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Sample records for mite allergens der

  1. Cloning, bioinformatics analysis, and expression of the dust mite allergen Der f 5 of Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yubao; Zhou, Ying; Ma, Guifang; Yang, Li; Wang, Yungang; Shi, Weihong

    2012-08-01

    Crude extracts of house dust mites are used clinically for diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergic diseases, including bronchial asthma, perennial rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. However, crude extracts are complexes with non-allergenic antigens and lack effective concentrations of important allergens, resulting in several side effects. Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes; Acari: Pyroglyphidae) is one of the predominant sources of dust mite allergens, which has more than 30 groups of allergen. The cDNA coding for the group 5 allergen of D. farinae from China was cloned, sequenced and expressed. According to alignment using the VECTOR NTI 9.0 software, there were eight mismatched nucleotides in five cDNA clones resulting in seven incompatible amino acid residues, suggesting that the Der f 5 allergen might have sequence polymorphism. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the matured Der f 5 allergen has a molecular mass of 13604.03 Da, a theoretical pI of 5.43 and is probably hydrophobic and cytoplasmic. Similarities in amino acid sequences between Der f 5 and allergens of other domestic mite species, viz. Der p 5, Blo t 5, Sui m 5, and Lep d 5, were 79, 48, 53, and 37%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Der f 5 and Der p 5 clustered together. Blo t 5 and Ale o 5 also clustered together, although Blomia tropicalis and Aleuroglyphus ovatus belong to different mite families, viz. Echimyopodidae and Acaridae, respectively.

  2. Expression of the house dust mite allergen Der p 2 in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hakkaart, G A; Harmsen, M M; Chua, K Y; Thomas, W R; Aalberse, R C; Van Ree, R

    1998-01-01

    The major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 was expressed as a recombinant mature protein in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeast produces the protein fused to the invertase signal peptide, leading to the secretion of Der p 2 as a soluble protein into the culture medium. The signal peptide is hereby cleaved off, resulting in a mature allergen. In this system Der p 2 was produced in 7.6 (+/-2.9) mg/L growth culture. Purification of the recombinant allergen was achieved by a single gel filtration step, resulting in a purity > or = 95%. The yeast-derived Der p 2 was almost indistinguishable from natural Der p 2 with respect to IgE-reactivity and binding to the majority of Der p 2 specific MoAbs -- as was shown in RAST analysis (n = 168) and a sandwich ELISA and RIA analysis, respectively. Recombinant and natural Der p 2 also showed similar biological activity in histamine release assays (n = 4). An expression system for Der p 2 was developed that enables the production of a soluble allergen in the culture supernatant with immunological characteristics similar to the natural allergen. In addition, yeast offers the advantage of the absence of endotoxin in comparison to E. coli. This might facilitate acceptance of recombinant allergens for in vivo applications as immunotherapy or skin-prick testing.

  3. Molecular, Structural and Immunological Characterization of Der p 18, a Chitinase-Like House Dust Mite Allergen

    PubMed Central

    Resch, Yvonne; Blatt, Katharina; Malkus, Ursula; Fercher, Christian; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Seiberler, Susanne; Mittermann, Irene; Lupinek, Christian; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Azahara; Zieglmayer, Petra; Zieglmayer, René; Keller, Walter; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background The house dust mite (HDM) allergen Der p 18 belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinases. The relevance of Der p 18 for house dust mite allergic patients has only been partly investigated. Objective To perform a detailed characterization of Der p 18 on a molecular, structural and immunological level. Methods Der p 18 was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity, tested for chitin-binding activity and its secondary structure was analyzed by circular dichroism. Der p 18-specific IgG antibodies were produced in rabbits to localize the allergen in mites using immunogold electron microscopy and to search for cross-reactive allergens in other allergen sources (i.e. mites, crustacea, mollusca and insects). IgE reactivity of rDer p 18 was tested with sera from clinically well characterized HDM-allergic patients (n = 98) and its allergenic activity was analyzed in basophil activation experiments. Results Recombinant Der p 18 was expressed and purified as a folded, biologically active protein. It shows weak chitin-binding activity and partial cross-reactivity with Der f 18 from D. farinae but not with proteins from the other tested allergen sources. The allergen was mainly localized in the peritrophic matrix of the HDM gut and to a lower extent in fecal pellets. Der p 18 reacted with IgE from 10% of mite allergic patients from Austria and showed allergenic activity when tested for basophil activation in Der p 18-sensitized patients. Conclusion Der p 18 is a rather genus-specific minor allergen with weak chitin-binding activity but exhibits allergenic activity and therefore should be included in diagnostic test panels for HDM allergy. PMID:27548813

  4. Der p 5 Crystal Structure Provides Insight into the Group 5 Dust Mite Allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, G.; Gosavi, R; Krahn, J; Edwards, L; Cuneo, M; Glesner, J; Pomes, A; Chapman, M; London, R; Pedersen, L

    2010-01-01

    Group 5 allergens from house dust mites elicit strong IgE antibody binding in mite-allergic patients. The structure of Der p 5 was determined by x-ray crystallography to better understand the IgE epitopes, to investigate the biologic function in mites, and to compare with the conflicting published Blo t 5 structures, designated 2JMH and 2JRK in the Protein Data Bank. Der p 5 is a three-helical bundle similar to Blo t 5, but the interactions of the helices are more similar to 2JMH than 2JRK. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains three dimers of Der p 5 that are not exactly alike. Solution scattering techniques were used to assess the multimeric state of Der p 5 in vitro and showed that the predominant state was monomeric, similar to Blo t 5, but larger multimeric species are also present. In the crystal, the formation of the Der p 5 dimer creates a large hydrophobic cavity of {approx}3000 {angstrom}{sup 3} that could be a ligand-binding site. Many allergens are known to bind hydrophobic ligands, which are thought to stimulate the innate immune system and have adjuvant-like effects on IgE-mediated inflammatory responses.

  5. Comparison of buffers for extraction of mite allergen der p 1 from dust.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka; Kovačić, Jelena; Macan, Jelena

    2012-09-01

    Der p 1 is the main allergen of house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, which has routinely been detected in residential dust. However, the procedure for extracting Der p 1 from reservoir dust has not been well defined. The aim of this study was to compare Der p 1 mass fractions in dust extracts prepared using the following extraction buffers: phosphate (pH 7.4), borate (pH 8.0), and ammonium bicarbonate (pH 8.0), all with 0.05 % Tween 20. Twenty-eight dust samples were divided into three aliquots and each portion was extracted with one of the three buffers at room temperature. Der p 1 mass fractions were measured in a total of 84 dust extracts using the enzyme immunoassay (range: 0.1 μg g-1 to 7.53 μg g-1). Statistical methods including intraclass correlation showed a high agreement between Der p 1 mass fractions irrespective of the extracting medium. Our results suggest that all three buffers are suitable for the extraction of mite allergens and routine Der p 1 analysis in dust.

  6. Der f 35: An MD-2-like house dust mite allergen that cross-reacts with Der f 2 and Pso o 2.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, T; Aki, T; Isobe, T; Matsuoka, A; Hayashi, T; Ono, K; Kawamoto, S

    2017-04-25

    Dermatophagoides farinae is a source of airborne house dust mite (HDM) allergens. We elucidated IgE-reactive allergens from D. farinae by two-dimensional immunoblotting-based allergenome analysis, and identified one new allergen, named Der f 35, that possesses IgE-binding capacity comparable to that of Der f 2. The aim of this study was to clarify the allergenic capacity of new HDM allergen Der f 35. We cloned der f 35 from D. farinae mRNA and produced recombinant Der f 35 in Escherichia coli. The IgE-binding capacity of Der f 35 and its cross-reactivity with group 2 allergens from D. farinae and Psoroptes ovis were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and ELISA inhibition assays, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence for der f 35, which possesses the MD-2-related lipid-recognition domain, showed higher identity with group 2 allergens from P. ovis (61.5%) and Blomia tropicalis (50.7%) than with Der f 2 (40.8%). Der f 35 showed IgE-binding frequencies of 77.5% (31/40) for the native form upon allergenome analysis and 51.4% (18/35) for recombinant structure by ELISA. Der f 35 showed cross-reactivity with Der f 2 and Pso o 2 in reaction with HDM-allergic patients' IgE by ELISA inhibition assay. Der f 35 is a candidate major allergen from D. farinae, which is more similar to group 2 allergens from sheep scab mite and storage mites. Der f 35 could be responsible for the cross-reactivity among group 2 mite allergens. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  7. Crystal Structures of Mite Allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1 Reveal Differences in Surface-Exposed Residues that May Influence Antibody Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Chapman, Martin D.; Vailes, Lisa D.; Stura, Enrico A.; Saint-Remy, Jean-Marie; Minor, Wladek; Pomés, Anna

    2009-12-01

    The Group 1 mite allergens, Der f 1 and Der p 1, are potent allergens excreted by Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, respectively. The human IgE antibody responses to the Group 1 allergens show more cross-reactivity than the murine IgG antibody responses which are largely species-specific. Here, we report the crystal structure of the mature form of Der f 1, which was isolated from its natural source, and a new, high-resolution structure of mature recombinant Der p 1. Unlike Der p 1, Der f 1 is monomeric both in the crystalline state and in solution. Moreover, no metal binding is observed in the structure of Der f 1, despite the fact that all amino acids involved in Ca{sup 2+} binding in Der p 1 are completely conserved in Der f 1. Although Der p 1 and Der f 1 share extensive sequence identity, comparison of the crystal structures of both allergens revealed structural features which could explain the differences in murine and human IgE antibody responses to these allergens. There are structural differences between Der f 1 and Der p 1 which are unevenly distributed on the allergens' surfaces. This uneven spatial arrangement of conserved versus altered residues could explain both the specificity and cross-reactivity of antibodies against Der f 1 and Der p 1.

  8. Effect of floorcovering construction on content and vertical distribution of house dust mite allergen, Der p I.

    PubMed

    Causer, Simon; Shorter, Caroline; Sercombe, Jason

    2006-04-01

    Domestic floorcoverings often contain appreciable quantities of particulate pollutants, such as house dust mite allergen, Der p I. Exposure to Der p I is a risk factor for the development of mite sensitization and asthma. We investigated whether carpet construction was related to the Der p I content in normal use, and its vertical distribution. We hoped to inform development of methods to remove such material. Along with one hard flooring surface, a range of carpets with differing pile conformations (loop vs. cut), pile heights, yarn twists, and pile densities were placed in houses for 13 months. The carpets were later sectioned to allow profiling of Der p I throughout the pile strata using monoclonal antibody, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Not surprisingly, significantly lower amounts of Der p I were found on hard flooring than any of the carpets, which all contained similar amounts of mite allergen. For all carpets, the Der p I concentration per unit area was found to be inversely related to the distance from the carpet backing. We conclude that carpet construction is not a good predictor of Der p I content in the home. We also suggest that, as carpet construction likely influences ease of disturbance of material within the pile, methods to remove or denature particulate pollutants such as Der p I will be most effective if they are able to target the bulk of allergenic material, found toward the base of the pile.

  9. The different modes of binding of the dust mite allergens, Der f 7 and Der p 7, on a monoclonal antibody WH9 contribute to the differential reactivity.

    PubMed

    Tai, Hsiao-Yun; Zhou, Jia-Kai; Yeh, Chang-Ching; Tam, Ming F; Sheu, Sheh-Yi; Shen, Horng-Der

    2017-06-28

    Der f 7 and Der p 7 are important house dust mite allergens. An IgE-binding inhibition monoclonal antibody WH9 reacts ten folds stronger against Der p 7 than to Der f 7. The purpose of this study is to identify the antigenic determinant(s) and the structural basis of Der f 7 recognize by WH9. WH9-reactive determinant(s) on Der f 7 was identified by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. The 3-D binary complex structures of WH9 and the group 7 allergens were simulated with homology modeling and docking methods. WH9 reacted with the Der f 7 f9 fragment. Among the five site-directed Der f 7 mutants, WH9 showed reduced immunoblot reactivity against Der f 7 S156A, D159A and P160A mutants. Only the wild-type protein and the Der f 7 I157A and L158A mutants can inhibit significantly the WH9-binding against Der f 7. The structural model of the Der f 7-WH9 complex suggests residues S156 and D159 of Der f 7 can bind to WH9 via potential hydrogen bonds. The structure models of Der f 7-WH9 and Der p 7-WH9 complexes revealed that the differential modes of binding of Der p 7 and Der f 7 allergens on WH9 contribute to the differential reactivity of WH9 against the Der f 7 and the Der p 7 mite allergens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Involvement of the mannose receptor in the uptake of Der p 1, a major mite allergen, by human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Deslée, Gaëtan; Charbonnier, Anne-Sophie; Hammad, Hamida; Angyalosi, Gerhild; Tillie-Leblond, Isabelle; Mantovani, Alberto; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2002-11-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) take up antigens in peripheral tissues and, after antigen processing, mature to efficiently stimulate T cells in secondary lymph nodes. In allergic airway diseases DCs have been shown to be involved in the induction and maintenance of a T(H)2-type profile. The present study was undertaken to determine pathways of Der p 1 (a house dust mite allergen) uptake by human DCs and to compare Der p 1 uptake between DCs from patients with house dust mite allergy and DCs from healthy donors. Monocyte-derived DCs (MD-DCs) were obtained from patients with house dust mite allergy (n = 13) and healthy donors (n = 11). Der p 1 was labeled with rhodamine. Der p 1 uptake by MD-DCs was analyzed by means of flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Rhodamine- labeled Der p 1 was demonstrated to be taken up by MD-DCs in a dose-, time-, and temperature- dependent manner. The involvement of the mannose receptor (MR) in the Der p 1 uptake was demonstrated by using (1) inhibitors of the MR- mediated endocytosis (mannan and blocking anti-MR mAb), which inhibited the Der p 1 uptake from 40 % to 50 %, and (2) confocal microscopy showing the colocalization of rhodamine-labeled Der p 1 with FITC-dextran. Interestingly, compared with DCs from healthy donors, DCs from allergic patients expressed more MR and were more efficient in Der p 1 uptake. These results suggest that the MR could play a key role in the Der p 1 allergen uptake by DCs and in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases in dust mite -sensitive patients.

  11. High-level expression and purification of the major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tuo; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Gao; Dou, Xia; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Bo; Yu, Zhen-Dong; Wei, Zhun; Yu, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Der p 2, a major allergen derived from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, is one of the most clinically relevant allergens worldwide. Recombinant Der p 2 (rDer p 2) is useful in clinical diagnosis and disease-specific immunotherapy. However, previous studies showed that Der p 2 can only be expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells as inclusion bodies, thus protein refolding is required to obtain functional products. Here we report a new method to produce biologically active Der p 2 protein in E. coli. N-terminal hexahistidine- and trigger factor (TF)-tagged Der p 2 was expressed in soluble form in E. coli and purified using a combination of chromatography processes. This procedure produced milligram-level high purity Der p 2 per liter of bacterial culture. Moreover, far-UV region circular dichroism (CD) analysis and serum specific IgE reactivity test demonstrated that the secondary structure and IgE reactivity properties of rDer p 2 produced in our study were almost identical to those of natural Der p 2 (nDer p 2). In conclusion, the method developed in this work provides a useful tool for the production of immunologically active recombinant Der p 2 for clinical applications.

  12. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Der f 2, a Potent Allergen Derived from the House Dust Mite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Takai, Toshiro; Okumura, Yasushi; Scott, David L.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Although a number of allergens have been identified and isolated, the underlying molecular basis for the potent immune response is poorly understood. House dust mites (Dermatophugoides sp.) are particularly ubiquitous contributors to atopy in developed countries. The rhinitis, dermatitis, and asthma associated with allergic reactions to these arthropods are often caused by relatively small (125-129 amino acids) mite proteins of unclear biological function. Der f 2, a major allergen from the mite Dermatophagoides farinae, has been recombinantly expressed and characterized. The Der f 2 protein has been crystallized in our laboratory and a native data set collected at a synchrotron source. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group I422 with unit cell parameters of a = 95.2 Angstroms, b = 95.2 Angstroms, and c = 103.3 Angstroms. An essentially complete (97.2%) data set has been collected to 2.4 Angstroms. Attempts to solve the crystal structure of Der f 2 by molecular replacement using the available NMR coordinates for either Der f 2 or Der p 2 (the homologous protein from D. pterovssinus) failed to reveal a creditable solution.

  13. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Der f 2, a Potent Allergen Derived from the House Dust Mite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Takai, Toshiro; Okumura, Yasushi; Scott, David L.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Although a number of allergens have been identified and isolated, the underlying molecular basis for the potent immune response is poorly understood. House dust mites (Dermatophugoides sp.) are particularly ubiquitous contributors to atopy in developed countries. The rhinitis, dermatitis, and asthma associated with allergic reactions to these arthropods are often caused by relatively small (125-129 amino acids) mite proteins of unclear biological function. Der f 2, a major allergen from the mite Dermatophagoides farinae, has been recombinantly expressed and characterized. The Der f 2 protein has been crystallized in our laboratory and a native data set collected at a synchrotron source. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group I422 with unit cell parameters of a = 95.2 Angstroms, b = 95.2 Angstroms, and c = 103.3 Angstroms. An essentially complete (97.2%) data set has been collected to 2.4 Angstroms. Attempts to solve the crystal structure of Der f 2 by molecular replacement using the available NMR coordinates for either Der f 2 or Der p 2 (the homologous protein from D. pterovssinus) failed to reveal a creditable solution.

  14. The structure of the mite allergen Blo t 1 explains the limited antibody cross-reactivity to Der p 1.

    PubMed

    Meno, K H; Kastrup, J S; Kuo, I-C; Chua, K Y; Gajhede, M

    2017-04-01

    The Blomia tropicalis (Blo t) mite species is considered a storage mite in temperate climate zones and an important source of indoor allergens causing allergic asthma and rhinitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Here, we report the crystal structure of one of the allergens from Blo t, recombinant proBlo t 1 (rproBlo t 1), determined at 2.1 Å resolution. Overall, the fold of rproBlo t 1 is characteristic for the pro-form of cysteine proteases from the C1A class. Structural comparison of experimentally mapped Der f 1/Der p1 IgG epitopes to the same surface patch on Blo t 1, as well as of sequence identity of surface-exposed residues, suggests limited cross-reactivity between these allergens and Blo t 1. This is in agreement with ELISA inhibition results showing that, although cross-reactive human IgE epitopes exist, there are unique IgE epitopes for both Blo t 1 and Der p 1.

  15. Do mite avoidance measures affect mite and cat airborne allergens?

    PubMed

    Carswell, F; Oliver, J; Weeks, J

    1999-02-01

    Effective mite allergen avoidance measures are presumed to reduce airborne allergens yet the quantity in the air is rarely measured. To monitor airborne allergen during a placebo-controlled mite allergen avoidance study. Bedrooms of 56 atopic asthmatic children were randomly allocated to hot washing and encasing covers + acaricide (active regime) or placebo treatment. Dust was collected from the mattress, bedding and carpets; airborne allergen was measured using Casella samplers and dust settling in open Petri dishes. Der p 1, Der p 2 and Fel d 1 were measured. After 24 weeks of mite allergen avoidance the Casella air-samplers collected Der p 1 less frequently in active than placebo-treated bedrooms (0 vs. 29%, P<0.05) and Petri dishes in the active group collected less than baseline (0.2 vs. 0.6 ng/day P<0.05). Homes without cats had less cat allergen than cat-owning homes and when actively treated for 24 weeks showed a greater reduction (P = 0.03) in mattress cat allergen than the placebo group. Encasing covers and hot washing of bed linen reduced mite aeroallergen (and mattress cat allergen in the absence of cats). This could mean dual benefits to a patient sensitive to both mite and cat.

  16. Epitope mapping of the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus house dust mite major allergen Der p II using overlapping synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    van 't Hof, W; Driedijk, P C; van den Berg, M; Beck-Sickinger, A G; Jung, G; Aalberse, R C

    1991-11-01

    Fourteen synthetic peptides of 15 amino acid residues length, overlapping by five residues and spanning the entire sequence of the major allergen Der p II from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were synthesized. These peptides were coupled to CNBr-activated Sepharose-4B and used as solid-phase antigens in epitope mapping studies using human IgE antisera. These antibodies bound predominantly to the peptide comprising residues 65-78, the binding of which was inhibited by native Der p II. In addition these antisera bound, to a lesser extent, to the peptide that comprised residues 1-15, which binding was not inhibited by native Der p II. Thus, we found one sequential epitope for a number of IgE sera.

  17. Identification of Der p 23, a Peritrophin-like Protein, as a New Major Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Allergen Associated with the Peritrophic Matrix of Mite Fecal Pellets

    PubMed Central

    Weghofer, Margit; Grote, Monika; Resch, Yvonne; Casset, Anne; Kneidinger, Michael; Kopec, Jolanta; Thomas, Wayne R.; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Kabesch, Michael; Ferrara, Rosetta; Mari, Adriano; Purohit, Ashok; Pauli, Gabrielle; Horak, Friedrich; Keller, Walter; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is one of most important allergen sources and a major elicitor of allergic asthma. We screened a D. pteronyssinus expression cDNA library with IgE Abs from HDM allergic patients. A cDNA coding for a new major allergen was isolated, which showed sequence homology to peritrophins, which contain chitin-binding domains and are part of the peritrophic matrix lining the gut of arthropods. The mature Der p 23 allergen was expressed in Escherichia coli as an 8-kDa protein without its hydrophobic leader sequence and purified to homogeneity. It reacted with IgE Abs from 74% of D. pteronyssinus allergic patients (n = 347) at levels comparable to the two major HDM allergens, Der p 1 and Der p 2. Thus, Der p 23 represents a new major D. pteronyssinus allergen. Furthermore, rDer p 23 exhibited high allergenic activity as demonstrated by upregulation of CD203c expression on basophils from D. pteronyssinus allergic patients. Immunogold electron microscopy localized the allergen in the peritrophic matrix lining the midgut of D. pteronyssinus as well as on the surface of the fecal pellets. Thus, we identified a new major D. pteronyssinus allergen as peritrophin-like protein. The high allergenic activity of Der p 23 and its frequent recognition as respiratory allergen may be explained by the fact that it becomes airborne and respirable through its association with mite feces. Der p 23 may be an essential component for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of HDM allergy. PMID:23460742

  18. Identification of Der p 23, a peritrophin-like protein, as a new major Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen associated with the peritrophic matrix of mite fecal pellets.

    PubMed

    Weghofer, Margit; Grote, Monika; Resch, Yvonne; Casset, Anne; Kneidinger, Michael; Kopec, Jolanta; Thomas, Wayne R; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Kabesch, Michael; Ferrara, Rosetta; Mari, Adriano; Purohit, Ashok; Pauli, Gabrielle; Horak, Friedrich; Keller, Walter; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is one of most important allergen sources and a major elicitor of allergic asthma. We screened a D. pteronyssinus expression cDNA library with IgE Abs from HDM allergic patients. A cDNA coding for a new major allergen was isolated, which showed sequence homology to peritrophins, which contain chitin-binding domains and are part of the peritrophic matrix lining the gut of arthropods. The mature Der p 23 allergen was expressed in Escherichia coli as an 8-kDa protein without its hydrophobic leader sequence and purified to homogeneity. It reacted with IgE Abs from 74% of D. pteronyssinus allergic patients (n = 347) at levels comparable to the two major HDM allergens, Der p 1 and Der p 2. Thus, Der p 23 represents a new major D. pteronyssinus allergen. Furthermore, rDer p 23 exhibited high allergenic activity as demonstrated by upregulation of CD203c expression on basophils from D. pteronyssinus allergic patients. Immunogold electron microscopy localized the allergen in the peritrophic matrix lining the midgut of D. pteronyssinus as well as on the surface of the fecal pellets. Thus, we identified a new major D. pteronyssinus allergen as peritrophin-like protein. The high allergenic activity of Der p 23 and its frequent recognition as respiratory allergen may be explained by the fact that it becomes airborne and respirable through its association with mite feces. Der p 23 may be an essential component for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of HDM allergy.

  19. Effect of the house dust mite allergen Der p 1 on tryptase release from human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, D Q; Shen, Y Y; Xu, J H; Tang, H

    2016-07-14

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the house dust mite allergen Der p 1 on the secretion of tryptase from the human mast cell line HMC-1. Flow cytometry was used to determine the expression levels of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on the surface of HMC-1 cells. HMC-1 cells were treated with Der p 1, SLIGRL-NH2 (PAR2 agonist), LRGILS-NH2 (control peptide for PAR2), or Der p 1 + FSLLRY (PAR2 antagonist), and the tryptase levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The biological functions of PAR2 were determined using the calcium green indicator, and intracellular calcium fluorescence intensity in the different groups (Der p 1, SLIGRL-NH2, LRGILS- NH2, Der p 1 + FSLLRY, tryptase, tryptase + FSLLRY, or cell culture medium) was detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The mast cells expressed PAR2 receptor on their surfaces. Der p 1 alone induced a significant release of intracellular calcium and tryptase in HMC-1 cells compared with the SLIGRL- NH2 treatment group and the control group. The combination of Der p 1 and FSLLRY partly inhibited intracellular calcium and tryptase release in HMC-1 cells compared with the Der p 1 treatment group. Moreover, tryptase induced a significant release of intracellular calcium in the HMC-1 cells. Der p 1 induced HMC-1 cell degranulation and the release of tryptase by activating the PAR2 receptor on the cell surfaces. Tryptase activated the PAR2 receptor and induced intracellular calcium release from the HMC-1 cells in a positive feedback loop.

  20. Immune-reactivity of recombinant isoforms of the major house dust mite allergen Der p 2.

    PubMed

    Hakkaart, G A; Chapman, M D; Aalberse, R C; van Ree, R

    1998-02-01

    Recombinant Der p 2, expressed in yeast, lacked reactivity with 5 monoclonal antibodies against natural Der p 2. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the lack of reactivity with recombinant Der p 2 can be explained by the existence of isoforms. By site-directed mutagenesis three recombinant isoforms of Der p 2 were produced. Reactivity with monoclonal antibodies and human IgE was analysed by means of RAST and RAST-inhibition. All five monoclonals that lacked reactivity with the originally selected isoform, showed reactivity upon replacement of aspartic acid by asparagine at position 114. The other two substitutions (at position 26 and 47) had no effect. Binding of human IgE (n = 10) was not significantly influenced by the isogenetic variation at position 114. Monoclonal antibodies raised against natural Der p 2 can sometimes discriminate between different isoforms, allowing the study of the natural occurrence of isoforms. For application in allergen-measurement assays, non-discriminating monoclonal antibodies should be selected.

  1. House dust mite major allergen Der f 1 enhances proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression in a cell line of canine epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shingo; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Shibata, Sanae; Chimura, Naoki; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2009-10-15

    House dust mite (HDM) allergens are the most common allergens involved in the induction of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Recently, epicutaneous sensitization with HDM allergens has been emphasized in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD); however, direct stimulation of canine keratinocytes by mite allergens has not been well investigated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Der f 1, a major allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae, on cytokine and chemokine gene expression in a canine keratinocyte cell line, CPEK. CPEK constitutively expressed mRNA for TNF-alpha, IL-12p35, IL-18, GM-CSF, TGF-beta, IL-8/CXCL8, TARC/CCL17, CTACK/CCL27 and MEC/CCL28. Of all the cytokines and chemokines investigated in CPEK, transcription levels of GM-CSF, IL-8/CXCL8 and TNF-alpha mRNA were significantly enhanced by stimulation with Der f 1. The present results suggest that Der f 1 can directly augment inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production from keratinocytes, and may initiate allergic inflammation independently of Type-I hypersensitivity.

  2. Dust from carpeted and smooth floors. V. Cat (Fel d I) and mite (Der p I and Der f I) allergen levels in school dust. Demonstration of the basophil histamine release induced by dust from classrooms.

    PubMed

    Dybendal, T; Elsayed, S

    1992-12-01

    Sixty dust samples from schools in Norway were analysed for major allergens from cat and mite after sampling with the regularly used vacuum cleaners for 5 days and with a new model vacuum cleaner for 10 days, respectively. The major feline allergen Felis domesticus allergen I (Fel d I) was detected in all the classrooms, with ranges from 12 to 16,840 ng/m2 floor area. The mean Fel d I concentration was about 11 times higher per unit area carpeted floors as compared with smooth floors after the 10 days sampling period. Mite allergens Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen I (Der p I) and Dermatophagoides farinae allergen I (Der f I) were detected in very low concentrations, with ranges from < 1 ng to 104 ng/m2 floor area. These findings suggest that the school is a protective environment against mite infestation, while the prevalence of cat allergens in classrooms seems higher than previously assumed. Basophil histamine release was measured after provocation with 20 dust extracts from 10 different schools. In nine of the 10 schools examined, the basophil histamine release caused by challenge with carpet dust was higher than the corresponding release with smooth floor dust. The calculated floor areas in each school in which dust led to 15% histamine release were from 2 to 55 times larger for smooth floors compared with carpeted floors. These results emphasize previous findings regarding higher allergen concentrations in classrooms with carpeted floors.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Der f 2, a potent allergen derived from the house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Takai, Toshiro; Okumura, Yasushi; Scott, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Although a number of allergens have been identified and isolated, the underlying molecular basis for the potent immune response is poorly understood. House dust mites (Dermatophagoides sp.) are ubiquitous contributors to atopy in developed countries. The rhinitis, dermatitis and asthma associated with allergic reactions to these arthropods are frequently caused by relatively small (125-129 amino acids) mite proteins of unknown biological function. Der f 2, a major allergen from the mite D. farinae, has been recombinantly expressed, characterized and crystallized. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group I4(1)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.2, c = 103.3 A. An essentially complete (97.2%) data set has been collected to 2.4 A at a synchrotron source. Attempts to solve the crystal structure of Der f 2 by molecular replacement using the NMR coordinates for either Der f 2 or Der p 2 (the homologous protein from D. pteronyssinus) failed, but preliminary searches using the crystalline Der p 2 atomic coordinates appear to be promising.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Der f 2, a potent allergen derived from the house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Takai, Toshiro; Okumura, Yasushi; Scott, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Although a number of allergens have been identified and isolated, the underlying molecular basis for the potent immune response is poorly understood. House dust mites (Dermatophagoides sp.) are ubiquitous contributors to atopy in developed countries. The rhinitis, dermatitis and asthma associated with allergic reactions to these arthropods are frequently caused by relatively small (125-129 amino acids) mite proteins of unknown biological function. Der f 2, a major allergen from the mite D. farinae, has been recombinantly expressed, characterized and crystallized. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group I4(1)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.2, c = 103.3 A. An essentially complete (97.2%) data set has been collected to 2.4 A at a synchrotron source. Attempts to solve the crystal structure of Der f 2 by molecular replacement using the NMR coordinates for either Der f 2 or Der p 2 (the homologous protein from D. pteronyssinus) failed, but preliminary searches using the crystalline Der p 2 atomic coordinates appear to be promising.

  5. Measurement of airborne mite allergen exposure in individual subjects.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Inouye, S; Sasaki, R; Hashimoto, M; Kobayashi, C; Yasueda, H

    1996-05-01

    To evaluate the extent of personal exposure to airborne mite allergens, subjects were asked to carry a personal air sampler when in their houses. The level of Der 1 allergen trapped by the sampler was measured with a highly sensitive immunoassay. There were great variations in airborne Der 1 exposure in each subject. When used bedding was replaced with new allergen-free bedding, we detected a decrease in the allergen level. The use of new bedding seems to be an effective measure for reducing airborne mite allergen exposure.

  6. [Exposition and sensitisation to indoor allergens, house dust mite allergen and cat allergens].

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, S; Felder-Kennel, A; Gabrio, T; Kouros, B; Link, B; Maisner, V; Piechotowski, I; Schick, K-H; Schrimpf, M; Schwenk, M; Weidner, U; Zöllner, I

    2003-07-01

    The study examined the exposure to biological indoor air agents and their possible role for allergies and respiratory tract illnesses of children. It was conducted as a case control study (atopic vs non-atopic children) at the four surveillance public health departments in Baden-Württemberg in the winter season 1999/2000 and included 379 children of the fourth class. The concentrations of the house dust mite antigens Der F1, Der p1, and Der Gr2 as well as cat allergen Fel d1 were determined in the children's bedrooms on the ground and in the mattress. Specific IgE-antibodies against allergens from house dust, mites and cat were determined in the serum of the children. For mite allergens the following medians ( micro g/g) were estimated in floor dust: Der p1 = 0.6, Der f1 = 2.3, Gr2 = 0.1; in mattresses: Der p1 = 1.2, Der f1 = 3.4, Gr2 = 0.3. The median of Fel d1 in floor dust was 0.2 microg/g, in mattresses 0.1 microg/g. Sensitisation to dust mite allergen was found to be more prevalent than sensitisation to cat. The distribution of sensitisation among the cases and controls is different. Among the cases, more subjects were sensitised to dust mites (32.9 %) and cat (13.1 %). Among the controls, 17.1 % were sensitised to dust mites and 4.1 % to cat. The results showed no direct association between the prevalence of allergies or respiratory tract illnesses and the indoor concentrations of the allergens. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.

  7. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens.

  8. Differential protein expression by dendritic cells from atopic and non-atopic individuals after stimulation by the major house dust mite allergen Der p 1.

    PubMed

    Horlock, C; Shakib, F; Jones, N S; Sewell, H F; Ghaemmaghami, A M

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinels of the immune system and are known to play a key role in allergic responses. However, it is not clear how DCs that have been exposed to an allergen support Th2 type immune responses. It is possible that DCs from atopic individuals are inherently programmed to support allergic disease, or it is the exposure of dendritic cells to allergens that is key to the development of allergic sensitisation. We used 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI mass spectrometry to compare the proteome of DCs from atopic and non-atopic individuals in both the resting state and after stimulation with the major house dust mite allergen Der p 1. Our data show that unstimulated DCs from atopic and non-atopic individuals are very similar at the whole cell proteome level, showing few differentially expressed proteins. However, upon stimulation with Der p 1, a number of additional proteins are differentially expressed, and of these several were of potential relevance to Th2 cell differentiation and the allergic response, including GTP-binding regulatory protein Gi alpha-2, frabin and cathepsin D. Whilst there are inherent differences between DCs from atopic and non-atopic individuals, it seems that exposure to allergen plays a key role in differential expression of proteins by these key immune cells. Further studies should now focus on establishing the biological relevance of these proteins as biomarkers in house dust mite allergy and their role in allergen induced Th2 cell differentiation. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a major group 7 allergen, Der f 7, from the dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kang Wei; Kumar, Sundramurthy; Chew, Fook Tim; Mok, Yu Keung

    2011-12-01

    Der f 7 is a major group 7 allergen from the dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae that shows 86% sequence identity to the homologous allergen Der p 7 from D. pteronyssinus. Der f 7 was successfully overexpressed in an Escherichia coli expression system and purified to homogeneity using Ni-NTA affinity and size-exclusion column chromatography. SeMet-labelled Der f 7 was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using a reservoir solution consisting of 0.1 M bis-tris pH 7.4 and 28% polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether 2000 at 293 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.24 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic system, space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 50.19, b = 58.67, c = 123.81 Å. Based on the estimated Matthews coefficient (2.16 Å(3) Da(-1)), two molecules of Der f 7 could be present in the asymmetric unit of the crystal lattice.

  10. Epitope mapping of the house-dust-mite allergen Der p 2 by means of site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Hakkaart, G A; Aalberse, R C; van Ree, R

    1998-02-01

    Recombinant Der p 2, expressed in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was used as a tool to determine IgE- and monoclonal antibody (mAb)-binding sites on this allergen. For this purpose, mutant molecules were produced by application of site-directed mutagenesis. The amino-acid residues spanning cys21-cys27 and cys73-cys78 were deleted, thus preventing loop formation through disulfide bonds. Charged residues in three predicted antigenic sites (residues 45-48, 67 + 69, and 88-90) were replaced by alanine residues, IgE- and mAb reactivity to these mutants was compared to that to "wild type" Der p 2. Residues spanning cys73-cys78 were involved in the antigenic binding site for mAb alpha DpX. Mutations in the areas adjacent to this loop (i.e., 67 + 69 and 88-90) had similar effects on this mAb (10- to 20-fold decreases in reactivity were observed), supporting the suggestion that these areas are involved in this antigenic structure. The area of residues 45-48 was shown to be involved in an epitope for mAb 2B12. The reactivity of mAb 7A1 was influenced by substitutions of residues 45-48 as well as 88-90. Deletion of the residues spanning cys21-cys27 resulted in decreased reactivity to three mAbs (10E11, alpha DpX, and 7A1). From these observations, it may be concluded that binding of different mAbs is influenced by the same mutations and that the binding of single mAbs is influenced by two or more mutations scattered over the allergen molecule. These findings can point in two directions: minor amino-acid changes result in disruption of the overall conformation of the allergen, or distant sites are close together in the three-dimensional structure of the allergen. Decreased IgE reactivity was observed with all mutant molecules, varying between patients. The observed effects ranged from 5- to 1000-fold. Deletion of the amino-acid residues spanning cys21-cys27 and cys73-cys78 had the strongest effect on IgE reactivity, where decreases up to 1000-fold were observed

  11. Mite and pet allergen exposure in Brazilian private cars.

    PubMed

    Justino, Caroline M; Segundo, Gesmar R S; Pereira, Fernando L; Silva, Deise A O; Sopelete, Monica C; Sung, Sun-Sang J; Taketomi, Ernesto A

    2005-06-01

    The role of mite and pet allergens in the development of allergic diseases has been recognized for many years. To determine mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [Der p 1] and Dermatophagoidesfarinae [Der f 1]), cat (Felis domesticus [Fel d 1]), and dog (Canis familiaris [Can f 1]) allergen levels in Brazilian private cars. Mite, cat, and dog allergens were measured in dust samples collected from 60 upholstered seats of private vehicles using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Mean levels of Der p 1 (0.24 microg/g of dust; range, 0.06-2.05 microg/g of dust) and Der f 1 (0.29 microg/g of dust; range, 0.06-2.07 microg/g of dust) were extremely low in most dust samples analyzed. In contrast, sensitizing mean levels of Can f 1 (1.51 microg/g of dust; range, 0.14-30.96 microg/g of dust) and Fel d 1 (0.43 microg/g of dust; range, 0.02-5.75 microg/g of dust) were observed in 32 (53%) and 12 (20%) samples, respectively. Mean Can f 1 levels were significantly higher in cars whose owners kept dogs at home (3.27 microg/g of dust) than in those without pets (0.57 microg/g of dust; P = .008). There were no significant differences in allergen levels regarding the age of the vehicle or the number of users and whether the owners transport pets inside the vehicles. Private cars constitute an important pet, but not mite, allergen reservoir for continuous contamination of the indoor environment. Pet allergens may be present even in cars whose owners do not have pets. Effective measures to reduce allergen exposure in cars should be taken routinely, especially for pet-allergic patients.

  12. Der f 34, a Novel Major House Dust Mite Allergen Belonging to a Highly Conserved Rid/YjgF/YER057c/UK114 Family of Imine Deaminases.

    PubMed

    ElRamlawy, Kareem Gamal; Fujimura, Takashi; Baba, Koji; Kim, Ji Won; Kawamoto, Chika; Isobe, Toshihide; Abe, Takuya; Hodge-Hanson, Kelsey; Downs, Diana M; Refaat, Inas Hussein; Beshr Al-Azhary, Diaa; Aki, Tsunehiro; Asaoku, Yoshiko; Hayashi, Takaharu; Katsutani, Takashi; Tsuboi, Shinji; Ono, Kazuhisa; Kawamoto, Seiji

    2016-10-07

    The high prevalence of house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a growing health problem worldwide, and the characterization of clinically important HDM allergens is a prerequisite for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Here, we report a novel HDM allergen that belongs structurally to the highly conserved Rid/YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family (Rid family) with imine deaminase activity. Isolated HDM cDNA, named der f 34, encodes 128 amino acids homologous to Rid-like proteins. This new protein belongs to the Rid family and has seven conserved residues involved in enamine/imine deaminase activity. Indeed, we demonstrated that purified Der f 34 had imine deaminase activity that preferentially acted on leucine and methionine. Native Der f 34 showed a high IgE binding frequency as revealed by two-dimensional immunoblotting (62.5%) or ELISA (68%), which was comparable with those of a major HDM allergen Der f 2 (77.5 and 79%, respectively). We also found that Der f 34 showed cross-reactivity with another prominent indoor allergen source, Aspergillus fumigatus This is the first report showing that the Rid family imine deaminase represents an additional important pan-allergen that is conserved across organisms.

  13. Production of a mouse/human chimeric IgE monoclonal antibody to the house dust mite allergen Der p 2 and its use for the absolute quantification of allergen-specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, J; Perdok, G J; Lourens, T E; Parren, P W; Chapman, M D; Aalberse, R C

    1997-04-01

    A chimeric human IgE monoclonal antibody was developed against the house dust mite allergen Der p 2. This chimeric antibody (hIgE-Dp2A) was composed of the heavy-chain variable domains and light chains of the original murine monoclonal antibody retaining its binding characteristics, whereas the heavy-chain constant domains were exchanged with the human IgE heavy chain. The chimeric IgE expression level was IgE 600 IU/ml (1 IU = 2.4 ng/ml). The binding of the chimeric hIgE-Dp2A to mite extract was indistinguishable from that of the original mouse monoclonal antibody. Parallel dose-response curves were found when the binding of hIgE-Dp2A to mite extract and anti-IgE coupled to sepharose were compared. Binding levels were not identical; however, hIgE-Dp2A bound significantly better to the mite-extract sepharose. This result indicates that the commonly used anti-IgE on solid phase calibration systems may lead to an overestimation of the amount of allergen-specific IgE present in the serum sample. The less efficient binding of the detector anti-IgE in case of the anti-IgE sepharose is likely to be because of the occupation of epitopes of the IgE by the sepharose-bound anti-IgE. Dose-response curves of serial dilutions of patient samples were parallel with the hIgE-Dp2A dose-response curve, which indicates that hIgE-Dp2A behaves like natural IgE antibodies in binding to allergen coupled to solid phase. This antibody is well suited for use as a reference reagent in the RAST and enables the expression of the amount of allergen-specific IgE present in a patient sample in absolute amounts.

  14. Mouse/human chimeric IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies directed to the house dust mite allergen Der p 2: use in quantification of allergen specific IgG.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, J; Perdok, G J; Mueller, G A; Benjamin, D C; Yong Tan, K; Chapman, M D; Aalberse, R C

    1997-09-01

    Chimeric mouse/human monoclonal IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies were developed against the house dust mite allergen Der p 2. These chimeric IgG antibodies, hIgG1-Dp2 A and hIgG4-Dp2 A, have the same binding characteristics as the previously reported chimeric hIgE-Dp2 A and are composed of the heavy chain variable domains and light chains of the original murine monoclonal antibody 2B12, whereas the heavy chain constant domains have been replaced by the human IgG1 or IgG4 heavy chain. The expression level of hIgG1-Dp2 A and hIgG4-Dp2 A was 1 and 3.5 microg/mL, respectively. Since all IgG in these culture supernatants is allergen-specific, they are useful reference reagents and enable the calculation of the amount of allergen specific IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies in absolute IgG amounts. The results obtained with two panels of sera from patients in immunotherapeutic treatment were evaluated and compared in Der p 2 IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 RAST and with reversed IgG4 RAST using labelled purified Der p 2. Close agreement between the results for the two IgG4 assays was found. With these chimeric reference reagents the quantities of isotype specific antiallergen antibodies can be calculated and compared.

  15. Hierarchy and molecular properties of house dust mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Wayne R

    2015-10-01

    The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24-33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations.

  16. Heterogeneity in the IgE binding to a peptide derived from the house dust mite allergen Der p II indicates that the IgE response is highly polyclonal.

    PubMed

    van't Hof, W; van den Berg, M; Driedijk, P C; Aalberse, R C

    1993-01-01

    The fine specificity of IgE antibody binding to peptide 65-78 of the house dust mite major allergen Der p II was examined by comparison with binding to two peptides in which the cysteines corresponding to cys73 and cys78 in Der p II were substituted by serines and methionines. Differences in binding behavior indicated that at least three different subpopulations of IgE antibodies bound to peptide 65-78. Even at the level of such a small fragment the IgE response in individual donors proved to be polyclonal.

  17. Levels of house dust mite allergen in cars.

    PubMed

    Mason, Howard J; Smith, Ian; Anua, Siti Marwanis; Tagiyeva, Nargiz; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham

    2015-09-01

    This small study investigated house dust mite (HDM) allergen levels in cars and their owners' homes in north-east Scotland. Dust samples from twelve households and cars were collected in a standardised manner. The dust samples were extracted and measured for the Dermatophagoides group 2 allergens (Der p 2 and Der f 2) and total soluble protein. Allergen levels at homes tended to be higher than in the cars, but not significantly. However, they significantly correlated with paired car dust samples expressed either per unit weight of dust or soluble protein (rho=0.657; p=0.02 and 0.769; p=0.003, respectively). This points to house-to-car allergen transfer, with the car allergen levels largely reflecting levels in the owner's home. Car HDM allergen levels were lower than those reported in Brazil and the USA. Twenty-five percent of the houses and none of the cars had allergen levels in dust greater than 2000 ng g(-1). This value is often quoted as a threshold for the risk of sensitisation, although a number of studies report increased risk of sensitisation at lower levels. This small study does not allow for characterisation of the distribution of HDM allergen in vehicles in this geographic area, or of the likely levels in other warmer and more humid areas of the UK. Cars and other vehicles are an under-investigated micro-environment for exposure to allergenic material.

