia tests if the Skeletonema median effective concentration or Acartia median lethal concentration was greater than 200 mg/L. The sediment-reworker tests (A. Alba or C. volutator) for chemicals that are likely to end up in the sediments (non-water soluble or surfactants) should be performed, independent of results from screening tests and other OSPAR species.

  20. The Slingerland Screening Tests for Identifying Children with Specific Language Disability: Screening for Learning Disabilities in First Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinero, Thomas E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The responses on the Slingerland Screening Tests for identifying children with specific learning disabilities of 29 learning disabled and 11 nondisabled children in Grade 1 distinguished the two groups, except for copying (near vision). Copying (far vision) and auditory, visual, and kinesthetic perception and discrimination together were the…

  1. Recommendations for a step‐wise comparative approach to the evaluation of new screening tests for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Senore, Carlo; Mandel, Jack S.; Allison, James E.; Atkin, Wendy S.; Benamouzig, Robert; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Silva, Mahinda De; Guittet, Lydia; Halloran, Stephen P.; Haug, Ulrike; Hoff, Geir; Itzkowitz, Steven H.; Leja, Marcis; Levin, Bernard; Meijer, Gerrit A.; O'Morain, Colm A.; Parry, Susan; Rabeneck, Linda; Rozen, Paul; Saito, Hiroshi; Schoen, Robert E.; Seaman, Helen E.; Steele, Robert J. C.; Sung, Joseph J. Y.; Winawer, Sidney J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND New screening tests for colorectal cancer continue to emerge, but the evidence needed to justify their adoption in screening programs remains uncertain. METHODS A review of the literature and a consensus approach by experts was undertaken to provide practical guidance on how to compare new screening tests with proven screening tests. RESULTS Findings and recommendations from the review included the following: Adoption of a new screening test requires evidence of effectiveness relative to a proven comparator test. Clinical accuracy supported by programmatic population evaluation in the screening context on an intention‐to‐screen basis, including acceptability, is essential. Cancer‐specific mortality is not essential as an endpoint provided that the mortality benefit of the comparator has been demonstrated and that the biologic basis of detection is similar. Effectiveness of the guaiac‐based fecal occult blood test provides the minimum standard to be achieved by a new test. A 4‐phase evaluation is recommended. An initial retrospective evaluation in cancer cases and controls (Phase 1) is followed by a prospective evaluation of performance across the continuum of neoplastic lesions (Phase 2). Phase 3 follows the demonstration of adequate accuracy in these 2 prescreening phases and addresses programmatic outcomes at 1 screening round on an intention‐to‐screen basis. Phase 4 involves more comprehensive evaluation of ongoing screening over multiple rounds. Key information is provided from the following parameters: the test positivity rate in a screening population, the true‐positive and false‐positive rates, and the number needed to colonoscope to detect a target lesion. CONCLUSIONS New screening tests can be evaluated efficiently by this stepwise comparative approach. Cancer 2016;122:826–39. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. PMID:26828588

  2. Polar bear maternity denning in the Beaufort Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, S.; Gardner, C.

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) is circumpolar in the NOrthern Hemisphere, but known locations of maternal dens are concentrated in relatively few, widely scattered locations. Denning is either uncommon or unknown within gaps. To understand effects of industrial development and propose increases in hunting, the temporal and spatial distribution of denning in the Beaufort Sea must be known. We caputred and radiocollared polar bears between 1981 and 1991 and determined tht denning in the Beaufort Sea region was sufficient to account for the estimated population there. Of 90 dend, 48 were on drifting pack ice, 38 on land, and 4 on land-fast ice. The portions of dens on land was higher (P= 0.029) in later compared with earlier years of the study. Bears denning on pack ice drifting as far as 997 km (x=385km) while in dens. there was no difference in cun production by bears denning on land and pack ice (P =0.66). Mean entry and exit dates were 11 November and 5 April for land dens and 22 November and 26 March for pack-ice dens. Female polar bears captured in the Beaufort Sea appeared to be isolated from those caught eat of Cape Bathurst in Canada. Of 35 polar bears that denned along the mainland coast of Alaska and Canada 80% denned between 137 00'W snf 146 59'W. Bears followed to >1 den did not reuse sites and consecutive dens were 20-1,304 km apart. However radio-collared bears are largely faithful to substrate (pack-ice, land, and land-fast ice) and the general geographic area of previous dens. Bears denning on land may be vunerable to human activities such as hunting and industrial development. However, predictable denning chronology and alck of site fidelity indicate that many potential impacts on denning polar bears could be mitigated.

  3. Dragons' Den: promoting healthcare research and innovation.

    PubMed

    Mazhindu, Deborah; Gregory, Siobhan

    2015-07-01

    The changing health and social care landscape, and, in particular, the financial challenges affecting the NHS, can present difficulties for staff looking for funding to support innovation and new ways of working. One method of competitive tendering that is becoming more accepted as a way of allocating funds, encouraging staff engagement and developing innovation for research is a format based the BBC television series, Dragons' Den. This article describes how Hounslow and Richmond Community Healthcare NHS Trust, London, has developed a 'Dragons' Den initiative' of annual competitive research funding allocation to ensure that some of the most dynamic practice in the trust is captured. PMID:26135194

  4. Predictive value of specific ultrasound findings when used as a screening test for abnormalities on VCUG

    PubMed Central

    Logvinenko, Tanya; Chow, Jeanne S.; Nelson, Caleb P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Renal and bladder ultrasound (RBUS) is often used as an initial screening test for children after urinary tract infection (UTI). The 2011 AAP guidelines specifically recommend that RBUS be performed first, with voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) to be performed only if the ultrasound is abnormal. While prior research has suggested that RBUS is neither sensitive nor specific for VCUG findings, such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), it is uncertain as to whether specific RBUS findings, alone or in combination, might make RBUS more useful as a predictor of VCUG abnormalities. Aims To evaluate the association of specific RBUS with VCUG findings, and determine whether predictive models that accurately predict patients at high risk of VCUG abnormalities, based on RBUS findings, can be constructed. Methods and study sample A total of 3995 patients were identified with VCUG and RBUS performed on the same day. The RBUS and VCUG reports were reviewed and the findings were classified. Analysis was limited to patients aged 0–60 months with no prior postnatal genitourinary imaging and no history of prenatal hydronephrosis. Analysis The associations between large numbers of specific RBUS findings with abnormalities seen on VCUG were investigated. Both multivariate logistic models and a neural network machine learning algorithms were constructed to evaluate the predictive power of RBUS for VCUG abnormalities (including VUR or bladder/urethral findings). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and area under receiving operating curves (AUROC) of RBUS for VCUG abnormalities were determined. Results A total of 2259 patients with UTI as the indication for imaging were identified. The RBUS was reported as “normal” in 75.0%. On VCUG, any VUR was identified in 41.7%, VUR grade >II in 20.9%, and VUR grade >III in 2.8%. Many individual RBUS findings were significantly associated with VUR on VCUG. Despite these strong univariate associations, multivariate modeling

  5. Ultrasound as a Screening Test for Genitourinary Anomalies in Children With UTI

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Emilie K.; Logvinenko, Tanya; Chow, Jeanne S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines state that renal and bladder ultrasound (RBUS) should be performed after initial febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in a young child, with voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) performed only if RBUS shows abnormalities. We sought to determine test characteristics and predictive values of RBUS for VCUG findings in this setting. METHODS: We analyzed 3995 clinical encounters from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010 during which VCUG and RBUS were performed for history of UTI. Patients who had previous postnatal genitourinary imaging or history of prenatal hydronephrosis were excluded. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of RBUS for VCUG abnormalities were determined. RESULTS: We identified 2259 patients age <60 months who had UTI as the indication for imaging. RBUS was reported as “normal” in 75%. On VCUG, any vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was identified in 41.7%, VUR grade >II in 20.9%, and VUR grade >III in 2.8%. Sensitivity of RBUS for any abnormal findings on VCUG ranged from 5% (specificity: 97%) to 28% (specificity: 77%). Sensitivity for VUR grade >III ranged from 18% (specificity: 97%) to 55% (specificity: 77%). Among the 1203 children aged 2 to 24 months imaged after a first febrile UTI, positive predictive value of RBUS was 37% to 47% for VUR grade >II (13% to 24% for VUR grade >III); negative predictive value was 72% to 74% for VUR grade >II (95% to 96% for VUR grade >III). CONCLUSIONS: RBUS is a poor screening test for genitourinary abnormalities. RBUS and VCUG should be considered complementary as they provide important, but different, information. PMID:24515519

  6. Brazilian Portuguese adaptation of Dyslexia Early Screening Test - Second edition: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Matta, Tatiana Ribeiro Gomes da; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of language skills in early childhood can provide important information about the future of literacy and academic performances. Children with reading difficulties should be identified early in their education, before they suffer from shortcomings and experience failures and feel discouraged at school. Considering the importance of early identification of language disorders and the shortage of standardized instruments for the Brazilian scenario, the overall objective of this study was to translate and adapt the Dyslexia Early Screening Test - Second Edition (DEST-2) to, subsequently, verify its applicability and efficacy in preschoolers who had Brazilian Portuguese as their native language. The study was composed of 20 children of both genders, regularly enrolled in a public school in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, none had any complaints related to learning and no indicators of sensory, neurological, cognitive, or behavioral disorders. It was observed that there was no need for significant changes to the original structure of the DEST-2 or in their administration instructions format. The performance of the children in the translated and in the national exams that were used as a benchmark was compatible, suggesting that the adjustments made met the equivalences needed to utilize this instrument with Brazilian children. A randomized study that will complement the preliminarily data obtained is in progress. Taking into consideration the linguistic and cultural diversity of Brazil, it is imperative that the translated version of the DEST-2 can be applied on a large scale and in several states of the country, in order to allow the use of this instrument as a language assessment tool in Brazil.

  7. Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.

    1993-06-01

    Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW{sub t} reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz-lamp-heated boilers to screen candidate boiling-stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750{degree}C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot-press-sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric-discharge-machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

  8. Reliability of SleepStrip as a screening test in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    PubMed

    Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Yılmaz, Metin; Tutar, Hakan; Aydil, Utku; Kızıl, Yusuf; Damar, Murat; Kemaloğlu, Yusuf K

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common sleep disorder and related to multiple conditions that cause mortality in adults. In the present study, reliability of SleepStrip, a disposable screening device for detection of OSAS, is tested. In this prospective, nonrandomized double-blinded single cohort study at an academic health center, the performance of the SleepStrip in detecting respiratory events and establishing an SleepStrip score (Sscore) in domestic use were compared to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) obtained by the standard polysomnography (PSG) recordings in the sleep laboratory. Forty-one patients who have the PSG results participated the study and wore the SleepStrips at home. Test efficiency rate was 75% and there was a positive correlation between PSG-AHI scores and Sscores (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). However, diagnostic accuracy analysis showed that the correlation between Sscores and PSG-AHI scores were significant only at AHI > 30 levels. The SleepStrip has 100% specificity and positive predictive values, but it also has low negative predictive and sensitivity values. The SleepStrip is not a reliable screening test in differential diagnosis among simple snorers, mild, moderate and severe OSAS patients. However, high Sscores highly indicate the presence of moderate-severe OSAS. We can safely send these patients to split-night PSG and continuous, automatic, bi-level positive airway pressure (CPAP/BPAP/APAP) titration at the same night. The SleepStrip may increase the effective use of the sleep laboratories. PMID:24861563

  9. Economic Evaluations of Pharmacogenetic and Pharmacogenomic Screening Tests: A Systematic Review. Second Update of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wilffert, Bob; Boersma, Cornelis; Annemans, Lieven; Vegter, Stefan; van Boven, Job F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Due to extended application of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic screening (PGx) tests it is important to assess whether they provide good value for money. This review provides an update of the literature. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed and papers published between August 2010 and September 2014, investigating the cost-effectiveness of PGx screening tests, were included. Papers from 2000 until July 2010 were included via two previous systematic reviews. Studies’ overall quality was assessed with the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument. Results We found 38 studies, which combined with the previous 42 studies resulted in a total of 80 included studies. An average QHES score of 76 was found. Since 2010, more studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies. Most recent studies performed cost-utility analysis, univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and discussed limitations of their economic evaluations. Most studies indicated favorable cost-effectiveness. Majority of evaluations did not provide information regarding the intrinsic value of the PGx test. There were considerable differences in the costs for PGx testing. Reporting of the direction and magnitude of bias on the cost-effectiveness estimates as well as motivation for the chosen economic model and perspective were frequently missing. Conclusions Application of PGx tests was mostly found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy. We found that only the minority of recent pharmacoeconomic evaluations assessed the intrinsic value of the PGx tests. There was an increase in the number of studies and in the reporting of quality associated characteristics. To improve future evaluations, scenario analysis including a broad range of PGx tests costs and equal costs of comparator drugs to assess the intrinsic value of the PGx tests, are recommended. In addition, robust clinical evidence regarding PGx tests’ efficacy remains of utmost importance. PMID

  10. Brazilian Portuguese adaptation of Dyslexia Early Screening Test - Second edition: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Matta, Tatiana Ribeiro Gomes da; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of language skills in early childhood can provide important information about the future of literacy and academic performances. Children with reading difficulties should be identified early in their education, before they suffer from shortcomings and experience failures and feel discouraged at school. Considering the importance of early identification of language disorders and the shortage of standardized instruments for the Brazilian scenario, the overall objective of this study was to translate and adapt the Dyslexia Early Screening Test - Second Edition (DEST-2) to, subsequently, verify its applicability and efficacy in preschoolers who had Brazilian Portuguese as their native language. The study was composed of 20 children of both genders, regularly enrolled in a public school in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, none had any complaints related to learning and no indicators of sensory, neurological, cognitive, or behavioral disorders. It was observed that there was no need for significant changes to the original structure of the DEST-2 or in their administration instructions format. The performance of the children in the translated and in the national exams that were used as a benchmark was compatible, suggesting that the adjustments made met the equivalences needed to utilize this instrument with Brazilian children. A randomized study that will complement the preliminarily data obtained is in progress. Taking into consideration the linguistic and cultural diversity of Brazil, it is imperative that the translated version of the DEST-2 can be applied on a large scale and in several states of the country, in order to allow the use of this instrument as a language assessment tool in Brazil. PMID:26222949

  11. Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. B.; Moss, T. A.

    1993-06-01

    Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW(sub t) reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz lamp heated boilers to screen candidate boiling stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750 degree C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot press sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric discharge machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical, dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

  12. [Dens invaginatus--a challenge in endodontics].

    PubMed

    De Moor, Roeland

    2005-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a malformation of teeth probably due to infolding of the dental papilla during tooth development. A wide range of morphologic variations have been described. Both coronal and radicular invaginations have been demonstrated. Typical characteristics associated with the coronal invagination are the complex anatomy and the early pulp necrosis. The etiology, epidemiology, classification and therapeutic considerations are reviewed.

  13. A rare presentation of multiple dens invaginatus in maxillary dentition.

    PubMed

    Purani, Jigar M; Purani, Hiral J

    2014-08-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental disturbance of the tooth and usually occurs in the maxillary lateral incisor of permanent dentition. In this article, a rare case of dens invaginatus affecting multiple permanent maxillary teeth is described.

  14. 49 CFR 40.245 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? 40.245 Section 40.245 Transportation Office of the... Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.245 What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? (a) As the STT or BAT, you must take the following steps when using the...

  15. A novel screening test for detecting graft thrombosis after pancreatic transplantation using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with sonazoid.

    PubMed

    Ito, T; Kenmochi, T; Nishikawa, T; Maruyama, M; Kusaka, M; Sasaki, H; Asano, T; Matsubara, H; Hoshinaga, K

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic graft thrombosis is the primary cause of nonimmunologic graft loss, with an incidence ranging from 5% to 15%. Therefore, developing a screening test to detect graft thrombosis after pancreatic transplantation is important. We created a screening test to assess graft thrombosis after pancreatic transplantation using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid in addition to Doppler ultrasonography. A total of seven patients were examined using CEUS after undergoing pancreatic transplantation. All patients were observed to have a clear blood flow from the horizontal region to the peripheral region of the splenic vein in the pancreatic graft, and only one of the seven patients exhibited a blood flow in the horizontal portion of the splenic vein on Doppler ultrasonography performed immediately after pancreatic transplantation. Results from CEUS with Sonazoid showed the blood flow in the splenic vein and parenchyma of the pancreatic graft in detail, despite the slow and lateral blood flow in the splenic vein of the pancreatic graft immediately after transplantation.

  16. Universal screening test based on analysis of circulating organ-enriched microRNAs: a novel approach to diagnostic screening.

    PubMed

    Sheinerman, Kira S; Umansky, Samuil

    2015-03-01

    Early disease detection leads to more effective and cost-efficient treatment. It is especially important for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, because progression of these pathologies leads to significant and frequently irreversible changes in underlying pathophysiological processes. At the same time, the development of specific screening tests for detection of each of the hundreds of human pathologies in asymptomatic stage may be impractical. Here, we discuss a recently proposed concept: the development of minimally invasive Universal Screening Test (UST) based on analysis of organ-enriched microRNAs in plasma and other bodily fluids. The UST is designed to detect the presence of a pathology in particular organ systems, organs, tissues or cell types without diagnosing a specific disease. Once the pathology is detected, more specific, and if necessary invasive and expensive, tests can be administered to precisely define the nature of the disease. Here, we discuss recent studies and analyze the data supporting the UST approach.

  17. Application of land-use data and screening tests for evaluating pesticide runoff toxicity in surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcock, Robert J.

    1993-05-01

    Survey information on pesticide usage in New Zealand during 1985-1989 is summarized by regions and principal applications. Two screening tests, one based on a simple water-balance method and the other based on a semiempirical runoff formula, have been used to identify 18 pesticides with application rates that may yield runoff concentrations that are harmful to aquatic fauna. These are predominantly associated either with intensive applications in horticulture or extensive applications to cereal crops and pasture. The purpose of the screening tests was to calculate typical edge-of-field concentrations in runoff and, by comparing them with known aquatic toxicity values, determine which compounds are applied at rates that may yield toxic runoff. While it may be possible to extend these methods to calculate typical surface water concentrations, further studies will be needed to evaluate pesticide persistence and assimilation in stream channels.

  18. Two kinds of common prenatal screening tests for Down’s syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuan; Liao, Yang; Han, Mei; Li, Sheng-Lan; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    As the chromosomal examination of foetal cells for the prenatal diagnosis of Down’s syndrome (DS) carries a risk of inducing miscarriage, serum screening tests are commonly used before invasive procedures. In this study, a total of 374 records from PubMed, EMBASE, and the ISI Science Citation Index databases were reviewed. As a result of duplication, insufficient data, and inappropriate article types, 18 independent articles containing 183,998 samples were used in the final systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of the serum triple screening test (STS) and the integrated screening test (INS). Data extracted from the selected studies were statistically analysed, and the presence of heterogeneity and publication bias was assessed using specific software. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio, and the area under the curve for the STS were 0.77 (95% confidence interval = 0.73–0.81), 0.94 (0.94–0.94), 9.78 (6.87–13.93), 0.26 (0.22–0.31), 44.72 (30.77–65.01), and 0.9064, respectively. For the INS, these values were 0.93 (0.90–0.95), 0.93 (0.93–0.93), 22.38 (12.47–40.14), 0.08 (0.05–0.11), 289.81 (169.08–496.76), and 0.9781, respectively. These results indicate that the INS exhibits better diagnostic value for DS. However, further research is needed to identify other biomarkers to improve prenatal screening tests. PMID:26732706

  19. Evaluation of a urine on-site drugs of abuse screening test in patients admitted to a psychiatric emergency unit.

    PubMed

    Bagøien, Gunnhild; Morken, Gunnar; Zahlsen, Kolbjørn; Aamo, Trond; Spigset, Olav

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the usefulness and reliability of a commonly used urinary on-site drugs of abuse screening test device when used routinely at admittances to a psychiatric emergency unit. Urine samples from 262 emergency psychiatric admittances representing 217 patients were analyzed by a commercially available on-site test for the detection of amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates in urine. The samples were first screened by nurses at the psychiatric department, thereafter by 2 technicians at the laboratory, and finally, analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results of 45.8% of the screening tests were true negative for all 5 drugs/drug groups tested, whereas those of 29.4% were true positive for 1 or several drugs/drug groups and true negative for the others. Thus, in total, 75.2% were correct for all 5 drugs/drug groups. In general, the sensitivities (42.9%-90.0% for the various drug groups) were lower than the specificities (92.7%-100.0%). The accuracies were 86.3% for benzodiazepines, 92.4% for cannabis, 94.7% for opiates, and 97.0% for amphetamines. No cocaine was found in any of the samples. For cannabis, the accuracy was higher among the laboratory technicians than among the nurses. The results from on-site screening testing should not be considered as the final conclusion on the intake of drugs of abuse but must be interpreted with caution.

  20. Dens Evaginatus: A Problem-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ayer, A.; Vikram, M.; Suwal, P.

    2015-01-01

    Dens evaginatus is an uncommon developmental anomaly of human dentition characterized by the presence of tubercle on the occlusal surface of mandibular premolars and lingual surface of anterior teeth. Due to occlusal trauma this tubercle tends to fracture thus exposing the pathway to the pulp chamber of teeth. This case report is about the presentation of dens evaginatus in mandibular premolars bilaterally; among them tooth 44 was associated with chronic apical periodontitis. Fractured tubercle of three premolars was sealed with composite resin. Root canal treatment was performed with tooth 44. Routine endodontic treatment did not result in remission of infection. Therefore, culture and sensitivity tests were performed to identify the cause and modify treatment plan accordingly. Triple antibiotic paste was used as an intracanal medicament to disinfect the root canal that resulted in remission of infection. PMID:26779353

  1. Wrestling with Pedagogical Change: The TEAL Initiative at MIT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslow, Lori

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the physics department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) had a problem. The department was responsible for teaching the two required physics courses that are part of the General Institute Requirements (GIRs), MIT's core curriculum--Physics I (mechanics, or in MIT parlance, 8.01) and Physics II (electricity and…

  2. Spot urine cortisol–creatinine ratio – A useful screening test in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Nitin; Job, Victoria; Jayaseelan, L.; Rajaratnam, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Although, there are several tests available, not one of them fulfils the criteria of being an ideal screening test. Continuing the search for an ideal screening test, we explored the use of urine spot cortisol-creatinine ratio as a novel method of evaluating patients with Cushing's syndrome. Method: A total of 35 subjects were studied and divided into 3 groups - 15 having cushings syndrome, 15 patients with obesity and 5 normal weight subjects. All patients with cushings syndrome were positive for the other screening tests. Results: The mean (standard deviation) of cortisol:creatinine ratio among the 3 groups (cushings, obese and control subjects) was 36.00(24.74), 7.01(2.73) and 3.49(2.68) respectively. Using the cutoff of 12.27 nano mol/ micro mol(based on data of normal subjects) for the urine cortisol creatinine ratio we get a sensitivity of 93.75% and a specificity of 100%. Also the positive and negative predictive value as calculated with this cutoff is 100% and 93.3% respectively. Conclusion: In this study we found that UCCR is similar in both Obese and Non Obese subjects who did not have cushings syndrome. UCCR is significantly elevated in individuals with Cushing's syndrome as compared to those who do not have cushings syndrome. Also when a cut off of 12.27 nano mol/ micro mol was used this test had a higher sensitivity, however this test had a higher specificity at a cut off of 15.35. PMID:23565435

  3. Methodik der Erfassung und Bewertung von Biodiversitätsschäden aus ökologischer Sicht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegleb, Gerhard; Krawczynski, René; Wagner, Hans-Georg

    Mit der Verabschiedung des Umweltschadensgesetzes (USchadG) hat der Schutz der Biodiversität in Deutschland ein neues Stadium erreicht. Zum ersten Male wird selbst die Vermeidung und Restitution der nichtintendierten Schädigung der Biodiversität in Gestalt bestimmter Arten und Lebensräume in ein umfassendes Naturschutzkonzept einbezogen. Das USchadG geht damit über die bisherigen Ansätze zum Schutz der belebten Natur hinaus, da es gleichzeitig neben der Erhaltung eines als günstig erkannten Ist-Zustandes der Biodiversität der Vermeidung vorhersehbarer Schäden sowie auch der Restitution nach einem eingetretenen Schaden verpflichtet ist. Naturschutzsystematisch gehört es wegen der Betonung der Vermeidung und Sanierung zum Bereich des reaktiven Naturschutzes (Gefahrenabwehr und Gefahrenbeseitigung), dem auch die Eingriffsregelung des Bundesnaturschutzgesetzes (BNatSchG), die Umweltverträglichkeitsprüfung nach Umweltverträglichkeitsprüfungsgesetz (UVPG) sowie die FFH-Verträglichkeitsprüfung nach Fauna-Flora-Habitat-Richtlinie (FFH-RL) zuzurechnen sind. Stärker noch als in den genannten Regelungen tritt im USchadG das Verursacherprinzip gegenüber der allgemeinen Umweltvorsorge in den Vordergrund.

  4. Validation testing of shallow notched round-bar screening test specimens. [for the space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vroman, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    The capability of shallow-notched, round-bar, tensile specimens for screening critical environments as they affect the material fracture properties of the space shuttle main engine was tested and analyzed. Specimens containing a 0.050-inch-deep circumferential sharp notch were cyclically loaded in a 5000-psi hydrogen environment at temperatures of +70 and -15 F. Replication of test results and a marked change in cyclic life because of temperature variation demonstrated the validity of the specimen type to be utilized for screening tests.

  5. Abdichtungen im Verbund mit Fliesen und Platten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platts, Thomas

    Abdichtungen im Verbund mit Fliesen und Platten, im Folgenden auch als Verbundabdichtungen oder mit Kurzzeichen als AIV bezeichnet, haben sich in der Baupraxis insbesondere in Innenräumen wegen des vereinfachten konstruktiven Aufbaus gegenüber Bahnenabdichtungen nach DIN 18195-5 [14.1] in der Mehrzahl der Ausführungen durchgesetzt und bewährt. Sie können im Innen- und Außenbereich angeordnet werden und sind dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Nutzschicht in Boden- und Wandbereichen im Dünnbettverfahren unmittelbar auf die Abdichtung aufgebracht wird. Aufwändige Zwischenschichten oder Einbauteile wie armierter Putz, Telleranker etc. entfallen (Bild 14.1) und es lassen sich geringere Aufbauhöhen realisieren.

  6. Flight research with the MIT Daedalus prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussolari, Steven R.; Youngren, Harold H.; Langford, John S.

    1987-01-01

    The MIT Light Eagle human-powered aircraft underwent long-duration testing over Rogers Dry Lake in California during January, 1987. Designed as a prototype for the MIT Daedalus Project, the Light Eagle's forty-eight flights provided pilot training, established new distance records for human-powered flight, and provided quantitative data through a series of instrumented flight experiments. The experiments focused on: (1) evaluating physiological loads on the pilot, (2) determining airframe power requirements, and (3) developing an electronic flight control system. This paper discusses the flight test program, its results and their implications for the follow-on Daedalus aircraft, and the potential uses of the Light Eagle as a low Reynolds number testbed.

  7. Mishap Investigation Team (MIT) - Barksdale AFB, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniak, Philip

    2005-01-01

    The Shuttle Program is organized to support a Shuttle mishap using the resources of the MIT. The afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale AFB. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin Disaster Field Office (DFO). Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team executed a short-term plan that included search, recovery, and identification including coordination with the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Temporary operations was set up at Barksdale Air Force Base for two weeks. During this time, coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, AFIP personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. In addition, the crewmember families and NASA management were updated daily. The medical team also dealt with public reports and questions concerning biological and chemical hazards, which were coordinated with SPACEHAB, Inc., Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Medical Operations and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Space Medicine office. After operations at Barksdale were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term search, recovery and identification plan was developed.

  8. Use of a microchip flow-chamber system as a screening test for platelet storage pool disease.

    PubMed

    Minami, Hiroaki; Nogami, Keiji; Ogiwara, Kenichi; Furukawa, Shoko; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Shima, Midori

    2015-08-01

    Platelet storage pool disease (SPD) is a platelet function disorder characterized by a reduction in the number or content of α-granules, dense granules, or both, and is diagnosed by specialized tests. Patients with SPD often present with prolonged bleeding time (BT), but the sensitivity and reproducibility of this test have limitations, often resulting in false negatives. It has recently been reported that an automated microchip flow-chamber system (T-TAS(®)) is useful in the assessment of anti-platelet therapy, and could have potential as a screening test for SPD. We examined the utility of T-TAS in three individuals from one family diagnosed with δ-SPD. The propositus had a mildly prolonged BT, and the standard tests for platelet function were close to the normal range. Whole blood samples were anti-coagulated with hirudin and applied to T-TAS microchips coated with collagen (PL-chips) at shear rates of 1000 and 2000 s(-1). Platelet thrombus formation (PTF) was monitored with a pressure sensor. Markedly depressed PTF was observed in all cases at both shear rates. These findings indicate that T-TAS is highly sensitive to the defect in these patients with SPD, and may represent a good candidate screening test for a wide range of platelet function disorders. PMID:26072294

  9. Biological and analytical variations of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests and the activity of coagulation factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Shou, Weiling; Wu, Wei; Guo, Ye; Zhang, Yujuan; Huang, Chunmei; Cui, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To accurately estimate longitudinal changes in individuals, it is important to take into consideration the biological variability of the measurement. The few studies available on the biological variations of coagulation parameters are mostly outdated. We confirmed the published results using modern, fully automated methods. Furthermore, we added data for additional coagulation parameters. At 8:00 am, 12:00 pm, and 4:00 pm on days 1, 3, and 5, venous blood was collected from 31 healthy volunteers. A total of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests as well as the activity of coagulation factors were analyzed; these included prothrombin time, fibrinogen (Fbg), activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time activity, activated partial thromboplastin time ratio, fibrin(-ogen) degradation products, as well as the activity of factor II, factor V, factor VII, factor VIII, factor IX, and factor X. All intraindividual coefficients of variation (CVI) values for the parameters of the screening tests (except Fbg) were less than 5%. Conversely, the CVI values for the activity of coagulation factors were all greater than 5%. In addition, we calculated the reference change value to determine whether a significant difference exists between two test results from the same individual.

  10. Application of ICP-DRC-MS to screening test of strontium and plutonium in environmental samples at Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Sakama, M; Nagano, Y; Saze, T; Higaki, S; Kitade, T; Izawa, N; Shikino, O; Nakayama, S

    2013-11-01

    An application of sequential automated SPE separation equipment coupled to the quadrupole-based ICPMS instrumentation with a dynamic reaction cell such as a screening test system of (90)Sr and Pu isotopes in environmental samples was developed in this work. So far, during the course of a large number of reports as to various specific radioactivities in environmental samples surveyed at radioactive contaminated area around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FDNPP), there is a much smaller number of reports on (90)Sr and Pu isotopes than that of (134)Cs and (137)Cs since the FDNPP accident, and then it would be expected to develop the simple analysis method of these isotopes instead of radiation measurements currently in use. In particular, a screening for (90)Sr in environmental samples has been accomplished using an isotopic ratio measurement mode in comparison with the characterization on the Solid Phase Elution (SPE) separation between strontium and zirconium isotopes around the mass-90 fraction. As a result, for a trial analysis of environmental samples of a muddy snow water and a soil which were collected at Fukushima, it was found that the present developed system makes it applicable for achieving up to the specific activity levels of several hundreds Bq/kg ((90)Sr) and about 1-2Bq/kg (Pu isotopes) as the screening test system.

  11. Procurement and screening test data for advanced austenitic alloys for 650/degree/C steam service: Part 2, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.; Goodwin, G.M.; Maziasz, P.J.; Bolling, E.

    1988-08-01

    The results of screening tests on alloys from three compositional groups are summarized and compared to the alloy design and performance criteria identified as needed for austenitic alloys suitable as superheater/reheater tubing in advanced heat recovery systems. The three alloy groups included lean (nominally 14% Cr and 16% Ni) austenitic stainless steels that were modifications of type 316 stainless steel, 20Cr-30Ni-Fe alloys that were modifications of alloy 800H, and Ni-Cr aluminides, (Ni,Cr)/sub 3/Al. The screening tests covered fabricability, mechanical properties, weldability, and oxidation behavior. The lean stainless steels were found to possess excellent strength and ductility if cold-worked to an equivalent strain in the range 5 to 10% prior to testing. However, they possessed marginal weldability, poor oxidation resistance, and sensitivity to aging. The modified alloy 800H alloys also exhibited good strength and ductility in the cold-worked condition. The weldability was marginal, while the oxidation resistance was good. The aluminides were difficult to fabricate by methods typically used to produce superheater tubing alloys. The alloys that could be worked had marginal strength and ductility. An aluminide cast alloy, however, was found to be very strong and ductile. 23 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Effect of air flow and effect of fabric dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    One sample each of commercial polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams were evaluated using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method. Air flow rates of 0, 0.16, 16, and 48 ml/sec were used to determine the effect of air flow on relative toxicity. Time to first sign of incapacitation and time to death were substantially reduced with both polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams by the introduction of 16 to 48 ml/sec air flow. The relative toxicity rankings of these materials were not altered by changes in air flow. Under these test conditions, the polyurethane foam consistently appeared more toxic than the polychloroprene foam. Samples of six different colors from the same fabric were evaluated separately, using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method, to determine the effect of fabric dye, if any. The material was an upholstery fabric, consisting of 46 percent cotton, 33 percent wool, and 21 percent nylon. There appeared to be no significant effect of fabric dye on relative toxicity, for this material under these test conditions.

  13. Use of a microchip flow-chamber system as a screening test for platelet storage pool disease.

    PubMed

    Minami, Hiroaki; Nogami, Keiji; Ogiwara, Kenichi; Furukawa, Shoko; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Shima, Midori

    2015-08-01

    Platelet storage pool disease (SPD) is a platelet function disorder characterized by a reduction in the number or content of α-granules, dense granules, or both, and is diagnosed by specialized tests. Patients with SPD often present with prolonged bleeding time (BT), but the sensitivity and reproducibility of this test have limitations, often resulting in false negatives. It has recently been reported that an automated microchip flow-chamber system (T-TAS(®)) is useful in the assessment of anti-platelet therapy, and could have potential as a screening test for SPD. We examined the utility of T-TAS in three individuals from one family diagnosed with δ-SPD. The propositus had a mildly prolonged BT, and the standard tests for platelet function were close to the normal range. Whole blood samples were anti-coagulated with hirudin and applied to T-TAS microchips coated with collagen (PL-chips) at shear rates of 1000 and 2000 s(-1). Platelet thrombus formation (PTF) was monitored with a pressure sensor. Markedly depressed PTF was observed in all cases at both shear rates. These findings indicate that T-TAS is highly sensitive to the defect in these patients with SPD, and may represent a good candidate screening test for a wide range of platelet function disorders.

  14. Denning behaviour of non-gravid wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Phillips, M.K.; Smith, D.W.; Kreeger, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Wild wolves (Canis lupus) that had produced pups in earlier years but were not currently pregnant, and ovariectomized captive wolves, dug dens during and after the whelping season even though they produced no pups. These observations suggest that den digging is not a function of pregnancy or of ovarian estrogen or progesterone. We hypothesize that increasing prolactin in spring elicits or mediates den-digging behavior.

  15. Surgical Management of Periapical Lesion with Dens in Dente

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, MK; Asadullah, Md; Misra, SK

    2009-01-01

    The management of one case of dens in Dente (Dens invaginatus) in maxillary lateral incisor with history of trauma to maxillary central incisor with periradicular lesion is reported. The patient presented with pain and fracture of anterior tooth. Despite of complex anatomy and diagnosis of dens invaginatus, surgical root canal (Apicoectomy) was performed successfully. Further more essential clinical considerations and treatment options are suggested. Early diagnosis and management are important to avoid complications. PMID:25206098

  16. Umsetzung der Unternehmensstrategie mit der Balanced Scorecard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Isabel; Bergmann, Lars; Portmann, Stefan; Lacker, Thomas; Lacker, Michael; Fleischmann, Jürgen; Kozó, Hans

    Die Balanced Scorecard (BSC) ist ein Ansatz zum strategischen Management, der neben der Ausrichtung des Unternehmens auf finanzielle Zielwerte ebenso großes Gewicht auf so genannte weiche Faktoren legt, die den wirtschaftlichen Erfolg eines Unternehmens erst ermöglichen. Das entscheidende Merkmal der Balanced Scorecard ist dabei, dass sie ein ausgewogenes System strategischer Ziele herstellt, welches das Unternehmen hinsichtlich der vier Perspektiven Finanzen, Kunden, interne Prozesse und Mitarbeiter und Potenziale strategisch ausrichtet (Kaplan u. Norton 1997).

  17. Testen komplexer digitaler Schaltungen mit Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichör, S.; Hueber, G.; Hagelauer, R.; Lindorfer, M.

    2004-05-01

    Die Verifikation von digitalen Schaltungen nimmt heutzutage einen bedeutenden Stellenwert ein. In diesem Paper wird ein Weg beschrieben, der die Erstellung und Wartung von funktionalen Testbenches für digitale Designs unterstützt. Für viele Projekte übersteigt der zeitliche Aufwand für das Testen den Aufwand für die Implementierung der Schaltung. In vielen Fällen beträgt der Aufwand für das Testen bereits 70% des Entwicklungsaufwands (Bergeron, 2000). Typischerweise wird die Testbench auch in der gewählten Hardwarebeschreibungssprache (VHDL oder Verilog) implementiert. Diese Sprachen stellen jedoch nicht die beste Wahl für Verifikationsbelange dar. Gründe dafür sind darin zu suchen, dass diese Sprachen wichtige Konzepte aus den Softwaresprachen (wie z.B. Objektorientierung) nicht kennen. Weiters stehen komfortable Softwarebibliotheken (Zufallszahlengenerierung, Stringverarbeitung, etc.) den Hardwaresprachen nicht zur Verfügung. In diesem Paper wird der Einsatz der Programmiersprache Python (PythonHomepage, 2003; Beazley, 2001) für die Verifikation vorgeschlagen, um die benötigte Zeit für die Funktionalen Tests zu reduzieren.

  18. Entropy and time: A search for Denning's resting place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The interminable scientific literature reveals William Frederick Denning (1848-1931) as one of the great practitioners of meteor astronomy: he wrote widely on the subject and dedicated innumerable hours to his observations. But who was Denning? What can we learn of his life, living and death. Glimpses of Denning the man do exist, but he is largely a man of translucency and unknowns. The journey recounted here reflects upon a recent search for Denning's final resting place, but, once again, it is found that time and circumstance have erased virtually all of the physical history.

  19. A novel useful tool of computerized touch panel-type screening test for evaluating cognitive function of chronic ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Kentaro; Kono, Syoichiro; Deguchi, Shoko; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Kurata, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive and affective impairments are important non-motor features of ischemic stroke (IS) related to white-matter hyperintensity, including periventricular hyperintensity (PVH). To confirm the usefulness of a novel computerized touch panel-type screening test, we investigated cognitive and affective functioning among 142 IS patients and 105 age-and gender-matched normal control subjects. Assessment using the mini-mental state examination, Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, and frontal assessment battery revealed reduced cognitive function in IS patients, with the most severe reduction exhibited by cardiogenic embolism patients, followed by lacunar infarction patients, and atherothrombotic infarction patients. Our novel touch panel screening test revealed a similar pattern of results. In addition, PVH grading, classified using Fazekas' magnetic resonance imaging method, was also correlated with cognitive decline and touch panel screening test performance. In contrast, affective function, assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, vitality index, and apathy scale, was not significantly decreased in IS, and did not correlate with touch panel screening test results or PVH, although the number of microbleeds was correlated with apathy scale results. The present findings revealed that IS and PVH grading were significantly correlated with decline in general cognitive status (mini-mental state examination and Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised) and frontal lobe function (frontal assessment battery). Performance on all touch panel screening tests was correlated with IS and PVH grading, but was largely independent of depression or apathy. Touch panel screening tests were easily understood and performed by almost all patients with mild cognitive and motor dysfunction, due to visually clear images and simple methods not involving detailed manual-handling tasks such as writing. Touch panel screening tests may provide a useful tool for the early screening of cognitive

  20. Screening, testing, and reporting for drug and alcohol use on labor and delivery: a survey of Maryland birthing hospitals.