  18. Variation in allergen content in sublingual allergen immunotherapy with house dust mites.

    PubMed

    Moreno Benítez, F; Espinazo Romeu, M; Letrán Camacho, A; Mas, S; García-Cózar, F J; Tabar, A I

    2015-11-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is a treatment modality which can be applied using different vaccines. The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the allergen content of different house dust mites (HDM)' sublingual treatments and to review the evidence on their efficacy. Five sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) products were ordered and purchased at an ordinary pharmacy and masked for blinding before the study was started. Detection of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae allergens Der p 1, Der f 1, Der p 2 and Der f 2 was carried out by immunoblotting and fluorescent multiplex. A literature search for meta-analyses and systematic reviews that included SLIT-HDM products was performed. Der p 1 concentrations ranged from 0.6 to 14.5 μg/ml; similar figures were found for Der f 1 that ranged from 0.2 to 12.4 μg/ml. Der p 2+ Der f 2 ranged from 0.2 to 1.5 μg/ml. Data on efficacy are scarce for most of the five products. Substantial variations regarding allergen content were found among these five SLIT-HDM products. Therefore, it can be necessary to guarantee the quality of the SLIT-HDM products and to demonstrate their effectiveness before they are marketed. It seems necessary, for the moment, to take into account these characteristics of the products before prescribing. © 2015 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Allergenicity of the mite Hemisarcoptes cooremani.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S; Houck, M A

    1999-12-01

    A researcher experienced allergic symptoms while working with the astigmatid mite Hemisarcoptes cooremani cultured on scale insects. This mite is a predator of scale insects that often parasitize many perennial vascular plants in orchards, gardens, and ornamental nurseries worldwide; therefore, orchard and ornamental nursery workers and gardeners may be exposed to this mite. We investigated the possible allergenicity of H. cooremani and the cross-reactivity between it and other allergy-causing astigmatid mites. Serum from a subject who experienced allergic symptoms while working with H. cooremani was analyzed for IgE and IgG to proteins in an extract of this mite and of other astigmatid mites known to cause allergic reactions. The serum was used to probe proteins fractionated by SDS-PAGE or precipitated by CIE using rabbit antiserum. In addition, the subject's serum was used to directly precipitate proteins in extracts of H. cooremani and other mite species. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting of proteins in an H. cooremani extract showed the reference serum contained IgE directed at 16-kD and 19-kD proteins. Crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis reaction showed that the subject's serum contained antibody that precipitated a protein in an H. cooremani extract and that IgE bound to this protein. The proteins in an extract of H. cooremani did not precipitate when reacted with rabbit antisera against the dust mites D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and E. maynei, or the storage mites B. tropicalis, L. destructor, and T. putrescentiae. This indicated there was no cross-reactivity between H. cooremani and these mites. These results indicated that an extract of the mite H. cooremani contained at least two prominent IgE binding proteins that were not present in the other astigmatid mites. Thus, H. cooremani is the source of unique allergenic proteins and allergy to this mite may develop in orchard and ornamental nursery workers and gardeners.

  20. Detection of group 2 Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen for environmental monitoring of dust mite infestation.

    PubMed

    Liao, En-Chih; Lin, Yi-Hsueh; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2013-04-01

    Aeroallergen avoidance has been promoted in order to prevent sensitization and the correlation between the level of allergen exposure and sensitization has been reported. The aims of this study were to monitor environmental mite infestation and to design an effective Der p 2 detection kit to estimate the number of mites in house dust samples. House dust samples were collected from 6 carpets and 2 mattresses monthly from April 2010 to March 2011. The total number of mites was counted under microscopes and Der p 2 concentrations were measured using Der p 2 ELISA kits. The detection kit was constituted using Der p 2 specific mouse monoclonal antibody as capture antibody, and rabbit polyclonal antibody as detection antibody. Both Der p crude extract and rDer p 2 were used as internal standards. The number of mites in the dust samples was significantly higher in the mattresses as compared with that in the carpets and the total number of dust mites was higher in the summer than any other seasons. The concentration of Der p 2 components in Der p crude extract was analyzed and the results showed that each gram of Der p crude extract contained 53.4 mg of Der p 2. When the number of mites and Der p 2 concentration were measured for the correlation analysis, the results showed that there was a good correlation between Der p 2 and number of mites with R(2) = 0.9667. Dust mites were significantly increased in the dust samples collected from mattresses especially in the summer. The good correlation between Der p 2 concentration and mite numbers indicated that the measurement of Der p 2 can be used to replace direct mite counting. Using the Der p 2 detection method to monitor environmental mite infestation may be beneficial for allergic subjects to prevent disease activation.

  1. Molecular Determinants for Antibody Binding on Group 1 House Dust Mite Allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Pomés, Anna; Glesner, Jill; Vailes, Lisa D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Heymann, Peter W.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Minor, Wladek; Chapman, Martin D.

    2012-07-11

    House dust mites produce potent allergens, Der p 1 and Der f 1, that cause allergic sensitization and asthma. Der p 1 and Der f 1 are cysteine proteases that elicit IgE responses in 80% of mite-allergic subjects and have proinflammatory properties. Their antigenic structure is unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of natural Der p 1 and Der f 1 in complex with a monoclonal antibody, 4C1, which binds to a unique cross-reactive epitope on both allergens associated with IgE recognition. The 4C1 epitope is formed by almost identical amino acid sequences and contact residues. Mutations of the contact residues abrogate mAb 4C1 binding and reduce IgE antibody binding. These surface-exposed residues are molecular targets that can be exploited for development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

  2. Mite allergens in relation to home conditions and sensitization of asthmatic children from three climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Munir, A K; Björkstén, B; Einarsson, R; Ekstrand-Tobin, A; Möller, C; Warner, A; Kjellman, N I

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the levels of mite (Der p I and Der f I) allergen in dust from bedrooms, living rooms, kitchens, and bathrooms from 130 homes of asthmatic children in three climatic zones of Sweden. Bedroom dust samples included the child's mattress, carpets, floors, and other plain surfaces. Living-room dust samples were taken from sofas and other furniture, carpets, floors, and other plain surfaces. The allergen levels were related to home characteristics, including absolute indoor humidity (AIH), relative humidity (RH), and air changes per hour (ach). Mite allergen was detected in 62% of the homes. Levels of Der p I varied between < 16 ng and 50 micrograms/g dust, and Der f I between < 16 ng and 73 micrograms/g dust. Because we have designed a composite type of dust collection in our study, the allergen levels found tend to average down the results. Mite allergen levels were higher in homes with dampness problems, in homes with a smoker, and in homes without a basement. Homes with high absolute humidity (> or = 7 g/kg) or relative humidity (> or = 45%) and poor ventilation (< 0.5 ach) contained higher levels of mite allergens than homes with lower humidity and better ventilation. However, the number of ach measurements in homes was not high, and few homes had > 0.5 ach. Sensitization to house-dust mites was more common in southern than in northern and central Sweden. High levels of house-dust mite allergen in a temperate climate where mites are not ubiquitous are thus associated with dampness problems in homes and with tobacco smoking. Our data confirm and extend previous findings that high AIH and RH and poor ventilation increase the risk of mite infestation in homes. It seems to be important and necessary to control indoor humidity and ventilation levels, to avoid high mite allergen exposure in a temperate climate, because 34% of mite-sensitized asthmatic children were exposed to levels of mite allergen < 2 micrograms/g dust in their homes. The study also

  3. Allergen expression in the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus throughout development and response to environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Quist, J C; Ortego, F; Lombardero, M; Castañera, P; Hernández-Crespo, P

    2015-06-01

    House dust mites are a major source of allergy worldwide. While diagnosis and treatment based on mite extracts have remarkably advanced, little information exists on the expression of allergens in mites. We have studied gene expression of eight Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart) (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) allergens (Der p 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10 and 21). All allergens showed higher transcription in nymphs compared with larvae or adults, with the only exception of Der p 10. The transcription of Der p 4 and Der p 10, together with the transcription and protein ratios Der p 1 to Der p 2, were higher in males than in females. One-week exposure of mite cultures to 16 or 35 °C (versus 24 °C) or low RH (44% versus 76%) significantly influenced the allergen gene transcription profile. Our results demonstrate that allergen expression is quantitatively and/or qualitatively influenced by mite development and sex, as well as by the environment. We suggest that monitoring allergen gene expression may be a useful tool to assist the optimization of mite cultures in the production of standardized allergenic extracts for clinical use.

  4. [Incidence of hypersensitivity to mycotic and mite allergens].

    PubMed

    Akhapkina, I G; Krakhanenkova, S N; Mamlenkova, E A; Dobronravova, E V; Shushpanova, E N

    2009-07-01

    Scratch tests were used to study the rate of sensitization to house dust mite allergens, mold and yeast-like fungi among the patients of an allergological center. It was found that 12.69 of the patients showed hypersensitivity only to one allergen. Combined forms of sensitization to two allergens or more were detected in 87.31% of the patients. Sensitization to mycotic allergens is more frequently encountered (82.84%) than that to house dust mite allergens (67.16%).

  5. Sequence polymorphisms of Der f 1, Der p 1, Der f 2 and Der p 2 from Korean house dust mite isolates.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Lee, In-Yong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Joo-Shil; Hong, Chein-Soo; Park, Jung-Won

    2012-09-01

    Amino acid sequence variations have possible influences on the allergenicity of allergens and may be important factors in allergen standardization. This study was undertaken to investigate the sequence polymorphisms of group 1 and 2 allergens from Korean isolates of the house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. cDNA sequences encoding group 1 and 2 allergens were amplified by RT-PCR and compared the deduced amino acid sequences. Der f 1.0101, which appeared in 64.0 % of the 50 sequences analyzed, was found to be predominant. Among the Der p 1 sequences, Der p 1.0102 and 1.0105 were predominant (58 %). Among the Der f 2 sequences, Der f 2.0102 (40.7 %) and a new variant with Gly at position 42 (27.8 %) were predominant. The deduced amino acid sequences of 60 Der p 2 clones were examined, and 28 variants with 1-5 amino acid substitutions were found. Interestingly, all of the Der p 2 sequences had Thr instead of Lys at position 49. Two variants (Leu40, Thr49, and Asn114 (26.6 %); Val40, Thr49, and Asn114 (20.0 %)) were found to be the most predominant forms of Der p 2. Der p 1 has a high rate of sporadic substitutions and the group 2 allergens show a more regular pattern with orderly associations of amino acid substitutions. Der f 1 and Der p 2 from Korean mite isolates have unique amino acid sequence polymorphisms. These findings provide important data for house dust mite allergen standardization.

  6. A house dust mite allergen homologue from poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer).

    PubMed

    Nisbet, A J; Huntley, J F; Mackellar, A; Sparks, N; McDevitt, R

    2006-08-01

    Tropomyosin is an allergenic, actin-binding protein and a proposed vaccine candidate from several species of parasite. Tropomyosin cDNA, obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from Dermanyssus gallinae RNA, encoded a predicted protein with 89% and 88% identity to tropomyosins from the ticks Boophilus microplus and Haemaphysalis longicornis, respectively, and 85% identity to the house dust mite (HDM) tropomyosin Der p 10. Mouse antibodies raised against HDM tropomyosin reacted with a band of 38 kDa on Western blots of D. gallinae extract, consistent with the molecular masses of acarine tropomyosins and the putative product of the cDNA encoding D. gallinae tropomyosin. When the same preparation of D. gallinae proteins was used in Western blots with serum from infested hens, the IgY component of the serum bound to a number of mite proteins, but not to tropomyosin, indicating that hens are not directly exposed to this allergen during a natural infestation. Immunolocalization of tropomyosin in mites indicated a ubiquitous distribution of the molecule in mite tissues. Immunolocalization and Western blotting also indicated that poultry red mites ingest host IgY.

  7. Der f 21, a novel allergen from dermatophagoides farina.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yulan; Jiang, Congli; Li, Meng; Yu, Haiqiong; Xiao, Xiaojun; Fan, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jianli; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Min; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The Dermatophagoides farina (D. farina) allergens are an important factor contributing to allergic disease. To identify new allergens is important for diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. In this study, we sought to characterize the biological activity of Der f 21 of D. farina. The recombinant Der f 21 protein was characterized by western-blot, ELISA and Skin prick test using clinic patient's serum.An allergic asthma mouse model was established with the rDer f 21 as a specific antigen. The results showed that the sera from 28.9% in 38 dust mite allergic children displayed positive results in response to rDer f 21, and 42% in 98 dust mite allergic patients displayed positive response in skin prick test. In addition, Immune inhibition assays showed there was IgE cross-reactivity between rDer f 21 and rDer f 5. Moreover, an allergic asthma mouse model was established. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, IgG1, eosinophil infiltration in the allergic mice, interleukin-4(IL-4) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) from spleen cells were markedly increased in the allergic mice. The results demonstrate that Der f 21 is a novel allergen.

  8. Der f 21, a novel allergen from dermatophagoides farina

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yulan; Jiang, Congli; Li, Meng; Yu, Haiqiong; Xiao, Xiaojun; Fan, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jianli; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Min; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The Dermatophagoides farina (D. farina) allergens are an important factor contributing to allergic disease. To identify new allergens is important for diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. In this study, we sought to characterize the biological activity of Der f 21 of D. farina. The recombinant Der f 21 protein was characterized by western-blot, ELISA and Skin prick test using clinic patient’s serum.An allergic asthma mouse model was established with the rDer f 21 as a specific antigen. The results showed that the sera from 28.9% in 38 dust mite allergic children displayed positive results in response to rDer f 21, and 42% in 98 dust mite allergic patients displayed positive response in skin prick test. In addition, Immune inhibition assays showed there was IgE cross-reactivity between rDer f 21 and rDer f 5. Moreover, an allergic asthma mouse model was established. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, IgG1, eosinophil infiltration in the allergic mice, interleukin-4(IL-4) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) from spleen cells were markedly increased in the allergic mice. The results demonstrate that Der f 21 is a novel allergen. PMID:27069539

  9. Expression, purification and characterization of Der f 27, a new allergen from dermatophagoides farinae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jianli; Li, Meng; Liu, Yulin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Anjian; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The house dust mite (HDM), Dermatophagoidesfarinae (D. farina), is one of the most important indoor allergen sources and a major elicitor of allergic asthma; itscharacterization is important in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of mite allergen-relevant diseases. This study aims to characterize a novel allergen, the D. farinae-derived serpin (Der f 27). In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, and the Der f 27 gene was cloned and expressed. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 27 protein was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western-blotting with the sera of asthma patients, and skin prick test (SPT) in allergic human subjects. A r-Der f 27 allergic asthma mouse model was established. The cloned Der f 27 gene has been presented at the Gene Bank with an accession number of KM009995. The IgE levels of r-Der f 27 in the serum from r-Der f 27 SPT positive allergic patients were 3 folds more than healthy subjects. The Der f 27 SPT positive ratewas 42.1% in 19 DM-SPT positive patients. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, and levels of interleukin-4 in the spleen cell culture supernatant were significantly increased in allergic asthma mice sensitized to r-Der f 27. In conclusion, Der f 27 is a new subtype of house mite allergen. PMID:26328010

  10. Cloning, expression, and characterization of Der f 7, an allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae from China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yu-bao; Cai, Hong-xing; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Cui-xiang; Shi, Wei-hong; Yu, Ming; Li, Li

    2010-09-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding house dust mite allergen Der f 7 from Dermatophagoides farina (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) from China was cloned, sequenced, and successfully expressed. A reference sequence (GenBank accession AY283292) was used to design polymerase chain reaction primers. Analysis revealed eight mismatched nucleotides in five Der f 7 cDNA clones, and the projected amino acid sequence contained six incompatible residues. These results suggest that the sequence of Der f 7 may be polymorphic. Further bioinformatic analysis revealed that the mature Der f 7 allergen had a molecular mass of approximately 21.88 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.90. Der f 7 protein secondary structure was composed of a helix (56.63%), extended strand (5.10%), and random coil (38.27%). Group 7 allergens are present in Pyroglyphidae, Acaridae, and Glycyphagidae families, and homology analysis revealed a 86% similarity between Der f 7 and Der p 7. Furthermore, a phylogenetic tree constructed of group 7 allergens from different mite species revealed that Der f 7 and Der p 7 clustered with 100% bootstrap support. Bioinformatics-driven characterization of Der f 7 allergen as conducted in this study may contribute to diagnostic and therapeutic applications for dust mite allergies.

  11. Taxis but not private cars are mite allergen reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Taketomi, E A; Justino, C M; Pereira, F L; Segundo, G R; Sopelete, M C; Sung, S J; Silva, D A

    2006-01-01

    Indoor allergens are major causative agents in allergic disease development. Besides homes, public transport vehicles have been considered important mite and pet allergen reservoirs. Our recent studies on allergen exposure in automobiles showed that different allergen levels are found in private cars versus taxis. We quantified group 1 Dermatophagoides spp. (Der 1), Felis domesticus (Fel d 1), and Canis familiaris (Can f 1) allergen levels by ELISA in dust samples from 60 taxi and 60 private car upholstered seats. Mean levels of Der 1 and Fel d 1 were significantly higher in taxis than private cars. A significantly higher percentage of taxis (42%) harboring sensitizing levels of Der 1 compared to private cars (5%) was also found. In spite of the low mean Fel d 1 levels, comparison of the percentage of vehicles with moderate Fel d 1 levels showed a significant difference between taxis and private cars (43% vs. 20%). On the other hand, mean Can f 1 levels were significantly higher in private cars compared to taxis concomitant with a significantly higher percentage of private cars containing moderate Can f 1 levels than taxis (53% vs. 28%). We conclude that upholstered seats from Brazilian taxis but not private cars constitute an important mite allergen reservoir. Thus, additional effective measures for the reduction of allergen exposure in vehicles within the global allergen avoidance strategy should also be routinely accomplished to minimize the induction of sensitization and symptoms in allergic patients.

  12. House Dust Mite Allergy in Korea: The Most Important Inhalant Allergen in Current and Future

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Park, Jung-Won

    2012-01-01

    The house-dust mite (HDM), commonly found in human dwellings, is an important source of inhalant and contact allergens. In this report, the importance of HDM allergy in Korea and the characteristics of allergens from dust mite are reviewed with an emphasis on investigations performed in Korea. In Korea, Dermatophagoides farinae is the dominant species of HDM, followed by D. pteronyssinus. Tyrophagus putrescentiae is also found in Korea, but its role in respiratory allergic disease in Korea is controversial. The relatively low densities of mite populations and concentrations of mite major allergens in dust samples from Korean homes, compared to westernized countries, are thought to reflect not only different climatic conditions, but also cultural differences, such as the use of 'ondol' under-floor heating systems in Korean houses. HDM are found in more than 90% of Korean houses, and the level of exposure to HDM is clinically significant. About 40%-60% of Korean patients suffering from respiratory allergies, and more than 40% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis, are sensitized to HDM. Mite allergens can be summarized according to their inherent auto-adjuvant activities and/or their binding affinities to the adjuvant-like substances: proteolytic enzymes, lipid binding proteins, chitin binding proteins, and allergens not associated with adjuvant-like activity. In general, allergens with a strong adjuvant-like activity or adjuvant-binding activity elicit potent IgE reactivity. In Korea, Der f 2 is the most potent allergen, followed by Der f 1. Immune responses are modulated by the properties of the allergen itself and by the adjuvant-like substances that are concomitantly administered with the antigens. Characterization of allergenic molecules and elucidation of mechanisms by which adjuvant-like molecules modulate allergic reactions, not only in Korea but also worldwide, will provide valuable information on allergic diseases, and are necessary for the

  13. Antigens and allergens in Dermatophagoides farinae mite

    PubMed Central

    Dandeu, J.-P.; Le Mao, J.; Lux, M.; Rabillon, J.; David, B.

    1982-01-01

    Ammonium sulphate precipitation and DEAE chromatography is an efficient way of purifying Ag 11, the main allergen in Dermatophagoïdes farinae mites, which has already been characterized by crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis. At 60% of saturation in ammonium sulphate, a precipitate is formed which, dissolved and dialysed has been named fraction A 60. It is mainly composed of Ag 11. In the fraction DE obtained by DEAE chromatography of the ammonium sulphate fraction A 60, Ag 11 appears homogeneous on crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Isoelectrofocusing results indicate an average isoelectric point near neutrality in agreement with the non-absorbtion of Ag 11 on the DEAE cellulose at a weak ionic strength (0.01, at pH 7.2). By sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel filtration Ag 11 has a molecular weight of 28,000. Ag 11 appears as a single polypeptidic chain with numerous dithio-bonds implying a highly folded and resistant structure. Oligosaccharides could be present as constituting molecules as well as contaminating ones as was assumed for hexosamines. These results are discussed with reference to a similar study performed on the major allergen of Dermatophagoïdes pteronyssinus. The allergenic properties of Ag 11 as present in fraction DE were tested by RAST-based methods. Fraction DE is an inhibitor as good as Df 80d and when it is coated on paper discs it can bind specific IgE in sera from the majority of mite sensitive patients. The results suggest that Ag 11 is a major allergen from D. farinae. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:7106841

  14. The influence of household pets on the composition and quantity of allergenic mite fauna within Irish homes: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Clarke, D; Dix, E; Liddy, S; Gormally, M; Byrne, M

    2016-03-01

    Allergenic mites are responsible for inducing hypersensitive reactions in genetically predisposed people worldwide. Mites in dust from 30 Irish homes with pets (dogs, n = 23; cats, n = 7) were compared with those in 30 homes without pets. House dust mites constituted 78% of all mites recorded, with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acariformes: Pyroglyphidae) representing 57-72% of mites in furniture and mattresses in both home types compared with only 22% of mites in pet beds. Although storage mites accounted for just 13% of all mites recorded, they represented 46% of mites recorded in pet beds. Median levels of the dust mite allergen Der p 1 (µg/g) in dust samples from mattresses in homes without pets were significantly greater than in mattresses from homes with pets, reflecting the greater densities of D. pteronyssinus found in the former home category. Mite species richness was greater in homes with pets (17 species) than in homes without pets (13 species). This suggests that although the presence of pets can result in a wider variety of epidemiologically important mite species within households, increased competition among mite species may result in a more balanced mite fauna in the home, inhibiting the dominance of any one species and hence lowering allergen-associated risks. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Indoor mite allergens in patients with respiratory allergy living in Porto, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Plácido, J L; Cuesta, C; Delgado, L; da Silva, J P; Miranda, M; Ventas, P; Vaz, M

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the levels of mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der 2, and Lep d 1) in dust samples from the homes of 59 patients with asthma, 36 sensitized to house-dust mites (HDM) and 23 to grass pollen (controls), living in Porto, northern Portugal. The relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM and the influence of housing conditions on mite-allergen levels were also evaluated. Der p 1 (median 9.2 micrograms/g) and Der 2 (4.6 micrograms/g) were the main allergens, while Der f 1 and Lep d 1 levels were always < 1 microgram/g dust and undetectable in 11% and 47% of samples, respectively. All HDM-sensitized asthmatics were exposed to Der p 1 levels > 2 micrograms/g and their homes contained significantly higher levels of Der p 1 (median 12.5 vs 6.4 micrograms/g; P = 0.008) and Der 2 (6.2 vs 3.0 micrograms/g; P = 0.004) when compared to the control group. A significant correlation was observed between the exposure to Der p 1 and the wheal area at skin testing with the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) extract (P = 0.01) as well as with serum specific IgE levels to Dp (P = 0.03). Patients with higher levels of serum specific IgE (> or = 17.5 HRU/ml) were also more frequently exposed to Der p 1 levels > or = 10 micrograms/g (P = 0.002). Old homes, presence of carpets, and signs of dampness were conditions associated with significantly higher levels of mite allergens. In conclusion, we found high levels of Der p 1 and Der 2 particularly in the homes of HDM-sensitized patients and we confirm the relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM, assessed by both in vivo and in vitro methods. In additional to a favorable outdoor climate, we found in our region housing conditions propitious to mite growth, suggesting that specific geographic characteristics must also be taken into account for the correct planning of mite-avoidance measures.

  16. The Lys-Asp-Tyr Triad within the Mite Allergen Der p 1 Propeptide Is a Critical Structural Element for the pH-Dependent Initiation of the Protease Maturation.

    PubMed

    Chevigné, Andy; Campizi, Vincenzo; Szpakowska, Martyna; Bourry, David; Dumez, Marie-Eve; Martins, José C; Matagne, André; Galleni, Moreno; Jacquet, Alain

    2017-05-20

    The major house dust mite allergen, Der p 1, is a papain-like cysteine protease expressed as an inactive precursor, proDer p 1, carrying an N-terminal propeptide with a unique structure. The maturation of the zymogen into an enzymatically-active form of Der p 1 is a multistep autocatalytic process initiated under acidic conditions through conformational changes of the propeptide, leading to the loss of its inhibitory ability and its subsequent gradual cleavage. The aims of this study were to characterize the residues present in the Der p 1 propeptide involved in the initiation of the zymogen maturation process, but also to assess the impact of acidic pH on the propeptide structure, the activity of Der p 1 and the fate of the propeptide. Using various complementary enzymatic and structural approaches, we demonstrated that a structural triad K17p-D51p-Y19p within the N-terminal domain of the propeptide is essential for its stabilization and the sensing of pH changes. Particularly, the protonation of D51p under acidic conditions unfolds the propeptide through disruption of the K17p-D51p salt bridge, reduces its inhibition capacity and unmasks the buried residues K17p and Y19p constituting the first maturation cleavage site of the zymogen. Our results also evidenced that this triad acts in a cooperative manner with other propeptide pH-responsive elements, including residues E56p and E80p, to promote the propeptide unfolding and/or to facilitate its proteolysis. Furthermore, we showed that acidic conditions modify Der p 1 proteolytic specificity and confirmed that the formation of the first intermediate represents the limiting step of the in vitro Der p 1 maturation process. Altogether, our results provide new insights into the early events of the mechanism of proDer p 1 maturation and identify a unique structural triad acting as a stabilizing and a pH-sensing regulatory element.

  17. Hypoallergenic Der p 1/Der p 2 combination vaccines for immunotherapy of house dust mite allergy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Wei; Blatt, Katharina; Thomas, Wayne R; Swoboda, Ines; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2012-08-01

    More than 50% of allergic patients have house dust mite (HDM) allergy. Group 1 and 2 allergens are the major HDM allergens. We sought to produce and perform preclinical characterization of a recombinant hypoallergenic combination vaccine for specific immunotherapy of HDM allergy. Synthetic genes coding for 2 hybrid proteins consisting of reassembled Der p 1 and Der p 2 fragments with (recombinant Der p 2 [rDer p 2]/1C) and without (rDer p 2/1S) cysteines were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by means of affinity chromatography. Protein fold was determined by using circular dichroism analysis, allergenic activity was determined by testing IgE reactivity and using basophil activation assays, and the presence of T-cell epitopes was determined based on lymphoproliferation in allergic patients. Mice and rabbits were immunized to study the molecules' ability to induce an allergic response and whether they induce allergen-specific IgG capable of inhibiting allergic patients' IgE binding to the allergens, respectively. rDer p 2/1C and rDer p 2/1S were expressed in large amounts in E coli as soluble and folded proteins. Because of the lack of disulfide bonds, rDer p 2/1S did not form aggregates and was obtained as a monomeric protein, whereas rDer p 2/1C did form aggregates. Both hypoallergens lacked relevant IgE reactivity and had reduced ability to induce allergic inflammation and allergic responses but induced similar T-cell proliferation as the wild-type allergens. Immunization with the hypoallergens (rDer p 2/1S > rDer p 2/1C) induced IgG antibodies in rabbits that inhibited the IgE reactivity of patients with HDM allergy to Der p 1 and Der p 2. The preclinical characterization indicates that particularly rDer p 2/1S can be used as a safe hypoallergenic molecule for both tolerance and vaccination approaches to treat HDM allergy. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diet influences growth rates and allergen and endotoxin contents of cultured Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus house dust mites.

    PubMed

    Avula-Poola, Swetha; Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G

    2012-01-01

    The house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are cultured to obtain material for the production of allergen extracts for research, diagnostic and immunotherapeutic purposes. We cultured mites on two different diets that supported thriving populations and determined the population growth rates, dynamics of allergen accumulation, and endotoxin concentrations in extracts made from mites harvested from the cultures. D. farinae populations grew faster on a diet of rodent chow/yeast than on an egg/yeast diet but a larger peak population size was achieved on the egg/yeast diet. Diet influenced the dynamics of the production of groups 1 and 2 allergens and the group 1/2 ratios for both species. To population peak, Der f 1 was produced at a faster rate on the chow/yeast diet but greater amounts of Der f 1 were produced by mites grown on the egg/yeast diet. D. pteronyssinus populations grew faster and achieved greater density on the egg/yeast diet compared to the chow/yeast diet. D. pteronyssinus produced more Der p 1 than Der p 2 when grown on chow/yeast while more Der p 2 than Der p 1 was produced on egg/yeast. Endotoxin concentrations in extracts made from whole cultures for both species at maximum population density were very different in the two diets. Washing the mites resulted in the loss of up to 88% of the allergen. Mite-culturing diet directly effects population growth, the dynamics of allergen accumulation, the group 1/2 allergen ratio and the endotoxin contents in extracts of cultured house dust mites. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Characterization of arginine kinase, anovel allergen of dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 20)

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Peng; Yu, Haiqiong; Li, Meng; Xiao, Xiaojun; Jiang, Congli; Mo, Lihua; Zhang, Min; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize a novel allergen, the Dermatophagoides farinae-derived arginine kinase (Der f 20). Methods: The protein of Der f 20 was synthesized by genetic engineering approaches. The allergenicity of Der f 20 was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an airway allergy mouse model. Results: The Der f 20 gene was cloned andpresented in the Gene Bank with an accession number of AAP57094. The Der f 20 is an arginine kinase (AK), whichshowed a close relationship with D. pteronyssinus AK and Aleuroglyphusovatus AK. Western-blot and ELISA studies showed the IgE binding capacity of Der f 20 was 66.7% in the sera from 6 dust mite allergic patients. Immune inhibition assayresults showed the IgE cross-reactivity between Der f 20 and DME (Dust mite extract). Positive responses to Der f 20 were 41.2% as shown by skin prick tests in 17 DME-allergic patients. In vitro experimental results showed that Der f 20 induced Th2 cell differentiation and the expression of T cell Ig mucin domain molecule-4 (TIM4) in DCs. Conclusions; The Der f 20 protein is a novel subtype of thedust mite allergen. PMID:26885278

  20. Group 10 allergens (tropomyosins) from house-dust mites may cause covariation of sensitization to allergens from other invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Inam, Muhammad; Ismail, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Farhana Riaz

    2012-01-01

    Group 10 allergens (tropomyosins) have been assumed to be a major cause of cross-reactivity between house-dust mites (HDMs) and other invertebrates. Despite all of the published data regarding the epidemiology, percent IgE binding and level of sensitization in the population, the role of tropomyosin as a cross-reactive allergen in patients with multiple allergy syndrome still remains to be elucidated. Homology between amino acid sequences reported in allergen databases of selected invertebrate tropomyosins was determined with Der f 10 as the reference allergen. The 66.9 and 54.4% identities were found with selected crustacean and insect species, respectively, whereas only 20.4% identity was seen with mollusks. A similar analysis was performed using reported B-cell IgE-binding epitopes from Met e1 (shrimp allergen) and Bla g7 (cockroach allergen) with other invertebrate tropomyosins. The percent identity in linear sequences was higher than 35% in mites, crustaceans, and cockroaches. The polar and hydrophobic regions in these groups were highly conserved. These findings suggest that tropomyosin may be a major cause of covariation of sensitization between HDMs, crustaceans, and some species of insects and mollusks. PMID:23342293

  1. Proteome, Allergenome, and Novel Allergens of House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Choopong, Jintarat; Reamtong, Onrapak; Sookrung, Nitat; Seesuay, Watee; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee

    2016-02-05

    Dermatophagoides farinae mite is a predominant source of indoor allergens causing high incidence of allergy worldwide. People with different genetic background respond differently to the mite components, and thus the component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) is preferred to the conventional allergy test based on crude mite extract. In this study, proteome and culprit components in the D. farinae whole body extract that sensitized the allergic patients were studied by using SDS-PAGE (1DE) and 2DE-IgE immunoblotting followed by LC-MS/MS and database search for protein identification. From the 1DE, the mite extract revealed 105 proteins that could be classified into seven functionally different groups: allergens, structural components, enzymes, enzyme inhibitor, receptor proteins, transporters, and binding/regulatory/cell signaling proteins. From the 2DE, the mite extract produced 94 spots; 63 were bound by IgE in sera of 20 D. farinae allergic patients. One more protein that was not revealed by the 2DE and protein staining reacted with IgE in 2 allergic patients. Proteins in 40 spots could be identified as 35 different types. Three of them reacted to IgE of >50% of the allergic patients, and hence they are major allergens: tropomyosin or Der f 10 (75%), aconitate hydratase (70%), and one uncharacterized protein (55%). Aconitate hydratase is a novel D. farinae major allergen unraveled in this study. Several mite minor allergens that have never been previously reported are also identified. The data have clinical applications in the component-resolved diagnosis for tailor-designed allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  2. Characterization of a new subtype of allergen in dermatophagoides farinae—Der f 28

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-Li; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Yu-Lan; Sun, Bao-Qing; Gao, An-Jian; Liu, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background House dust mites (HDMs) are the major sources of indoor allergens which induce asthma, dermatitis, rhinitis, and some other allergic diseases. Close to 30 sub-allergens have been identified. Methods Through analyzing the full genome sequence of dust mite, a new allergen whose primary structure belongs to the heat shock protein family was identified. The sequence of this allergen was determined by cDNA cloning. The allergenicity was assayed by skin prick test, Western-blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results r-Der f 28 bound to serum IgE from mite allergic patients. Positive responses to r-Der f 28 were shown in 11.5% by skin prick testing from 26 DM-allergic patients. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE and IL-4 were significantly increased in allergic asthma mouse model sensitized to r-Der f 28. Conclusions Der f 28 is a new subtype of allergen in dermatophagoides farinae. PMID:26623108

  3. Low frequency of positive skin tests in asthmatic patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni exposed to high levels of mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Manoel; Almeida, Maria C; Figueiredo, Joanemile P; Atta, Ajax M; Mendes, Carlos M C; Araújo, Maria I; Taketomi, Ernesto A; Terra, Silvia A; Silva, Deise A O; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2004-04-01

    Helminthic infections and allergic diseases are highly prevalent in many parts of the world. Although skin reactivity to indoor allergens is decreased in subjects from helminthic endemic areas, the degree of exposure to mite allergens has not yet been investigated in these areas. This study evaluated the association between exposure to dust mites and skin reactivity to mite allergens in subjects with a history of wheezing in the last 12 months selected from a rural endemic area for schistosomiasis (group I, n = 21), and two non-Schistosoma mansoni endemic locale, a rural area (group II, n = 21) and a urban slum area (group III, n = 21). All subjects were evaluated by skin prick tests with mite allergens, and for total and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against dust mites, antibodies for S. mansoni, and for intestinal parasites. Dust samples from each subjects' home were quantified for mite allergen and species of the mite identification. Except for S. mansoni infection which was more prevalent in group I than in groups II and III (p < 0.0001), the prevalence of intestinal parasites, and total and specific IgE levels were similar for all groups. Despite the levels of mite allergens and specifically to Der p 1 detected in dust samples of subjects home from all three areas, the frequency of positive skin reactivity to mite antigens was significantly lower (19.0%) in subjects from group I relative to group II (76.2%) and group III (57.1%; p < 0.001). This result suggests that S. mansoni infection could modulate the immediate hypersensitivity skin response to mite allergens in highly exposed subjects.

  4. Enzymatic activity of allergenic house dust and storage mite extracts.

    PubMed

    Morales, Maria; Iraola, Víctor; Leonor, Jose R; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2013-01-01

    Proteases are involved in the pathogenicity of allergy, increasing epithelial permeability and acting as adjuvants. Enzymatic activity is therefore important for the allergenicity of an extract and also affects its stability and safety. However, the enzymatic activity of extracts is not usually evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of the most allergenic mite extracts and to investigate their allergenic properties. Extracts from nine allergenic mite species (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, Euroglyphus maynei, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Glycyphagus domesticus (DeGeer), Acarus siro L., Chortoglyphus arcuatus, and Blomia tropicalis) were characterized. Protein and allergen profiles were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western-blot, respectively. Gelatinolytic activity was evaluated with a zymogram and the activity of other enzymes (cysteine, serine proteases, and esterases) was evaluated individually or with the API-ZYM system. The main differences in protease activity were found between house dust mites and storage mites. House dust mites presented higher cysteine protease activity while storage mites presented higher serine protease activity. These differences are in line with their trophic specialization. A wide range of different activities was found in all the extracts analyzed, reflecting the fact that the extracts preserve the activity of many enzymes, this being necessary for a correct diagnosis. However, enzymes may act as adjuvants and, therefore, could lead to undesirable effects in immunotherapies, making this activity not suitable for treatment products. Modified extracts with lower enzymatic activity could be more appropriate for immunotherapy.

  5. Mite and pet allergen exposure in hotels in Uberlândia, Midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simplício, E C; Silva, D A O; Braga, I A; Sopelete, M C; Sung, S J; Taketomi, E A

    2007-08-01

    Mite allergens are involved in airway sensitization and allergic diseases. We evaluated the exposure to house dust-mite (Der p 1 and Der f 1) and pet (Fel d 1 and Can f 1) allergens in hotels in Uberlândia, Midwestern Brazil. A total of 140 dust samples were collected from bedding (n = 98) and carpet (n = 42) of bedrooms in 20 hotels enrolled for this study. Geometric mean (GM) levels of Der f 1 (11.30 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 8.34-15.30 microg/g) were significantly higher than Der p 1 (0.15 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 0.13-0.18 microg/g) in bedding dust samples (P < 0.001), regardless of the hotel classes. Der f 1 levels were significantly higher in bedding (11.30 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 8.34-15.30 microg/g) than carpet (6.32 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 4.31-9.26 microg/g) dust samples (P < 0.05). High levels of Der f 1 (>10 microg/g of dust) were found in 58%, 76%, and 69% of dust samples from Simple, Economical, and Tourist/Superior hotels, respectively, while GM levels of Fel d 1 (0.11 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 0.09-0.14 microg/g) and Can f 1 (0.30 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 0.20-0.44 microg/g) were relatively low. These results indicate that Der f 1 is the predominant allergen in hotels in Uberlândia, especially in bedding dust samples, regardless of the hotel classes and could represent an important risk factor for exacerbation of allergic symptoms in previously mite-sensitized guests. Mites and pets are important sources of indoor allergens. Most people spend the greatest part of their time indoors. Hotels can constitute an important allergen reservoir of the indoor environment and could represent an important risk for exacerbation of allergic symptoms in previously sensitized guests. Thus, hotels should also be included for planning indoor allergen avoidance as part of a global management strategy, especially in patients with respiratory allergy.

  6. Mold populations and dust mite allergen concentrations in house dust samples from across Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Vesper, Stephen; Choi, Hyunok; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Acosta, Luis M; Divjan, Adnan; Bolaños-Rosero, Benjamin; Rivera-Mariani, Felix; Chew, Ginger L

    2016-01-01

    Lifetime childhood asthma prevalence (LCAP) percentages in Puerto Rico Health Regions (HR) are substantially higher in northeastern vs. southwestern HR. Higher average relative humidity in the northeast might promote mold and mite exposures and possibly asthma prevalence. To test this hypothesis, mold contamination, Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) values were measured in floor dust (n = 26) and dust mite allergen concentrations in bed dust (n = 14). For this analysis, the eight HR were divided into those with LCAP > 30% (n = 3) and <  30% (n = 5). The average ERMI value was significantly greater (Wilcoxon Rank Sum, p < 0.001) in high than in low LCAP HR (14.5 vs. 9.3). The dust mite antigens Der p 1, Der f 1, and Blo t 5 were detected in 90% of bed samples, but the concentrations were not significantly different in high vs. low LCAP HR. Mold exposures might partially explain the differences in LCAP HR in Puerto Rico.

  7. Evidence refuting the contribution of the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides to the allergenicity of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    PubMed

    Hay, D B; Hart, B J; Douglas, A E

    1992-01-01

    This communication demonstrates unequivocally that the fungi associated with house dust mites do not contribute to mite allergenicity. The evidence is twofold: first, larval mites which lack fungi have allergen profiles indistinguishable from fungus-bearing adult mites. Second, the allergen profile of experimentally-derived fungus-free adult mites and mites re-fed the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides are identical.

  8. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p < 0.05) when compared to other methods. The two physical methods, steam vapor and vacuuming, have no statistically significant efficacy in inactivating dust mite allergens (p = 0.084), but have higher efficacy when compared to the chemical method on dust mite allergens (p = 0.002). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy for reducing mold in carpet (p > 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment.

  9. Reduction of house-dust mite allergen concentrations in carpets by aluminium potassium sulfate dodecahydrate (alum).

    PubMed

    Sevki, Coskun; Levent, Aydin; Ender, Gulegen; Firdevs, Mor

    2006-01-01

    Special tools and skilled labor are required to reduce house-dust mite allergens in carpets. The main house-dust mite allergen is Der p 1, a soluble protein found in high abundance in woolen carpets. Current chemical treatment options are either unsafe or ineffective in eradicating Der p 1. Here, we present an effective, safe, and easy application reagent to reduce the allergen levels in carpets. Sixty woolen carpets with Der p 1 concentrations >2 microg/g in fine dust were divided into three homogeneous groups of 20 carpets each, according to their allergen load. We tested alum dissolved in 60 mL of water at doses of 3, 6, and 9 g/m2 against Der p 1 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The test side of the carpets was sprayed with the reagent. The control side was treated with the 60 mL of tap water. Dust particles were collected from a 1-m2 area on each carpet side 24 hours after treatment and were analyzed for Der p 1 content with a monoclonal ELISA. Alum reduced the Der p 1 concentrations by 48.6 +/- 6.2%, 78.8 +/- 7.2%, and 95.2 +/- 3.0% at 3, 6, and 9 g/m2 in the carpets, respectively. Moreover, there were no complaints registered by the residents against the alum applications. Alum, at 9 g/m2 (in a solution at 15%) in water, can be used for decreasing existing Der p 1 concentrations in woolen carpets.

  10. Relationships between mite allergen levels, mold concentrations, and sick building syndrome symptoms in newly built dwellings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Y; Kanazawa, A; Araki, A; Morimoto, K; Nakayama, K; Takigawa, T; Tanaka, M; Shibata, E; Yoshimura, T; Chikara, H; Kishi, R

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the possible relationships between exposures to mite allergen and airborne fungi with sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms for residents living in newly built dwellings. We randomly sampled 5709 newly built dwellings in six prefectures from northern to southern Japan. A total of 1479 residents in 425 households participated in the study by completing questionnaire surveys and agreeing to environmental monitoring for mite allergen (Der 1), airborne fungi, aldehydes, and volatile organic compounds. Stepwise logistic regression analyses adjusted for confounders were used to obtain odds ratios (OR) of mite allergen and fungi for SBS symptoms. Der 1 had a significantly high OR for nose symptoms. Rhodotorula had a significantly high OR for any symptoms, and Aspergillus had significantly high OR for eye symptoms. However, the total colony-forming units had a significantly low OR for throat and respiratory symptoms. Eurotium had a significantly low OR for skin symptoms. In conclusion, dust-mite allergen levels and indoor airborne Rhodotorula and Aspergillus concentrations may result in SBS symptoms in newly built dwellings. Various factors can cause sick building syndrome symptoms. This study focused on biologic factors such as dust-mite allergen and airborne fungi in newly built dwellings in Japan. Dust-mite allergen levels were significantly associated with higher rates of nose symptoms, airborne Rhodotorula concentrations were significantly associated with higher rates of any symptoms, and Aspergillus concentrations were significantly associated with higher rates of eye symptoms. Measures should be taken to reduce mite allergen levels and fungal concentrations in these dwellings. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Occupational exposure to allergenic mites in a Polish zoo.

    PubMed

    Solarz, Krzysztof; Szilman, Piotr; Szilman, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    The study was carried out from April 2000-March 2001. During this period 49 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from cages and run-offs of mammals, birds and reptiles in the Silesian Zoo, were examined for the presence of mites, especially the allergenic taxa. Mites were extracted using the Berlese method and preserved in 70 % ethanol. For identification, the mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium on microscope slides. Mites were found in 44 of 49 samples analyzed (89.8 %). A total of 5,097 mites were collected, from which 60.3 % were found in samples collected in spring, whereas only 13 % in summer and 24.1 % in autumn. The remaining 2.6 % of the total mite population was found in winter. Majority of mites (82.7 %) were collected from aviaries of macaws and cockatiels (Ara ararauna and Nymphicus hollandicus). A total of 10 species of astigmatid mites were identified that belong to 4 families--Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Anoetidae and Pyroglyphidae. Generally, the allergenic mites of the order Astigmata constituted 49.5 % of the total count. Among them Acarus farris was predominant (34 % of the total count), followed by Tyrophagus putrescentiae (4.7 %), Caloglyphus sp. (4.35 %) and Acarus immobilis (4.31 %). Dermatophagoides farinae, the house-dust-mite species, was for the first time found in this environment. D. farinae (0.05 % of the total population) was associated with parrots, canids and artiodactyls. Summarizing, it should be stressed, that cages and run-offs of different mammals, aviaries of parrots and terrariums of snakes are important sources of some allergenic mites, especially A. farris and T. putrescentiae, that might cause allergies in workers.

  12. Prolonged effect of allergen sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mites in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Bozek, Andrzej; Starczewska-Dymek, Liwia; Jarzab, Jerzy

    2017-07-01

    The prolonged effect of allergen immunotherapy is unknown, especially in older patients. To analyze the 3-year effect of sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SLIT) to house dust mites in elderly patients with allergic rhinitis. Forty-seven elderly patients (65.78 ± 4.89 years old) underwent SLIT to house dust mites and were monitored for 3 years and compared with a placebo group. SLIT was performed with the use of oral Staloral 300 SR Der p and Der f 50/50% extract (Stallergens Greer, London, United Kingdom) or placebo. Symptoms and medication score, represented by the average adjusted symptom score (AAdSS), serum level of immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Der p 1, and Der p 2, and quality of life, were assessed immediately after SLIT and 3 years later. The AAdSS was significantly decreased after SLIT, and the level remained low during the 3 years after SLIT compared with placebo. Serum-specific IgG4 against D pteronyssinus, D farinae, Der p 1, and Der p 2 increased during the SLIT trial in the study group. For the 3 years of observation after SLIT, there were no significant changes of specific IgG4 levels against the analyzed allergens compared with results just after SLIT. Quality of life based on the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire score was significantly decreased in patients who received SLIT, from 1.48 (95% confidence interval 1.33-1.79) to 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.67-1.07; P < .05) compared with 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.55-1.04) 3 years after SLIT. The prolonged positive effect after SLIT to house dust mites was observed in elderly patients with allergic rhinitis. Further trials are needed to confirm this effect. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01605760. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of an In-home Test Kit in Reducing Dust Mite Allergen Levels: Results of a Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Winn, Amber K.; Salo, Päivi M.; Klein, Cynthia; Sever, Michelle L.; Harris, Shawn F.; Johndrow, David; Crockett, Patrick W.; Cohn, Richard D.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dust mite allergens can induce allergic sensitization and exacerbate asthma symptoms. Although dust mite reduction and control strategies exist, few asthmatics employ them. Objectives We examined whether an in-home test kit, which quantifies dust mite allergen levels, resulted in behavioral changes in implementation and maintenance of mite reduction strategies and helped reduce allergen levels in homes of dust mite-sensitive children. Methods We enrolled 60 households of children aged 5-15 with parent-reported dust mite allergy into a randomized controlled trial. Intervention homes (N=30) received educational material about reducing dust mites and test kits at 1,2,5, and 8 months. Control homes (N=30) received only educational material. At baseline, 6 and 12 months, study staff visited all homes, collected dust samples from 3 locations and obtained information about parents’ mite reduction behaviors by questionnaire. Allergen concentrations (Der f 2/Der p2) in dust were assessed by immunoassays. After adjusting for visit and location, allergen concentrations in intervention and control homes were compared using mixed effects model analysis. Results In the intervention homes, allergen concentrations in the child's bedroom and living room floors were significantly reduced over time compared to control homes. Although not all location-specific differences in allergen concentrations were statistically significant, combining data across locations, there was a differential reduction in allergen concentrations in the intervention group versus the control group (p =0.02). Conclusion The use of in-home test kits along with education may beneficially influence behaviors and attitudes towards dust mite reduction strategies and help reduce residential dust mite allergen levels. PMID:26308287

  14. The accumulation of dust mite allergens on mattresses made of different kinds of materials.

    PubMed

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Chirdjirapong, Varakorn; Pootong, Visanu; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Pacharn, Punchama; Weeravejsukit, Sirirat; Mahakittikun, Vanna; Vichyanond, Pakit

    2010-01-01

    Different mattress materials may affect the accumulation of allergens. To compare the amount of group 1 dust mite allergens (Der p1 + Der f1) on mattresses made of different kinds of materials before and after use. Sixty new mattresses made of kapok, synthetic fiber, coconut fiber and sponge-like polyurethane, were placed in the house officers' dormitory at Siriraj hospital, Thailand. The dust samples were collected before (0), 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the mattresses were used. Group 1 dust mite allergens were analyzed using two-site monoclonal antibody ELISA. Der f1 made up 86.7 % of group 1 allergens found in the matress dust. After the 2nd month, only the mean level in sponge-like polyurethane mattress was under 2 microg/g dust (sensitized level). At the 6th month, the mean levels were 13.1 in coconut, 21.7 in kapok and 17.3 microg/g dust in synthetic fiber, all of which were more than 10 microg/g dust (symptomatic level). At the 9th month, the level in sponge-like polyurethane mattress was increased to 11.2 microg/g. At 12th month the level in coconut fiber, sponge-like polyurethane synthetic fiber and kapok mattresses were 20.2, 22.4, 28.9 and 32.2 microg/g dust respectively. The accumulation rate in kapok and synthetic mattresses was significantly higher than coconut and sponge-like polyurethane mattresses. The mean level of group 1 mite allergens exceeded 10 microg/g dust after the 6th month of use in coconut fiber, kapok and synthetic fiber and at the 9th month in sponge-like polyurethane mattress.

  15. Perilla frutescens leaf extract inhibits mite major allergen Der p 2-induced gene expression of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human bronchial epithelial cell BEAS-2B.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jer-Yuh; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Chun-Hsiang; Kao, Shao-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Perilla frutescens has been used in traditional medicine for respiratory diseases due to its anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to investigate effects of Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PFE) on expression of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in airway epithelial cells exposed to mite major allergen Der p 2 (DP2) and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that PFE up to 100 µg/mL had no cytotoxic effect on human bronchial epithelial cell BEAS-2B. Further investigations revealed that PFE dose-dependently diminished mRNA expression of pro-allergic cytokine IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and GM-CSF, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 in BEAS-2B cells treated with DP2. In parallel to mRNA, the DP-2-elevated levels of the tested cytokines were decreased. Further investigation showed that DP2-indued phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (P38) and JNK, but not Erk1/2, was also suppressed by PFE. In addition, PFE elevated cytosolic IκBα level and decreased nuclear NF-κB level in DP2-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, these findings revealed that PFE significantly diminished both mRNA expression and protein levels of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to DP2 through inhibition of P38/JNK and NK-κB activation. These findings suggest that PFE should be beneficial to alleviate both allergic and inflammatory responses on airway epithelium in response to aeroallergens.

  16. Perilla frutescens Leaf Extract Inhibits Mite Major Allergen Der p 2-induced Gene Expression of Pro-Allergic and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell BEAS-2B

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jer-Yuh; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Chun-Hsiang; Kao, Shao-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Perilla frutescens has been used in traditional medicine for respiratory diseases due to its anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to investigate effects of Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PFE) on expression of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in airway epithelial cells exposed to mite major allergen Der p 2 (DP2) and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that PFE up to 100 µg/mL had no cytotoxic effect on human bronchial epithelial cell BEAS-2B. Further investigations revealed that PFE dose-dependently diminished mRNA expression of pro-allergic cytokine IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and GM-CSF, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 in BEAS-2B cells treated with DP2. In parallel to mRNA, the DP-2-elevated levels of the tested cytokines were decreased. Further investigation showed that DP2-indued phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (P38) and JNK, but not Erk1/2, was also suppressed by PFE. In addition, PFE elevated cytosolic IκBα level and decreased nuclear NF-κB level in DP2-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, these findings revealed that PFE significantly diminished both mRNA expression and protein levels of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to DP2 through inhibition of P38/JNK and NK-κB activation. These findings suggest that PFE should be beneficial to alleviate both allergic and inflammatory responses on airway epithelium in response to aeroallergens. PMID:24204835

  17. Dust anchoring characteristics of electret fibres with respect to Der p 1 allergen carrying particles.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, P T; Hughes, J F

    1998-09-01

    The avoidance of house dust mite allergens is a major area of interest and essentially requires a significant removal of these allergens from the immediately respirable air. Electrostatic attraction and anchoring of particulate matter using electret polymers is commonly used for air filtration purposes. This effect is investigated for its possible use in domestic allergen avoidance. Polypropylene electret, heat-treated electret and non-electret, and wool and nylon fibre samples were soiled with house dust known to contain Der p 1 allergen. These samples were vacuumed at three air face velocities. The proportions of released and anchored dust were calculated. Released dust was collected and analysed for Der p 1 concentration and compared to stock dust values. Results showed that compared to uncharged fibres at least 95% more dust remained anchored in the electret fibres. Also, overall Der p 1 release was reduced by more than 49%. Der p 1 allergen concentrations in the collected dust were relatively constant for all the fibres tested, indicating no selective attraction or repulsion of Der p 1 allergen carrying particles in the experimental dust. The consistently high dust anchoring ability of the electret fibres could be used in many domestic products that are known to harbour particulate allergens, to reduce their release and inhalation.

  18. Sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Blomia tropicalis extracts and recombinant mite allergens in atopic Thai patients.

    PubMed

    Trakultivakorn, Muthita; Nuglor, Tipaporn

    2002-12-01

    Mite surveys in Thailand indicated that Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) is predominant, but so far there were no data available on Blomia tropicalis (Bt), which is prevalent in the Asia Pacific region. Skin prick testing (SPT) was performed in 40 atopic children, 45 atopic adults and 17 non-atopic volunteers. Skin reactions to Dp were found in 25/40 (62.5%) and 23/45 (51.1%); skin reactions to Bt were found in 15/40 (37.5%) and 18/45 (40%) in atopic children and adults, respectively. SPT to the major sensitizing allergens Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 5, and Blo t 5 showed positive results in 14/40 (35%), 12/40 (30%), 1/40 (2.5%) and 4/40 (10%) of atopic children, and in 12/45 (26.7%), 13/45 (28.9%), 5/45 (11.1%), 6/45 (13.3%) of atopic adults, respectively. The results indicate that Dp is one of the major sources of allergy, while Bt is a minor one and that Der p 1 and Der p 2 are important mite allergens in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

  19. Cross‑reactivity between group-5 and -21 mite allergens from Dermatophagoides farinae, Tyrophagus putrescentiae and Blomia tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung-Ryul; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Yi, Myung-Hee; Kim, Hyoung-Pyo; Shin, Ho-Joon; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2015-10-01

    Group-5 and group-21 allergens, produced by house dust mites and storage mites are 36.6-55.8% identical in their sequences and are recognized by at least 50% of immunoglobulin (Ig)E from the sera of individuals allergic to dust mites. In the present study, recombinant group-5 and ‑21 allergens from three mite species, Dermatophagoides farinae (rDer f 5 and 21), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (rTyr p 5 and 21), and Blomia tropicalis (rBlo t 5 and 21), were purified from Escherichia coli, and the IgE reactivities and cross‑reactivities of these allergen variants were assessed. The IgE binding frequencies of rDer f 5, rDer f 21, rTyr p 5, rTyr p 21, rBlo t and rBlo t 21 proteins were 64.95, 65.98, 30.41, 41.24, 30.93 and 21.65%, respectively. The IgE reactivity of rDer f 5 correlated highly with that of rDer f 21 (r=0.733). rTyr p 5 exhibited the highest level of correlation with rTyr p 21 (r=0.950), while the correlation of rBlo t 5 with rBlo t 21 was the lowest observed (r=0.104). The binding of IgE to rDer f 5 and rDer f 21 was not inhibited by any allergens but themselves. While rDer f 5 inhibited only 60.3% of IgE binding to rBlo t 5, rDer f 21 exhibited a high inhibitory effect against rTyr p 5 (93.01%), rTyr p 21 (92.12%), rBlo t 5 (86.97%) and rBlo t 21 (70.30%), implying cross‑reactivity among mite species. The results of the present study demonstrated that the majority of the IgE reactivity to group-5 and -21 storage mite allergens is due to cross‑reaction. It is therefore imperative to develop an accurate, component‑resolved diagnosis for dust mite allergies.

  20. Acaroid mite allergens from the filters of air-conditioning system in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao-Pin; Guo, Wei; Zhan, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Bei-Bei; Diao, Ji-Dong; Li, Na; He, Lian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of acaroid mites in the filters of air-conditioners is harmful to human health. It is important to clarify the allergen components of mites from the filters of local air-conditioning system. The present study was to detect the allergen types in the filters of air-conditioners and assesse their allergenicity by asthmatic models. Sixty aliquots of dust samples were collected from air conditioning filters in civil houses in Wuhu area. Total protein was extracted from the dust samples using PBS and quantified by Bradford method. Allergens I and II were also detected by Western blot using primary antibody (anti-Der f1/2, Der p1/Der f2/Der p2, respectively). Ten aliquots of the positive samples were randomly selected for homogenization and sensitized the mice for developing asthmatic animal models. Total serum IgE level and IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The allergenicity of the extraction was assessed using pathological sections developed from the mouse pulmonary tissues. The concentration of extract from the 60 samples was ranged from 4.37 μg/ml to 30.76 μg/ml. After analyzing with Western blot, 31 of 60 samples were positive for 4 allergens of acaroid mites, and yet 16 were negative. The levels of total IgE from serum IL-4 and IL-5 from the BALF in the experimental group were apparently higher than that of negative control and PBS group (P < 0.01), but there were no statistical difference compared to OVA group (P > 0.05). However,the IFN-γ level in BALF was lower compared with the negative control and PBS group (P < 0.05) but with the OVA group (P > 0.05). The pathological changes were evidently emerged in pulmonary tissues, which were similar to those of OVA group, compared with the PBS ground and negative controls. The air-conditioner filters in human dwellings of Wuhu area potentially contain the major group allergen 1 and 2 from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, which may be associated with seasonal prevalence of

  1. Acarosan and the Acarex test in the control of house dust mite allergens in the home.

    PubMed

    Ridout, S; Twiselton, R; Matthews, S; Stevens, M; Matthews, L; Arshad, S H; Hide, D W

    1993-01-01

    House dust mites are believed to be major triggers for allergic disease in atopic individuals. As part of a programme controlling dietary and aero-allergen exposure in high-risk infants, an acaricidal foam and powder (Acarosan) was applied to bedroom and main living room carpets, as well as upholstered furniture, on four occasions in the first year of life. Dust was assayed for mite antigen (Der p1) and these results compared with the semi-quantitative assay of guanine content (Acarex Test). After nine months mean Der p1 levels had decreased by 70% in the treatment group. Proportionally, the greatest fall occurred in those items that had the highest initial mite antigen content. The Acarex score does show a correlation with Der p1 levels, but cannot replace antigen assay when accurate data is required. A chemical acaricide may help reduce house dust mite antigen levels, but is not by itself sufficient to reduce levels below that considered critical for sensitisation.

  2. Effective allergen avoidance for reducing exposure to house dust mite allergens and improving disease management in adult atopic asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Saito, Akemi; Oshikata, Chiyako; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the best strategy for adult asthmatics to avoid exposure to Dermatophagoides group (Der-1) allergens. Adult atopic asthmatics (n = 111) followed a 32-item checklist for avoiding Der-1 allergen exposure. Twenty-five patients were excluded through incomplete sampling; 50 remaining patients encased their pillows/futons/mattresses in microfine-fiber covers, 13 used vacuum cleaners with dust-mite-collection nozzles, and 23 acted as non-intervention controls. During August-October 2010 and August-October 2011, dust samples were collected in Petri dishes placed in bedrooms for 2 weeks and from mattresses/futons by using adhesive tape on one morning. A Der-1 level decrease was defined as a mean 2011 Der-1 level of <1 as a ratio of the 2010 level on tape or Petri dish samples. We analyzed the associations between Der-1 level change (by ELISA) and % weekly variability in peak expiratory flow (PEF) or fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) after intervention. Der-1 levels decreased significantly in the covers group but not the vacuuming group. FeNO levels and PEF variability were unchanged in both groups. In patients whose Petri dish or tape samples showed decreased Der-1 levels, the % PEF variability was lower in 2011 than in 2010, but FeNO levels were unchanged. Three interventions (vacuuming all family members' mattress/futon surfaces at least weekly or after exposure of the futons to sunlight, and floor wiping before vacuuming), plus using covers, were the most effective management strategy in reducing Der-1 levels. This environmental and bedding maintenance program may help manage adult atopic asthma.

  3. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  4. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  5. Hypoallergens for allergen-specific immunotherapy by directed molecular evolution of mite group 2 allergens.

    PubMed

    Gafvelin, Guro; Parmley, Stephen; Neimert-Andersson, Theresa; Blank, Ulrich; Eriksson, Tove L J; van Hage, Marianne; Punnonen, Juha

    2007-02-09

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only treatment that provides long lasting relief of allergic symptoms. Currently, it is based on repeated administration of allergen extracts. To improve the safety and efficacy of allergen extract-based immunotherapy, application of hypoallergens, i.e. modified allergens with reduced IgE binding capacity but retained T-cell reactivity, has been proposed. It may, however, be difficult to predict how to modify an allergen to create a hypoallergen. Directed molecular evolution by DNA shuffling and screening provides a means by which to evolve proteins having novel or improved functional properties without knowledge of structure-function relationships of the target molecules. With the aim to generate hypoallergens we applied multigene DNA shuffling on three group 2 dust mite allergen genes, two isoforms of Lep d 2 and Gly d 2. DNA shuffling yielded a library of genes from which encoded shuffled allergens were expressed and screened. A positive selection was made for full-length, high-expressing clones, and screening for low binding to IgE from mite allergic patients was performed using an IgE bead-based binding assay. Nine selected shuffled allergens revealed 80-fold reduced to completely abolished IgE binding compared with the parental allergens in IgE binding competition experiments. Two hypoallergen candidates stimulated allergen-specific T-cell proliferation and cytokine production at comparable levels as the wild-type allergens in patient peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. The two candidates also induced blocking Lep d 2-specific IgG antibodies in immunized mice. We conclude that directed molecular evolution is a powerful approach to generate hypoallergens for potential use in allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  6. Group 1 and 2 Dermatophagoides house dust mite allergens in the microenvironment of cats.

    PubMed

    Loft, Klaus Earl; Rosser, Edmund J

    2010-04-01

    House dust mite allergens (HDMAs) are some of the most common allergens associated with allergic diseases in humans and dogs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HDMAs could be detected in cat-associated household microenvironments. From 50 cat-only households with 95 cats, dust samples were collected by vacuuming for 2 min m(-2) from three areas where cats slept or rested regularly from September to October 2006. Relative humidity and temperature were measured in each household using a data logger. Each owner completed a questionnaire on potential factors that might influence the prevalence of house dust mites (HDMs). Dust samples were analysed utilizing an ELISA for Der p 1, Der f 1 and HDM group 2 allergens. In 38 of 50 households there was greater than 2 microg g(-1) of dust for at least one HDMA. Using stepwise logistic regression, factors associated with increased HDMA levels included: free-standing houses, number of humans in household, longhaired cats and age of the cat. Factors associated with decreased HDMA concentrations included: forced air heating and central air conditioning, less than 50% carpeting of the home, use of flea control, cats suffering from dermatological disease and the average temperature of the household. Many sleeping/resting areas utilized by cats contain sufficiently high levels of HDMAs to be potential sources of sensitization. This finding should lead to further determination of the role of HDMs in cats suffering from putative allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis or asthma.

  7. The draft genome, transcriptome, and microbiome of Dermatophagoides farinae reveal a broad spectrum of dust mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ting-Fung; Ji, Kun-Mei; Yim, Aldrin Kay-Yuen; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Zhou, Jun-Wei; Li, Rui-Qi; Yang, Kevin Yi; Li, Jing; Li, Meng; Law, Patrick Tik-Wan; Wu, Yu-Lan; Cai, Ze-Lang; Qin, Hao; Bao, Ying; Leung, Ross Ka-Kit; Ng, Patrick Kwok-Shing; Zou, Ju; Zhong, Xiao-Jun; Ran, Pi-Xin; Zhong, Nan-Shan; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing

    2015-02-01

    A sequenced house dust mite (HDM) genome would advance our understanding of HDM allergens, a common cause of human allergies. We sought to produce an annotated Dermatophagoides farinae draft genome and develop a combined genomic-transcriptomic-proteomic approach for elucidation of HDM allergens. A D farinae draft genome and transcriptome were assembled with high-throughput sequencing, accommodating microbiome sequences. The allergen gene structures were validated by means of Sanger sequencing. The mite's microbiome composition was determined, and the predominant genus was validated immunohistochemically. The allergenicity of a ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein homologue was evaluated with immunoblotting, immunosorbent assays, and skin prick tests. The full gene structures of 20 canonical allergens and 7 noncanonical allergen homologues were produced. A novel major allergen, ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein-like protein, was found and designated Der f 24. All 40 sera samples from patients with mite allergy had IgE antibodies against rDer f 24. Of 10 patients tested, 5 had positive skin reactions. The predominant bacterial genus among 100 identified species was Enterobacter (63.4%). An intron was found in the 13.8-kDa D farinae bacteriolytic enzyme gene, indicating that it is of HDM origin. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis revealed a phototransduction pathway in D farinae, as well as thiamine and amino acid synthesis pathways, which is suggestive of an endosymbiotic relationship between D farinae and its microbiome. An HDM genome draft produced from genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic experiments revealed allergen genes and a diverse endosymbiotic microbiome, providing a tool for further identification and characterization of HDM allergens and development of diagnostics and immunotherapeutic vaccines. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. House-dust mite allergy: mapping of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergens for dogs by two-dimensional immunoblotting

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Andreia Grilo; Pereira, Luísa Maria Dotti Silva; Goicoa, Ana; Semião-Santos, Saul José; Bento, Ofélia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Specific immunotherapy has shown to be very useful for allergy control in dogs, with a common success rate ranging from 65% to 70%. However, this efficacy could probably be improved and the identification of individual allergomes, with the choice of more adequate molecular allergen pools for specific immunotherapy, being the strategy. Aim To map Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) allergens for mite-sensitized atopic dogs, for better understanding how individual allergograms may influence the response to house-dust mite immunotherapy. Material and methods To identify the Der p mite allergome for dogs, 20 individuals allergic to dust-mites and sensitized to Der p, were selected. The extract from Der p was submitted to isoelectric focusing (IEF), one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Separated proteins were blotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes and immunoblottings were performed with patient sera. Allergen-bound specific IgE was detected. Results Eleven allergens were identified from isoelectric focusing (IEF), as well as from 1-D SDS PAGE. From 2-D SDS-PAGE, 24 spots were identified. Conclusions Several similarities were found between dog and human allergograms and no absolute correlation between sensitization and allergy was observed either. As in humans, different individual allergograms do not seem to implicate different clinical patterns, but may influence the response to specific immunotherapy. The molecular epidemiology approach in veterinary allergy management, by the characterization of individual patients’ allergoms and by choosing the best molecular allergen pool for each patient could also improve the efficacy of allergy immunotherapy. PMID:26015775

  9. House-dust mite allergy: mapping of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergens for dogs by two-dimensional immunoblotting.

    PubMed

    Martins, Luís Miguel Lourenço; Marques, Andreia Grilo; Pereira, Luísa Maria Dotti Silva; Goicoa, Ana; Semião-Santos, Saul José; Bento, Ofélia Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Specific immunotherapy has shown to be very useful for allergy control in dogs, with a common success rate ranging from 65% to 70%. However, this efficacy could probably be improved and the identification of individual allergomes, with the choice of more adequate molecular allergen pools for specific immunotherapy, being the strategy. To map Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) allergens for mite-sensitized atopic dogs, for better understanding how individual allergograms may influence the response to house-dust mite immunotherapy. To identify the Der p mite allergome for dogs, 20 individuals allergic to dust-mites and sensitized to Der p, were selected. The extract from Der p was submitted to isoelectric focusing (IEF), one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Separated proteins were blotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes and immunoblottings were performed with patient sera. Allergen-bound specific IgE was detected. Eleven allergens were identified from isoelectric focusing (IEF), as well as from 1-D SDS PAGE. From 2-D SDS-PAGE, 24 spots were identified. Several similarities were found between dog and human allergograms and no absolute correlation between sensitization and allergy was observed either. As in humans, different individual allergograms do not seem to implicate different clinical patterns, but may influence the response to specific immunotherapy. The molecular epidemiology approach in veterinary allergy management, by the characterization of individual patients' allergoms and by choosing the best molecular allergen pool for each patient could also improve the efficacy of allergy immunotherapy.

  10. Endotoxin and house dust mite allergen levels on synthetic and buckwheat pillows.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hae-Seon; Park, Choon-Sik; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Rob

    2004-08-01

    Pillows are known to contain significant levels of indoor allergens and endotoxin, that are of importance to house dust mite sensitized asthmatics. Buckwheat pillows are commonly used in Korea. We studied the levels of the house dust mite allergen, Der f 1, and endotoxin on new synthetic and buckwheat pillows and their accumulation over three months. Endotoxin levels were significantly higher on new buckwheat pillows compared to synthetic pillows; geometric mean levels (95% CI) were 60,950 EU/g (30,270-122,700) and 4,887 EU/g (2,570-9,311) respectively (p<0.001). No Der f 1 was detected on the new pillows. After three months Der f 1 levels were similar on buckwheat and synthetic pillows, geometric mean levels (95% CI) were 1.16 microg/g (0.02-8.13) and 1.08 microg/g (0.19-1.68) respectively. These results indicate that buckwheat pillows are a source of very high endotoxin levels that may be of relevance to asthma severity of atopic asthmatics.

  11. Reducing relative humidity is a practical way to control dust mites and their allergens in homes in temperate climates.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Neal, J S; Morgan, M S; Vyszenski-Moher, D L; Rapp, C M; Alexander, A K

    2001-01-01

    Maintaining a relative humidity (RH) of less than 50% is one recommendation for reducing numbers of house dust mites and their allergens in homes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether, in a humid temperate climate, indoor RH could be sufficiently lowered to control dust mites and their allergens. During a period spanning 2 humid summers (May 1998 to October 1999), dust mite and allergen densities were determined in 3 groups of homes. One group (low RH group, n = 23) maintained an RH of less than 51%. Most of these homes used a high-efficiency dehumidifier and air conditioning. A second group of homes (group A) used air conditioning only (n = 19) or air conditioning and dehumidification (n = 5) but did not maintain an RH of less than 51%. A third group of homes (group C, n = 24) controlled climate by opening windows and had an RH of greater than 51%. Normal housecleaning was maintained in all homes during the study. The low RH group homes started in June with a mean +/- SE of 401 +/- 124 live mites and 17 +/- 3 microg of total Der 1 allergen per gram of dust. After 17 months of maintaining an RH of less than 51%, these declined significantly to 8 +/- 3 live mites per gram (P =. 004) and 4 +/- 1 microg of Der 1 per gram of dust (P <.001). In contrast, group A and C homes exhibited seasonal peaks of 500 to 1000 mites and 40 to 70 microg of Der 1 per gram of dust. At all time points after the baseline sample, the low RH group homes had significantly less (P <.001) allergen than the group A and C homes. After 17 months, allergen levels were more than 10 times lower in low RH homes compared with humid homes. This study showed that it is practical to maintain an indoor RH of less than 51% during the humid summer season in a temperate climate, and this resulted in significant reductions in mite and allergen levels.

  12. Real-Life Study for the Diagnosis of House Dust Mite Allergy - The Value of Recombinant Allergen-Based IgE Serology.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sven; Schlederer, Thomas; Kramer, Matthias F; Haack, Mareike; Vrtala, Susanne; Resch, Yvonne; Lupinek, Christian; Valenta, Rudolf; Gröger, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is one of the most important perennial allergen sources worldwide. Molecular diagnostics using the commercially available major allergens (Der p 1 and Der p 2) in combination with Der p 10 do not detect house dust mite (HDM) sensitization in a number of cases when used alone. The objective was to evaluate the IgE reactivity profiles of these patients using an experimental immunoassay biochip. Sera of HDM-allergic patients (positive skin prick test, CAP class ≥1 for allergen extract, and positive intranasal provocation) were tested for IgE antibodies against Der p 1, Der p 2, and Der p 10 by ImmunoCAP fluorescence enzyme immunoassay. Negatively tested sera were examined by an experimental chip containing 13 microarrayed HDM allergens. Of 97 patients tested, 16 showed negative results to Der p 1, Der p 2, and Der p 10. MeDALL chip evaluation revealed 5 patients monosensitized to Der p 23, and 11 patients were negative for all HDM MeDALL chip components. Seven sera were available for further testing, and 3 of them showed IgE reactivity to dot-blotted nDer p 1, and 2 reacted with high-molecular weight components (>100 kDa) in nitrocellulose-blotted HDM extract when tested with 125I-labeled anti-IgE in a RAST-based assay. The HDM extract-specific IgE levels of the 11 patients were <3.9 kU/l. Recombinant allergen-based IgE serology is of great value when conventional IgE diagnostics fails. Der p 23 is an important HDM allergen, especially when major allergens are negative. Therefore, it would be desirable to have Der p 23 commercially available. Further research concerning the prevalence and clinical significance of different HDM allergens is needed. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Comparison between Siriraj mite allergen vaccine and standardized commercial mite vaccine by skin prick testing in normal Thai adults.

    PubMed

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Weeravejsukit, Sirirat; Sripramong, Chaweewan; Sookrung, Nitat; Bunnag, Chaweewan

    2010-03-01

    House dust mite is a major cause of allergic asthma and rhinitis in Thai population. Skin prick test (SPT) is a useful tool for the diagnosis of the IgE-mediated reactions. The imported commercial mite vaccine for SPT is available but it is relatively expensive. Aim of this study is to compare Siriraj Mite Allergen Vaccine (SMAV) with standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine by skin prick testing in normal Thai adults. A double blind, self-controlled study between the SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine was performed by SPT in 17 normal Thai adult males and non-pregnant or non-lactating females aged 18-60 years. The study showed that 35.29 % of non atopic adults had positive SPT reaction to Dp and Df of both SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine. Mean wheal and flare diameters from SPT of Dp and Df of SMAV showed strong correlation with standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine (r= 0.768 and 0.897 in Dp and Df respectively, p <0.001). The intraclass correlation was also excellent (0.893 and 0.775 in Dp and Df respectively). There was no significant difference in wheal and flare diameter between SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine. No systemic or large local reaction was found in any of the study cases.

  14. Epicutaneous sensitization to house dust mite allergen requires interferon regulatory factor 4-dependent dermal dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Deckers, Julie; Sichien, Dorine; Plantinga, Maud; Van Moorleghem, Justine; Vanheerswynghels, Manon; Hoste, Esther; Malissen, Bernard; Dombrowicz, David; Guilliams, Martin; De Bosscher, Karolien; Lambrecht, Bart N; Hammad, Hamida

    2017-02-09

    Exposure to allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), through the skin often precedes allergic inflammation in the lung. It was proposed that TH2 sensitization through the skin occurs when skin barrier function is disrupted by, for example, genetic predisposition, mechanical damage, or the enzymatic activity of allergens. We sought to study how HDM applied to unmanipulated skin leads to TH2 sensitization and to study which antigen-presenting cells mediate this process. HDM was applied epicutaneously by painting HDM on unmanipulated ear skin or under an occlusive tape. HDM challenge was through the nose. Mouse strains lacking different dendritic cell (DC) populations were used, and 1-DER T cells carrying a transgenic T-cell receptor reactive to Der p 1 allergen were used as a readout for antigen presentation. The TH2-inducing capacity of sorted skin-derived DC subsets was determined by means of adoptive transfer to naive mice. Epicutaneous HDM application led to TH2 sensitization and eosinophilic airway inflammation upon intranasal HDM challenge. Skin sensitization did not require prior skin damage or enzymatic activity within HDM extract, yet was facilitated by applying the allergen under an occlusive tape. Primary proliferation of 1-DER T cells occurred only in the regional skin-draining lymph nodes. Epicutaneous sensitization was found to be driven by 2 variants of interferon regulatory factor 4-dependent dermal type 2 conventional DC subsets and not by epidermal Langerhans cells. These findings identify skin type 2 conventional DCs as crucial players in TH2 sensitization to common inhaled allergens that enter the body through the skin and can provoke features of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cat, dog and house dust mite allergen levels on children's soft toys.

    PubMed

    Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Wu, Mei-Wen; Ting, Ming-Hui; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Rob

    2014-02-01

    Children's soft toys are known to harbour house dust mite (HDM) allergens, but little is known whether they harbour cat or dog allergens. The objective of the study was to measure cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and HDM allergens on children's soft toys. Dust was collected from 40 children's soft toys and their mattresses. Data were collected on pet ownership. Dust samples were analysed for Fel d 1, Can f 1, Der p 1 and Der f 1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and results are expressed as median levels with inter-quartile ranges. Thirty-five (87.5%) soft toys had detectable Fel d 1 levels (median: 0.73 µg/g; inter-quartile range: 0.26-2.56 µg/g) while 34 (85%) had detectable Can f 1 levels (1.20 µg/g; 0.53-2.68). Correspondingly, 32 (80%) mattresses had detectable Fel d 1 levels (0.18 µg/g, 0.07-1.01) while 34 (85%) had detectable Can f 1 levels (0.50 µg/g; 0.33-1.06). All mattresses and soft toys had detectable HDM allergen (Der p 1 + Der f 1) levels with soft toys containing about three times higher levels than mattresses. In homes with cats (n = 10) Fel d 1 levels were higher on soft toys than homes without cats (2.49 versus 0.48 µg/g; p = 0.0009). In homes with dogs (n = 25) Can f 1 levels were generally higher on soft toys (1.38 versus 0.63 µg/g; p = 0.10). This study has shown that soft toys can harbour cat and dog allergen as well as HDM allergens, some with very high levels. Cat and dog ownership resulted in higher Fel d 1 and Can f 1 levels on soft toys and mattresses. The levels of Fel d 1, Can f 1 and HDM allergens on soft toys could be of importance to sensitized asthmatic children.

  16. [Detection of mite allergens in the dust of filter-net and air of air-conditioned room].

    PubMed

    Lian, Yu-yin; Liu, Zhi-gang; Wang, Hong-yu; Chai, Cheng-yu; Liu, Xiao-yu

    2007-08-01

    To detect mite allergens in the dust of air conditioner filter-net and floating air in room. Samples were collected from rooms of asthma patient and normal families with or without air conditioner. Der p1, Der f1 and Der 2 were determined by two monoclonal antibody-based ELISA. In asthma patient families, the concentration of airborne Der p1, Der f1 and Der 2 was (0.23 +/- 0.13), (2.62 +/- 1.08), (0.93 +/- 0.41) ng/m3, and (0.56 +/- 0.25), (4.74 +/- 1.22), (2.33 +/- 0.64) ng/m3 respectively before and after the air conditioner switched on, all showing a significant difference (P < 0.05). In families without asthma patient, the concentration of Der p1, Der f1 and Der 2 was (0.33 +/- 0.11), (11.50 +/- 3.08) and (2.10 +/- 0.80) ng/m3, and (0.63 +/- 0.23), (19.80 +/- 4.30) and (3.60 +/- 1.00) ng/m3 respectively before and after the air conditioner switched on, also showing a significant difference (P < 0.05). From the filter-net dust of air conditioner in family with allergic asthma patient, the concentration of Der p1, Der f1 and Der 2 was (0.52 +/- 0.19), (3.34 +/- 0.63), (2.53 +/- 0.65) microg/g dust, while that of normal families was (1.30 +/- 0.35), (5.16 +/- 0.92), (3.47 +/- 1.13) microg/g dust respectively. The concentration of Der f1 and Der 2 at both asthma families and normal families was higher than 2 microg/g, an allergen concentration threshold. Mite allergens exist in the filter-net dust of air conditioner, which may be an important source of indoor allergens and a cause of the increasing prevalence of allergic asthma.

  17. Assessing the efficacy of a novel temperature and humidity control machine to minimize house dust mite allergen exposure and clinical symptoms in allergic rhinitis children sensitized to dust mites: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Padungpak, Savitree; Luecha, Orawin; Kamchaisatian, Wasu; Sasisakulporn, Cherapat; Vilaiyuk, Soamarat; Monyakul, Veerapol; Benjaponpitak, Suwat

    2015-06-01

    House dust mite avoidance is advised in dust mite sensitized patients to decrease the risk to develop allergic symptoms. Maintaining a relative humidity (RH) of less than 50% in households is recommended to prevent dust mite proliferation. To investigate the efficacy of a novel temperature and humidity machine to control the level of dust mite allergens and total nasal symptom score (TNSS) in dust mite sensitized allergic rhinitis children. Children (8-15 years) with dust mite sensitized persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) were enrolled. The temperature and humidity control machine was installed in the bedroom where the enrolled children stayed for 6 months. TNSS was assessed before and every month after machine set up and the level of dust mite allergen (Der p 1 and Der f 1) from the mattress were measured before and every 2 months after machine set up using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 7 children were enrolled. Noticeable reduction of Der f 1 was observed as early as 2 months after installing the machine, but proper significant differences appeared 4 months after and remained low until the end of the experiment (p <0.05). Although no correlation was observed between TNSS and the level of dust mite allergens, there was a significant reduction in TNSS at 2 and 4 months (p <0.05) and 70% of the patients were able to stop using their intranasal corticosteroids by the end of the experiment. The level of house dust mite in mattresses was significantly reduced after using the temperature and humidity control machine. This machine may be used as an effective tool to control clinical symptoms of dust mite sensitized AR children.

  18. Barnacle allergy: allergen characterization and cross-reactivity with mites.

    PubMed

    Marinho, S; Morais-Almeida, M; Gaspar, A; Santa-Marta, C; Pires, G; Postigo, I; Guisantes, J; Martínez, J; Rosado-Pinto, J

    2006-01-01

    Barnacles are a type of seafood with worldwide distribution and abundant along the shores of temperate seas. They are particularly appreciated and regularly consumed in Portugal as well as in Spain, France and South America, but barnacle allergy is a rare condition of which there is only one reference in the indexed literature. The molecular allergens and possible cross-reactivity phenomena implicated (namely with mites) have not been established. To demonstrate the IgE-mediated allergy to barnacle and to identify the proteins implicated as well as possible cross-reactivity phenomena with mites. We report the clinical and laboratory data of five patients with documented IgE-mediated allergy to barnacle. The diagnosis was based on a suggestive clinical history combined with positive skin prick tests (SPT) to barnacle--prick to prick method. Two barnacle extracts were prepared (raw and cooked barnacle) and sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE-immunoblotting were performed. An immunoblotting inhibition assay with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was also done in order to evaluate cross-reactivity. All patients had mite-related asthma and the allergic rhinoconjunctivitis; they all experienced mucocutaneous symptoms. All of them had positive SPT to barnacle, and the immunoblotting showed several allergenic fractions with a wide molecular weight range (19 - 94 kDa). The D. pteronyssinus extract inhibited several IgE-binding protein fractions in the barnacle extract. We describe five patients with IgE-mediated barnacle allergy. We also describe a group of IgE-binding+proteins between 30 and 75 kDa as the allergenic fractions of this type of Crustacea. Cross-reactivity with D. pteronyssinus was demonstrated in two cases.

  19. Effect of an air cleaner with electrostatic filter on the removal of airborne house dust mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Santosh Rani; Kim, Hak-Joon; Lee, Yong Won; Sohn, Jung-Ho; Lee, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Lee, Sung-Hwa; Hong, Chein-Soo; Park, Jung-Won

    2010-11-01

    The effects of air cleaners on the removal of airborne indoor allergens, especially house dust mites (HDM), are still controversial. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of an air cleaner with an electrostatic filter on the removal of airborne mite allergens. A dried HDM culture medium that contained mite body particles and excretions was dispersed in a chamber equipped with an electrostatic air cleaner. The number of airborne particles was recorded continuously by a dust spectrometer for 60 minutes. Airborne particles in the chamber were collected on a sampling filter at a flow rate of 10 L/min and the Der f 1 concentration in the filter extracts was measured by two-site ELISA. The air cleaner efficiently removed airborne HDM particles. The air cleaner removed airborne HDM particles (size 2-12.5 µm) 11.4 ± 2.9 fold (cleaner operating for 15 minutes), 5.4 ± 0.7 fold (cleaner operating for 30 minutes), and 2.4 ± 0.2 fold (cleaner operating for 60 minutes) more than the removal of HDM particles by natural settle down. Removal kinetics differed according to the particle size of the airborne particles. The air cleaner decreased the concentration of Der f 1 in the extraction of airborne particles collected on the air sampling filter by 60.3%. The electrostatic air cleaner can remove airborne HDM allergens and may be useful as a supplementary environmental control tool for HDM sensitized respiratory allergic patients.

  20. Importance of house dust mite and Alternaria allergens in childhood asthma: an epidemiological study in two climatic regions of Australia.

    PubMed

    Peat, J K; Tovey, E; Mellis, C M; Leeder, S R; Woolcock, A J

    1993-10-01

    The relation of house dust mite allergen levels to asthma and allergy was examined in two population samples of children aged 8-11 years in northern New South Wales. We studied 805 children in Lismore (a hot, humid, coastal region) and 770 in Moree/Narrabri (a hot, dry inland region). Respiratory symptoms were measured by questionnaire, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) by histamine inhalation test, and allergy by skin-prick tests. Current asthma was defined as the presence of both wheeze in last 12 months and BHR. Der p I levels were measured in dust from the bed and floors in the homes of 57 randomly selected children in the coastal region and of 74 inland children. Der p I levels were significantly higher by the coast (83.0 vs 11.2 microg/g, P < 0.001). House dust mite sensitivity was of similar prevalence in both regions (28.6 vs 26.4%, n.s.) but Alternaria sensitivity was higher inland (4.0 vs 15.2% P<0.001). Bronchial responsiveness was more severe in coastal children sensitized to house dust mites and in inland children who were sensitized to Alternaria. The adjusted odds ratios for current asthma in children sensitized to house dust mites were 21.3 (95% CI 10.5, 43.2) by the coast and 2.7 (95% CI 1.3, 5.4) inland, and in children sensitized to Alternaria were 3.4 (95% CI 1.3, 9.1) in the coastal region and 5.6 (95% CI 3.1, 10.1 inland. These studies suggest that high house dust mite allergen levels in a humid, subtropical region act to significantly increase bronchial responsiveness in sensitized children, and that Alternaria allergens have a similar but less potent action in a dry, rural region.

  1. The effects of a newsletter on bedding control on house dust mite allergen concentrations in childcare centers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Yang, Heasuk; Yum, Hye Yung; Lee, Seon Ah; Kim, Chae-Bong; Kim, Hyunjung; Lim, Wan Ryung; Hong, Soyoung; Kim, Kyoosang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Bedding in childcare centers (CCCs) can hold house dust mite (HDM) allergens. This study examined whether HDM allergen levels can be reduced through the distribution of an educational newsletter on bedding control to parents of CCC children in Korea. Methods All 38 CCCs were measured for Der 1 (sum of Der f 1 and Der p 1) concentrations on classroom floors and bedding before the intervention. Educational newsletters on children’s bedding control were sent to 21 CCCs by mail, and teachers were asked to distribute the newsletters to the parents of the children (intervention group). The remaining 17 CCCs were not sent newsletters (control group). The measurement of Der 1 concentrations in 38 CCCs was repeated after the intervention. Dust samples were collected with a vacuum cleaner and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Results The Der 1 concentrations on the bedding were significantly higher than those on the floors in 38 CCCs at baseline (p<0.05). Although changes of the Der 1 concentrations for the control group (n=17) were not significant, Der 1 concentrations for the intervention group (n=21) decreased significantly from 2077.9 ng/g dust to 963.5 ng/g dust on the floors and from 3683.9 ng/g dust to 610.4 ng/g dust on bedding (p<0.05). Conclusions The distribution of educational newsletters on bedding control to parents may be an effective means of controlling HDMs in CCCs. PMID:26602559

  2. Prevalence of sensitivity to cockroach allergens and IgE cross-reactivity between cockroach and house dust mite allergens in Chinese patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-Qing; Lai, Xu-Xin; Gjesing, Birgitte; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2010-12-01

    Cockroaches are an important indoor allergen source causing allergic rhinitis and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the cockroach prevalence in mainland of China and the cross-reactivity of IgE between cockroach and house dust mite allergen in Chinese patients. The cockroach sensitization pattern was based on a skin prick test (SPT) obtained from a national multicenter prevalence study, in which 6304 patients from 25 allergy centers across China participated. Factors, including different regions of China, age, gender and the correlations between the American and German cockroaches and house dust mite Der p were investigated. Eighteen out of 1236 clinical sera from south China were selected to perform the cross-inhibition assay between house dust mites and cockroaches. Totally 25.7% of patients were SPT positive to the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana, Per a) and 18.7% SPT positive to the German cockroach (Blattella germanica, Bla g). The prevalence of positive cockroach SPT was higher in southern than in northern China, higher in adults than in children, and higher in males than in females. Patients had relatively low levels of cockroach SPT reactions, mainly class 1 or 2. Of the SPT positive cockroach patients, 88% were also SPT positive to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Der p). An IgE cross-inhibition study confirmed that Der p sensitization could cause false positive SPT reactions against cockroach. A relatively high prevalence of cockroach sensitivity was found in mainland of China. However, a cross-inhibition study showed that only a small number of patients appear to have Bla g and/or Per a as primary sensitizing source. The importance of cockroaches as a risk factor for sensitization and triggers of allergic symptoms in mainland of China needs to be further investigated.

  3. Effects of physical interventions on house dust mite allergen levels in carpet, bed, and upholstery dust in low-income, urban homes.

    PubMed Central

    Vojta, P J; Randels, S P; Stout, J; Muilenberg, M; Burge, H A; Lynn, H; Mitchell, H; O'Connor, G T; Zeldin, D C

    2001-01-01

    House dust mite allergen exposure is a postulated risk factor for allergic sensitization, asthma development, and asthma morbidity; however, practical and effective methods to mitigate these allergens from low-income, urban home environments remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of physical interventions to mitigate house dust mite allergens in this setting. Homes with high levels of house dust mite allergen (Der f 1 + Der p 1 > or = 10 microg/g dust by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in the bed, bedroom carpet, and/or upholstered furniture were enrolled in the study. Carpets and upholstered furniture were subjected to a single treatment of either dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming (carpet only) or intensive vacuuming alone. Bed interventions consisted of complete encasement of the mattress, box spring, and pillows plus either weekly professional or in-home laundering of nonencased bedding. Dust samples were collected at baseline and again at 3 days (carpet and upholstery only) and 2, 4, and 8 weeks posttreatment. We compared pretreatment mean allergen concentrations and loads to posttreatment values and performed between-group analyses after adjusting for differences in the pretreatment means. Both dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming and vacuuming alone resulted in a significant reduction in carpet house dust mite allergen concentration and load (p < 0.05). Levels approached pretreatment values by 4 weeks posttreatment in the intensive vacuuming group, whereas steam cleaning plus vacuuming effected a decrease that persisted for up to 8 weeks. Significant decreases in bed house dust mite allergen concentration and load were obtained in response to encasement and either professional or in-home laundering (p < 0.001). Between-group analysis revealed significantly less postintervention house dust mite allergen load in professionally laundered compared to home-laundered beds (p < 0.05). Intensive vacuuming and dry

  4. IgE Abs to Der p 1 and Der p 2 as diagnostic markers of house dust mite allergy as defined by a bronchoprovocation test.

    PubMed

    Minami, Takafumi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Lidholm, Jonas; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Sekiya, Kiyoshi; Tsuburai, Takahiro; Maeda, Yuji; Mori, Akio; Taniguchi, Masami; Hasegawa, Maki; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the clinical usefulness of measuring the levels of IgE to allergen components from house dust mites (HDMs) in the diagnosis of genuine HDM allergy. To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of measuring levels of serum IgE antibodies (Abs) to allergen components from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) as a predictor of immediate asthmatic response (IAR) to bronchoprovocation, we studied 55 DP-sensitized asthmatic patients who underwent a bronchoprovocation test using crude DP extract. The levels of IgE Abs to crude DP, nDer p 1, rDer p 2, and rDer p 10 in patients who showed IAR (n = 41) were compared with those in patients who showed no IAR (n = 14). While the frequencies of positivity for IgE Abs to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 among the entire study population were 89 and 86%, respectively, all patients with IAR tested positive for both of them with high IgE concentrations. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 as predictors of IAR were 0.913 and 0.906, respectively. The specificity of IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 was higher than IgE to crude DP even at low cut-off points. IgE to nDer p 1 and/or rDer p 2 was highly predictive of allergen-induced IAR. These findings validate the clinical usefulness of measuring the levels of IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 as a diagnostic tool for genuine HDM allergy. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Citrus red mite (Panonychus citri) may be an important allergen in the development of asthma among exposed children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y K; Park, H S; Kim, H Y; Jee, Y K; Son, J W; Bae, J M; Lee, M H; Cho, S H; Min, K U; Kim, Y Y

    2001-04-01

    Recent investigations have demonstrated that spider mites are important allergens in the development of asthma in fruit-cultivating farmers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitization rate to the citrus red mite (Panonychus citri) in children living in rural areas, and to determine the allergenic cross-reactivity with other mites. A total of 7254 children (ages 7-15 years) living in rural areas were enrolled, and each subject was evaluated by a questionnaire and a skin prick test. Allergenic cross-reactivity was evaluated by ELISA inhibition tests. The most common sensitizing allergens were house dust mites, followed by citrus red mite and cockroach. High serum-specific IgE bindings to the citrus red mite were detected in 21 of 100 randomly selected subjects. The prevalence of asthma was higher among those with positive skin responses to the citrus red mite than with negative skin responses to this mite. ELISA inhibition tests showed that IgE bindings to this mite were minimally inhibited with additions of domestic mites. Spider mites such as the citrus red mite may be important outdoor allergens among children living in rural areas, and spider mite-derived allergens have unique allergenic determinants compared with domestic mites.