    PubMed

    Miller, Catherine; Lanham, Amy; Welsh, Christopher; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Terplan, Mishka

    2014-01-01

    Recent amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act tie the receipt of federal block grants to mandatory reporting of substance-exposed newborns. To determine rates of screening, testing, and reporting of drug and alcohol use at the time of delivery, we administered a telephone survey of nursing managers and perinatal social workers at Maryland birthing hospitals. Of the 34 hospitals, 31 responded (response rate 91%). Although 97% of hospitals reported universal screening, only 6% used a validated instrument. Testing was reported by 94% with 45% reporting universal maternal testing and 7% universal newborn testing. Only 32% reported obtaining maternal consent prior to testing. There is significant heterogeneity in screening and testing for substance use in birthing hospitals. Given federal reporting mandates, state-level practices need to be standardized.

  1. View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  2. View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  3. MIT Space Engineering Research Center testbed programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Miller, David W.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) at M.I.T., started in July 1988, has completed two and one-half years of research. This Semi-Annual Report presents annotated viewgraph material presented at the January 1991 Steering Committee and Technical Representative Review. The objective of the Space Engineering Research Center is to develop and disseminate a unified technology of controlled structures. There has been continued evolution of the concept of intelligent structures (including in this past year the first successful embedding of a microelectronic component into a structural element).

  4. The MIT Program, Competition, and Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradt, Hale V.

    2013-01-01

    The MIT program in x-ray astronomy was, and still is, diverse and productive. Bruno Rossi and later George Clark, as the nominal leaders of the “x-ray astronomy group” created a “hands-off” culture wherein individual researchers could develop their own independent programs. Walter Lewin, Claude Canizares, and I as well as those in the next academic generations, e.g., Saul Rappaport and George Ricker, were able to thrive in this environment. MIT researchers were principal investigators or providers of x-ray instruments on sounding rockets and balloons in the 1960s and then in later years on nine satellite missions, OSO-7, SAS-3, HEAO-1, Einstein, ASCA, RXTE, Chandra, HETE-2, and Suzaku. Such a diverse program involved collaborations with other institutions and of course striving for primacy in discovery and competition for NASA resources. Looking back, I see a high degree of ethical behavior among the observational x-ray community during those years. In competition, we remembered that we might well be collaborating the following year and behaved accordingly. Many of us in the x-ray community had been friends since graduate school days and did not want to lose those relationships. Am I viewing the past through rose colored glasses? I think not. A vignette on this topic: In 1967, I was debating vigorously with Herb Gursky of AS&E about which institution, MIT or AS&E, should be the lead on the fourth paper (Oda et al. 1967, ApJ 148, L5) based on data from the 1966 AS&E rocket flight which had led to Allan Sandage’s (and Japanese) identification of Sco X-1 (Sandage, et al. 1966, ApJ. 146, 316). I and my Italian colleague, Gianfranco Spada, and our Japanese colleague, Minoru Oda, both then visiting MIT, had actively supported that flight. After one rather heated discussion with Herb about this, - I was the heated one; he always remained calm - he left my office saying: “Hale, however this comes out, let’s remain friends.” I treasured that comment and

  5. Impact of screening test performance and cost on mortality reduction and cost-effectiveness of multimodal ovarian cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Charles W.; Hawley, Sarah; Thorpe, Jason D.; Marticke, Simone; McIntosh, Martin; Gambhir, Sanjiv; Urban, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing ovarian cancer screening trials are investigating the efficacy of a two-step screening strategy using currently available blood and imaging tests (CA125 and transvaginal sonography [TVS]). Concurrently, efforts to develop new biomarkers and imaging tests seek to improve screening performance beyond its current lim its. This study estimates the mortality reduction, years of life saved and cost-effectiveness achievable by annual multimodal screening using rising CA125 to select women for TVS, and predicts improvements achievable by replacing currently available screening tests with hypothetical counter parts with better performance characteristics. An existing stochastic micro-simulation model is refined and used to screen a virtual cohort of 1 million women from age 45 to 85. Each woman is assigned a detailed disease course and screening results timeline. The pre-clinical behavior of CA125 and TVS is simulated using empirical data derived from clinical trials. Simulations in which the disease incidence and performance characteristics of the screening tests are independently varied are performed in order to evaluate the impact of these factors on overall screening performance and costs. Our results demonstrate that when applied to women at average risk, annual screening using rising CA125 to select women for TVS achieves modest mortality reduction (~13%) and falls with in currently accepted cost-effectiveness guidelines. Screening outcomes are relatively insensitive to second-line test performance and costs. Identification of a first line test that perform s substantially better than CA125 and has similar costs is required in order for screening to reduce ovarian mortality by at least 25% and be reasonably cost-effective. PMID:22750949

  6. MMPI and MIT Discriminators of Biogenic and Psychogenic Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutler, Larry E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Male patients complaining of impotence (N=32) were administered the Male Impotence Test (MIT) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The results suggested that the MIT is without value for differentiating between psychogenic and biogenic impotence, whereas two rules from the MMPI appropriately classified 90 percent of the…

  7. Physik gestern und heute: Visualisierung mit der Schlierenmethode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Der Name des österreichischen Forschers Ernst Mach ist heute noch mit der Schallgeschwindigkeit verbunden. Diese Auszeichnung resultiert aus Machs Untersuchungen, wie sich Projektile mit Überschallgeschwindigkeit durch die Luft bewegen. Gerade in jüngster Zeit hat die Anwendung derartiger Methoden durch technische Modifikationen wieder einen Aufschwung erfahren.

  8. Dens evaginatus: case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ponnambalam, Yoganathan; Love, Robert M

    2006-06-01

    Dens evaginatus is a developmental anomaly that produces a tubercle on the occlusal or palatal or lingual surfaces of teeth. The tubercle, which often contains pulp tissue, can cause occlusal interference, and pulpal pathology is a common sequel of attrition or fracture of the evagination. It affects a number of tooth types, but most commonly the premolar teeth of people of oriental ethnicity. Early diagnosis and management of dens evaginatus are important to maintain pulp vitality. This article describes three cases of dens evaginatus with different presentations. PMID:16773794

  9. [Screening tests combined with p24 antigen and anti-HIV antibodies in early detection of HIV-1].

    PubMed

    Laperche, S; Maniez-Montreuil, M; Couroucé, A M

    2000-06-01

    The five available p24 Ag/anti-HIV combined tests were compared to the six third-generation anti-HIV assays mainly used in blood transfusion centers. Among 70 selected HIV-1 positive samples (12 samples from early infected blood donors and 58 from ten commercial panels), 59 were positive with at least one assay. False negative results were observed for zero to six samples with p24 Ag/Ab assays versus seven to 19 with antibody (Ab) tests. In five cases, one or more combined assays gave a positive signal later than the most sensitive Ab screening test. One sample with a high p24 Ag titer was missed by one combined test. The mean time delay between the most sensitive test and the second one was 0.3 to 2 days. The p24 Ag limit of detection was investigated with seven dilutions of the HIV Ag reference. The threshold of the p24 Ag detection was found to be between 65 and 250 pg/mL of HIV Ag. For four of the five combined assays, p24 Ag detectability was assessed with dilutions of infected culture cell supernatants from 13 HIV-1 different genotype strains exhibiting HIV Ag titers from 300 to 450 pg/mL. One of the four combined assays gave negative results but close to the cut-off for three supernatant dilutions (1 B, 1 F, 1 HIV-1/O) and one missed the HIV-1/O dilution. The p24 Ag/Ab combined assays permit an earlier diagnosis of HIV infection than third generation assays even if the yield in terms of reduction of the window period is moderate. They are less sensitive than p24 Ag screening assays for the detection of this marker. Consequently, the p24 Ag/Ab assays have not been used for the diagnosis of a primary infection instead of p24 Ag screening tests. They must be considered only as good tools for the detection of HIV infection.

  10. Newborn Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... PKU lack an enzyme needed to process the amino acid phenylalanine, which is necessary for normal growth in ... are missing an enzyme needed to process three amino acids that are essential for the body's normal growth. ...

  11. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and treated earlier before the damaging effects of lead poisoning occur. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ... exceed 10μg/dL, the threshold used to indicate lead poisoning. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) estimates one ...

  12. Quadruple screen test

    MedlinePlus

    ... chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced in the placenta Unconjugated estriol (uE3), a form of the hormone estrogen produced in the fetus and the placenta Inhibin A, a hormone released by the placenta ...

  13. Screening Tests for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... or colonoscopy) Diabetes screening Gonorrhea test HIV test Syphilis test Get tested for chlamydia yearly through age ... to be tested for HIV. Get tested for syphilis if you are at increased risk or pregnant. ...

  14. TB Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... a risk that the first TST is a false-negative reaction, a second skin test is given ... species, for example Mycobacterium kansasii , will give a false-positive TST or IGRA result for TB. Positive ...

  15. Neonatal Screening Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigue, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several laboratory experiments that are adaptations of clinical tests for certain genetic diseases in babies. Information and procedures are provided for tests for phenylketonuria (PKU), galactosemia, tyrosinemia, cystinuria, and mucopolysaccharidosis. Discusses the effects of each disease on the infants' development. (TW)

  16. Newborn screening tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders Galactosemia Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) Human immunodeficiency disease (HIV) Organic acid metabolism disorders Phenylketonuria (PKU) Sickle cell disease and other ...

  17. Teaching ``The Physics of Energy'' at MIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Robert

    2009-05-01

    New physics courses on energy are popping up at colleges and universities across the country. Many require little or no previous physics background, aiming to introduce a broad audience to this complex and critical problem, often augmenting the scientific message with economic and policy discussions. Others are advanced courses, focussing on highly specialized subjects like solar voltaics, nuclear physics, or thermal fluids, for example. About two years ago Washington Taylor and I undertook to develop a course on the ``Physics of Energy'' open to all MIT students who had taken MIT's common core of university level calculus, physics, and chemistry. By avoiding higher level prerequisites, we aimed to attract and make the subject relevant to students in the life sciences, economics, etc. --- as well as physical scientists and engineers --- who want to approach energy issues in a sophisticated and analytical fashion, exploiting their background in calculus, mechanics, and E & M, but without having to take advanced courses in thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, or nuclear physics beforehand. Our object was to interweave teaching the fundamental physics principles at the foundations of energy science with the applications of those principles to energy systems. We envisioned a course that would present the basics of statistical, quantum, and fluid mechanics at a fairly sophisticated level and apply those concepts to the study of energy sources, conversion, transport, losses, storage, conservation, and end use. In the end we developed almost all of the material for the course from scratch. The course debuted this past fall. I will describe what we learned and what general lessons our experience might have for others who contemplate teaching energy physics broadly to a technically sophisticated audience.

  18. Evaluation of screening tests for predicting older driver performance and safety assessed by an on-road test.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne M; Horswill, Mark S; Lacherez, Philippe F; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-01-01

    A number of tests and test batteries are available for the prediction of older driver safety, but many of these have not been validated against standardized driving outcome measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate a series of previously described screening tests in terms of their ability to predict the potential for safe and unsafe driving. Participants included 79 community-dwelling older drivers (M=72.16 years, SD=5.46; range 65-88 years; 57 males and 22 females) who completed a previously validated multi-disciplinary driving assessment, a hazard perception test, a hazard change detection test and a battery of vision and cognitive tests. Participants also completed a standardized on-road driving assessment. The multi-disciplinary test battery had the highest predictive ability with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 73%, followed by the hazard perception test which demonstrated a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 61%. These findings suggest that a relatively simple and practical battery of tests from a range of domains has the capacity to predict safe and unsafe driving in older adults.

  19. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥1 to ≥3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  20. [Plasma blood coagulation in mammals (domestic and zoo animals). Experience with screening tests and determinations of individual factor activities].

    PubMed

    Lutze, G; Lutze, G; Kutschmann, K; Wiens, L

    2007-08-01

    Plasma coagulation in mammals shows an essentially uniform structure. Differences are in species specific composition and quantity of coagulation factors. Many of the coagulation disorders occurring in humans have been observed in other mammals. Almost all the coagulation studies performed to date have been in domestic animals. For the majority of mammalian species, e.g. zoo animals, therefore, we have either no data at all or only isolated results. The methods used for coagulation testing in veterinary medicine have not yet been standardized. The significance and informative value of the screening tests are limited in animals compared with humans. The activities of individual factors in animals are determined by coagulometric tests. The results can be determined in relation to the activity in humans with the help of a human normal plasma or in relation to the activity of the respective animal with the help of a normal plasma from the same species. The problem is the parallelity of the dilution curves used as reference curves. The coagulation factor activities given for mammals usually differ more or less markedly from those in humans.

  1. Screening in the Dark: Ethical Considerations of Providing Screening Tests to Individuals When Evidence is Insufficient to Support Screening Populations

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Ingrid M.; Kass, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, screening tests using computed tomography (CT) have disseminated into practice and been marketed to patients despite neither conclusive evidence nor professional agreement about their efficacy and cost-effectiveness at the population level. This phenomenon raises questions about physicians’ professional roles and responsibilities within the setting of medical innovation, as well as the appropriate scope of patient autonomy and access to unproven screening technology. This article explores how physicians ought to respond when new screening examinations that lack conclusive evidence of overall population benefit emerge in the marketplace and are requested by individual patients. To this end, the article considers the nature of evidence and how it influences decision-making for screening at both the public policy and individual patient levels. We distinguish medical and ethical differences between screening recommended for a population and screening considered on an individual patient basis. Finally, we discuss specific cases to explore how evidence, patient risk factors and preferences, and physician judgment ought to balance when making individual patient screening decisions. PMID:19326299

  2. Red-dot card test of the paracentral field as a screening test for optic nerve disease in onchocerciasis.

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, I.; Jones, B. R.; Babalola, O. E.; Cousens, S. N.; Bolarin, I.; Abiose, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new screening test for optic nerve pathology is described, consisting of a series of four red targets presented at an angle of 12 degrees in the paracentral field above and below the horizontal meridian. Nonperception and desaturation of the targets are recorded. Inter-observer variability studies found a kappa value = 0.8. A total of 6831 individuals aged > or = 5 years in communities that were mesoendemic for savanna onchocerciasis in Kaduna State, northern Nigeria, were screened using the test. Of the participants 22% were unable to complete the test; almost two-thirds of these (62%) were aged 5-8 years. After exclusion of those visually impaired or blind according to WHO criteria and those unable to complete the test, the test showed a sensitivity of 40% and a specificity of 98% for optic nerve disease when inability to visualize one or more targets was used as the definition of test failure. The sensitivity increased to 54% with a specificity of 96% when the criterion for failure included desaturation of one or more targets. These values compare favourably with those for other available screening methods. The test took 1-2 minutes to perform and was readily accepted by patients and nurses. Images Fig. 1 PMID:9060216

  3. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-06-19

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥ 1 to ≥ 3. The ~ 80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥ 1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed.

  4. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—THOR® Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product in a Geopolymer Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pires, Richard P.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-07-14

    Screening tests are being conducted to evaluate waste forms for immobilizing secondary liquid wastes from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Plans are underway to add a stabilization treatment unit to the Effluent Treatment Facility to provide the needed capacity for treating these wastes from WTP. The current baseline is to use a Cast Stone cementitious waste form to solidify the wastes. Through a literature survey, DuraLith alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer, fluidized-bed steam reformation (FBSR) granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix, and a Ceramicrete phosphate-bonded ceramic were identified both as candidate waste forms and alternatives to the baseline. These waste forms have been shown to meet waste disposal acceptance criteria, including compressive strength and universal treatment standards for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (as measured by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP]). Thus, these non-cementitious waste forms should also be acceptable for land disposal. Information is needed on all four waste forms with respect to their capability to minimize the release of technetium. Technetium is a radionuclide predicted to be in the secondary liquid wastes in small quantities, but the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) risk assessment analyses show that technetium, even at low mass, produces the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater.

  5. Real-time ultrasonography for determination of ovarian morphology and volume. A possible early screening test for ovarian cancer?

    PubMed

    Campbell, S; Goessens, L; Goswamy, R; Whitehead, M

    1982-02-20

    The accuracy with which ovarian morphology and size can be determined by a real-time, ultrasound mechanical sector scanner was assessed. Both ovaries of 11 climacteric women appeared morphologically normal by ultrasonography and these findings were confirmed at laparotomy the following day. The correlation coefficient between ovarian volumes determined by sonar and those obtained by direct measurement at operation was 0.97. In a series of 31 postmenopausal women in whom clinical examination was unremarkable, both ovaries were identified by sonar in 26 subjects (84%) and a cystic ovary was diagnosed in 1 patient. Ovarian morphology in the other 25 subjects appeared normal and the range of volumes was from 1.47 to 10.43 cm3 with an arithmetic mean of 4.33 cm2 +/- 1.91 (SD). The mean difference between the volumes of the right and left ovaries was 1.48 cm3 +/- 1.19 and the percentage mean difference was 42.88% +/- 32.05. An ovary with a volume more than twice the size of its fellow should be regarded with some suspicion because ovarian volumes within individuals are clearly related (correlation coefficient = 0.82). The potential of the technique as a screening test for the early detection of ovarian cancer warrants further evaluation.

  6. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥ 1 to ≥ 3. The ~ 80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥ 1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  7. Response to an abnormal ovarian cancer-screening test result: test of the social cognitive processing and cognitive social health information processing models.

    PubMed

    Andrykowski, Michael A; Pavlik, Edward J

    2011-04-01

    All cancer screening tests produce a proportion of abnormal results requiring follow up. Consequently, the cancer-screening setting is a natural laboratory for examining psychological and behavioural response to a threatening health-related event. This study tested hypotheses derived from the social cognitive processing and cognitive-social health information processing models in trying to understand response to an abnormal ovarian cancer (OC) screening test result. Women (n = 278) receiving an abnormal screening test result a mean of 7 weeks earlier were assessed prior to a repeat screening test intended to clarify their previous abnormal result. Measures of disposition (optimism, informational coping style), social environment (social support and constraint), emotional processing, distress, and benefit finding were obtained. Regression analyses indicated greater distress was associated with greater social constraint and emotional processing and a monitoring coping style in women with a family history of OC. Distress was unrelated to social support. Greater benefit finding was associated with both greater social constraint and support and greater distress. The primacy of social constraint in accounting for both benefit finding and distress was noteworthy and warrants further research on the role of social constraint in adaptation to stressful events.

  8. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD? 40.243 Section 40.243 Transportation Office of the...-evidential breath ASD? As the BAT or STT, you must take the following steps: (a) Select, or allow...

  9. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD? 40.243 Section 40.243 Transportation Office of the...-evidential breath ASD? As the BAT or STT, you must take the following steps: (a) Select, or allow...

  10. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD? 40.243 Section 40.243 Transportation Office of the...-evidential breath ASD? As the BAT or STT, you must take the following steps: (a) Select, or allow...

  11. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD? 40.243 Section 40.243 Transportation Office of the...-evidential breath ASD? As the BAT or STT, you must take the following steps: (a) Select, or allow...

  12. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD? 40.243 Section 40.243 Transportation Office of the...-evidential breath ASD? As the BAT or STT, you must take the following steps: (a) Select, or allow...

  13. Patterns of den occupation by the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boydston, E.E.; Kapheim, K.M.; Holekamp, K.E.

    2006-01-01

    Spotted hyaenas utilize isolated natal dens (NDs) and communal dens (CDs) for rearing their cubs. Here we describe patterns of natal and CD occupation by hyaenas belonging to one well-studied clan in the Maasai Mara National Reserve during a 10-year period. Locations of 98 den sites that were used as natal or CDs by hyaenas in the study clan were digitized in a Geographic Information System, and the duration of use of each den site, frequency of re-use, and distances involved in den moves were quantified. Hyaenas moved their CD monthly on average. Most CD sites were occupied only once during the study, but several sites were used repeatedly. On rare occasions, the movement of hyaenas to a new den site could be attributed to a disturbance event at the CD, but factors regularly prompting hyaenas to move to new CD sites were unclear. High-ranking female hyaenas were more likely to rear their cubs from birth in a CD than low-ranking females. Low-ranking females almost always utilized isolated NDs for the first few weeks of a litter's development, and low-ranking females transferred their cubs over longer distances than did high-ranking females. ?? 2006 East African Wild Life Society.

  14. Final Technical Report for the MIT Annular Fuel Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-01-31

    MIT-NFC-PR-082 (January 2006) Abstract This summary provides an overview of the results of the U.S. DOE funded NERI (Nuclear Research ENergy Initiative) program on development of the internally and externally cooled annular fuel for high power density PWRs. This new fuel was proposed by MIT to allow a substantial increase in poer density (on the order of 30% or higher) while maintaining or improving safety margins. A comprehensive study was performed by a team consisting of MIT (lead organization), Westinghuse Electric Corporation, Gamma Engineering Corporation, Framatome ANP(formerly Duke Engineering) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.

  15. Den use by arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in a subarctic region of western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and use of arctic fox dens located in coastal tundra communities of the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta were determined in studies from 1985 to 1990. Dens were denser and less complex than those described in studies conducted above the Arctic Circle. Eighty-three dens of varying complexity were found in the 52-km2 study area. Nineteen dens were used by arctic foxes for whelping or rearing pups. Three females relocated litters to multiple dens; a maximum of four dens were used concurrently by pups from one litter. Although red foxes were common in the region, their use of dens in the study area was minimal. Differences in vegetation at den sites and nearby unoccupied sites were minimal. Furthermore, den sites could not be distinguished from non-den sites during aerial surveys.

  16. Plasma cardiac natriuretic peptide determination as a screening test for the detection of patients with mild left ventricular impairment.

    PubMed Central

    Omland, T.; Aakvaag, A.; Vik-Mo, H.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the usefulness of measuring the cardiac natriuretic peptides, atrial natriuretic factor, N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic factor, and brain natriuretic peptide, as screening tests for identifying patients with mild left ventricular impairment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the cardiac natriuretic peptides. SETTING: Cardiac catheterisation unit, Norwegian central hospital. PATIENTS: A consecutive series of 254 patients undergoing diagnostic left-sided cardiac catheterisation. One hundred and twenty eight of these patients had a history of previous myocardial infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The presence of normal and impaired left ventricular function, as evaluated by logistic regression analysis and estimation of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (an index of overall diagnostic accuracy). Ventricular function was assessed by the measurement of left ventricular end diastolic pressure and angiographically determined left ventricular ejection fraction. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that plasma brain natriuretic peptide was the best predictor of increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure (> or = 15 mm Hg) (P < 0.001), decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (< or = 45%) (P < 0.001), and the combination of left ventricular ejection fraction < or = 45% and left ventricular end diastolic pressure > or = 15 mm Hg (P < 0.001). The areas under the ROC function for the detection of left ventricular dysfunction were 0.789 for brain natriuretic peptide, 0.665 for atrial natriuretic factor, and 0.610 for N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic factor. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma brain natriuretic peptide seemed to be a better indicator of left ventricular function than plasma atrial natriuretic factor or N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic factor. However, the overall diagnostic accuracy of circulating atrial natriuretic factor, N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic factor, and

  17. Denning chronology and design of effective bear management units

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Inman, R.M.; Costello, C.M.; Jones, D.E.; Inman, K.H.; Thompson, B.C.; Quigley, H.B.

    2007-01-01

    Reports on the effectiveness of using late fall hunting seasons to reduce the proportion of female black bears (Ursus americanus) in the harvest are limited, and the geographic scale over which the technique functions as intended has not been examined. During 1992-2000, we radio-equipped black bears in New Mexico, USA, obtained estimates of 175 den entry and 137 den emergence dates, and used New Mexico Department of Game and Fish harvest data (1985-2000) to test for differences in proportion of females in the harvest relative to denning chronology. Bears in northern New Mexico entered dens earlier and emerged later than bears in southern New Mexico (P ??? 0.001). In northern New Mexico bears displayed the typical pattern of earlier entry and later emergence by reproductive females, proportion of females in the harvest varied over time as expected, and late fall seasons were effective (P ??? 0.10). In contrast, denning chronology did not differ by sex in southern New Mexico, proportion of females in the harvest did not change over time, and late fall seasons were not effective (P ??? 0.18). Manipulation of hunting season dates to influence female mortality can be an effective tool, however our study provides an example of an area where denning chronology did not differ by sex and late seasons were not effective. We also observed regional differences in timing of entrance and emergence, which suggest that scale of application may be key. In management jurisdictions that encompass ecologically distinct areas, cover a wide range of latitudes, or are mountainous, successful use of the technique may depend on knowledge of denning chronology at multiple locations and appropriate designation of hunting unit boundaries, season dates, and data analysis units.

  18. Epidemiological and entomological surveillance of the co-circulation of DEN-1, DEN-2 and DEN-4 viruses in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Fouque, Florence; Garinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    We surveyed the disease epidemiology of dengue in French Guiana after the first dengue haemorrhagic fever epidemic from 1991 to 1993 and during an endemic period from 1993 to 1995. DEN-1, DEN-2 and DEN-4 viruses were isolated from patients and DEN-4 was also isolated from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Cases of dengue were reported from all over the country, not only from urban areas, but also from rural areas and isolated human settlements, indicating widespread circulation of the viruses. The mosquito vector A. aegypti was found in all inhabited areas of French Guiana and small outdoor containers were the most common breeding grounds. Some ecological features of A. aegypti, such as larvae breeding in Bromeliad plants in the rainforest, a non-exclusive anthropophily and a high vertical transmission rate for dengue viruses, indicate that A. aegypti can behave as a reservoir for dengue viruses in silent areas. Dengue viruses may survive at an endemic level and cause outbreaks when unknown conditions become more favourable. This finding adds to our knowledge of the natural history of dengue viruses in the Americas.

  19. MIT ASTROMAG 1.7 meter disk magnet design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, P. G.; Hale, J. R.; Vieira, R.; Zhukovsky, A.; Titus, P. H.; Sullivan, J. D.; Dawson, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    MIT has proposed a magnet design for ASTROMAG, which has demonstrated substantial improvement in performance as compared with the present HEAO baseline design. Several advantages of the MIT disk design are listed along with design characteristics. Details of field contours and active field regions are shown along with comparisons with other designs. Three alternative design configurations for the ASTROMAG disk coils are summarized. The parameters of the conductors are listed and basic parameters for each of the complete systems are shown.

  20. Comparison of breath-alcohol screening test results with venous blood alcohol concentration in suspected drunken drivers.

    PubMed

    Kriikku, Pirkko; Wilhelm, Lars; Jenckel, Stefan; Rintatalo, Janne; Hurme, Jukka; Kramer, Jan; Jones, A Wayne; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    Hand-held electronic breath-alcohol analyzers are widely used by police authorities in their efforts to detect drunken drivers and to improve road-traffic safety. Over a three month period, the results of roadside breath-alcohol tests of drivers apprehended in Finland were compared with venous blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The mean (median) time between sampling blood and breath was 0.71h (0.58h) with a range from 0 to 6h. Some hand-held instruments gave results as the concentration of alcohol in breath and were converted into BAC assuming a blood-breath alcohol ratio (BBR) of 2260. The mean venous BAC (1.82g/kg) in traffic offenders was higher than the result predicted by the hand-held breath analyzers (1.72g/kg). In 1875 roadside tests, the relationship between venous BAC (x) and BrAC (y) was defined by the regression equation y=0.18+0.85x. The coefficients show both a constant bias (y-intercept 0.18g/kg) and a proportional bias (slope=0.85). The residual standard deviation (SD), an indicator of random variation, was ±0.40g/kg. After BAC results were corrected for the time elapsed between sampling blood and breath, the y-intercept decreased to 0.10g/kg and 0.004g/kg, respectively, when low (0.1g/kg/h) and high (0.25g/kg/h) rates of alcohol elimination were used. The proportional bias of 0.85 shows that the breath-alcohol test result reads lower than the actual BAC by 15% on average. This suggests that the BBR of 2260 used for calibration should be increased by about 15% to give closer agreement between BAC and BrAC. Because of the large random variation (SD±0.40g/kg), there is considerable uncertainty if and when results from the roadside screening test are used to estimate venous BAC. The roadside breath-alcohol screening instruments worked well for the purpose of selecting drivers above the statutory limit of 0.50g/kg.

  1. Comparison of three screening tests for autism in preterm children with birth weights less than 1,500 grams

    PubMed Central

    Dudova, Iva; Markova, Daniela; Kasparova, Martina; Zemankova, Jana; Beranova, Stepanka; Urbanek, Tomas; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Background Preterm children seem to be at increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Methods Parents of 157 children with birth weights less than 1,500 g (age 2 years, corrected for prematurity; 88 boys, 69 girls) completed screening questionnaires. The screening battery included the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP-ITC), and the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP). Children with disabilities were excluded. All children who screened positive on any of the screening tools were subsequently assessed by clinical examination including the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Results Fifty-six children (35.7%) screened positive on at least one of the parental screening questionnaires. Of the 56 children who tested positive, 33 participated in the detailed clinical follow-up assessment. A diagnosis of ASD was confirmed in 13 of the 33 children. The ASD prevalence was 9.7% of the sample. Analysis of children with and without an ASD diagnosis found significant differences relative to gestational age (26.9 weeks vs 28.3 weeks, P=0.033) and length of the stay in hospital (89.5 days vs 75.4 days, P=0.042). The screening tool with the most positive results was CSBS-DP-ITC (42 positive screens [PS]), followed by M-CHAT (28 PS), and ITSP (22 PS). Differences in the frequency of PS among the tests were significant (P=0.008). CSBS-DP-ITC had the highest sensitivity (0.846), followed by M-CHAT (0.692) and ITSP (0.462). Conclusion Our results indicate a higher prevalence of autism in children with birth weights <1,500 g at 2 years of age compared to the general population prevalence. The ASD diagnosis was associated with shorter gestation times and longer hospital stays. Our findings support the simultaneous use of more than one screening tests in order to increase screening sensitivity. PMID:25484588

  2. Remote identification of polar bear maternal den habitat in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ambrosius, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth in dens of ice and snow to protect their altricial young. During the snow-free season, we visited 25 den sites located previously by radiotelemetry and characterized the den site physiognomy. Seven dens occurred in habitats with minimal relief. Eighteen dens (72%) were in coastal and river banks. These "banks" were identifiable on aerial photographs. We then searched high-resolution aerial photographs (n = 3000) for habitats similar to those of the 18 dens. On aerial photos, we mapped 1782 km of bank habitats suitable for denning. Bank habitats comprised 0.18% of our study area between the Colville River and the Tamayariak River in northern Alaska. The final map, which correctly identified 88% of bank denning habitat in this region, will help minimize the potential for disruptions of maternal dens by winter petroleum exploration activities.

  3. American black bear denning behavior: Observations and applications using remote photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, A.S.; Fox, J.A.; Olfenbuttel, C.; Vaughan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers examining American black bear (Ursus americanus) denning behavior have relied primarily on den-site visitation and radiotelemetry to gather data. Repeated den-site visits are time-intensive and may disturb denning bears, possibly causing den abandonment, whereas radiotelemetry is sufficient only to provide gross data on den emergence. We used remote cameras to examine black bear denning behavior in the Allegheny Mountains of western Virginia during March-May 2003. We deployed cameras at 10 den sites and used 137 pictures of black bears. Adult female black bears exhibited greater extra-den activity than we expected prior to final den emergence, which occurred between April 12 and May 6, 2003. Our technique provided more accurate den-emergence estimation than previously published methodologies. Additionally, we observed seldom-documented behaviors associated with den exits and estimated cub age at den emergence. Remote cameras can provide unique insights into denning ecology, and we describe their potential application to reproductive, survival, and behavioral research.

  4. Habitat characteristics of polar bear terrestrial maternal den sites in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Fischbach, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth to and nurture their young in dens of ice and snow. During 1999-2001, we measured the structure of 22 dens on the coastal plain of northern Alaska after polar bear families had evacuated their dens in the spring. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, we revisited the sites of 42 maternal and autumn exploratory dens and recorded characteristics of the under-snow habitat. The structure of polar bear snow dens was highly variable. Most were simple chambers with a single entrance/egress tunnel. Others had multiple chambers and additional tunnels. Thickness of snow above and below dens was highly variable, but most dens were overlain by less than 1 m of snow. Dens were located on, or associated with, pronounced landscape features (primarily coastal and river banks, but also a lake shore and an abandoned oil field gravel pad) that are readily distinguished from the surrounding terrain in summer and catch snow in early winter. Although easily identified, den landforms in northern Alaska were more subtle than den habitats in many other parts of the Arctic. The structure of polar bear dens in Alaska was strikingly similar to that of dens elsewhere and has remained largely unchanged in northern Alaska for more than 25 years. Knowledge of den structure and site characteristics will allow resource managers to identify habitats with the greatest probability of holding dens. This information may assist resource managers in preventing negative impacts of mineral exploration and extraction on polar bears.

  5. Detecting denning polar bears with Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.; McDonald, T.L.; Nielson, R.; Simac, K.

    2004-01-01

    Polar bears give birth in snow dens in midwinter and remain in dens until early spring. The survival and development of cubs is dependent on a stable environment within the maternal den. To mitigate potential disruption of polar bear denning by existing and proposed petroleum activities, we used forward-looking infrared (FLIR) viewing to try to detect heat rising from dens.We flew transects over dens of radio-collared females with FLIR imager-equipped aircraft, recorded weather conditions at each observation, and noted whether the den was detected.We surveyed 23 dens on 67 occasions (1 to 7 times each). Nine dens were always detected, and 10 dens visited more than once were detected on some flights but not on others. Four dens were never detected (17 percent), but three of those were visited only under marginal conditions. The odds of detecting a den were 4.8 times greater when airborne moisture (snow, blowing snow, fog, etc.) was absent than when it was present, and they increased 3-fold for every 1?C increase in temperature-dew point spread. The estimated probability of detecting dens in sunlight was 0. Data suggested that FLIR surveys conducted during optimal conditions for detection can produce detection rates approaching 90 percent and thus can be an important management and mitigation tool. polar bear, infrared imagery, maternal denning, human impacts, management

  6. Interference of an algal nutritional supplement with a urinary metabolic screening test for glycosaminoglycans in a dog suspected to have a storage disease.

    PubMed

    Sewell, Adrian C; Pankraz, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    The finding of excess urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAG) is the first step in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). Urinary screening tests are based upon the binding of GAG to dimethylmethylene blue. Alternatively, paper spot tests using toluidine blue are used in human and veterinary laboratory medicine. Positive samples undergo GAG isolation for subsequent characterization. Here, we describe a 3-year-old English Cocker Spaniel with a positive urinary GAG test, but without other clinical signs of MPS. Urine samples were strongly positive with the dimethylmethylene blue test, and isolated GAG subjected to electrophoresis on cellulose acetate revealed a band co-migrating with dermatan sulfate. However, the isolated GAG were resistant to digestion with chondroitinase ABC, suggesting that the band did not represent dermatan sulfate. This was confirmed by mobility of the isolated GAG different from dermatan sulfate on agarose gel electrophoresis. MPS types VI and VII were excluded by enzyme assay. To test the hypothesis of a nutritional source, a healthy control dog was fed the same dog food as the index case. His urine showed a comparable abnormal GAG screening test and electrophoretic pattern. In addition, the analysis of an algal supplement present in the administered dog food showed a similar electrophoretic GAG pattern. The Cocker Spaniel was not available for further testing after withdrawal of the supplement. Algae contain highly sulfated fucans and galactans, and it appears that commercial dog food containing such algal, and possibly other, supplements can give rise to false-positive urinary MPS screening tests.

  7. Denning habits of free-ranging dogs reveal preference for human proximity

    PubMed Central

    Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Paul, Manabi; Sau, Shubhra; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Dens are crucial in the early development of many mammals, making den site selection an important component of parental care in such species. Resource availability and shelter from predators primarily govern den selection. Species inhabiting human-dominated landscapes typically den away from human disturbance, often shifting dens to avoid humans during the early life of their young. Domesticated dogs have evolved in human proximity over centuries, being bred and reared in human homes for generations. While pets rely on their owners for shelter and care, free-ranging dogs roam uncared, and typically whelp in dens. We conducted a study on 148 free-ranging dog dens in India to understand their denning habits. Distance from resources influenced den choice, but anthropogenic disturbance did not. Dens were found in areas of high human activity, and begging from humans was preferred over scavenging. A study on 15 pregnant females revealed that females actively searched for denning sites, rejecting several intermediate ones before selecting the final den. We propose that the obvious preference of dogs for denning close to humans is a behavioural adaptation that helps them to survive in the urban landscape, in spite of the high human induced mortality during the early life of pups. PMID:27535214

  8. Denning habits of free-ranging dogs reveal preference for human proximity.

    PubMed

    Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Paul, Manabi; Sau, Shubhra; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Dens are crucial in the early development of many mammals, making den site selection an important component of parental care in such species. Resource availability and shelter from predators primarily govern den selection. Species inhabiting human-dominated landscapes typically den away from human disturbance, often shifting dens to avoid humans during the early life of their young. Domesticated dogs have evolved in human proximity over centuries, being bred and reared in human homes for generations. While pets rely on their owners for shelter and care, free-ranging dogs roam uncared, and typically whelp in dens. We conducted a study on 148 free-ranging dog dens in India to understand their denning habits. Distance from resources influenced den choice, but anthropogenic disturbance did not. Dens were found in areas of high human activity, and begging from humans was preferred over scavenging. A study on 15 pregnant females revealed that females actively searched for denning sites, rejecting several intermediate ones before selecting the final den. We propose that the obvious preference of dogs for denning close to humans is a behavioural adaptation that helps them to survive in the urban landscape, in spite of the high human induced mortality during the early life of pups. PMID:27535214

  9. Den-site characteristics of black bears in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    We compared historic (1985-1992) and contemporary (2003-2006) black bear (Ursus americanus) den locations in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA, for habitat and physiographic attributes of den sites and used maximum entropy modeling to determine which factors were most influential in predicting den-site locations. We observed variability in the relationship between den locations and distance to trails and elevation over rime. Locations of historic den sites were most associated with slope, elevation, and covertype, whereas contemporary sites were associated with slope, distance to roads, aspect, and canopy height. Although relationships to covariates differed between historic and contemporary periods, preferred den-site characteristics consistently included steep slopes and factors associated with greater snow depth. Distribution of den locations shifted toward areas closer to human developments, indicating little negative influence of this factor on den-site selection by black bears in RMNP.

  10. Grizzly bear denning chronology and movements in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Ternent, Mark A.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2002-01-01

    Den entrance and emergence dates of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are important to management agencies that wish to minimize impacts of human activities on bears. Current estimates for grizzly bear denning events use data that were collected from 1975–80. We update these estimates by including data obtained from 1981–99. We used aerial telemetry data to estimate week of den entry and emergence by determining the midpoint between the last known active date and the first known date denned, as well as the last known date denned and the first known active date. We also investigated post emergence movement patterns relative to den locations. Mean earliest and latest week of den entry and emergence were also determined. Den entry for females began during the fourth week in September, with 90% denned by the fourth week of November. Earliest den entry for males occurred during the second week of October, with 90% denned by the second week of December. Mean week of den entry for known pregnant females was earlier than males. Earliest week of den entry for known pregnant females was earlier than other females and males. Earliest den emergence for males occurred during the first week of February, with 90% of males out of dens by the fourth week of April. Earliest den emergence for females occurred during the third week of March; by the first week of May, 90% of females had emerged. Male bears emerged from dens earlier than females. Denning period differed among classes and averaged 171 days for females that emerged from dens with cubs, 151 days for other females, and 131 days for males. Known pregnant females tended to den at higher elevations and, following emergence, remained at higher elevation until late May. Females with cubs remained relatively close (<3 km) to den sites until the last 2 weeks in May. Timing of denning events was similar to previous estimates for this and other grizzly bear populations in the southern Rocky

  11. Education Outreach at MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Censabella, V.; Rivenberg, P.

    1999-11-01

    Outreach at the MIT PSFC consists of volunteers working together to increase the public's knowledge of fusion and plasma-related experiments. Seeking to generate excitement about science, engineering and mathematics, the PSFC holds a number of outreach activities throughout the year, such as Middle and High School Outreach Days. Outreach also includes the Mr. Magnet Program, which uses an interactive strategy to engage elementary school children. The PSFC maintains a Home Page on the World Widee Web, which can be reached at http://psfc.mit.edu.