  6. Double-blind controlled trial of effect of housedust-mite allergen avoidance on atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tan, B B; Weald, D; Strickland, I; Friedmann, P S

    1996-01-06

    The role of housedust-mite (HDM) allergen (Der p1) in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that atopic dermatitis improves if amounts of HDM allergen in the home are reduced. Active treatment comprised Goretex bedcovers (placebo, cotton covers), benzyltannate spray (placebo, water), and a high-filtration vacuum cleaner (placebo, a conventional domestic vacuum cleaner). Dust was sampled monthly from the mattress covers and bedroom and living-room carpets. 48 patients (24 adults [mean age 30] and 24 children [mean age 10]) completed the 6-month study. 28 were in the active treatment group and 20 in the placebo group. The weight of dust collected from Goretex-covered mattresses had fallen by 98% at 1 month (from 386 to 9 mg/m2) with no change thereafter. Placebo covers caused a smaller reduction in dust load (361 to 269 mg/m2); the difference between active and placebo covers at 6 months was highly significant (p = 0.002). Both active and placebo treatments caused significant reductions in Der p1 concentrations in bedroom and living-room carpets and the differences between the treatments were not significant. The severity of eczema decreased in both groups, but the active group showed significantly greater improvements in severity score (difference between mean final scores 4.3 units, p = 0.006) and area affected (difference between mean final areas 10%, p = 0.006) in analysis of covariance with initial mattress dust weights and bedroom carpet Der p1 load as covariates. Reported analysis with final values for the covariates showed that most of the treatment effect was due to the reduction in mattress dust and carpet Der p1. The activity of atopic dermatitis can be greatly reduced by effective HDM avoidance. Methods to identify individuals who will benefit most from such measures are needed.

  7. Correlations between levels of mite and cat allergens in settled and airborne dust.

    PubMed

    Swanson, M C; Campbell, A R; Klauck, M J; Reed, C E

    1989-04-01

    Thirty homes in Rochester, Minn., 20 of which housed cats, were studied to compare cat and mite allergen concentrations in airborne and settled dust. With Air Sentinels in the bedroom and living room for airborne collections, and a Sample Vac for collections from living room carpet and bedroom mattress, immunochemical quantifications of each were made with various radiometric assays with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. The most significant correlations were found between airborne mite in the bedroom and living room (p less than 0.001) and airborne mite in the bedroom and dust from the bedroom mattress (p less than 0.001). Most houses had specific epitopes of both Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae, but D. farinae was present in greater amounts. In seven houses we found greater than 10 micrograms of group I mite allergen per gram of settled dust, indicating that some houses in Minnesota have concentrations of mite allergens high enough to cause allergic disease, even in the winter. Clinical interpretation of these data on air levels is hampered by uncertainty as to whether symptoms are more closely related to average steady-state exposure, which we measured, or to brief heavy concentrations. Further epidemiologic studies are needed to define the concentration of mite and cat allergens in the air that are risk factors for allergic disease. The concentration of cat allergen correlated with mite allergen in the air, but not in settled dust, presumably reflecting the fact that both are influenced by ventilation rate.

  8. Serum and salivary IgE, IgA, and IgG4 antibodies to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and its major allergens, Der p1 and Der p2, in allergic and nonallergic children.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Diego O; Silva, Deise A O; Fernandes, Jorge F C; Queirós, Meimei G J; Chiba, Hamilton F; Ynoue, Leandro H; Resende, Rafael O; Pena, Janethe D O; Sung, Sun-Sang J; Segundo, Gesmar R S; Taketomi, Ernesto A

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a public health problem with high prevalence worldwide. We evaluated levels of specific IgE, IgA, and IgG4 antibodies to the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) house dust mite and to its major allergens (Der p1 and Der p2) in serum and saliva samples from allergic and nonallergic children. A total of 86 children were analyzed, from which 72 had AR and 14 were nonallergic healthy children. Serum IgE and serum/salivary IgG4 levels to Dpt, Der p1, and Der p2 were higher in allergic children whereas serum/salivary IgA levels to all allergens were higher in nonallergic children. IgE levels positively correlated with IgG4 and IgA to all allergens in allergic children, while IgA levels negatively correlated with IgG4 to Dpt and Der p1 in nonallergic children. In conclusion, mite-specific IgA antibodies predominate in the serum and saliva of nonallergic children whereas mite-specific IgE and IgG4 are prevalent in allergic children. The presence of specific IgA appears to have a key role for the healthy immune response to mucosal allergens. Also, specific IgA measurements in serum and/or saliva may be useful for monitoring activation of tolerance-inducing mechanisms during allergen specific immunotherapeutic procedures, especially sublingual immunotherapy.

  9. Requirements for acquiring a high-quality house dust mite extract for allergen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Frati, Franco; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; David, Marie; Scurati, Silvia; Seta, Simona; Padua, Guglielmo; Cattaneo, Eleonora; Cavaliere, Carlo; Di Rienzo, Alessia; Dell’Albani, Ilaria; Puccinelli, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The house dust mite is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide. The management of mite allergy is based on avoidance measures, drug treatment, and allergen immunotherapy, but only allergen immunotherapy is able to modify the natural history of the disease. Injectable subcutaneous immunotherapy was introduced a century ago, while sublingual immunotherapy was proposed in the 1980s and emerged in the ensuing years as an effective and safe option to subcutaneous immunotherapy. However, the quality of the extracts to be used in allergen immunotherapy is crucial for the success of treatment. The mite extract for sublingual immunotherapy known as Staloral 300 was developed to offer optimal characteristics concerning the mite culture medium, standardization, and allergen dose. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with Staloral 300 have provided a substantial part of the clinical evidence analyzed in a meta-analysis of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy in mite-induced rhinitis and asthma. Safety and tolerability are very good, mild local reactions in the mouth being the most common side effect. This makes it feasible to carry out sublingual immunotherapy for the 3–5-year duration needed to achieve long-lasting tolerance to the specific allergen. The performance of Staloral 300 may provide optimal conditions for an effective and safe sublingual immunotherapy in patients with mite-induced respiratory allergy. PMID:22654506

  10. In planta expression of a mature Der p 1 allergen isolated from an Italian strain of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Gianpiero; Albertini, Emidio; Mari, Adriano; Palazzo, Paola; Porceddu, Andrea; Raggi, Lorenzo; Bolis, Luigi; Lancioni, Hovirag; Palomba, Antonella; Lucentini, Livia; Lanfaloni, Luisa; Marcucci, Francesco; Falcinelli, Mario; Panara, Fausto

    2012-06-01

    European (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) and American (Dermatophagoides farinae) house dust mite species are considered the most common causes of asthma and allergic symptoms worldwide. Der p 1 protein, one of the main allergens of D. pteronyssinus, is found in high concentration in mites faecal pellets, which can became easily airborne and, when inhaled, can cause perennial rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Here we report the isolation of the Der p 1 gene from an Italian strain of D. pteronyssinus and the PVX-mediated expression of its mature form (I-rDer p 1) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Human sera from characterized allergic patients were used for IgE binding inhibition assays to test the immunological reactivity of I-rDer p 1 produced in N. benthamiana plants. The binding properties of in planta produced I-rDer p 1 versus the IgE of patients sera were comparable to those obtained on Der p 1 preparation immobilized on a microarray. In this paper we provide a proof of concept for the production of an immunologically active form of Der p 1 using a plant viral vector. These results pave the way for the development of diagnostic allergy tests based on in planta produced allergens.

  11. Allergenic Dermatophagoides mites causing asthma among schoolchildren at Ain-Shams District, Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohammad K

    2011-04-01

    The present study was performed on house dust samples collected from ten homes of schoolchildren suffering from asthma at Ain-Shams district, over a period of two years (2008 & 2009). The data revealed that the total annual density of the two allergenic mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart) & Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes) was 202 individual mites with 22 asthmatic children in the first year, and individual mites increased to 268 with 36 asthmatic children in the second year. The two house dust mites were more abundant in bedrooms than in living ones (292 & 187 mites, respectively). The prevalence of the house dust mites on the mattresses and furniture were higher in bedrooms and living rooms than on the floors (340 & 140 mite, respectively). Winter season recorded the highest prevalence for both mites in the first and second year (87 & 110, respectively). Summer represented the lowest values (19 & 25, respectively).

  12. Optimal conditions for the removal of house dust mite, dog dander, and pollen allergens using mechanical laundry.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Young; Lee, In-Yong; Sohn, Jung-Ho; Lee, Yong-Won; Shin, Yoo-Seob; Yong, Tae-Soon; Hong, Chein-Soo; Park, Jung-Won

    2008-06-01

    Mechanical laundry is an effective tool for the environmental control of allergens, but the optimal conditions for removing allergens are not yet clear. To evaluate the optimal conditions of mechanical laundry for the removal of house dust mite (HDM), dog dander, and pollen allergens. The 4 washing modes of 30 degrees C (86 degrees F), 40 degrees C (104 degrees F), 60 degrees C (140 degrees F), and steam water (SW) with detergent were evaluated. Allergen removal performance was assayed using a 2-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or an ELISA inhibition test. Using the 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C washing modes, only 6.5% and 9.6% of Dermatophagoides farinae, respectively, were killed. However, using the 60 degrees C and SW washing modes, all HDMs were killed. The amounts of Der f 1 remaining after the 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, 60 degrees C, and SW washing modes were 26.8%, 2.4%, 1.3%, and 0.6%, respectively, with unmanipulated contaminated sheets. The effects of rinse on Der f 1 levels after the 30 degrees C washing were greater compared with those after the 40 degrees C, 60 degrees C, and SW modes. The amounts of Can f 1 in the extractions after washing were 0.3% to 1.3% for all modes, and all extracts, even without a rinse, did not inhibit specific IgE binding to dog allergens according to ELISA. The remaining pollen allergen levels after washing were lower in the 60 degrees C and SW modes than in the lower temperature modes. However, the levels did not differ among the various washing modes after rinsing once. Water temperature and number of rinses are critical factors for the removal of HDM, dog dander, and pollen allergens.

  13. [Allergenic activity of mites of the genus Dermatophagoides].

    PubMed

    Berzhets, V M; Petrova, N S; Sinitsyna, N E; Emel'ianova, O Iu; Kanchurin, A Kh

    1987-04-01

    The allergenic activities of the laboratory batches of D. farinae allergens have been studied by the methods of indirect mast-cell degranulation, neuroglial cytocrit, electrophoretic mobility changes. D. farinae allergens have been shown to possess specific activity. The method of changes in the electrophoretic mobility of sheep red blood cells has demonstrated that D. pteronyssimus and D. farinae allergens possess common allergenic properties.

  14. Generation and purification of monoclonal antibodies against Der f 2, a major allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huifang; Zhang, Kejun; Wang, Shan; Xu, Chenxia; Zou, Zehong; Tao, Ailin

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are needed for the quantitation of environmental allergens for precise diagnosis and immunotherapy. In this study, we produced and purified monoclonal antibodies against Der f 2, one of the major allergens of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farina, in order to develop an assay for the detection of this allergen. BALB/c mice were immunized four times with the protein Der f 2 together with an adjuvant after which splenocytes were collected and fused with SP2/0 (myeloma cells) in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG). The fused cells were selected in the presence of Hypoxanthine-Aminopterin-Thymidine (HAT) and then Hypoxanthine-Thymidine (HT) medium. Positive cells were screened with ELISA and subcloned by limited dilution at least three times to achieve stable mAb-producing clones. Four stable mAb-producing clones were obtained. One clone with IgG1 isotype and another with IgG2b isotype were chosen to produce large amounts of mAb by inoculation of the cells into the abdominal cavity of mice. Ascites were collected and the mAbs were purified using protein A affinity chromatography. Testing of the ascites by ELISA showed the titration of IgG1 and IgG2b to be higher than 1/10(6) dilution. The specificity of both antibodies was confirmed by immunoblotting. Thus, we produced two mAb clones against Der f 2 that can be used to create a precise quantitative method to identify allergen components in dust samples and facilitate further study in Der f 2 component-resolved diagnosis (CRD).

  15. [The isolation and characteristics of a chemically modified allergen (allergoid) from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus mites].

    PubMed

    Petrunov, B; Nikolov, G; Konstantinova, D; Antonova, T; Iankova, R

    1996-01-01

    Chemically modified allergens (allergoids) were obtained from house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus). The allergenicity of allergoids in comparison with commercial mite allergen was determined by the skin prick test and by the in vitro test of degranulation of passively sensitized rat mast cells. Changes in allergoid molecules were determined with the use of gel filtration in a column packed with Sephadex G-75, isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel, the determination of the concentration of end amino groups and the enzymatic activity of preparations, as well as HPLC. The possibility of using these methods for controlling the process of modification was studied. The results confirmed the fact that the modification on the allergenic preparation really occurred and the allergenic activity of allergoids was low.

  16. Domestic mite antigens in floor and airborne dust at workplaces in comparison to living areas: a new immunoassay to assess personal airborne allergen exposure.

    PubMed

    Sander, Ingrid; Zahradnik, Eva; Kraus, Gerhard; Mayer, Stefan; Neumann, Heinz-Dieter; Fleischer, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Allergens produced by domestic mites (DM) are among the most common allergic sensitizers and risk factors for asthma. To compare exposure levels between workplaces and living areas a new assay able to measure airborne DM antigen concentrations was developed. At workplaces and in living areas, 213 floor dust samples and 92 personal inhalable dust samples were collected. For sensitive quantification of DM antigens, a new enzyme immunoassay (EIA) based on polyclonal antibodies to Dermatophagoides farinae extract was developed. Reactivity of five house dust mite and four storage mite species was tested. All dust samples were tested with the new EIA and with the Der f 1 and Der p 1-EIAs (Indoor Biotechnologies, UK) which detect major allergens from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus by monoclonal antibodies. Samples below the detection limit in the DM-EIA were retested in an assay variant with a fluorogenic substrate (DM-FEIA). The newly developed DM-EIA detects antigens from all nine tested domestic mite species. It has a lower detection limit of 200 pg/ml of D.farinae protein, compared to 50 pg/ml for the DM-FEIA. DM antigens were detected by DM-EIA/FEIA in all floor dust and 80 (87%) of airborne samples. Der f 1 was found in 133 (62%) floor dust and in only 6 airborne samples, Der p 1 was found in 70 (33%) of floor samples and in one airborne sample. Der f 1 and DM concentrations were highly correlated. DM-antigens were significantly higher in inhalable airborne samples from textile recycling, bed feather filling, feed production, grain storage and cattle stables in comparison to living areas. A new sensitive EIA directed at DM antigens was developed. DM antigen quantities were well correlated to Der f 1 values and were measurable in the majority (87%) of airborne dust samples. Some workplaces had significantly higher DM antigen concentrations than living areas.

  17. Domestic Mite Antigens in Floor and Airborne Dust at Workplaces in Comparison to Living Areas: A New Immunoassay to Assess Personal Airborne Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Ingrid; Zahradnik, Eva; Kraus, Gerhard; Mayer, Stefan; Neumann, Heinz-Dieter; Fleischer, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Allergens produced by domestic mites (DM) are among the most common allergic sensitizers and risk factors for asthma. To compare exposure levels between workplaces and living areas a new assay able to measure airborne DM antigen concentrations was developed. Methods At workplaces and in living areas, 213 floor dust samples and 92 personal inhalable dust samples were collected. For sensitive quantification of DM antigens, a new enzyme immunoassay (EIA) based on polyclonal antibodies to Dermatophagoides farinae extract was developed. Reactivity of five house dust mite and four storage mite species was tested. All dust samples were tested with the new EIA and with the Der f 1 and Der p 1-EIAs (Indoor Biotechnologies, UK) which detect major allergens from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus by monoclonal antibodies. Samples below the detection limit in the DM-EIA were retested in an assay variant with a fluorogenic substrate (DM-FEIA). Results The newly developed DM-EIA detects antigens from all nine tested domestic mite species. It has a lower detection limit of 200 pg/ml of D.farinae protein, compared to 50 pg/ml for the DM-FEIA. DM antigens were detected by DM-EIA/FEIA in all floor dust and 80 (87%) of airborne samples. Der f 1 was found in 133 (62%) floor dust and in only 6 airborne samples, Der p 1 was found in 70 (33%) of floor samples and in one airborne sample. Der f 1 and DM concentrations were highly correlated. DM-antigens were significantly higher in inhalable airborne samples from textile recycling, bed feather filling, feed production, grain storage and cattle stables in comparison to living areas. Conclusions A new sensitive EIA directed at DM antigens was developed. DM antigen quantities were well correlated to Der f 1 values and were measurable in the majority (87%) of airborne dust samples. Some workplaces had significantly higher DM antigen concentrations than living areas. PMID:23285240

  18. The Indoor Level of House Dust Mite Allergen Is Associated with Severity of Atopic Dermatitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihyun; Lee, Sangwoon; Woo, Sook-young; Han, Youngshin; Lee, Jung Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Lim, In-Seok; Choi, Eung-Sang; Choi, Byoung-Whi; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lee, Sang-Il

    2013-01-01

    We attempted to investigate the correlation between the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) in children and the indoor level of house dust mite (HDM) allergens. Ninety-five patients (31.1 ± 19.5 months of age) with AD were enrolled in this study, and serum specific IgE against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae was measured. The severity of AD was assessed using the visual analogue scale on the same day of house dust collection. Living rooms and mattresses where the child usually slept were vacuumed for 2 minutes and concentrations of Der f 1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The skin symptoms were more severe in patients with Der f 1 concentrations in living room > 2 µg/g dust than ≤ 2 µg/g dust (P = 0.018). This difference was noted in AD patients without sensitization to HDM (P = 0.004), but not in patients with sensitization. There was no difference in symptom severity according to Der f 1 concentrations in mattresses (P = 0.062). The severity of skin symptoms is associated with indoor concentrations of HDM in children with AD, and it is likely to act as nonspecific irritants as well as allergens in AD skin lesions. PMID:23341715

  19. Identification of immunoglobulin E binding components of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae: allergenic relationships with the citrus red mite and house-dust mite.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Sim; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Youn-Keun; Lee, Soo-Keol; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Kim, You-Young

    2002-01-01

    The two-spotted mite (TSM) is commonly found on fruit trees, herbaceous plants, and greenhouse flowers. However, a recent investigation indicated that the sensitization rate to TSM was as high as that of house-dust mites (HDMs) in nonfarmers as well as in farmers working in orchards in this country. The aim of this study was to identify immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding components within TSM and to evaluate the allergenic relationship with the citrus red mite (CRM) and HDM. Sera were collected from eight patients who were not farmers and who had asthma with high serum-specific IgE to the TSM and from unexposed controls showing negative responses to the TSM on skin-prick test. Twelve percent sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis were applied. To evaluate allergenic relationships with HDMs and CRMs, two kinds of sera pools were used: one (A) showing positive responses to both TSMs and HDMs and the other (B) showing an isolated positive response to TSMs. ELISA inhibition tests using A and B pooled sera were conducted. The TSM-ELISA inhibition test using sera A showed significant inhibition with addition of TSMs and CRMs, partial inhibition with HDMs, and minimal inhibition with other inhalant allergens. The ELISA inhibition test using sera B showed significant inhibition with TSMs and CRMs and minimal inhibition was noted with HDMs as well as other inhalant allergens. Immunoblot analysis using individual sera showed seven IgE-binding components (75, 56, 47, 41, 37, 28, and 14 kDa) and two (75 and 14 kDa) of them were bound to IgE in > 50% of the sera tested. Seven IgE-binding components were identified within the TSM extract and two (75 and 14 kDa) could be considered major allergens. It is suggested that the TSM contains species-specific allergen in addition to shared allergens with CRMs and HDMs.

  20. [Screening of specific IgE-binding epitopes of dust mite allergens using short peptide array].

    PubMed

    Teng, Feixiang; Sun, Jinxia; Wang, Nan; Yu, Lili; Cui, Yubao

    2017-08-01

    Objective To screen the possible linear epitopes of major and mid-potency allergens in Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f1, Der f2, Der f4, Der f5 and Der f7). Methods Short peptides were synthesized on the basis of the amino acid sequences in active fraction of Der f1, Der f2, Der f4, Der f5 and Der f7. Each peptide had eight amino acids in length and seven of them were overlapped with each other. Put these peptides to the chip to build microarrays that would have immunoreaction with human serum IgE. Then the chips were scanned to analyze the data. Results A total of 1128 short peptides from the above five groups of allergens were synthesized, and the microarray chips were constructed. Six serum samples from children who were allergic to Dermatophagoides farinae were mixed and added to the microarray chips. The chips were scanned and analyzed, and the results showed that Der f1 had four epitopes (46-53aa, 71-78aa, 99-110aa and 179-186aa), that Der f2 had three epitopes (15-22aa, 80-89aa and 106-113aa), that Der f 4 had six epitopes (69-82aa, 107-116aa, 225-232aa, 261-268aa, 355-365aa and 483-496aa), that Der f5 had one epitope (102-109aa), and Der f7 had three epitopes (32-39aa, 52-64aa and 100-107aa). Conclusion We identified the linear epitopes of Der f1, Der f2, Der f4, Der f5 and Der f7.

  1. The determinants of dust mite allergen and its relationship to the prevalence of symptoms of asthma in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Wickens, Kristin; de Bruyne, Jessie; Calvo, Mario; Choon-Kook, Sam; Jayaraj, G; Lai, Christopher K W; Lane, Juliette; Maheshwari, Rameshchandra; Mallol, Javier; Nishima, Sankei; Purdie, Gordon; Siebers, Rob; Sukumaran, Thevaruparambil; Trakultivakorn, Muthita; Crane, Julian

    2004-02-01

    The role that house dust mites play in the primary causation of asthma is controversial. Approximately thirty-six 10-yr-old children in each of 10 centres in the Asia-Pacific region participated. Researchers collected dust from mattresses and living room floors using standardized procedures. Der p1 and Der f1 were analysed using a double monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Geometric mean allergen levels were calculated for each centre. An ecological analysis was conducted to show the regression of the geometric mean allergen level, using the highest household level, against asthma symptom and severity prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, Phase I. Among children aged 13-14 yr, the change in asthma symptom prevalence was associated with per unit change in Der p1 microg/g (1.08, 95% CI 0.10-2.06) and Der 1 microg/g (Der p1 + Der f1) (0.64, 95% CI 0.02-1.26). The change in having four or more attacks of asthma in the last 12 months was associated with per unit change in Der p 1 microg/g (0.29, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.60) and Der 1 microg/g (0.20, 95% CI 0.01-0.38). There was no effect for total Der p1 or Der f1 (total or microg/g). Among children aged 6-7 yr, neither allergen was related to symptoms or severity prevalence. While our findings suggest that Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus may have a role in the primary causation of asthma, the complexity of this association reinforces the need for prospective studies.

  2. The distribution of dust mite allergen in the houses of patients with asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Tovey, E.R.; Chapman, M.D.; Wells, C.W.; Platts-Mills, T.A.

    1981-11-01

    Using an inhibition radioimmunoassay for the major allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (antigen P1), we studied the distribution of this dust allergen in the houses of patients with asthma. Both bed and floor dust samples contained a wide range of antigen P1, 100 to 100,000 ng/g of fine dust, and this concentration correlated well with the number of mite bodies (r . 0.81, p less than 0.001). We were unable to detect antigen P1 in the air of undisturbed rooms. However, during domestic activity, between 1 and 30 ng were collected on a filter than sampled air for 45 min at 17 L/min. Using a cascade impactor it was shown that greater than 80% of the airborne antigen P1 was associated with particles greater than 10 mu in diameter. Some of the particles containing allergen could be identified because they formed precipitin rings when impacted onto agarose containing rabbit antimite antiserum. These particles had the physical appearance of mite feces, which are the major source of antigen P1 in mite cultures. The results suggested that natural exposure to this dust allergen allows occasional fecal particles to enter the lungs and that these particles contain very concentrated allergen.

  3. No Concentration Decrease of House Dust Mite Allergens With Rising Altitude in Alpine Regions.

    PubMed

    Grafetstätter, Carina; Prossegger, Johanna; Braunschmid, Herbert; Sanovic, Renata; Hahne, Penelope; Pichler, Christina; Thalhamer, Josef; Hartl, Arnulf

    2016-07-01

    Several studies over the past 4 decades have indicated a significant reduction in house dust mite (HDM) and HDM allergen concentration in areas higher than 1,500 m above sea level. These have served as basis of allergen avoidance therapies for HDM allergy and asthma. However, modern construction techniques used in the insulation, heating, and glazing of buildings as well as global warming have changed the environmental parameters for HDM living conditions. The present study revisits the paradigm of decreasing HDM allergen concentrations with increasing altitude in the alpine region of Germany and Austria. A total of 122 dust samples from different abodes (hotels, privates and mountain huts) at different altitudes (400-2,600 m) were taken, and concentrations of HDM allergens were analyzed. Humidity and temperature conditions, and numerous indoor environmental parameters such as fine dust, type of flooring, age of building, and frequency of cleaning were determined. HDM allergen concentrations did not significantly change with increasing altitude or relative humidity. At the level of indoor parameters, correlations could be found for different flooring types and the concentration of HDM allergens. In contrast to the widespread view of the relationship between altitude and HDM allergen concentrations, clinically relevant concentrations of HDM allergens could be detected in high-lying alpine regions in Austria and Germany. These results indicate that improvement in conditions of asthmatic patients sensitized against HDMs during a stay at high altitude can no longer be ascribed to decreased levels of HDM allergens, instead, other mechanisms may trigger the beneficial effect.

  4. Attempting to control mite allergens with mechanical ventilation and dehumidification in British houses.

    PubMed

    Niven, R; Fletcher, A M; Pickering, A C; Custovic, A; Sivour, J B; Preece, A R; Oldham, L A; Francis, H C

    1999-05-01

    Allergen avoidance is of considerable interest in the treatment and even prevention of asthma. Attempts to control house dust mites have included environmental manipulation in homes in an attempt to reduce humidity below a level that favors mite survival. This appears to have some benefit in Scandinavia, but a previous attempt with mechanical ventilation heat pump recovery (MVHR) units in the UK failed to achieve the desired results. We report a study using an additional central dehumidification modification of the MVHR (MVHRcd) in an attempt to reduce allergen levels in houses of asthmatic subjects. Ten houses of asthmatic patients allergic to dust mites and 10 architectural control houses were studied. The active houses were fitted with an MVHRcd unit in November/December 1994 and activated in January 1995. The active and control houses were monitored continuously for internal temperature and humidity by using digital sensors in the asthmatic and control bedrooms. Dust samples were collected to determine allergen levels at baseline (January 1994) and 3, 6, 9, and 15 months after switching on the units. The winter seasonal average humidity fell from 50% relative humidity (RH) in control bedrooms to 37% RH in asthmatic bedrooms compared with 72% RH in the ambient air as measured on the intake of the MVHRcd systems. There was no corresponding change in seasonal mean temperature within the houses. Although the temperature and humidity weekly and seasonal means remained below the study target of 45% RH or 7 g/kg absolute humidity at 21 degrees C, there were transient rises in humidity detected by the sensors in the houses with MVHRcd systems. Allergen levels fell both in active and control houses during the study period, but there was no significant advantage gained from the installation of MVHRcd systems. The MVHRcd system failed to confer a benefit in terms of mite allergen reduction despite apparently adequate control of temperature and humidity.

  5. Further studies in allergenic identity between house dust and the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, 1961.

    PubMed

    Morita, Y; Miyamoto, T; Horiuchi, Y; Oshima, S; Katsuhata, A

    1975-12-01

    The sera from 99 Japanese asthmatic subjects were studied for the allergenic similarity between house dust and the House-dust Mite, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, 1961. A close correlation (correlation coefficient 0.92, P less than 0.01) was obtained between house dust and the mite with the radioallergosorbent test (RAST). High correlation was not noted between house dust and other allergens such as smoky brown cockroach, Periplaneta fuliginosa, Aspergillus, book lice, Liposcelis bostricophilus, Cheyletus malaccensis and Tribolium confusum. IgE antibody to the mite reduced significantly after the incubation of the sera with house dust and IgE antibody to house dust reduced markedly after the incubation of the sera with the mite. These results further support the view that the mite is the most important allergenic component in house dust.

  6. Allergen stabilities and compatibilities in immunotherapy mixtures that contain cat, dog, dust mite, and cockroach extracts.

    PubMed

    Grier, Thomas J; Hall, Dawn M; Duncan, Elizabeth A; Gada, Satyen M

    2015-12-01

    Indoor allergen mixtures that contain cat, dog, dust mite, and cockroach extracts are commonly used in allergy clinics for subcutaneous immunotherapy, but product-specific stabilities and mixing compatibilities in these complex patient formulas have not been determined. To assess the recoveries of cat, dog epithelia, dog dander, dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach mix allergen activities in 5 component mixtures and 1:10 (vol/vol) dilutions stored for up to 12 months. Concentrated stock mixtures, 10-fold dilutions of these mixtures in human serum albumin-saline diluent, and analogous single-extract controls were analyzed for major allergen concentrations (cat Fel d 1, dog dander Can f 1) and multiallergen IgE-binding potencies (dog epithelia, D farinae, cockroach mix) after storage for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at 2°C to 8°C. The selected immunoassays were specific for individual target extracts in the 5-component mixtures and exhibited analytical sensitivities sufficient for evaluation of both the concentrated and diluted indoor allergen formulas. All control samples except diluted cockroach extract had near-complete stabilities during refrigerated storage. Mixtures that contained cat, dog epithelia, dog dander, and D farinae extracts exhibited favorable mixing compatibilities in 1:1 (vol/vol) concentrates (47.5% glycerin) and 1:10 (vol/vol) dilutions (4.75% glycerin), relative to corresponding control sample reactivities. Cockroach allergens in both 1:1 (vol/vol) and 1:10 (vol/vol) concentrations were stabilized significantly by mixing with the other 4 indoor allergen extracts. Extracts in mixtures that contained 5 common sources of indoor allergens possess favorable stabilities and mixing compatibilities and support the practice of combining these products in the same patient treatment formulations for subcutaneous immunotherapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Tuttle, Steven C; Nelson, Morgan C; Bradshaw, Rebecca K; Hoybjerg, Taylor G; Johnson, Julene B; Kruman, Bryce A; Orton, Taylor S; Cook, Ryan B; Eggett, Dennis L; Weber, K Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan-Apr) and summer (July-Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction.

  8. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, James D.; Tuttle, Steven C.; Nelson, Morgan C.; Bradshaw, Rebecca K.; Hoybjerg, Taylor G.; Johnson, Julene B.; Kruman, Bryce A.; Orton, Taylor S.; Cook, Ryan B.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Weber, K. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan–Apr) and summer (July–Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction. PMID:26808528

  9. Characterization and analysis of a cDNA coding for the group 29b (Der f 29b) allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianli; Wang, Hui; Li, Meng; Liang, Zhilin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to acquire a recombinant allergen of Der f 29b by cloning and expression, and to identify its immunogenicity. In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, cloned and expressed based on the Der f 29b gene. The molecular characteristics of Der f 29b was analyzed by the procedures of Bioinformatics. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 29b protein was examined by western-blotting, ELISA, Immune inhibitory assays and skin prick test. The gene of Der f 29b consisted of 495 bases, derived from its nucleic acid sequence and encoded 164 amino acids. Positive responses to r-Der f 29b were shown in 24.3% by means of skin prick testing with 37 DM-allergic patients. The immunoblotting assays demonstrated that serum IgE from allergic patients reacted to r-Der f 29b protein. The IgE reactivity of r-Der f 29b in the serum from r-Der f 29b allergic patients was increased by more than 2 folds compared with healthy subjects. Immune inhibition assays showed that the IgE cross-reactivity was between r-Der f 29b and DME. Bioinformatics analysis predicted four peptides (13-17, 67-71, 104-109 and 147-155) as the B cell epitopes and five peptides (5-14, 16-31, 35-43, 52-63 and 87-97) as the T cell epitopes. Secondary structure prediction of Der f 29b with software PSIPRED identified two α-helices and seven β-sheets in Der f 29b. In conclusion, Derf 29b protein was identified as a novel subtype of dust mite allergen.

  10. Characterization and analysis of a cDNA coding for the group 29b (Der f 29b) allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jianli; Wang, Hui; Li, Meng; Liang, Zhilin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to acquire a recombinant allergen of Der f 29b by cloning and expression, and to identify its immunogenicity. In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, cloned and expressed based on the Der f 29b gene. The molecular characteristics of Der f 29b was analyzed by the procedures of Bioinformatics. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 29b protein was examined by western-blotting, ELISA, Immune inhibitory assays and skin prick test. The gene of Der f 29b consisted of 495 bases, derived from its nucleic acid sequence and encoded 164 amino acids. Positive responses to r-Der f 29b were shown in 24.3% by means of skin prick testing with 37 DM-allergic patients. The immunoblotting assays demonstrated that serum IgE from allergic patients reacted to r-Der f 29b protein. The IgE reactivity of r-Der f 29b in the serum from r-Der f 29b allergic patients was increased by more than 2 folds compared with healthy subjects. Immune inhibition assays showed that the IgE cross-reactivity was between r-Der f 29b and DME. Bioinformatics analysis predicted four peptides (13-17, 67-71, 104-109 and 147-155) as the B cell epitopes and five peptides (5-14, 16-31, 35-43, 52-63 and 87-97) as the T cell epitopes. Secondary structure prediction of Der f 29b with software PSIPRED identified two α-helices and seven β-sheets in Der f 29b. In conclusion, Derf 29b protein was identified as a novel subtype of dust mite allergen. PMID:27158348

  11. Group 1 Allergen Genes in Two Species of House Dust Mites, Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae): Direct Sequencing, Characterization and Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Rubaba Hamid; Klimov, Pavel B; Inam, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Farhana Riaz; OConnor, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Group 1 allergens of Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1) and D. pteronyssinus (Der p 1) dominate overall allergic responses in house dust mite allergy patients. The need for accurate identification and characterization of representative variants of group 1 allergens in any given geographic locality has been emphasized for development of appropriate allergen extracts. Regional amino acid sequence polymorphism has been described but the extent of this polymorphism is not well understood. Such data are completely absent for the USA and many other countries. Most previous studies used cDNA libraries generated by reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR) and/or primers amplifying shorter fragments of this gene. Using novel species-specific primers and direct PCR, we document group 1 allergen gene sequence polymorphism in populations of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus from the USA and Pakistan. We report two novel introns (nt pos 87 and 291) in both species, and the absence of intron 3 in Der p 1. Thirteen silent and one novel non-synonymous mutation (Tryptophan W197 to Arginine R197) were detected in D. farinae. The potential medical significance of the latter mutation is discussed. Two haplotypes of the Der f 1 gene were identified, haplotype 1 (63%) was more frequent than haplotype 2 (18%). Polymorphism in Der f 1 displayed geographical localization, since both haplotypes were present in mite populations from Pakistan whereas haplotype 1 was observed only in the USA. In Der p 1, a silent mutation at nt (aa) position 1011(149) and four non-synonymous mutations at positions 589(50), 935(124), 971(136), 1268(215) were observed. These mutations were reported from many other geographic regions, suggesting that polymorphism in the Der p 1 gene is panmictic. The extent of polymorphism in both genes is substantially lower than that reported previously (0.10-0.16% vs 0.31-0.49%), indicating the need for careful evaluation of potential polymerase errors in studies utilizing RT-PCR.

  12. Prevalence of sensitization to the predatory mite Amblyseius cucumeris as a new occupational allergen in horticulture.

    PubMed

    Groenewoud, G C M; de Graaf in 't Veld, C; vVan Oorschot-van Nes, A J; de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; van Toorenenbergen, A W; Burdorf, A; de Groot, H; Gerth van Wijk, R

    2002-07-01

    Protection against thrips, a common pest in bell pepper horticulture is effectively possible without pesticides by using the commercially available predatory mite Amblyzeius cucumeris (Ac). The prevalence of sensitization to Ac among exposed greenhouse employees and its clinical relevance was studied. Four hundred and seventytwo employees were asked to fill in a questionnaire and were tested on location. Next to RAST, skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed with common inhalant allergens, the storage mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Tp) which serves as a temporary food source during the cultivation process and Ac. Furthermore, nasal challenge tests with Ac were carried out in 23 sensitized employees. SPTs positive to Ac were found in 109 employees (23%). Work-related symptoms were reported by 76.1%. Sensitization to Tp was found in 62 employees of whom 48 were also sensitized to Ac. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergy to inhalant allergens appeared to be an important risk factor for sensitization to Ac. Employees with rhinitis symptoms showed a significantly higher response to all Ac doses during the nasal challenge test compared with employees without rhinitis symptoms. The predatory mite Ac is a new occupational allergen in horticulture which can cause an IgE-mediated allergy in exposed employees. It is biologically active on the mucous membranes of the nose and therefore clinically relevant for the development of work-related symptoms.

  13. No Concentration Decrease of House Dust Mite Allergens With Rising Altitude in Alpine Regions

    PubMed Central

    Grafetstätter, Carina; Prossegger, Johanna; Braunschmid, Herbert; Sanovic, Renata; Hahne, Penelope; Pichler, Christina; Thalhamer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several studies over the past 4 decades have indicated a significant reduction in house dust mite (HDM) and HDM allergen concentration in areas higher than 1,500 m above sea level. These have served as basis of allergen avoidance therapies for HDM allergy and asthma. However, modern construction techniques used in the insulation, heating, and glazing of buildings as well as global warming have changed the environmental parameters for HDM living conditions. The present study revisits the paradigm of decreasing HDM allergen concentrations with increasing altitude in the alpine region of Germany and Austria. Methods A total of 122 dust samples from different abodes (hotels, privates and mountain huts) at different altitudes (400-2,600 m) were taken, and concentrations of HDM allergens were analyzed. Humidity and temperature conditions, and numerous indoor environmental parameters such as fine dust, type of flooring, age of building, and frequency of cleaning were determined. Results HDM allergen concentrations did not significantly change with increasing altitude or relative humidity. At the level of indoor parameters, correlations could be found for different flooring types and the concentration of HDM allergens. Conclusions In contrast to the widespread view of the relationship between altitude and HDM allergen concentrations, clinically relevant concentrations of HDM allergens could be detected in high-lying alpine regions in Austria and Germany. These results indicate that improvement in conditions of asthmatic patients sensitized against HDMs during a stay at high altitude can no longer be ascribed to decreased levels of HDM allergens, instead, other mechanisms may trigger the beneficial effect. PMID:27126724

  14. Stratum corneum removal facilitates experimental sensitization to mite allergens in atopic dogs.

    PubMed

    Olivry, Thierry; Wofford, Jessica; Paps, Judy S; Dunston, Stanley M

    2011-04-01

    In humans with atopic dermatitis and in mouse models of IgE-mediated allergic diseases, evidence is mounting that the stratum corneum (SC) provides an important barrier against environmental allergens. At this time, it is not known whether the SC has a similar role in dogs, especially in those with atopic dermatitis. The objectives of this pilot study were to determine whether SC removal led to earlier and stronger sensitization of atopic dogs to Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) house dust mites. Five Maltese-beagle atopic (MBA) dogs were sensitized epicutaneously after the SC was removed with ten tape strips (TS group), while sensitization was done without tape strips in five other MBA dogs (nontape stripping; NTS group). During this 16 week study, sensitization was assessed with allergen-specific IgE serology, intradermal testing with Df allergens and determination of stimulation indices of blood mononuclear cells cultured with Df and stained for CD4 and the activation markers CD25 or CD30. Compared with dogs from the NTS group, those of the TS group exhibited earlier rises in Df-specific IgE serum levels, usually had higher allergen-specific IgE titres, showed higher intradermal test reactivity and had earlier increases and higher percentages of CD25- or CD30-positive activated allergen-specific peripheral CD4-positive T lymphocytes. These observations implicate a role of the SC as a barrier limiting sensitization to exogenous allergens in this experimental atopic dog model.

  15. Plasma cluster ions decrease the antigenicity of mite allergens and suppress atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Orita, Kumi; Yamate, Yurika; Sato, Eisuke F; Okano, Hiroaki; Nishikawa, Kazuo; Inoue, Masayasu

    2011-07-01

    Mite antigens play important roles in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). We recently developed a novel air cleaner (KC-850U) using charged plasma cluster ions to eliminate a variety of allergens from house environments. The present work demonstrates the ability of KC-850U to decrease the symptoms of AD induced by mite allergens. Pooled sera from the conventional NC/Nga mice, and AD model animals, were incubated with varying concentrations of the control and KC-850U-pretreated allergens extracted from mite. The incubated mixtures were transferred to wells coated with intact allergens and subjected to ELISA to measure the amounts of immunoglobulin E (IgE) bound to the wells. Kinetic analysis revealed that exposure of mite extracts to plasma cluster ions destructed about 95% of the epitopes of the allergens. The specific pathogen-free and conventional mice were housed in rooms equipped with either KC-850U or a standard air cleaner and observed their dermal symptom for 2 weeks. Dermatological examination revealed the AD symptom of the conventional mice housed in a room equipped with an air cleaner. In contrast, the symptoms which became apparent during the experiments were suppressed remarkably exposing mice to plasma cluster ions. These observations suggested that plasma cluster ions generated by KC-850U destroyed the epitopes of mite allergens and suppressed the symptoms of AD in the mice.

  16. Lack of cross-reactivity between the Bacillus thuringiensis derived protein Cry1F in maize grain and dust mite Der p7 protein with human sera positive for Der p7-IgE.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Bardina, Luda; Cressman, Robert F; Mattsson, Joel L; Sampson, Hugh A

    2006-03-01

    Cry1F protein, derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, is effective at controlling lepidopteran pests and a synthetic Cry1F transgene was transferred into maize. For the safety assessment of genetically modified food crops, the allergenic potential of the introduced novel trait(s) is evaluated. Because no single parameter is currently predictive of allergic potential, a 'weight of evidence' approach has been proposed. As part of this assessment, the amino acid (aa) sequence of the Cry1F protein was compared to a database of known allergens using recommended criteria. The Cry1F protein did not show significant similarity or a match of eight contiguous identical aa with any allergen. However, a single six contiguous aa match was identified between Cry1F and the Der p7 protein of the dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. To investigate whether Cry1F was cross-reactive with Der p7, sera from 10 dust mite allergic patients containing Der p 7-specific IgE antibody were used to compare IgE-specific binding. No evidence of cross-reactivity was observed between Cry1F and Der p7. This study provides in vitro IgE sera screening data, that when considered in the context of other bioinformatic data [Hileman R.E., Silvanovich, A., Goodman R.E., Rice E.A., Holleschak G., Astwood J.D., Hefle S.L., 2002. Bioinformatic methods for allergenicity assessment using a comprehensive allergen database. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 128, 280-291; Stadler, M.B., Stadler, B.M., 2003. Allergenicity prediction by protein sequence. FASEB J. 17, 1141-1143.], adds further evidence arguing against the use of a six contiguous identical amino acid search to identify potential cross-reactive allergens. Cry1F is heat labile, rapidly hydrolyzed in an in vitro pepsin resistance assay, not glycosylated and not from an allergenic source. Taken together, these data indicate a lack of allergenic concern for Cry1F.

  17. Citrus red mite (Panonychus citri) is the most common sensitizing allergen of asthma and rhinitis in citrus farmers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y K; Son, J W; Kim, H Y; Park, H S; Lee, M H; Cho, S H; Min, K U; Kim, Y Y

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate type I hypersensitivity to citrus red mite (Panonychus citri), its prevalence, and relationship to respiratory dysfunction, a cross-sectional survey was performed among citrus farmers on Cheju Island, Korea. Questionnaires, and skin prick test responses to 11 common inhalant allergens and citrus red mite were performed in 181 citrus farmers, and serum-specific IgE antibodies to citrus red mite were measured by ELISA in sera of 123 subjects. To determine airway hyperresponsiveness, methacholine bronchial provocation tests were performed in 55 subjects who complained of recurrent lower respiratory symptoms. The prevalence of asthma-based on presence of asthmatic symptoms on the questionnaire and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, and allergic rhinitis based on presence of nasal symptoms on the questionnaire and positive skin-test response were 12.1% and 19.3%, respectively. The positive rate of skin responses to one or more of 11 common inhalant allergens excluding citrus red mite was 17.1%, and if citrus red mite was included, 25.9% of farmers had positive responses. On skin prick tests, citrus red mite (16.5%) was the most common sensitizing allergen, followed by cockroach (11.0%), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (9.9%), and D. farinae (9.3%). Among farmers with asthma and allergic rhinitis, the positive skin responses to citrus red mite were noted in 54.5 and 68.5%, respectively. Serum-specific IgE antibodies to citrus red mite were detected in 45 farmers (36. 5%) of the 123 tested, and there was significant correlation between specific IgE level and weal (A/H ratio) to citrus red mite (r = 0.57, P < 0.001). The prevalence of asthma was higher in subjects with positive skin responses or high serum-specific IgE antibodies to citrus red mite than in those without skin response or serum specific IgE (P < 0.05, respectively). Citrus red mite is the most important allergen in citrus farmers with asthma and rhinitis in which causative allergen has

  18. House dust mite allergen levels in university student accommodation in Dunedin.

    PubMed

    McRae, W M; Flannery, E M; Cowan, J O; McLachlan, C R; Herbison, G P; Siebers, R W; Crane, J; Wong, C S

    2002-07-02

    To quantify the levels of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p1) in different university student accommodation in Dunedin, and to assess relationships with housing characteristics and housekeeping practices. Dwellings (n=178) were randomly selected from a database of first year university students in Dunedin. Dust samples were collected from both bed and the bedroom floor by standardised procedures. Der p1 levels were quantified by monoclonal antibody ELISA techniques. Details of housing characteristics, occupancy and housekeeping practices were obtained by questionnaire. Geometric mean (95% confidence intervals) Der p1 allergen levels from bedroom floors were: family homes (n=61) 5.58 (3.73-8.36) microg/g; student flats (n=43) 3.89 (2.49-6.07) microg/g; halls of residence (n=74) 0.26 (0.16-0.43) microg/g. Der p1 allergen levels from beds were: family homes 15.85 (9.78-26.57) microg/g; student flats 10.5 (6.41-17.19) microg/g; halls of residence 3.25 (2.33-4.54) microg/g. In all accommodation lower levels of Der p1 were found on the floor compared to the bed (p<0.005). Halls of residence had significantly lower Der p1 levels in both bed and floor (p<0.0005). Higher levels of Der p1 were associated with longer duration of occupancy, a history of condensation or mold in the accommodation, failure to use a hot wash for sheets, mattress age greater than one year and infrequent vacuuming of the bedroom floor. Wide variations in Der p1 levels were observed between different forms of student accommodation. Higher levels of Der p1 are found in family homes than in student flats or halls of residence.

  19. House dust-mite allergen exposure is associated with serum specific IgE but not with respiratory outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bakolis, I; Heinrich, J; Zock, J P; Norbäck, D; Svanes, C; Chen, C M; Accordini, S; Verlato, G; Olivieri, M; Jarvis, D

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to house dust has been associated with asthma in adults, and this is commonly interpreted as a direct immunologic response to dust-mite allergens in those who are IgE sensitized to house dust-mite. Mattress house dust-mite concentrations were measured in a population-based sample of 2890 adults aged between 27 and 56 years living in 22 centers in 10 countries. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to explore the association of respiratory symptoms with house dust-mite concentrations, adjusting for individual and household confounders. There was no overall association of respiratory outcomes with measured house dust-mite concentrations, even in those who reported they had symptoms on exposure to dust and those who had physician-diagnosed asthma. However, there was a positive association of high serum specific IgE levels to HDM (>3.5 kUA /l) with mattress house dust-mite concentrations and a negative association of sensitization to cat with increasing house dust-mite concentrations. In conclusion, there was no evidence that respiratory symptoms in adults were associated with exposure to house dust-mite allergen in the mattress, but an association of house mite with strong sensitization was observed.

  20. Population growth and allergen accumulation of Dermatophagoides farinae cultured at 20 and 25 °C.

    PubMed

    Yella, Lakshmi; Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G

    2013-05-01

    House dust mites are cultured to obtain mite allergen material to produce allergen extracts (vaccines) for diagnostic tests, immunotherapy, and research purposes. Research laboratories and manufacturers have their own culturing protocols to grow these mites and these may vary between manufacturers and between research laboratories. The temperature at which mites are cultured may influence the allergen composition, allergen ratio of Der 1: Der 2 and endotoxin levels in the extracts produced from these cultured mites. In order to produce standardized and uniform extracts, across the industry and in various research laboratories, the influence of culture conditions must be understood. Here we determined how temperature affects mite population growth rates, dynamics of allergen production, Der f 1: Der f 2 ratio and endotoxin levels in extracts made from Dermatophagoides farinae mites cultured at 20 and 25 °C. We found that Der f 1 and Der f 2 accumulated exponentially in the cultures with Der f 1 accumulating faster than Der f 2. When the live mite populations peaked, the ratios for Der f 1: Der f 2 were 4.1 and 4.7 for cultures reared at 20 and 25 °C, respectively. Most of the Der f 1 and Der f 2 allergen in whole cultures is not in mite bodies and is lost when the mite material is washed. Thus, if the ratio of Der f 1 and Der f 2 is an important consideration for commercial and research extracts, then the temperature at which the mites are cultured and the collection procedure are important considerations.

  1. Retagging Identifies Dendritic Cell-specific Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-3 (ICAM3)-grabbing Non-integrin (DC-SIGN) Protein as a Novel Receptor for a Major Allergen from House Dust Mite*

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Mohamed; Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Mahdavi, Jafar; Shakib, Farouk; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to play a key role in the initiation and maintenance of immune responses to microbial pathogens as well as to allergens, but the exact mechanisms of their involvement in allergic responses and Th2 cell differentiation have remained elusive. Using retagging, we identified DC-SIGN as a novel receptor involved in the initial recognition and uptake of the major house dust mite and dog allergens Der p 1 and Can f 1, respectively. To confirm this, we used gene silencing to specifically inhibit DC-SIGN expression by DCs followed by allergen uptake studies. Binding and uptake of Der p 1 and Can f 1 allergens was assessed by ELISA and flow cytometry. Intriguingly, our data showed that silencing DC-SIGN on DCs promotes a Th2 phenotype in DC/T cell co-cultures. These findings should lead to better understanding of the molecular basis of allergen-induced Th2 cell polarization and in doing so paves the way for the rational design of novel intervention strategies by targeting allergen receptors on innate immune cells or their carbohydrate counterstructures on allergens. PMID:22205703

  2. Cross-reactivity between storage and dust mites and between mites and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Arlian, Larry G; Morgan, Marjorie S; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn L; Sharra, Denada

    2009-02-01

    Many patients have sensitivities to multiple species of storage and house dust mites. It is not clear if this is because patients have multiple sensitivities to species-specific mite allergens or if these mites share many cross-reacting allergens. Our objective was to further define the cross-allergenicity between several species of storage and house dust mites using crossed-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE), immunoblotting, and ELISA. CIE and CRIE reactions revealed that storage mites shared two cross-antigenic molecules and one of these bound IgE in a serum pool from mite allergic patients. Antibody in anti-sera built to each species of mite recognized many SDS-PAGE resolved proteins of other mite species and this suggested the potential for other cross-reactive allergens. Among patient sera, IgE bound to many different proteins but few had IgE that bound to a protein with common molecular weights across the mite species and this suggested mostly species-specific allergens. Antiserum built to each mite species precipitated one protein in shrimp extracts that bound anti-Der p 10 (tropomyosin) and IgE in the serum pool. Anti-Der p 10 showed strong binding to shrimp tropomyosin but very little to any of the mite proteins. ELISA showed the mite extracts contained very little tropomyosin. The storage and dust mites investigated contain mostly species-specific allergens and very small amounts of the pan-allergen tropomyosin compared to shrimp and snail.

  3. Asthma, Airway Symptoms and Rhinitis in Office Workers in Malaysia: Associations with House Dust Mite (HDM) Allergy, Cat Allergy and Levels of House Dust Mite Allergens in Office Dust.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fang Lee; Hashim, Zailina; Than, Leslie Thian Lung; Md Said, Salmiah; Hisham Hashim, Jamal; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695). The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM) and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH) were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus) and Der f 1 (from D. farinae) allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035), any airway symptoms (p= 0.032), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005), current asthma (p= 0.007), current rhinitis (p= 0.021) and rhinoconjuctivitis (p< 0.001). Cat allergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021), wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033), any airway symptoms (p= 0.034), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010), current asthma (p= 0.020) and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042). Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033) especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (p< 0.001) and inversely correlated with RH (p< 0.001). In conclusion, HDM and cat allergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness.

  4. Asthma, Airway Symptoms and Rhinitis in Office Workers in Malaysia: Associations with House Dust Mite (HDM) Allergy, Cat Allergy and Levels of House Dust Mite Allergens in Office Dust

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Fang Lee; Hashim, Zailina; Than, Leslie Thian Lung; Md Said, Salmiah; Hisham Hashim, Jamal; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695). The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM) and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH) were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus) and Der f 1 (from D. farinae) allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035), any airway symptoms (p= 0.032), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005), current asthma (p= 0.007), current rhinitis (p= 0.021) and rhinoconjuctivitis (p< 0.001). Cat allergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021), wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033), any airway symptoms (p= 0.034), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010), current asthma (p= 0.020) and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042). Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033) especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (p< 0.001) and inversely correlated with RH (p< 0.001). In conclusion, HDM and cat allergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness. PMID:25923543

  5. Respiratory allergen from house dust mite is present in human milk and primes for allergic sensitization in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Macchiaverni, P; Rekima, A; Turfkruyer, M; Mascarell, L; Airouche, S; Moingeon, P; Adel-Patient, K; Condino-Neto, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Prescott, S L; Tulic, M K; Verhasselt, V

    2014-03-01

    There is an urgent need to identify environmental risk and protective factors in early life for the prevention of allergy. Our study demonstrates the presence of respiratory allergen from house dust mite, Der p 1, in human breast milk. Der p 1 in milk is immunoreactive, present in similar amounts as dietary egg antigen, and can be found in breast milk from diverse regions of the world. In a mouse model of asthma, oral exposure to Der p through breast milk strongly promotes sensitization rather than protect the progeny as we reported with egg antigen. These data highlight that antigen administration to the neonate through the oral route may contribute to child allergic sensitization and have important implications for the design of studies assessing early oral antigen exposure for allergic disease prevention. The up-to-now unknown worldwide presence of respiratory allergen in maternal milk allows new interpretation and design of environmental control epidemiological studies for allergic disease prevention. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Enzymatic activity and immunoreactivity of Aca s 4, an alpha-amylase allergen from the storage mite Acarus siro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Enzymatic allergens of storage mites that contaminate stored food products are poorly characterized. We describe biochemical and immunological properties of the native alpha-amylase allergen Aca s 4 from Acarus siro, a medically important storage mite. Results A. siro produced a high level of alpha-amylase activity attributed to Aca s 4. This enzyme was purified and identified by protein sequencing and LC-MS/MS analysis. Aca s 4 showed a distinct inhibition pattern and an unusual alpha-amylolytic activity with low sensitivity to activation by chloride ions. Homology modeling of Aca s 4 revealed a structural change in the chloride-binding site that may account for this activation pattern. Aca s 4 was recognized by IgE from house dust mite-sensitive patients, and potential epitopes for cross-reactivity with house dust mite group 4 allergens were found. Conclusions We present the first protein-level characterization of a group 4 allergen from storage mites. Due to its high production and IgE reactivity, Aca s 4 is potentially relevant to allergic hypersensitivity. PMID:22292590

  7. The Proline-Rich Motif of the proDer p 3 Allergen Propeptide Is Crucial for Protease-Protease Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Dumez, Marie-Eve; Herman, Julie; Campisi, Vincenzo; Bouaziz, Ahlem; Rosu, Frédéric; Luxen, André; Vandenberghe, Isabel; de Pauw, Edwin; Frère, Jean-Marie; Matagne, André; Chevigné, Andy; Galleni, Moreno

    2013-01-01

    The majority of proteases are synthesized in an inactive form, termed zymogen, which consists of a propeptide and a protease domain. The propeptide is commonly involved in the correct folding and specific inhibition of the enzyme. The propeptide of the house dust mite allergen Der p 3, NPILPASPNAT, contains a proline-rich motif (PRM), which is unusual for a trypsin-like protease. By truncating the propeptide or replacing one or all of the prolines in the non-glycosylated zymogen with alanine(s), we demonstrated that the full-length propeptide is not required for correct folding and thermal stability and that the PRM is important for the resistance of proDer p 3 to undesired proteolysis when the protein is expressed in Pichia pastoris. Additionally, we followed the maturation time course of proDer p 3 by coupling a quenched-flow assay to mass spectrometry analysis. This approach allowed to monitor the evolution of the different species and to determine the steady-state kinetic parameters for activation of the zymogen by the major allergen Der p 1. This experiment demonstrated that prolines 5 and 8 are crucial for proDer p 3-Der p 1 interaction and for activation of the zymogen. PMID:24073192

  8. Lack of lysozyme activity of natural and yeast-derived recombinant Der p 2.

    PubMed

    Hakkaart, G A; Aalberse, R C; van Ree, R

    1997-10-01

    For Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus a number of allergens have been reported. Although the function of several allergens is known, that of the house dust mite allergen Der p 2 is unknown. A role as lysozyme has been suggested. We tested a yeast-derived recombinant Der p 2 for its lysozymatic activity. This recombinant allergen and affinity-purified natural Der p 2 lacked this enzymatic activity. Whole-body mite extract retained its lysozymatic activity after removal of the group 2 allergen by monoclonal antibody depletion. Analysis of spent medium revealed the reciprocal: it contained group 2 allergen, but lacked lysozymatic activity. Together, these data demonstrate that mite lysozyme and Der p 2 are different components of mite extract.

  9. Population growth and allergen accumulation of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus cultured at 20 and 25 °C.

    PubMed

    Yella, Lakshmi; Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G

    2011-02-01

    The house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae are cultured commercially and in research laboratories and material is harvested from these cultures to make extracts that are used for diagnosis, immunotherapy and research. Temperature and other climatic conditions can influence population growth rates, dynamics of allergen production, and the associated endotoxin, enzyme and protein levels of the mite material harvested from these cultures. Here we determined how temperature affected these parameters. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was cultured at 20 and 25 °C at 75% relative humidity, and at 2-week intervals the concentrations of mites, Der p 1 and Der p 2 allergens, endotoxin, and selected enzymes were determined. Mite density increased exponentially but growth rate and final population density were greater at 25 °C compared to 20 °C. The combined allergen (Der p 1 + Der p 2) concentrations accumulated in the cultures at about the same rate at both temperatures. However, individual Der p 1 and Der p 2 accumulation rates varied independently at the two temperatures. Der p 1 accumulated faster at 20 °C whereas Der p 2 accumulated faster at 25 °C. The amount of Der p 1 in whole cultures was greater than the amount of Der p 2. The concentration of allergen for washed mites harvested from the cultures was much less than for the whole cultures. Our study demonstrated that temperature is an important factor in population growth and the dynamics of allergen production in cultured mites.

  10. New occupational allergen in citrus farmers: citrus red mite (Panonychus citri).

    PubMed

    Kim, Y K; Son, J W; Kim, H Y; Park, H S; Lee, M H; Cho, S H; Min, K U; Kim, Y Y

    1999-02-01

    There have been several reports of occupational allergy to spider mites (Tetranychidae), but no published report has described citrus red mite (CRM, Panonychus citri)-induced occupational asthma confirmed by specific bronchial challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and immunologic characteristics of CRM-induced occupational asthma. We encountered 16 cases of CRM-induced occupational asthma among farmers cultivating citrus fruits. Asthmatic attacks corresponded closely with their work on citrus farms. The mean duration of the latent period was 12.9 (range 7 to 20) years. During their first visit to our clinic, nine patients with FEV1 lower than 70% of predictive value showed reversible airway obstruction after inhalation of bronchodilator, and seven with FEV1 greater than 70% of predictive value showed airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Fifteen of the 16 also complained of recurrent nasal symptoms, which had developed at an earlier time than the asthmatic symptoms. They showed strong positive reactions to CRM extract on skin prick test (A/H ratio > or = 1.0) and had high serum specific IgE antibody against CRM which was detected by ELISA. Skin prick test with common inhalant allergens revealed that 10 had an isolated positive response to CRM with negative results to common inhalant allergens in their environment. The ELISA inhibition tests with CRM demonstrated significant inhibitions by CRM in a dose-dependent manner, while minimal inhibitions were noted by D. pteronyssinus and mugwort allergens. These findings suggest that CRM could induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed workers on citrus farm.

  11. Purification and characterization of Lep d I, a major allergen from the mite Lepidoglyphus destructor.

    PubMed

    Ventas, P; Carreira, J; Polo, F

    1992-04-01

    A major allergen of the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor (Lep d I) has been purified by affinity chromatography using an anti-Lep d I monoclonal antibody. The purity of the protein obtained by this procedure was assessed by reverse-phase HPLC. Lep d I displayed a molecular weight of 14 kD on SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions, and 16 kD in the presence of a reducing agent. Analytical IEF revealed a little charge microheterogeneity, showing three bands with pIs 7.6-7.8. Purified Lep d I retained IgE-binding ability, as proved by immunoblotting experiments after SDS-PAGE and RAST with individual sera from L. destructor-sensitive patients. Results from the latter technique demonstrated that 87% of L. destructor-allergic patients had specific IgE to Lep d I, and a good correlation between IgE reactivity with L. destructor extract and Lep d I was found. In addition, RAST inhibition experiments showed that IgE-binding sites on Lep d I are major L. destructor-allergenic determinants, since Lep d I could inhibit up to 75% the binding of specific IgE to L. destructor extract; on the other hand, Lep d I did not cross-react with D. pteronyssinus allergens.

  12. β-Glucan exacerbates allergic airway responses to house dust mite allergen.

    PubMed

    Hadebe, Sabelo; Kirstein, Frank; Fierens, Kaat; Redelinghuys, Pierre; Murray, Graeme I; Williams, David L; Lambrecht, Bart N; Brombacher, Frank; Brown, Gordon D

    2016-04-02

    β-(1,3)-Glucan is present in mould cell walls and frequently detected in house dust mite (HDM) faeces. β-Glucan exposure is thought to be associated with pulmonary allergic inflammation in mouse and man, although the published data are inconsistent. Here, we show that highly purified β-glucan exacerbates HDM-induced eosinophilic, T helper 2 type airway responses by acting as an adjuvant, promoting activation, proliferation and polarisation of HDM-specific T cells (1-Derβ T cells). We therefore provide definitive evidence that β-glucan can influence allergic pulmonary inflammation.

  13. A review of the effects of impermeable bedding encasements on dust-mite allergen exposure and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in dust-mite-sensitized patients.

    PubMed

    Recer, G M

    2004-02-01

    Sensitization and exposure to dust-mite antigens are causative factors in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Impermeable bedding encasements are considered a first-line treatment to reduce dust-mite antigen exposure in clinical asthma-management guidelines. Public-health recommendations for environmental asthma treatments should be based on the weight of evidence supporting the reliability of environmental interventions so that uncertainties regarding their effectiveness can be accurately communicated to patients, and so that limited public-health resources can be most effectively utilized. To evaluate the strength of a clinical-trial evidence supporting the efficacy of bedding encasements as an asthma treatment. A narrative review was conducted of all clinical trials involving bedding encasement for the treatment of asthma. Collective statistical analyses were also performed to characterize the quantitative effect of bedding encasement on dust-mite allergen exposure and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) when used by asthma patients. Over 30 clinical trials were reviewed. Of those studies reporting adequate exposure and BHR results, four reported significant reduction in dust-mite allergen exposure and concomitant BHR reduction in active-treatment groups using bedding encasements. In 10 studies, mite-allergen exposure was reportedly decreased during the study, but BHR was not changed in the active-treatment group or was reduced to a similar degree in the active-treatment and control groups. Five other studies reported a lack of significant effect of the intervention on exposure and BHR. Collective paired analyses found that the effect of bedding encasement on allergen exposure and BHR tended toward only a modest, non-significant improvement. Collectively, effects of bedding encasement on BHR and dust-mite allergen exposure were modestly correlated only when the baseline exposure was above 2 microg Type 1 antigen per gram settled dust. Although bedding

  14. Risk of wheezing associated with house-dust mite allergens and indoor air quality among three-year-old children. Kraków inner city study.

    PubMed

    Jeedrychowski, Wiesław; Maugeri, Umberto; Zembala, Marek; Perzanowski, Mattew S; Hajto, Barbara; Flak, Elzbieta; Mróz, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata; Perera, Frederica P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of house-dust mite (HDM) allergens in homes of three-year-old children and to test the hypothesis whether the content of HDM allergens exceeding 2 microg/g of dust may be regarded as a risk level possibly affecting respiratory health in early childhood. House-dust samples were collected in 275 dwellings from mattresses, children's bedrooms and kitchen floors. In the laboratory, dust samples were analyzed for Der f 1 and Der p 1 using monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). At the time of the house-dust collection, mothers were interviewed on the household characteristics and their children's respiratory health. Respiratory outcome variables included wheezing or whistling in the chest irrespective of respiratory infections. The number of the wheezing episodes and their duration in days over the last 6 months were recorded in the questionnaire. In the multivariate Poisson regression analysis on the association between the occurrence of wheezing and exposure, a set of potential confounders, such as child's gender, maternal education, maternal allergy, older siblings, presence of moulds, house dampness, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was taken into account. The adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of wheezing ascribed to a higher HDM level (> 2.0 microg/g dust) were 1.84 (95% CI: 1.45-2.34) for duration of wheezing and 1.56 (95% CI: 0.88-2.75) for episodes. Of the confounders taken into consideration, the presence of moulds had the strongest impact on the risk of wheezing (IRR = 4.24; 95% CI: 3.08-5.84). The data support the view that exposure to a higher level of HDM allergens increases the burden of respiratory diseases in the early childhood and the effect is independent of maternal atopy, ETS, and moulds in homes.

  15. 401 House Dust Mite Fauna and Its Relationship to Allergen Skin Tests in Six Mexican States

    PubMed Central

    Ferández Duro, Bárbara Isabel; Pineda, Naomi Cuervo; Rodríguez Alvízar, Jesús Alberto; Murillo, Rodolfo Celio; Pérez Ortiz, Tila María; Anaya, Daniel Juárez

    2012-01-01

    Background House Dust Mites (HDM) are important respiratory allergens all over the world. In Mexico, there have been only few studies describing the HDM fauna, and mostly limited only to Mexico City. This study aimed to asses the HDM fauna and its relationship to allergen sensitization in different cities with climatic variations in Mexico. Methods A total of 60 dust samples were collected from mattresses in 6 Mexican states: Oaxaca, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Puebla, Chiapas and Campeche; during a period from February to August 2010 and in May 2011. Mites were isolated under a stereomicroscope using lactic acid - 0.9% NaCl solution (1:1). Identification was performed on fixed slides prepared with Hoyer solution. Skin Tests were performed with allergen extracts of different HDM species in the 60 mattress' owners, which had previously been diagnosed with respiratory allergy. Results The Pyroglyphidae family was predominant, being found in 100% of dust samples. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) were the species most frequently found (in over 90% of samples). These findings were in agreement with the Skin Tests results, where 100% of patients were positive to Dp whereas 70% was positive to Df. It was evidenced for the first time the presence of Blomia tropicalis (in Tamaulipas, Veracruz and Campeche) and Dermatophagoides siboney (in Campeche). Both species are important allergenic sources in tropical/subtropical climates, and the last one had been previously reported only in Cuba. Other species found were Acarus siro, Cheyletus sp., Suidasia pontificia, and Gamasidae and Oribatidae families. Conclusions These results confirm the importance of pyroglyphid HDM, as indoor sensitizers in different climatic and geographical regions in Mexico, as well as, the relevance of tropical species, particularly Blomia tropicalis, in certain areas. They support the need of using allergen extracts of these mite species for improving allergen

  16. Enzymatic activities of allergen extracts from three species of dust mites and cockroaches commonly found in Korean home.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kim, Chungryul; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2010-06-01

    Allergen extracts from dust mites and cockroaches commonly found in Korean homes were used to evaluate their enzymatic activity as they are believed to influence allergenicity. Allergen extracts were prepared from 3 dust mite species (Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and 3 cockroach species (Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and P. fuliginosa) maintained in the Korea National Arthropods of Medical Importance Resource Bank. Proteins were extracted in PBS after homogenization using liquid nitrogen. The activities of various enzymes were investigated using the API Zym system. No significant difference in phosphatase, lipase, or glycosidase activity was observed among the 6 allergen extracts, but much difference was observed in protease activity. Protease activity was assessed in more detail by gelatin zymography and the EnzChek assay. Extract from T. putrescentiae showed the highest protease activity, followed by those of the cockroach extracts. Extracts from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus showed only weak protease activity. Gelatinolytic activity was detected mainly in a 30-kDa protein in D. farinae, a 28-kDa protein in D. pteronyssinus, a > 26-kDa protein in T. putrescentiae, a > 20-kDa protein in B. germanica, and a > 23-kDa protein in P. americana and P. fuliginosa. The information on various enzymatic activities obtained in this study may be useful for future studies. In particular, the strong protease activity found in cockroach extracts could contribute to sensitization to cockroach allergens, which is known to be associated with the development of asthma.

  17. Sensitization to 10 mites in a tropic area. Der p and Der f are important risk factor for sensitization to other mites from Pyroglyphidae, Acaridae, Chortoglyphidae, and Glyciphagidae families.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jorge; Calvo, Víctor; Sánchez, Andrés; Díez, Susana; Cardona, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Much is known about the frequency of sensitization to Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, although less is known about sensitization to other species and their possible interactions. In patients with allergic manifestations, to evaluate the frequency of sensitization to 10 species of mites in a tropical area and their possible interactions. Cross-sectional study. Sensitization was evaluated by skin tests. A generalized linear Poisson regression model with robust variance was used. Based on the sensitization probability reasons and social networking analysis, explorations of relationship for 10 mites were performed. 147 patients were included. The highest sensitization was found to mites' family Pyroglyphidae (> 70 %) and less frequently was the Glycyphagidae family (< 50 %). Sensitization to any mites significantly increased the likelihood of sensitization to others. Sensitization to Der f or Der p increased, more than 20 times the likelihood of sensitization to other mites of the Pyroglyphidae family and more than 10 times to mites from other families. Sensitization to mites from Glycyphagidae, Chortoglyphidae or Acaridae family also increased the risk of sensitization to other mites but less than 5 times. Sensitization to mites is frequent in tropical area. Pyroglyphidae sensitization is the main risk factor for polysensitization with other mites from Glycyphagidae, Chortoglyphidae or Acaridae. These results must be considered at diagnosis and treatment of allergy diseases.

  18. Analysis of expression and amino acid sequence of the allergen Mag 3 in two species of house dust mites-Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Astigmata: Pyroglyphidae).

    PubMed

    Asman, Marek; Solarz, Krzysztof; Szilman, Ewa; Szilman, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    In the 90's of the XX century, 2 new and important allergens of house dust mites mites were cloned and sequenced: Mag 1 and Mag 3. However, the second allergen has been identified to date only in extracts of Dermatophagoides farinae [DF ]. In this work, we aimed to detect expression of this important allergen and for the first time analyze to the amino acid sequence in other species of house dust mite - Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [DP ]. We were able to confirm the expression of allergen Mag 3 in DF and to exclude it in DP . By sequencing the products of DNA amplification, we revealed the nucleotide sequence encoding allergen Mag 3 in DF . This analysis enabled detection of 9 single base changes. An analysis of encoded amino acid sequence by triplets with substituted nucleotides revealed that 8 changes were polymorphic, and 1 was a mutation substituting GTG (valine) for ATG (methionine) at 236 position. However, the presence of amino acid sequence difference in this allergen might suggest that there exist other isoforms which can make difficult both diagnosis as well as immunotherapy in persons who produce allergic response to this allergen. The variants of allergen Mag 3 (group 14) are still not known beside the very good known allergen variants of the other main groups 1, 2, 4, 5 or 7. Thus, the identification and definition of allergic properties of allergen Mag 3 variants needs to be further investigated.

  19. Antigens and allergens in Dermatophagoïdes farinae mite. I. Immunochemical and physicochemical study of two allergenic fractions from a partially-purified Dermatophagoïdes farinae mite extract.

    PubMed Central

    Le Mao, J; Dandeu, J P; Rabillon, J; Lux, M; David, B

    1981-01-01

    The fractionation of a partially-purified extract of Dermatophagoïdes farinae mite culture has been undertaken by gel filtration. Two fractions were isolated. One, P25, is a protein-rich fraction with mol. wt about 25,000. The other, GP8, is a polysaccharide-rich fraction with mol. wt around 8,000. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis, we detected eleven antigens in the partially-purified dialysed D. farinae extract (Df 80d) as well as in P25 fraction. One of them, ag 11, seems the most important allergen since in crossed-radio immunoelectrophoresis experiments it displays the faster radiostaining, implying that it binds the greatest part of the mite-specific IgE present in a pool of sera from mite-sensitive patients. By crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis, we demonstrated the absence of ag 11 in GP8, in which only ag 5 and ag 6 were identifiable. By radioalloergosorbent tests (RAST), it was found that P25- and GP8- coated paper discs can fix specific IgE induced in the majority of D. farinae sensitive patients. Defining a 'major allergen' as an allergen to which the majority of sensitive patients develop specific IgE, both P25 and GP8 do appear to contain at least one major allergen. By RAST inhibition method, using Df 80d as a solid phase, the allergenic activity of P25 appeared as slightly higher than that of Df 80d, whereas GP8 displayed a very weak inhibitor capacity. Thus, the allergic specificity of GP8 differs from that of Df 80d or P25. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7298067

  20. Sero-prevalence study of IgE responses to allergens from Malaysian house dust (HDM) and storage mites (SM).

    PubMed

    Chong, K T; Wong, S F; Mak, J W; Loh, L C; Ho, T M

    2015-09-01

    Allergens of Dermatophagoides and Blomia species are well-characterized but not for other species. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of allergic sensitization to house dust (HDM) and storage mites (SM). One hundred adult subjects (aged ≥ 18) were recruited. The mite specific IgE of all allergic subjects were higher compared with healthy subjetcs despite being not statistically significant except for D. farinae and G. malaysiensis. The mean serum IgE levels against HDM and SM for allergic subjects were significantly higher compared with those in healthy subjects. They were mainly sensitized to Dermatophagoides farinae (35%) and Glycycometus malaysiensis (37%). Immunoblots revealed not all allergic subjects showed positive immuno-reactivity against the mites tested. Single or multiple bands were observed for different species. The subjects were commonly sensitized to Group 2 (9-12 kDa), 10 (38 kDa) and 18 (40-48 kDa) allergens. Twenty-one out of 60 allergic subjects were sensitized to either one or more species. The majority of them (71%) were sensitized to single species. The allergic subjects were mainly sensitized to D. pteronyssinus, followed by Tyrophagus putrecentiae and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Seven were solely sensitized to HDM while 10 were solely sensitized to SM. Four subjects were sensitized to both. Pre-adsorption study revealed no cross-reactivity. There was difference between the prevalence and reactivity to allergens of HDM and SM in these subjects. Both ELISA and immunoblot did not correlate well but can complement each other in improving the detection of mite allergens to the species level.

  1. Species Identification and Prevalence of House Dust Mites as Respiratory Allergen in Kindergartens of the Bandar Abbas City.

    PubMed

    Soleimani-Ahmadi, Moussa; Zare, Mehdi; Abtahi, Seyyed Mohammad; Khazeni, Atefe

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the species and prevalence of house dust mites (HDMs) in kindergartens in Bandar Abbas, south of Iran. In this study 10 kindergartens were selected randomly in five areas of Bandar Abbas. Two dust samples were collected from each sampling place with a vacuum cleaner. Mites were isolated and mounted in Hoyer's medium and identified using a morphology-based key. In total, 1758 mites were collected and identified, whichconsisted of five species: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (31.06%), D. evansi (23.49%), D. farinae (17.75%), Ornithonyssus bacoti (19.45%), and Cheyletus malaccensis (8.25%). Two main allergenic dust mite species D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae, coinhabited and were collected from all of kindergartens. Results of this study have revealed that D. pteronyssinus is the most prevalent HDMs in Bandar Abbas Kindergartens and all studied areas are contaminated by more than one dust mite Regarding the high prevalence of HDMs in Bandar Abbas kindergartens, implementation of strict control measures is necessary for reduction of mite population and prevention of children respiratory diseases and other allergic disorders in this city.

  2. 485 Therapeutic Effect and Safety of Tropical Mite Allergen Vaccines by Subcutaneous Route in Allergic Asthmatics Patients

    PubMed Central

    Castro Almarales, Raúl Lázaro; Ronquillo, Mercedes; Castello, Mirta Alvarez; Rodríguez, José; González, Mayda; Labrada, Alexis; Navarro Viltres, Bárbara I; Díaz, Yunia Oliva; Mateo, Maytee

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is presently recognized as a biological response modifier, as it is the only available treatment able to influence the natural course of allergic disease. Extensive clinical evidence supports its efficacy. Safety concerns are related to the risks of anaphylactic reactions during treatment. Standardization of allergen vaccines in terms of allergenic activity allows a more precise control over the administered doses and can be, therefore, very relevant for both efficacy and safety of SCIT. House Dust Mites (HDM), particularly Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides siboney (Ds) and Blomia tropicalis (Bt) have been described as very relevant allergen sources in Cuba, with a strong association to respiratory allergy symptoms. Objective To asses the efficacy and safety of standardized allergen vaccines of these 3 mite species (Valergen, Biocen, Cuba) in Cuban asthmatic patients. Methods Three Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled clinical trials were performed in 40 patients each, showing asthmatic symptoms and positive predominant Skin Prick Test (SPT) to each mite, respectively. Half of patients received the active treatment consisting of subcutaneous injections with increasing doses, up to 6000 BU. Results The total 1 year cumulative dose was 63035 BU, in an average of 20.5 injections. The treatment was effective in the reduction of clinical symptoms (up to 32%, 95%CI: 28-36%; P = 0.0006) and medication intake (23%, 95%CI:18-28%), as compared to control treatment. The skin sensitivity to the allergens decreased significantly (P = 0.0001), with regard to the beginning of the treatment. The allergen amount needed to induce a positive SPT increased 297-fold. An improvement of the lung function was observed, expressed in a modest Peak-Expiratory-Flow increase (P < 0.05) and reduction of PEF daily variability. SIT was considered effective in 71% of patients. The frequency of local adverse reactions was

  3. IgE cross-reactivity between Ascaris lumbricoides and mite allergens: possible influences on allergic sensitization and asthma.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, N; Caraballo, L

    2011-06-01

    Nematode infections such as Ascariasis are important health problems in underdeveloped countries, most of them located in the tropics where environmental conditions also promote the perennial co-exposure to high concentrations of domestic mite allergens. Allergic diseases are common, and most of patients with asthma exhibit a predominant and strong IgE sensitization to mites. It is unknown whether co-exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides and the domestic mites Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus potentiates Th2 responses and IgE sensitization, thereby modifying the natural history of allergy. Recently, we obtained experimental evidence of a high cross-reactivity between the allergenic extracts of these invertebrates, involving well-known allergens such as tropomyosin and glutathione transferases. There is indirect evidence suggesting that the clinical impact of these findings may be important. In this review, we discuss the potential role of this cross-reactivity on several aspects of allergy in the tropics that have been a focus of a number of investigations, some of them with controversial results.

  4. Mite exposure in a Spanish Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Pagán, J A; Huertas, A J; Iraola, V; Pinto, H; Martínez, R; Ramírez, M; Martos, M D; Carnés, J

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the domestic mite fauna and allergen levels is important for a correct diagnosis and treatment of mite allergy. Our objectives were to describe the domestic mite fauna in the region of Murcia, Spain, to quantify mite allergens in dust samples obtained from mattresses of this area and to assess the influence of geographical, climatic and dwelling factors. Dust samples were collected in a transversal descriptive study from mattresses of 51 patients who went to the Allergology Service, and from mattress of 81 neighbours or family members of these patients. A questionnaire about home environment was filled in and obtained by all participants. Mite identification was done by light microscopy and allergen determinations (Der p 1 and Der f 1) by monoclonal antibodies. Sixteen mite species were identified in the 132 dust samples collected. The most frequent species were Dermatophagoides farinae (36% of the samples), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (32%) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (5.3%). There were significant differences among climatic regions. The coastal sector had greater mite abundance, being D. pteronyssinus more frequent and abundant than D. farinae. In inland areas D. farinae was the predominant mite species. Allergen levels correlated with the concentration of Dermatophagoides, with higher levels detected in coastal regions. Average annual temperature was the main outdoor factor that correlated with higher mite concentrations. Indoor main predictor of higher levels of mites was the presence of obvious signs of humidity in the home. This study demonstrates the existence of a mite fauna dominated by D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae with a strong influence of climatic factors and residential characteristics. Copyright © 2010 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Asthmatic bronchial epithelium activated by the proteolytic allergen Der p 1 increases selective dendritic cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Pichavant, Muriel; Charbonnier, Anne-Sophie; Taront, Solenne; Brichet, Anne; Wallaert, Benoît; Pestel, Joel; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Gosset, Philippe

    2005-04-01

    Airway dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for allergen-induced sensitization and inflammation in allergic asthma. After allergen challenge, an increased number of DCs is observed in airway epithelium from patients with allergy. Because Der p 1, a cysteine protease allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , induces chemokine production by bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the capacity of BEC exposed to Der p 1 to recruit DCs. Chemotactic activity of BEAS-2B, a bronchial epithelial cell line, and BECs from nonatopic controls and patients with allergic asthma was evaluated on the migration of precursors, immature and mature monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs), and CD34 + -derived Langerhans cells (LCs). C-C chemokine ligand (CCL)-2, CCL5, and C-X-C chemokine ligand 10 production by BEAS-2B and BEC was increased after Der p 1 exposure, whereas the proenzyme proDer p 1 devoid of enzymatic activity had no effect. Der p 1 stimulation of BEAS-2B and BEC from both groups increased significantly the recruitment of MDDC precursors, depending on CCL2, CCL5, and C-X-C chemokine ligand 10 production. In a reconstituted polarized epithelium, apical application of Der p 1 enhanced MDDC precursor migration into the epithelial layer. Moreover, Der p 1 stimulation of BEC from patients with asthma but not from controls increased the migration of LC precursors, mainly dependent on CCL20 secretion. No migration of immature and mature DCs was observed. These data confirmed that BECs participate in the homeostasis of the DC network present within the bronchial epithelium through the secretion of chemokines. In allergic asthma, upregulation of CCL20 production induced LC recruitment, the role of which remains to be determined.

  6. Mites and allergy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Puerta, Leonardo; Caraballo, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases triggered by mite allergens include allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases. Since the early discovery of the allergenic role of mites of the genus Dermatophagoides in the mid 1960s, numerous species have been described as the source of allergens capable of sensitizing and inducing allergic symptoms in sensitized and genetically predisposed individuals. The main sources of allergens in house dust worldwide are the fecal pellets of the mite species D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Euroglyphus maynei and the storage mites Blomia tropicalis, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyropahgus putrescentiae. Group 1 and 2 allergens are major house dust mite allergens. The main allergens in storage mites include fatty acid-binding proteins, tropomyosin and paramyosin homologues, apolipophorin-like proteins, α-tubulins and others, such as group 2, 5 and 7 allergens. Cross-reactivity is an important and common immunological feature among mites. Currently, purified native or recombinant allergens, epitope mapping, proteomic approaches and T cell proliferation techniques are being used to assess cross-reactivity. Mites contain potent enzymes capable of degrading a wide range of substrates. Most mite allergens are enzymes. Advances in genomics and molecular biology will improve our ability to understand the genetics of specific IgE responses to mites. Mite allergen avoidance and immunotherapy are the only two allergen-specific ways to treat mite-induced respiratory and cutaneous diseases. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The relative allergenicity of Stachybotrys chartarum compared to house dust mite extracts in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yong Joo; Copeland, Lisa B; Doerfler, Donald L; Ward, Marsha D W

    2010-05-01

    A report by the Institute of Medicine suggested that more research is needed to better understand mold effects on allergic disease, particularly asthma development. The authors compared the ability of the fungus Stachybotrys chartarum (SCE) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to induce allergic responses in BALB/c mice. The extracts were administered by intratracheal aspiration (IA) at several doses (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 microg) 4 times over a 4-week period. Three days after the last IA exposure, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. The relative allergenicity of the extracts was evaluated based on the lowest dose that induced a significant response compared to control (0 microg) and the linear regression slope analysis across the dose range. SCE induced a more robust response than HDM for BALF some inflammatory cells (macrophage and neutrophils), whereas HDM induced more robust BALF lymphocyte and eosinophil responses. Although SCE induced a more robust serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) response than did HDM, the induction of a similar response in a functional, antigen-specific IgE assay required approximately twice as much SCE as HDM. Even though SCE demonstrates the ability to induce allergic responses in the mouse model, considering the importance and relevance of eosinophil, lymphocyte, and antigen-specific IgE in allergic airway disease, it is concluded that HDM is more potent than SCE in the induction of allergic responses. These data suggest a threshold dose for SCE allergy induction. Furthermore, in damp water-damaged environments, exposure to S. chartarum might easily exceed the sensitization threshold for a susceptible population.

  8. Allergen micro-array detection of specific IgE-reactivity in Chinese allergy patients.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi-Wu; Li, Jing; Lai, Xu-Xin; Zhao, De-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Fan; Lin, Xiao-Ping; Gjesing, Birgitte; Palazzo, Paola; Mari, Adriano; Zhong, Nan-Shan; Spangfort, Michael D

    2011-12-01

    Allergen micro-arrays are powerful tools for screening of serum IgE-reactivity. In this study allergen micro-arrays were used to identify dominating IgE-binding allergens and cross-reactivity patterns among selected Chinese allergy patients. The study was conducted using patient sera from the cities of Guangzhou, Nanjing, Chengdu and Shenyang. In total 100 sera with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) specific IgE-levels higher than 50 kU/L were selected for testing against 103 individual allergens. Among 100 selected patients, 95% showed IgE-reactivity towards house-dust mite allergens Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) 1, Der f 2 and Der p 2 and 94% were IgE positive against Der p 1, and 60% of sera contained IgE reacting against allergen Euroglyphus maynei (Eur m) 2. IgE against cat allergen, Felisdomesticus (Fel d) 1, was seen in 20%. Only 2% showed specific IgE-reactivity to Der p 10, a panallergen belonging to the tropomyosin family. Serum IgE-reactivity towards other allergens was in general low. IgE-reactivity against pollen allergens showed geographic differences. This study clearly confirms that group 1 and group 2 are major allergens of house dust mites. These selected house-dust mite allergy patients are close to being mono-sensitized. Der p 10 is not an important allergen for cross-reactivity. Specific IgE-sensitization towards pollen allergens is low in southern China compared to other regions. The prevalence of food and stinging insect allergens known to give rise to IgE-mediated cross-reactivity is 2% or less.

  9. Indoor allergens and microbial bio-contaminants in homes of asthmatic children in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Siebers, Robert; Chang, Chin-Fu; Hsieh, Shu-Wen; Wu, Mei-Wen; Chen, Chi-Ying; Pierse, Nevil; Crane, Julian

    2009-09-01

    Indoor allergens and microbial bio-contaminants play a significant role in asthma symptoms. The aim of the study was to determine levels of house dust mite allergens, bacterial endotoxin, and fungal beta-glucan in homes of 120 asthmatic children in central Taiwan. Dust samples from 120 mattresses (67 double-sided) were analyzed for house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, and Blo t 5), endotoxin, and beta-glucan. Pillows (n = 118) were analyzed for house dust mite allergens only. Kitchen dust samples were analyzed for the cockroach allergen, Bla g 1. Blo t 5 was detected in 9.3% pillows and 82.2% mattresses, Der p 1 in 95.8% pillows and 93.2% mattresses, and Der f 1 in 82.2% pillows and 83.1% mattresses. Geometric mean levels (95% confidence interval) of endotoxin and beta-glucan in mattresses were 108.4 Eu/mg (81.4-144.2) and 25.2 microg/g (22.7-28.0), respectively. House dust mite allergens and endotoxin levels were significantly lower on the bamboo side of 67 mattresses, compared to the inner sprung mattress side. Geometric mean of kitchen Bla g 1 was 0.61 U/g (95% CI: 0.43-0.85). Given the presence of Der p 1, Der f 1 and Blo t 5 in central Taiwan, it is advised to measure allergens of all three house dust mite species to obtain a true index of allergen exposure. Bamboo sides of mattresses had significantly lower house dust mite allergens and endotoxin levels.

  10. Detection of a novel 20 kDa shrimp allergen showing cross-reactivity to house dust mites.

    PubMed

    Villalta, D; Tonutti, E; Visentini, D; Bizzaro, N; Roncarolo, D; Amato, S; Mistrello, G

    2010-02-01

    Allergy to crustacean shellfish is one of the most common IgE-mediated food allergies, and tropomyosin has been identified as the major allergen. However, not all subjects affected by this allergy are IgE-positive to tropomyosin. To evaluate whether sera of patients with shrimp allergy but negative for tropomyosin react to other allergen(s); and to evaluate the role such allergen(s) may play in cross-reactivity between crustaceans and house dust mites (HDMs). Three different pools of sera-one from subjects with shellfish allergy and HDMs positivity, but negative for recombinant and native tropomyosin (rPen a 1 and nPen m 1) (Pool 2); a second from subjects with tropomyosin and HDMs positivity (Pool 1); and the last from subjects allergic only to HDMs (Pool 3) were submitted to immunoblotting. Subsequently, a 20 kDa protein- enriched fraction of shrimp extract was used at two different concentrations (10 and 100 microg/mL) to pre-absorb the Pool 2 serum and to evaluate, by ELISA assay, the level of inhibition on shrimp and HDMs-coated wells, respectively. The Pool 2 serum showed IgE reactivity against a 20 kDa component. Its pre-absorption with an enriched fraction of 20 kDa protein caused an inhibition of 56% in IgE binding to shrimp extract at a concentration of 100 microg/mL, and of 14% and 35% to HDMs extract at concentrations of 10 and 100 microg/mL, respectively, as measured by ELISA assay. The 20 kDa component seems to be a new crustacean allergen and it could play a role in cross-reactivity with HDMs.

  11. Differences in the presence of allergens among several types of indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Brunetto, Barbara; Barletta, Bianca; Brescianini, Sonia; Masciulli, Rosalba; Perfetti, Luca; Moscato, Gianna; Frusteri, Liliana; Schirru, Maria Antonietta; Pini, Carlo; Di Felice, Gabriella; Iacovacci, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens can occur both at home and in public places such as schools and workplaces. To investigate and compare the presence of indoor allergens in different kind of environments (schools, offices and homes), dust samples were collected from furniture, desks, mattresses and floors with a standardized procedure. Samples were analyzed for Der p 1, Der f 1, Mite group 2 (mites) and Fel d 1(cat) by monoclonal antibody ELISA assay. Mite allergens were detected with low frequencies in schools and workplaces and with high frequency in homes. Fel d 1 was found with high frequency in every examined environment. Homes rather than public places can represent the environment where people can easier incur in mite allergy. All environments could be at risk for cat allergen exposure.

  12. Allergy to house dust mite and snails: a model of cross-reaction between food and inhalant allergens with a clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Pajno, G B; Morabito, L; Barberio, G

    1999-01-01

    A knowledge of cross-reactions between different allergens can facilitate the diagnosis of allergy. IgE cross-reactivity has been identified between house dust mite and snails. While most patients have mild symptoms, asthma and/or anaphylaxis may occur with these and other cross-reacting foods. It may be worthwhile to include measurement of IgE to some edible invertebrate animals in asthmatics, e.g. in mite allergic asthmatic patients who eat snails.

  13. Dermatophagoides farinae allergens diversity identification by proteomics.

    PubMed

    An, Su; Chen, Lingling; Long, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Xuemei; Lu, Xingre; Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Zhigang; Lai, Ren

    2013-07-01

    The most important indoor allergens for humans are house dust mites (HDM). Fourteen Dermatophagoides farinae allergens (Der f 1-3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13-18, and 22) are reported although more than 30 allergens have been estimated in D. farinae. Seventeen allergens belonging to 12 different groups were identified by a procedure of proteomics combined with two-dimensional immunoblotting from D. farina extracts. Their sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry analysis, and cDNA cloning. Their allergenicities were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition tests, immunoblots, basophil activation test, and skin prick tests. Eight of them are the first report as D. farinae allergens. The procedure of using a proteomic approach combined with a purely discovery approach using sera of patients with broad IgE reactivity profiles to mite allergens was an effective method to investigate a more complete repertoire of D. farinae allergens. The identification of eight new D. farinae allergens will be helpful for HDM allergy diagnosis and therapy, especially for patients without response for HDM major allergens. In addition, the current work significantly extendedthe repertoire of D. farinae allergens.