  12. Recent trends in breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening test utilization in Canada, using self-reported data from 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Major, D.; Armstrong, D.; Bryant, H.; Cheung, W.; Decker, K.; Doyle, G.; Mai, V.; McLachlin, C.M.; Niu, J; Payne, J.; Shukla, N.

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, self-reported data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2008 and 2012 provide an opportunity to examine overall utilization of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening tests for both programmatic and opportunistic screening. Among women 50–74 years of age, utilization of screening mammography was stable (62.0% in 2008 and 63.0% in 2012). Pap test utilization for women 25–69 years of age remained high and stable across Canada in 2008 and 2012 (78.9% in 2012). The percentage of individuals 50–74 years of age who reporting having at least 1 fecal test within the preceding 2 years increased in 2012 (to 23.0% from 16.9% in 2008), but remains low. Stable rates of screening mammography utilization (about 30%) were reported in 2008 and 2012 among women 40–49 years of age, a group for which population-based screening is not recommended. Although declining over time, cervical cancer screening rates were high for women less than 25 years of age (for whom screening is not recommended). Interestingly, an increased percentage of women 70–74 years of age reported having a Pap test. In 2012, a smaller percentage of women 50–69 years of age reported having no screening test (5.9% vs. 8.5% in 2008), and more women reported having the three types of cancer screening tests (19.0% vs. 13.2%). Efforts to encourage use of screening within the recommended average-risk age groups are needed, and education for stakeholders about the possible harms of screening outside those age groups has to continue. PMID:26300668

  13. The Ohio Patient Navigation Research Program (OPNRP): Does the American Cancer Society patient navigation model improve time to resolution among patients with abnormal screening tests?

    PubMed Central

    Paskett, Electra D.; Katz, Mira L.; Post, Douglas M.; Pennell, Michael L.; Young, Gregory S.; Seiber, Eric E.; Harrop, J. Phil; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R.; Tatum, Cathy M.; Dean, Julie A.; Murray, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient navigation (PN) has been suggested as a way to reduce cancer health disparities; however, many models of PN exist and most have not been carefully evaluated. The goal of this study was to test the Ohio American Cancer Society model of PN as it relates to reducing time to diagnostic resolution among persons with abnormal breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer screening tests or symptoms. Methods 862 patients from 18 clinics participated in this group-randomized trial. Chart review documented the date of the abnormality and the date of resolution. The primary analysis used shared frailty models to test for the effect of PN on time to resolution. Crude Hazard Ratios (HR)were used since there was no evidence of confounding. Costs were tracked with a 52-item instrument that recorded fixed costs of running a PN program and operational costs of navigating patients. Results HRs became significant at 6 months; conditional on the random clinic effect, the resolution rate at 15 months was 65% higher in the PN arm (p=0.012 for difference in risk across arms; p=0.009) for an increase in relative risk over time. The cost of navigating to diagnostic resolution averaged $150 per participant. Conclusions Participants with abnormal cancer screening tests or symptoms resolved faster if assigned to PN compared to those not assigned to PN. The effect of PN became apparent beginning six months after detection of the abnormality. Impact PN may help address health disparities by reducing time to resolution after an abnormal cancer screening test. PMID:23045536

  14. Determination of Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Screening Tests using a Mathematical Formula in Place of Invasive Blood Tests

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neeru; Ray, Prakash Chandra; Kohli, Charu; Kumar, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction True prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus in a population can be obtained by using invasive tests but it is practically difficult on large scale. Aim To find out the feasibility of mass non-invasive screening test to detect the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in rural population of India with the help of a mathematical formula. Materials and Methods From population of 18800 residing in two adjacent rural areas of Delhi, a systematic random sample of 1005 adult subjects was screened for diabetes by using urine benedicts test, Canrisk questionnaire, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation-Indian Diabetic Risk Score (MDRF-IDRS) and determined prevalence of diabetes (pA) gauzed by each of these screening tests. Simultaneously, each subject’s glycaemic status was confirmed by standard fasting Plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG) levels. The blood test was also used to determine true prevalence which was cross-checked with the prevalence estimated (Pe) by the above stated screening tests using a mathematical formula. Results The true prevalence of T2DM in more than 18 years of population by Fasting Plasma Sugar (FPS) was 4.5% while that by using mathematical formulae that estimated by urine test, Canrisk test and MDRF-IDRS was 4.4%, 4.4 and 4.3% respectively. When more than 35 years age-group was selected, true prevalence was 7.4% and estimated prevalence by Canrisk test was 7.1% (as against gold standard of Fasting) and 6.9% (as against PP). By fasting urine test it came out to be 7.2% and by PP urine test it was 7.4%. In population l8-35 years, the prevalence of diabetes was 1.1% by plasma glucose test. By using Canrisk, it came out to be 1.04%. Conclusion Individual screening tests such as urine, Canrisk and MDRF-IDRS can be used to estimate prevalence rates of diabetes in rural areas by means of mathematical formula which would be close to true estimates. PMID:26894093

  15. MIT Mints a Valuable New Form of Academic Currency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has invented or improved many world-changing things--radar, information theory, and synthetic self-replicating molecules, to name a few. Last month the university announced, to mild fanfare, an invention that could be similarly transformative, this time for higher education itself. It is called MITx.…

  16. MIT Orients Course Materials Online to K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Many science and mathematics educators across the country are taking advantage of a Web site created by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the famed research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which offers free video, audio, and print lectures and course material taken straight from the school's classes. Those resources…

  17. Non-Surgical Root Canal Treatment of Dens Invaginatus 3 in a Maxillary Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Saeed; Donyavi, Zakyeh; Esmaealzade, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to describe the clinical management of an unusual dens invaginatus type 3. A case of dens invaginatus in a maxillary lateral incisor with a periapical lesion is reported. The patient presented with pain and localized swelling. Despite the complex anatomy and diagnosis of dens invaginatus, non-surgical root canal treatment was performed successfully. Key Learning Points: - Dens invaginatus may be presented in different forms, and the etiology of this phenomenon is not fully understood. - Due to abnormal anatomical configuration, dens invaginatus presents technical difficulties in its clinical management. - Non-surgical root canal treatment can be performed successfully. PMID:24171017

  18. Raccoon (Procyon lotor) diurnal den use within an intensively managed forest in central West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, Sheldon F.; Berl, Jacob L.; Edwards, John W.; Ford, W. Mark; Wood, Petra Bohall

    2015-01-01

    Intensive forest management may influence the availability of suitable den sites for large den-seeking species, such as Procyon lotor (Raccoon). As part of a Raccoon ecology study on an industrial forest in the Allegheny Mountains of central West Virginia, we radio-tracked 32 Raccoons to 175 diurnal den sites to determine relative use of dens that included cavity trees, rock dens, log piles, slash piles, and exposed limbs. Patterns of den use significantly differed between sexes and among seasons. Overall, we recorded 58 cavity dens in 12 tree species with 7 maternal dens found in 5 tree species. Raccoons selected larger-diameter den trees than available cavity trees and non-cavity trees. Because the abundance of suitable tree cavities is known to influence Raccoon densities and recruitment at fine spatial scales and female Raccoons in this study used tree cavities as maternal den sites, the continued harvest of large-diameter trees (i.e., those capable of developing den cavities) without replacement may impact Raccoon recruitment within intensively managed forests throughout the central Appalachians.

  19. Selection of den sites by black bears in the southern Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds-Hogland, M. J.; Mitchell, M.S.; Powell, R.A.; Brown, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated selection of den sites by American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, western North Carolina, by comparing characteristics of dens at 53 den sites with availability of habitat characteristics in annual home ranges of bears and in the study area. We also tested whether den-site selection differed by sex, age, and reproductive status of bears. In addition, we evaluated whether the den component of an existing habitat model for black bears predicted where bears would select den sites. We found bears selected den sites far from gravel roads, on steep slopes, and at high elevations relative to what was available in both annual home ranges and in the study area. Den-site selection did not differ by sex or age, but it differed by reproductive status. Adult females with cubs preferred to den in areas that were relatively far from gravel roads, but adult females without cubs did not. The habitat model overestimated the value of areas near gravel roads, underestimated the value of moderately steep areas, and did not include elevation as a predictor variable. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating den selection in terms of both use and availability of den characteristics. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  20. A female black bear denning habitat model using a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.D.; Hayes, S.G.; Pledger, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    We used the Mahalanobis distance statistic and a raster geographic information system (GIS) to model potential black bear (Ursus americanus) denning habitat in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. The Mahalanobis distance statistic was used to represent the standard squared distance between sample variates in the GIS database (forest cover type, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to streams, distance to roads, and forest cover richness) and variates at known bear dens. Two models were developed: a generalized model for all den locations and another specific to dens in rock cavities. Differences between habitat at den sites and habitat across the study area were represented in 2 new GIS themes as Mahalanobis distance values. Cells similar to the mean vector derived from the known dens had low Mahalanobis distance values, and dissimilar cells had high values. The reliability of the predictive model was tested by overlaying den locations collected subsequent to original model development on the resultant den habitat themes. Although the generalized model demonstrated poor reliability, the model specific to rock dens had good reliability. Bears were more likely to choose rock den locations with low Mahalanobis distance values and less likely to choose those with high values. The model can be used to plan the timing and extent of management actions (e.g., road building, prescribed fire, timber harvest) most appropriate for those sites with high or low denning potential. 

  1. DNA sequencing using differential extension with nucleotide subsets (DENS).

    PubMed Central

    Raja, M C; Zevin-Sonkin, D; Shwartzburd, J; Rozovskaya, T A; Sobolev, I A; Chertkov, O; Ramanathan, V; Lvovsky, L; Ulanovsky, L E

    1997-01-01

    Here we describe template directed enzymatic synthesis of unique primers, avoiding the chemical synthesis step in primer walking. We have termed this conceptually new technique DENS (differential extension with nucleotide subsets). DENS works by selectively extending a short primer, making it a long one at the intended site only. The procedure starts with a limited initial extension of the primer (at 20-30 degrees C) in the presence of only two out of the four possible dNTPs. The primer is extended by 6-9 bases or longer at the intended priming site, which is deliberately selected, (as is the two-dNTP set), to maximize the extension length. The subsequent termination reaction at 60-65 degrees C then accepts the extended primer at the intended site, but not at alternative sites, where the initial extension (if any) is generally much shorter. DENS allows the use of primers as long as 8mers (degenerate in two positions) which prime much more strongly than modular primers involving 5-7mers and which (unlike the latter) can be used with thermostable polymerases, thus allowing cycle-sequencing with dye-terminators compatible with Taq DNA polymerase, as well as making double-stranded DNA sequencing more robust. PMID:9016632

  2. Auto-Thermal Reforming of Jet-A Fuel over Commercial Monolith Catalysts: MicroReactor Evaluation and Screening Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Judy C. H.; Tomsik, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a series of catalyst screening tests conducted with Jet-A fuel under auto-thermal reforming (ATR) process conditions at the research laboratories of SOFCo-EFS Holdings LLC under Glenn Research Center Contract. The primary objective is to identify best available catalysts for future testing at the NASA GRC 10-kW(sub e) reformer test facility. The new GRC reformer-injector test rig construction is due to complete by March 2004. Six commercially available monolithic catalyst materials were initially selected by the NASA/SOFCo team for evaluation and bench scale screening in an existing 0.05 kW(sub e) microreactor test apparatus. The catalyst screening tests performed lasted 70 to 100 hours in duration in order to allow comparison between the different samples over a defined range of ATR process conditions. Aging tests were subsequently performed with the top two ranked catalysts as a more representative evaluation of performance in a commercial aerospace application. The two catalyst aging tests conducted lasting for approximately 600 hours and 1000 hours, respectively.

  3. The utility of alkaline phosphatase measurement as a screening test for rickets in breast-fed infants and toddlers: a study from the puget sound pediatric research network.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James A; Richter, Monica; Done, Stephen; Feldman, Kenneth W

    2010-12-01

    To determine if alkaline phosphatase (AP) levels are a useful screening test for rickets, the authors measured serum AP levels in children 6 to 15 months old who were predominantly breast-fed for > 6 months without vitamin D supplementation. Radiographs were obtained on children with elevated AP levels to determine the presence of rickets. AP levels were obtained on 246 children; levels were elevated in 33 (13.4%). Rickets was present in 4 of 18 children with elevated levels on whom radiographs were obtained. The sensitivity and specificity of AP levels as a test for rickets was maximal at a cutoff value of 552 U/L. Using this cutoff value, the specificity of AP levels as a test for rickets was 97.4%, and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 40.0%. These results suggest that AP levels may be a useful screening test for rickets in children who are breast-fed for prolonged periods without vitamin D supplementation.

  4. Postprandial blood glucose latency after oatmeal is a valid screening test for diabetic gastropathy in type 1 diabetes, but not in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jüngling, B; Schleiffer, T; Buttmann, A; Kraatz, K; Kress, S; Vogt, M; Windeler, J; Riemann, J F

    2001-04-01

    Disordered gastric motility occurs frequently in diabetes mellitus. Gastric emptying time is abnormal in about 50% of diabetic patients and delayed emptying time is known as an important cause for brittle diabetes in type 1 diabetes. We compared the rise in blood glucose after a standardized meal (oatmeal test) as a noninvasive screening test for diabetic gastropathy with the noninvasive measurement of gastric emptying time with ultrasound in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. The test result was considered pathological if the rise of blood glucose after an initial steady state did not reach 20 mg/dl in the first 20 min after the meal (prolonged blood glucose latency). We found a sensitivity of 90% (58.7-99.8) and a specificity of 100% (71.5-100) for the oatmeal test in type 1 diabetes in the gastropathy screening. In type 2 diabetes we found a sensitivity of 13% (1.5-38.3) and a specificity of 78% (60-90.7) (95% CI). In conclusion, the oatmeal test seemed to be a good, noninvasive screening test in diabetic gastropathy in type 1 diabetes, but has no diagnostic value in type 2 diabetes. The causes for such a difference may be due to a different postprandial blood glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes compared to the beta-cell-depleted type 1 diabetes.

  5. The detection of THC, CBD and CBN in the oral fluid of Sativex® patients using two on-site screening tests and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Anna; Fu, Shanlin; Lewis, John; Allsop, David J; Copeland, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Sativex(®) is an oromucosal spray used to treat spasticity in multiple sclerosis sufferers in some European countries, the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand. The drug has also recently been registered by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Sativex(®) contains high concentrations of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), with the former being the subject of random roadside drug tests across Australia to detect cannabis use. This pilot study aims to determine whether or not patients taking Sativex(®) will test positive to THC using these roadside screening tests. Detectable levels of THC, CBD and cannabinol (CBN) in their oral fluid were also confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The study was a double-blind, placebo controlled design. Oral fluid was tested prior to and immediately after dosing with either Sativex(®) or placebo at intervals up to 2h after the dose. Two Sativex(®) doses were studied. The low dose contained 5.4mg THC, the high dose 21.6mg THC. Results indicate that the primary screening test used in Australian roadside drug testing, the DrugWipe(®) II Twin, often gave a false negative response for THC, even with high concentrations present. However, secondary screening test, Cozart(®) DDS (used by police after a DrugWipe test gives a positive result), gave true positive results in all cases where patients were being treated with Sativex(®). Confirmatory testing showed high concentrations of THC and CBD (>5356ng/mL THC and >3826ng/mL CBD) in the oral fluid shortly after dosing and also elevated concentrations of CBN. Levels dropped quickly but remained at detectable concentrations (>67.6ng/mL) two hours after drug administration. The average concentration ratio of THC/CBD across all positive samples was 1.10 (%RSD 19.9) reflecting the composition of the Sativex(®) spray. In conclusion, Sativex(®) users may test positive for THC by

  6. Increasing chlamydia screening tests in general practice: a modified Zelen prospective Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial evaluating a complex intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Hogan, Angela H; Ricketts, Ellie J; Wallace, Louise; Oliver, Isabel; Campbell, Rona; Kalwij, Sebastian; O'Connell, Elaine; Charlett, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if a structured complex intervention increases opportunistic chlamydia screening testing of patients aged 15–24 years attending English general practitioner (GP) practices. Methods A prospective, Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial with a modified Zelen design involving 160 practices in South West England in 2010. The intervention was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It comprised of practice-based education with up to two additional contacts to increase the importance of screening to GP staff and their confidence to offer tests through skill development (including videos). Practical resources (targets, posters, invitation cards, computer reminders, newsletters including feedback) aimed to actively influence social cognitions of staff, increasing their testing intention. Results Data from 76 intervention and 81 control practices were analysed. In intervention practices, chlamydia screening test rates were 2.43/100 15–24-year-olds registered preintervention, 4.34 during intervention and 3.46 postintervention; controls testing rates were 2.61/100 registered patients prior intervention, 3.0 during intervention and 2.82 postintervention. During the intervention period, testing in intervention practices was 1.76 times as great (CI 1.24 to 2.48) as controls; this persisted for 9 months postintervention (1.57 times as great, CI 1.27 to 2.30). Chlamydia infections detected increased in intervention practices from 2.1/1000 registered 15–24-year-olds prior intervention to 2.5 during the intervention compared with 2.0 and 2.3/1000 in controls (Estimated Rate Ratio intervention versus controls 1.4 (CI 1.01 to 1.93). Conclusions This complex intervention doubled chlamydia screening tests in fully engaged practices. The modified Zelen design gave realistic measures of practice full engagement (63%) and efficacy of this educational intervention in general practice; it should be used more often. Trial registration The trial was

  7. The detection of THC, CBD and CBN in the oral fluid of Sativex® patients using two on-site screening tests and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Anna; Fu, Shanlin; Lewis, John; Allsop, David J; Copeland, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Sativex(®) is an oromucosal spray used to treat spasticity in multiple sclerosis sufferers in some European countries, the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand. The drug has also recently been registered by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Sativex(®) contains high concentrations of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), with the former being the subject of random roadside drug tests across Australia to detect cannabis use. This pilot study aims to determine whether or not patients taking Sativex(®) will test positive to THC using these roadside screening tests. Detectable levels of THC, CBD and cannabinol (CBN) in their oral fluid were also confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The study was a double-blind, placebo controlled design. Oral fluid was tested prior to and immediately after dosing with either Sativex(®) or placebo at intervals up to 2h after the dose. Two Sativex(®) doses were studied. The low dose contained 5.4mg THC, the high dose 21.6mg THC. Results indicate that the primary screening test used in Australian roadside drug testing, the DrugWipe(®) II Twin, often gave a false negative response for THC, even with high concentrations present. However, secondary screening test, Cozart(®) DDS (used by police after a DrugWipe test gives a positive result), gave true positive results in all cases where patients were being treated with Sativex(®). Confirmatory testing showed high concentrations of THC and CBD (>5356ng/mL THC and >3826ng/mL CBD) in the oral fluid shortly after dosing and also elevated concentrations of CBN. Levels dropped quickly but remained at detectable concentrations (>67.6ng/mL) two hours after drug administration. The average concentration ratio of THC/CBD across all positive samples was 1.10 (%RSD 19.9) reflecting the composition of the Sativex(®) spray. In conclusion, Sativex(®) users may test positive for THC by

  8. Landward and eastward shift of Alaskan polar bear denning associated with recent sea ice changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischbach, A.S.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the northern Alaska region den in coastal areas and on offshore drifting ice. We evaluated changes in the distribution of polar bear maternal dens between 1985 and 2005, using satellite telemetry. We determined the distribution of maternal dens occupied by 89 satellite collared female polar bears between 137°W and 167°W longitude. The proportion of dens on pack ice declined from 62% in 1985–1994 to 37% in 1998–2004 (P = 0.044) and among pack ice dens fewer occurred in the western Beaufort Sea after 1998. We evaluated whether hunting, attraction to bowhead whale remains, or changes in sea ice could explain changes in den distribution. We concluded that denning distribution changed in response to reductions in stable old ice, increases in unconsolidated ice, and lengthening of the melt season. In consort, these changes have likely reduced the availability and quality of pack ice denning habitat. Further declines in sea ice availability are predicted. Therefore, we expect the proportion of polar bears denning in coastal areas will continue to increase, until such time as the autumn ice retreats far enough from shore that it precludes offshore pregnant females from reaching the Alaska coast in advance of denning.

  9. The Harvard-MIT PHD Program in Bioastronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Laurence R.; Natapoff, Alan

    2008-06-01

    The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI)1 supports a PhD program in Space Life Sciences with a specialty in Bioastronautics at MIT. (A sibling program operates at TAMU.) It gives broad training in life sciences, emphasizes hands-on field experience, provides access to laboratories in the Harvard-MIT community for thesis research, and prepares students for many options in space biomedicine. The Program trains prospective leaders in the field able to manage the challenges of design for the life-hostile space environment. Beyond subject and thesis work, students participate in a summer internship and a clinical preceptorship at a NASA center--and an introduction to clinical medicine and medical engineering.

  10. The Kubo-Greenwood expression and 2d MIT transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castner, Theodore

    2010-03-01

    The 2d MIT in GaAs heterostructures (p- and n-type)features a mobility that drops continuously as the reduced density x= n/nc-1 is decreased. The Kubo-Greenwood result [1] predicts μ = (eɛh/hnc)α^2(x) where α is a normalized DOS. α(x)is obtained from the data [p-type, Gao et al. [2]; n-type Lilly et al. [3

  11. Experimental Plan and Irradiation Target Design for FeCrAl Embrittlement Screening Tests Conducted Using the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Howard, Richard H.; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-06-26

    The objective of the FeCrAl embrittlement screening tests being conducted through the use of Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor is to provide data on the radiation-induced changes in the mechanical properties including radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement through systematic testing and analysis. Data developed on the mechanical properties will be supported by extensive microstructural evaluations to assist in the development of structure-property relationships and provide a sound, fundamental understanding of the performance of FeCrAl alloys in intense neutron radiation fields. Data and analysis developed as part of this effort will be used to assist in the determination of FeCrAl alloys as a viable material for commercial light water reactor (LWR) applications with a primary focus as an accident tolerant cladding.

  12. Einsteins Spuren in den Archiven der Wissenschaft: Physikgeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Werner

    2005-07-01

    Die Erwähnungen und Zitierungen von Einsteins Arbeiten dokumentieren lediglich den quantifizierbaren Anteil von Einsteins Beitrag zur Physik. Gleichwohl belegen sie die außergewöhnliche Resonanz und Langzeitwirkung seiner Arbeiten. Die Häufigkeit der Zitierungen entspricht nicht der allgemeinen Einschätzung ihrer Bedeutung. Insbesondere die Pionierarbeiten werden inzwischen als bekannt vorausgesetzt und nicht mehr explizit zitiert. Interessanterweise ist seine nach 1945 meist zitierte Arbeit nicht eine der Pionierarbeiten zur Quantenphysik oder Relativitätstheorie, sondern jene aus dem Jahr 1935 zum berühmten Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradoxon.

  13. Teilchenphysik SESAME - Forschung für den Frieden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopper, Herwig

    2002-01-01

    Unter der Schirmherrschaft der UNESCO entsteht in den kommenden Jahren in Jordanien ein internationales Forschungszentrum, dessen wichtigste Forschungsanlage eine Quelle für Synchrotronstrahlung sein wird. Die SESAME (Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East) genannte Anlage soll auch dazu beitragen, Vertrauen und Toleranz zwischen Wissenschaftlern und Politikern aus verschiedenen Kulturkreisen und Traditionen zu fördern. Das europäische Teilchenlabor CERN diente hier in mancher Hinsicht als Vorbild. Technische Grundlage für SESAME wird das 1999 stillgelegte Berliner Synchrotron BESSY I sein.

  14. Die Religiose Konstante. Uber den padagogischen Umgang mit naturwissenshcaftlichen Hypothesen (The Religious Constant--The Interpretation of Hypotheses of the Natural Sciences in Educational Theory).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Dieter

    1999-01-01

    Shows how evolution-theoretical behavioral research may serve to influence the theory production of pedagogics. Questions which truths and securities are required by educational practice and which consequences can be drawn for the level of theoretical cognition of the respective discipline. An analysis of the relation between religion in its…

  15. Über den Einfluß von Wirbelströmen auf die Frequenzabhängigkeit der komplexen Permeabilität hochpermeabler Mangan-Zink-Ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietzmann, G.; Schaefer, M.

    Nach der Einleitung, in der die Bedeutung der Wirbelströme für den Anstieg der Verluste mit der Frequenz in hochpermeablen Mn-Zn-Ferriten dargelegt wird, werden in Abschn. 2 gemessene Ortskurven der komplexen Permeabilität von Mn-Zn-Ferriten mit Werten der Anfangspermeabilität von 4000 bis 8000 und des spezifischen Widerstandes von 7 bis 138 cm (bei R. T.) vorgestellt. In Abschn. 3 wird der Versuch erläutert, einen gewissen Anfangsteil dieser Ortskurve durch theoretische Wirbelstromortskurven der komplexen Permeabilität, bei denen die Relaxation der komplexen Leitfähigkeit in Form eines von GRANT angegebenen Ausdruckes berücksichtigt ist, wiederzugeben. Die Ergebnisse, die in Abschn. 4 diskutiert werden, erlauben den Schluß, daß die mit der Relaxation der Leitfähigkeit verknüpften kapazitiven Wirbelströme für den Charakter des Anfangsverlaufes der an Ringkernen gemessenen Ortskurven der komplexen Permeabilität von hochpermeablen Mn-Zn-Ferriten bestimmend sein können.Translated AbstractOn the Effect of Eddy Currents on the Magnetic Spectra of High-permeability Manganese-zinc FerritesAfter stressing the importance of eddy currents on the increase of magnetic losses with frequency on high-permeability Mn-Zn-ferrites (in the introduction), experimental curves in the complex plane of the variation of the complex permeability with frequency of Mn-Zn-Ferrites with an initial permeability of 4000 up to 8000 and resistivity of 7 up to 130 ohm . cm are presented in section 2. In section 3 the attempt is stated of reproducing a certain initial part of the curve of complex permeability by theoretical eddy current curves, taking into account the relaxation of complex conductivity in form of an expression given by GRANT. The results discussed in section 4 permit the conclusion, that the capacitive eddy currents due to the relaxation of conductivity may be the essential factor determining the character of the initial turn of the complex magnetic dispersion curve

  16. Post-den emergence behavior of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.S.; Partridge, S.T.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Schliebe, S.

    2007-01-01

    We observed polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternity den sites on Alaska’s North Slope in March 2002 and 2003 in an effort to describe bears’ post-den emergence behavior. During 40 sessions spanning 459 h, we observed 8 adults and 14 dependent cubs outside dens for 37.5 h (8.2% of total observation time). There was no significant difference between den emergence dates in 2002 (mean = 15 Mar ± 4.1 d) and 2003 (mean = 21 Mar ± 2.1 d). Following initial den breakout, polar bears remained at their den sites for 1.5 to 14 days (mean = 8.1 ± 5.1 d). The average length of stay in dens between emergent periods was significantly shorter in 2002 (1.79 h) than in 2003 (4.82 h). While outside, adult bears were inactive 49.5% of the time, whereas cubs were inactive 13.4% of the time. We found no significant relationships between den emergence activity and weather. Adult polar bears at den sites subjected to industrial activity exhibited significantly fewer bouts of vigilance than denned bears in undisturbed areas (t = -5.5164, df = 4, p= 0.00). However, the duration of vigilance behaviors at sites near industrial activity was not significantly shorter than at the other sites studied (t = -1.8902, df = 4, p = 0.07). Results for these bears were within the range of findings in other studies of denned polar bears.

  17. Comments on the MIT Assessment of the Mars One Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    The MIT assessment of the Mars One mission plan reveals design assumptions that would cause significant difficulties. Growing crops in the crew chamber produces excessive oxygen levels. The assumed in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) equipment has too low a Technology Readiness Level (TRL). The required spare parts cause a large and increasing launch mass logistics burden. The assumed International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) technologies were developed for microgravity and therefore are not suitable for Mars gravity. Growing food requires more mass than sending food from Earth. The large number of spares is due to the relatively low reliability of ECLS and the low TRL of ISRU. The Mars One habitat design is similar to past concepts but does not incorporate current knowledge. The MIT architecture analysis tool for long-term settlements on the Martian surface includes an ECLS system simulation, an ISRU sizing model, and an analysis of required spares. The MIT tool showed the need for separate crop and crew chambers, the large spare parts logistics, that crops require more mass than Earth food, and that more spares are needed if reliability is lower. That ISRU has low TRL and ISS ECLS was designed for microgravity are well known. Interestingly, the results produced by the architecture analysis tool - separate crop chamber, large spares mass, large crop chamber mass, and low reliability requiring more spares - were also well known. A common approach to ECLS architecture analysis is to build a complex model that is intended to be all-inclusive and is hoped will help solve all design problems. Such models can struggle to replicate obvious and well-known results and are often unable to answer unanticipated new questions. A better approach would be to survey the literature for background knowledge and then directly analyze the important problems.

  18. Real-time control of the MIT vehicle emulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durfee, William K.; Idris, Husni R.; Dubowsky, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The MIT vehicle emulation system (VES) is an experimental facility designed to facilitate the study of controlling robots fixed to nonstationary bases. This includes assembly and repair manipulators attached to space vehicles, or to the space shuttle arm, as well as manipulators fixed to the bed of moving ground vehicles. Controlling manipulators under these conditions for endpoint force and positioning tasks requires both the development of new theory, and the development of a testbed for verifying theoretical results through experimentation. A description is presented of the technical details of the real-time controller for the second generation VES system.

  19. Research in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at MIT LABA

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.; Howard, W.B.; Song, H.; Blackburn, B.; Binello, E.

    1997-02-01

    A 4.1 MeV tandem electrostatic accelerator designed for research into Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has recently been installed in the MIT Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (LABA). This accelerator uses a very high current switch mode high voltage power supply in conjunction with a multi-cusp negative ion source to supply the multimilliampere current required for clinical BNCT applications. A number of individual research projects aimed at evaluating the potential of this accelerator design as a hospital-based neutron source for radiation therapy of both tumors and rheumatoid arthritis are described here. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Characteristics of the MIT microwiggler for free electron laser applications

    SciTech Connect

    Catravas, P.; Stoner, R.; Bekefi, G.

    1995-12-31

    We report work on the development of microwiggler technology for free electron laser research. The MIT microwiggler is a pulsed electromagnet with 70 periods of 8.8 mm each which generates a peak on-axis field of 4.2 kG. The wiggler is characterized by extensive tunability. We developed a novel tuning regimen to control 140 degrees of freedom afforded by the individually tunable half periods and achieved an rms spread in the peak amplitudes of 0.08%. This is the lowest attained to date in any sub-cm period wiggler. The microwiggler design and comprehensive measurements of its characteristics will be described.

  1. Flammability screening tests of resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arhart, R. W.; Farrar, D. G.; Hughes, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    Selected flammability characteristics of glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins are evaluated. A protocol for the evaluation of the flammability hazards presented by glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins and the usefulness of that protocol with two laminates are presented. The glass laminates of an epoxy resin, M-751 are evaluated for: (1) determination of smoke generation from the laminates; (2) analysis of products of oxidative degradation of the laminates; (3) determination of minimum oxygen necessary to maintain flaming oxidation; (4) evaluation of toxicological hazards.

  2. Dens invaginatus in a geminated maxillary lateral incisor.

    PubMed

    Pallivathukal, Renjith George; Misra, Alok; Nagraj, Sumanth Kumbargere; Donald, Preethy Mary

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) and gemination are two developmental abnormalities that are well reported in the dental literature, but their coexistence in a single tooth is rare. Such situations worsen the risk factors associated with these anomalies, and the treatment plan should be customised as they possess altered morphology and anatomy. A 19-year-old girl came for evaluation of a cracked tooth in the front region of the upper jaw. The tooth showed clinical features of gemination and radiographic features of DI, and was diagnosed as DI in geminated maxillary lateral incisor. The differential diagnoses based on clinical appearance without radiographic investigation may warrant the treatment approach if these two abnormalities coexist in a single tooth. The report also highlights the importance of three-dimensional imaging in diagnosis and treatment planning of teeth with altered pulp canal anatomy. There are few reported cases in the literature detailing the treatment options for these two anomalies occurring in the same tooth.

  3. Polar bear maternal den habitat in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ambrosius, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth during mid-winter in dens of ice and snow. Denning polar bears subjected to human disturbances may abandon dens before their altricial young can survive the rigors of the Arctic winter. Because the Arctic coastal plain of Alaska is an area of high petroleum potential and contains existing and planned oil field developments, the distribution of polar bear dens on the plain is of interest to land managers. Therefore, as part of a study of denning habitats along the entire Arctic coast of Alaska, we examined high-resolution aerial photographs (n = 1655) of the 7994 km2 coastal plain included in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) and mapped 3621 km of bank habitat suitable for denning by polar bears. Such habitats were distributed uniformly and comprised 0.29% (23.2 km2) of the coastal plain between the Canning River and the Canadian border. Ground-truth sampling suggested that we had correctly identified 91.5% of bank denning habitats on the ANWR coastal plain. Knowledge of the distribution of these habitats will help facilitate informed management of human activities and minimize disruption of polar bears in maternal dens.

  4. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

  5. Dens Invaginatus in Primary Maxillary Molar: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Abhinav; Kulkarni, Vinaya Kumar; Dhar, Reema Sharma

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dens invaginatus is a rare developmental anomaly. It is unusual to find this anomaly in primary dentition. Diagnosis of this dens invaginatus is important due to possible pulpal involvement. Not only that, simultaneous presence of other dental anomaly may require long-term treatment planning. Dens invaginatus can be detected clinically in the tooth presenting unusual crown morphology or radiographically as radiopacity within tooth. This article describes one of the first case reports of dens invaginatus in primary maxillary second molar in a 5-year-old female patient. How to cite this article: Bansal AV, Bansal A, Kulkarni VK, Dhar RS. Dens Invaginatus in Primary Maxillary Molar: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):139-141. PMID:25206154

  6. Surveillance of Populations at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma Development in Rural Communities of Thailand Using the Korat-CCA Verbal Screening Test.

    PubMed

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Loyd, Ryan A; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kompor, Porntip; Norkaew, Jun; Chavengkun, Wasugree; Wakkhuwattapong, Parichart; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Phatisena, Tanida; Eaksunti, Thawatchai; Polsripradist, Poowadol; Joosiri, Apinya; Sukkasam, Inchat; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern region. Active surveillance in rural communities with an appropriat low-cost screening tool is required to facilitate early detection. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the population at risk of CCA in Bua Yai district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Northeastern Thailand using the Korat-CCA verbal screening test (KCVST) during June to October 2015. Reliability of KCVST demonstrated a Cronbach alpha coefficient=0.75 Stepwise-multiple regression showed that alcohol consumption was important for CCA screened, followed by agriculture and pesticide use, under-cooked cyprinoid fish consumption, praziquantel use, naïve northeastern people, opisthorchiasis, family relatives with CCA, and cholangitis or cholecystitis or gallstones, respectively. Population at risk for CCA was classified to low risk (63.4%), moderate risk (33.7%), and high risk (1.32%) for CCA. When CCA was screened using ultrasonography, 4 of 32 high risk participants had an abnormal biliary tract with dilated bile ducts. This study indicates that KCVST is a potential useful too which decrease the cost of large scale CCA screening. PMID:27221919

  7. Dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy as a preoperative screening test. A reexamination of its predictive potential. Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group

    SciTech Connect

    Mangano, D.T.; London, M.J.; Tubau, J.F.; Browner, W.S.; Hollenberg, M.; Krupski, W.; Layug, E.L.; Massie, B. )

    1991-08-01

    The authors examined the value of dipyridamole thallium-201 (201Tl) scintigraphy as a preoperative screening test for perioperative myocardial ischemia and infarction. They prospectively studied 60 patients undergoing elective vascular surgery. They performed 201Tl scintigraphy preoperatively and blinded all treating physicians to the results. Historical, clinical, laboratory, and physiological data were gathered throughout hospitalization. Myocardial ischemia was assessed during the intraoperative period using continuous 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and during the postoperative period using continuous two-lead ambulatory ECG. Adverse cardiac outcomes (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, severe ischemia, or congestive heart failure) were assessed daily throughout hospitalization. Twenty-two patients (37%) had defects that improved or reversed on delayed scintigrams (redistribution defects), 18 (30%) had persistent defects, and 20 (33%) had no defects on 201Tl scintigraphy. There was no association between redistribution defects and adverse cardiac outcomes: 54% (seven of 13) of adverse outcomes occurred in patients without redistribution defects, and the risk of an adverse outcome was not significantly increased in patients with redistribution defects. Consistent with these findings, there was also no association between redistribution defects and perioperative ischemia: 54% (19 of all 35) of perioperative ECG and TEE ischemic episodes and 58% (14 of 24) of severe ischemic episodes occurred in patients without redistribution defects. The sensitivity of 201Tl scintigraphy for perioperative ischemia and adverse outcomes ranged from 40% to 54%, specificity from 65% to 71%, positive predictive value from 27% to 47% and negative predictive value from 61% to 82%.

  8. Test-retest reliability of a self-administered Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in primary care patients

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Wright, Shana; Rotrosen, John; Khan, Rubina; Lee, Joshua D.; Gourevitch, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    The time required to conduct drug and alcohol screening has been a major barrier to its implementation in mainstream healthcare settings. Because patient self-administered tools are potentially more efficient, we translated the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) into an audio guided computer assisted self interview (ACASI) format. This study reports on the test-retest reliability of the ACASI ASSIST in an adult primary care population. Adult primary care patients completed the ACASI ASSIST, in English or Spanish, twice within a 1–4 week period. Among the 101 participants, there were no significant differences between test administrations in detecting moderate to high risk use for tobacco, alcohol, or any other drug class. Substance risk scores from the two administrations had excellent concordance (90–98%) and high correlation (ICC 0.90–0.97) for tobacco, alcohol, and drugs. The ACASI ASSIST has good test-retest reliability, and warrants additional study to evaluate its validity for detecting unhealthy substance use. PMID:24629887

  9. An assessment of biodegradability of quaternary carbon-containing fragrance compounds: comparison of experimental OECD screening test results and in silico prediction data.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, Markus; Boschung, Alain

    2014-05-01

    An assessment of biodegradability was carried out for fragrance substances containing quaternary carbons by using data obtained from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 301F screening tests for ready biodegradation and from Biowin and Catalogic prediction models. Despite an expected challenging profile, a relatively high percentage of common-use fragrance substances showed significant biodegradation under the stringent conditions applied in the OECD 301F test. Among 27 test compounds, 37% met the pass level criteria after 28 d, while another 26% indicated partial breakdown (≥20% biodegradation). For several compounds for which structural analogs were available, the authors found that structures that were rendered less water soluble by either the presence of an acetate ester or the absence of oxygen tended to degrade to a lesser extent compared to the primary alcohols or oxygenated counterparts under the test conditions applied. Difficulties were encountered when attempting to correlate experimental with in silico data. Whereas the Biowin model combinations currently recommended by regulatory agencies did not allow for a reliable discrimination between readily and nonbiodegradable compounds, only a comparably small proportion of the chemicals studied (30% and 63% depending on the model) fell within the applicability domain of Catalogic, a factor that critically reduced its predictive power. According to these results, currently neither Biowin nor Catalogic accurately reflects the potential for biodegradation of fragrance compounds containing quaternary carbons.

  10. The importance of negative predictive value (NPV) of vulnerable elderly survey (VES 13) as a pre-screening test in older patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Castagneto, B; Di Pietrantonj, C; Stevani, I; Anfossi, A; Arzese, M; Giorcelli, L; Giaretto, L

    2013-12-01

    The importance of prognostic value of the comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is well known in geriatric oncology, but there is no consensus on the use of alternative abbreviated screening methods for the evaluation of older patient disabilities. The participants in this study underwent vulnerable elderly survey 13 (VES 13) at first entry in Oncology Department and were later assessed by a geriatrician according to CGA. A score >3 for VES 13 identified patients as vulnerable. Aim of this study was to evaluate the specificity, sensibility, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of VES 13 versus cumulative illness rating scale (CIRS), activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and short portable mental status questionnaire (SPMSQ). Hundred and seventeen patients (mean age 78.8 years) entered the study. The NPV of VES was 74.6% for CIRS, 90.1% for IADL, 93.0% for ADL, and 100% for SPMSQ. As for PPV, the VES 13 showed no accuracy. We can conclude that VES 13 demonstrated sufficient accuracy as a screening test in identifying elderly "fit" patients in order to spare the more time-consuming CGA.

  11. The E-screen test and the MELN gene-reporter assay used for determination of estrogenic activity in fruits and vegetables in relation to pesticide residues.

    PubMed

    Schilirò, Tiziana; Porfido, Arianna; Longo, Annalisa; Coluccia, Sara; Gilli, Giorgio

    2013-12-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may lead to adverse systemic effects by interfering with normal hormone homeostasis, and diet is considered to be among the main routes of EDC exposure. The present study investigated the total estrogenic activity of fruits and vegetables by calculating the 17-β-estradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ) using two in vitro tests: the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay (E-screen test) and the luciferase-transfected human breast cancer cell line (MELN) gene-reporter assay. Of the 24 analyzed fruits and vegetables, 14 contained from 1 to 4 pesticide residues in concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 1.19 ppm, whereas the other 10 did not contain any pesticide residues. The EEQ values for all positive samples ranged from 0.010 to 0.616 μg/100g for the above in vitro tests. Our study demonstrates that estrogenic activity was present in fruits and vegetables and that the concentration of allowable pesticide residues and EEQ values were positively correlated; however, no correlation was found by comparing the estrogenic activity and the intrinsic content of phytoestrogens obtained from the available literature. A theoretical adult dietary intake of 0.7-0.9 ng EEQ/L/day from fruits and vegetables was calculated.

  12. Psychometric properties of the Turkish versions of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) in the prison setting.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Ogel, Kultegin; Evren, Bilge; Bozkurt, Muge

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) in prisoners with (n = 124) or without (n = 78) drug use disorder. Participants were evaluated with the DUDIT, the DAST-10, and the Addiction Profile Index-Short (API-S). The DUDIT and the DAST-10 were found to be psychometrically sound drug abuse screening measures with high convergent validity when compared with each other (r = 0.86), and API-S (r = 0.88 and r = 0.84, respectively), and to have a Cronbach's α of 0.93 and 0.87, respectively. In addition, a single component accounted for 58.28% of total variance for DUDIT, whereas this was 47.10% for DAST-10. The DUDIT had sensitivity and specificity scores of 0.95 and 0.79, respectively, when using the optimal cut-off score of 10, whereas these scores were 0.88 and 0.74 for the DAST-10 when using the optimal cut-off score of 4. Additionally, both the DUDIT and the DAST-10 showed good discriminant validity as they differentiated prisoners with drug use disorder from those without. Findings support the Turkish versions of both the DUDIT and the DAST-10 as reliable and valid drug abuse screening instruments that measure unidimensional constructs.

  13. Benzodiazepine whole blood concentrations in cases with positive oral fluid on-site screening test results using the DrugWipe(®) single for benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Blencowe, Tom; Vimpari, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2011-07-01

    Reliable on-site oral fluid screening devices are a useful and convenient means of policing traffic. In Finland, benzodiazepines represent a particular challenge to traffic safety. This study presents a retrospective examination of toxicological analysis results from whole blood in cases which gave a positive screening result for benzodiazepines in oral fluid using the DrugWipe Single device (Securetec). Use of oral fluid on-site screening tests and blood confirmation analyses reflects the real situation in many countries. The data were compiled from the databases of Alcohol and Drug Analytics Unit at the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Confirmation analysis results in whole blood were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were from 224 real cases in which the Finnish police had conducted a DrugWipe Single benzodiazepines test on drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). The benzodiazepine concentrations encountered in positive oral fluid screening cases in this study indicate that the device is able to detect these substances even at relatively low levels. However, the DrugWipe device does not enable any distinction between therapeutic use and harmful use of benzodiazepines at higher doses.

  14. METC ceramic corrosion/erosion studies: turbine-material screening tests in high-temperature, low-Btu, coal-derived-gas combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Waltermire, D.M.; Hawkins, L.W.; Jarrett, T.L.

    1982-05-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center, through its Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies, has participated in the United States Department of Energy's High-Temperature Turbine Technology Program, Ceramic Technology Readiness. The program's overall objective is to advance the turbine firing temperature to a range of 2600/sup 0/ to 3000/sup 0/F (1700 to 1922K) with a reasonable service life using coal or coal-derived fuel. The Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies' major objective was to conduct a screening test for several ceramic materials to assess their probability of survival in turbine applications. The materials were exposed to combustion products from low heating value coal-derived gas and air at several high temperatures and velocities. The combustion product composition and temperatures simulated actual environment that may be found in stationary power generating gas turbines except for the pressure levels. The results of approximately 1000 hours of accumulative exposure time of material at the specific test conditions are presented in this report.

  15. Application of an in vitro-amplification assay as a novel pre-screening test for compounds inhibiting the aggregation of prion protein scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Matthias; Cramm, Maria; Llorens, Franc; Candelise, Niccolò; Müller-Cramm, Dominik; Varges, Daniela; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J.; Zafar, Saima; Zerr, Inga

    2016-01-01

    In vitro amplification assays, such as real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) are used to detect aggregation activity of misfolded prion protein (PrP) in brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and urine samples from patients with a prion disease. We believe that the method also has a much broader application spectrum. In the present study, we applied RT-QuIC as a pre-screening test for substances that potentially inhibit the aggregation process of the cellular PrP (PrPC) to proteinase (PK)-resistant PrPres. We chose doxycycline as the test substance as it has been tested successfully in animal models and proposed in clinical studies as a therapeutic for prion diseases. The RT-QuIC-reaction was seeded with brain tissue or CSF from sCJD patients and doxycycline was then added in different concentrations as well as at different time points. In both experiments, we observed a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of the RT-QuIC seeding response and a decrease of PK resistant PrPres when doxycycline was added. In contrast, ampicillin or sucrose had no effect on the RT-QuIC seeding response. Our study is the first to apply RT-QuIC as a pre-screening assay for compounds inhibiting the PrP aggregation in vitro and confirms that doxycycline is an efficient inhibitor of the PrP aggregation process in RT-QuIC analysis. PMID:27385410

  16. Particle agglutination test "Serodia HIV-1/2" as a novel anti-HIV-1/2 screening test: comparative study on 3311 serum samples.

    PubMed

    Poljak, M; Zener, N; Seme, K; Kristancic, L

    1997-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays are most widely used screening tests for antibodies to human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). Nevertheless, the need of simpler, noninstrumented tests is evident in many parts of the world, where laboratory facilities and trained personnel are limited, and HIV incidence is high. A recently developed variant of gelatin-particle agglutination tests, Serodia HIV-1/2 (Fujirebio Inc., Tokyo, Japan), is one of such simple and noninstrumented tests. To evaluate its utility, 3311 serum samples (281 anti-HIV-1 positive, 8 anti-HIV-2 positive and 3022 anti-HIV-1/2 negative) obtained from 2632 individuals from Slovenia, other parts of former Yugoslavia and Senegal were investigated. No false-negative results and only one false-positive result were obtained during the procedures, giving overall sensitivity and specificity of the particle agglutination test of 100% and 99.97%, respectively. We have concluded that Serodia HIV-1/2 test is highly specific and sensitive for detection of anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies, suitable for small blood banks and for epidemiological surveys.

  17. Alteration of perceived fragrance of essential oils in relation to type of work: a simple screening test for efficacy of aroma.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Y; Hino, Y; Kawasaki, M; Hara, C; Tamura, K; Sugimoto, N; Yamanishi, Y; Miyauchi, M; Masujima, T; Aoki, T

    1999-08-01

    The perceptional change of fragrance of essential oils is described in relation to type of work, i.e. mental work, physical work and hearing environmental (natural) sounds. The essential oils examined in this study were ylang ylang, orange, geranium, cypress, bergamot, spearmint and juniper. In evaluating change in perception of a given aroma, a sensory test was employed in which the perception of fragrance was assessed by 13 contrasting pairs of adjectives. Scores were recorded after inhaling a fragrance before and after each type of work, and the statistical significance of the change of score for 13 impression descriptors was examined by Student's t-test for each type of work. It was confirmed that inhalation of essential oil caused a different subjective perception of fragrance depending on the type of work. For example, inhalation of cypress after physical work produced a much more favorable impression than before work, in contrast to orange, which produced an unfavorable impression after physical work when compared with that before work. For mental work, inhalation of juniper seemed to create a favorable impression after work, whereas geranium and orange both produced an unfavorable impression then. From these studies, together with those conducted previously with lavender, rosemary, linalool, peppermint, marjoram, cardamom, sandalwood, basil and lime, we thus concluded that the sensory test described here might serve not only as a screening test for efficacy of aroma but also as a categorized table for aroma samples which can act as a reference to each other. PMID:10480677

  18. MIT Lincoln Laboratory: Physics and Technology in the National Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, Richard

    2001-03-01

    This year, MIT is celebrating the 50th anniversary of the founding of Lincoln Laboratory, which was formed at the request of the DoD with the initial goal of developing a national air defense system. In its 50 years, the Laboratory staff have made significant contributions in diverse areas including radar imaging, satellite communications, digital signal processing, computer science, semiconductor materials and solid state physics. The Laboratory has been true to its mission statement, which places strong emphasis on the application of advanced electronics to R&D in the national interest. Much of the technology is transitioned to U.S. industry for both government and commercial use. Annually more than 500 publications and meeting speeches are given, and cooperative developments with industry have targeted technology transitions ranging from next-generation photolithographic tools to microchip lasers. The Laboratory staff have been granted over 400 patents, and license to this intellectual property is at the core of many of the over 70 spin-off companies. MIT employs 2,300 people at Lincoln, including 1,200 professionals with degrees in physics, math, computer science, materials science and the engineering disciplines. Two-fifths of the professional staff are at the doctoral level; over two-thirds hold advanced degrees. This presentation will describe recent examples of research challenges for physicists in a multidisciplinary project-oriented environment.

  19. MIT nuclear reactor laboratory high school teaching program

    SciTech Connect

    Olmez, I. )

    1991-11-01

    For the last 6 years, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Nuclear Reactor Laboratory's academic and scientific staff{sup a} have been conducting evening seminars for precollege science teachers, parents, and high school students from the New England area. These seminars, as outlined in this paper, are intended to give general information on nuclear technologies with specific emphasis on radiation physics, nuclear medicine, nuclear chemistry, and ongoing research activities at the MIT research reactor. The ultimate goal is to create interest or build on the already existing interest in science and technology by, for example, special student projects. Several small projects have already been completed ranging from environmental research to biological reactions with direct student involvement. Another outcome of these seminars was the change in attitudes of science teachers toward nuclear technology. Numerous letters have been received from the teachers and parents stating their previous lack of knowledge on the beneficial aspects of nuclear technologies and the subsequent inclusion of programs in their curriculum for educating students so that they may also develop a more positive attitude toward nuclear power.

  20. Education Outreach at MIT Plasma Science Fusion Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Censabella, V.; Nachtrieb, R.; Rivenberg, P.

    1998-11-01

    Outreach at the MIT PSFC consists of volunteers working together to increase the public's knowledge of fusion and plasma-related experiments. Seeking to generate excitement about science, engineering and mathematics, the PSFC holds a number of outreach activities throughout the year, such as Middle and High School Outreach Days. Outreach also includes the Mr. Magnet Program, which uses an interactive strategy to engage elementary school children. Included in this year's presentation will be a live demo of a compressed-air bottle rocket (really a one-liter plastic soda bottle) for use in high school science classrooms that researchers at the Cambridge Physics Outlet (a PSFC spin-off company) have developed. To prepare the rocket for launch, the bottle is filled with compressed air at pressures up to 80 psi and the end is plugged. The rocket is released when the plug is pulled. The gas escapes at supersonic velocities and accelerates the bottle at over 1000 m/s^2. The velocity of the bottle is measured at many locations along its ``trajectory". A simple thermodynamic model predicts performance in excellent agreement with observation. The PSFC maintains a Home Page on the World Wide Web, which can be reached at http://pfc.mit.edu.

  1. Predominance of the DEN-3 genotype during the recent dengue outbreak in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Aziz, M M; Hasan, K N; Hasanat, M A; Siddiqui, M A; Salimullah, M; Chowdhury, A K; Ahmed, Moslehuddin; Alam, M N; Hassan, M S

    2002-03-01

    A recent outbreak of dengue in Bangladesh was marked by many fatal complications. As clinical virulence varies among the genotypes of dengue virus, a study was conducted to investigate the molecular genotypes of dengue in Bangladesh. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to determine viral genotypes using oligonucleotide generic primers that produce a 511 bp product. The resulting product was typed by nested PCR with strain-specific primers, yielding 482 (DEN-1), 119 (DEN-2), 290 (DEN-3) and 392 (DEN-4), visualized on UV transilluminator after electrophoresis on 2% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Of 45 clinically diagnosed dengue patients (mean age 28 years; male/female 30/15), 19 (42.2%) had detectable viral RNA in their blood. However, during the first 5 days of fever in 30 patients, the frequency was 60% (18/30), implying that the sooner serum is drawn after the fever, the greater the chances of detecting viral RNA. DEN-3 was detected in all except 2 patients who were infected with DEN-2. DEN-2 (two cases) and DEN-4 (one case) were present as co-infections with DEN-3. All of the patients presented with fever, anorexia and vomiting; many had headache and general body ache; a few had a rash. About a quarter had suffered episodes of bleeding, while ascites, pleural effusion and CNS symptoms were found in a few patients Patients positive for viral RNA were also positive for anti-dengue IgM (p=0.007) in subsequent sampling. The study suggests the predominance of DEN-3 infection with occasional co-infection with other types, during the recent outbreak of dengue in Bangladesh.

  2. Vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue 2 virus in Fujian, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Xing, Dan; Dong, Yan-De; Zhang, Heng-Duan; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Dengue is an acute, emerging, infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes that has become a serious global public health problem. The DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue 2 virus were originally isolated from the serum of a patient with dengue fever in Fujian Province, China, in 1999. Our data provide the first assessment of the vector competence of Aedes mosquitoes with respect to the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue virus. There were significant differences in the replication rates of these two viral strains in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (P<0.05); replication of the DEN2-FJ10 strain was greater in Ae. aegypti than in Ae. albopictus 5 days post infection whereas replication of the DEN2-FJ11 was greater in Ae. albopictus than in Ae. aegypti 7 days post infection. The replicative ability of the DEN2-FJ11 strain was greater than that of the DEN2-FJ10 strain in infected Ae. albopictus. In infected Ae. aegypti, rapid proliferation of the DEN2-FJ10 strain occurred earlier than in the DEN2-FJ11 strain. There were no significant differences in the midgut and salivary gland infection rates of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti with respect to either viral strain. Although the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains differ in their virulence to neonatal rats, there was no significant difference in the ability of either Ae. albopictus or Ae. aegypti to transmit the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ10 strains of the dengue 2 virus (P>0.05). In summary, our results indicate that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are moderately competent vectors of the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue virus and provide the first evidence of the effect of these two viral strains on the vector competence of mosquitoes in China.

  3. Vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue 2 virus in Fujian, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Xing, Dan; Dong, Yan-De; Zhang, Heng-Duan; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Dengue is an acute, emerging, infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes that has become a serious global public health problem. The DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue 2 virus were originally isolated from the serum of a patient with dengue fever in Fujian Province, China, in 1999. Our data provide the first assessment of the vector competence of Aedes mosquitoes with respect to the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue virus. There were significant differences in the replication rates of these two viral strains in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (P<0.05); replication of the DEN2-FJ10 strain was greater in Ae. aegypti than in Ae. albopictus 5 days post infection whereas replication of the DEN2-FJ11 was greater in Ae. albopictus than in Ae. aegypti 7 days post infection. The replicative ability of the DEN2-FJ11 strain was greater than that of the DEN2-FJ10 strain in infected Ae. albopictus. In infected Ae. aegypti, rapid proliferation of the DEN2-FJ10 strain occurred earlier than in the DEN2-FJ11 strain. There were no significant differences in the midgut and salivary gland infection rates of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti with respect to either viral strain. Although the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains differ in their virulence to neonatal rats, there was no significant difference in the ability of either Ae. albopictus or Ae. aegypti to transmit the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ10 strains of the dengue 2 virus (P>0.05). In summary, our results indicate that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are moderately competent vectors of the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue virus and provide the first evidence of the effect of these two viral strains on the vector competence of mosquitoes in China. PMID:27260668

  4. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  5. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  6. M.I.T. and the Federal Government. An Examination of the Effects of Government Regulation and Research Support on Selected Parts of M.I.T.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvin, David

    A self-study was undertaken at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.) to examine the impact of the federal government on it. M.I.T. is a large institution with an enrollment of 8,000, a faculty of 950, and a total teaching staff of 1,700. Of its operating expenses by far the largest source of funds in recent years has been sponsored…

  7. Mobile-IT Education (MIT.EDU): M-Learning Applications for Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, M.; Gips, J.; Eagle, N.; Madan, A.; Caneel, R.; DeVaul, R.; Bonsen, J.; Pentland, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Mobile-IT Education (MIT.EDU) system, which demonstrates the potential of using a distributed mobile device architecture for rapid prototyping of wireless mobile multi-user applications for use in classroom settings. MIT.EDU is a stable, accessible system that combines inexpensive, commodity hardware, a flexible…

  8. Assessing International Product Design and Development Graduate Courses: The MIT-Portugal Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Silva, Arlindo

    2010-01-01

    The Product Design and Development (PDD) course is part of the graduate curriculum in the Engineering Design and Advanced Manufacturing (EDAM) study in the MIT-Portugal Program. The research participants included about 110 students from MIT, EDAM, and two universities in Portugal, Instituto Superior Técnico-Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (IST) and…

  9. Scratch that: MIT's Mitchel Resnick Says Kids Should Do It for Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traylor, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Mitchel Resnick is a researcher, inventor, and professor at MIT's Media Laboratory in Cambridge, MA, and the founder of the Lifelong Kindergarten Group at MIT. He is the lead innovator behind many cutting-edge learning technologies and projects for children, including the Computer Clubhouse, PicoCrickets, and the wildly successful consumer…

  10. Temperature-driven and photo-induced MIT behaviors of VO2 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Ahrum; Kim, Dong-Wook; Byun, Ji-Won; Baik, Jeong Min

    2014-03-01

    VO2 shows a metal-insulator transition (MIT) and structural phase transition (SPT) at critical temperature (Tc) of 343K. It has been known that the MIT and SPT behaviors of VO2 can be tuned by external stimuli such as light, electric-field, and strain. We carried out comparative studies of MIT behaviors of VO2 nanowires during heating-cooling cycles with and without illumination using several light sources (red, blue, and UV). Light can induce change in Tc and hysteresis width of the resistance change. We have investigated influences of light on SPT during MIT. In this presentation, we will discuss possible physical origins for the photo-induced effects on the MIT behaviors of the VO2 nanowires.

  11. Child Care is Everybody's Baby: A Comprehensive Report of Child Care Services, Past, Present, and Future at M.I.T. Final Child Care Proposals as Accepted by M.I.T.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Marilyn S.

    The report on child care services at M.I.T. explores the following areas: (1) Planning Issues: Why Should M.I.T. Be Involved in Child Care?--educational concerns, services, benefits and costs, priorities, resource allocation; (2) Background for Planning; Current Institute Child Care Programs--a concise history, M.I.T. summer day camp, the…

  12. Radiographic Study of the Prevalence of Dens Invaginatus in a Sample Set of Turkish Dental Patients

    PubMed Central

    Çolak, Hakan; Tan, Enes; Aylıkçı, Bahadır Uğur; Uzgur, Recep; Turkal, Mustafa; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dens invaginatus in a sample of Turkish dental patients. Materials and Methods: The sample included 6, 912 panoramic radiographs from different Turkish dental patients. The ages of the patients ranged from 18 to 50 years. A tooth was considered having dens invaginatus if an infolding of a radiopaque ribbon-like structure equal in density to enamel was seen extending from the cingulum into the root canal. Maxillary and mandibular teeth were evaluated on panoramic radiographs to determine the type of dens invaginatus using Oehlers’ classification. Results: The overall incidence of patients with dens invaginatus was 0.17%. Dens invaginatus were detected in 15 teeth of a total of 192 150 teeth to give a tooth prevalence of 0.008%. Maxillary lateral incisors were most commonly affected teeth in the mouth (80% of cases), followed by maxillary canine teeth (20% of cases). The bilateral incidence of a symmetrical distribution was 25%. Conclusion: The occurrence of dens invaginatus among this Turkish population was rare. Attention should be paid to the presence of dens invaginatus and the treatment problems associated with it. PMID:22919548

  13. Grizzly bear denning and potential conflict areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podruzny, Shannon; Cherry, Steve; Schwartz, Charles C.; Landenburger, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Increasing winter use of steep, high-elevation terrain by backcountry recreationists has elevated concern about disturbance of denning grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). To help identify areas where such conflicts might occur, we developed a spatially explicit model to predict potential denning areas in the GYE. Using a scan area of 630 m around each location, we assigned site attributes to 344 den locations of radio-trackedg rizzly bears from 1975-99. Attributesi dentified as predictorsf or the analysis included elevation, slope, an index of solar radiation, and forest cover. We used the Mahalanobis distance statistic to model the similarity between sites used by denning bears and each cell in the data layers. We used the final Mahalanobis distance model to produce maps of the study area. Potential denning habitat, based upon the model, is abundantw ithin the GYE. Ourr esultsc an be used by land managementa gencies to identifyp otentialc onflict sites and minimize effects of regulated activities on denning grizzly bears. We illustrate how the Gallatin National Forest (GNF) used the model to examine the overlap between potential snowmobile use areas and potential denning habitat as part of a Biological Assessment submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cervical cancer prevention based on a rapid human papillomavirus screening test in a high-risk region of China.

    PubMed

    Levin, Carol E; Sellors, John; Shi, Ju-Fang; Ma, Li; Qiao, You-lin; Ortendahl, Jesse; O'Shea, Meredith K H; Goldie, Sue J

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of a new, rapid human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA screening test for cervical cancer prevention in the high-risk region of Shanxi, China. Using micro-costing methods, we estimated the resources needed to implement preventive strategies using cervical cytology or HPV-DNA testing, including the Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) test (QIAGEN Corp., Gaithersburg, MD) and the rapid HPV-DNA careHPV test (QIAGEN). Data were used in a previously published model and empirically calibrated to country-specific epidemiological data. Strategies differed by initial test, targeted age, frequency of screening, number of clinic visits required (1, 2 or 3) and service delivery setting (national, county and township levels). Outcomes included lifetime risk of cancer, years of life saved (YLS), lifetime costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (cost per YLS). For all screening frequencies, the most efficient strategy used 2-visit rapid HPV-DNA testing at the county level, including screening and diagnostics in the first visit, and treatment in the second visit. Screening at ages 35, 40 and 45 reduced cancer risk by 50% among women compliant with all 3 screening rounds, and was US$ 150 per YLS, compared with this same strategy applied twice per lifetime. This would be considered very cost-effective evaluated against China's per-capita gross domestic product (US$ 1,702). By enhancing the linkage between screening and treatment through a reduced number of visits, rapid HPV-DNA testing 3 times per lifetime is more effective than traditional cytology, and is likely to be cost-effective in high-risk regions of China. PMID:20049838

  15. Comparative study of three screening tests, two microbiological tube tests, and a multi-sulphonamide ELISA kit for the detection of antimicrobial and sulphonamide residues in eggs.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, V; Hedou, C; Rault, A; Sanders, P; Verdon, E

    2009-04-01

    The screening of antimicrobial residues in eggs is an especially important subject. Three different commercial kits for the screening of sulphonamides and other antimicrobials in eggs were validated in accordance with Decision 2002/657/EC: one enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) kit multi-sulphonamides (from RAISIO Diagnostics) and two microbiological tests (a Premi test from DSM and an Explorer kit from Zeu-Inmunotec). The false-positive rates were lower than 2% for all kits. The detection capabilities (CCbeta) have to be as low as possible for banned substances and lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) when MRLs have been set. The sensitivity of the Premi test was better than that of the Explorer test, probably because of the dilution of the eggs before the Explorer test was used. The CCbeta values towards most of the tested sulphonamides were satisfactory with the Premi test (< or = 100 microg kg(-1)). Performance in a proficiency test for the detection of sulphonamides in eggs with the Premi test confirmed these results. The detection capabilities of tetracycline and doxycycline were at the level of the MRL or twice the MRL maximum. The detection capabilities for chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline were higher (four to six times the MRL). The detection capabilities for amoxicillin, neomycin, tylosin and erythromycin were lower than their respective MRLs. Detection capabilities for sulphonamides were much lower for the ELISA kit than for microbiological tests. The ELISA kit could be recommended for the targeted screening of sulphonamides in eggs. On the other hand, the Explorer and Premi tests could be used as wide screening tests allowing the detection of most of the antimicrobial families.

  16. Application of an in vitro-amplification assay as a novel pre-screening test for compounds inhibiting the aggregation of prion protein scrapie.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Matthias; Cramm, Maria; Llorens, Franc; Candelise, Niccolò; Müller-Cramm, Dominik; Varges, Daniela; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Zafar, Saima; Zerr, Inga

    2016-01-01

    In vitro amplification assays, such as real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) are used to detect aggregation activity of misfolded prion protein (PrP) in brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and urine samples from patients with a prion disease. We believe that the method also has a much broader application spectrum. In the present study, we applied RT-QuIC as a pre-screening test for substances that potentially inhibit the aggregation process of the cellular PrP (PrP(C)) to proteinase (PK)-resistant PrP(res). We chose doxycycline as the test substance as it has been tested successfully in animal models and proposed in clinical studies as a therapeutic for prion diseases. The RT-QuIC-reaction was seeded with brain tissue or CSF from sCJD patients and doxycycline was then added in different concentrations as well as at different time points. In both experiments, we observed a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of the RT-QuIC seeding response and a decrease of PK resistant PrP(res) when doxycycline was added. In contrast, ampicillin or sucrose had no effect on the RT-QuIC seeding response. Our study is the first to apply RT-QuIC as a pre-screening assay for compounds inhibiting the PrP aggregation in vitro and confirms that doxycycline is an efficient inhibitor of the PrP aggregation process in RT-QuIC analysis. PMID:27385410

  17. Mineralogical analyses and in vitro screening tests for the rapid evaluation of the health hazard of volcanic ash at Rabaul volcano, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Blond, Jennifer S.; Horwell, Claire J.; Baxter, Peter J.; Michnowicz, Sabina A. K.; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Delmelle, Pierre; Dunster, Christina; Patia, Herman

    2010-11-01

    The continuous ash and gas emissions from the Tavurvur cone in Rabaul caldera, Papua New Guinea, during 2007-08, raised concerns regarding how exposure would affect the respiratory health of nearby populations and impact on the environment. As part of a formal evaluation of the effects of volcanic emissions on public health, we investigated the potential health hazard of the ash using a suite of selected mineralogical analyses and in vitro toxicity screening tests. The trachy -andesitic ash comprised 2.1-6.7 vol.% respirable (sub -4 μm diameter) particles. The crystalline silica content was 1.9-5.0 wt.% cristobalite (in the bulk sample) with trace amounts of quartz and/or tridymite. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the ash particles were angular with sparse, fibre -like particles (˜3-60 μm max. diameter) observed in some samples, which we confirmed to be CaSO4 (gypsum, at <6 wt.% in the bulk samples) and not asbestiform fibres. The ash specific surface area was low (0.1-2.7 m2 g-1). The leached solution from one of the ash samples was slightly acidic (pH 5.6), but did not contain high levels of toxic metals (such as F, Cu, Zn, Mn, As, Ni and Cd) when compared to previously tested volcanic ash leachates. Ash samples generated potentially -harmful hydroxyl radicals through an iron -mediated catalytic reaction, in the range of 0.15-2.47 μmol m-2 (after 30 min of reaction). However, measurement of particle oxidative capacity (potential oxidative stress reaction using ascorbic acid) and silica -like injury to red blood cells (erythrolysis assay, i.e. measurement of cell death) nevertheless revealed low biological reactivity. The findings suggest that acute exposure to the ash would have a limited potential to exacerbate pre -existing conditions such as asthma or chronic bronchitis, and the potential for chronic exposure leading to silicosis was low.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cervical cancer prevention based on a rapid human papillomavirus screening test in a high-risk region of China.

    PubMed

    Levin, Carol E; Sellors, John; Shi, Ju-Fang; Ma, Li; Qiao, You-lin; Ortendahl, Jesse; O'Shea, Meredith K H; Goldie, Sue J

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of a new, rapid human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA screening test for cervical cancer prevention in the high-risk region of Shanxi, China. Using micro-costing methods, we estimated the resources needed to implement preventive strategies using cervical cytology or HPV-DNA testing, including the Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) test (QIAGEN Corp., Gaithersburg, MD) and the rapid HPV-DNA careHPV test (QIAGEN). Data were used in a previously published model and empirically calibrated to country-specific epidemiological data. Strategies differed by initial test, targeted age, frequency of screening, number of clinic visits required (1, 2 or 3) and service delivery setting (national, county and township levels). Outcomes included lifetime risk of cancer, years of life saved (YLS), lifetime costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (cost per YLS). For all screening frequencies, the most efficient strategy used 2-visit rapid HPV-DNA testing at the county level, including screening and diagnostics in the first visit, and treatment in the second visit. Screening at ages 35, 40 and 45 reduced cancer risk by 50% among women compliant with all 3 screening rounds, and was US$ 150 per YLS, compared with this same strategy applied twice per lifetime. This would be considered very cost-effective evaluated against China's per-capita gross domestic product (US$ 1,702). By enhancing the linkage between screening and treatment through a reduced number of visits, rapid HPV-DNA testing 3 times per lifetime is more effective than traditional cytology, and is likely to be cost-effective in high-risk regions of China.

  19. MIT-KSC space life sciences telescience testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A Telescience Life Sciences Testbed is being developed. The first phase of this effort consisted of defining the experiments to be performed, investigating the various possible means of communication between KSC and MIT, and developing software and hardware support. The experiments chosen were two vestibular sled experiments: a study of ocular torsion produced by Y axis linear acceleration, based on the Spacelab D-1 072 Vestibular Experiment performed pre- and post-flight at KSC; and an optokinetic nystagmus (OKN)/linear acceleration interaction experiment. These two experiments were meant to simulate actual experiments that might be performed on the Space Station and to be representative of space life sciences experiments in general in their use of crew time and communications resources.

  20. Energy Flow in the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere (MIT) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. Y.; Huang, Y.; Su, Y. J.; Sutton, E. K.; Hairston, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The conventional model of energy input and dissipation in the IT system assumes that the auroral zone is the primary locus for these processes. Recent work has revealed that, contrary to this traditional view, the polar cap can play a significant role in energy transfer during magnetic storms. DMSP measurements of DC Poynting flux shows high levels of electromagnetic energy entering the polar cap at all local times (LTs) in both hemispheres during storms. An analysis of ion temperature observations at DMSP altitudes shows that the largest temperature increases occur at polar latitudes during magnetic activity. Finally, observations of neutral densities from the CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE spacecraft show that the highest frequency of occurrence of heated neutrals occurs close to the poles in both hemispheres. These results demand a revision of the standard paradigm for MIT coupling.

  1. [R]MIT Research Centre at Delft University of Technology: A Bridge between Research, Education, Society and Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zijlstra, Hielkje

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, we launched the [R]MIT Research Centre (Modification, Intervention Transformation) at the Faculty of Architecture at Delft University of Technology. [R]MIT was founded to respond to the need for an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to the transformation of the built environment. [R]MIT aims to bring momentum to the renewal of…

  2. Conservative Management of Type III Dens in Dente Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Pradeep, K.; Charlie, M.; Kuttappa, M. A.; Rao, Prasana Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Dens in dente, also known as dens invaginatus, dilated composite odontoma, or deep foramen caecum, is a developmental malformation that usually affects maxillary incisor teeth, particularly lateral incisors. It may occur in teeth anywhere within the jaws, other locations are comparatively rare. It can occur within both the crown and the root, although crown invaginations are more common. The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is very helpful in endodontic diagnosis of complex anatomic variations. In this case we demonstrate the use of CBCT in the evaluation and endodontic management of a Type III dens in dente (Oehler's Type III). PMID:23029634

  3. Dens invagination: A review of literature and report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Seema; Thakur, Narbir S.; Bramta, Manmohan; Gupta, Mohit

    2014-01-01

    Dens invaginatus occurs as a result of the invagination of the enamel organ. These cases may present difficulties with respect to its diagnosis and treatment because of canal morphology. It frequently leads to caries, pulpal, and periodontal involvement with necrosis and loss of attachment. The knowledge of classification and anatomical variations of teeth with dens invaginatus are of great importance for correct treatment. This article presents two case reports of two different types of dens invaginatus along with profound review of the literature regarding etiology, epidemiology, and histology. It discusses clinical appearance and diagnosis, and it provides guidelines for decision-making and treatment of invaginated teeth. PMID:24678234

  4. Den Entry Behavior in Scandinavian Brown Bears: Implications for Preventing Human Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sahlén, Veronica; Friebe, Andrea; Sæbø, Solve; Swenson, Jon E; Støen, Ole-Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Encounters between Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) and humans that result in human injuries and fatalities typically coincide with den entry in October and November, and commonly occur near a den. Our aim was to determine when bears arrive at their dens, identify potential predictors of this event, document behavior and activity associated with this period, and attempt to explain the increased risk of bear-caused human injuries in this period. We analyzed global positioning system (GPS) location and activity data from brown bears in south-central Sweden, using generalized linear mixed models, statistical process control, and activity analyses. Bears arrived at their den sites between 6 October and 1 December. Timing varied by reproductive category, bear age, and year. Half of all bears significantly reduced their activity before arriving at the den area: on average 2,169 m away from the den and 1.8 days before arrival. The other half reduced their activity after arriving at the den area. The latter bears took longer time to reach hibernation activity levels, but we did not find a difference in the start date of hibernation between the 2 groups. Bears also appeared to be sensitive to disturbance in this period, with higher den abandonment rates than later in winter, particularly for males and for bears that had not visited their den sites previously. Den entry occurred from October to December, with high variability and poor predictability of its timing. Therefore, restricting hunting or other recreation activities to reduce risk of injury by bears and disturbing bears probably would be both impractical and ineffective. Our findings can be used to educate hunters about bear behavior at this time of year. Many people associate dens with an increased risk of a bear responding aggressively to disturbance to defend its den, but our results indicate that other behavioral, and possibly physiological, changes in this period also may be involved. © 2014 The

  5. Type III Dens Invaginatus with an Associated Cyst: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Thejokrishna, P

    2011-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (dens in dente) is a rare malformation with a widely varied morphology. An unusual presentation of a type III dens invaginatus affecting a conical shaped permanent lateral incisor in an 8-year-old female patient is reported. The presence of a pulp stone and a periapical radiolucency further added onto the complexity of the case. The etiology, pathophysiology, association with other dental anomalies as well as the challenges in management of this anomaly are discussed. An extensive literature review is also presented.

  6. 2mit, an Intronic Gene of Drosophila melanogaster timeless2, Is Involved in Behavioral Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Benna, Clara; Leonardi, Emanuela; Romoli, Ottavia; Cognolato, Moira; Tosatto, Silvio C. E.; Costa, Rodolfo; Sandrelli, Federica

    2013-01-01

    Background Intronic genes represent ~6% of the total gene complement in Drosophila melanogaster and ~85% of them encode for proteins. We recently characterized the D. melanogaster timeless2 (tim2) gene, showing its active involvement in chromosomal stability and light synchronization of the adult circadian clock. The protein coding gene named 2mit maps on the 11th tim2 intron in the opposite transcriptional orientation. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the molecular and functional characterization of 2mit. The 2mit gene is expressed throughout Drosophila development, localizing mainly in the nervous system during embryogenesis and mostly in the mushroom bodies and ellipsoid body of the central complex in the adult brain. In silico analyses revealed that 2mit encodes a putative leucine-Rich Repeat transmembrane receptor with intrinsically disordered regions, harboring several fully conserved functional interaction motifs in the cytosolic side. Using insertional mutations, tissue-specific over-expression, and down-regulation approaches, it was found that 2mit is implicated in adult short-term memory, assessed by a courtship conditioning assay. In D. melanogaster, tim2 and 2mit do not seem to be functionally related. Bioinformatic analyses identified 2MIT orthologs in 21 Drosophilidae, 4 Lepidoptera and in Apis mellifera. In addition, the tim2-2mit host-nested gene organization was shown to be present in A. mellifera and maintained among Drosophila species. Within the Drosophilidae 2mit-hosting tim2 intron, in silico approaches detected a neuronal specific transcriptional binding site which might have contributed to preserve the specific host-nested gene association across Drosophila species. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these results indicate that 2mit, a gene mainly expressed in the nervous system, has a role in the behavioral plasticity of the adult Drosophila. The presence of a putative 2mit regulatory enhancer within the 2mit-hosting tim2

  7. Inducing G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis through Generation Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Mediated Mitochondria Pathway in HT-29 Cells by Dentatin (DEN) and Dentatin Incorporated in Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (DEN-HPβCD)

    PubMed Central

    Ashwaq, Al-Abboodi Shakir; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; Rasedee, Abdullah; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2016-01-01

    Dentatin (DEN), purified from the roots of Clausena excavata Burm f., has poor aqueous solubility that reduces its therapeutic application. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of DEN-HPβCD (hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) complex as an anticancer agent in HT29 cancer cell line and compare with a crystal DEN in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The exposure of the cancer cells to DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex leads to cell growth inhibition as determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. To analyze the mechanism, in which DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex causes the death in human colon HT29 cancer cells, was evaluated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA)-based assays for caspase-3, 8, 9, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The findings showed that an anti-proliferative effect of DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex were via cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and eventually induced apoptosis through both mitochondrial and extrinsic pathways. The down-regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) which leaded to apoptosis upon treatment, was investigated by Western-blotting. Hence, complexation between DEN and HPβCD did not diminish or eliminate the effective properties of DEN as anticancer agent. Therefore, it would be possible to resolve the conventional and current issues associated with the development and commercialization of antineoplastic agents in the future. PMID:27763535

  8. Sex steroid and prolactin profiles in male American black bears (Ursus americanus) during denning.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, T; Garshelis, D L; Nelson, R A; Bahr, J M

    1999-01-01

    Serum sex steroid and prolactin profiles were examined in the male American black bear, Ursus americanus during denning. Sera collected in December and the following March from 8 denning male black bears in Minnesota, U.S.A. were assayed for testosterone, estradiol-17 beta and prolactin. Eight bears were confirmed to be the denning mode based on a serum urea to creatinine ratio less than 10. Serum testosterone concentrations tended to increase from December to the subsequent March whereas serum estradiol-17 beta concentrations tended to decrease during this period. There were few changes in serum prolactin concentrations between December and March. These findings suggest that spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis initiated during denning may be influenced by changes in serum sex steroid concentrations in the American black bear. PMID:10027172

  9. Star in Deep Freeze Chills Theory, MIT Researchers Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    CAMBRIDGE, Mass. -- Like a frozen turkey that just won't thaw, a strange star near the center of the Milky Way is surprising MIT experts and colleagues with its remarkably low temperature. The odd behavior is chilling current theories of stellar physics. A famously battered neutron star named KS 1731-260 appears no hotter than some of its tranquil brethren, despite enduring the heat of constant thermonuclear explosions with the force of billions of hydrogen bombs every second across a region only a few miles wide for the past 12 years. Dr. Rudi Wijnands, an astrophysicist at MIT's Center for Space Research, used the Chandra X-ray Observatory to measure the temperature of the neutron star at a very opportune moment, only months after the nuclear war apparently ended and the smoke cleared. He presented his team's findings September 5 in Washington, D.C. at a scientific conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra." "Twelve years of constant thermonuclear explosions: One would think that would heat things up," said Wijnands. "This leaves us wondering whether some neutron stars are in the freezer for a much longer time than previously thought and consequently take a long time to heat up, or whether they cool down incredibly fast. Either explanation has profound implications for our field." Neutron stars are the dense, core remains of stars once many times more massive than our Sun. They are created in dazzling supernovas, in which the outer shell of the star explodes into space, and the core, containing about as much mass as the Sun, implodes and collapses into a sphere no wider than Cambridge, Massachusetts. Despite their tiny size, neutron stars are visible in several ways. One is through accretion. Neutron stars are a strong source of gravity. When they exist in binary star systems, such as KS 1731-260, they can attract the gas from what is often a "healthy" hydrogen-burning companion star (although the nature of KS 1731-260's companion is not clear.) Gas

  10. Nonsurgical endodontic management of dens invaginatus with open apex: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Nidhi; Sroa, Renu B

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a rare malformation with a widely varied morphology. It typically affects permanent maxillary lateral incisors, central incisors, and premolars. This article demonstrates rapid management of type II dens invagination with open apex and large periradicular lesion using calcium hydroxide as intracanal medicament for 1-week followed by apical plug formation with mineral trioxide aggregate Plus and lateral condensation of Gutta-percha. At 24-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and lesion was entirely resolved. PMID:26751206

  11. Predicting Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) Scores: A Recursive Partitioning Analysis Using Survey Data from Czech Republic, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Blankers, Matthijs; Frijns, Tom; Belackova, Vendula; Rossi, Carla; Svensson, Bengt; Trautmann, Franz; van Laar, Margriet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cannabis is Europe's most commonly used illicit drug. Some users do not develop dependence or other problems, whereas others do. Many factors are associated with the occurrence of cannabis-related disorders. This makes it difficult to identify key risk factors and markers to profile at-risk cannabis users using traditional hypothesis-driven approaches. Therefore, the use of a data-mining technique called binary recursive partitioning is demonstrated in this study by creating a classification tree to profile at-risk users. Methods 59 variables on cannabis use and drug market experiences were extracted from an internet-based survey dataset collected in four European countries (Czech Republic, Italy, Netherlands and Sweden), n = 2617. These 59 potential predictors of problematic cannabis use were used to partition individual respondents into subgroups with low and high risk of having a cannabis use disorder, based on their responses on the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test. Both a generic model for the four countries combined and four country-specific models were constructed. Results Of the 59 variables included in the first analysis step, only three variables were required to construct a generic partitioning model to classify high risk cannabis users with 65–73% accuracy. Based on the generic model for the four countries combined, the highest risk for cannabis use disorder is seen in participants reporting a cannabis use on more than 200 days in the last 12 months. In comparison to the generic model, the country-specific models led to modest, non-significant improvements in classification accuracy, with an exception for Italy (p = 0.01). Conclusion Using recursive partitioning, it is feasible to construct classification trees based on only a few variables with acceptable performance to classify cannabis users into groups with low or high risk of meeting criteria for cannabis use disorder. The number of cannabis use days in the last 12 months is the

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of ELISA methods as an alternative screening test to indirect immunofluorescence for the detection of antinuclear antibodies. Evaluation of five commercial kits.