  14. The effect of disodium cromoglycate, budesonide, and cyclosporin A on interleukin-4, interleukin-5, and interleukin-13 secretions in Der p I-stimulated T cells from house dust mite-sensitive atopic and nonatopic individuals.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae-Won; Lee, Ha-Baik; Chung, Yong-Hoon; Choi, Yong

    2002-01-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), budesonide, and cyclosporin A (CsA) were the well-known immunomodulators for the allergic and immunologic diseases clinically. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of inhibition on cytokine synthesis of Der p I-stimulated T cells by the same inhibiting concentrations of DSCG, budesonide, and CsA in house-dust mite antigen (Der p I)-specific atopic and nonatopic healthy individuals. Seven house dust mite allergen specific patients were recruited for this study. Seven healthy volunteers were included on the basis of negative allergic manifestations and low serum immunoglobulin E values. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in the presence of recombinant interleukin (rIL)-2 with or without budesonide, DSCG, CsA, and Der p I for 48 hours. Cells were stained with anti-CD4 fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibody, and then anti-human IL-4 phycoerythrin, IL-5, or IL-13 monoclonal antibody, respectively, was added to both blocked and stained samples. Incubation of PBMC from atopics with each immunomodulator and Der p I resulted in the reduction of IL-4 secretion compared with Der p I alone stimulation. However, IL-4 secretion in PBMC from nonatopics was not reduced with DSCG and Der p I stimulation. IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 secretions of PBMC from atopics were significantly decreased after incubation with each immunomodulator and Der p I, compared with after incubation with Der p I alone. These results might be considered to show either that DSCG has a selective inhibiting effect on cytokine production in T cells from atopics or is a weak inhibitor of cytokine secretions compared with budesonide and CsA at even strength for the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation in normal, healthy individuals.

  15. Dermatophagoides farinae house dust mite allergen challenges reduce stratum corneum ceramides in an experimental dog model of acute atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Jessica; Paps, Judy; Bäumer, Wolfgang; Olivry, Thierry

    2012-12-01

    Ceramides are essential stratum corneum (SC) lipids and they play a pivotal role in maintaining effective cutaneous barrier function. The present study aimed at determining the effect of a Dermatophagoides farinae house dust mite (Df-HDM) allergen challenge on SC ceramides of atopic dogs experimentally sensitized to these allergens. Six Df-HDM-sensitized atopic Maltese-beagle dogs were used. Prechallenge SC was obtained by cyanoacrylate stripping. One week later, the dogs were challenged topically with Df-HDM allergens, which resulted in mild to moderate inflammation 24 h later. Two weeks after challenge, SC of lesional and nonlesional skin was obtained. Finally, SC was collected from challenge sites 2 months after lesion resolution. The different SC lipids were quantified blindly by thin-layer chromatography. Significantly lower amounts of ceramides [AH], [AP], [AS], [NP], [EOP], [NS] and [EOS] were observed in lesional SC compared with prechallenge samples, while no significant effect was found on the amount of other lipids, including cholesterol and free fatty acids. The ceramide profile of nonlesional skin generally showed the same postchallenge reduction pattern. Ceramide amounts returned to normal within 2 months after lesion remission. These findings suggest that the allergic reactions caused by Df-HDM allergens lead to a selective reduction of SC ceramides, not only at sites of inflammation but also at sites away from those of allergen application. There is normalization of ceramide amounts after inflammation subsides. These observations suggest that the deficiency of ceramides observed in canine atopic skin occurs, at least in part, secondary to inflammation. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.

  16. Major house dust mite allergens Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 and Dermatophagoides farinae 1 degrade and inactivate lung surfactant proteins A and D.

    PubMed

    Deb, Roona; Shakib, Farouk; Reid, Kenneth; Clark, Howard

    2007-12-21

    Lung surfactant proteins (SP) A and D are calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins. In addition to playing multiple roles in innate immune defense such as bacterial aggregation and modulation of leukocyte function, SP-A and SP-D have also been implicated in the allergic response. They interact with a wide range of inhaled allergens, competing with their binding to cell-sequestered IgE resulting in inhibition of mast cell degranulation, and exogenous administration of SP-A and SP-D diminishes allergic hypersensitivity in vivo. House dust mite allergens are a major cause of allergic asthma in the western world, and here we confirm the interaction of SP-A and SP-D with two major mite allergens, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 and Dermatophagoides farinae 1, and show that the cysteine protease activity of these allergens results in the degradation of SP-A and SP-D under physiological conditions, with multiple sites of cleavage. A recombinant fragment of SP-D that is effective in diminishing allergic hypersensitivity in mouse models of dust mite allergy was more susceptible to degradation than the native full-length protein. Degradation was enhanced in the absence of calcium, with different sites of cleavage, indicating that the calcium associated with SP-A and SP-D influences accessibility to the allergens. Degradation of SP-A and SP-D was associated with diminished binding to carbohydrates and to D. pteronyssinus 1 itself and diminished capacity to agglutinate bacteria. Thus, the degradation and consequent inactivation of SP-A and SP-D may be a novel mechanism to account for the potent allergenicity of these common dust mite allergens.

  17. T-cell epitope analysis of Mag 3, an important allergen from the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, S; Ohno, K; Tategaki, A; Aki, T; Shigeta, S; Jyo, T; Suzuki, O; Ono, K

    2000-04-03

    Here we describe the detection of T-cell epitope region on the house dust mite allergen Mag 3, which has been shown to trigger T-cell proliferation in mite-allergic asthmatic patients. We first examined murine T-cell epitope using T-cell fraction prepared from recombinant Mag 3 (r-Mag 3)-primed H-2k mice. Initial proliferation assay with truncated r-Mag 3 indicated that N-terminal 113 amino acid region was required for triggering T-cell activation. Subsequent epitope scanning with synthetic overlapping peptides revealed that T-cell reactive region was assigned within amino acid range 56-75. We also explored human T-cell determinant using specific T-cells from mite-allergic patients. Intriguingly, we found that amino acid range 56-85, a portion partially overlapping with that identified in r-Mag 3-primed mice, was exclusively recognized by T-cells from different patients. Further investigation of unique T-cell epitope region found in this study would provide insight into the development of animal therapeutic model and/or peptide vaccine for asthma.

  18. Tropomyosin or not tropomyosin, what is the relevant allergen in house dust mite and snail cross allergies?

    PubMed

    Bessot, J C; Metz-Favre, C; Rame, J M; De Blay, F; Pauli, G

    2010-02-01

    Since tropomyosin is cross reactive in many arthropods, it was assumed that this highly conserved protein could be responsible for cross reactions in house dust mite (HDM) allergic patients who experienced adverse reactions after crustacean and mollusc ingestion. Here we report two clinical cases where the role of tropomyosin is a matter of debate. In the first case, the clinical history, as well as the results of in vivo and in vitro investigations, are in favour of a shrimp allergy without any snail allergy in a patient sensitized to HDM. In the second, the clinical history and the cutaneous tests are in favour of an allergy to snails without any allergy to shrimps in a patient suffering from HDM allergies. The clinical presentation is different in shrimp and snail allergies. In shrimp allergy, symptoms are mainly urticaria or angio-oedema. In snail allergies, adverse reactions are especially severe asthma. Shrimp tropomyosin is a dominant allergen in crustaceans whereas has a much less prominent role in HDM sensitization. Cross reactivities between HDM and snails have been confirmed by inhibition experiments. However, tropomyosin appears to be a minor allergen or even is not involved in snail allergy. It is necessary to clarify the allergens shared between HDMI and snails. The effects of HDM immunotherapy in snail allergy are questioned. Knowledge of taxonomy can contribute to more precise evaluation of cross reactivities between crustaceans and molluscs.

  19. Dust mite allergen, glutathione S-transferase, induces T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-4 in dendritic cells to facilitate initiation of airway allergy.

    PubMed

    Mo, L-H; Yang, L-T; Zeng, L; Xu, L-Z; Zhang, H-P; Li, L-J; Liu, J-Q; Xiao, X-J; Zheng, P-Y; Liu, Z-G; Yang, P-C

    2017-02-01

    Allergens from dust mites play a critical role in the pathogenesis of airway allergy. The mechanism by which dust mite allergens induce allergic diseases is not fully understood yet. This study tests a hypothesis that the eighth subtypes of Dermatophagoides farina allergen (Derf8) play an important role in the induction of airway allergy. The protein of Derf8 was synthesized via molecular cloning approach. Dendritic cells (DC) were stimulated with Derf8 in the culture, and then, the expression of T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain 4 (TIM4) in dendritic cells (DC) was analysed. The role of Derf8 in the induction of airway allergy was evaluated with a mouse model. Exposure to Derf8 markedly induced the TIM4 expression in DCs by modulating the chromatin at the TIM4 promoter locus. Derf8 played a critical role in the expansion of the T helper 2 response in the mouse airway via inducing DCs to produce TIM4. Administration with Derf8-depleted dust mite extracts (DME) inhibited the allergic inflammation and induced regulatory T cells in mice with airway allergy. Derf8 plays an important role in the initiation of dust mite allergy. Vaccination with Derf8-deficient DME is more efficient to inhibit the dust mite allergic inflammation than using wild DME. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. New insights in allergen avoidance measures for mite and pet sensitized patients. A critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, Gennaro; Cazzola, Mario; Walter Canonica, Giorgio; Passalacqua, Giovanni; D'Amato, Gennaro

    2005-11-01

    It is widely acknowledged that avoidance of allergens such as those derived from foods, drugs, latex and stinging insects results in a complete disappearance of symptoms. By contrast, although it has been clearly shown that allergens are an important risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms and that several avoidance measures reduce allergen levels, whether this gives clinical improvement in symptoms is debatable. Many reasons could be invoked to justify this evident discrepancy. Apart from the intrinsic methodological aspects (e.g. single or combined interventions measure, population studied, severity of respiratory symptoms, outcomes, evaluated parameters, etc.), it is important to outline that a successful approach requires that the avoided allergen is the only and real factor responsible for symptoms, the patient's education and the use of a comprehensive protocol to reduce allergen exposure. Other important factors include the involvement of the patient, the relevance of other allergens/non-specific agents, and exposure to sensitizing agents also outside patient's home. It is likely that the clinical phase of allergic airway disease and the degree of bronchial (and also nasal) remodelling, in each individual, represent relevant factors for the clinical outcome of allergen avoidance procedures. Since the management of respiratory allergy is a complex strategy (including drugs, allergen avoidance, immunological and educational interventions), it is difficult in real life to distinguish the efficacy of a single intervention in comparison to the others. A combined strategy is likely to produce better clinical results.

  1. Blomia tropicalis Blo t 5 and Blo t 21 recombinant allergens might confer higher specificity to serodiagnostic assays than whole mite extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Blomia tropicalis is a dust mite and an important source of allergens in tropical regions. Up to now, the assays to diagnose atopy to this mite use whole body extract as antigens. However, anti-B. tropicalis IgE antibodies cross-react with Ascaris lumbricoides antigens, hindering the diagnosis of allergy to this mite. In this study, B. tropicalis recombinant allergens were evaluated with the purpose of developing an immunodiagnostic assay for allergy to this mite with greater specificity than those commercially available. Methods Two B. tropicalis allergens (Blo t 5 and Blo t 21) were cloned into a plasmidial expression vector, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. Sixty-three sera containing anti-B. tropicalis extract (BtE) IgE antibodies were used to investigate IgE reactivity to the recombinant Blot 5 and 21 allergens. Inhibition assays with 20 sera pre-adsorbed with A. lumbricoides extract were performed using rBlo t 5, rBlo t 21, and BtE as antigens. All the assays were carried using indirect ELISA. Results Eighty-two point nine percent and 80.0% of the sera with anti-BtE antibodies from 35 children reacted with rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21, respectively, whereas 92.8% and 89.3% of the 28 sera with anti-BtE antibodies from adult asthma patients reacted with the same allergens, and 96.4% of these sera reacted with a mixture of rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21. In an inhibition ELISA, the absorption of sera by A. lumbricoides extract affected less the reaction with rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21 than with BtE. Conclusions The rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21 allergens contain important epitopes recognized by IgE antibodies of individuals allergic to B. tropicalis antigens. Moreover, the assays using the recombinant allergens had lower IgE cross-reactivity with A. lumbricoides antigens, a fact which would confers higher specificity to serodiagnostic assays than the crude mite extract. However, additional recombinant allergens should be evaluated in

  2. Dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergen concentrations in homes of asthmatic children in the northeastern United States: impact of socioeconomic factors and population density.

    PubMed

    Leaderer, Brian P; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth; Holford, Theodore; Gold, Diane R; Kim, Young; Jankun, Thomas; Ren, Ping; McSharry Je, Jean-ellen; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Chapman, Martin D; Bracken, Michael B

    2002-04-01

    Home exposures to aeroallergens are an important environmental factor in allergic sensitization and in the development and exacerbation of asthma. We assessed variations in home concentrations of dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergens in dust collected in the main living areas of asthmatics' homes by family income, mother's education, dwelling type, population density, household population density, and ethnicity in Connecticut and south-central Massachusetts. Dust samples were collected at the time of home interview in 999 homes as part of an ongoing longitudinal birth cohort study of 1,002 infants and their asthmatic siblings. The analysis employed lower and upper cut points for group 1 dust mite (> or = 2.0 microg/g and > or = 10 microg/g), cockroach (> or = 1.0 U/g and > or = 4.0 U/g), cat (> or = 1.0 microg/g and > or = 8.0 ug/g), and dog (> or = 2.0 microg/g and > or = 10.0 microg/g) allergens. Subject residences were geocoded to assess population density from the U.S. Census, and multiple logistic regression was used to control for confounding. The portion of homes at the lower cut point for dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergens were 46.9%, 24.9%, 42.2%, and 35.6%, respectively; the upper cut point for each of the allergens was reached in 22.4%, 13.4%, 21.0%, and 22.9% of the homes, respectively. In all, 86.0% of the homes had at least one allergen at the lower cut point, and 58.0% had at least one allergen at the upper cut point. Forty-nine percent of the homes had two or more allergens at the lower cut point, and 19.7% had two or more allergens at the upper cut point. Higher education of the mother, higher household income, living in a single-family home in a less densely populated area with fewer people per room, and being a white household were associated with elevated dust mite, cat, and dog allergens and low cockroach allergen. In contrast, low income, living in a multifamily home in a high population density area with a higher occupancy

  3. Allergen-specific IgE levels against crude mould and storage mite extracts and recombinant mould allergens in sera from horses affected with chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Eder, C; Crameri, R; Mayer, C; Eicher, R; Straub, R; Gerber, H; Lazary, S; Marti, E

    2000-03-15

    Immunoglobulin E antibody (IgE) levels against four recombinant (r) mould allergens (r-Aspergillus fumigatus [rAsp f] 7, 8 and 9; r-Alternaria alternata 1 [rAlta1]) and crude mould (Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium notatum) and storage mite extracts were determined by ELISA in sera from 24 pulmonary sound control horses and 26 horses suffering from chronic bronchitis/bronchiolitis (CB), also called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Serum IgG and IgA titres were also determined against Aspergillus fumigatus extract and rAsp f 8.IgE against the crude extracts could be measured in all sera, but there was no significant difference between CB-affected and control horses. In contrast, only 8-30% of the horses, depending on the r-allergen tested, had detectable IgE levels in serum against the r-allergens. Horses with CB had significantly more often detectable IgE levels than controls against rAlt a 1 (10/26 and 3/24, respectively, p=0. 054), rAsp f 7 (13/26 and 2/24, respectively, p<0.01) and rAsp f 8 (11/26 and 1/24, respectively, p<0.01). Only four horses (three CB-affected and one healthy, p0.05) had detectable IgE levels against rAsp f 9. Furthermore, CB-affected horses were often sensitised against two or more r-allergens (13/26 of the CB-affected horses) while only one of the 24 healthy horses had positive IgE levels against more than one r-allergens. Similarly to IgE levels, no significant differences between CB-affected and healthy horses were found for IgG titres against the Aspergillus fumigatus extract. However, horses with CB had significantly higher serum IgG titres against rAsp f 8 than healthy controls (median=28 versus 10 relative ELISA units [REU], p<0.01). Additionally, horses with detectable IgE titres against rAsp f 8 had significantly higher IgG titres against this r-allergen than horses with undetectable IgE titres (median IgG titres=46 and 13 REU, respectively; p<0.01). For serum IgA titres, neither differences

  4. Indoor determinants of dustborne allergens in Mexican homes

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Sever, Michelle L.; Sly, Peter D.; London, Stephanie J.; Escamilla-Nuñez, María Consuelo; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens represents a significant risk factor for allergies and asthma in several parts of the world. In Mexico, few studies have evaluated indoor allergens, including cat, dog, and mouse allergens and the factors that predict their presence. This study evaluates the main environmental and household predictors of high prenatal allergen levels and multiple allergen exposures in a birth cohort from Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a birth cohort study of 1094 infants recruited during pregnancy and followed until delivery. We collected dust samples in a subset of 264 homes and assessed environmental factors. Der p 1, Der f 1, dust mite group 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1, Rat n 1, Mus m 1, and Bla g 2 concentrations in dust samples were measured using immunoassays. To define detectable allergen levels, the lowest limits of detection for each allergen were taken as cutoff points. Overall allergen exposure was considered high when four or more allergens exceeded detectable levels in the same household. Logistic regression was used for predictive models. Eighty-five percent of homes had at least one allergen in dust over the detection limit, 52.1% had high exposure (four or more allergens above detectable limits), and 11.7% of homes had detectable levels for more than eight allergens. Der p 1, Der p 2, Mus m 1, and Fel d 1 were the most frequent allergens detected. Each allergen had both common and distinct predictors. The main predictors of a high multiple allergen index were the size of the home, pesticide use, mother's age, mother as homemaker, and season. Increased indoor environmental allergen exposure is mainly related to sociodemographic factors and household cleaning. PMID:25715241

  5. Indoor determinants of dustborne allergens in Mexican homes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Zeldin, Darryl C; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Sever, Michelle L; Sly, Peter D; London, Stephanie J; Escamilla-Nuñez, María Consuelo; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens represents a significant risk factor for allergies and asthma in several parts of the world. In Mexico, few studies have evaluated indoor allergens, including cat, dog, and mouse allergens and the factors that predict their presence. This study evaluates the main environmental and household predictors of high prenatal allergen levels and multiple allergen exposures in a birth cohort from Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a birth cohort study of 1094 infants recruited during pregnancy and followed until delivery. We collected dust samples in a subset of 264 homes and assessed environmental factors. Der p 1, Der f 1, dust mite group 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1, Rat n 1, Mus m 1, and Bla g 2 concentrations in dust samples were measured using immunoassays. To define detectable allergen levels, the lowest limits of detection for each allergen were taken as cutoff points. Overall allergen exposure was considered high when four or more allergens exceeded detectable levels in the same household. Logistic regression was used for predictive models. Eighty-five percent of homes had at least one allergen in dust over the detection limit, 52.1% had high exposure (four or more allergens above detectable limits), and 11.7% of homes had detectable levels for more than eight allergens. Der p 1, Der p 2, Mus m 1, and Fel d 1 were the most frequent allergens detected. Each allergen had both common and distinct predictors. The main predictors of a high multiple allergen index were the size of the home, pesticide use, mother's age, mother as homemaker, and season. Increased indoor environmental allergen exposure is mainly related to sociodemographic factors and household cleaning.

  6. Dust-mite-allergen concentrations in asthmatics' bedrooms in the Quad Cities (Illinois, USA) after the Mississippi River floods of 1993.

    PubMed

    Curtis, L; Ross, M; Scheff, P; Persky, V; Wadden, R; Ramakrishnan, V; Hryhorczuk, D

    1997-06-01

    This study aimed to measure allergens from Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus and to examine possible relationships of these mite allergens with flooding and other housing factors. A total of 313 dust samples were collected from the bedrooms of 57 asthmatics in 45 homes in the Quad Cities (Illinois, USA) and analyzed by ELISA for the presence of the D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus allergens. Twenty of these homes had some flooding in the last 12 months due to the Mississippi River floods of 1993 and/or other factors. The log-transformed least-squares means of allergens collected were 28 ng/m2 for the D. farinae allergen and 26 ng/m2 for the D. pteronyssinus allergen. D. farinae allergen levels were significantly higher in homes located in the valley, in homes during the summer months, in homes with furred or feathered pets, in homes which had not been flooded in the last year, and in homes where rugs had been steam-cleaned in the last 12 months. D. pteronyssinus allergen levels were significantly higher in homes located in the valley, in homes during April and July-September, in homes with furred or feathered pets, and in homes with no dehumidifier.

  7. Effects of the recombinant allergen rDer f 2 on neuro-endocrino-immune network in asthmatic mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong-Qian; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang; Ji, You-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Severe and life-threatening side effects can occur in patients receiving allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), and recombinant allergens made from cDNA have been used in clinical trials for ten years and appear promising for SIT. The aim of this study is to explore the effects of the recombinant allergen Der f 2 (the group 2 allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae) on the neuro-endocrino-immune network in asthmatic mice. Twenty-eight mice were divided into four groups - A, B, C and D. To induce asthma, a crude extract of D. farinae was injected intraperitoneally into the mice in groups B, C and D. Later, the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 was given to groups C and D, respectively. Normal saline was given to groups A and B. Serum corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), interleukin 4 (IL-4), and interferon γ (IFN-γ) were detected by immunoassay and the pathological change of lung tissue was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Serum CRH, ACTH, CORT, and IFN-γ were highest in healthy group A but lowest in asthma group B. Treatment with the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 significantly attenuated this response in asthmatic mice, but there was no difference between the two treatments (p > 0.05). Serum IL-4 was elevated in asthma group B but lowest in healthy group A. Treatment with the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 significantly attenuated this response in asthmatic mice, but there was no significant difference between the two treatments (p > 0.05). However, lung pathology as measured histologically (Underwood Score) showed that rDer f 2-treatment was significantly better than crude extract treatment (p < 0.05). In brief, recombinant allergen Der f 2 can strengthen the function of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, affect the balance of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and reduce pulmonary inflammation in asthmatic mice.

  8. Effects of the recombinant allergen rDer f 2 on neuro-endocrino-immune network in asthmatic mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yong-qian; Zhou, Zhi-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Severe and life-threatening side effects can occur in patients receiving allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), and recombinant allergens made from cDNA have been used in clinical trials for ten years and appear promising for SIT. The aim of this study is to explore the effects of the recombinant allergen Der f 2 (the group 2 allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae) on the neuro-endocrino-immune network in asthmatic mice. Twenty-eight mice were divided into four groups – A, B, C and D. To induce asthma, a crude extract of D. farinae was injected intraperitoneally into the mice in groups B, C and D. Later, the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 was given to groups C and D, respectively. Normal saline was given to groups A and B. Serum corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), interleukin 4 (IL-4), and interferon γ (IFN-γ) were detected by immunoassay and the pathological change of lung tissue was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Serum CRH, ACTH, CORT, and IFN-γ were highest in healthy group A but lowest in asthma group B. Treatment with the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 significantly attenuated this response in asthmatic mice, but there was no difference between the two treatments (p > 0.05). Serum IL-4 was elevated in asthma group B but lowest in healthy group A. Treatment with the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 significantly attenuated this response in asthmatic mice, but there was no significant difference between the two treatments (p > 0.05). However, lung pathology as measured histologically (Underwood Score) showed that rDer f 2-treatment was significantly better than crude extract treatment (p < 0.05). In brief, recombinant allergen Der f 2 can strengthen the function of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, affect the balance of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and reduce pulmonary inflammation in asthmatic mice. PMID:26155138

  9. Safety of Accelerated Schedules of Subcutaneous Allergen Immunotherapy with House Dust Mite Extract in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myoung-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Sung, Joon-Mo; Lee, Jin-Woo; Choi, Gil-Soon

    2011-01-01

    The safety of accelerated schedules of allergen immunotherapy (ASAI) in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) has been reported but there are little data on the safety of ASAI for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, we investigated the safety of ASAI in patients with AD. Sixty patients with AD and 18 patients with BA sensitized to house dust mites (HDM) were studied. A maximum maintenance dose of HDM extract, adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide, was administered to patients by subcutaneous injection with either a 3-day protocol (rush immunotherapy) or 1-day protocol (ultra-rush immunotherapy). Systemic reactions were observed 4 of 15 patients (26.7%) with AD during rush immunotherapy, 13 of 45 patients (28.9%) with AD during ultra-rush immunotherapy, and 4 of 18 patients (22.2%) with BA during rush immunotherapy (P > 0.05). No severe or near fatal systemic reactions occurred in 78 subjects of this study. Systemic reactions developed within 4 hr after administration of the maximum allergen dose in 20 of 21 patients (95.2%) with AD and BA who showed systemic reactions during rush or ultra-rush immunotherapy. In conclusion, ASAI was safe and well tolerated in patients with AD. ASAI can be a useful therapeutic option for AD. PMID:21935270

  10. Guideline recommendations on the use of allergen immunotherapy in house dust mite allergy: Time for a change?

    PubMed

    Calderón, Moisés A; Bousquet, Jean; Canonica, G Walter; Cardell, Lars-Olaf; Fernandez de Rojas, Dolores Hernandez; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Demoly, Pascal

    2017-07-01

    Guidelines on the treatment of asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), and allergen immunotherapy (AIT) lack recommendations for house dust mite (HDM) allergy. An expert panel reviewed current guidelines in the light of new data to assess whether guidelines could be improved. Most guidelines and key position papers did not provide specific recommendations on treatment of allergic asthma (AA) caused by HDM allergy, although some included AIT as a treatment option for AA in general. Around half of the guidelines stated that AIT with HDM extract was an effective treatment for AR, with several indicating sublingual immunotherapy as an option. This heterogeneity is caused by quality issues affecting studies of AIT with perennial allergens in patients with AA and AR, including use of different diagnosis and severity criteria, lack of consistent scoring or grading systems for primary and safety outcomes, and lack of consensus on treatment parameters. There is a need for well-designed clinical trials to serve as a basis for guideline recommendations. Although results from recent studies strengthen the evidence base for the efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy in patients with HDM-induced AA and AR, their effect on subsequent guideline updates will depend on the methodology and evidence model used by each guideline. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of bedding control on amount of house dust mite allergens, asthma symptoms, and peak expiratory flow rate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Inn-Sook

    2003-04-30

    This quasi-experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of bedding control on the amount of house dust mite (HDM) allergens, asthma symptoms, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in asthmatics sensitive to HDMs. The subjects in the study were drawn from patients receiving treatment at the allergy clinics of three university-affiliated hospitals in Seoul. Forty-two patients without prior practice of the bedding control used in this study were selected. They commonly showed bronchial asthma caused by HDMs, and exhibited strong positive points (more than 3 points) in skin prick test (D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus), and positive response in both fluoro-allergosorbent test (FAST), and PC20 methacholine test. Of the subjects, alternatively, 22 were assigned to the experimental group and 20 to control group. Bedding control consisted of the use of outer cotton covers, boiling them for 10 minutes fortnightly, and disinfecting bedding by sunlight fortnightly. The experimental group was under bedding control for 4 weeks. The data were collected from October 2000 to January 2001. The results were as follows: 1. After bedding control, the total amount of HDM allergens decreased significantly in the experimental group. However there was no significant difference in the decrease of the amount of HDM allergens between the two groups. 2. Of the asthma symptoms, there was significant difference only in the decrease of the frequency of dyspnea, and in the increase of sleeping disturbance between the two groups after bedding control. 3. After bedding control, PEFR increased in the experimental group whereas it decreased in the control group. However, neither change was significant. The above findings indicate that bedding control improved several asthma symptoms in asthmatics sensitive to HDMs. Accordingly, we suggest that bedding control is adopted as a useful nursing intervention in the field.

  12. Ingestion of milk containing the Dp2 peptide, a dust mite allergen, protects mice from allergic airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergen-specific immunotherapy has been demonstrated to have potential for the treatment of allergic diseases. Transgenic animals are currently the best available bioreactors to produce recombinant proteins, which can be secreted in milk. It has not been clearly demonstrated whether milk from transgenic animals expressing recombinant allergens has immunomodulatory effects on allergic asthma. Methods We aimed to determine whether the oral administration of milk containing a mite allergen can down-regulate allergen-specific airway inflammation. Transgenic CD-1 mice that express a recombinant group 2 allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp2) in their milk were generated using an embryonic gene-microinjection technique. Mouse pups were fed transgenic Dp2-containing milk or wild-type milk. Subsequently, these mice were sensitized and challenged with Dp2 to induce allergic airway inflammation. Results Upon sensitization and challenge, mice fed transgenic Dp2 milk had decreased T-helper 2 (Th2) and increased T-helper 1 (Th1) responses in the airway compared with mice fed wild-type milk. Moreover, pre-treatment with transgenic Dp2 milk attenuated airway inflammation and decreased airway hyper-responsiveness. Conclusions This study provides new evidence that oral administration of transgenic milk containing the Dp2 allergen down-regulated and moderately protected against allergic airway inflammation. Milk from transgenic animals expressing allergens may have potential use in the prevention of allergic asthma. PMID:23763898

  13. Evaluation of HEPA vacuum cleaning and dry steam cleaning in reducing levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and house dust mite allergens in carpets

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Rhoads, George G.

    2014-01-01

    Dry steam cleaning, which has gained recent attention as an effective method to reduce house dust mite (HDM) allergen concentration and loading in carpets, was evaluated in this study for its efficacy in lowering levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as HDM allergens. Fifty urban homes with wail-to-wall carpets, mostly low-income and with known lead contamination, were studied in 2003 and 2004. Two carpet-cleaning interventions were compared: Repeated HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air filtered) vacuuming alone and repeated HEPA vacuuming supplemented with dry steam cleaning. Vacuum samples were collected to measure carpet loading of dust and contaminants immediately before and after cleaning. Paired comparisons were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the cleaning protocols in reducing the levels of PAHs and HDM allergens in carpets. The results indicated that both cleaning methods substantially reduced the loading of PAHs and HDM allergens as well as dust in carpets (p < 0.0001). The reductions in loading of dust (64.4%), PAHs (69.1%), and HDM allergens (85.5%), by dry steam cleaning plus repetitive HEPA vacuuming were larger than the reductions by regular HEPA vacuuming alone: dust (55.5%), PAHs (58.6%), and HDM allergens (80.8%), although the difference was statistically significant only for dust and PAHs. We conclude that intensive HEPA vacuum cleaning substantially reduced the loading of PAHs and HDM allergens in carpets in these urban homes and that dry steam cleaning added modestly to cleaning effectiveness. PMID:19137159

  14. The relative allergenicity of Stachybotrys chartarum compared to house dust mite extracts in a mouse model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A report by the Institute of Medicine suggested that more research is needed to better understand mold effects on allergic disease, particularly asthma development. The authors compared the ability of the fungus Stachybotrys chartarum (SCE) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to i...

  15. Effect of inhaled dust mite allergen on regional particle deposition and mucociliary clearance in allergic asthmatics**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Acute exacerbations in allergic asthmatics may lead to impaired ability to clear mucus from the airways, a key factor in asthma morbidity. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhaled house dust mite challenge on the regional deposition of...

  16. The relative allergenicity of Stachybotrys chartarum compared to house dust mite extracts in a mouse model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A report by the Institute of Medicine suggested that more research is needed to better understand mold effects on allergic disease, particularly asthma development. The authors compared the ability of the fungus Stachybotrys chartarum (SCE) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to i...

  17. Effect of inhaled dust mite allergen on regional particle deposition and mucociliary clearance in allergic asthmatics**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Acute exacerbations in allergic asthmatics may lead to impaired ability to clear mucus from the airways, a key factor in asthma morbidity. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhaled house dust mite challenge on the regional deposition of...

  18. Allergen

    MedlinePlus

    Common allergens include: Animal proteins and animal dander Dust Drugs (such as antibiotics or medicines you put on your skin) Foods (such as egg, peanut, milk, nuts, soy, fish, animal meat, and wheat) Fungal spores ...

  19. Distinctive immunoglobulin E anti-house dust allergen-binding specificities in a tropical Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Hales, B J; Laing, I A; Pearce, L J; Hazell, L A; Mills, K L; Chua, K Y; Thornton, R B; Richmond, P; Musk, A W; James, A L; Lesouëf, P N; Thomas, W R

    2007-09-01

    There is evidence that the specificity of the IgE binding in allergy tests can vary for different populations. We aimed to examine the allergenic specificity of IgE binding in sera from house dust mite (HDM)-atopic subjects in a tropical Australian Aboriginal community. Sera shown to contain IgE antibodies to an HDM extract of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were examined for IgE binding to a panel of nine purified HDM allergens from this mite species by quantitative microtitre assays. IgG antibody binding (IgG1 and IgG4) was also measured. The IgE-binding activity in the sera from the Aboriginal community was not directed to the expected major groups 1 and 2 HDM allergens but instead to the group 4 amylase allergen. There was also little IgE binding to the potentially cross-reactive tropomyosin (Der p 10) or arginine kinase (Der p 20) allergens. The IgG4 antibody was rarely detected and limited to the Der p 4 allergen. IgG1 antibody binding was frequently measured to all the allergens regardless of an individual's atopic status, whereas in urban communities it is restricted to the major allergens and to atopic subjects. The high IgE anti-HDM response of Australian Aboriginals predominantly bound Der p 4 and not the Der p 1 and 2 allergens, showing a distinctive allergy that could affect the disease outcome and diagnosis.

  20. Cellular cytokine and chemokine responses to parasite antigens and fungus and mite allergens in children co-infected with helminthes and protozoa parasites.

    PubMed

    Hegewald, Jana; Gantin, Richard G; Lechner, Christian J; Huang, Xiangsheng; Agosssou, Abram; Agbeko, Yvon F; Soboslay, Peter T; Köhler, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa poly-parasite infections are frequently observed in children, and with poly-parasitism modulating immune mechanisms, mediated by cytokines and chemokines, are required to prevent overwhelming inflammation and host tissue damage. We analyzed in children co-infected with helminthes and protozoan parasites their cellular production of regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to parasite antigens and allergens. Intestinal and intravascular parasite infections were detected in stool and urines samples. The in vitro cellular cytokine and chemokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to parasite antigens and allergens were analysed in children (n = 87) with single and poly-parasite infection, and skin prick test reactivity to fungus and mite allergens was determined in singly and poly-parasitized children (n = 509). In children Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (62%), Necator americanus (31%), Schistosoma haematobium (28%), S. mansoni (21%), Hymenolepis nana (2%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (1%) were diagnosed. Singly infected were 37%, 47% were positive for 2 or more parasite species and 16% were infection-free. When PBMC were stimulated in vitro with parasite antigens and allergens, regulatory-type cytokine IL-27 and alarmin-type IL-33 enhanced with poly-parasite infections whilst IL-10 and pro-inflammatory MIP3-α/CCL20 and MIG/CXCL9 were produced in similar amounts in singly or poly-parasitized children. The co-stimulation in vitro of PBMC with mite allergens and Ascaris lumbricoides antigens depressed the allergen-induced pro-inflammatory IL-27, IL-33 and MIP3-α/CCL20 responses while regulatory IL-10 remained unaffected. Post albendazole and/or praziquantel treatment, the cellular release of IL-10, IL-33, MIP3-α/CCL20 and MIG/CXCL9 lessened significantly in all children infection groups. Skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

  1. Identification of a cross-reactive allergen (presumably tropomyosin) in shrimp, mite and insects.

    PubMed

    Witteman, A M; Akkerdaas, J H; van Leeuwen, J; van der Zee, J S; Aalberse, R C

    1994-09-01

    A monoclonal antibody to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is described that cross-reacts with an IgE-binding antigen present in insects, Crustacea (e.g. shrimp) and other invertebrates. By means of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration and immunofluorescence it was shown that this monoclonal antibody presumably recognizes tropomyosin. Tropomyosin was shown to be involved in cross-reactivity between mite, shrimp and insects in shrimp-allergic patients.

  2. The effects of inhaled corticosteroids on intrinsic responsiveness and histology of airways from infant monkeys exposed to house dust mite allergen and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Joad, Jesse P. Kott, Kayleen S.; Bric, John M.; Schelegle, Edward S.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Plopper, Charles G.; Peake, Janice L.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2008-01-15

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are recommended to treat infants with asthma, some with intermittent asthma. We previously showed that exposing infant monkeys to allergen/ozone resulted in asthma-like characteristics of their airways. We evaluated the effects of ICS on histology and intrinsic responsiveness of allergen/ozone-exposed and normal infant primate airways. Infant monkeys were exposed by inhalation to (1) filtered air and saline, (2) house dust mite allergen (HDMA) + ozone and saline, (3) filtered air and ICS (budesonide) or (4) HDMA + ozone and ICS. Allergen/ozone exposures started at 1 month and ICS at 3 months of age. At 6 months of age, methacholine-induced changes in luminal area of airways in proximal and distal lung slices were determined using videomicrometry, followed by histology of the same slices. Proximal airway responsiveness was increased by allergen/ozone and by ICS. Eosinophil profiles were increased by allergen/ozone in both proximal and distal airways, an effect that was decreased by ICS in distal airways. In both allergen/ozone- and air-exposed monkeys, ICS increased the number of alveolar attachments in distal airways, decreased mucin in proximal airways and decreased epithelial volume in both airways. ICS increased smooth muscle in air-exposed animals while decreasing it in allergen/ozone-exposed animals in both airways. In proximal airways, there was a small but significant positive correlation between smooth muscle and airway responsiveness, as well as between alveolar attachments and responsiveness. ICS change morphology and function in normal airways as well as allergen/ozone-exposed airways, suggesting that they should be reserved for infants with active symptoms.

  3. Generation of a transgenic rice seed-based edible vaccine against house dust mite allergy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijun; Kajiura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Kazuya; Hirose, Sakiko; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2008-01-11

    As an alternative approach to conventional allergen-specific immunotherapy, transgenic rice seed expressing a major house dust mite (HDM) allergen, Der p 1, was developed as an edible vaccine. The C-terminal KDEL-tagged Der p 1 allergen specifically accumulated in seed endosperm tissue under the control of the endosperm-specific GluB1 promoter. Der p 1 reached a maximum concentration of 58 microg/grain and was deposited in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived protein body I (PB-I). Plant-derived Der p 1 was posttranslationally modified with high-mannose-type glycan structures. Glycosylated Der p 1 displayed reduced IgE binding capacity in comparison with its unglycosylated counterpart in vitro. Our results indicate that transgenic Der p 1 rice seeds are a safe, potential oral delivery vaccine for the treatment of HDM allergy.

  4. Feces Derived Allergens of Tyrophagus putrescentiae Reared on Dried Dog Food and Evidence of the Strong Nutritional Interaction between the Mite and Bacillus cereus Producing Protease Bacillolysins and Exo-chitinases

    PubMed Central

    Erban, Tomas; Rybanska, Dagmar; Harant, Karel; Hortova, Bronislava; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) is an emerging source of allergens in stored products and homes. Feces proteases are the major allergens of astigmatid mites (Acari: Acaridida). In addition, the mites are carriers of microorganisms and microbial adjuvant compounds that stimulate innate signaling pathways. We sought to analyze the mite feces proteome, proteolytic activities, and mite-bacterial interaction in dry dog food (DDF). Proteomic methods comprising enzymatic and zymographic analysis of proteases and 2D-E-MS/MS were performed. The highest protease activity was assigned to trypsin-like proteases; lower activity was assigned to chymotrypsin-like proteases, and the cysteine protease cathepsin B-like had very low activity. The 2D-E-MS/MS proteomic analysis identified mite trypsin allergen Tyr p3, fatty acid-binding protein Tyr p13 and putative mite allergens ferritin (Grp 30) and (poly)ubiquitins. Tyr p3 was detected at different positions of the 2D-E. It indicates presence of zymogen at basic pI, and mature-enzyme form and enzyme fragment at acidic pI. Bacillolysins (neutral and alkaline proteases) of Bacillus cereus symbiont can contribute to the protease activity of the mite extract. The bacterial exo-chitinases likely contribute to degradation of mite exuviae, mite bodies or food boluses consisting of chitin, including the peritrophic membrane. Thus, the chitinases disrupt the feces and facilitate release of the allergens. B. cereus was isolated and identified based on amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA and motB genes. B. cereus was added into high-fat, high-protein (DDF) and low-fat, low-protein (flour) diets to 1 and 5% (w/w), and the diets palatability was evaluated in 21-day population growth test. The supplementation of diet with B. cereus significantly suppressed population growth and the suppressive effect was higher in the high-fat, high-protein diet than in the low-fat, low-protein food. Thus, B. cereus has to coexist with the mite in

  5. Feces Derived Allergens of Tyrophagus putrescentiae Reared on Dried Dog Food and Evidence of the Strong Nutritional Interaction between the Mite and Bacillus cereus Producing Protease Bacillolysins and Exo-chitinases.

    PubMed

    Erban, Tomas; Rybanska, Dagmar; Harant, Karel; Hortova, Bronislava; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) is an emerging source of allergens in stored products and homes. Feces proteases are the major allergens of astigmatid mites (Acari: Acaridida). In addition, the mites are carriers of microorganisms and microbial adjuvant compounds that stimulate innate signaling pathways. We sought to analyze the mite feces proteome, proteolytic activities, and mite-bacterial interaction in dry dog food (DDF). Proteomic methods comprising enzymatic and zymographic analysis of proteases and 2D-E-MS/MS were performed. The highest protease activity was assigned to trypsin-like proteases; lower activity was assigned to chymotrypsin-like proteases, and the cysteine protease cathepsin B-like had very low activity. The 2D-E-MS/MS proteomic analysis identified mite trypsin allergen Tyr p3, fatty acid-binding protein Tyr p13 and putative mite allergens ferritin (Grp 30) and (poly)ubiquitins. Tyr p3 was detected at different positions of the 2D-E. It indicates presence of zymogen at basic pI, and mature-enzyme form and enzyme fragment at acidic pI. Bacillolysins (neutral and alkaline proteases) of Bacillus cereus symbiont can contribute to the protease activity of the mite extract. The bacterial exo-chitinases likely contribute to degradation of mite exuviae, mite bodies or food boluses consisting of chitin, including the peritrophic membrane. Thus, the chitinases disrupt the feces and facilitate release of the allergens. B. cereus was isolated and identified based on amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA and motB genes. B. cereus was added into high-fat, high-protein (DDF) and low-fat, low-protein (flour) diets to 1 and 5% (w/w), and the diets palatability was evaluated in 21-day population growth test. The supplementation of diet with B. cereus significantly suppressed population growth and the suppressive effect was higher in the high-fat, high-protein diet than in the low-fat, low-protein food. Thus, B. cereus has to coexist with the mite in

  6. 159 Therapeutic Effect and Safety of the Sublingual Immunotherapy With Tropical House Dust Mite Allergen Vaccines in Asthmatic Cuban Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Castro Almarales, Raúl Lázaro; Ronquillo, Mercedes; Labrada, Alexis; Castello, Mirta Alvarez; González, Mayda; Rodríguez, José; Enriquez, Irene; Navarro Viltres, Bárbara I; DíazLic, Yunia Oliva; Mateo, Maytee

    2012-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous injection route (SCIT) is burdened with the risk of severe adverse events; therefore, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is being increasingly investigated. The efficacy of SLIT in asthma has been reviewed in a Cochrane meta-analysis. Allergic sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides siboney (Ds) and Blomia tropicalis (Bt) is strongly linked to respiratory allergy and asthma in Cuba (3). These last 2 species are relevant in tropical countries or even only in the Caribbean region (4). Nevertheless, well conducted clinical studies of immunotherapy with standardized allergen vaccines of these particular species are very scarce. Objective This study was conducted to assess the therapeutic effect and safety of allergen therapeutic vaccines of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides siboney and Blomia tropicalis House-Dust mites (VALERGEN, BIOCEN, Cuba) by sublingual route, in asthmatic patients. Methods Three Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled clinical trials were performed in 40 patients each, showing asthmatic symptoms and positive predominant Skin Prick Test (SPT) to each mite, respectively. Half of subjects were randomized to active group. Treatment consisted of sublingual drops with increasing daily doses for 3 weeks and maintenance doses (2000 BU) twice a week until 12 months. Results Therapeutic effect was assessed after 6 and 12 months using symptoms/medication diary cards, peak expiratory flow (PEF) measures and skin sensitivity to investigated mites. Adverse reactions were classified using the World Allergy Organization scale. The treatment reduced significantly (P < 0.01) clinical symptoms (38%, 95% CI, 33-44) and medication intake (26%, 95% CI, 21-32) with respect to placebo. The skin sensitivity to the allergens decreased also significantly (P < 0.01). The allergen amount needed to induce a positive SPT increased 52-fold. PEF variability decreased also significantly (P < 0.05). The treatment was

  7. The group 10 allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae (Acari: Pyroglyphidae): cDNA cloning, sequence analysis, and expression in Escherichia coli BL21.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yubao; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Yungang; Ma, Guifang; Yang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, American house dust mite, is highly allergenic, producing symptoms in people worldwide. Identifying and cloning the allergens in this species may enable better diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Here, we cloned, sequenced, and expressed the full-length cDNA encoding D. farinae group 10 allergen (Der f 10) isolated from dust mites in China. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the 888 bp sequence encoded a cytoskeleton protein 295 amino acids long, with a molecular weight of approximately equal 34 kDa. Sequence alignment with the group 10 allergens of Pyroglyphidae, Acaridae, and Glycyphagidae families revealed that the group 10 allergen from D. farinae is 95% similar to D. pteronyssinus Trouessart and Psoroptes ovis (Hering). These findings lay the groundwork for future studies, including large-scale production of recombinant Der f 10 allergen for diagnostic and therapeutic agents.

  8. Prevalence of house dust mites and dermatophagoides group 1 antigens collected from bedding, skin and hair coat of dogs in south-west England.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Anna P; Foster, Aiden P; Hart, Barbara J; Helps, Chris R; Shaw, Susan E

    2005-02-01

    The house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) and D. pteronyssinus (Dpt) are commonly implicated as allergens causing canine atopic dermatitis in the UK. However, there are few studies that characterize the exposure of UK pet dogs to these mites. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of the mite species on the skin, hair coat and bedding of a population of pet dogs. Dust samples (n = 68) were collected from both dogs and their beds using a standardized vacuuming technique and stored at -20 degrees C. Mites were identified using accepted morphological criteria. House dust mite allergen concentrations were assayed using standardized ELISA for Dpt and Df group 1 allergens (Der p 1 and Der f 1). Mites were identified in 15/68 samples (22%) and Dpt was the most common. Df mites were not present. Der p 1 allergens were detected in 60% of samples, and Der f 1 in 6% of samples. There were no significant differences between the number of Der p 1 positive samples from dogs and the number of those from their bedding, or between the average Der p 1 concentrations from dogs and the number of those from their bedding. Contrary to studies elsewhere in Europe and the USA, these findings support studies of human asthma patients in the UK, where exposure to Df is rare, but to Dpt is common. As the prevalence of positive intradermal and serological reactions to Df in atopic dogs is high, further investigations are warranted to clarify true Df hypersensitivity or potential immunological cross-reactivity between mite allergens.