    PubMed

    Tonuttia, Elio; Bassetti, Danila; Piazza, Anna; Visentini, Daniela; Poletto, Monica; Bassetto, Franca; Caciagli, Patrizio; Villalta, Danilo; Tozzoli, Renato; Bizzaro, Nicola

    2004-03-01

    Detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a fundamental laboratory test for diagnosing systemic autoimmune diseases. Currently, the method of choice is indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on a HEp-2 cell substrate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of five commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits for ANA detection and to verify the possibility of using them as an alternative to the IIF method. The study involved 1513 patients, 315 of whom were diagnosed with a systemic autoimmune disease and 1198 in whom an autoimmune disorder was excluded. For all sera, ANA detection was performed via IIF and with five different EIA kits. The results were evaluated in relation to clinical diagnosis and the presence of possible specific autoantibodies (anti-ENA or anti-dsDNA); lastly, they were compared with the results obtained using ANA-IIF as the method of reference. The positive rate of the ANA-IIF test in subjects with systemic autoimmune diseases was 92%, whereas in the five ANA-EIA kits there was broad diversity in terms of response, with positive rates ranging from 74 to 94%. All the EIA kits correctly detected the presence of antibodies (anti-dsDNA, anti-RNP, anti-Ro/SSA) responsible for homogeneous and speckled fluorescence pattern, but at the same time they showed substantial inaccuracy with the nucleolar pattern, with a mean sensitivity of approximately 50% in this case. Instead, there was a large kit-to-kit difference in terms of identification of anti-Scl70 and centromere patterns, for which sensitivities ranged between 45 and 91%, and between 49 and 100%, respectively. The results of the study demonstrate that the commercially available ANA-EIA kits show different levels of sensitivity and specificity. Some of them have a diagnostic accuracy that is comparable and, in some cases, even higher than the IIF method. Consequently, these could be used as an alternative screening test to IIE. However, others do not ensure acceptable

  13. Having Fun with Physics at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivenberg, P.; Thomas, P.; Censabella, V.; Granville, J.; Nachtrieb, R.; Gangadhara, S.

    1997-11-01

    MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center staff and students are convinced that students learn best not by studying but by doing. This was the impetus behind a group of MIT graduate students who created Cambridge Physics Outlet, a PSFC spin-off company dedicated to creating hands-on experiments. The same impulse fostered the award-winning Mr. Magnet Program, a traveling presentation which uses a hands-on strategy to engage elementary school children. A number of ingenious experiments will be demonstrated. The PSFC maintains a Home Page on the World Wide Web, which can be reached at HTTP://PFC.MIT.EDU.

  14. Arctic foxes as ecosystem engineers: increased soil nutrients lead to increased plant productivity on fox dens

    PubMed Central

    Gharajehdaghipour, Tazarve; Roth, James D.; Fafard, Paul M.; Markham, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Top predators can provide fundamental ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, and their impact can be even greater in environments with low nutrients and productivity, such as Arctic tundra. We estimated the effects of Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) denning on soil nutrient dynamics and vegetation production near Churchill, Manitoba in June and August 2014. Soils from fox dens contained higher nutrient levels in June (71% more inorganic nitrogen, 1195% more extractable phosphorous) and in August (242% more inorganic nitrogen, 191% more extractable phosphorous) than adjacent control sites. Inorganic nitrogen levels decreased from June to August on both dens and controls, whereas extractable phosphorous increased. Pup production the previous year, which should enhance nutrient deposition (from urine, feces, and decomposing prey), did not affect soil nutrient concentrations, suggesting the impact of Arctic foxes persists >1 year. Dens supported 2.8 times greater vegetation biomass in August, but δ15N values in sea lyme grass (Leymus mollis) were unaffected by denning. By concentrating nutrients on dens Arctic foxes enhance nutrient cycling as an ecosystem service and thus engineer Arctic ecosystems on local scales. The enhanced productivity in patches on the landscape could subsequently affect plant diversity and the dispersion of herbivores on the tundra. PMID:27045973

  15. Remote identification of maternal polar bear (Ursus maritimus) denning habitat on the Colville River Delta, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Justin J.

    High resolution digital aerial photographs (1 foot pixel size) of the Colville River Delta, Alaska were examined in 3D, with the use of a digital photogrammetric workstation. Topographic features meeting the criteria required for adequate snow accumulation, and subsequent construction of terrestrial polar bear maternal dens, were identified and digitized into an ArcGIS line shapefile. Effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy were improved when compared to previous polar bear denning habitat efforts which utilized contact photo prints and a pocket stereoscope in other geographic areas of northern Alaska. Accuracy of photograph interpretation was systematically evaluated visually from the air with the use of a helicopter and physically on the ground. Results show that the mapping efforts were successful in identifying den habitat 91.3% of the time. Knowledge denning habitat can improve and inform decision making by managers and regulators when considering travel and development in the study area. An understanding of polar bear denning habitat extent and location will be a crucial tool for planning activities within the study area in a way that minimizes conflicts with maternal dens.

  16. Vertebrate MitBASE: a specialised database on vertebrate mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Carone, A; Malladi, S B; Attimonelli, M; Saccone, C

    1999-01-01

    Vertebrate MitBASE is a specialized database where all the vertebrate mitochondrial DNA entries from primary databases are collected, revised and integrated with new information emerging from the literature. Variant sequences are also analyzed, aligned and linked to reference sequences. Data related to the same species and fragment can be viewed over the WWW. The database has a flexible interface and a retrieval system to help non-expert users and contains information not currently available in the primary databases. Vertebrate MitBASE is now available through the MitBASE home page at URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/htbin/Mitbase/mitb ase.pl. This work is part of a larger project, MitBASE which is a network of databases covering the full panorama of knowledge on mitochondrial DNA from protists to human sequences.

  17. MIT Study Sees Nuclear Power as Green Weapon Against Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Jim

    2003-12-01

    Although the public doesn't yet view nuclear power as a way to mitigate global warming, an MIT study says a global tripling of nuclear power generation could avoid nearly 2 billion tonnes of carbon emissions annually.

  18. Despotism and Risk of Infanticide Influence Grizzly Bear Den-Site Selection

    PubMed Central

    Libal, Nathan S.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Leopold, Bruce D.; Wang, Guiming; Owen, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Given documented social dominance and intraspecific predation in bear populations, the ideal despotic distribution model and sex hypothesis of sexual segregation predict adult female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) will avoid areas occupied by adult males to reduce risk of infanticide. Under ideal despotic distribution, juveniles should similarly avoid adult males to reduce predation risk. Den-site selection and use is an important component of grizzly bear ecology and may be influenced by multiple factors, including risk from conspecifics. To test the role of predation risk and the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation, we compared adult female (n = 142), adult male (n = 36), and juvenile (n = 35) den locations in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, USA. We measured elevation, aspect, slope, and dominant land cover for each den site, and used maximum entropy modeling to determine which variables best predicted den sites. We identified the global model as the best-fitting model for adult female (area under curve (AUC) = 0.926) and elevation as the best predictive variable for adult male (AUC = 0.880) den sites. The model containing land cover and elevation best-predicted juvenile (AUC = 0.841) den sites. Adult females spatially segregated from adult males, with dens characterized by higher elevations ( = 1,412 m, SE = 52) and steeper slopes ( = 21.9°, SE = 1.1) than adult male (elevation:  = 1,209 m, SE = 76; slope:  = 15.6°, SE = 1.9) den sites. Juveniles used a broad range of landscape attributes but did not avoid adult male denning areas. Observed spatial segregation by adult females supports the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation and we suggest is a mechanism to reduce risk of infanticide. Den site selection of adult males is likely related to distribution of food resources during spring. PMID:21935378

  19. Despotism and risk of infanticide influence grizzly bear den-site selection.

    PubMed

    Libal, Nathan S; Belant, Jerrold L; Leopold, Bruce D; Wang, Guiming; Owen, Patricia A

    2011-01-01

    Given documented social dominance and intraspecific predation in bear populations, the ideal despotic distribution model and sex hypothesis of sexual segregation predict adult female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) will avoid areas occupied by adult males to reduce risk of infanticide. Under ideal despotic distribution, juveniles should similarly avoid adult males to reduce predation risk. Den-site selection and use is an important component of grizzly bear ecology and may be influenced by multiple factors, including risk from conspecifics. To test the role of predation risk and the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation, we compared adult female (n = 142), adult male (n = 36), and juvenile (n = 35) den locations in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, USA. We measured elevation, aspect, slope, and dominant land cover for each den site, and used maximum entropy modeling to determine which variables best predicted den sites. We identified the global model as the best-fitting model for adult female (area under curve (AUC) = 0.926) and elevation as the best predictive variable for adult male (AUC = 0.880) den sites. The model containing land cover and elevation best-predicted juvenile (AUC = 0.841) den sites. Adult females spatially segregated from adult males, with dens characterized by higher elevations (mean= 1,412 m, SE = 52) and steeper slopes (mean = 21.9°, SE = 1.1) than adult male (elevation: mean = 1,209 m, SE = 76; slope: mean = 15.6°, SE = 1.9) den sites. Juveniles used a broad range of landscape attributes but did not avoid adult male denning areas. Observed spatial segregation by adult females supports the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation and we suggest is a mechanism to reduce risk of infanticide. Den site selection of adult males is likely related to distribution of food resources during spring.

  20. Despotism and risk of infanticide influence grizzly bear den-site selection.

    PubMed

    Libal, Nathan S; Belant, Jerrold L; Leopold, Bruce D; Wang, Guiming; Owen, Patricia A

    2011-01-01

    Given documented social dominance and intraspecific predation in bear populations, the ideal despotic distribution model and sex hypothesis of sexual segregation predict adult female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) will avoid areas occupied by adult males to reduce risk of infanticide. Under ideal despotic distribution, juveniles should similarly avoid adult males to reduce predation risk. Den-site selection and use is an important component of grizzly bear ecology and may be influenced by multiple factors, including risk from conspecifics. To test the role of predation risk and the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation, we compared adult female (n = 142), adult male (n = 36), and juvenile (n = 35) den locations in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, USA. We measured elevation, aspect, slope, and dominant land cover for each den site, and used maximum entropy modeling to determine which variables best predicted den sites. We identified the global model as the best-fitting model for adult female (area under curve (AUC) = 0.926) and elevation as the best predictive variable for adult male (AUC = 0.880) den sites. The model containing land cover and elevation best-predicted juvenile (AUC = 0.841) den sites. Adult females spatially segregated from adult males, with dens characterized by higher elevations (mean= 1,412 m, SE = 52) and steeper slopes (mean = 21.9°, SE = 1.1) than adult male (elevation: mean = 1,209 m, SE = 76; slope: mean = 15.6°, SE = 1.9) den sites. Juveniles used a broad range of landscape attributes but did not avoid adult male denning areas. Observed spatial segregation by adult females supports the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation and we suggest is a mechanism to reduce risk of infanticide. Den site selection of adult males is likely related to distribution of food resources during spring. PMID:21935378

  1. Lessons learned from the MIT Tara control and data system

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Sullivan, J.D.; Fredian, T.W.; Irby, J.H.; Karcher, C.A.; Rameriz, R.A.; Sevillano, E.; Stillerman, J.A.; Thomas, P.

    1987-10-01

    The control and data system of the MIT Tara Tandem Mirror has worked successfully throughout the lifetime of the experiment (1983 through 1987). As the Tara project winds down, it is appropriate to summarize the lessons learned from the implementation and operation of the control and data system over the years and in its final form. The control system handled approx.2400 I/0 points in real time throughout the 5 to 10 minute shot cycle while the data system, in near real time, handled approx.1000 signals with a total of 5 to 7 Mbytes of data each shot. The implementation depended upon a consistent approach based on separating physics and engineering functions and on detailed functional diagrams with narrowly defined cross communication. This paper is a comprehensive treatment of the principal successes, residual problems, and dilemmas that arose from the beginning until the final hardware and software implementation. Suggestions for future systems of either similar size or of larger scale such as CIT are made in the conclusion. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Educational Outreach at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivenberg, Paul; Thomas, Paul

    2006-10-01

    At the MIT PSFC, student and staff volunteers work together to increase the public's knowledge of fusion science and plasma technology. Seeking to generate excitement in young people about science and engineering, the PSFC hosts a number of educational outreach activities throughout the year, including Middle and High School Outreach Days. The PSFC also has an in-school science demonstration program on the theme of magnetism. The Mr. Magnet Program, headed by Mr. Paul Thomas, has been bringing lively demonstrations on magnetism into local elementary and middle schools for 15 years. This year Mr. Magnet presented the program to nearly 30,000 students at over 67 schools and other events, reaching kindergartners through college freshmen. In addition to his program on magnetism, he is offering an interactive lecture about plasma to high schools. The "Traveling Plasma Lab" encourages students to learn more about plasma science while having fun investigating plasma properties using actual laboratory techniques and equipment. Beyond the classroom, Paul Thomas has provided technical training for Boston Museum of Science staff in preparation for the opening of a Star Wars exhibit. His hands-on demos have also been filmed by the History Channel for a one-hour program about Magnetism, which aired in June 2006.

  3. Research and Demonstration Program of Day Care Services for M.I.T. Employees. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterton, Janet Bond

    A survey of day care needs of M.I.T. employees, its resulting information, and a description of the pilot program of day care services undertaken by M.I.T. are included in this report. A survey was administered to all 4,650 Institute employees in April, 1970, and enjoyed a 35% rate of response. The compiled data supports the conclusion that a…

  4. Boer-Mulders function of the pion in the MIT bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhun; Ma, Bo-Qiang; Zhu, Jiacai

    2012-11-01

    We apply the MIT bag model to study the Boer-Mulders function of the pion, a T-odd function that describes the transverse polarization distribution of the quark inside the pion. We simulate the effect of the gauge link through the “one-gluon-exchange” approximation. We consider both the quark helicity nonflip and double-flip contributions. The result in the MIT bag model is compared with those in the spectator models.

  5. Heading for the Hills: Risk Avoidance Drives Den Site Selection in African Wild Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Craig R.; Power, R. John; Groom, Rosemary J.; Masenga, Emmanuel H.; Mjingo, Ernest E.; Fyumagwa, Robert D.; Røskaft, Eivin; Davies-Mostert, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor. Lions (Panthera leo) are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of 100 wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site. We compared characteristics of actual and potential (random) den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions. The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes. PMID:24918935

  6. Rac1 promotes diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced formation of liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Anita; Wartlick, Friedrich; Henninger, Christian; Schwarz, Michael; Kaina, Bernd; Fritz, Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    To elucidate the function of the Ras-homologous GTPase Rac1 in hepatocarcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN), mice lacking hepatic Rac1 expression were treated with DEN and compared to the wild-type (WT). Rac1 knock-out (KO) mice were found to have a lower tumor yield as compared to Rac1 proficient mice. The small-sized tumors formed in the absence of Rac1 lack an activated Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, as indicated by the absence of p-ERK expression. Apparently, Rac1 is required for Ras-driven oncogenic pathways. Moreover, tumors in Rac1 deficient mice were glutamine synthase (GS) negative. They displayed a high number of p-H3-positive and cyclinB1 expressing cells, pointing to a defect in mitotic progression. To elucidate the influence of Rac1 on mechanisms of tumor initiation, acute DEN-induced hepatic stress responses were monitored. Rac1 deficiency caused fairly complex, partially time-dependent, alterations in both basal and/or DEN-induced messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of susceptibility-related genes. Basal protein expression of DNA repair factors Brca1 and DNA repair protein RAD51 homolog (Rad51) and the cell cycle regulatory factor p27 was enhanced in the absence of Rac1. Following DEN treatment, p21 mRNA and protein expression was stimulated independent of the Rac1 status. Lack of Rac1 increased mechanisms of the DNA damage response (DDR), as shown by elevated protein levels of p-ATR, p-p53 and γH2AX 24h after DEN treatment. The data show that Rac1 is essential for DEN-stimulated hepatocarcinogenesis. We hypothesize that it promotes tumor initiation by counteracting the elimination of initiated cells and, moreover, alleviates the outgrowth of transformed cells. Hence, pharmacological targeting of Rac1 could be suitable for chemoprevention.

  7. Heading for the hills: risk avoidance drives den site selection in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Craig R; Power, R John; Groom, Rosemary J; Masenga, Emmanuel H; Mjingo, Ernest E; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Røskaft, Eivin; Davies-Mostert, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor. Lions (Panthera leo) are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of 100 wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site. We compared characteristics of actual and potential (random) den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions. The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes. PMID:24918935

  8. Heading for the hills: risk avoidance drives den site selection in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Craig R; Power, R John; Groom, Rosemary J; Masenga, Emmanuel H; Mjingo, Ernest E; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Røskaft, Eivin; Davies-Mostert, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor. Lions (Panthera leo) are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of 100 wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site. We compared characteristics of actual and potential (random) den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions. The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes.

  9. Benchmarking on Tsunami Currents with ComMIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharghi vand, N.; Kanoglu, U.

    2015-12-01

    There were no standards for the validation and verification of tsunami numerical models before 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Even, number of numerical models has been used for inundation mapping effort, evaluation of critical structures, etc. without validation and verification. After 2004, NOAA Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) established standards for the validation and verification of tsunami numerical models (Synolakis et al. 2008 Pure Appl. Geophys. 165, 2197-2228), which will be used evaluation of critical structures such as nuclear power plants against tsunami attack. NCTR presented analytical, experimental and field benchmark problems aimed to estimate maximum runup and accepted widely by the community. Recently, benchmark problems were suggested by the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program Mapping & Modeling Benchmarking Workshop: Tsunami Currents on February 9-10, 2015 at Portland, Oregon, USA (http://nws.weather.gov/nthmp/index.html). These benchmark problems concentrated toward validation and verification of tsunami numerical models on tsunami currents. Three of the benchmark problems were: current measurement of the Japan 2011 tsunami in Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, USA and in Tauranga Harbor, New Zealand, and single long-period wave propagating onto a small-scale experimental model of the town of Seaside, Oregon, USA. These benchmark problems were implemented in the Community Modeling Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT) (Titov et al. 2011 Pure Appl. Geophys. 168, 2121-2131), which is a user-friendly interface to the validated and verified Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) (Titov and Synolakis 1995 J. Waterw. Port Coastal Ocean Eng. 121, 308-316) model and is developed by NCTR. The modeling results are compared with the required benchmark data, providing good agreements and results are discussed. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant

  10. Knocking down mitochondrial iron transporter (MIT) reprograms primary and secondary metabolism in rice plants.

    PubMed

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Bashir, Khurram; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Lehmann, Martin; Casiraghi, Fabio Marco; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Seki, Motoaki; Geigenberger, Peter; Zocchi, Graziano; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2016-03-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, and its reduced bioavailability strongly impairs mitochondrial functionality. In this work, the metabolic adjustment in the rice (Oryza sativa) mitochondrial Fe transporter knockdown mutant (mit-2) was analysed. Biochemical characterization of purified mitochondria from rice roots showed alteration in the respiratory chain of mit-2 compared with wild-type (WT) plants. In particular, proteins belonging to the type II alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases accumulated strongly in mit-2 plants, indicating that alternative pathways were activated to keep the respiratory chain working. Additionally, large-scale changes in the transcriptome and metabolome were observed in mit-2 rice plants. In particular, a strong alteration (up-/down-regulation) in the expression of genes encoding enzymes of both primary and secondary metabolism was found in mutant plants. This was reflected by changes in the metabolic profiles in both roots and shoots of mit-2 plants. Significant alterations in the levels of amino acids belonging to the aspartic acid-related pathways (aspartic acid, lysine, and threonine in roots, and aspartic acid and ornithine in shoots) were found that are strictly connected to the Krebs cycle. Furthermore, some metabolites (e.g. pyruvic acid, fumaric acid, ornithine, and oligosaccharides of the raffinose family) accumulated only in the shoot of mit-2 plants, indicating possible hypoxic responses. These findings suggest that the induction of local Fe deficiency in the mitochondrial compartment of mit-2 plants differentially affects the transcript as well as the metabolic profiles in root and shoot tissues. PMID:26685186

  11. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus type II: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Shadmehr, Elham; Kiaani, Sima; Mahdavian, Parinaz

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a rare developmental anomaly of teeth with complex root canal system morphology. The present case describes a peg shape maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus (Oehlers type II), necrotic pulp, and an associated large periradicular lesion. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed with the aim of removing the blind sac with diamond bur under the use of operating surgical microscope. The root canal system was obturated with thermoplastic technique. Final restoration was done using composite. The 20-months clinical and radiological follow up revealed an asymptomatic tooth with healing of the periapical pathology; however, for complete healed periradicular lesion more follow up is needed. This case illustrated that a dens invaginatus malformed teeth with a large periradicular lesion can be managed successfully with nonsurgical root canal therapy (NSRCT). PMID:25878686

  12. Dens invaginatus type II associated with an impacted mesiodens: a 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Nalawade, Triveni M; Pateel, Deepak; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa; Gunjal, Shilpa

    2013-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental anomaly resulting in a deepening or invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla prior to calcification of the dental tissues. The prevalence has been reported to vary from 0.04% to 10%. Dens invaginatus commonly affects lateral incisors and very rarely affects the mesiodens. This article presents a rare case of type II dens invaginatus affecting an impacted mesiodens in a 13-year-old boy and describes its gross and histological features. The associated tooth was dilated and showed invaginated enamel and dentin extending beyond the cement enamel junction. In this case, the clinical diagnosis was confirmed by histological evaluation of the internal morphology using a hard tissue microtome to section the tooth. PMID:23893282

  13. [Dens invaginatus. Review of the literature and diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines].

    PubMed

    Baumgart, Manuela; Hänni, Stefan; Suter, Beat; Schaffner, Markus; Lussi, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a clinically relevant malformation of teeth resulting from an infolding of enamel and dentine into the dental structure during tooth formation, hence the former denomination "dens in dente". The dens invaginatus shows multiple morphological variations of crown and root formation. This frequently leads to caries, pulpal and periodontal involvement with necrosis and loss of attachment. Therefore, early diagnosis and prevention are of utmost importance. Due to the complexity of the malformation, treatment options in former days were limited. This article presents a profound review of the literature regarding etiology, epidemiology and histology. It discusses clinical appearance and diagnosis and it provides guidelines for decision-making and treatment of invaginated teeth.

  14. 76 FR 31230 - Safety Zone; M.I.T.'s 150th Birthday Celebration Fireworks, Charles River, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; M.I.T.'s 150th Birthday Celebration...) Zone for the M.I.T.'s 150th Birthday Celebration Fireworks display. This safety zone is necessary to.... 165.T01-0375 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T01-0375 Safety Zone; M.I.T.'s 150th Birthday...

  15. Mit1 Transcription Factor Mediates Methanol Signaling and Regulates the Alcohol Oxidase 1 (AOX1) Promoter in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jinjia; Bai, Peng; Shi, Lei; Shen, Wei; Zhou, Mian; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing; Cai, Menghao

    2016-03-18

    The alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter (P AOX1) of Pichia pastoris is the most powerful and commonly used promoter for driving protein expression. However, mechanisms regulating its transcriptional activity are unclear. Here, we identified a Zn(II)2Cys6-type methanol-induced transcription factor 1 (Mit1) and elucidated its roles in regulating PAOX1 activity in response to glycerol and methanol. Mit1 regulated the expression of many genes involved in methanol utilization pathway, including AOX1, but did not participate in peroxisome proliferation and transportation of peroxisomal proteins during methanol metabolism. Structural analysis of Mit1 by performing domain deletions confirmed its specific and critical role in the strict repression of P AOX1 in glycerol medium. Importantly, Mit1, Mxr1, and Prm1, which positively regulated P AOX1 in response to methanol, were bound to P AOX1 at different sites and did not interact with each other. However, these factors cooperatively activated P AOX1 through a cascade. Mxr1 mainly functioned during carbon derepression, whereas Mit1 and Prm1 functioned during methanol induction, with Prm1 transmitting methanol signal to Mit1 by binding to the MIT1 promoter (P MIT1), thus increasingly expressing Mit1 and subsequently activating P AOX1.

  16. Mapping polar bear maternal denning habitat in the National Petroleum Reserve -- Alaska with an IfSAR digital terrain model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Simac, Kristin; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska (NPR-A) in northeastern Alaska provides winter maternal denning habitat for polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and also has high potential for recoverable hydrocarbons. Denning polar bears exposed to human activities may abandon their dens before their young are able to survive the severity of Arctic winter weather. To ensure that wintertime petroleum activities do not threaten polar bears, managers need to know the distribution of landscape features in which maternal dens are likely to occur. Here, we present a map of potential denning habitat within the NPR-A. We used a fine-grain digital elevation model derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) to generate a map of putative denning habitat. We then tested the map’s ability to identify polar bear denning habitat on the landscape. Our final map correctly identified 82% of denning habitat estimated to be within the NPR-A. Mapped denning habitat comprised 19.7 km2 (0.1% of the study area) and was widely dispersed. Though mapping denning habitat with IfSAR data was as effective as mapping with the photogrammetric methods used for other regions of the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain, the use of GIS to analyze IfSAR data allowed greater objectivity and flexibility with less manual labor. Analytical advantages and performance equivalent to that of manual cartographic methods suggest that the use of IfSAR data to identify polar bear maternal denning habitat is a better management tool in the NPR-A and wherever such data may be available.

  17. Protective effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis) against DEN-induced DNA damage on mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Fukumasu, H; Avanzo, J L; Heidor, R; Silva, T C; Atroch, A; Moreno, F S; Dagli, M L Z

    2006-06-01

    Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis) is a plant originally from Brazil, which is rich in tannins. Some tannins are known to present protective effects against DNA damage. This study was performed to investigate the anti-genotoxic/cytotoxic properties of guarana in hepatocytes of mice injected with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN). The protective effect of guarana was evaluated both by comet assay and DNA smear fragmentation technique in two month-old female BALB/c mice. These were treated previously with 2.0 mg/g bw of guarana for 16 days and then injected with DEN (160 microg/g body weight) to induce DNA damage. The DEN-only treated group presented higher comet image length than the guarana plus DEN and untreated groups (116.06+/-5.0 microm, 104.09+/-3.3 microm and 93.28+/-14.4 microm, respectively; p<0.01). Guarana treatment presented a 52.54% reduction in comet image length when animals were exposed to DEN (p<0.05). DNA samples from the guarana plus DEN group clearly showed less EtBr fluorescence intensity when compared to the DEN-only group, reinforcing the comet assay data. These results show, for the first time, that guarana has a protective effect against DEN-induced DNA damage in mouse liver.

  18. MIT Clean Energy Prize: Final Technical Report May 12, 2010 - May 11, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Chris; Campbell, Georgina; Salony, Jason; Aulet, Bill

    2011-08-09

    The MIT Clean Energy Prize (MIT CEP) is a venture creation and innovation competition to encourage innovation in the energy space, specifically with regard to clean energy. The Competition invited student teams from any US university to submit student-led ventures that demonstrate a high potential of successfully making clean energy more affordable, with a positive impact on the environment. By focusing on student ventures, the MIT CEP aims to educate the next generation of clean energy entrepreneurs. Teams receive valuable mentoring and hard deadlines that complement the cash prize to accelerate development of ventures. The competition is a year-long educational process that culminates in the selection of five category finalists and a Grand Prize winner and the distribution of cash prizes to each of those teams. Each entry was submitted in one of five clean energy categories: Renewables, Clean Non-Renewables, Energy Efficiency, Transportation, and Deployment.

  19. A New Tool for Inundation Modeling: Community Modeling Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Greenslade, D. J. M.; Pattiaratchi, C.; Badal, R.; Synolakis, C. E.; Kânoğlu, U.

    2011-11-01

    Almost 5 years after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tragedy, the 10 August 2009 Andaman tsunami demonstrated that accurate forecasting is possible using the tsunami community modeling tool Community Model Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT). ComMIT is designed for ease of use, and allows dissemination of results to the community while addressing concerns associated with proprietary issues of bathymetry and topography. It uses initial conditions from a precomputed propagation database, has an easy-to-interpret graphical interface, and requires only portable hardware. ComMIT was initially developed for Indian Ocean countries with support from the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To date, more than 60 scientists from 17 countries in the Indian Ocean have been trained and are using it in operational inundation mapping.

  20. MITR-III: Upgrade and relicensing studies for the MIT Research Reactor. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Trosman, H.G.; Lanning, D.D.; Harling, O.K.

    1994-08-01

    The current operating license of the MIT research reactor will expire on May 7, 1996 or possibly a few years later if the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission agrees that the license period can start with the date of initial reactor operation. Driven by the imminent expiration of the operating license, a team of nuclear engineering staff and students have begun a study of the future options for the MIT Research Reactor. These options have included the range from a major rebuilding of the reactor to its decommissioning. This document reports the results of a two year intensive activity which has been supported by a $148,000 grant from the USDOE contract Number DEFG0293ER75859, approximately $100,000 of internal MIT funds and Nuclear Engineering Department graduate student fellowships as well as assistance from international visiting scientists and engineers.

  1. Fusion Science Outreach at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Censabella, V.; Rivenberg, P.; Granville, J.; Nachtrieb, R.; Gangadhara, S.

    1997-11-01

    Educational Outreach at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center is organized and energized by volunteers working together to increase the public's knowledge of fusion and plasma-related experiments. The PSFC holds a number of outreach activities throughout the year, such as Middle and High School Outreach Days. Included in these days is a demonstration of how magnets affect plasma using the ``Plasma Demo," an educational tool which will be on display for the first time outside the MIT area. Also featured is ``C-Mod Jr.," a video game which helps students discover how computers manipulate magnetic pulses to keep a plasma confined in the C-Mod tokamak for as long as possible. The PSFC maintains a Home Page on the World Wide Web, which can be reached at HTTP://PFC.MIT.EDU.

  2. Analytical model for calculating indeterminate results interval of screening tests, the effect on seroconversion window period: a brief evaluation of the impact of uncertain results on the blood establishment budget.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is not required by the European Union regulation or blood establishments’ laboratory tests. However, it is required for tests accredited by ISO 15189. Also, the forthcoming ISO 9001 edition requires “risk based thinking” with risk described as “the effect of uncertainty on an expected result”. ISO recommends GUM models for determination of measurement uncertainty, but their application is not intended for ordinal value measurements, such as what happens with screening test binary results. This article reviews, discusses and proposes concepts intended for measurement uncertainty of screening test results. The precision model focuses on cutoff level allowing the evaluation of the indeterminate interval using analytical sources of variance. The intervalis considered in the estimation of the seroconversion window period. The delta-value of patients and healthy subjects’ samples allows ranking two tests according to the probability of the two classes of indeterminate results: chance of false negative results and chance of false positive results (waste on budget).

  3. Analytical model for calculating indeterminate results interval of screening tests, the effect on seroconversion window period: a brief evaluation of the impact of uncertain results on the blood establishment budget.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is not required by the European Union regulation or blood establishments’ laboratory tests. However, it is required for tests accredited by ISO 15189. Also, the forthcoming ISO 9001 edition requires “risk based thinking” with risk described as “the effect of uncertainty on an expected result”. ISO recommends GUM models for determination of measurement uncertainty, but their application is not intended for ordinal value measurements, such as what happens with screening test binary results. This article reviews, discusses and proposes concepts intended for measurement uncertainty of screening test results. The precision model focuses on cutoff level allowing the evaluation of the indeterminate interval using analytical sources of variance. The intervalis considered in the estimation of the seroconversion window period. The delta-value of patients and healthy subjects’ samples allows ranking two tests according to the probability of the two classes of indeterminate results: chance of false negative results and chance of false positive results (waste on budget). PMID:25457752

  4. [Annual distribution and abundance of Ceratium dens (Peridinales: Ceratiaceae) in the Gulf of California, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cortés Altamirano, R; Nuñez Pasten, A

    2000-01-01

    Ceratium dens distribution in the Gulf of California was studied based on three oceanographic campaigns, monthly abundance (1995-96) and during three red tide events in Mazatlán Bay. 52 phytoplankton samples with a Bongo net and 64 microns mesh light, during the year 120 water samples with a van Dorn bottle were collected in two sampling stations and from three red tide events. All samples were counted by the inverted-microscope method. The results showed that C. dens was present in the upper Gulf of California and surroundings of Cabo San Lucas. Two peaks were observed during spring and autumn in Mazatlán Bay during 1995-1996. The highest densities (20-360 cells.-l-1) were observed in coastal areas, whereas the lowest densities (1-14 cells.-l-1) were recorded in the open sea. During red tide events in 1985, 1989 and 1997, 144,000-256,000 cells.-l-1, 100,000-400,000 cells.-l-1, and 189,000-592,000 cells.ul-l was observed, respectively. During the red tide events C. dens varied, although sometimes was replaced by Skeletonema costatum or Pseudonitzchia spp and Ceratium furca. C. dens, seems to prefer areas with high productivity.

  5. Effect of age on respiratory carcinogenesis with diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN) in hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, S.F.; Saffiotti, U.

    1986-03-01

    Groups of male and female Syrian golden hamsters were given 12 weekly s.c. injections of 10 mg/kg DEN beginning at 1 day (85 animals) or 8 weeks (70 animals) of age, and were held for lifetime observation. In hamsters receiving DEN from birth, the first respiratory tumors were observed at 15 experimental weeks; all animals were dead by 66 weeks with a 99% respiratory tumor incidence. Of these hamster, 87% developed carcinomas or adenomas in the nasal cavities, 75% papillomas of the trachea, larynx or extrapulmonary bronchi and 7% adenomas or adenocarcinomas of the peripheral lung. Hamsters given DEN from 8 weeks of age first showed respiratory tumors after 25 weeks with a 96% incidence by 62 weeks when all had died. Of these hamsters, 24% developed carcinomas or adenomas in the nasal cavities, 91% papillomas of the trachea, larynx or bronchi, and 9% adenomas or adenocarcinomas of the peripheral lung. In comparison, the nasal tumors in the first group were more anaplastic and invaded the brain more frequently than in the second. These results indicate that the nasal mucosa of newborns is more sensitive to carcinogenesis with DEN than is that of adults, while there appears to be little age-related susceptibility of the epithelium of the airways or lung. A serial sacrifice experiment is currently under way to study the cells of origin of the various tumors using immuno-histochemical and electron microscopic techniques.

  6. DenHunt - A Comprehensive Database of the Intricate Network of Dengue-Human Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Arjunan, Selvam; Sastri, Narayan P.; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a human pathogen and its etiology has been widely established. There are many interactions between DENV and human proteins that have been reported in literature. However, no publicly accessible resource for efficiently retrieving the information is yet available. In this study, we mined all publicly available dengue–human interactions that have been reported in the literature into a database called DenHunt. We retrieved 682 direct interactions of human proteins with dengue viral components, 382 indirect interactions and 4120 differentially expressed human genes in dengue infected cell lines and patients. We have illustrated the importance of DenHunt by mapping the dengue–human interactions on to the host interactome and observed that the virus targets multiple host functional complexes of important cellular processes such as metabolism, immune system and signaling pathways suggesting a potential role of these interactions in viral pathogenesis. We also observed that 7 percent of the dengue virus interacting human proteins are also associated with other infectious and non-infectious diseases. Finally, the understanding that comes from such analyses could be used to design better strategies to counteract the diseases caused by dengue virus. The whole dataset has been catalogued in a searchable database, called DenHunt (http://proline.biochem.iisc.ernet.in/DenHunt/). PMID:27618709

  7. First evidence of gregarious denning in opossums (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae), with notes on their social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Astúa, Diego; Carvalho, Rafael A; Maia, Paula F; Magalhães, Arthur R; Loretto, Diogo

    2015-06-01

    The Didelphidae are considered solitary opossums with few social interactions, usually limited to mating-related or mother-pouch young interactions. Anecdotal reports suggest that additional interactions occur, including den sharing by a few individuals, usually siblings. Here, we report novel observations that indicate opossums are more social than previously thought. These include nest sharing by males and females of Marmosa paraguayana, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus prior to the onset of the breeding season and without signs of sexual activity; this is taken to indicate early pair-bonding matching and cooperative nest building. We also recorded den sharing among recently weaned siblings of Didelphis aurita and Caluromys philander. In addition, we observed 13 individuals of Didelphis albiventris representing three age classes resting without agonistic interactions in a communal den. These are the first reports of gregarious behaviour involving so many individuals, which are either unrelated or represent siblings from at least two litters, already weaned, sharing the same den with three adults. Sociality in opossums is probably more complex than previously established, and field experimental designs combining the use of artificial nests with camera traps or telemetry may help to gauge the frequency and extent of these phenomena.

  8. First evidence of gregarious denning in opossums (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae), with notes on their social behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Astúa, Diego; Carvalho, Rafael A.; Maia, Paula F.; Magalhães, Arthur R.; Loretto, Diogo

    2015-01-01

    The Didelphidae are considered solitary opossums with few social interactions, usually limited to mating-related or mother–pouch young interactions. Anecdotal reports suggest that additional interactions occur, including den sharing by a few individuals, usually siblings. Here, we report novel observations that indicate opossums are more social than previously thought. These include nest sharing by males and females of Marmosa paraguayana, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus prior to the onset of the breeding season and without signs of sexual activity; this is taken to indicate early pair-bonding matching and cooperative nest building. We also recorded den sharing among recently weaned siblings of Didelphis aurita and Caluromys philander. In addition, we observed 13 individuals of Didelphis albiventris representing three age classes resting without agonistic interactions in a communal den. These are the first reports of gregarious behaviour involving so many individuals, which are either unrelated or represent siblings from at least two litters, already weaned, sharing the same den with three adults. Sociality in opossums is probably more complex than previously established, and field experimental designs combining the use of artificial nests with camera traps or telemetry may help to gauge the frequency and extent of these phenomena. PMID:26085500

  9. First report of captive New Guinea dingo (Canis dingo hallstromi) den-digging and parental behavior.

    PubMed

    Koler-Matznick, Janice; Stinner, Mindy

    2011-01-01

    New Guinea dingoes (NGDs) (Canis dingo hallstromi; Troughton [1957] Proc Roy Soc new South Wells 1955-1956:93-94) have been kept in zoos since 1956. Almost nothing is known of their wild behavior. These observations of a captive pair are the first documentation of natal den-digging and parental behavior for this taxon. The main den, excavated near the top of a 1.5 m hill, consisted of a rounded chamber about 50.8 cm deep, with an entrance about 30.5 cm high and 40.6 cm wide. The dam frequently moved the pups from the natal den to secondary locations for short periods during the day and then back to the den, starting when the pups were 2 weeks old. When the pups were between 5 and 12 weeks of age, both parents regularly regurgitated for them. The sire expressed escalating threat behavior toward the male pup starting when the pup was 5 months old, and the female began threatening the female pups at about 6 months of age. Rejection of same-sex offspring is usual for captive NGDs as the next breeding season approaches. PMID:21154450

  10. The Influence of the Outdoor Environment: Den-Making in Three Different Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    This small-scale research examined den-making in three different settings in the UK. The research consisted of non-participant, narrative observations of children aged between 3- and 5-years and early years practitioners involved in supporting them in their play. Content analysis revealed common themes: the impact of the environment on the way…

  11. DenHunt - A Comprehensive Database of the Intricate Network of Dengue-Human Interactions.

    PubMed

    Karyala, Prashanthi; Metri, Rahul; Bathula, Christopher; Yelamanchi, Syam K; Sahoo, Lipika; Arjunan, Selvam; Sastri, Narayan P; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2016-09-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a human pathogen and its etiology has been widely established. There are many interactions between DENV and human proteins that have been reported in literature. However, no publicly accessible resource for efficiently retrieving the information is yet available. In this study, we mined all publicly available dengue-human interactions that have been reported in the literature into a database called DenHunt. We retrieved 682 direct interactions of human proteins with dengue viral components, 382 indirect interactions and 4120 differentially expressed human genes in dengue infected cell lines and patients. We have illustrated the importance of DenHunt by mapping the dengue-human interactions on to the host interactome and observed that the virus targets multiple host functional complexes of important cellular processes such as metabolism, immune system and signaling pathways suggesting a potential role of these interactions in viral pathogenesis. We also observed that 7 percent of the dengue virus interacting human proteins are also associated with other infectious and non-infectious diseases. Finally, the understanding that comes from such analyses could be used to design better strategies to counteract the diseases caused by dengue virus. The whole dataset has been catalogued in a searchable database, called DenHunt (http://proline.biochem.iisc.ernet.in/DenHunt/). PMID:27618709

  12. Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract inhibits DEN induced murine hepatic preneoplasia and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Poojari, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjay; Maru, Girish; Khade, Bharat; Bhagwat, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa is a well established drug in the Ayurvedic system of medicine used for antirheumatism and antiasthmatism. Inhibitory effects of S. rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract on DEN induced hepatocellular preneoplastic foci and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Rats received DEN, 1ppm/g b.w. in drinking water for 6 weeks or CCl(4), 0.7 ml/kg i.p. once a week for 4 weeks and seed extract 50 mg, 100 mg/kg b.w. orally prior, during and after exposure to DEN/CCl4 for 20 or 5 weeks, respectively. Treatment with seed extract significantly inhibited the increase in DEN/CCl(4) induced activities of pre-cancerous marker enzymes; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione-S-transferase, hepatotoxicity marker enzymes; glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as well as lipid peroxidase. Depleted glutathione, protein and albumin levels were restored. Also, histopathological and transmission electron microscopic studies showed prevention of cellular degenerative changes. The chemopreventive and hepatoprotective potentials of seed extract are due to free radical scavenging activity and restoration of cellular structural integrity.

  13. Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics: Report on Activities (UCLA/MIT), 2009-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Carter

    2011-04-18

    The final 'phaseout' year of the CMPD ended July 2010; a no cost extension was requested until May 2011 in order to enable the MIT subcontract funds to be fully utilized. Research progress over this time included verification and validation activities for the BOUT and BOUT++ code, studies of spontaneous reconnection in the VTF facility at MIT, and studies of the interaction between Alfven waves and drift waves in LAPD. The CMPD also hosted the 6th plasma physics winter school in 2010 (jointly with the NSF frontier center the Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, significant funding came from NSF for this most recent iteration of the Winter School).

  14. How Much Have They Retained? Making Unseen Concepts Seen in a Freshman Electromagnetism Course at MIT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Hult, Erin; Breslow, Lori; Belcher, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The introductory freshmen electromagnetism course at MIT has been taught since 2000 using a studio physics format entitled TEAL--Technology Enabled Active Learning. TEAL has created a collaborative, hands-on environment where students carry out desktop experiments, submit web-based assignments, and have access to a host of visualizations and…

  15. Graduate Training and Potential Employment for Political Scientists: The MIT Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altshuler, Alan

    This paper presents ideas on ways to help graduate students in political science to become more marketable for nonacademic positions. It also includes background information on the changing employment market for Ph.D.'s. These ideas were discussed at a 1980 meeting of teachers, graduate students, and recent Ph.D.'s at MIT. The purpose of the…

  16. Importance of Native Grassland Habitat for Den-Site Selection of Indian Foxes in a Fragmented Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Punjabi, Girish Arjun; Chellam, Ravi; Vanak, Abi Tamim

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation of native habitats is now a ubiquitous phenomenon affecting wildlife at various scales. We examined selection of den-sites (n = 26) by Indian foxes (Vulpes bengalensis) in a highly modified short-grassland landscape in central India (Jan-May, 2010). At the scale of the home-range, defined by an 800 m circular buffer around den sites, we examined the effect of land-cover edges and roads on selection of sites for denning using a distance-based approach. At the smaller den-area scale, defined by a 25 m x 25 m plot around den and paired available sites, the effect of microhabitat characteristics was examined using discrete-choice models. Indian foxes selected den-sites closer to native grasslands (t = -9.57, P < 0.001) and roads (t = -2.04, P = 0.05) than random at the home-range scale. At the smaller scale, abundance of rodents and higher visibility increased the odds of selection of a site by eight and four times respectively, indicating resource availability and predator avoidance to be important considerations for foxes. Indian foxes largely chose to den in human-made structures, indicated by the proportion of dens found in earthen bunds (0.69) and boulder piles (0.27) in the study area. With agricultural expansion and human modification threatening native short-grassland habitats, their conservation and effective management in human-dominated landscapes will benefit the Indian fox. The presence of some human-made structures within native grasslands would also be beneficial for this den-dependent species. We suggest future studies examine the impact of fragmentation and connectivity of grasslands on survival and reproductive success of the Indian fox. PMID:24098494

  17. HyDEn: A Hybrid Steganocryptographic Approach for Data Encryption Using Randomized Error-Correcting DNA Codes

    PubMed Central

    Regoui, Chaouki; Durand, Guillaume; Belliveau, Luc; Léger, Serge

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hybrid DNA encryption (HyDEn) approach that uses randomized assignments of unique error-correcting DNA Hamming code words for single characters in the extended ASCII set. HyDEn relies on custom-built quaternary codes and a private key used in the randomized assignment of code words and the cyclic permutations applied on the encoded message. Along with its ability to detect and correct errors, HyDEn equals or outperforms existing cryptographic methods and represents a promising in silico DNA steganographic approach. PMID:23984392

  18. HyDEn: a hybrid steganocryptographic approach for data encryption using randomized error-correcting DNA codes.

    PubMed

    Tulpan, Dan; Regoui, Chaouki; Durand, Guillaume; Belliveau, Luc; Léger, Serge

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hybrid DNA encryption (HyDEn) approach that uses randomized assignments of unique error-correcting DNA Hamming code words for single characters in the extended ASCII set. HyDEn relies on custom-built quaternary codes and a private key used in the randomized assignment of code words and the cyclic permutations applied on the encoded message. Along with its ability to detect and correct errors, HyDEn equals or outperforms existing cryptographic methods and represents a promising in silico DNA steganographic approach.

  19. Expression of the denV gene of coliphage T4 in UV-sensitive rad mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie, K.; Fronko, G.; Henderson, E.E.; de Riel, J.K.

    1986-10-01

    A plasmid containing the denV gene from bacteriophage T4, under the control of the yeast alcohol dehydrogenase I (ADC1) promoter, conferred a substantial increase in UV resistance in the UV-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants rad1-2 and rad3-2. The UV resistance of the denV+ yeast cells was cell cycle dependent and correlated well with the level of the denV gene product as measured by immunoblotting and by a photoreversal assay for pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity.

  20. CheckDen, a program to compute quantum molecular properties on spatial grids.

    PubMed

    Pacios, Luis F; Fernandez, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    CheckDen, a program to compute quantum molecular properties on a variety of spatial grids is presented. The program reads as unique input wavefunction files written by standard quantum packages and calculates the electron density rho(r), promolecule and density difference function, gradient of rho(r), Laplacian of rho(r), information entropy, electrostatic potential, kinetic energy densities G(r) and K(r), electron localization function (ELF), and localized orbital locator (LOL) function. These properties can be calculated on a wide range of one-, two-, and three-dimensional grids that can be processed by widely used graphics programs to render high-resolution images. CheckDen offers also other options as extracting separate atom contributions to the property computed, converting grid output data into CUBE and OpenDX volumetric data formats, and perform arithmetic combinations with grid files in all the recognized formats. PMID:19447056

  1. A clinical report of Type III dens invaginatus: relevant aspects of a combined therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Silva E Souza, Patricia de Almeida Rodrigues; de Almeida, Bruno Vila Nova; Tartari, Talita; Alves, Ana Claudia Braga Amoras; Tuji, Farbicio Mesquita; Silva E Souza, Mario Honorato

    2013-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental abnormality that alters dental morphology; as a result, treating this condition is a challenge for endodontic practices. This article describes how a combination of nonsurgical and surgical therapies was utilized to treat a maxillary central incisor with Type III dens invaginatus and vital pulp. The treatment plan included using computed tomography (CT) for a detailed analysis of the dental anatomy and periapical area, endodontic and surgical procedures, and a 4-year follow-up period that included periodic clinical and radiographic examinations. The follow-up examinations revealed a regression of the apical lesion and no other signs or symptoms. Based on the present case report, the authors concluded that this combination of surgical and nonsurgical approaches was effective and that CT is a valuable auxiliary tool for the study of dental anatomy.

  2. CheckDen, a program to compute quantum molecular properties on spatial grids.

    PubMed

    Pacios, Luis F; Fernandez, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    CheckDen, a program to compute quantum molecular properties on a variety of spatial grids is presented. The program reads as unique input wavefunction files written by standard quantum packages and calculates the electron density rho(r), promolecule and density difference function, gradient of rho(r), Laplacian of rho(r), information entropy, electrostatic potential, kinetic energy densities G(r) and K(r), electron localization function (ELF), and localized orbital locator (LOL) function. These properties can be calculated on a wide range of one-, two-, and three-dimensional grids that can be processed by widely used graphics programs to render high-resolution images. CheckDen offers also other options as extracting separate atom contributions to the property computed, converting grid output data into CUBE and OpenDX volumetric data formats, and perform arithmetic combinations with grid files in all the recognized formats.

  3. A clinical report of Type III dens invaginatus: relevant aspects of a combined therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Silva E Souza, Patricia de Almeida Rodrigues; de Almeida, Bruno Vila Nova; Tartari, Talita; Alves, Ana Claudia Braga Amoras; Tuji, Farbicio Mesquita; Silva E Souza, Mario Honorato

    2013-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental abnormality that alters dental morphology; as a result, treating this condition is a challenge for endodontic practices. This article describes how a combination of nonsurgical and surgical therapies was utilized to treat a maxillary central incisor with Type III dens invaginatus and vital pulp. The treatment plan included using computed tomography (CT) for a detailed analysis of the dental anatomy and periapical area, endodontic and surgical procedures, and a 4-year follow-up period that included periodic clinical and radiographic examinations. The follow-up examinations revealed a regression of the apical lesion and no other signs or symptoms. Based on the present case report, the authors concluded that this combination of surgical and nonsurgical approaches was effective and that CT is a valuable auxiliary tool for the study of dental anatomy. PMID:23302365

  4. Technische Systeme für den Herzersatz und die Herzunterstützung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöb, Reto; Loree, Howard M.

    Herzkrankheiten verursachen allein in den Vereinigten Staaten jährlich mehr als 700’000 Todesfälle. Ungefähr 3 Millionen Patienten in den U.S.A. leiden gemäss der American Heart Association (AHA) und dem National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) an kongestivem Herzversagen (Congestive Heart Failure, CHF), welches eine chronische, sehr entkräftende und degenerative Krankheit ist: Das Herz ist dabei unfähig, hinreichend Blut zu den Organen des Körpers zu pumpen. Über 400’000 Fälle von CHF werden jedes Jahr diagnostiziert. Ähnliche Zahlen werden für Europa und Japan zusammen geschätzt. Basierend auf Daten vom AHA und NHLBI beträgt die fünfjährige Überlebensrate für CHF-Patienten lediglich etwa 50% [1]. 70’000-120’000 dieser Patienten könnten von einer Herzverpflanzung profitieren. 1999 wurden in den USA aber nur 2185 Herztransplantationen durchgeführt während die Warteliste über 4000 Patienten beträgt [2]. Ein akuter Mangel an Spenderherzen und die enormen Kosten (250’000-400’000 USD pro Patient) sind die begrenzenden Faktoren für Herztransplantationen [3]. Dies bedeutet, dass eine riesige Anzahl von Patienten durch ein zuverlässiges und verschleissfreies, nichtthrombotisches, total implantierbares, künstliches Herz gerettet werden könnten. Bis heute jedoch kein derartiges Implantat kommerziell verfügbar.

  5. Case study of total energy system, Sher-Den Mall, Sherman, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Myrtetus, G.B.; Levey, M.D.

    1980-12-01

    The Sher-Den Mall shopping center receives all of its electricity and heating and cooling energy from a total energy plant located within the shopping center proper. Four engine-generator units are fueled primarily by natural gas, with some fuel oil use. The following are presented: initial corporate planning, investigation, and feasibility studies; a description of the total energy system; capital costs; plant operations, and revenue structure. Tables, figures, exhibits, and equipment specification lists are presented. (MHR)

  6. Nanomedical strategy to prolong survival period, heighten cure rate, and lower systemic toxicity of S180 mice treated with MTX/MIT

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ning; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yuji; Hu, Xi; Wu, Jianhui; Jiang, Xueyun; Li, Shan; Cui, Chunying; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the usual combination form of methotrexate (MTX)/mitoxantrone (MIT) and various complex combination regimens of MTX/MIT with other anticancer drugs, the survival period, cure rate, and systemic toxicity still need to be improved. For this purpose, a nanostructured amino group-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNN)−MTX/MIT was designed. In the preparation, the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was modified with amino groups to form MSNN. The covalent modification of the amino groups on the surface of MSNN with MTX resulted in MSNN−MTX. The loading of MIT into the surface pores of MSNN−MTX produced nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT. Compared with the usual combination form (MTX/MIT), nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT increased the survival period greatly, heightened the cure rate to a great extent, and lowered the systemic toxicity of the treated S180 mice, significantly. These superior in vivo properties of nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT over the usual combination form (MTX/MIT) were correlated with the former selectively releasing MTX and MIT in tumor tissue and inside cancer cells in vitro. The chemical structure and the nanostructure of MSNN−MTX/MIT were characterized using infrared and differential scanning calorimeter spectra as well as transmission electron microscope images, respectively. PMID:27621591

  7. Nanomedical strategy to prolong survival period, heighten cure rate, and lower systemic toxicity of S180 mice treated with MTX/MIT

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ning; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yuji; Hu, Xi; Wu, Jianhui; Jiang, Xueyun; Li, Shan; Cui, Chunying; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the usual combination form of methotrexate (MTX)/mitoxantrone (MIT) and various complex combination regimens of MTX/MIT with other anticancer drugs, the survival period, cure rate, and systemic toxicity still need to be improved. For this purpose, a nanostructured amino group-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNN)−MTX/MIT was designed. In the preparation, the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was modified with amino groups to form MSNN. The covalent modification of the amino groups on the surface of MSNN with MTX resulted in MSNN−MTX. The loading of MIT into the surface pores of MSNN−MTX produced nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT. Compared with the usual combination form (MTX/MIT), nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT increased the survival period greatly, heightened the cure rate to a great extent, and lowered the systemic toxicity of the treated S180 mice, significantly. These superior in vivo properties of nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT over the usual combination form (MTX/MIT) were correlated with the former selectively releasing MTX and MIT in tumor tissue and inside cancer cells in vitro. The chemical structure and the nanostructure of MSNN−MTX/MIT were characterized using infrared and differential scanning calorimeter spectra as well as transmission electron microscope images, respectively.

  8. Nanomedical strategy to prolong survival period, heighten cure rate, and lower systemic toxicity of S180 mice treated with MTX/MIT.

    PubMed

    Song, Ning; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yuji; Hu, Xi; Wu, Jianhui; Jiang, Xueyun; Li, Shan; Cui, Chunying; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the usual combination form of methotrexate (MTX)/mitoxantrone (MIT) and various complex combination regimens of MTX/MIT with other anticancer drugs, the survival period, cure rate, and systemic toxicity still need to be improved. For this purpose, a nanostructured amino group-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNN)-MTX/MIT was designed. In the preparation, the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was modified with amino groups to form MSNN. The covalent modification of the amino groups on the surface of MSNN with MTX resulted in MSNN-MTX. The loading of MIT into the surface pores of MSNN-MTX produced nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT. Compared with the usual combination form (MTX/MIT), nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT increased the survival period greatly, heightened the cure rate to a great extent, and lowered the systemic toxicity of the treated S180 mice, significantly. These superior in vivo properties of nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT over the usual combination form (MTX/MIT) were correlated with the former selectively releasing MTX and MIT in tumor tissue and inside cancer cells in vitro. The chemical structure and the nanostructure of MSNN-MTX/MIT were characterized using infrared and differential scanning calorimeter spectra as well as transmission electron microscope images, respectively. PMID:27621591

  9. Catalogue of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal den locations in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions, Alaska, 1910-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents data on the approximate locations and methods of discovery of 392 polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal dens found in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions between 1910 and 2010 that are archived by the U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska. A description of data collection methods, biases associated with collection method, primary time periods, and spatial resolution are provided. Polar bears in the Beaufort Sea and nearby regions den on both the sea ice and on land. Standardized VHF surveys and satellite radio telemetry data provide a general understanding of where polar bears have denned in this region over the past 3 decades. Den observations made during other research activities and anecdotal reports from other government agencies, coastal residents, and industry personnel also are reported. Data on past polar bear maternal den locations are provided to inform the public and to provide information for natural resource agencies in planning activities to avoid or minimize interference with polar bear maternity dens.

  10. The MIT Accelerator Laboratory for Diagnostic Development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Orozco, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Hahn, K.; Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products, which are used for development of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved with this accelerator, and fluence and energy of the fusion products are accurately characterized. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) CVD-diamond-based bang time detector. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  11. Educational Outreach at the M.I.T. Plasma Fusion Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Censabella, V.

    1996-11-01

    Educational outreach at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center consists of volunteers working together to increase the public's knowledge of fusion and plasma-related experiments. Seeking to generate excitement about science, engineering and mathematics, the PFC holds a number of outreach activities throughout the year, such as Middle and High School Outreach Days. Outreach also includes the Mr. Magnet Program, which uses an interactive strategy to engage elementary school children. Included in this year's presentation will be a new and improved C-MOD Jr, a confinement video game which helps students to discover how computers manipulate magnetic pulses to keep a plasma confined for as long as possible. Also on display will be an educational toy created by the Cambridge Physics Outlet, a PFC spin-off company. The PFC maintains a Home Page on the World Wide Web, which can be reached at http://cmod2.pfc.mit.edu/.

  12. The neurosciences research program at MIT and the beginning of the modern field of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Adelman, George

    2010-01-15

    The interdisciplinary field, "neuroscience," began at MIT in 1962 with the founding of the Neurosciences Research Program (NRP) by Francis O. Schmitt and a group of US and international scientists - physical, biological, medical, and behavioral - interested in understanding the brain basis of behavior and mind. They organized and held specialist meetings of basic topics in neuroscience, and the journal and book publications over the next 20 years, based on these meetings, helped establish the new field.

  13. The MIT high resolution X-ray spectroscopy instruments on AXAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canizares, C. R.; Dewey, D.; Galton, E. B.; Markert, T. H.; Smith, Henry I.; Schattenburg, M. L.; Woodgate, B. E.; Jordan, S.

    1992-03-01

    The general design and performance characteristics of MIT's two dispersive spectrometers, the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) and the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETG), now being developed for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), are described. Particular attention is given to the development of the critical technologies incorporated into these instruments, including BCS diffractors, imaging gas flow proportional counters, and grating elements for the HETG. The principal stages and the current status of the developments are reviewed.

  14. Teleoperation experiments with a Utah/MIT hand and a VPL DataGlove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D.; Demmel, J.; Hong, J.; Lafferriere, Gerardo; Salkind, L.; Tan, X.

    1989-01-01

    A teleoperation system capable of controlling a Utah/MIT Dextrous Hand using a VPL DataGlove as a master is presented. Additionally the system is capable of running the dextrous hand in robotic (autonomous) mode as new programs are developed. The software and hardware architecture used is presented and the experiments performed are described. The communication and calibration issues involved are analyzed and applications to the analysis and development of automated dextrous manipulations are investigated.

  15. Gaussian frequency blending algorithm with matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS) and filtered back projection (FBP) for better digital breast tomosynthesis reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Lo, Joseph Y.; Baker, Jay A.; Dobbins, James T., III

    2006-03-01

    Breast cancer is a major problem and the most common cancer among women. The nature of conventional mammpgraphy makes it very difficult to distinguish a cancer from overlying breast tissues. Digital Tomosynthesis refers to a three-dimensional imaging technique that allows reconstruction of an arbitrary set of planes in the breast from limited-angle series of projection images as the x-ray source moves. Several tomosynthesis algorithms have been proposed, including Matrix Inversion Tomosynthesis (MITS) and Filtered Back Projection (FBP) that have been investigated in our lab. MITS shows better high frequency response in removing out-of-plane blur, while FBP shows better low frequency noise propertities. This paper presents an effort to combine MITS and FBP for better breast tomosynthesis reconstruction. A high-pass Gaussian filter was designed and applied to three-slice "slabbing" MITS reconstructions. A low-pass Gaussian filter was designed and applied to the FBP reconstructions. A frequency weighting parameter was studied to blend the high-passed MITS with low-passed FBP frequency components. Four different reconstruction methods were investigated and compared with human subject images: 1) MITS blended with Shift-And-Add (SAA), 2) FBP alone, 3) FBP with applied Hamming and Gaussian Filters, and 4) Gaussian Frequency Blending (GFB) of MITS and FBP. Results showed that, compared with FBP, Gaussian Frequency Blending (GFB) has better performance for high frequency content such as better reconstruction of micro-calcifications and removal of high frequency noise. Compared with MITS, GFB showed more low frequency breast tissue content.

  16. MIT: A Future Mission to Investigate Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Coupling with Multipoint Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Thermosphere (MIT) mission is one of the Space Science Strategic Pioneer Projects of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Its major scientific objectives focus on the heating, acceleration and transport processes of ions in the polar regions and on their impact on the ring current and radiation belts. Because of the dynamic nature of these processes that also vary with altitude, it is imperative to cover with MIT altitudes from a few 100 km to several earth radii. This will be accomplished with a novel constellation of four spacecraft in polar orbits that provide periodic simultaneous measurements in the polar regions at three different altitudes. The two Ionospheric spacecraft have a polar orbit of 500km*1500km. The other two spacecraft have symmetric polar orbits with geocentric distances of 2Re*8Re (Re is the radius of the Earth).With instrument packages covering particle and field measurements over a wide energy range on all four spacecraft we will be able to monitor and investigate all relevant processes, including ion outflow from the source region in the ionosphere, their acceleration at mid-altitudes, to their final destination in the magnetosphere. Presently, MIT is in the background study stage that will be completed in 2015, with the engineering stage planed to start in 2016, if selected.

  17. MIT: A Future Mission to Investigate Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Coupling with Multipoint Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Wang, Chi; Xu, Jiyao; Li, Xiaoyu; Klecker, Berndt

    2015-04-01

    The Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Thermosphere (MIT) mission is one of the Space Science Strategic Pioneer Projects of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Its major scientific objectives focus on the heating, acceleration and transport processes of ions in the polar regions and on their impact on the ring current and radiation belts. Because of the dynamic nature of these processes that also vary with altitude, it is imperative to cover with MIT altitudes from a few 100 km to several earth radii. This will be accomplished with a novel constellation of four spacecraft in polar orbits that provide periodic simultaneous measurements in the polar regions at three different altitudes. The two Ionospheric spacecraft have a polar orbit of 500km*1500km. The other two spacecraft have symmetric polar orbits with geocentric distances of 2Re*8Re (Re is the radius of the Earth). With instrument packages covering particle and field measurements over a wide energy range on all four spacecraft we will be able to monitor and investigate all relevant processes, including ion outflow from the source region in the ionosphere, their acceleration at mid-altitudes, to their final destination in the magnetosphere. Presently, MIT is in the background study stage that will be completed in 2015, with the engineering stage planed to start in 2016, if selected.

  18. Reconnaissance study of late quaternary faulting along cerro GoDen fault zone, western Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, P.; Prentice, C.S.; Hippolyte, J.-C.; Grindlay, N.R.; Abrams, L.J.; Lao-Davila, D.

    2005-01-01

    The Cerro GoDen fault zone is associated with a curvilinear, continuous, and prominent topographic lineament in western Puerto Rico. The fault varies in strike from northwest to west. In its westernmost section, the fault is ???500 m south of an abrupt, curvilinear mountain front separating the 270- to 361-m-high La CaDena De San Francisco range from the Rio A??asco alluvial valley. The Quaternary fault of the A??asco Valley is in alignment with the bedrock fault mapped by D. McIntyre (1971) in the Central La Plata quadrangle sheet east of A??asco Valley. Previous workers have postulated that the Cerro GoDen fault zone continues southeast from the A??asco Valley and merges with the Great Southern Puerto Rico fault zone of south-central Puerto Rico. West of the A??asco Valley, the fault continues offshore into the Mona Passage (Caribbean Sea) where it is characterized by offsets of seafloor sediments estimated to be of late Quaternary age. Using both 1:18,500 scale air photographs taken in 1936 and 1:40,000 scale photographs taken by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1986, we iDentified geomorphic features suggestive of Quaternary fault movement in the A??asco Valley, including aligned and Deflected drainages, apparently offset terrace risers, and mountain-facing scarps. Many of these features suggest right-lateral displacement. Mapping of Paleogene bedrock units in the uplifted La CaDena range adjacent to the Cerro GoDen fault zone reveals the main tectonic events that have culminated in late Quaternary normal-oblique displacement across the Cerro GoDen fault. Cretaceous to Eocene rocks of the La CaDena range exhibit large folds with wavelengths of several kms. The orientation of folds and analysis of fault striations within the folds indicate that the folds formed by northeast-southwest shorTening in present-day geographic coordinates. The age of Deformation is well constrained as late Eocene-early Oligocene by an angular unconformity separating folDed, Deep

  19. Screen test for cadmium and nickel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, Angie H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1994-01-01

    A new procedure is described which was recently developed to quantify loading uniformity of nickel and cadmium plates and to screen finished electrodes prior to cell assembly. The technique utilizes the initial solubility rates of the active material in a standard chemical deloading solution at fixed conditions. The method can provide a reproducible indication of plate loading uniformity in situations where high surface loading limits the free flow of deloading solution into the internal porosity of the sinter plate. A preliminary study indicates that 'good' cell performance is associated with higher deloading rates.

  20. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... decides which tests are required. Ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. If your baby has ... state requires different tests, so ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. You also can visit ...

  1. Ocular screening tests of elementary school children

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of 507 abnormal retinal reflex images taken of Huntsville kindergarten and first grade students. The retinal reflex images were obtained by using an MSFC-developed Generated Retinal Reflex Image System (GRRIS) photorefractor. The system uses a 35 mm camera with a telephoto lens with an electronic flash attachment. Slide images of the eyes were examined for abnormalities. Of a total of 1835 students screened for ocular abnormalities, 507 were found to have abnormal retinal reflexes. The types of ocular abnormalities detected were hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, esotropia, exotropia, strabismus, and lens obstuctions. The report shows that the use of the photorefractor screening system is an effective low-cost means of screening school children for abnormalities.

  2. SCREENING TESTS FOR IMPROVED METHANE CRACKING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J; Jeffrey Holder, J

    2007-07-16

    Bench scale (1 to 6 gram) methane cracking tests have been performed on a variety of pure elements, some alloys, and SAES{reg_sign} commercial getters St 101, St 198, St 707, St 737, and St 909 to determine methane cracking performance (MCP) of 5% methane in a helium carrier at 700 C, 101.3 kPa (760 torr) with a 10 sccm feed. The MCP was almost absent from some materials tested while others showed varying degrees of MCP. Re, Cr, V, Gd, and Mo powders had good MCP, but limited capacities. Nickel supported on kieselguhr (Ni/k), a Zr-Ni alloy, and the SAES{reg_sign} getters had good MCP in a helium carrier. The MCP of these same materials was suppressed in a hydrogen carrier stream and the MCP of the Zr-based materials was reduced by nitride formation when tested with a nitrogen carrier gas.

  3. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... LEEP) —A thin wire loop that carries an electric current is used to remove abnormal areas of the ... the cervix using a thin wire loop and electric energy. Pap ... this document sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s health. The ...

  4. Teaching practical leadership in MIT satellite development class: CASTOR and Exoplanet projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuscia, Alessandra; Craig, Jennifer L.; Connor, Jane A.

    2012-08-01

    For more than a decade, the Aeronautics and Astronautics Department at MIT has offered undergraduate students the opportunity of conceiving, developing, implementing and operating new spacecraft's missions. During a three term class, junior and senior students experience all the challenges of a true engineering team project: design, analysis, testing, technical documentation development, team management, and leadership. Leadership instruction is an important part of the curricula; through the development of leadership skills, students learn to manage themselves and each other in a more effective way, increasing the overall productivity of the team. Also, a strong leadership education is a key factor in improving the abilities of future engineers to be effective team members and leaders in the companies and agencies in which they will work. However, too often leadership instruction is presented in an abstract way, which does not provide students with suggestions for immediate applicability. As a consequence, students underestimate the potential that leadership education can have on the development of their projects. To counteract that effect, a new approach for teaching "practical" leadership has been developed. This approach is composed of a set of activities developed to improve students' leadership skills in the context of a project. Specifically, this approach has been implemented in the MIT satellite development class. In that class, students experienced the challenges of building two satellites: CASTOR and Exoplanet. These two missions are real space projects which will be launched in the next two years, and which involve cooperation with different entities (MIT, NASA, and Draper). Hence, the MIT faculty was interested in developing leadership activities to improve the productivity of the teams in a short time. In fact, one of the key aspects of the approach proposed is that it can be quickly implemented in a single semester, requiring no more than 4 h of

  5. Deletion of PdMit1, a homolog of yeast Csg1, affects growth and Ca(2+) sensitivity of the fungus Penicillium digitatum, but does not alter virulence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Congyi; Wang, Weili; Wang, Mingshuang; Ruan, Ruoxin; Sun, Xuepeng; He, Meixian; Mao, Cungui; Li, Hongye

    2015-04-01

    GDP-mannose:inositol-phosphorylceramide (MIPC) and its derivatives are important for Ca(2+) sensitization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and for the virulence of Candida albicans, but its role in the virulence of plant fungal pathogens remains unclear. In this study, we report the identification and functional characterization of PdMit1, the gene encoding MIPC synthase in Penicillium digitatum, one of the most important pathogens of postharvest citrus fruits. To understand the function of PdMit1, a PdMit1 deletion mutant was generated. Compared to its wild-type control, the PdMit1 deletion mutant exhibited slow radial growth, decreased conidia production and delayed conidial germination, suggesting that PdMit1 is important for the growth of mycelium, sporulation and conidial germination. The PdMit1 deletion mutant also showed hypersensitivity to Ca(2+). Treatment with 250 mmol/l Ca(2+) induced vacuole fusion in the wild-type strain, but not in the PdMit1 deletion mutant. Treatment with 250mmol/lCaCl2 upregulated three Ca(2+)-ATPase genes in the wild-type strain, and this was significantly inhibited in the PdMit1 deletion mutant. These results suggest that PdMit1 may have a role in regulating vacuole fusion and expression of Ca(2+)-ATPase genes by controlling biosynthesis of MIPC, and thereby imparts P. digitatum Ca(2+) tolerance. However, we found that PdMit1 is dispensable for virulence of P. digitatum.

  6. Bilateral dens invaginatus in the mandibular premolars – Diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kharangate, Nupur; Figueiredo, Nigel R.; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a developmental anomaly that results from an infolding of the dental papilla during tooth development and simulates the appearance of a tooth within another tooth. It shows a wide spectrum of variations in morphology and usually affects the maxillary lateral incisors. This study presents an unusual case of an Oehlers’ Type I DI involving the bilateral mandibular first and second premolars, which presented as an incidental radiographic finding in the first premolars and was associated with a periapical lesion in the second premolars which was successfully treated using nonsurgical endodontics. PMID:26321850

  7. Geochemical survey of the Devil's Den Roadless Area, Rutland and Windsor counties, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Atelsek, P.J.; Grosz, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Devils Den area is named for a large undercut cliff (Dale, 1915, p. 21) developed in Precambrian basement rocks. This undercut cliff forms a broad natural cave immediately west of and below Forest Service Road 10, at the head of Mt. Tabor Brook. Another much smaller cave is present in dolomite of probable Paleozoic (Early Cambrian) age on the east side of the same road. This smaller cave apparently is of artificial origin, having been made during early mining of the dolomite (Dale, 1915, p. 21). This man-made cave is the only evidence of previous mining activity within the study area.

  8. Screening for Substance Use Disorder among Incarcerated Men with the Alcohol, Smoking, Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): A Comparative Analysis of Computer-administered and Interviewer-administered Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Substance use disorders are overrepresented in incarcerated male populations. Cost- effective screening for alcohol and substance use problems among incarcerated populations is a necessary first step forward intervention. The Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) holds promise because it has strong psychometric properties, requires minimal training, is easy to score, is available in the public domain but, because of complicated skip patterns, cannot be self-administered. This study tests the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using computer-administered self-interviewing (CASI) versus interviewer-administered interviewing (IAI) to screen for substance use problems among incarcerated men using the ASSIST. A 2 X 2 factorial design was used to randomly assign 396 incarcerated men to screening modality. Findings indicate that computer screening was feasible. Compared to IAI, CASI produced equally reliable screening information on substance use and symptom severity, with test-retest intraclass correlations for ASSIST total and substance-specific scores ranging from 0.7 to 0.9, and ASSIST substance-specific scores and a substance abuse disorder diagnosis based on the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) were significantly correlated for IAI and CASI. These findings indicate that data on substance use and symptom severity using the ASSIST can be reliably and validly obtained from CASI technology, increasing the efficiency by which incarcerated populations can be screened for substance use problems and, those at risk, identified for treatment. PMID:25659203

  9. Protective effect of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on DEN-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok K; Vijayalakshmi, K

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to find out the efficacy of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as normal control, and the second group received DEN at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by single intraperitoneal administration. The third one received DEN as in DEN-treated group and co-treated with 400 mg/kg P. granatum peel extract. The final group also received DEN and co-treated with 400 mg/kg V. vinifera seed extract. DEN administration to rats resulted in significantly elevated levels of serum SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and GGT which is indicative of hepatocellular damage. DEN-induced oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxides and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and liver tissues. The status of non-enzymatic antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione were also found to be decreased in serum and tissues of DEN-administered rats. Co-treatment with the P. granatum peel and V. vinifera seed extracts orally for 12 weeks significantly reversed the DEN-induced alterations in the serum and liver tissues. PMID:25304489

  10. Prospective pilot trial of PerMIT versus standard anticoagulation service management of patients initiating oral anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Borgman, Mark P; Pendleton, Robert C; McMillin, Gwendolyn A; Reynolds, Kristen K; Vazquez, Sara; Freeman, Andrew; Wilson, Andrew; Valdes, Roland; Linder, Mark W

    2012-09-01

    We performed a randomised pilot trial of PerMIT, a novel decision support tool for genotype-based warfarin initiation and maintenance dosing, to assess its efficacy for improving warfarin management. We prospectively studied 26 subjects to compare PerMIT-guided management with routine anticoagulation service management. CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype results for 13 subjects randomly assigned to the PerMIT arm were recorded within 24 hours of enrolment. To aid in INR interpretation, PerMIT calculates estimated loading and maintenance doses based on a patient's genetic and clinical characteristics and displays calculated S-warfarin plasma concentrations based on planned or administered dosages. In comparison to control subjects, patients in the PerMIT study arm demonstrated a 3.6-day decrease in the time to reach a stabilised INR within the target therapeutic range (4.7 vs. 8.3 days, p = 0.015); a 12.8% increase in time spent within the therapeutic interval over the first 25 days of therapy (64.3% vs. 55.3%, p = 0.180); and a 32.9% decrease in the frequency of warfarin dose adjustments per INR measurement (38.3% vs. 57.1%, p = 0.007). Serial measurements of plasma S-warfarin concentrations were also obtained to prospectively evaluate the accuracy of the pharmacokinetic model during induction therapy. The PerMIT S-warfarin plasma concentration model estimated 62.8% of concentrations within 0.15 mg/l. These pilot data suggest that the PerMIT method and its incorporation of genotype/phenotype information may help practitioners increase the safety, efficacy, and efficiency of warfarin therapeutic management. PMID:22836303

  11. MitProNet: A knowledgebase and analysis platform of proteome, interactome and diseases for mammalian mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiabin; Yang, Jian; Mao, Song; Chai, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Yuling; Hou, Xugang; Tang, Yiheng; Bi, Cheng; Li, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrion plays a central role in diverse biological processes in most eukaryotes, and its dysfunctions are critically involved in a large number of diseases and the aging process. A systematic identification of mitochondrial proteomes and characterization of functional linkages among mitochondrial proteins are fundamental in understanding the mechanisms underlying biological functions and human diseases associated with mitochondria. Here we present a database MitProNet which provides a comprehensive knowledgebase for mitochondrial proteome, interactome and human diseases. First an inventory of mammalian mitochondrial proteins was compiled by widely collecting proteomic datasets, and the proteins were classified by machine learning to achieve a high-confidence list of mitochondrial proteins. The current version of MitProNet covers 1124 high-confidence proteins, and the remainders were further classified as middle- or low-confidence. An organelle-specific network of functional linkages among mitochondrial proteins was then generated by integrating genomic features encoded by a wide range of datasets including genomic context, gene expression profiles, protein-protein interactions, functional similarity and metabolic pathways. The functional-linkage network should be a valuable resource for the study of biological functions of mitochondrial proteins and human mitochondrial diseases. Furthermore, we utilized the network to predict candidate genes for mitochondrial diseases using prioritization algorithms. All proteins, functional linkages and disease candidate genes in MitProNet were annotated according to the information collected from their original sources including GO, GEO, OMIM, KEGG, MIPS, HPRD and so on. MitProNet features a user-friendly graphic visualization interface to present functional analysis of linkage networks. As an up-to-date database and analysis platform, MitProNet should be particularly helpful in comprehensive studies of complicated

  12. Insights from the Den: How Hibernating Bears May Help Us Understand and Treat Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Berg von Linde, Maria; Arevström, Lilith; Fröbert, Ole

    2015-10-01

    Hibernating brown bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) spend half of the year in a physically inactive state inside their winter dens without food intake and defecating and no or little urination. Under similar extreme conditions, humans would suffer from loss of lean body mass, heart failure, thrombosis, azotemia, osteoporosis, and more. However, bears exit the den in the spring strong without organ injuries. Translational animal models are used in human medicine but traditional experimental animals have several shortcomings; thus, we believe that it is time to systematically explore new models. In this review paper, we describe physiological adaptations of hibernating bears and how similar adaptations in humans could theoretically alleviate medical conditions. The bear has solved most of the health challenges faced by humans, including heart and kidney disease, atherosclerosis and thrombosis, and muscle wasting and osteoporosis. Understanding and applying this library of information could lead to a number of major discoveries that could have implications for the understanding and treatment of human disease.