  9. Oxidized cellulose binding to allergens with a carbohydrate-binding module attenuates allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Shani, Nir; Shani, Ziv; Shoseyov, Oded; Mruwat, Rufayda; Shoseyov, David

    2011-01-15

    Grass and mite allergens are of the main causes of allergy and asthma. A carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) represents a common motif to groups I (β-expansin) and II/III (expansin-like) grass allergens and is suggested to mediate allergen-IgE binding. House dust mite group II allergen (Der p 2 and Der f 2) structures bear strong similarity to expansin's CBM, suggesting their ability to bind carbohydrates. Thus, this study proposes the design of a carbohydrate-based treatment in which allergen binding to carbohydrate particles will promote allergen airway clearance and prevent allergic reactions. The aim of the study was to identify a polysaccharide with high allergen-binding capacities and to explore its ability to prevent allergy. Oxidized cellulose (OC) demonstrated allergen-binding capacities toward grass and mite allergens that surpassed those of any other polysaccharide examined in this study. Furthermore, inhalant preparations of OC microparticles attenuated allergic lung inflammation in rye grass-sensitized Brown Norway rats and OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice. Fluorescently labeled OC efficiently cleared from the mouse airways and body organs. Moreover, long-term administration of OC inhalant to Wistar rats did not result in toxicity. In conclusion, many allergens, such as grass and dust mite, contain a common CBM motif. OC demonstrates a strong and relatively specific allergen-binding capacity to CBM-containing allergens. OC's ability to attenuate allergic inflammation, together with its documented safety record, forms a firm basis for its application as an alternative treatment for prevention and relief of allergy and asthma.

  10. House-dust mite allergen and ozone exposure decreases histamine H3 receptors in the brainstem respiratory nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Bechtold, Andrea G.; Tham, Rick C.; Kott, Kayleen S.; Hyde, Dallas M.; Joad, Jesse P.; Bonham, Ann C.

    2010-09-15

    Allergic airway diseases in children are a common and a growing health problem. Changes in the central nervous system (CNS) have been implicated in contributing to some of the symptoms. We hypothesized that airway allergic diseases are associated with altered histamine H3 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus, where lung/airway and nasal sensory afferents terminate, respectively. Immunohistochemistry for histamine H3 receptors was performed on brainstem sections containing the NTS and the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus from 6- and 12-month-old rhesus monkeys who had been exposed for 5 months to house dust mite allergen (HDMA) + O{sub 3} or to filtered air (FA). While histamine H3 receptors were found exclusively in astrocytes in the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus, they were localized to both neuronal terminals and processes in the NTS. HDMA + O{sub 3} exposure significantly decreased histamine H3 receptor immunoreactivity in the NTS at 6 months and in the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus at 12 months of age. In conclusion, exposing young primates to HDMA + O{sub 3} changed histamine H3 receptor expression in CNS pathways involving lung and nasal afferent nerves in an age-related manner. Histamine H3 receptors may be a therapeutic target for allergic asthma and rhinitis in children.

  11. Quantitative measurement of IgE antibodies to purified allergens using streptavidin linked to a high-capacity solid phase.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Elizabeth A; Custis, Natalie J; Satinover, Shama M; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Woodfolk, Judith A; Crane, Julian; Wickens, Kristin; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2005-05-01

    Commercially available assays for IgE antibody provide results in international units per milliliter for many allergen extracts, but this is not easily achieved with purified or novel allergens. To develop assays for IgE antibody suitable for purified or novel allergens by using a commercially available immunosorbent. Streptavidin coupled to a high-capacity immunosorbent (CAP) was used to bind biotinylated purified allergens from mite (Der p 1 and Der p 2), cat (Fel d 1), and dog (Can f 1). Assays for IgE antibody to these allergens were performed on sera from children (asthma and control) as well as adults with atopic dermatitis. The results were validated by serial dilution of sera with high and low levels of IgE antibody and were quantitated in international units per milliliter by using a standard curve. Values for IgE antibody to Der p 1, Der p 2, and Fel d 1 correlated with values obtained with the allergen extracts (r2 = 0.80, 0.84, and 0.95, respectively; P < .001 in each case). Furthermore, the values for IgE antibody in sera from children with high exposure to mite and cat allergens demonstrated 10-fold higher levels of IgE antibody to Der p 1 and Der p 2 than to Fel d 1 (P < .001). The streptavidin immunosorbent technique provides a new method for quantifying IgE antibody to purified proteins. The results provide evidence about the high quantities of IgE antibody to purified inhalant allergens in patients with atopic dermatitis. In addition, the results demonstrate major differences in IgE antibodies specific for mite and cat allergens among children with high exposure to both allergens.

  12. Changes in skin reactivity and associated factors in patients sensitized to house dust mites after 1 year of allergen-specific immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Son, Jeong-Yeop; Jung, Mann-Hong; Koh, Kwang-Wook; Park, Eun-Kee; Heo, Jeong-Hoon; Choi, Gil-Soon

    2017-01-01

    Background Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) can significantly improve symptoms and reduce the need for symptomatic medication. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate changes in skin reactivity to house dust mites (HDMs) as an immunologic response and associated factors after 1 year of immunotherapy. Methods A total of 80 patients with allergic airway diseases who received subcutaneous SIT with HDMs from 2009 to 2014 were evaluated. The investigated parameters were basic demographic characteristics, skin reactivity and specific IgE for HDM, serum total IgE level, blood eosinophil counts, and medication score. Results The mean levels of skin reactivity to HDMs, blood eosinophil counts, and medication scores after 1 year were significantly reduced from baseline. In univariate comparison of the changes in skin reactivity to HDMs, age ≤30 years, HDMs only as target of immunotherapy, and high initial skin reactivity (≥2) to HDMs were significantly associated with the reduction in skin test reactivity. In multivariate analysis, high initial skin reactivity and HDMs only as target allergens were significantly associated with changes in skin reactivity to HDMs. In the receiver operating characteristic curve of the initial mean skin reactivity to HDMs for more than 50% reduction, the optimal cutoff value was 2.14. Conclusion This study showed significant reductions in allergen skin reactivity to HDMs after 1 year of immunotherapy in patients sensitized to HDMs. The extent of initial allergen skin reactivity and only HDMs as target allergen were important predictive factors for changes in skin reactivity. PMID:28487839

  13. Indoor allergens, environmental avoidance, and allergic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Bush, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    Indoor allergen exposure to sources such as house-dust mites, pets, fungi, and insects plays a significant role in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. The identification of the major allergens has led to methods that can quantitate exposure, e.g., immunoassays for Der p 1 in settled dust samples. Sensitization and the development of allergic respiratory disease result from complex genetic and environmental interactions. New paradigms that examine the role of other environmental factors, including exposure to proteases that can activate eosinophils and initiate Th2 responses, and epigenetics, are being explored. Recommendations for specific environmental allergen avoidance measures are discussed for house-dust mites, cockroaches, animal dander, and fungi. Specific measures to reduce indoor allergen exposure when vigorously applied may reduce the risk of sensitization and symptoms of allergic respiratory disease, although further research will be necessary to establish cost-effective approaches.

  14. Direct contact between dendritic cells and bronchial epithelial cells inhibits T cell recall responses towards mite and pollen allergen extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Papazian, D; Wagtmann, V R; Hansen, S; Würtzen, P A

    2015-08-01

    Airway epithelial cells (AECs) form a polarized barrier along the respiratory tract. They are the first point of contact with airborne antigens and are able to instruct resident immune cells to mount appropriate immune responses by either soluble or contact-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesize that a healthy, polarized epithelial cell layer inhibits inflammatory responses towards allergens to uphold homeostasis. Using an in-vitro co-culture model of the airway epithelium, where a polarized cell layer of bronchial epithelial cells can interact with dendritic cells (DCs), we have investigated recall T cell responses in allergic patients sensitized to house dust mite, grass and birch pollen. Using allergen extract-loaded DCs to stimulate autologous allergen-specific T cell lines, we show that AEC-imprinted DCs inhibit T cell proliferation significantly of Bet v 1-specific T cell lines as well as decrease interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 production, whereas inhibition of Phl p 5-specific T cells varied between different donors. Stimulating autologous CD4(+) T cells from allergic patients with AEC-imprinted DCs also inhibited proliferation significantly and decreased production of both T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines upon rechallenge. The inhibitory effects of AECs' contact with DCs were absent when allergen extract-loaded DCs had been exposed only to AECs supernatants, but present after direct contact with AECs. We conclude that direct contact between DCs and AECs inhibits T cell recall responses towards birch, grass and house dust mite allergens in vitro, suggesting that AECs-DC contact in vivo constitute a key element in mucosal homeostasis in relation to allergic sensitisation.

  15. [Leather dust and sensitizing agents. A study on occupational indoor allergenic pollution in shoes].

    PubMed

    Cirla, Angelo Mario; Del Frate, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed to ascertain a possible pollution by allergenic Mites in 15 samples of leather dust belonging to occupational environments of 4 Italian shoes factories. All dosages were both performed by a quantitative immunologic and ELISA method (Indoor Biotechnology Lmd) and a semi-quantitative colorimetric method (Aclotest Lofarma) and the results were compared according to a five steps risk-evaluation. In all factories allergenic components of Mites were documented. The highest concentration of Der p1 and Der f 1 in dust was 15,4 mcg/g, while allergens prevailed around the working-places, where discards of leather usually were collected. Moulds were studied in 29 samples of 9 shoes factories, adopting specific cultures. In all but one occupational environment moulds were present and taxa of Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium were prevalent, spores of them have known allergenic propert. Besides the identification, quantitative levels were not planned in this study. Dermatophytes were absent, while four taxa of Keratinophylic non allergenic moulds were observe. When leather dust are disperded in occupational environments a risk due to allergenic agents as secondary contamination must be carefully considered. Such a risk, according to our results, may be classified as "intermediate for allergenic Mites" and temptatively "light for allergenic moulds". Such a risk might be carefully considered for legal and preventive purposes and also monitored by occupational healthcare professionals.

  16. The Glycosylation Pattern of Common Allergens: The Recognition and Uptake of Der p 1 by Epithelial and Dendritic Cells Is Carbohydrate Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghouleh, Abeer; Johal, Ramneek; Sharquie, Inas K.; Emara, Mohammed; Harrington, Helen; Shakib, Farouk; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.

    2012-01-01

    Allergens are initiators of both innate and adaptive immune responses. They are recognised at the site of entry by epithelial and dendritic cells (DCs), both of which activate innate inflammatory circuits that can collectively induce Th2 immune responses. In an attempt to have a better understanding of the role of carbohydrates in the recognition and uptake of allergens by the innate immune system, we defined common glycosylation patterns in major allergens. This was done using labelled lectins and showed that allergens like Der p 1 (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 1), Fel d 1 (Felis domisticus), Ara h 1 (Arachis hypogaea), Der p 2 (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 2), Bla g 2 (Blattella germanica) and Can f 1 (Canis familiaris) are glycosylated and that the main dominant sugars on these allergens are 1–2, 1–3 and 1–6 mannose. These observations are in line with recent reports implicating the mannose receptor (MR) in allergen recognition and uptake by DCs and suggesting a major link between glycosylation and allergen recognition. We then looked at TSLP (Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin) cytokine secretion by lung epithelia upon encountering natural Der p 1 allergen. TSLP is suggested to drive DC maturation in support of allergic hypersensitivity reactions. Our data showed an increase in TSLP secretion by lung epithelia upon stimulation with natural Der p 1 which was carbohydrate dependent. The deglycosylated preparation of Der p 1 exhibited minimal uptake by DCs compared to the natural and hyperglycosylated recombinant counterparts, with the latter being taken up more readily than the other preparations. Collectively, our data indicate that carbohydrate moieties on allergens play a vital role in their recognition by innate immune cells, implicating them in downstream deleterious Th2 cell activation and IgE production. PMID:22479478

  17. First National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing: survey design and methods for the allergen and endotoxin components.

    PubMed Central

    Vojta, Patrick J; Friedman, Warren; Marker, David A; Clickner, Robert; Rogers, John W; Viet, Susan M; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2002-01-01

    From July 1998 to August 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted the first National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. The purpose of the survey was to assess children's potential household exposure to lead, allergens, and bacterial endotoxins. We surveyed a sample of 831 homes, representing 96 million permanently occupied, noninstitutional housing units that permit resident children. We administered questionnaires to household members, made home observations, and took environmental samples. This article provides general background information on the survey, an overview of the survey design, and a description of the data collection and laboratory methods pertaining to the allergen and endotoxin components. We collected dust samples from a bed, the bedroom floor, a sofa or chair, the living room floor, the kitchen floor, and a basement floor and analyzed them for cockroach allergen Bla g 1, the dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, the cat allergen Fel d 1, the dog allergen Can f 1, the rodent allergens Rat n 1 and mouse urinary protein, allergens of the fungus Alternaria alternata, and endotoxin. This article provides the essential context for subsequent reports that will describe the prevalence of allergens and endotoxin in U.S. households, their distribution by various housing characteristics, and their associations with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. PMID:12003758

  18. Domestic allergens and endotoxin in three hospitals offering in-patient rehabilitation for allergic diseases in the alpine mountain climate of Bavaria - The AURA study.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, B; Gulyas, A F; Schultz, K; Lecheler, J; Flögel, S; Wolfmeyer, C; Thiessen, K; Jakob, T; Schuster, T; Hollweck, R; Ring, J; Behrendt, H

    2009-01-01

    Endotoxins and allergens represent the major relevant contents of the atmospheric bioaerosol with regard to the triggering and exacerbation of allergic diseases. In this study, mattress concentrations of endotoxin and indoor allergens were measured in three hospitals in the alpine climate of Bavaria and in adjacent homes. Dust was collected from each of 10 mattresses according to a standardized protocol, and endotoxin was analyzed with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test, indoor allergens Der p 1, Der f 1 and Fel d 1 were analyzed by ELISAs. The concentration of endotoxin in the mattresses did not differ significantly between different cities. The percentiles of endotoxin were significantly higher in hospitals than in homes. The concentrations of mite allergens (Der p 1 and Der f 1) in the dust were significantly lower in all hospitals than in homes. There was no significant difference of mite allergens between different time points. The concentrations of Fel d 1 were significantly higher in the autumn than in the summer (median: 1376 vs. 478ng/g). No significant differences of Fel d 1 were found between hospitals and homes or between different hospitals. As Fel d 1 concentrations reached levels at which cat allergic patients can experience symptoms, efforts had to be made to reduce the concentrations of Fel d 1 especially in hospitals. In contrast, mite allergens were low in hospitals, which can be clinically beneficial for patients with mite allergies.

  19. Efficacy and safety of sublingual tablets of house dust mite allergen extracts in adults with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Demoly, Pascal; Worm, Margitta; Fokkens, Wytske J; Carrillo, Teresa; Tabar, Ana I; Nguyen, Hélène; Montagut, Armelle; Zeldin, Robert K

    2014-06-01

    Preliminary studies have suggested the efficacy of sublingual tablets of house dust mite (HDM) extracts in adults with allergic rhinitis. We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of 2 doses of HDM sublingual tablets over 1 treatment year and the subsequent immunotherapy-free year. Adults with HDM-associated allergic rhinitis were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive 500 index of reactivity (IR) tablets, 300IR tablets, or placebo administered once daily for 1 year and were followed for the subsequent year. The primary efficacy variable was the Average Adjusted Symptom Score over the year 1 primary period (ie, October 1 to December 31). Symptoms and rescue medication scores, onset of action, patient-reported outcomes, and safety were secondary variables. The same end points were evaluated during the immunotherapy-free year. The primary efficacy end point was analyzed by using analysis of covariance. Five hundred nine participants were randomized, and 427 continued in the immunotherapy-free year. Both the 500IR and 300IR HDM sublingual tablets significantly reduced mean Average Adjusted Symptom Scores compared with placebo by -20.2% (P = .0066) and -17.9% (P = .0150), respectively. Efficacy of both doses was maintained during the treatment-free follow-up phase. The onset of action was at 4 months. Participants' global evaluation of treatment success was significantly higher in the 500IR and 300IR groups compared with the placebo group (P = .0206 and P = .0001, respectively). Adverse events were generally application-site reactions. There were no reports of anaphylaxis. Twelve months of treatment with 500IR and 300IR sublingual tablets of HDM allergen extracts was efficacious and well tolerated. Efficacy was maintained during the treatment-free follow-up year. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Selective release of miRNAs via extracellular vesicles is associated with house dust mite allergen-induced airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gon, Yasuhiro; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Inoue, Toshio; Kuroda, Kazumichi; Yamagishi, Kenji; Kozu, Yutaka; Shikano, Sotaro; Soda, Kaori; Lotvall, Jan; Hashimoto, Shu

    2017-08-31

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may facilitate cell-to-cell communication via extracellular vesicles (EVs). The biological roles of miRNAs in EVs on allergic airway inflammation is unclear. Airway secreted EVs (AEVs) were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of control and house dust mite (HDM) allergen-exposed HDM-sensitized mice. The expression of miRNAs in AEVs or miRNAs and mRNAs in lung tissue was analyzed using miRNA microarray. The amount of AEV increased 8.9-fold in BALF from HDM-exposed mice compared with that from sham-control mice. HDM exposure resulted in significant changes in the expression of 139 miRNAs in EVs and 175 miRNAs in lung tissues, with 54 miRNAs being common in both samples. Expression changes of these 54 miRNAs between miRNAs in AEVs and lung tissues after HDM exposure were inversely correlated. Computational analysis revealed that 31 genes, including IL-13 and IL-5Ra, are putative targets of the miRNAs upregulated in AEVs but downregulated in lung tissues after HDM exposure. The amount of AEV in BALF after HDM exposure was diminished by treatment with the sphingomyelinase inhibitor GW4869. The treatment with GW4869 also decreased Th2 cytokines and eosinophil counts in BALFs and reduced eosinophil accumulation in airway walls and mucosa. These results indicate that selective sorting of miRNA including Th2 inhibitory miRNAs into AEVs and increase release to the airway after HDM exposure would be involve in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Domestic allergens in public places. II: Dog (Can f1) and cockroach (Bla g 2) allergens in dust and mite, cat, dog and cockroach allergens in the air in public buildings.

    PubMed

    Custovic, A; Green, R; Taggart, S C; Smith, A; Pickering, C A; Chapman, M D; Woodcock, A

    1996-11-01

    Sensitization and exposure to indoor allergens are the major risk factors for asthma. It is possible that significant exposure to domestic allergens occurs outside the home. To investigate the levels of Can f 1 and Bla g 2 in the dust from carpeted floors and upholstered seats in public buildings and public transport and the airborne concentrations of Der p 1, Fel d 1, Can f 1 and Bla g 2 in schools and offices. Can f 1 and Bla g 2 were measured in the dust collected by vacuuming a 1 m2 area of carpet, as well as upholstered seats in five schools, six hotels, four cinemas, six pubs, three buses and two trains. Dust was also collected from the bedroom carpet, living room carpet, mattress and sofa in 20 homes with and 20 homes without a dog in the same area. Personal airborne sampling (2 L/min) was conducted for 8 h in offices (n = 16) and classrooms (n = 9). In addition, airborne samples in schools were collected using a high volume pump (60 L/min) for 1 h in three classrooms immediately after the children vacated the school. Can f 1, Bla g 2, Der p 1 and Fel d 1 were assayed using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based ELISA. Can f 1 was detected in all dust samples from public places, ranging from 0.2 to 52.5 micrograms/g. Significantly higher levels were found in upholstered seats (geometric mean--GM 9.4 micrograms/g) than in carpets (GM 1.5 micrograms/g; P < 0.001), and levels of Can f 1 > 10 micrograms/g were found in 40% of upholstered seats in public places. Can f 1 was significantly higher in upholstered seats in public places than in sofas in homes without a dog (GM 1.8 micrograms/g; P < 0.001). Detectable levels of Bla g 2 were found in all of the schools (GM 2.4 U/g, range 0.8-4.4 U/g). Bla g 2 concentration greater than 2U/g (provisional threshold level representing risk of sensitization) was measured in 65% of the classrooms sampled. Der p 1 and Bla g 2 were below the detection limit in all airborne samples. However, airborne Fel d 1 and Can f 1 were

  2. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells exposed to Der p 1 allergen enhance the recruitment of Th2 cells: major involvement of the chemokines TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Hamida; Smits, Hermelijn H; Ratajczak, Céline; Nithiananthan, Asokananthan; Wierenga, Eddy A; Stewart, Geoffrey A; Jacquet, Alain; Tonnel, Andre-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen - presenting cells that can orientate the immune response towards a Th1 or a Th2 type. DC produce chemokines that are involved in the recruitment of either Th1 cells, such as IP10 (CXCL10), Th2 cells such as TARC (CCL17) and MDC (CCL22), or non-polarized T cells such as RANTES (CCL5) and MIP-lalpha (CCL3). We investigated whether monocyte-derived DC (MD-DC) generated from healthy donors or from patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) and exposed to the cysteine-protease Der p 1(allergen of Dpt), could upregulate the expression of chemokines involved in type 1 or type 2 T cell recruitment. MD-DC were pulsed with either Der p 1 or with LPS as the control and the chemokines produced were evaluated using ELISA and chemotaxis assays. Der p 1-pulsed DC from allergic patients showed increased TARC (CCL17) and MDC (CCL22) production without modifying IP-10 (CXCL10) release. Der p 1-pulsed DC from healthy donors showed only increased IP-10 (CXCL10) secretion. RANTES (CCL5) and MIP-lalpha (CCL3) production were similarly increased when DC were from healthy or allergic donors. The selective Th2 clone recruitment activity of supernatants from Der p 1-pulsed DC of allergic patients was inhibited by anti-TARC (CCL17) and anti-MDC (CCL22) neutralizing Abs. By using anti-IP10 (CXCL10) blocking Abs, supernatants of Der p 1-pulsed DC from healthy donors were shown to be involved in the recruitment of Th1 cells. These results suggest that in allergic patients exposed to house dust mites, DC may favour the exacerbation of the Th2 response via the increase in type 2 chemokine production. Copyright John Libbey Eurotext 2003.

  3. Inflammatory dendritic cells—not basophils—are necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity to inhaled house dust mite allergen

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Maud; Deswarte, Kim; Pouliot, Philippe; Willart, Monique A.M.; Kool, Mirjam; Muskens, Femke

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear how Th2 immunity is induced in response to allergens like house dust mite (HDM). Here, we show that HDM inhalation leads to the TLR4/MyD88-dependent recruitment of IL-4 competent basophils and eosinophils, and of inflammatory DCs to the draining mediastinal nodes. Depletion of basophils only partially reduced Th2 immunity, and depletion of eosinophils had no effect on the Th2 response. Basophils did not take up inhaled antigen, present it to T cells, or express antigen presentation machinery, whereas a population of FceRI+ DCs readily did. Inflammatory DCs were necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity and features of asthma, whereas basophils were not required. We favor a model whereby DCs initiate and basophils amplify Th2 immunity to HDM allergen. PMID:20819925

  4. Detection of inhaled Der p 1.

    PubMed

    Poulos, L M; O'Meara, T J; Sporik, R; Tovey, E R

    1999-09-01

    Measurement of personal exposure to Der p 1 aeroallergen has previously been limited by the low quantity of material collected by sampling systems and the assay sensitivity. This has meant that exposure could only be detected if long sampling periods were used or reservoir dust was artificially disturbed. We have developed a sampling method to sample true personal exposure and combined it with a novel method which is sensitive enough to measure allergen exposure over shorter time frames. To describe normal domestic exposure to dust mite allergen during a range of activities in houses in Sydney, Australia. Inhaled particles containing mite allergen Der p 1 were collected using a nasal air sampler which impacts particles (> approximately 5 microm) onto a protein-binding membrane coated with a thin, porous, adhesive film. The allergen is bound to the membrane in the immediate vicinity of the particle and detected by immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies specific for Der p 1. In addition, samples were collected using a standard Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) personal air sampler and the amount of eluted Der p 1 was assayed by ELISA. The median number (range) of inhaled particles containing Der p 1 collected in each 10-min sampling period was: dust raising 5 (2-10); lying in bed, 0 (0-2); sitting on the bed, 1 (0-2); walking around the bedroom, 0 (0-2). This represented 0-5.1% of all particles captured. The Der p 1 concentration of floor and bed dust was 19.4 and 55.1 microg/g, respectively. The standard IOM personal sampler and ELISA were unable to detect Der p 1 for any of the activities performed. We were able to count individual allergen-carrying particles inhaled over short time periods, during different domestic exposure situations. This will offer new insight into several aspects of personal allergen exposure.

  5. Early Exposure to Respiratory Allergens by Placental Transfer and Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Macchiaverni, Patricia; Ynoue, Leandro H.; Arslanian, Christina; Verhasselt, Valérie; Condino-Neto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between allergen exposure and the onset of or protection from allergic diseases remains unclear. Many factors could be related to immunological responses, such as the age when the exposure occurs, type of allergen, timing, dose, and allergen route. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to respiratory allergens could occur in pregnancy or early life. In particular, we assessed whether Der p 1 and Blo t 5, as well as specific antibodies against these allergens, could be detected in 90 paired cord blood and colostrum samples. Der p 1 was detected in 58.6% of colostrum and 29% of cord blood samples, whereas Blot 5 was positive in 41.3% and 9.6% of the samples, respectively. Similar to specific IgA, which could be detected in all samples for both mites, specific IgG was found in a high number of colostrum samples, 93.5% and 94.8% for Dp and Bt, respectively. Although allergens were not detected in all cord blood samples, a high percentage of them (≥95%) were positive for specific IgM to both mites in cord blood samples, suggesting that neonates can be exposed and sensitized to airborne allergens during pregnancy. Many studies have attempted to correlate allergen exposure or its prevention in early infancy with the onset of or protection from allergic diseases. However, conflicting and inconsistent data do not show a clear correlation with or suggest a way to prevent allergen sensitization. Nevertheless, these unconvincing results could be better understood if the relationship with many aspects of allergen exposure after pregnancy could be clarified. Thus, it is necessary to address basic issues related to allergen exposure, including the development of reproducible, standardized and reliable methods, and to determine how and where the exposure occurs. PMID:26398234

  6. House dust mite (Der p 10) and crustacean allergic patients may react to food containing Yellow mealworm proteins.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; van Broekhoven, Sarah; den Hartog-Jager, Constance F; Gaspari, Marco; de Jong, Govardus A H; Wichers, Harry J; van Hoffen, Els; Houben, Geert F; Knulst, André C

    2014-03-01

    Due to the imminent growth of the world population, shortage of protein sources for human consumption will arise in the near future. Alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects) are being explored for the production of food and feed. In this project, the safety of Yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) for human consumption was tested using approaches as advised by the European Food Safety Authority for allergenicity risk assessment. Different Yellow mealworm protein fractions were prepared, characterised, and tested for cross-reactivity using sera from patients with an inhalation or food allergy to biologically related species (House dust mite (HDM) and crustaceans) by immunoblotting and basophil activation. Furthermore, the stability was investigated using an in vitro pepsin digestion test. IgE from HDM- and crustacean allergic patients cross-reacted with Yellow mealworm proteins. This cross-reactivity was functional, as shown by the induction of basophil activation. The major cross-reactive proteins were identified as tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are well known allergens in arthropods. These proteins were moderately stable in the pepsin stability test. Based on these cross-reactivity studies, there is a realistic possibility that HDM- and crustacean allergic patients may react to food containing Yellow mealworm proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Siman, Isabella Lima; de Aquino, Lais Martins; Ynoue, Leandro Hideki; Miranda, Juliana Silva; Pajuaba, Ana Claudia Arantes Marquez; Cunha-Júnior, Jair Pereira; Silva, Deise Aparecida Oliveira; Taketomi, Ernesto Akio

    2013-01-01

    One of the purposes of specific immunotherapy (SIT) is to modulate humoral immune response against allergens with significant increases in allergen-specific IgG levels, commonly associated with blocking activity. The present study investigated in vitro blocking activity of allergen-specific IgG antibodies on IgE reactivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) in sera from atopic patients. Dpt-specific IgG antibodies were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by protein-G affinity chromatography. Purity was checked by SDS-PAGE and immunoreactivity by slot-blot and immunoblot assays. The blocking activity was evaluated by inhibition ELISA. The electrophoretic profile of the ammonium sulfate precipitated fraction showed strongly stained bands in ligand fraction after chromatography, compatible with molecular weight of human whole IgG molecule. The purity degree was confirmed by detecting strong immunoreactivity to IgG, negligible to IgA, and no reactivity to IgE and IgM. Dpt-specific IgG fraction was capable of significantly reducing levels of IgE anti-Dpt, resulting in 35%-51% inhibition of IgE reactivity to Dpt in atopic patients sera. This study showed that allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens. This approach reinforces that intermittent measurement of serum allergen-specific IgG antibodies will be an important objective laboratorial parameter that will help specialists to follow their patients under SIT.

  8. In silico structural analysis of group 3, 6 and 9 allergens from Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Teng, Feixiang; Yu, Lili; Bian, Yonghua; Sun, Jinxia; Wu, Juansong; Ling, Cunbao; Yang, Li; Wang, Yungang; Cui, Yubao

    2015-05-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes; Acari: Pyroglyphidae) are the predominant source of dust mite allergens, which provoke allergic diseases, such as rhinitis, asthma and eczema. Of the 30 allergen groups produced by D. farinae, the Der f 3, Der f 6 and Der f 9 allergens are all trypsin‑associated proteins, however little else is currently known about them. The present study used in silico tools to compare the amino acid sequences, and predict the secondary and tertiary structures of Der f 3, Der f 6 and Der f 9 allergens. Protein sequence alignment detected ~46% identity between Der f 3, Der f 6 and Der f 9. Furthermore, each protein was shown to contain three active sites and two highly conserved trypsin functional domains. Predictions of the secondary and tertiary structure identified α‑helices, β‑sheets and random coils. The active sites of the three proteins appeared to fold onto each other in a three‑dimensional model, constituting the active site of the enzyme. Epitope analysis demonstrated that Der f 3, Der f 6 and Der f 9 have 4‑5 potential epitopes located in random coils, and the epitope sequences of Der f 3, Der f 6 and Der f 9 were shown to overlap in two domains (at amino acids 83‑87 and 179‑180); however the residues in these two domains were not identical. The present study aimed to conduct a biochemical and genetic analysis of these three allergens, and to potentially contribute to the development of vaccines for allergen‑specific immunotherapy.

  9. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F.; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Beckett, William S.; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2009-08-15

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  10. House dust mite allergy: environment evaluation and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sheng-Jie; Liao, En-Chih; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2014-10-01

    There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can be used to detect their presence, such as the use of floating methods, monoclonal antibodies, and nanostructured biosensor. SM could be identified in the storage room, mainly in contaminated food such as mushrooms and corn starch. In HDM-sensitive subjects and mice that were challenged with HDM or SM after sensitization, these mites could up-regulate IgE levels, T helper 2 associated cytokine production and airway hypersensitivity. Different age groups of subjects were sensitized by different species of mites. More subjects above 70 years were sensitized by SM and more subjects below the age of 40 years were sensitized to HDM. Different allergenic components of dust mite extracts, such as Der p 1, Der p 2, could activate innate immunity through activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and then lead to allergic inflammation. The best modality to treat HDM allergy is immunomodulation through Treg cells and IgA production. In the recent years, many studies indicated probiotics could increase IgA secretion and the number of Treg cells. However, some studies conducted in adults have contradictory effects in reducing allergic symptoms. Therefore, probiotics confer inconclusive benefits on the allergic symptoms.

  11. Exposure to Indoor Allergens in Different Residential Settings and Its Influence on IgE Sensitization in a Geographically Confined Austrian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Stemeseder, Teresa; Schweidler, Bettina; Doppler, Patrick; Klinglmayr, Eva; Moser, Stephanie; Lueftenegger, Lisa; Himly, Martin; Lang, Roland; Zumbach, Joerg; Oostingh, Gertie J.; Hawranek, Thomas; Bathke, Arne C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Exposure to indoor allergens is crucial for IgE sensitization and development of allergic symptoms. Residential settings influence the allergen amount in house dust and hence allergic sensitization. Within this study, we investigated allergen exposure and molecule-based IgE levels in a geographically confined region and evaluated the impact of housing, pets and cleaning. Methods 501 adolescents from Salzburg, Austria participated in this cross-sectional study. House dust samples were examined regarding major mite, cat, dog, and mold allergens using a multiplex assay. Serum samples of participants were analyzed for specific IgE to Der p 1, Der p 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1 and Alt a 1 using the multiplex array ImmunoCAP ISAC. Information on allergies, living areas, dwelling form (house, flat, farm), pets, and household cleanliness were obtained by a questionnaire. Results In investigated house dust samples, the concentration of cat allergen was highest while the prevalence of mold allergens was very low. Participants showed IgE sensitization to Der p 1 (13.2%), Der p 2 (18.2%), Fel d 1 (14.4%), Can f 1 (2.4%) and Alt a 1 (2.0%). In alpine regions, lower mite allergen concentrations were detected which correlated with reduced IgE levels. A trend for increased sensitization prevalence from rural to alpine to urban regions was noted. Living on farms resulted in lower sensitization prevalence to mite and cat allergens, even though exposure to mites was significantly elevated. The presence of cats was associated with a lower sensitization rate and IgE levels to cat and mite allergens, and less frequent allergic diseases. Cleaning did not impact allergen concentrations, while IgE reactivity to mites and allergic diseases were more pronounced when living in cleaner homes. Conclusion Allergen exposure to indoor allergens was influenced by setting of homes. Living in a farm environment and having a cat at home showed a protective effect for IgE sensitization and allergies

  12. Use of ultramolecular potencies of allergen to treat asthmatic people allergic to house dust mite: double blind randomised controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Lewith, G T; Watkins, A D; Hyland, M E; Shaw, S; Broomfield, J A; Dolan, G; Holgate, S T

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of homoeopathic immunotherapy on lung function and respiratory symptoms in asthmatic people allergic to house dust mite. Design Double blind randomised controlled trial. Setting 38 general practices in Hampshire and Dorset. Participants 242 people with asthma and positive results to skin prick test for house dust mite; 202 completed clinic based assessments, and 186 completed diary based assessments. Intervention After a four week baseline assessment, participants were randomised to receive oral homoeopathic immunotherapy or placebo and then assessed over 16 weeks with three clinic visits and diary assessments every other week. Outcome measure Clinic based assessments: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), quality of life, and mood. Diary based assessments: morning and evening peak expiratory flow, visual analogue scale of severity of asthma, quality of life, and daily mood. Results There was no difference in most outcomes between placebo and homoeopathic immunotherapy. There was a different pattern of change over the trial for three of the diary assessments: morning peak expiratory flow (P=0.025), visual analogue scale (P=0.017), and mood (P=0.035). At week three there was significant deterioration for visual analogue scale (P=0.047) and mood (P=0.013) in the homoeopathic immunotherapy group compared with the placebo group. Any improvement in participants' asthma was independent of belief in complementary medicine. Conclusion Homoeopathic immunotherapy is not effective in the treatment of patients with asthma. The different patterns of change between homoeopathic immunotherapy and placebo over the course of the study are unexplained. What is already known on this topicHomoeopathic remedies probably have an effect that is greater than placeboSome of the better quality homoeopathic studies involve homoeopathic doses of allergens used to treat allergic diseaseWhat this study addsIn this study homoeopathic remedies were no

  13. In Utero exposure to genistein enhanced intranasal house dust mite allergen-induced respiratory sensitization in young adult B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tai L; Meng, Andrew H

    2016-06-24

    Despite many hypothesized benefits of dietary isoflavone genistein (GEN) deriving from soy-based products, questions surrounding GEN's developmental immunotoxic effects are increasing. To understand how in utero GEN exposure may modulate postnatal respiratory sensitization, we conducted a time course study using a common household allergen (house dust mites: HDM; 10μg/mouse) following intranasal instillation, a physiological route of allergen exposure. GEN was administered to dams by gavage from gestational day 14 to parturition at a physiologically relevant dose (20mg/kg bw). Female and male offspring were sensitized with HDM allergens beginning about one month prior to sacrifice followed by challenges with three weekly doses of HDM extracts, and they were euthanized at day 3 following the final HDM exposure at four different time points (postnatal day (PND) 80, 120, 160, and 200). In utero GEN combined with postnatal HDM exposures (GEN+HDM) increased total IgE production in both young female and male B6C3F1 offspring (e.g., PND 80 in females and PND 120 in males). Increased antigen-specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b levels were also observed at various time points in both female and male offspring. In addition, increases in macrophage number in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of both female and male GEN+HDM offspring at PND 80 and PND 120, respectively, were observed when compared to the vehicle group. For T cells, an increase over the vehicle in female GEN+HDM offspring was observed at PND 80. Due to similar patterns of increases, it seems likely that GEN+HDM-induced increases in total IgE and macrophages are related. Overall, in utero GEN plus later-life HDM exposures exert increases in total IgE and HDM-specific IgG production as well as macrophage recruitments to the lung in young adult mice.

  14. Residential characteristics predict changes in Der p 1, Fel d 1 and ergosterol but not fungi over time.

    PubMed

    Matheson, M C; Dharmage, S C; Forbes, A B; Raven, J M; Woods, R K; Thien, F C K; Guest, D I; Rolland, J M; Haydn Walters, E; Abramson, M J

    2003-09-01

    Allergen and fungal exposures are important risk factors for asthma. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of allergen levels in Melbourne homes between 1996 and 1998 to examine the effects of changing residential characteristics on allergen and fungal levels. We also examined the changes in levels of indoor allergens. The subjects were participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) in Melbourne. In 1996, 485 subjects participated in a follow-up study, which involved both home and laboratory visits. Dust and air samples were collected from participants' bedrooms and a validated residential questionnaire was administered. In 1998, 360 participants underwent further follow-up. House dust mite (Der p 1) and cat allergens (Fel d 1) and ergosterol were measured in dust. We observed moderate within home correlations between 1996 and 1998 in floor Der p 1 (intraclass correlation ICC=0.48), bed Der p 1 (ICC=0.61), Fel d 1 (kappa=0.53) and ergosterol (ICC=0.28) levels. We found that the floor Der p 1 levels decreased from 1996 to 1998 in the homes of participants who moved to an attached home, moved their bedrooms to the first floor, removed fitted carpet or central heating. Replacing or vacuuming the mattress more than twice per year reduced levels of Der p 1 in the bed. Ergosterol levels were reduced by removing visible mould and fitted carpet. These findings provide evidence to support current advice with regard to allergen avoidance in patients with dust mite and fungal allergies.

  15. Are Neighborhood-Level Characteristics Associated with Indoor Allergens in the Household?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Rudd, Rima; Chew, Ginger L.; Emmons, Karen; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    Background Individual home characteristics have been associated with indoor allergen exposure; however, the influence of neighborhood-level characteristics has not been well-studied. We defined neighborhoods as community districts determined by the New York Department of City Planning. Objective We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level characteristics and the presence of dust mite (Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), cockroach (Bla g 2), and mouse (MUP) allergens in the household. Methods Using data from the Puerto Rican Asthma Project, a birth cohort of Puerto Rican children at risk of allergic sensitization (n=261) we examined associations between neighborhood characteristics (percent tree canopy, asthma hospitalizations per 1000 children, roadway length within 100 meters of buildings, serious housing code violations per 1000 rental units, poverty rates, and felony crime rates) and the presence of indoor allergens. Allergen cutpoints were used for categorical analyses and defined as follows: dust mite: >0.25 μg/g; cat: >1 μg/g; cockroach: >1 U/g; mouse: >1.6 μg/g. Results Serious housing code violations were statistically significantly positively associated with dust mite, cat and mouse allergens (continuous variables), adjusting for mother's income and education, and all neighborhood-level characteristics. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, medium levels of housing code violations were associated with higher dust mite and cat allergens (1.81, 95%CI: 1.08, 3.03 and 3.10, 95%CI: 1.22, 7.92, respectively). A high level of serious housing code violations was associated with higher mouse allergen (2.04, 95%CI: 1.15, 3.62). A medium level of housing code violations was associated with higher cockroach allergen (3.30, 95%CI: 1.11, 9.78). Conclusions Neighborhood-level characteristics, specifically housing code violations, appear to be related to indoor allergens, which may have implications for future research explorations and policy decisions. PMID

  16. Are neighborhood-level characteristics associated with indoor allergens in the household?

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Rudd, Rima; Chew, Ginger L; Emmons, Karen; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2010-02-01

    Individual home characteristics have been associated with indoor allergen exposure; however, the influence of neighborhood-level characteristics has not been well studied. We defined neighborhoods as community districts determined by the New York City Department of City Planning. We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level characteristics and the presence of dust mite (Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), cockroach (Bla g 2), and mouse (MUP) allergens in the household. Using data from the Puerto Rican Asthma Project, a birth cohort of Puerto Rican children at risk of allergic sensitization (n = 261), we examined associations between neighborhood characteristics (percent tree canopy, asthma hospitalizations per 1,000 children, roadway length within 100 meters of buildings, serious housing code violations per 1000 rental units, poverty rates, and felony crime rates), and the presence of indoor allergens. Allergen cutpoints were used for categorical analyses and defined as follows: dust mite: >0.25 microg/g; cat: >1 microg/g; cockroach: >1 U/g; mouse: >1.6 microg/g. Serious housing code violations were statistically significantly positively associated with dust mite, cat, and mouse allergens (continuous variables), adjusting for mother's income and education, and all neighborhood-level characteristics. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, medium levels of housing code violations were associated with higher dust mite and cat allergens (1.81, 95%CI: 1.08, 3.03 and 3.10, 95%CI: 1.22, 7.92, respectively). A high level of serious housing code violations was associated with higher mouse allergen (2.04, 95%CI: 1.15, 3.62). A medium level of housing code violations was associated with higher cockroach allergen (3.30, 95%CI: 1.11, 9.78). Neighborhood-level characteristics, specifically housing code violations, appear to be related to indoor allergens, which may have implications for future research explorations and policy decisions.

  17. Nanoparticle-allergen interactions mediate human allergic responses: protein corona characterization and cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Radauer-Preiml, Isabella; Andosch, Ancuela; Hawranek, Thomas; Luetz-Meindl, Ursula; Wiederstein, Markus; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta; Himly, Martin; Boyles, Matthew; Duschl, Albert

    2016-01-16

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) interact with different biomolecules as soon as they are in contact, resulting in the formation of a biomolecule 'corona'. Hence, the 'corona' defines the biological identity of the ENMs and could affect the response of the immune system to ENM exposure. With up to 40 % of the world population suffering from type I allergy, a possible modulation of allergen effects by binding to ENMs is highly relevant with respect to work place and consumer safety. Therefore, the aim of this present study was to gain an insight into the interactions of gold nanoparticles with different seasonally and perennially occurring outdoor and indoor allergens. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were conjugated with the major allergens of birch pollen (Bet v 1), timothy grass pollen (Phl p 5) and house dust mite (Der p 1). The AuNP-allergen conjugates were characterized by means of TEM negative staining, dynamic light scattering (DLS), z-potential measurements and hyperspectral imaging. Furthermore, 3D models were constructed, based on the characterization data, to visualize the interaction between the allergens and the AuNPs surface. Differences in the activation of human basophil cells derived from birch/grass pollen- and house dust mite-allergic patients in response to free allergen and AuNP-allergen conjugates were determined using the basophil activation assay (BAT). Potential allergen corona replacement during BAT was controlled for using Western blotting. The protease activity of AuNP-Der p 1 conjugates compared to free Der p 1 was assessed, by an enzymatic activity assay and a cellular assay pertaining to lung type II alveolar epithelial cell tight junction integrity. The formation of a stable corona was found for all three allergens used. Our data suggest, that depending on the allergen, different effects are observed after binding to ENMs, including enhanced allergic responses against Der p 1 and also, for some patients, against Bet v 1. Moreover elevated

  18. EPITOPE-BASED VACCINE FOR THE TREATMENT OF DER F 3 ALLERGY.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Jiang, Yuxing; Li, Na

    2015-12-01

    mites allergic asthma is caused by exposure to home dust mite (HDM). Der f 3 is believed to be one of the major allergens in mites allergic asthma. The work was to identify the immune characteristics of Der f 3 epitope-based vaccine containing T cell and B cell epitopes. T cell lines were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Der f 3 allergic patients. Three T cell epitopes and five B cell epitopes of Der f 3, which we identified previously, were selected to design a polypeptide (named Der f3-peptides). DNA constructions encoding these Der f 3-peptides were expressed in Escherichia coli. The T cell lines were stimulated with the peptides and tested for proliferative capacity and cytokine production. plasmid pET28a (+)-Der f 3-peptides was constructed and expressed in E. coli BL21, and the Der f3-peptides protein was purified and confirmed by Western blotting. The Der f 3-peptides were recognized by the T cell clones from allergic patients. SI value of Der f 3 group and Der f 3-peptides group were both higher than that of PBS group (P<0.05). The Der f 3 and Der f 3 peptides induced secretions of IL-4 and IL-5 were decreased compared with that of PBS group (P<0.05). The capacity of IgE-binding to Der f 3-peptides (41.25±5.67) μg/ml was decreased dramatically compared with that of Der f 3 (83.60 ± 10.92) μg/ml (P < 0.05). our results demonstrate that several major T cell epitopes and B cell epitopes of Der f 3 can be valuable for designing the peptide-based immunotherapeutics for the mites allergic asthma. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of House Dust Mite Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuxiang; Ai, Chunqing

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal vaccine based on lactic acid bacteria is an attractive strategy for prevention and treatment of allergic diseases. Here we describe the development of recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing house dust mite (HDM) allergen as an oral vaccine. The major HDM allergen Der p2 is first codon optimized and synthesized to achieve the maximum expression level in L. lactis. After double digested by NcoI and XbaI, the derp2 fragment is ligated to the same double-digested pNZ8148 vector. The ligation is transformed to L. lactis NZ9000 and correct transformant is verified by sequencing. Western blot analysis is employed to confirm Derp2 expression in L. lactis after nisin induction.

  20. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus major allergen 1 activates the innate immune response of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Warmbold, Christine; Uliczka, Karin; Rus, Fiorentina; Suck, Roland; Petersen, Arnd; Silverman, Neal; Ulmer, Artur J; Heine, Holger; Roeder, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Some allergens with relevant protease activity have the potential to directly interact with host structures. It remains to be elucidated whether this activity is relevant for developing their allergenic properties. The major goal of this study was to elucidate whether allergens with a strong protease activity directly interact with modules of the innate immune system, thereby inducing an immune response. We chose Drosophila melanogaster for our experiments to prevent the results from being influenced by the adaptive immune system and used the armamentarium of methods available for the fly to study the underlying mechanisms. We show that Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus major allergen 1 (Der p 1), the major allergen of the house dust mite, efficiently activates various facets of the Drosophila innate-immune system, including both epithelial and systemic responses. These responses depend on the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway via activation of the NF-κB transcription factor Relish. In addition, the major pathogen associated molecular pattern recognizing receptor of the IMD pathway, peptidoglycan recognition protein-LC, was necessary for this response. We showed that Der p 1, which has cysteine protease activity, cleaves the ectodomain of peptidoglycan recognition protein-LC and, thus, activates the IMD pathway to induce a profound immune response. We conclude that the innate immune response to this allergen-mediated proteolytic cleavage represents an ancient type of danger signaling that may be highly relevant for the primary allergenicity of compounds such as Der p 1.