  13. Management of Oehler's Type III Dens Invaginatus Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Jaya; Rangarajan Sundaresan, Mohan Kumar; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Dens Invaginatus is a dental malformation that poses diagnostic difficulties in the clinical context. This anomaly may increase the risk of pulp disease and can potentially complicate endodontic procedure due to the aberrant root canal anatomy. Compared to conventional radiographs, three-dimensional images obtained with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) are invaluable in the diagnosis of the extent of this anomaly and in the appropriate treatment planning. Oehler's classification (1957) for Dens Invaginatus (DI) into three types depending on the depth of the invagination has been used for treatment planning. Of the three types Type III DI is characterized by infolding of the enamel into the tooth up to the root apex and is considered as the most severe variant of DI and hence the most challenging to treat endodontically, due to the morphological complexities. This report describes a case of Oehler's Type III DI in a necrotic permanent maxillary lateral incisor in which CBCT images played a key role in diagnosis and treatment planning. The case was managed successfully by a combination of nonsurgical and surgical endodontic therapy with orthograde and retrograde thermoplastic gutta percha obturation. PMID:27069697

  14. Management of Oehler's Type III Dens Invaginatus Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Jaya; Rangarajan Sundaresan, Mohan Kumar; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Dens Invaginatus is a dental malformation that poses diagnostic difficulties in the clinical context. This anomaly may increase the risk of pulp disease and can potentially complicate endodontic procedure due to the aberrant root canal anatomy. Compared to conventional radiographs, three-dimensional images obtained with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) are invaluable in the diagnosis of the extent of this anomaly and in the appropriate treatment planning. Oehler's classification (1957) for Dens Invaginatus (DI) into three types depending on the depth of the invagination has been used for treatment planning. Of the three types Type III DI is characterized by infolding of the enamel into the tooth up to the root apex and is considered as the most severe variant of DI and hence the most challenging to treat endodontically, due to the morphological complexities. This report describes a case of Oehler's Type III DI in a necrotic permanent maxillary lateral incisor in which CBCT images played a key role in diagnosis and treatment planning. The case was managed successfully by a combination of nonsurgical and surgical endodontic therapy with orthograde and retrograde thermoplastic gutta percha obturation. PMID:27069697

  15. Bacoside A downregulates matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Janani, Panneerselvam; Sivakumari, Kanakarajan; Geetha, Arumugam; Yuvaraj, Sambandam; Parthasarathy, Chandrakesan

    2010-03-01

    Cancer metastasis is a complex multi-step process, responsible for a majority of cancer-related deaths by affecting the critical organs and causing complications in therapies. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a multi-factorial disease and is the third most common cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that MMP-2 and MMP-9 are involved in tumor invasion and metastases and their elevated expression has been associated with poor prognosis. Our recent studies showed a strong anti-oxidant and hepatoprotective effects of bacoside A (BA) against carcinogen. Nevertheless the effect of BA on the activities and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 during hepatocellular carcinoma is not yet recognized. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the same. Results of gelatin zymography study showed that BA co-treatment significantly decreased the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, which is increased during hepatocellular carcinoma. Further immunoblot analysis showed decreased expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in rats co-treated with BA compared to DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results reveal that BA exerts its anti-metastatic effect against DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibiting the activities and expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9.

  16. Erythronium dens-canis L. (Liliaceae): an unusual case of change of leaf mottling.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Nicoletta; Pupillo, Paolo; Puppi, Giovanna; Rascio, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Erythronium dens-canis is an early-flowering understory lily of southern Europe with two leaves and a single flower, although a number of plants have only one leaf and do not flower. The leaves are mottled with silvery flecks and brown patches, that gradually vanish turning to a lively green color. The nature and function of this striking variegation pattern were investigated in differently colored leaf parts following the springtime color change. Tissue organization was examined by light and electron microscopy; photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by spectrophotometry and HPLC; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were evaluated by MINI-PAM. The results showed that brown patches originated in vacuolar anthocyanins in the subepidermal cell layer while air spaces between the upper epidermis and underlying chlorenchyma resulted in silvery flecks. The two leaf areas did not differ in photosynthetic pigments, chloroplast organization and photosynthetic parameters (F(v)/F(m), NPQ, rETR). Greening of brown patches due to anthocyanin resorption was faster in non-flowering plants than in flowering ones, occurring only when young fruits were developing. Anthocyanin disappearance did not change the structural-functional features of photosynthetic tissues. As a whole the results suggest that the anthocyanin pigmentation of E. dens-canis leaves does not affect the photosynthetic light use and has no photoprotective function. It is proposed that the complex leaf color pattern may act as a camouflage to escape herbivores, while the reflective silvery spots may have a role in attracting pollinators of this early-flowering species.

  17. Structure of a Complex between Nedd8 and the Ulp/Senp Protease Family Member Den1

    SciTech Connect

    Reverter, David; Wu, Kenneth; Erdene, Tudeviin Gan; Pan, Zhen-Qiang; Wilkinson, Keith D.; Lima, Christopher D.

    2010-07-20

    The Nedd8 conjugation pathway is conserved from yeast to humans and is essential in many organisms. Nedd8 is conjugated to cullin proteins in a process that alters SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and it is presumed that Nedd8 deconjugation would reverse these effects. We now report the X-ray structures of the human Nedd8-specific protease, Den1, in a complex with the inhibitor Nedd8 aldehyde, thus revealing a model for the tetrahedral transition state intermediate generated during proteolysis. Although Den1 is closely related to the SUMO-specific protease family (Ulp/Senp family), structural analysis of the interface suggests determinants involved in Nedd8 selectivity by Den1 over other ubiquitin-like family members and suggests how the Ulp/Senp architecture has been modified to interact with different ubiquitin-like modifiers.

  18. Regional climate projection of the Maritime Continent using the MIT Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IM, E. S.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Given that warming of the climate system is unequivocal (IPCC AR5), accurate assessment of future climate is essential to understand the impact of climate change due to global warming. Modelling the climate change of the Maritime Continent is particularly challenge, showing a high degree of uncertainty. Compared to other regions, model agreement of future projections in response to anthropogenic emission forcings is much less. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal behaviors of climate projections seem to vary significantly due to a complex geographical condition and a wide range of scale interactions. For the fine-scale climate information (27 km) suitable for representing the complexity of climate change over the Maritime Continent, dynamical downscaling is performed using the MIT regional climate model (MRCM) during two thirty-year period for reference (1970-1999) and future (2070-2099) climate. Initial and boundary conditions are provided by Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations under the emission scenarios projected by MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM). Changes in mean climate as well as the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events are investigated at various temporal and spatial scales. Our analysis is primarily centered on the different behavior of changes in convective and large-scale precipitation over land vs. ocean during dry vs. wet season. In addition, we attempt to find the added value to downscaled results over the Maritime Continent through the comparison between MRCM and CESM projection. Acknowledgements.This research was supported by the National Research Foundation Singapore through the Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology's Center for Environmental Sensing and Modeling interdisciplinary research program.

  19. Sampling Technique for Robust Odorant Detection Based on MIT RealNose Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.

    2012-01-01

    This technique enhances the detection capability of the autonomous Real-Nose system from MIT to detect odorants and their concentrations in noisy and transient environments. The lowcost, portable system with low power consumption will operate at high speed and is suited for unmanned and remotely operated long-life applications. A deterministic mathematical model was developed to detect odorants and calculate their concentration in noisy environments. Real data from MIT's NanoNose was examined, from which a signal conditioning technique was proposed to enable robust odorant detection for the RealNose system. Its sensitivity can reach to sub-part-per-billion (sub-ppb). A Space Invariant Independent Component Analysis (SPICA) algorithm was developed to deal with non-linear mixing that is an over-complete case, and it is used as a preprocessing step to recover the original odorant sources for detection. This approach, combined with the Cascade Error Projection (CEP) Neural Network algorithm, was used to perform odorant identification. Signal conditioning is used to identify potential processing windows to enable robust detection for autonomous systems. So far, the software has been developed and evaluated with current data sets provided by the MIT team. However, continuous data streams are made available where even the occurrence of a new odorant is unannounced and needs to be noticed by the system autonomously before its unambiguous detection. The challenge for the software is to be able to separate the potential valid signal from the odorant and from the noisy transition region when the odorant is just introduced.

  20. Lasers, their development, and applications at M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediker, R. H.; Melngailis, I.; Mooradian, A.

    1984-01-01

    A historical account of the work on lasers at MIT Lincoln Laboratory is presented. Highlighted are the efforts that led to the coinvention of the semiconductor laser and the Laboratory's later role in establishing the feasibility of GaInAsP/InP semiconductor lasers for use in fiber telecommunications at 1.3-1.5 micron wavelengths. Descriptions of other important developments include tunable lead-salt semiconductor and solid-state lasers for spectroscopy and LIDAR applications, respectively, as well as ultrastable CO2 lasers for coherent infrared radar.

  1. Von Donuts und Zucker: Mit Neutronen biologische Makromoleküle erforschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Roland P.

    2003-05-01

    Für die Erforschung von Biomolekülen bieten Neutronen einzigartige Eigenschaften. Vor allem ihre unterschiedliche Wechselwirkung mit dem natürlichen Wasserstoff und seinem schweren Isotop Deuterium ermöglicht tiefe Einblicke in Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik von Proteinen, Nukleinsäuren und Biomembranen. Bei vielen Fragestellungen zur Strukturaufklärung gibt es kaum oder keine Alternative zum Neutron. Das Institut Laue-Langevin trägt Bahnbrechendes zum Erfolg der Neutronen-Methoden in der Biologie bei.

  2. Stabile Expression von Sulfotransferasen - allein oder in Kombination mit Cytochrom P450 - in Zelllinien für Mutagenitätsuntersuchungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabel, Ulrike

    2003-10-01

    Aromatische Amine und Amide (aAA) sind aufgrund ihrer starken Verbreitung in der menschlichen Umwelt und ihres kanzerogenen Potenzials von groer toxikologischer Bedeutung. Die Kanzerogenität der aAA wird durch die Mutagenität hochreaktiver Stoffwechselprodukte vermittelt, die in zwei sequenziellen katalytischen Reaktionen entstehen. Die erste ist meistens eine N-Hydroxylierung, die oft durch Cytochrom P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) katalysiert wird. Daran schliet sich eine O-Konjugation durch Sulfotransferasen (SULT) oder N-Acetyltransferasen (NAT) an. Die Bioaktivierung ist ein kritischer Parameter für die Übertragbarkeit von Ergebnissen aus Tiermodellen auf den Menschen. Rekombinante in vitro Systeme, die fremdstoffmetabolisierende Enzyme verschiedener Spezies exprimieren, ermöglichen die vergleichende Untersuchung der Bioaktivierung im Menschen und in Versuchstieren. Ziel des Projektes war die Aufklärung der Bioaktivierung der aAA durch humane Enzyme. Im Vordergrund stand die Untersuchung der Rolle humaner SULT in diesem Prozess. Es wurden rekombinante in vitro Systeme, konstruiert, die CYP1A2 und SULT des Menschen koexprimieren. SULT-cDNAs wurden in den Säugerzell Expressionsvektor pMPSV kloniert und in Standardindikatorzellen für Mutagenitätsuntersuchungen (V79 Zellen aus dem Chinesischen Hamster) transfiziert. Das Expressionsniveau von CYP1A2 und SULT wurde mittels Immunblotanalyse und radiometrischen Aktivitätsmessungen charakterisiert. In den rekombinanten Zellen wurden vier aAA als Modellsubstanzen (2-Acetylaminofluoren, 2-Aminoanthracen, 3′-Methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzol, 2,4-Diaminotoluol) auf ihre Mutagenität am hprt-Locus hin untersucht.Die aAA waren in Zellen, die keine rekombinanten Enzyme oder lediglich CYP1A2 exprimierten, nicht mutagen. In Zellen, die CYP1A2 und SULT der Subfamilie 1A koexprimierten, erzeugten sie bereits in geringen Konzentrationen klare mutagene Effekte (0,3 µM für 2-Acetylaminofluoren und 3′-Methyl-4

  3. Characterization of RyDEN (C19orf66) as an Interferon-Stimulated Cellular Inhibitor against Dengue Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Youichi; Chin, Wei-Xin; Han, Qi'En; Ichiyama, Koji; Lee, Ching Hua; Eyo, Zhi Wen; Ebina, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Chikako; Tan, Beng Hui; Hishiki, Takayuki; Ohba, Kenji; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Tan, Yee-Joo; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Vasudevan, Subhash G; Sano, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most important arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases in humans. However, no vaccine or specific antiviral is available for dengue. As seen in other RNA viruses, the innate immune system plays a key role in controlling DENV infection and disease outcome. Although the interferon (IFN) response, which is central to host protective immunity, has been reported to limit DENV replication, the molecular details of how DENV infection is modulated by IFN treatment are elusive. In this study, by employing a gain-of-function screen using a type I IFN-treated cell-derived cDNA library, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene, C19orf66, as an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) that inhibits DENV replication, which we named Repressor of yield of DENV (RyDEN). Overexpression and gene knockdown experiments revealed that expression of RyDEN confers resistance to all serotypes of DENV in human cells. RyDEN expression also limited the replication of hepatitis C virus, Kunjin virus, Chikungunya virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and human adenovirus. Importantly, RyDEN was considered to be a crucial effector molecule in the IFN-mediated anti-DENV response. When affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis was performed, RyDEN was revealed to form a complex with cellular mRNA-binding proteins, poly(A)-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), and La motif-related protein 1 (LARP1). Interestingly, PABPC1 and LARP1 were found to be positive modulators of DENV replication. Since RyDEN influenced intracellular events on DENV replication and, suppression of protein synthesis from DENV-based reporter construct RNA was also observed in RyDEN-expressing cells, our data suggest that RyDEN is likely to interfere with the translation of DENV via interaction with viral RNA and cellular mRNA-binding proteins, resulting in the inhibition of virus replication in infected cells. PMID:26735137

  4. Characterization of RyDEN (C19orf66) as an Interferon-Stimulated Cellular Inhibitor against Dengue Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Ichiyama, Koji; Lee, Ching Hua; Eyo, Zhi Wen; Ebina, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Chikako; Tan, Beng Hui; Hishiki, Takayuki; Ohba, Kenji; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Tan, Yee-Joo; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Vasudevan, Subhash G.; Sano, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most important arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases in humans. However, no vaccine or specific antiviral is available for dengue. As seen in other RNA viruses, the innate immune system plays a key role in controlling DENV infection and disease outcome. Although the interferon (IFN) response, which is central to host protective immunity, has been reported to limit DENV replication, the molecular details of how DENV infection is modulated by IFN treatment are elusive. In this study, by employing a gain-of-function screen using a type I IFN-treated cell-derived cDNA library, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene, C19orf66, as an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) that inhibits DENV replication, which we named Repressor of yield of DENV (RyDEN). Overexpression and gene knockdown experiments revealed that expression of RyDEN confers resistance to all serotypes of DENV in human cells. RyDEN expression also limited the replication of hepatitis C virus, Kunjin virus, Chikungunya virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and human adenovirus. Importantly, RyDEN was considered to be a crucial effector molecule in the IFN-mediated anti-DENV response. When affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis was performed, RyDEN was revealed to form a complex with cellular mRNA-binding proteins, poly(A)-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), and La motif-related protein 1 (LARP1). Interestingly, PABPC1 and LARP1 were found to be positive modulators of DENV replication. Since RyDEN influenced intracellular events on DENV replication and, suppression of protein synthesis from DENV-based reporter construct RNA was also observed in RyDEN-expressing cells, our data suggest that RyDEN is likely to interfere with the translation of DENV via interaction with viral RNA and cellular mRNA-binding proteins, resulting in the inhibition of virus replication in infected cells. PMID:26735137

  5. Characterization of RyDEN (C19orf66) as an Interferon-Stimulated Cellular Inhibitor against Dengue Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Youichi; Chin, Wei-Xin; Han, Qi'En; Ichiyama, Koji; Lee, Ching Hua; Eyo, Zhi Wen; Ebina, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Chikako; Tan, Beng Hui; Hishiki, Takayuki; Ohba, Kenji; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Tan, Yee-Joo; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Vasudevan, Subhash G; Sano, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most important arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases in humans. However, no vaccine or specific antiviral is available for dengue. As seen in other RNA viruses, the innate immune system plays a key role in controlling DENV infection and disease outcome. Although the interferon (IFN) response, which is central to host protective immunity, has been reported to limit DENV replication, the molecular details of how DENV infection is modulated by IFN treatment are elusive. In this study, by employing a gain-of-function screen using a type I IFN-treated cell-derived cDNA library, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene, C19orf66, as an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) that inhibits DENV replication, which we named Repressor of yield of DENV (RyDEN). Overexpression and gene knockdown experiments revealed that expression of RyDEN confers resistance to all serotypes of DENV in human cells. RyDEN expression also limited the replication of hepatitis C virus, Kunjin virus, Chikungunya virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and human adenovirus. Importantly, RyDEN was considered to be a crucial effector molecule in the IFN-mediated anti-DENV response. When affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis was performed, RyDEN was revealed to form a complex with cellular mRNA-binding proteins, poly(A)-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), and La motif-related protein 1 (LARP1). Interestingly, PABPC1 and LARP1 were found to be positive modulators of DENV replication. Since RyDEN influenced intracellular events on DENV replication and, suppression of protein synthesis from DENV-based reporter construct RNA was also observed in RyDEN-expressing cells, our data suggest that RyDEN is likely to interfere with the translation of DENV via interaction with viral RNA and cellular mRNA-binding proteins, resulting in the inhibition of virus replication in infected cells.

  6. Use of the Falcon assay screening test--enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FAST-ELISA) and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) to determine the prevalence of human fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M; Rodriguez-Perez, J; Bjorland, J; Silva de Lagrava, M; Ramirez Guzman, S; Bryan, R T

    1992-05-01

    A collaborative study between the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, the Centers for Disease Control, the Bolivian Ministry of Health, and private voluntary organizations (Foster Parents Plan International and Danchurchaid) working in Bolivia has identified a region in the northwestern Altiplano of Bolivia near Lake Titicaca as harboring the highest prevalence of human fascioliasis in the world reported to date. Two serologic techniques (the Falcon assay screening test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [FAST-ELISA] and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot [EITB]) were used in the determination of its prevalence. One hundred serum samples and 73 stool samples were obtained from Aymara Indians from Corapata, Bolivia. Antibody absorbance levels to Fasciola hepatica excretion-secretion antigens were compared with EITB banding patterns using the same antigen preparation. A positive FAST-ELISA result was defined as an absorbance value greater than the mean plus three standard deviations of two sets of normal negative controls (Puerto Rican and Bolivian). Using this criterion, 53 of 100 sera tested were found positive by this technique. Within this group, 19 (95%) of 20 individuals who were parasite positive were also positive by FAST-ELISA. An additional 24 individuals who were negative for F. hepatica eggs and 10 individuals for whom no specimens were received were also positive by FAST-ELISA. Among the 53 individuals negative for F. hepatica eggs, 29 were also negative by FAST-ELISA. The EITB analysis of the sera from confirmed infected individuals revealed at least three F. hepatica (Fh) bands with molecular weights of 12, 17, and 63 kD, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Injury risk factors, screening tests and preventative strategies: a systematic review of the evidence that underpins the perceptions and practices of 44 football (soccer) teams from various premier leagues

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Davison, Michael; Nedelec, Mathieu; Le Gall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To systematically review the scientific level of evidence for the ‘Top 3’ risk factors, screening tests and preventative exercises identified by a previously published survey of 44 premier league football (soccer) teams. Also, to provide an overall scientific level of evidence and graded recommendation based on the current research literature. Methods A systematic literature search (Pubmed [MEDLINE], SportDiscus, PEDRO and Cochrane databases). The quality of the articles was assessed and a level of evidence (1++ to 4) was assigned. Level 1++ corresponded to the highest level of evidence available and 4, the lowest. A graded recommendation (A: strong, B: moderate, C: weak, D: insufficient evidence to assign a specific recommendation) for use in the practical setting was given. Results Fourteen studies were analysed. The overall level of evidence for the risk factors previous injury, fatigue and muscle imbalance were 2++, 4 and ‘inconclusive’, respectively. The graded recommendation for functional movement screen, psychological questionnaire and isokinetic muscle testing were all ‘D’. Hamstring eccentric had a weak graded ‘C’ recommendation, and eccentric exercise for other body parts was ‘D’. Balance/proprioception exercise to reduce ankle and knee sprain injury was assigned a graded recommendation ‘D’. Conclusions The majority of perceptions and practices of premier league teams have a low level of evidence and low graded recommendation. This does not imply that these perceptions and practices are not important or not valid, as it may simply be that they are yet to be sufficiently validated or refuted by research. PMID:25576530

  8. Remote identification of potential polar bear maternal denning habitat in northern Alaska using airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. M.; Durner, G. M.; Stoker, J.; Shideler, R.; Perham, C.; Liston, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations throughout the Arctic are being threatened by reductions in critical sea ice habitat. Throughout much of their range, polar bears give birth to their young in winter dens that are excavated in snowdrifts. New-born cubs, which are unable to survive exposure to Arctic winter weather, require 2-3 months of the relatively warm, stable, and undisturbed environment of the den for their growth. In the southern Beaufort Sea (BS), polar bears may den on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP).The proportion of dens occurring on land has increased because of reductions in stable multi-year ice, increases in unconsolidated ice, and lengthening of the fall open-water period. Large portions of the ACP are currently being used for oil and gas activities and proposed projects will likely expand this footprint in the near future. Since petroleum exploration and development activities increase during winter there is the potential for human activities to disturb polar bears in maternal dens. Thus, maps showing the potential distribution of terrestrial denning habitat can help to mitigate negative interactions. Prior remote sensing efforts have consisted of manual interpretation of vertical aerial photography and automated classification of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture (IfSAR) derived digital terrain models (DTM) (5-m spatial resolution) focused on the identification of snowdrift forming landscape features. In this study, we assess the feasibility of airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data (2-m spatial resolution) for the automated classification of potential polar bear maternal denning habitat in a 1,400 km2 area on the central portion of the ACP. The study region spans the BS coast from the Prudhoe Bay oilfield in the west to near Point Thompson in the east and extends inland from 10 to 30 km. Approximately 800 km2 of the study area contains 19 known den locations, 51 field survey sites with information on bank height and

  9. MitBASE : a comprehensive and integrated mitochondrial DNA database. The present status

    PubMed Central

    Attimonelli, M.; Altamura, N.; Benne, R.; Brennicke, A.; Cooper, J. M.; D’Elia, D.; Montalvo, A. de; Pinto, B. de; De Robertis, M.; Golik, P.; Knoop, V.; Lanave, C.; Lazowska, J.; Licciulli, F.; Malladi, B. S.; Memeo, F.; Monnerot, M.; Pasimeni, R.; Pilbout, S.; Schapira, A. H. V.; Sloof, P.; Saccone, C.

    2000-01-01

    MitBASE is an integrated and comprehensive database of mitochondrial DNA data which collects, under a single interface, databases for Plant, Vertebrate, Invertebrate, Human, Protist and Fungal mtDNA and a Pilot database on nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MitBASE reports all available information from different organisms and from intraspecies variants and mutants. Data have been drawn from the primary databases and from the literature; value adding information has been structured, e.g., editing information on protist mtDNA genomes, pathological information for human mtDNA variants, etc. The different databases, some of which are structured using commercial packages (Microsoft Access, File Maker Pro) while others use a flat-file format, have been integrated under ORACLE. Ad hoc retrieval systems have been devised for some of the above listed databases keeping into account their peculiarities. The database is resident at the EBI and is available at the following site: http://www3.ebi.ac.uk/Research/Mitbase/mitbase.pl . The impact of this project is intended for both basic and applied research. The study of mitochondrial genetic diseases and mitochondrial DNA intraspecies diversity are key topics in several biotechnological fields. The database has been funded within the EU Biotechnology programme. PMID:10592207

  10. Evaluation of Dynamics of the West African Monsoon Jump Simulated by the MIT Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Im, Eun-Soon

    2015-04-01

    The seasonal advance and retreat of the West African monsoon behaves abrupt northward jump of maximum rainfall from the Guinean coast to the Sahel region. Both global and regional climate models have difficulties in accurately reproducing such a behavior due to its complexity combined the dynamical and physical processes. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the MIT Regional Climate Model (MRCM) in simulating the West African monsoon. For this, 20-year long-term simulation (1989-2008) is performed using the ERAInterim reanalysis as the initial and boundary condition, and the analysis primarily focuses on the dynamics associated with abrupt phase transitions of the monsoon rainfall. We first examine detailed characteristics in terms of the onset, maximum, and retreat of the monsoon rainfall using daily precipitation. We then present the dynamical explanation behind rainfall variability from the analysis of the absolute vorticity near the tropopause and the meridional gradient of boundary-layer entropy within the dynamical theory proposed by Eltahir and Gong (1996). Acknowledgements : This research was supported by the National Research Foundation Singapore through the Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology's Center for Environmental Sensing and Modeling interdisciplinary research program.

  11. How Much Have They Retained? Making Unseen Concepts Seen in a Freshman Electromagnetism Course at MIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Hult, Erin; Breslow, Lori; Belcher, John W.

    2007-08-01

    The introductory freshmen electromagnetism course at MIT has been taught since 2000 using a studio physics format entitled TEAL—Technology Enabled Active Learning. TEAL has created a collaborative, hands-on environment where students carry out desktop experiments, submit web-based assignments, and have access to a host of visualizations and simulations. These learning tools help them visualize unseen electromagnetic concepts and develop stronger intuition about related phenomena. A previous study has shown that students who took the course in the TEAL format (the experimental group) gained significantly better conceptual understanding than those who took it in the traditional lecture-recitation format (the control group). The present longitudinal study focuses on the extent to which these two research groups (experimental and control) retain conceptual understanding about a year to 18 months after finishing the course. It also examines students attitudes about whether the teaching format (TEAL or traditional) contributes to their learning in advanced courses. Our research has indicated that the long-term effect of the TEAL course on students' retention of concepts was significantly stronger than that of the traditional course. This research is significant because it documents the long-term cognitive and affective impact of the TEAL studio physics format on learning outcomes of MIT students.

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment of a Type III Dens Invagination Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Mohsen; Adl, Alireza; Javanmardi, Samane; Naghizadeh, Sina

    2016-01-01

    A 20-year-old man presented with the history of pain and swelling in the anterior maxillary segment. The periapical radiography was indicative of a dental anomaly in right maxillary lateral incisor. Due to the insufficient information from conventional radiography, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was ordered. CBCT showed apical root resorption, large apical lucency and two separate canals with distinct apical foramen (Oehlers type III dens invagination). The CBCT image was used as a guide for dentine removal with an ultrasonic tip. Conventional root canal therapy was done using lateral compaction technique. One-and two-year follow-up radiographies revealed periapical repair and absence of symptoms. PMID:27790268

  13. Acute non-ambulatory tetraparesis with absence of the dens in two large breed dogs: case reports with a radiographic study of relatives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-ambulatory tetraparesis with an absence of the dens of C2 (axis) has not previously been reported in large breed dogs. An absence or hypoplasia of the dens has been reported in both small, medium and large breed dogs, but not in closely related animals. Methods Two young large-breed dogs (a German shepherd and a Standard poodle) both with an acute onset of non-ambulatory tetraparesis were subjected to physical, neurological and radiographic examinations. Both dogs were euthanased and submitted for postmortem examination within one week of onset of clinical signs. To investigate possible heritability of dens abnormalities, oblique radiographs of the cranial cervical vertebrae were taken of nine and eighteen dogs related to the German shepherd and the Standard poodle, respectively. Results Absence of the dens, atlantoaxial instability and extensive spinal cord injury was found in both case dogs. Radiographs revealed a normal dens in both parents and in the seven littermates of the German shepherd. An absence or hypoplasia of the dens was diagnosed in six relatives of the Standard poodle. Conclusions Atlantoaxial subluxation with cervical spinal cord injury should be considered as a differential diagnosis in non-ambulatory tetraparetic young large breed dogs. Absence of the dens and no history of external trauma increase the likelihood for this diagnosis. This study provides evidence to suggest that absence or hypoplasia of the dens is inherited in an autosomal way in Standard poodle dogs. PMID:23591104

  14. Erythronium dens-canis L. (Liliaceae): an unusual case of change of leaf mottling.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Nicoletta; Pupillo, Paolo; Puppi, Giovanna; Rascio, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Erythronium dens-canis is an early-flowering understory lily of southern Europe with two leaves and a single flower, although a number of plants have only one leaf and do not flower. The leaves are mottled with silvery flecks and brown patches, that gradually vanish turning to a lively green color. The nature and function of this striking variegation pattern were investigated in differently colored leaf parts following the springtime color change. Tissue organization was examined by light and electron microscopy; photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by spectrophotometry and HPLC; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were evaluated by MINI-PAM. The results showed that brown patches originated in vacuolar anthocyanins in the subepidermal cell layer while air spaces between the upper epidermis and underlying chlorenchyma resulted in silvery flecks. The two leaf areas did not differ in photosynthetic pigments, chloroplast organization and photosynthetic parameters (F(v)/F(m), NPQ, rETR). Greening of brown patches due to anthocyanin resorption was faster in non-flowering plants than in flowering ones, occurring only when young fruits were developing. Anthocyanin disappearance did not change the structural-functional features of photosynthetic tissues. As a whole the results suggest that the anthocyanin pigmentation of E. dens-canis leaves does not affect the photosynthetic light use and has no photoprotective function. It is proposed that the complex leaf color pattern may act as a camouflage to escape herbivores, while the reflective silvery spots may have a role in attracting pollinators of this early-flowering species. PMID:24291157

  15. Five root canals in peg lateral incisor with dens invaginatus: A case report with new nomenclature for the five canals

    PubMed Central

    Jaikailash, Shanmugam; Kavitha, Mahendran; Ranjani, Muthukrishnan Sudharshana; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes endodontic treatment completed in a peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor, with single root and five root canals of which, one is due to dens invaginatus. Cone beam computed tomogram scanning confirmed the unique morphology of the tooth. New nomenclature for the five canals is proposed. PMID:25125854

  16. Differential Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infections with the Inbios JE Detect™ and DEN Detect™ MAC-ELISA Kits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Barbara W.; Goodman, Christin H.; Jee, Youngmee; Featherstone, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of pediatric viral neurological disease in Asia. The JEV-specific IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum is the recommended method of laboratory diagnosis, but specificity of JEV MAC-ELISA can be low due to cross-reactivity. To increase the specificity of the commercially available JE Detect™ MAC-ELISA (JE Detect), a differential testing algorithm was developed in which samples tested by JE Detect with positive results were subsequently tested by the DEN Detect™ MAC-ELISA (DEN Detect) kit, and results of both tests were used to make the final interpretation. The testing algorithm was evaluated with a reference panel of serum and CSF samples submitted for confirmatory testing. In serum, the false Japanese encephalitis (JE) positive rate was reduced, but sequential testing in CSF resulted in reduced JE specificity, as true JEV+ CSF samples had positive results by both JE Detect and DEN Detect and were classified as JE− (dengue virus [DENV]+). Differential diagnosis of JE by sequential testing with JE Detect and DEN Detect increased specificity for JE in serum, but more data with CSF is needed to make a final determination on the usefulness of this testing algorithm for CSF. PMID:26856911

  17. The distribution of DEN infected people in Dushan and Xingyi area of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zuo, Li; Zhou, Yongbing

    2006-12-01

    The dengue viruses (DEN, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) are mosquito borne and have caused 100 million cases of dengue fever each year in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. However, in the southwest area of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China, the previous work demonstrated that different geographic strains of Aedes albopictus were susceptible to dengue virus. In this study, we collected 456 sera samples from patients with fever and 994 sera samples from healthy population in Dushan and Xingyi area of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China. All sera samples were tested for dengue IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patients' sera samples were tested for dengue IgM and DEN antigen was checked in the sera of 6 from 456 samples with which C6/36 cell inoculated by IFA. The results indicate that these patients with fever were infected with DEN-2 and suggest that DEN infection had existed in Dushan and Xingyi area of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China.

  18. Distinct mechanisms of recognizing endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) protein IST1 by different microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains.

    PubMed

    Guo, Emily Z; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-03-27

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). Here, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed that IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. These observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode.

  19. Performance of p16INK4a ELISA as a primary cervical cancer screening test among a large cohort of HIV-infected women in western Kenya: a 2-year cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tara J; Smith-McCune, Karen; Reuschenbach, Miriam; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Maloba, May; Huchko, Megan J

    2016-01-01

    Objective A biomarker with increased specificity for cervical dysplasia compared with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing would be an attractive option for cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected women in resource-limited settings. p16INK4a has been explored as a biomarker for screening in general populations. Design A 2-year cross-sectional study. Setting 2 large HIV primary care clinics in western Kenya. Participants 1054 HIV-infected women in western Kenya undergoing cervical cancer screening as part of routine HIV care from October 2010 to November 2012. Interventions Participants underwent p16INK4a specimen collection and colposcopy. Lesions with unsatisfactory colposcopy or suspicious for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ (CIN2+; including CIN2/3 or invasive cervical cancer) were biopsied. Following biopsy, disease status was determined by histopathological diagnosis. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of p16INK4a ELISA for CIN2+ detection among HIV-infected women and compared them to the test characteristics of current screening methods used in general as well as HIV-infected populations. Results Average p16INK4a concentration in cervical samples was 37.4 U/mL. After colposcopically directed biopsy, 127 (12%) women were determined to have CIN2+. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.664 for p16INK4a to detect biopsy-proven CIN2+. At a p16INK4a cut-off level of 9 U/mL, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 89.0%, 22.9%, 13.6% and 93.8%, respectively. The overall p16INK4a positivity at a cut-off level of 9 U/mL was 828 (78.6%) women. There were 325 (30.8%) cases of correct p16INK4a prediction to detect or rule out CIN2+, and 729 (69.2%) cases of incorrect p16INK4a prediction. Conclusions p16INK4a ELISA did not perform well as a screening test for CIN2+ detection among HIV-infected women due to low

  20. Deletion of PdMit1, a homolog of yeast Csg1, affects growth and Ca2+ sensitivity of the fungus Penicillium digitatum, but does not alter virulence

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Congyi; Wang, Weili; Wang, Mingshuang; Ruan, Ruoxin; Sun, Xuepeng; He, Meixian; Mao, Cungui; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    GDP-mannose:inositol-phosphorylceramide (MIPC) and its derivatives are important for Ca2+ sensitization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and for the virulence of Candida albicans, but its role in the virulence of plant fungal pathogens remains unclear. In this study, we report the identification and functional characterization of PdMit1, the gene encoding MIPC synthase in Penicillium digitatum, one of the most important pathogens of postharvest citrus fruits. To understand the function of PdMit1, a PdMit1 deletion mutant was generated. Compared to its wild-type control, the PdMit1 deletion mutant exhibited slow radial growth, decreased conidia production and delayed conidial germination, suggesting that PdMit1 is important for the growth of mycelium, sporulation and conidial germination. The PdMit1 deletion mutant also showed hypersensitivity to Ca2+. Treatment with 250 mmol/l Ca2+ induced vacuole fusion in the wild-type strain, but not in the PdMit1 deletion mutant. Treatment with 250 mmol/lCaCl2 upregulated three Ca2+-ATPase genes in the wild-type strain, and this was significantly inhibited in the PdMit1 deletion mutant. These results suggest that PdMit1 may have a role in regulating vacuole fusion and expression of Ca2+-ATPase genes by controlling biosynthesis of MIPC, and thereby imparts P. digitatum Ca2+ tolerance. However, we found that PdMit1 is dispensable for virulence of P. digitatum. PMID:25725383

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of Supercritical CO2-Tolerant Bacteria Bacillus subterraneus MITOT1 and Bacillus cereus MIT0214.

    PubMed

    Peet, Kyle C; Thompson, Janelle R

    2015-01-01

    We report draft genome sequences of Bacillus subterraneus MITOT1 and Bacillus cereus MIT0214 isolated through enrichment of samples from geologic sequestration sites in pressurized bioreactors containing a supercritical (sc) CO2 headspace. Their genome sequences expand the phylogenetic range of sequenced bacilli and allow characterization of molecular mechanisms of scCO2 tolerance.

  2. Evaluation of the MIT RMID 1000 system for the identification of Listeria species:AOAC performance tested method 090325

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The MIT 1000 RMID System is a rapid microbial identification device that uses the principles of light scattering coupled with proprietary algorithms to identify bacteria after being cultured and placed in a vial of filtered water. This specific method is for pure culture identification of Listeria ...

  3. Interactive Web-Based and Hands-On Engineering Education: A Freshman Aerospace Design Course at MIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Dava J.

    "Introduction to Aerospace and Design" is a 3-hour per week freshman elective course at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) that culminates in a Lighter-Than-Air (LTA) vehicle design competition, exposing freshmen to the excitement of aerospace engineering design typically taught in the junior or senior years. In addition to the hands-on…

  4. Excellence in Research: Creative Organizational Responses at Berkeley, Harvard, MIT, and Stanford. ASHE 1985 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, John J.

    Research environments of four leading universities were studied: University of California at Berkeley (UC-Berkeley), Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Stanford University. Attention was directed to organizational responses for encouraging collaboration in research at these leading universities, as well as to…

  5. Rapid identification of Listeria spp.: an AOAC performance test of the MIT 1000 rapid microbial identification system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods that rapidly confirm the identification of foodborne pathogens are highly desired. The Micro Imaging Technology (MIT) 1000 Rapid Microbial Identification (RMID) System is a benchtop instrument that detects laser light scattered from individual bacterial cells in solution with an array of 35 ...

  6. Understanding the Self-Directed Online Learning Preferences, Goals, Achievements, and Challenges of MIT OpenCourseWare Subscribers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Curtis J.; Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Kou, Xiaojing; Xu, Shuya; Sheu, Feng-Ru

    2015-01-01

    This research targeted the learning preferences, goals and motivations, achievements, challenges, and possibilities for life change of self-directed online learners who subscribed to the monthly OpenCourseWare (OCW) e-newsletter from MIT. Data collection included a 25-item survey of 1,429 newsletter subscribers; 613 of whom also completed an…

  7. Designing Materials for the Language Lab of the Future: An Overview of the MIT Athena Language Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Details the current status, the future plans and the reasoning behind a five-year, campus-wide educational experiment for the integration of computers into the foreign language curriculum at MIT. The project is to use artificial intelligence in natural processing and to include interactive video and interactive audio components. (Author/SED)

  8. Trouble and Triumph: German Life-Turkish Tradition in Renan Demirkan's "Schwarzer Tee mit drei Stuck Zucker"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Reika

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores Demirkan's narrative strategies in "Schwarzer Tee mit drei Stuck Zucker" to negotiate issues of a life between two cultures and traditions. Based on Bhabha's insights that mainstream culture needs intellectual and artistic infusion from the margins of a society in order to remain vital; and that cultural production itself is a…

  9. Whistler mode based explanation for the fast reconnection rate measured in the mit versatile toroidal facility.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nagendra

    2011-12-01

    Despite the widely discussed role of whistler waves in mediating magnetic reconnection (MR), the direct connection between such waves and the MR has not been demonstrated by comparing the characteristic temporal and spatial features of the waves and the MR process. Using the whistler wave dispersion relation, we theoretically predict the experimentally measured rise time (τ(rise)) of a few microseconds for the fast rising MR rate in the Versatile Toroidal Facility at MIT. The rise time is closely given by the inverse of the frequency bandwidth of the whistler waves generated in the evolving current sheet. The wave frequencies lie much above the ion cyclotron frequency, but they are limited to less than 0.1% of the electron cyclotron frequency in the argon plasma. The maximum normalized MR rate R=0.35 measured experimentally is precisely predicted by the angular dispersion of the whistler waves.

  10. Oncogenic MITF dysregulation in clear cell sarcoma: defining the MiT family of human cancers.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ian J; Kim, Jessica J; Ozsolak, Fatih; Widlund, Hans R; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Granter, Scott R; Du, Jinyan; Fletcher, Jonathan A; Denny, Christopher T; Lessnick, Stephen L; Linehan, W Marston; Kung, Andrew L; Fisher, David E

    2006-06-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) harbors a pathognomonic chromosomal translocation fusing the Ewing's sarcoma gene (EWS) to the CREB family transcription factor ATF1 and exhibits melanocytic features. We show that EWS-ATF1 occupies the MITF promoter, mimicking melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) signaling to induce expression of MITF, the melanocytic master transcription factor and an amplified oncogene in melanoma. Knockdown/rescue studies revealed that MITF mediates the requirement of EWS-ATF1 for CCS survival in vitro and in vivo as well as for melanocytic differentiation. Moreover, MITF and TFE3 reciprocally rescue one another in lines derived from CCS or pediatric renal carcinoma. Seemingly unrelated tumors thus employ distinct strategies to oncogenically dysregulate the MiT family, collectively broadening the definition of MiT-associated human cancers.

  11. VDI-Richtlinien - mit Technischen Regeln Wirtschaftlichkeit erhöhen und Standards setzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelartz, Johannes

    Der Verein Deutscher Ingenieure e.V. (VDI) ist ein gemeinnütziger, wirtschaftlich und politisch unabhängiger, technisch-wissenschaftlicher Verein von Ingenieuren und Naturwissenschaftlern. Mit über 137 000 persönlich zugeordneten Mitgliedern ist er eine der größten Ingenieur-Vereinigungen Europas und gilt in Deutschland als führender Sprecher der Technik und der Ingenieure. 1856 gegründet, hat er viele für die Technik wesentliche Entwicklungen in Gang gesetzt, so im Bereich der technischen Überwachung, der technischen Regelsetzung und Normung, der Arbeitsstudien, im gewerblichen Rechtsschutz und im Patentwesen. Seit seiner Gründung sieht es der VDI als seine Aufgabe, "das Zusammenwirken aller geistiger Kräfte der Technik im Bewusstsein ethischer Verantwortung zu fördern“ und die Lebensmöglichkeiten aller Menschen durch Entwicklung und sinnvoller Anwendung technischer Mittel zu verbessern.

  12. MIT-NASA/KSC space life science experiments - A telescience testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Charles M.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Fiser, Richard L.; Vordermark, Deborah S.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments performed at MIT to better define Space Station information system telescience requirements for effective remote coaching of astronauts by principal investigators (PI) on the ground are described. The experiments were conducted via satellite video, data, and voice links to surrogate crewmembers working in a laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Teams of two PIs and two crewmembers performed two different space life sciences experiments. During 19 three-hour interactive sessions, a variety of test conditions were explored. Since bit rate limits are necessarily imposed on Space Station video experiments surveillance video was varied down to 50 Kb/s and the effectiveness of PI controlled frame rate, resolution, grey scale, and color decimation was investigated. It is concluded that remote coaching by voice works and that dedicated crew-PI voice loops would be of great value on the Space Station.

  13. Space applications of the MITS electron-photon Monte Carlo transport code system

    SciTech Connect

    Kensek, R.P.; Lorence, L.J.; Halbleib, J.A.; Morel, J.E.

    1996-07-01

    The MITS multigroup/continuous-energy electron-photon Monte Carlo transport code system has matured to the point that it is capable of addressing more realistic three-dimensional adjoint applications. It is first employed to efficiently predict point doses as a function of source energy for simple three-dimensional experimental geometries exposed to simulated uniform isotropic planar sources of monoenergetic electrons up to 4.0 MeV. Results are in very good agreement with experimental data. It is then used to efficiently simulate dose to a detector in a subsystem of a GPS satellite due to its natural electron environment, employing a relatively complex model of the satellite. The capability for survivability analysis of space systems is demonstrated, and results are obtained with and without variance reduction.

  14. MC21 analysis of the MIT PWR benchmark: Hot zero power results

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Iii, D. J.; Aviles, B. N.; Herman, B. R.

    2013-07-01

    MC21 Monte Carlo results have been compared with hot zero power measurements from an operating pressurized water reactor (PWR), as specified in a new full core PWR performance benchmark from the MIT Computational Reactor Physics Group. Included in the comparisons are axially integrated full core detector measurements, axial detector profiles, control rod bank worths, and temperature coefficients. Power depressions from grid spacers are seen clearly in the MC21 results. Application of Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration within MC21 has been accomplished, resulting in a significant reduction of inactive batches necessary to converge the fission source. CMFD acceleration has also been shown to work seamlessly with the Uniform Fission Site (UFS) variance reduction method. (authors)

  15. Rapid Speech Transmission Index predictions and auralizations of unusual instructional spaces at MIT's new Stata Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conant, David A.

    2005-04-01

    The Stata Center for Computer, Information and Intelligence Sciences, recently opened at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, includes a variety of oddly-shaped seminar rooms in addition to lecture spaces of somewhat more conventional form. The architects design approach prohibited following conventional, well understood room-acoustical behavior yet MIT and the design team were keenly interested in ensuring that these spaces functioned exceptionally well, acoustically. CATT-Acoustic room modeling was employed to assess RASTI through multiple design iterations for all these spaces. Presented here are computational and descriptive results achieved for these rooms which are highly-regarded by faculty. They all sound peculiarly good, given their unusual form. In addition, binaural auralizations for selected spaces are provided.

  16. Effects of tissue heterogeneity on single-coil, scanning MIT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldkamp, J. R.; Quirk, S.

    2016-03-01

    We recently reported on the use of a single induction coil to accomplish imaging of the electrical conductivity in human tissues via magnetic induction tomography (MIT). A key to the method was the development of a mapping equation that quantitatively relates an arbitrary electrical conductivity distribution to ohmic loss in a coil consisting of concentric circular loops in a plane. By making multiple coil loss measurements at a number of locations in the vicinity of the target (scan), this mapping equation can be used to build an algorithm for 3D image construction of electrical conductivity. Important assumptions behind the mathematical formula included uniform relative permittivity throughout all space and continuous variation in conductivity. In this paper, these two assumptions were tested in a series of experiments involving the use of human tissue phantoms created from agarose, doped with sufficient sodium chloride to yield physiological conductivities. Inclusions of doped agarose were scanned both while isolated and also while embedded in a matrix of agarose gel having lowered conductivity - to help evaluate the effects of abrupt permittivity change. The effects of discontinuous conductivity change were simulated by filling 5 cm diameter petri dishes with 1.4% aqueous KCl and placing them in a much larger, 14 cm diameter petri dish - gap distance varied from about 3 mm to 30 mm. In either case, we will show that these effects are minimal on resultant images, helping to further validate the mapping equation used to construct MIT images. Because of their simplicity, scans reported here did not include coil rotation. To acknowledge the importance of rotation, however, we have devoted a section of this work to illustrate the profound benefits of coil rotation during a scan - though virtual data are used, where coil rotation is more easily specified.

  17. Entropy Generation/Availability Energy Loss Analysis Inside MIT Gas Spring and "Two Space" Test Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebiana, Asuquo B.; Savadekar, Rupesh T.; Patel, Kaushal V.

    2006-01-01

    The results of the entropy generation and availability energy loss analysis under conditions of oscillating pressure and oscillating helium gas flow in two Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) test rigs piston-cylinder and piston-cylinder-heat exchanger are presented. Two solution domains, the gas spring (single-space) in the piston-cylinder test rig and the gas spring + heat exchanger (two-space) in the piston-cylinder-heat exchanger test rig are of interest. Sage and CFD-ACE+ commercial numerical codes are used to obtain 1-D and 2-D computer models, respectively, of each of the two solution domains and to simulate the oscillating gas flow and heat transfer effects in these domains. Second law analysis is used to characterize the entropy generation and availability energy losses inside the two solution domains. Internal and external entropy generation and availability energy loss results predicted by Sage and CFD-ACE+ are compared. Thermodynamic loss analysis of simple systems such as the MIT test rigs are often useful to understand some important features of complex pattern forming processes in more complex systems like the Stirling engine. This study is aimed at improving numerical codes for the prediction of thermodynamic losses via the development of a loss post-processor. The incorporation of loss post-processors in Stirling engine numerical codes will facilitate Stirling engine performance optimization. Loss analysis using entropy-generation rates due to heat and fluid flow is a relatively new technique for assessing component performance. It offers a deep insight into the flow phenomena, allows a more exact calculation of losses than is possible with traditional means involving the application of loss correlations and provides an effective tool for improving component and overall system performance.

  18. Incomplete complementation of the DNA repair defect in cockayne syndrome cells by the denV gene from bacteriophage T4 suggests a deficiency in base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Francis, M A; Bagga, P S; Athwal, R S; Rainbow, A J

    1997-10-01

    Endonuclease V (denV) from bacteriophage T4 has been examined for its ability to complement the repair defect in Cockayne syndrome (CS) cells of complementation groups A and B. CS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to UV light and a defect in the preferential repair of UV-induced lesions in transcriptionally active DNA by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. The denV gene was introduced into non-transformed normal and CS fibroblasts transiently via a recombinant adenovirus (Ad) vector and into SV40-transformed normal and CS cells via a retroviral vector. Expression of denV in CS-A cells resulted in partial correction of the UV-sensitive phenotype in assays of gene-specific repair and cell viability, while correction of CS-B cells by expression of denV in the same assays was minimal or non-existent. In contrast, denV expression led to enhanced host cell reactivation (HCR) of viral DNA synthesis in both CS complementation groups to near normal levels. DenV is a glycosylase which is specific for cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) but does not recognize other UV-induced lesions. Previous work has indicated that CS cells can efficiently repair all non-CPD UV-induced transcription blocking lesions (S.F. Barrett et al.. Mutation Res. 255 (1991) 281-291 [1]) and that denV incised lesions are believed to be processed via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. The inability of denV to complement the NER defect in CS cells to normal levels implies an impaired ability to process denV incised lesions by the BER pathway, and suggests a role for the CS genes, particularly the CS-B gene, in BER. PMID:9372849

  19. Vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for DEN2-43 and New Guinea C virus strains of dengue 2 virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Li, Chun-Xiao; Dong, Yan-De; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Xing, Dan; Xue, Rui-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2013-12-01

    The vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti with regard to DEN2-43 and New Guinea C (NGC) virus strains of Dengue 2 viruses was assessed and compared. The infection and dissemination rate and distribution of DEN2-43 antigens in orally infected Ae. albopictus was investigated using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. To better understand the initial infection, dissemination and transmission of these viral strains in vector mosquitoes, Ae. albopoictus and Ae. aegypti were fed an artificial blood meal containing either the DEN2-43 or NGC strain. There was no significant difference in the infection and dissemination rates of DEN2-43 and NGC virus strains in Ae. albopictus, however, Ae. aegypti was more susceptible to infection by NGC than DEN2-43 vrius strain. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes infected with the NGC strain developed a higher percentage of midgut infections than those infected with the DEN2-43 strain (t=2.893, df=7, P=0.024). Approximately 26.7% of midgut samples were positive for the NGC antigen 5 days after infection, and 80% of mosquitoes had infected midgets after 15 days. The NGC antigen first became evident in mosquito salivary glands on Day 5, and 40% of mosquitoes had infected salivary by Day 9. In contrast, the DEN2-43 antigen first became evident in salivary glands on Day 7. The infection rate of NGC and DEN2-43 virus strains in salivary glands were similar. These results indicate that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti are moderately competent vectors for the DEN2-43 virus, which could provide basic data for the epidemiology study of dengue fever in China.

  20. Generalized annular granuloma associated with crowned dens syndrome, which resolved with colchicine treatment.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, E; Basso, D; Cimmino, M A; Larosa, M; Burlando, M; Rongioletti, F; Drago, F; Parodi, A

    2016-08-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a chronic, benign, and usually self-limiting cutaneous inflammatory disease, typically characterized by small, localized, skin-coloured papules that are usually asymptomatic or mildly pruriginous. Its aetiopathogenesis is still unknown and treatments are rarely effective. Generally, 50-70% of localized GA cases are self-limiting and show spontaneous resolution after 1-2 years, whereas disseminated GA is less likely to disappear without treatment. Treatment of generalized GA is usually based on single case reports, and only a few studies involving large case series have been published. We present the case of a patient affected by generalized GA, which resolved after colchicine treatment used for concomitant crowned dens syndrome due to calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD). Colchicine may have worked by a direct action on GA or, alternatively, by controlling CPPD, as a possible trigger. As the low-dosage colchicine treatment was well tolerated by our patient, this could be easily used in the management of GA. However, further studies are needed to confirm the action of colchicine on GA. PMID:27335228

  1. Polar bear mother-offspring interactions in maternity dens in captivity.

    PubMed

    van Gessel, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Two female polar bears at Dierenrijk Zoo in the Netherlands were monitored at their maternity den one day before the birth of their cubs and three days postpartum. Each bear was monitored for 96 hr to document behaviour and vocalisations. The goal was to obtain insight into the differences between the mother that lost her litter and the other that successfully reared her cubs. Six groups of cub vocalisations were identified: Comfort, Discomfort, Distress, Nursing Attempts, Nursing, and No Vocalisation. Maternal vocalisations were split into three groups: Calm, Grooming, and Stress. Maternal behaviours were also split into three groups: Active, Rest, and Stress. The unsuccessful mother produced more stress vocalisations before and during the birth of her cub, whereas the successful mother appeared less stressed. Vocalisations indicate that the cub that died tried to nurse but was unsuccessful. The unsuccessful mother showed less stress as her cub got weaker and vocalised less. From this I suggest that maternal stress was a factor in cub mortality. PMID:26252623

  2. Dens invaginatus in ancient Chinese teeth of 2,000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sasa; Duan, Xiaohong; Shao, Jinling; Duan, Qingbo; Peng, Shaobin

    2013-10-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a developmental anomaly of teeth. Here we observed the characteristics of DI in 517 permanent teeth from 67 ancient Chinese people using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning techniques. The individuals were excavated from Shaanxi province of China and identified to be about 2,000 years old. Four DI categories are proposed to distinguish the different types of DI. The invaginated lingual fossa is classified into three classes. The overall prevalence of DI in 67 individuals was 31.34% (21 of 67). DI was found in 25 of 517 teeth (4.83%). All affected teeth were maxillary lateral incisors. The invaginated lingual fossa (Type I DI) occurred most frequently (84%), followed by radicular grooves (Type II; 16%), while Type III and Type IV were not found in the present study. Some of fossae correspond with radicular grooves (8 of 21; 3 located at mesial, 5 were distal). The bilateral incidence of DI was 19.05%. Comparing our results to those of a retrospective survey of DI from 1873 to present, we found a higher rate of DI in the excavated teeth of Chinese individuals 2,000 years ago. The use of the micro-CT technique and ethnic origin might have contributed to the higher incidence of DI.

  3. Recombinant soluble gp130 protein reduces DEN-induced primary hepatocellular carcinoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jing; Wang, Hang; Shen, Guoying; Lin, Da; Lin, Yanxue; Ye, Nanhui; Guo, Yashan; Li, Qiaoling; Ye, Nanhui; Deng, Chengjun; Meng, Chun

    2016-01-01

    IL-6 (interleukin 6) plays an important role in the development and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via both classic signaling and trans-signaling pathways. Soluble gp130 (sgp130) is known to be a natural inhibitor of the trans-signaling pathway. In the present study, our goal was to investigate whether recombinant sgp130 could suppress the initiation and progression of HCC in mouse models. Our results demonstrate that sgp130 induced an apoptosis of HepG2 cells and inhibited the clonogenicity of HepG2 in vitro. Moreover, the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway is significantly suppressed by sgp130 as reflected by the decrease in the level of STAT3 phosphorylation and other inflammatory factors both in vitro and in vivo. In the DEN-induced HCC mouse model, intravenous injection of sgp130 attenuated hepatic fibrosis at 16 weeks and reduced the initiation and progression of primary HCC at 36 weeks. Furthermore, our results also demonstrate that intravenous administration of sgp130 significantly suppressed the growth and metastasis of xenograft human HCC in NOD/SCID mice. PMID:27080032

  4. Polar bear mother-offspring interactions in maternity dens in captivity.

    PubMed

    van Gessel, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Two female polar bears at Dierenrijk Zoo in the Netherlands were monitored at their maternity den one day before the birth of their cubs and three days postpartum. Each bear was monitored for 96 hr to document behaviour and vocalisations. The goal was to obtain insight into the differences between the mother that lost her litter and the other that successfully reared her cubs. Six groups of cub vocalisations were identified: Comfort, Discomfort, Distress, Nursing Attempts, Nursing, and No Vocalisation. Maternal vocalisations were split into three groups: Calm, Grooming, and Stress. Maternal behaviours were also split into three groups: Active, Rest, and Stress. The unsuccessful mother produced more stress vocalisations before and during the birth of her cub, whereas the successful mother appeared less stressed. Vocalisations indicate that the cub that died tried to nurse but was unsuccessful. The unsuccessful mother showed less stress as her cub got weaker and vocalised less. From this I suggest that maternal stress was a factor in cub mortality.

  5. A comprehensive photometric study of dynamically evolved small van den Bergh-Hagen open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2016-09-01

    We present results from Johnson UBV, Kron-Cousins RI and Washington CT1T2 photometries for seven van den Bergh-Hagen (vdBH) open clusters, namely, vdBH 1, 10, 31, 72, 87, 92, and 118. The high-quality, multi-band photometric data sets were used to trace the cluster stellar density radial profiles and to build colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and colour-colour (CC) diagrams from which we estimated their structural parameters and fundamental astrophysical properties. The clusters in our sample cover a wide age range, from ˜ 60 Myr up to 2.8 Gyr, are of relatively small size (˜ 1 - 6 pc) and are placed at distances from the Sun which vary between 1.8 and 6.3 kpc, respectively. We also estimated lower limits for the cluster present-day masses as well as half-mass relaxation times (tr). The resulting values in combination with the structural parameter values suggest that the studied clusters are in advanced stages of their internal dynamical evolution (age/tr ˜ 20 - 320), possibly in the typical phase of those tidally filled with mass segregation in their core regions. Compared to open clusters in the solar neighbourhood, the seven vdBH clusters are within more massive (˜ 80 - 380M$⊙$), with higher concentration parameter values (c ˜ 0.75-1.15) and dynamically evolved ones.

  6. Adriaan van den Spiegel (1578-1625): anatomist, physician, and botanist.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar; Sharma, Suranjali; Biswas, Sudipa; Chakraborty, Soumya

    2014-10-01

    Adriaan van den Spiegel (1578-1625) was a Flemish anatomist and physician. He was one of the most prominent anatomists at the University of Padua during the 17th century and became professor of anatomy and surgery there in 1619. He was privileged to have two of the most accomplished anatomists of that period, Fabricius ab Aquapendente and Iulius Casserius, as his teachers. His anatomical works were published after his death by his pupil Bucretius and his son-in-law Liberalis Crema, with illustrations procured from Casserius's unpublished anatomical atlas. He contributed significantly to establishing basic morphological facts about the developing embryo in his text De formato foetu liber singularis. In his book De humani corporis fabrica libri decem, Spiegel's lobe (caudate lobe) of the liver and the linea semilunaris (Spiegel's line) on the lateral side of the rectus abdominis muscle were described for the first time. Subsequently, Spigelian aponeurosis (between the lateral margin of the rectus abdominis and the linea semilunaris) and Spigelian hernia (lateral ventral hernia) were named after him. He was a renowned physician in his time and was the first to give a detailed description of malaria. He made significant contributions as a botanist: the genus Spigelia, which has six species, is named after him.

  7. van den Ende-Gupta syndrome of blepharophimosis, arachnodactyly, and congenital contractures: clinical delineation and recurrence in brothers.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Daniela N; Lachman, Ralph S; Pressman, Barry D; Graham, John M

    2003-04-30

    We describe two Hispanic brothers born to unrelated parents with van den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS), a distinctive combination of characteristic dysmorphic features, skeletal abnormalities, and cerebellar hyperplasia. This syndrome was previously delineated by van den Ende et al. [1992: Am J Med Genet 42:467-469] and Gupta et al. [1995: J Med Genet 32:809-812], with additional reports by Phadke et al. [1998: Am J Med Genet 77:16-18] and Bistritzer et al. [1993: Clin Genet 44:15-19]. This is the fifth report of VDEGS, which is characterized by blepharophimosis, narrow nose with hypoplastic alae nasi, hypoplastic maxilla, everted lower lip, slender and elongated hands and feet, arachnodactyly, self-limiting joint contractures, and distinctive skeletal findings. This report of affected siblings, and a previous report of double second cousins born to consanguineous parents [Bistritzer et al. [1993: Clin Genet 44:15-19

  8. Conservative management of dens evaginatus and attached supernumerary tooth/odontome in mandibular premolar with dual radiolucencies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naseem; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Mittal, Priya; Logani, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an innovative, nonsurgical regenerative endodontic treatment protocol “SealBio” was introduced to manage mature nonvital permanent teeth with periapical lesions. This paper explains the management of an unusual case of dens evaginatus and an attached supernumerary tooth/an odontome associated with two distinct radiolucencies in a mandibular premolar with “SealBio” technique and discusses the various hypotheses on the pathogenesis of unusual malformation and associated pericervical cyst-like radiolucency in the involved tooth. PMID:26604586

  9. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment of an Infected Immature Dens Invaginatus with the Aid of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kaya-Büyükbayram, Işıl; Özalp, Şerife; Aydemir, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental anomaly that results in an enamel-lined cavity intruding into the crown or root before the mineralization phase. This report presents regenerative endodontic treatment of a necrotic immature tooth with Oehler's type III dens invaginatus of a nine-year-old female patient. A diagnosis of dens invaginatus (Oehler's type III) and a large periapical lesion was established with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). In the presented case contrary to the classic revascularization protocol, mechanical instrumentation was performed which apparently did not interfere with the regeneration process. After mechanical instrumentation of the invaginated canal by manual K-files, the invaginated canal space was disinfected by triple antibiotic paste followed by blood clot induction from the periapical tissues and the placement of mineral trioxide aggregate. At one-year follow-up, the tooth remained clinically asymptomatic. Radiographic examination revealed complete healing of the periapical lesion. At the 20-month follow-up, the radiographic examination also showed that the open apex was closed and the walls of the root canal were thickened. PMID:25530890

  10. Steppe lion remains imported by Ice Age spotted hyenas into the Late Pleistocene Perick Caves hyena den in northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2009-05-01

    Upper Pleistocene remains of the Ice Age steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) have been found in the Perick Caves, Sauerland Karst, NW Germany. Bones from many hyenas and their imported prey dating from the Lower to Middle Weichselian have also been recovered from the Perick Cave hyena den. These are commonly cracked or exhibit deep chew marks. The absence of lion cub bones, in contrast to hyena and cave bear cub remains in the Perick Caves, and other caves of northern Germany, excludes the possibility that P. leo spelaea used the cave for raising cubs. Only in the Wilhelms Cave was a single skeleton of a cub found in a hyena den. Evidence of the chewing, nibbling and cracking of lion bones and crania must have resulted from the importation and destruction of lion carcasses (4% of the prey fauna). Similar evidence was preserved at other hyena den caves and open air sites in Germany. The bone material from the Perick and other Central European caves points to antagonistic hyena and lion conflicts, similar to clashes of their modern African relatives.

  11. Korrelationsstatistischer Vergleich zweier Schulleistungstests fur den Unterricht in Englisch an Hauptschulen (Comparison by Statistical Correlation of Two English Achievement Tests for Intermediate Schools)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Holger; Scheibner-Herzig, Gudrun

    1971-01-01

    Expanded version of a lecture given at a meeting of the Teachers of Modern Languages in Colleges of Education (Tagung der Fachdidaktiker fur neuere Sprachen an den Padagogischen Hochschulen), October 1, 1970 in Luneburg, West Germany. (RS)

  12. The MIT Integrated Global System Model: A facility for Assessing and Communicating Climate Change Uncertainty (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinn, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    The world is facing major challenges that create tensions between human development and environmental sustenance. In facing these challenges, computer models are invaluable tools for addressing the need for probabilistic approaches to forecasting. To illustrate this, I use the MIT Integrated Global System Model framework (IGSM; http://globalchange.mit.edu ). The IGSM consists of a set of coupled sub-models of global economic and technological development and resultant emissions, and physical, dynamical and chemical processes in the atmosphere, land, ocean and ecosystems (natural and managed). Some of the sub-models have both complex and simplified versions available, with the choice of which version to use being guided by the questions being addressed. Some sub-models (e.g.urban air pollution) are reduced forms of complex ones created by probabilistic collocation with polynomial chaos bases. Given the significant uncertainties in the model components, it is highly desirable that forecasts be probabilistic. We achieve this by running 400-member ensembles (Latin hypercube sampling) with different choices for key uncertain variables and processes within the human and natural system model components (pdfs of inputs estimated by model-observation comparisons, literature surveys, or expert elicitation). The IGSM has recently been used for probabilistic forecasts of climate, each using 400-member ensembles: one ensemble assumes no explicit climate mitigation policy and others assume increasingly stringent policies involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels. These forecasts indicate clearly that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The value of such probability analyses for policy decision-making lies in their ability to compare relative (not just absolute) risks of various policies, which are less affected by the earth system model uncertainties. Given the uncertainties in forecasts, it is also clear that

  13. The MIT IGSM-CAM framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monier, E.; Scott, J. R.; Sokolov, A. P.; Forest, C. E.; Schlosser, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    The MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) version 2.3 is an intermediate complexity fully coupled earth system model that allows simulation of critical feedbacks among its various components, including the atmosphere, ocean, land, urban processes and human activities. A fundamental feature of the IGSM2.3 is the ability to modify its climate parameters: climate sensitivity, net aerosol forcing and ocean heat uptake rate. As such, the IGSM2.3 provides an efficient tool for generating probabilistic distribution functions of climate parameters using optimal fingerprint diagnostics. A limitation of the IGSM2.3 is its zonal-mean atmosphere model that does not permit regional climate studies. For this reason, the MIT IGSM2.3 was linked to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) version 3 and new modules were developed and implemented in CAM in order to modify its climate sensitivity and net aerosol forcing to match that of the IGSM. The IGSM-CAM provides an efficient and innovative framework to study regional climate change where climate parameters can be modified to span the range of uncertainty and various emissions scenarios can be tested. This paper presents results from the cloud radiative adjustment method used to modify CAM's climate sensitivity. We also show results from 21st century simulations based on two emissions scenarios (a median "business as usual" scenario where no policy is implemented after 2012 and a policy scenario where greenhouse-gas are stabilized at 660 ppm CO2-equivalent concentrations by 2100) and three sets of climate parameters. The three values of climate sensitivity chosen are median and the bounds of the 90% probability interval of the probability distribution obtained by comparing the observed 20th century climate change with simulations by the IGSM with a wide range of climate parameters values. The associated aerosol forcing values were chosen to ensure a good agreement of the simulations

  14. A Probabilistic Wake Vortex Lateral Transport Model Using Data from SFO and DEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellman, George R.; Delisi, Donald P.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous report, we considered the behavior of the lateral position of vortices as a function of time after vortex formation for Out of Ground Effects (OGE) data for aircraft landing at San Francisco International Airport (SFO). We quantified the spread in lateral position as a function of time and examined how predictable lateral position is under a variety of assumptions. The combination of spread and predictability allowed us to derive probability distribution functions (PDFs) for lateral position given observed crosswind (CW) velocities. In this study, we examine the portability of these PDFs with respect to other landing sites. To this end, we consider OGE data obtained by the Federal Aviation Administration for landings at Denver International Airport (DEN) between 04/05/2006 and 06/03/2006. We consider vortices from both B733 (Boeing 737 models 200-500) and B757 (Boeing 757) aircraft. The data set contains 635 B733 landings and 506 B757 landings. The glide slope altitude for these measurements was 280 m, determined by the average initial vortex observation adjusted for a 3-second delay in the initial observation. The comparable SFO altitude was 158 m. We note that the principal mechanism for lateral transport in the OGE regime is advection by the ambient wind. This implies that a simple crosswind correction may be effective in explaining much of the variation in the lateral transport data. In this study, we again consider the use of ASOS data and average Lidar crosswind data over the vortex altitude range to predict vortex location as a function of time.

  15. Mutations in SCARF2 Are Responsible for Van Den Ende-Gupta Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Natascia; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Teebi, Ahmad; Ha, Kevin C.H.; Lalonde, Emilie; Ali, Rehab; Almureikhi, Mariam; Der Kaloustian, Vazken M.; Liu, Junhui; Rosenblatt, David S.; Majewski, Jacek; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A.

    2010-01-01

    Van Den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS) is an extremely rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, which include blepharophimosis, malar and/or maxillary hypoplasia, a narrow and beaked nose, and an everted lower lip. Other features are arachnodactyly, camptodactyly, peculiar skeletal abnormalities, and normal development and intelligence. We present molecular data on four VDEGS patients from three consanguineous Qatari families belonging to the same highly inbred Bedouin tribe. The patients were genotyped with SNP microarrays, and a 2.4 Mb homozygous region was found on chromosome 22q11 in an area overlapping the DiGeorge critical region. This region contained 44 genes, including SCARF2, a gene that is expressed during development in a number of mouse tissues relevant to the symptoms described above. Sanger sequencing identified a missense change, c.773G>A (p.C258Y), in exon 4 in the two closely related patients and a 2 bp deletion in exon 8, c.1328_1329delTG (p.V443DfsX83), in two unrelated individuals. In parallel with the candidate gene approach, complete exome sequencing was used to confirm that SCARF2 was the gene responsible for VDEGS. SCARF2 contains putative epidermal growth factor-like domains in its extracellular domain, along with a number of positively charged residues in its intracellular domain, indicating that it may be involved in intracellular signaling. However, the function of SCARF2 has not been characterized, and this study reports that phenotypic effects can be associated with defects in the scavenger receptor F family of genes. PMID:20887961

  16. 'Neanderthal bone flutes': simply products of Ice Age spotted hyena scavenging activities on cave bear cubs in European cave bear dens.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Cajus G

    2015-04-01

    Punctured extinct cave bear femora were misidentified in southeastern Europe (Hungary/Slovenia) as 'Palaeolithic bone flutes' and the 'oldest Neanderthal instruments'. These are not instruments, nor human made, but products of the most important cave bear scavengers of Europe, hyenas. Late Middle to Late Pleistocene (Mousterian to Gravettian) Ice Age spotted hyenas of Europe occupied mainly cave entrances as dens (communal/cub raising den types), but went deeper for scavenging into cave bear dens, or used in a few cases branches/diagonal shafts (i.e. prey storage den type). In most of those dens, about 20% of adult to 80% of bear cub remains have large carnivore damage. Hyenas left bones in repeating similar tooth mark and crush damage stages, demonstrating a butchering/bone cracking strategy. The femora of subadult cave bears are intermediate in damage patterns, compared to the adult ones, which were fully crushed to pieces. Hyenas produced round-oval puncture marks in cub femora only by the bone-crushing premolar teeth of both upper and lower jaw. The punctures/tooth impact marks are often present on both sides of the shaft of cave bear cub femora and are simply a result of non-breakage of the slightly calcified shaft compacta. All stages of femur puncturing to crushing are demonstrated herein, especially on a large cave bear population from a German cave bear den. PMID:26064624

  17. 'Neanderthal bone flutes': simply products of Ice Age spotted hyena scavenging activities on cave bear cubs in European cave bear dens.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Cajus G

    2015-04-01

    Punctured extinct cave bear femora were misidentified in southeastern Europe (Hungary/Slovenia) as 'Palaeolithic bone flutes' and the 'oldest Neanderthal instruments'. These are not instruments, nor human made, but products of the most important cave bear scavengers of Europe, hyenas. Late Middle to Late Pleistocene (Mousterian to Gravettian) Ice Age spotted hyenas of Europe occupied mainly cave entrances as dens (communal/cub raising den types), but went deeper for scavenging into cave bear dens, or used in a few cases branches/diagonal shafts (i.e. prey storage den type). In most of those dens, about 20% of adult to 80% of bear cub remains have large carnivore damage. Hyenas left bones in repeating similar tooth mark and crush damage stages, demonstrating a butchering/bone cracking strategy. The femora of subadult cave bears are intermediate in damage patterns, compared to the adult ones, which were fully crushed to pieces. Hyenas produced round-oval puncture marks in cub femora only by the bone-crushing premolar teeth of both upper and lower jaw. The punctures/tooth impact marks are often present on both sides of the shaft of cave bear cub femora and are simply a result of non-breakage of the slightly calcified shaft compacta. All stages of femur puncturing to crushing are demonstrated herein, especially on a large cave bear population from a German cave bear den.

  18. ‘Neanderthal bone flutes’: simply products of Ice Age spotted hyena scavenging activities on cave bear cubs in European cave bear dens

    PubMed Central

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2015-01-01

    Punctured extinct cave bear femora were misidentified in southeastern Europe (Hungary/Slovenia) as ‘Palaeolithic bone flutes’ and the ‘oldest Neanderthal instruments’. These are not instruments, nor human made, but products of the most important cave bear scavengers of Europe, hyenas. Late Middle to Late Pleistocene (Mousterian to Gravettian) Ice Age spotted hyenas of Europe occupied mainly cave entrances as dens (communal/cub raising den types), but went deeper for scavenging into cave bear dens, or used in a few cases branches/diagonal shafts (i.e. prey storage den type). In most of those dens, about 20% of adult to 80% of bear cub remains have large carnivore damage. Hyenas left bones in repeating similar tooth mark and crush damage stages, demonstrating a butchering/bone cracking strategy. The femora of subadult cave bears are intermediate in damage patterns, compared to the adult ones, which were fully crushed to pieces. Hyenas produced round–oval puncture marks in cub femora only by the bone-crushing premolar teeth of both upper and lower jaw. The punctures/tooth impact marks are often present on both sides of the shaft of cave bear cub femora and are simply a result of non-breakage of the slightly calcified shaft compacta. All stages of femur puncturing to crushing are demonstrated herein, especially on a large cave bear population from a German cave bear den. PMID:26064624

  19. [Evaluation of the Musical Concentration Training with Pepe (MusiKo mit Pepe) for children with attention deficits].

    PubMed

    Rothmann, Kathrin; Hillmer, Jana-Mareike; Hosser, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Fragestellung: Die vorliegende Studie überprüft die Wirksamkeit des Musikalischen Konzentrationstrainings mit Pepe (MusiKo mit Pepe) für fünf- bis zehnjährige Kinder mit Aufmerksamkeitsproblemen. Methodik: In einem Prä-Post-Kontrollgruppendesign (N = 108) wurden Veränderungen der Aufmerksamkeitsleistung mittels der Testbatterie zur Aufmerksamkeitsprüfung für Kinder (KiTAP) sowie Veränderungen der kindlichen Lebensqualität mittels des Fragebogens für Kinder (KINDL-R) erfasst. Zusätzlich wurden Fremdbeurteilungsbögen zur Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung (FBB-ADHS) sowie zur Störung des Sozialverhaltens (FBB-SSV) des Diagnostik-Systems für psychische Störungen nach ICD-10 und DSM-IV für Kinder und Jugendliche II und der Eltern- und der Lehrerfragebogen über das Verhalten von Kindern und Jugendlichen (CBCL, TRF) eingesetzt. Ergebnisse: Es zeigen sich für die am Training teilnehmenden Kinder im Vergleich zu der Kontrollgruppe über die Zeit signifikante Verbesserungen der Aufmerksamkeitsleistung sowie der Lebensqualität. Darüber hinaus ergibt sich eine signifikante Reduktion der ADHS-Symptomatik im Eltern- und Lehrerurteil sowie eine Verminderung der Internalisierenden Probleme im Elternurteil. Die Behandlungseffektivität ist unabhängig von Alter, Geschlecht, Intelligenz und Migrationshintergrund der teilnehmenden Kinder. Schlussfolgerung: Das musikbasierte Trainingsprogramm MusiKo mit Pepe stellt eine wirkungsvolle Maßnahme zur Behandlung von Aufmerksamkeitsproblemen dar, sollten sich diese Effekte in Replikationsstudien bestätigen.

  20. A Preliminary MIT-VLA Snapshot Survey Catalog: 8000 MG/PMN Sources at 4.8/8.4 GHz and 0.''3 Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, A. B.; Burke, B. F.; Conner, S. R.; Herold, L. K.; Lehar, J.; Winn, J. N.; Hewitt, J. N.; Langston, G. I.; Lawrence, C. R.; Bennett, C. L.

    1999-09-01

    A preliminary catalog of the 1981-1994 MIT-VLA Snapshot Survey for radio-loud gravitational lenses will be made available via anonymous ftp from MIT in June 1999 (ftp zenobia.mit.edu; cd pub/fletcher; get mitvla.readme). This plain text catalog contains detailed information on the VLA positions, flux densities and morphologies of ~ 6200 northern MIT-Greenbank (MG) and ~ 1800 Parkes-MIT-NRAO (PMN) radio sources at 4.8 and 8.4 GHz, and at angular resolutions ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 arcseconds. These sources represent ~ 80% of the entire 15 year MIT-VLA Snapshot Survey effort from 1981 to 1995, and are complementary to MIT's VLA-Magellan Gravitational Lens Survey of ~ 1900 flat-spectrum sources begun last year (see J. Winn et al., 1998, BAAS 30(4), p.1425, with a paper recently submitted to the ApJS). The 4.8 GHz single-dish flux densities of the ~ 8000 MIT-VLA sources range from ~ 70 mJy to ~ 5000 mJy. Though the sample is incomplete, it is consistently representative of the wide variety of source morphologies and spectral indices appearing in the MIT-VLA Snapshot Survey. This preliminary MIT-VLA catalog will be improved and checked before publication. It is meanwhile intended as a general purpose resource for the astronomical community; possible uses include (1) organizing an optical follow-up of known gravitational lens candidates within the sample (see A. Fletcher, 1998, MIT Ph.D. thesis), (2) assembling samples of new compact MG and PMN radio sources requiring further imaging using VLBI, such as compact doubles and position calibrators, (3) estimating the mean growth rate of the kiloparsec-scale extended structures in radio-loud AGN (see A. Fletcher & B. Burke, 1998, BAAS 30(4), p.1249), and (4) providing sub-arcsecond information missing from overlapping radio sky surveys made at lower angular resolution, such as the FIRST, WENSS, NVSS and Molonglo Wide Field Surveys.