  1. Exposure matrices of endotoxin, (1→3)-β-d-glucan, fungi, and dust mite allergens in flood-affected homes of New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Atin; Lewis, Jocelyn Suzanne; Reponen, Tiina; Degrasse, Enjoli C; Grimsley, L Faye; Chew, Ginger L; Iossifova, Yulia; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2010-10-15

    This study examined: (i) biocontaminant levels in flooded homes of New Orleans two years after the flooding; (ii) seasonal changes in biocontaminant levels, and (iii) correlations between biocontaminant levels obtained by different environmental monitoring methods. Endotoxin, (1→3)-β-d-glucan, fungal spores, and dust mite allergens were measured in 35 homes during summer and winter. A combination of dust sampling, aerosolization-based microbial source assessment, and long-term inhalable bioaerosol sampling aided in understanding exposure matrices. On average, endotoxin found in the aerosolized fraction accounted for <2% of that measured in the floor dust, suggesting that vacuuming could overestimate inhalation exposures. In contrast, the (1→3)-β-d-glucan levels in the floor dust and aerosolized fractions were mostly comparable, and 25% of the homes showed aerosolizable levels even higher than the dust-borne levels. The seasonal patterns for endotoxin in dust and the aerosolizable fraction were different from those found for (1→3)-β-d-glucan, reflecting the temperature and humidity effects on bacterial and fungal contamination. While the concentration of airborne endotoxin followed the same seasonal trend as endotoxin aerosolized from surfaces, no significant seasonal difference was identified for the concentrations of airborne (1→3)-β-d-glucan and fungal spores. This was attributed to the difference in the particle size; smaller endotoxin-containing particles can remain airborne for longer time than larger fungal spores or (1→3)-β-d-glucan-containing particles. It is also possible that fungal aerosolization in home environments did not reach its full potential. Detectable dust mite allergens were found only in dust samples, and more commonly in occupied homes. Levels of endotoxin, (1→3)-β-d-glucan, and fungi in air had decreased during the two-year period following the flooding as compared to immediate measurements; however, the dust

  2. Prevalence of house dust mites in the homes of atopic dogs in Finland.

    PubMed

    Schildt, Kirsti J M; Seppänen, Riitta T K; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K; Saijonmaa-Koulumies, Leena E; Belova, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    The house dust mites (HDM) Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus are important environmental allergens implicated in the pathogenesis of human and canine atopic dermatitis. Sensitization to HDM measured by allergen-specific IgE is common in Finnish atopic dogs. Studies on HDM prevalence in Finland are few but suggest that HDM are scarce. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of HDM in the home environments of atopic dogs in Finland. Dust samples were obtained from the homes of 50 atopic dogs. Samples were collected by vacuuming the owners' mattresses and each dog's bed. In each case, an area of 21 × 30 cm was vacuumed for 2 min. Samples weighing 100 mg or more were considered sufficient for determination of HDM allergen concentrations (Der f 1 and Der p 1) using standardized ELISA. Samples sufficient for further analysis were also examined by direct microscopy for the presence of mites and by multiplex PCR for HDM DNA. Eighty one samples were sufficient for analysis by ELISA, 59 by PCR and 29 by direct microscopy. A single sample was analysed from four homes in which the dog shared the owner's bed. Der f 1 was detected in three samples (3.7%). Der p 1 was not detected in any sample. No mites were identified on microscopy. Five samples were positive for HDM on multiplex PCR (8.4%). House dust mites seem to be uncommon in the home environment of atopic dogs in Finland despite reported frequent allergen-specific IgE antibodies. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  3. DC-SIGN promotes allergen uptake and activation of dendritic cells in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Luo, Y; Li, W; Liu, J; Chen, M; Gu, H; Wang, B; Yao, X

    2016-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease, concomitant with allergic reactions to allergens. However, the exact mechanisms of allergen-induced immune responses in AD are not clear. The aim of this study is to explore the role of DC-SIGN in capturing and processing glycan-containing allergens and in the subsequent DC activation and T helper cell polarization in AD patients. DC-SIGN expression on DCs from AD patients was analysed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. DC-SIGN binding to common allergens was determined by ELISA. Activation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) by allergens was analysed by evaluation of pro-inflammatory cytokines production, and their impact on T-cell responses was investigated by a DC-T cell coculture. DC-SIGN expression was higher on DCs in the lesional skin of AD patients compared with that of healthy controls and was correlated with disease severity. DC-SIGN could bind to many common allergens including house dust mite allergen (Der p2) and egg white allergen (Gal d2). Mo-DCs showed measurable expression of DC-SIGN and a concentration-dependent uptake of Der p2 and Gal d2, which was inhibited by mannan and anti-DC-SIGN Abs. Der p2 and Gal d2 induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-6, by DCs from AD patients and facilitated Th2 and Th22 cell polarization. Binding of common allergens by DC-SIGN on DCs may initiate allergen sensitization of AD or provoke the relapse of AD. Regulating the allergen-DC-SIGN interaction might be a promising strategy to prevent or intervene in the progress of AD. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Possible induction of food allergy during mite immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    van Ree, R; Antonicelli, L; Akkerdaas, J H; Garritani, M S; Aalberse, R C; Bonifazi, F

    1996-02-01

    Sera of 17 patients receiving immunotherapy for house-dust mite allergy were tested for IgE antibodies against snail and shrimp. Serum samples were taken at the start of immunotherapy and 14-20 months later. While the average IgE response to mite, Der p 1, and Der p 2 did not alter significantly, the average response to snail showed a significant increase. This included two conversions from negative to strongly positive. These novel IgE antibodies against snail were shown to be cross-reactive with mite. Three patients had a positive RAST for shrimp. For one of them, a strong increase of IgE against shrimp (and snail) was observed. In 2/3 snail/shrimp-positive sera, IgE antibodies against the cross-reactive allergen tropomyosin from mite, snail, and shrimp were demonstrated. A clear IgE response to snail (> 10% binding in a snail RAST) was confirmed by a positive skin prick test (SPT) for 6/10 patients. The two patients with antitropomyosin IgE also had a positive SPT for shrimp, and demonstrated the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) after eating shrimp. The observations in this study indicate that house-dust mite immunotherapy is accompanied by the induction of IgE against foods, including tropomyosin-reactive IgE. Food allergy (OAS) was observed in patients that had IgE antibodies against this cross-reactive allergen. In conclusion, induction of IgE during mite immunotherapy might occasionally cause allergy to foods of invertebrate animal origin.

  5. Allergen component specific ige measurement with the Immulite™ 2000 system: diagnostic accuracy and intermethod comparison.

    PubMed

    Villalta, Danilo; Da Re, Mirella; Conte, Mariaelisabetta; Martelli, Paola; Uasuf, Carina Gabriela; Barrale, Maria; La Chiusa, Stella Maria; Brusca, Ignazio

    2015-03-01

    The identification of the allergenic molecules, associated to the advances in the field of recombinant allergens, led to the development of a new concept in allergy diagnosis called component-resolved diagnosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different allergen components using the full automatic singleplex quantitative platform Immulite™ 2000. One hundred ninety-five allergic outpatients (35 to olive pollen, 35 to birch pollen, 35 to profilin, 35 to house dust mites, 35 to peach, and 20 to shrimp) and 20 negative controls were enrolled for the study. Bet v 1, Bet v 2, Ole e 1, Der p 1, Der p 2, Der f 1, Der f 2, Pru p 3, tropomyosin were tested both with Immulite™ 2000 and ImmunoCAP™ (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Uppsala, Sweden). Sensitivity of allergen-specific Immunoglobulin E (sIgE) to Ole e 1, Bet v 1, Der p 1, Der p 2, Der f 1, Der f 2, Pen m 1, and Pru p 3 with Immulite™ 2000 was 100%, 100%, 77.1%, 94.3%, 71.4%, 94%, 75%, and 97.1%, respectively, and the specificity was 100% for all the allergens. The overall agreement between Immulite™ 2000 and ImmunoCAP™ (Thermo Fisher Scientific) platforms was 98.6% (Cohen's kappa = 0.979; confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.960-0.997). From moderate to strong, positive linear correlations between the assays (r(2) from 0.322 to 0.860, and Spearman's rho from 0.824 to 0.971) were showed. A high diagnostic accuracy of the sIgE to allergen components measurement with Immulite™ 2000 and a high agreement with ImmunoCAP™ platforms were shown in this study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Der p 1-pulsed myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells from house dust mite-sensitized allergic patients dysregulate the T cell response.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Anne-Sophie; Hammad, Hamida; Gosset, Philippe; Stewart, Geoffrey A; Alkan, Sefik; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2003-01-01

    Although reports suggest that dendritic cells (DC) are involved in the allergic reaction characterized by a T helper cell type 2 (Th2) profile, the role of myeloid (M-DC) and plasmacytoid DC (P-DC), controlling the balance Th1/Th2, remains unknown. Here, we showed that in Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt)-sensitized allergic patients and in healthy donors, M-DC displayed a higher capacity to capture Der p 1, a major allergen of Dpt, than did P-DC. However, Der p 1-pulsed M-DC from healthy subjects overexpressed CD80 and secreted interleukin (IL)-10, whereas M-DC from allergic patients did not. In contrast, with Der p 1-pulsed P-DC from both groups, no increase in human leukocyte antigen-DR, CD80, and CD86 and no IL-10 secretion were detected. When cocultured with allogeneic naive CD4(+) T cells from healthy donors, Der p 1-pulsed M-DC from allergic patients favored a Th1 profile [interferon (IFN)-gamma(high)/IL-4(low)] and Der p 1-pulsed P-DC, a Th2 profile (IFN-gamma(low)/IL-4(high)). In healthy donors, no T cell polarization (IFN-gamma(low)/IL-4(low)) was induced by Der p 1-pulsed M-DC or P-DC, but in response to Der p 1-pulsed M-DC, T cells secreted IL-10. The neutralization of IL-10 produced by Der p 1-pulsed M-DC from healthy donors led to an inhibition of IL-10 production by T cells and a polarization toward a type 1. Thus, IL-10 produced by M-DC might be an essential mediator controlling the balance between tolerance and allergic status. In addition, P-DC could contribute to the steady state in healthy donors or to the development of a Th2 response in allergic donors.

  7. Conventional and monocyte-derived CD11b(+) dendritic cells initiate and maintain T helper 2 cell-mediated immunity to house dust mite allergen.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Maud; Guilliams, Martin; Vanheerswynghels, Manon; Deswarte, Kim; Branco-Madeira, Filipe; Toussaint, Wendy; Vanhoutte, Leen; Neyt, Katrijn; Killeen, Nigel; Malissen, Bernard; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2013-02-21

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for mounting allergic airway inflammation, but it is unclear which subset of DCs performs this task. By using CD64 and MAR-1 staining, we reliably separated CD11b(+) monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) from conventional DCs (cDCs) and studied antigen uptake, migration, and presentation assays of lung and lymph node (LN) DCs in response to inhaled house dust mite (HDM). Mainly CD11b(+) cDCs but not CD103(+) cDCs induced T helper 2 (Th2) cell immunity in HDM-specific T cells in vitro and asthma in vivo. Studies in Flt3l(-/-) mice, lacking all cDCs, revealed that moDCs were also sufficient to induce Th2 cell-mediated immunity but only when high-dose HDM was given. The main function of moDCs was the production of proinflammatory chemokines and allergen presentation in the lung during challenge. Thus, we have identified migratory CD11b(+) cDCs as the principal subset inducing Th2 cell-mediated immunity in the LN, whereas moDCs orchestrate allergic inflammation in the lung.

  8. PROKARYOTIC EXPRESSION AND BIOACTIVITY EVALUATION OF THE CHIMERIC GENE DERIVED FROM THE GROUP 1 ALLERGENS OF DUST MITES.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Yuxin

    2015-12-01

    Antecedentes: se reconstituyó con éxito el gen del grupo 1 alérgenos de los ácaros del polvo, y obtuvo un conjunto de genes barajadas. Con el fin de verificar la predicción en el gen quimérico, hemos clonado tentativamente R8 en el vector que se expresó prokaryoticly, purificó y se evaluó por sus actividades-bio. Métodos: el producto expresado se detectó por SDS-PAGE y la proteína diana se purificó. La proteína purificada R8 se detectó por ELISA. Setenta y cinco ratones BALB/ c se dividieron en 5 grupos, a saber: PBS, rDer f1, rDer p1, R8 y el grupo de asma. Los ratones fueron tratados con alérgenos de ácaros del polvo a los 0, 7, 14 días mediante inyección intraperitoneal y inhaladas desafío como aerosol en día 21 durante 7 días. La inmunoterapia específica para el alérgeno se realizó utilizando rDer f1, rDer p1 y alérgenos R8, respectivamente. El nivel de IFN e IL-4 en BALF se detectó por ELISA. Resultados: el gen quimérico R8 se expresó con una banda de aproximadamente Mr 35000. En comparación con los grupos de rDer f 1 y rDer p 1 [(80,44 ± 15,50) y (90,79 ± 10,38) μg/ml, respectivamente], la capacidad de unión a IgE de la proteína R8 (37,03 ± 12,46) μg/ml fue estadísticamente inferior (P.

  9. [Cloning, expression and analysis of Der f Mag 29 allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin-Xia; Yu, Li-Li; Zhou, Ying; Bian, Yong-Hua; Yang, Li; Wang, Nan; Cui, Yu-Bao

    2013-12-01

    The full-length Mag 29 gene of Dermatophagoides farinae was amplified by RT-PCR with a pair of specific primers. The PCR product was cloned into pCold TF DNA vector. The constructed plasmid pCold TF-Mag 29 was transformed into E. coli BL21 and followed by expression of the protein induced by IPTG. The recombinant protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The full-length Mag 29 gene was 429 bp. A specific band (Mr 63,000) were detected in the whole cells, the supernatant, and the precipitate. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that Mag 29 protein was composed with 142 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of Mr 15,100, and its secondary structure was composed of alpha helix (55.63%), extended strand (3.52%), and random coil (40.85%). The Mag 29 allergen was a hydrophilic and cytoplasmic protein, and shared a high degree homology with the heat shock protein 70 family.

  10. Immunomodulatory properties of Lactobacillus plantarum and its use as a recombinant vaccine against mite allergy.

    PubMed

    Rigaux, P; Daniel, C; Hisbergues, M; Muraille, E; Hols, P; Pot, B; Pestel, J; Jacquet, A

    2009-03-01

    Selected lactic acid bacteria were reported to prevent atopic dermatitis and experimental asthma but the mechanisms of their immunomodulatory effects are not fully elucidated. In this study, the signaling pathways triggered by Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB8826 were investigated and the potential use of this strain producing a variant of the mite allergen Der p 1 as live vaccine vehicle was evaluated. Mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were stimulated with wild-type or a L. plantarum teichoic acid mutant to evaluate the secretion of cytokines. A recombinant L. plantarum expressing Der p 1 was engineered, its in vitro immunomodulatory properties were characterized and its prophylactic potential was evaluated in a Der p 1-sensitization murine model. Mouse dendritic cells stimulated by L. plantarum triggered the release of interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). IL-12 p40 secretion was dependent on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR9 and on the bacterial teichoic acid composition. Recombinant L. plantarum producing Der p 1 exhibited similar immunostimulatory properties as wild-type. Prophylactic intranasal pretreatment of mice with this recombinant strain prevented the development of the typical Th2-biased allergic response by a drastic reduction of specific IgE and the induction of protective allergen-specific IgG2a antibodies. Moreover, both wild-type or recombinant L. plantarum reduced airway eosinophilia following aerosolized allergen exposure and IL-5 secretion upon allergen restimulation. By combining both Th1-type immunostimulatory properties and an efficient allergen delivery capacity, recombinant L. plantarum producing Der p 1 represents a promising vaccine against house dust mite allergy.

  11. Monthly variation of Dermatophagoides allergens and its influence on respiratory allergy in a high altitude environment (Quito, 2800 m a.s.l. in Andean Ecuador).

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, R; Iraloa, V

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal variation of Dermatophagoides allergens and its influence in allergic respiratory airway diseases has not been investigated in Andean cities. The objective of this study was to evaluate those parameters in a city located in the Andean mountains. Der p1 and Der f1 were measured in dust samples from mattresses in 13 houses in Quito (2800 m above sea level). Samples were collected monthly from August 2004 to July 2005. Patients presenting to a local outpatient allergy clinic with asthma and rhinitis and isolated allergy to Dermatophagoides were analysed to determine if a correlation existed between seasonal Der allergen levels and the number of patients presenting with allergies. High levels of dust mites and humidity were observed throughout the year. The highest geometrical mean values of allergens were detected in April (Der p1, 10.15 μg/g) and May (Der f1, 13.03 μg/g), whilst the lowest levels were detected in August (Der p1, 4.26 μg/g), and September (Der f1, 1.4 μg/g). Of the 361 patients examined, 182 were allergic to Dermatophagoides, (45.6% asthmatics, 97.8% rhinitics, and 43.4% with both diseases). Patient presentation spiked in August, and from February to May. However, there was not a significant correlation between mite allergen concentrations and humidity or the number of patients presenting with allergies. Dust samples from mattresses in Quito revealed high concentrations of Der p1 and Der f1. We observed a trend towards increased presentation of asthmatic and rhinitic patients in the months with highest levels of allergens. Copyright © 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Production of GM-CSF mediated by cysteine protease of Der f in canine keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Sekido, Machiko; Chimura, Naoki; Shibata, Sanae; Kondo, Naho; Kamishina, Harumi; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Maeda, Sadatoshi

    2012-08-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergens are the most common allergens for induction of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Recently, epicutaneous sensitization with HDM allergens has been emphasized in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) by producing various soluble factors in keratinocytes. Among the soluble factors, GM-CSF is a key molecule that activates Langerhans cells, antigen-presenting cells in the epidermis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) on GM-CSF production in a canine keratinocyte cell line, CPEK. CPEKs were found to produce GM-CSF upon stimulation by Der f. The GM-CSF production was suppressed by addition of a cysteine protease inhibitor. The present results suggest that cysteine protease-derived Der f may be an initiator of allergic inflammation by inducing the production of GM-CSF in keratinocytes.

  13. Allergens in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses.

  14. Household characteristics and allergen and endotoxin levels in Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    Al Ali, W; Custovic, A; Simpson, A; Khoury, A; Woodcock, A

    2010-07-01

    Few data are available from Eastern Mediterranean countries about levels of domestic allergens and endotoxins. Dust samples were collected from mattresses and floors of 457 homes in the Syrian city of Aleppo and analysed for antigens and endotoxins. The most important predictors for detectable levels of house-dust mite allergen Der p 1 were Arabic-style houses (OR 3.21) and newer houses (OR 1.56). In homes without cats, rubber mattresses were associated with detectable cat allergen Fel d 1 in mattress dust (OR 1.6). Cockroach allergen Bla g 2 was significantly more likely to be detected in houses over 20 years old than newer houses. Endotoxin levels were significantly higher in wool/cotton mattresses and older houses.

  15. House dust and storage mite contamination of dry dog food stored in open bags and sealed boxes in 10 domestic households.

    PubMed

    Gill, Christina; McEwan, Neil; McGarry, John; Nuttall, Tim

    2011-04-01

    Dry pet food is a potential source of exposure to house dust and storage mite allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. This study evaluated contamination of house dust and dry dog food stored in paper bags, sealable plastic bags and sealable plastic boxes in 10 households for 90 days using Acarex(®) tests for guanine, a Der p 1 ELISA and mite flotation. Acarex(®) tests were negative in all the food samples but positive in all the house dust samples. The Der p 1 levels and mite numbers significantly increased in food from paper bags (P = 0.0073 and P = 0.02, respectively), but not plastic bags or boxes. Mite numbers and Der p 1 levels were 10-1000 times higher in house dust than the corresponding food samples (P < 0.0001). There were significant correlations between Der p 1 in house dust and food from the paper (P < 0.0001) and plastic bags (P = 0.003), and mite numbers in house dust and food from the paper bags (P = 0.0007). Bedding and carpets were significantly associated with Der p 1 levels in house dust (P = 0.015 and P = 0.01, respectively), and food from the paper (both P = 0.02) and plastic bags (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively). Mites were identified in six of 10 paper bag, three of 10 plastic bag, one of 10 plastic box and nine of 10 house dust samples. These comprised Dermatophagoides (54%), Tyrophagus (10%; all from food) and unidentified mites (36%). Storage of food in sealable plastic boxes largely prevented contamination for 3 months. Exposure to mites and mite proteins in all the stored food, however, appeared to be trivial compared with house dust.

  16. Protein kinase Cθ controls type 2 innate lymphoid cell and TH2 responses to house dust mite allergen.

    PubMed

    Madouri, Fahima; Chenuet, Pauline; Beuraud, Chloé; Fauconnier, Louis; Marchiol, Tiffany; Rouxel, Nathalie; Ledru, Aurélie; Gallerand, Margaux; Lombardi, Vincent; Mascarell, Laurent; Marquant, Quentin; Apetoh, Lionel; Erard, François; Le Bert, Marc; Trovero, Fabrice; Quesniaux, Valérie F J; Ryffel, Bernhard; Togbe, Dieudonnée

    2017-05-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) θ, a serine/threonine kinase, is involved in TH2 cell activation and proliferation. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) resemble TH2 cells and produce the TH2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 but lack antigen-specific receptors. The mechanism by which PKC-θ drives innate immune cells to instruct TH2 responses in patients with allergic lung inflammation remains unknown. We hypothesized that PKC-θ contributes to ILC2 activation and might be necessary for ILC2s to instruct the TH2 response. PRKCQ gene expression was assessed in innate lymphoid cell subsets purified from human PBMCs and mouse lung ILC2s. ILC2 activation and eosinophil recruitment, TH2-related cytokine and chemokine production, lung histopathology, interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) mRNA expression, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT1) protein expression were determined. Adoptive transfer of ILC2s from wild-type mice was performed in wild-type and PKC-θ-deficient (PKC-θ(-/-)) mice. Here we report that PKC-θ is expressed in both human and mouse ILC2s. Mice lacking PKC-θ had reduced ILC2 numbers, TH2 cell numbers and activation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and expression of the transcription factors IRF4 and NFAT1. Importantly, adoptive transfer of ILC2s restored eosinophil influx and IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 production in lung tissue, as well as TH2 cell activation. The pharmacologic PKC-θ inhibitor (Compound 20) administered during allergen challenge reduced ILC2 numbers and activation, as well as airway inflammation and IRF4 and NFAT1 expression. Therefore our findings identify PKC-θ as a critical factor for ILC2 activation that contributes to TH2 cell differentiation, which is associated with IRF4 and NFAT1 expression in allergic lung inflammation. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. House dust mites in Williamsburg, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Lassiter, M T; Fashing, N J

    1990-04-01

    House dust allergy is a common medical ailment. It has been well established that mites of the genus Dermatophagoides (house dust mites) are an important source of allergens and that mite counts greater than 300 per gram of dust are associated with symptoms of asthma. A survey of 22 houses in Williamsburg, Virginia, during the month of August revealed that all had mite populations exceeding this number. This may explain in part the high incidence of allergy in the Williamsburg area.

  18. Molecular and biochemical properties of storage mites (except Blomia species).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Iraola, Victor; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the allergological importance of different mite species not belonging to the family Pyroglyphidae has been demonstrated. These mites, commonly named storage mites, include Lepidoglyphus destructor, Glycyphagus domesticus, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, Aleuroglyphus ovatus, Suidasia medanensis and Thyreophagus entomophagus. Several allergens from these species have been purified, sequenced and cloned. Many of these allergens have shown sequence homology and a biological function similar to those previously described in Blomia tropicalis and the Dermatophagoides spp. The main allergens described in storage mites include fatty acid binding proteins, tropomysin and paramyosin homologues, apoliphorine like proteins, alfa-tubulines and other, such as group 2, 5 and 7 allergens, which definitive biological function has not been described yet. Besides the purification and characterization of allergens, the allergenicity of other species such as Acarus farris, Austroglycyphagus malaysiensis, Blomia kulagini and B. tjibodas, Cheyletus eruditus, Chortoglyphus arcuatus, Gohieria fusca, Thyreophagus entomophagus and Tyrophagus longior has been investigated. Research has also been conducted to identify allergens in parasitic mites, such as Psoroptes ovis, Sarcoptes scabiei, Varroa jacobsoni, Diplaegidia columbae and Hemisarcoptes cooremani. The allergenicity of mites present in agricultural environments has been investigated. Crossreactivity studies have also been performed to elucidate to what extent all these mites share common, or species specific epitopes. Herein we present a comprehensive review of the allergenicity of mite species which have been implicated in human respiratory and/or dermatological diseases.

  19. Mite allergy and exposure to storage mites and house dust mites in farmers.

    PubMed

    Iversen, M; Korsgaard, J; Hallas, T; Dahl, R

    1990-03-01

    Sensitization to house dust mites, storage mites and other common inhalation allergens was studied in 144 farmers using SPT and RAST. The study population was selected from a random sample of 808 farmers and consisted of 47 persons who had declared themselves to suffer from asthma, 63 persons who had reported respiratory symptoms, and 34 healthy persons without respiratory symptoms. The most prevalent RAST was towards storage mites and was found in 17% of farmers who suffered from asthma and was estimated to occur in 5% of the random sample of farmers. A positive RAST to house dust mites was found in 17% of farmers who reported to suffer from asthma. Sensitization to pollens, animal dander and grain species was rare. A positive RAST to moulds was not found. There was a strong association between a positive RAST to house dust mites and a positive RAST to storage mites (odds ratio 21.0). A positive RAST to storage mites was significantly associated with living in a dwelling in the past which was recalled as damp (odds ratio 4.9). A high number of house dust mites was found in nearly all dwellings (median count 148 mites/0.1 g dust) and a high number of storage mites was found in some dwellings. This study suggests that in humid and temperate regions of Europe, allergy to storage mites in farmers is not caused exclusively by occupational exposure but damp housing conditions and indoor exposure to storage mites may also be important.

  20. Structural Analysis of Der p 1–Antibody Complexes and Comparison with Complexes of Proteins or Peptides with Monoclonal Antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Osinski, Tomasz; Pomés, Anna; Majorek, Karolina A.; Glesner, Jill; Offermann, Lesa R.; Vailes, Lisa D.; Chapman, Martin D.; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2015-05-29

    Der p 1 is a major allergen from the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, that belongs to the papain-like cysteine protease family. To investigate the antigenic determinants of Der p 1, we determined two crystal structures of Der p 1 in complex with the Fab fragments of mAbs 5H8 or 10B9. Epitopes for these two Der p 1–specific Abs are located in different, nonoverlapping parts of the Der p 1 molecule. Nevertheless, surface area and identity of the amino acid residues involved in hydrogen bonds between allergen and Ab are similar. The epitope for mAb 10B9 only showed a partial overlap with the previously reported epitope for mAb 4C1, a cross-reactive mAb that binds Der p 1 and its homolog Der f 1 from Dermatophagoides farinae. Upon binding to Der p 1, the Fab fragment of mAb 10B9 was found to form a very rare α helix in its third CDR of the H chain. To provide an overview of the surface properties of the interfaces formed by the complexes of Der p 1–10B9 and Der p 1–5H8, along with the complexes of 4C1 with Der p 1 and Der f 1, a broad analysis of the surfaces and hydrogen bonds of all complexes of Fab–protein or Fab–peptide was performed. This work provides detailed insight into the cross-reactive and specific allergen–Ab interactions in group 1 mite allergens. The surface data of Fab–protein and Fab–peptide interfaces can be used in the design of conformational epitopes with reduced Ab binding for immunotherapy.

  1. Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 activates DC and prevents house dust mite allergy through a TLR4-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emmanuelle; Delbrassine, Laurence; Bouillot, Céline; Reynders, Virginie; Mailleux, Anne-Catherine; Muraille, Eric; Jacquet, Alain

    2010-07-01

    Experimental animal and human studies have demonstrated that probiotic strains have beneficial effects on allergy. Here we report that the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 strain (EcN) is able to activate DC, as shown by important cytokine synthesis together with up-regulation of membrane expression of CD40, CD80 and CD86. This EcN-induced DC activation was strictly dependent on the TLR4 signaling pathway and was also associated with stimulation of NF-kappaB and MAPK. We next investigated the prophylactic potential of i.n. co-administration of EcN with a recombinant form of Der p 1 (ProDer p 1) in a murine model of mite allergy. I.n. vaccinations with EcN plus ProDer p 1 prevented the subsequent allergic response following Der p 1 sensitization and airway challenge with aerosolized mite extracts through the induction of an allergen-specific IgG2a response, the prevention of specific IgE production and a strong reduction of IL-5 secretion by allergen-restimulated splenocytes. EcN alone or in combination with ProDer p 1 inhibited the development of airway eosinophilia and neutrophilia. This in vivo protective effect of EcN was, in part, mediated by TLR4 signaling. Our results suggest that EcN represents an efficient adjuvant to prevent allergic responses.

  2. Mite control with low temperature washing-II. Elimination of living mites on clothing.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, E R; Fischer, A; Liebenberg, B; Kniest, F M

    1998-01-01

    Allergens produced by mites are one of the principal causes of allergic disease. House dust mites can be found in significant numbers living in textile garments, and therefore development of optimal washing conditions for delicate textiles represents an important aim for domestic mite control. Investigation of methods to eliminate house dust mites from clothing under low temperature washing conditions. Domestic house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae were cultured on garments under favourable conditions. The breeding success was monitored in terms of population and distribution using the free-mite Mobility Test. The mite containing garments were washed at low temperature with different commercial detergents in the presence or absence of a mite control additive containing 0.03% benzyl benzoate, and the numbers of mites surviving the washing process were assessed using the Heat Escape Method. The successful culture of mites in textile garments led to mite numbers of a total of at least 9000 to 10000 mites in 10 garments (Mobility Test). After washing in a domestic washing machine with detergents alone approximately 6000 remaining mites were detected in 10 garment halfs (Heat Escape Method). In contrast, mite control by the application of the same detergents together with an additive achieved a reduction to almost 50 mites. This is an additional reduction in mite numbers of 99.2%. It is possible to achieve mite control in delicate garments by washing at low temperature in the presence of a mite control additive providing a final concentration of 0.03% benzyl benzoate.

  3. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F.; Kezik, Julie M.; Hill, Melissa E.; Tsai, Eling; Li, De-Wei; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2012-10-15

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens

  4. Association of asthma with serum IgE and skin test reactivity to allergens among children living at high altitude. Tickling the dragon's breath.

    PubMed

    Sporik, R; Ingram, J M; Price, W; Sussman, J H; Honsinger, R W; Platts-Mills, T A

    1995-05-01

    Asthma in children and young adults is strongly associated with immediate hypersensitivity to indoor allergens, notably those derived from the house dust mite. In addition, outdoor air pollution is considered to aggravate existing asthma. We investigated the prevalence of asthma and the pattern of allergen sensitization in a mite-free environment with low levels of outdoor air pollution. A total of 567 children aged between 12 and 14 attending Los Alamos Middle School, NM (altitude 7,200 feet) were screened using a respiratory questionnaire; 120 children (53 control children) underwent allergen skin testing and serum IgE measurement, and their bronchial reactivity to histamine was measured. Dust was collected from 111 homes and the level of indoor mite and cat allergen measured. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was high (13%), and from the detailed testing it was estimated that 6.3% of the children had asthma (defined as symptomatic bronchial reactivity). Children with asthma had elevated IgE, 367 (179 to 755) versus 38 (23 to 61), and predominant sensitization to cat, 68 versus 20% (p < 0.001). A high number of households (77%) had a pet cat or dog. The concentration of mite allergen was very low (mean 0.18 micrograms Der p milligrams sieved house dust), whereas that of cat allergen was high in homes with a cat (80.8 micrograms Fel d milligrams) but also in homes with no cat (3.2 micrograms Fel d milligrams). The results show that in a mite-free environment with low levels of outdoor air pollution, asthma was still a major cause of morbidity among schoolchildren.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The hammock: a reservoir of allergens

    PubMed Central

    Rego, Francisca X M; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Kalil, Jorge; Arruda, L. Karla; Toledo-Barros, Myrthes

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Asthma affects approximately 10% of the world's population. Sensitization to allergens is an important risk factor, and exposure to allergens is associated with disease severity. METHODS: We performed skin tests to evaluate allergen sensitization to mites, cockroaches, cats, dogs, and molds in 73 asthmatic patients. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay was used to assay the mite and cockroach allergens found in dust from the bedding, hammocks, bedroom floors, living rooms, and kitchens of 29 patients and 14 controls. RESULTS: Fifty patients (68.5%) had positive skin test responses. There were positive responses to D. pteronyssinus (52.0%), B. tropicalis (53.4%), T. putrescentiae (15.0%), E. maynei (12.3%), L. destructor (8.2%), B. germanica (20.5%), P. americana (21.9%), Felis catus (10.9%), C. herbarium (2.7%), A. alternata (4.1%), and P. notatun (1.3%). The exposure to mite and cockroach allergens was similar in the patients and the controls. The Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Group 1 levels were highest in the beds and hammocks. The Blattella germanica Group 1 levels were highest in the kitchens, living rooms and hammocks. DISCUSSION: The positive skin tests to mites, cockroaches and cats were consistent with previous studies. D pteronyssinus was the most prevalent home dust mite, and hammocks were a source of allergens. To improve asthma prophylaxis, it is important to determine its association with mite allergen exposure in hammocks. PMID:21876974

  6. Quantitation of major allergens in dust samples from urban populations collected in different seasons in two climatic areas of the Basque region (Spain).

    PubMed

    Echechipía, S; Ventas, P; Audícana, M; Urrutia, I; Gastaminza, G; Polo, F; Fernández de Corres, L

    1995-06-01

    We present the results of allergen content evaluation in 80 dust samples from 31 homes of atopic patients from two climatic areas (humid and subhumid), collected in two seasons of the year (autumn and winter). Monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays were used to quantify Der p 1, Der f 1, Der 2, Lep d 1, and Fel d 1. The results were compared according to climate, season, and the type of sensitization (Pyroglyphidae mites, storage mites, or grass pollens). We underline the predominance of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (89% of samples) over D. farinae (16% of samples) in our environment. Der p 1 rates were higher in the humid area (Mann-Whitney P < 0.001), especially in the autumn (Wilcoxon P < 0.05). Lep d 1 was detected in 23% of samples and Lep d 1 levels were higher in the homes of patients sensitized to storage mites (Mann-Whitney P < 0.05), whereas this allergen was not detected in the homes of pollen-allergic patients. Fel d 1 was detected in nine of the 31 homes (16% of samples) although there was a cat in only one home.

  7. [New aero-allergens].

    PubMed

    De Blay, F; Bessot, J C; Pauli, G

    1996-01-01

    As the number of proteins recognized as causing allergic respiratory diseases increases, new aero allergens have appeared in the animal and vegetable realms, both in home and professional environments. Lepidoglyphus destructor and Blomia tropicalis, two mites found in storage areas, are particularly important in agricultural areas and in homes. Over the last ten years, the frequency of reactions to cockroaches has also increased in several countries. The allergenicity of non-biting insects is a frequent cause of allergy in certain countries including Japan. Chironomides cause respiratory diseases in professional and outdoor environments. The important role of Alternaria, a mold, in producing severe asthma has also been demonstrated. The pathophysiology of pollen-induced asthma has been shown to result from pollen allergens carried by particles less than 5 microns in diameter. Cyprus and ash tree pollen also cause an increasing number of pollinoses and flowers can cause rhinitis and asthma. Respiratory allergy to Ficus benjamina inaugurated a new type of allergies caused airborne allergens from non-pollinating plants. Allergy to latex raises a particular problem for health care workers. The immunochemical structures of the major and minor airborne allergens are now better known and the homologous structures of different allergens largely explains certain cross-reactions. In the future, recombinant allergens will probably be used to better understand the role of allergens in inducing and maintaining the allergic reaction and should help in our approach to diagnosis and therapy.

  8. Indoor allergens in settled dust from kindergartens in city of Łódź, Poland.

    PubMed

    Cyprowski, Marcin; Buczyńska, Alina; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of the study was to determine the levels of house dust mite (Der p1), dog (Can f1), cat (Fel d1) and cockroach (Bla g2) allergens in kindergartens localized in an urban agglomeration. A quantitative analysis of allergens was carried out in settled dust samples collected by vacuuming the floor surface in three kindergartens (N = 84) and children's clothing (N = 36). The samples were collected in spring-summer and autumn-winter periods as well as at the beginning and end of the week. The allergen dust concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA). The mean geometric concentrations (±geometric standard deviations) of allergens Der p1, Can f1, Fel d1 and Bla g2 determined in kindergartens were: 0.02 ± 3.21 μg/g of dust; 0.97 ± 4.49 μg/g of dust; 0.30 ± 4.43 μg/g of dust and 0.01 ± 3.08 μg/g of dust, respectively. Younger classrooms (children aged from 3 to 4 years) were characterized by almost twice higher mean concentration of allergen Fel d1, as compared to older classrooms (children aged from 5 to 6 years) (p < 0.05). A significant impact of seasonality on the level of dog allergen Can f1 was found (p < 0.05). No significant weekly variation was found in average concentrations of the allergens. Children who had a dog and/or cat at home were characterized by high concentrations of allergens Can f1 and Fel d1 on their clothes (59.2 ± 5.39 μg Can f1/g of dust; 3.63 ± 1.47 μg Fel d1/g of dust), significantly higher than concentrations of allergens in children who did not have any pets (p < 0.001). Special attention should be paid to keeping the kindergarten rooms tidy and clean and to an appropriate choice of furnishings and fittings which would prevent the proliferation of the house dust mite and accumulation of allergens.

  9. Allergy to dust mites may contribute to early onset and severity of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Li, S F; Zhang, X T; Qi, S L; Ye, Y T; Cao, H; Yang, Y Q; McElwee, K J; Zhang, X

    2015-03-01

    A higher risk of allergic diseases such as rhinitis, asthma and atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) has been reported for patients with alopecia areata (AA) compared with the general population, but the significance of this is still largely unclear. To determine whether serum total or specific IgE play a role in the onset and severity of AA. We tested 461 serum samples from 351 patients with AA and 110 healthy controls (HC) for total IgE (tIgE) and specific IgE (sIgE) by ImmunoCAP-100 or in vitro test (IVT). The absolute value of tIgE was higher in patients with AA than in normal controls (P < 0.001), although the prevalence of raised tIgE (> 120 IU/mL) detected in patients with AA (29.3%) was similar to that of HC (21.8%). Prevalences of raised sIgE against various allergens detected by ImmunoCAP-100 showed that Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p; 31.1%) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f; 29.0%) were the most common allergens. Similar results were found by IVT, with the most common response being against Der p/Der f (29.0%). However, the prevalences of tIgE and sIgE against dust mites (Der p and Der f) in patients with early-onset AA and severe AA were significantly higher than those with late-onset AA and mild AA (P = 0.02, P = 0.02 vs. P = 0.03 and P = 0.001, respectively). Notably, the increases in tIgE and sIgE were independent of atopy history. Allergy to dust mites may have an effect on the immune response in AA, and may contribute to its early onset and severity in patients of Chinese origin. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Allergy to house dust mites and asthma.

    PubMed

    Milián, Evelyn; Díaz, Ana María

    2004-03-01

    House dust mites have been shown to be important sources of indoor allergens associated with asthma and other allergic conditions. Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that affects millions of people worldwide, and numerous scientific studies have shown that the prevalence of asthma is increasing. The most common dust mite species around the world include Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), Euroglyphus maynei (Em) and Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Over the past three decades, many important allergens from these species have been identified and characterized at the molecular level. The biological function of several house dust mite allergens has been elucidated, with many of them showing enzymatic activity. However, Bt allergens remain the least studied, even though this mite is very common in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Puerto Rico. Therefore, it is very important to include Bt in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for house dust mite induced allergy and asthma, particularly in areas where Bt exposure and sensitization is high. Recombinant DNA technology, as well as other molecular biology and immunological techniques, have played a fundamental role in advances towards a better understanding of the biology of house dust mites and their role in allergic diseases. This kind of study also contributes to the understanding of the complex immunologic mechanisms involved in allergic reactions. The development of effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches depends on the continuity of research of house dust mite allergens. The objectives of this review are to describe the most important aspects of house dust mite allergy and to acquaint the scientific community with the latest findings pertaining to house dust mite allergens, particularly those derived from Bt.

  11. Sequential allergen desensitization of basophils is non-specific and may involve p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Witting Christensen, S K; Kortekaas Krohn, I; Thuraiaiyah, J; Skjold, T; Schmid, J M; Hoffmann, H J H

    2014-10-01

    Sequential allergen desensitization provides temporary tolerance for allergic patients. We adapted a clinical protocol to desensitize human blood basophils ex vivo and investigated the mechanism and allergen specificity. We included 28 adult, grass allergic subjects. The optimal, activating allergen concentration was determined by measuring activated CD63(+) CD193(+) SS(Low) basophils in a basophil activation test with 8 log-dilutions of grass allergen. Basophils in whole blood were desensitized by incubation with twofold to 2.5-fold increasing allergen doses in 10 steps starting at 1 : 1000 of the optimal dose. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was assessed after 3 min of allergen stimulation (n = 7). Allergen specificity was investigated by desensitizing cells from multi-allergic subjects with grass allergen and challenging with optimal doses of grass, birch, recombinant house dust mite (rDer p2) allergen or anti-IgE (n = 10). Desensitization reduced the fraction of blood basophils responding to challenge with an optimal allergen dose from a median (IQR) 81.0% (66.3-88.8) to 35.4% (19.8-47.1, P < 0.0001). CD63 MFI expression was reduced from 68 248 (29 336-92 001) to 30 496 (14 046-46 179, P < 0.0001). Basophils from multi-allergic subjects were desensitized with grass allergen. Challenge with grass allergen resulted in 39.6% activation (15.8-58.3). An unrelated challenge (birch, rDer p2 or anti-IgE) resulted in 53.4% activation (30.8-66.8, P = 0.16 compared with grass). Desensitization reduced p38 MAPK phosphorylation from a median 48.1% (15.6-92.8) to 26.1% (7.4-71.2, P = 0.047) and correlated with decrease in CD63 upregulation (n = 7, r > 0.79, P < 0.05). Desensitization attenuated basophil response rapidly and non-specifically at a stage before p38 MAPK phosphorylation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    It was only in the late 19th century that specific allergens, pollen, animal antigens and, later, house dust mite, were identified to cause upper and lower airway disease. Early allergen challenge studies, crudely monitored before measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s became widespread in the 1950s, focused on the immediate effects but noted in passing prolonged and/or recurrent asthma symptoms. The late asthmatic response, recurrent bronchoconstriction after spontaneous resolution of the early responses occurring 3 h to 8 h or more postchallenge, has been identified and well characterized over the past 50 years. The associated allergen-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (1977) and allergen-induced airway inflammation (1985) indicate that these late sequelae are important in the mechanism of allergen-induced asthma. Allergens are now recognized to be the most important cause of asthma. A standardized allergen inhalation challenge model has been developed and is proving to be a valuable research tool in the investigation of asthma pathophysiology and of potential new pharmacological agents for the treatment of asthma. PMID:24791256

  13. IL-10 and TGF-beta cooperate in the regulatory T cell response to mucosal allergens in normal immunity and specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Marek; Akdis, Mübeccel; Budak, Ferah; Aebischer-Casaulta, Carmen; Wrzyszcz, Maria; Blaser, Kurt; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2003-05-01

    The regulation of normal and allergic immune responses to airborne allergens in the mucosa is still poorly understood, and the mechanism of specific immunotherapy (SIT) in normalizing the allergic response to such allergens is currently not clear. Accordingly, we have investigated the immunoregulatory mechanism of both normal and allergic responses to the major house-dust mite (HDM) and birch pollen allergens--Dermatophagoides pteroynyssinus (Der p)1 and Bet v 1, respectively--as well as the immunologic basis of SIT to HDM in rhinitis and asthma patients. In normal immunity to HDM and birch pollen, an allergen-specific peripheral T cell suppression to Der p 1 and Bet v 1 was observed. The deviated immune response was characterized by suppressed proliferative T cell and Th1 (IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-5, IL-13) cytokine responses, and increased IL-10 and TGF-beta secretion by allergen-specific T cells. Neutralization of cytokine activity showed that T cell suppression was induced by IL-10 and TGF-beta during SIT and in normal immunity to the mucosal allergens. In addition, SIT induced an antigen-specific suppressive activity in CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells of allergic individuals. Together, these results demonstrate a deviation towards a regulatory/suppressor T cell response during SIT and in normal immunity as a key event for the healthy immune response to mucosal antigens.

  14. Establishment of two novel ELISA methods for Dermatophagoides farinae-specific IgE detection with recombinant group 2 allergen.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yubao; Zhou, Ying; Ma, Guifang; Shi, Weihong; Yang, Li; Wang, Yungang

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae, or the American house dust mite, is a common cause of allergy and asthma. Current tests for sensitization to D. farinae include an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for specific IgE detection, which, while clinically useful, is time-consuming and has low sensitivity since it uses crude mite extracts. We developed two new ELISA methods to detect the group 2 allergen from D. farinae (Der f 2) and the Der f 2-specific IgE in sera of patients with asthma. Using recombinant Der f 2 protein for the analysis of Der f 2-specific IgE, we tested both indirect ELISA and avidin biotin complex ELISA (ABC-ELISA) methods in 46 patients who were also tested by Pharmacia UniCap. Both of these approaches are more specific than traditional methods using crude mite extracts. These new tests could aid in the laboratory diagnosis of asthma due to sensitization to D. farinae.

  15. Characterization of Allergen Exposure in Homes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-17

    dust mixture.6 Dust mite allergens have been associated causatively with asthma, atopic dermatitis , and rhini- tis. 7 Studies from several countries...Asthma: A Controlled Trial. The Lancet 1976; ***:333-335. 10. Tuft L. Importance of Inhalant Allergens in Atopic Dermatitis . The Journal of Investigative...Monoclonal Antibodies to the Major Feline Allergen Fel d 1. 1I. Single Step Affinity Purification of Fel d 1, N-Terminal Sequence Analysis, and Development of

  16. Expression of hypoallergenic Der f 2 derivatives with altered intramolecular disulphide bonds induces the formation of novel ER-derived protein bodies in transgenic rice seeds

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lijun; Hirose, Sakiko; Suzuki, Kazuya; Hiroi, Takachika; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    House dust mites (HDM) are the most common source of indoor allergens and are associated with allergic diseases worldwide. To benefit allergic patients, safer and non-invasive mucosal routes of oral administration are considered to be the best alternative to conventional allergen-specific immunotherapy. In this study, transgenic rice was developed expressing derivatives of the major HDM allergen Der f 2 with reduced Der f 2-specific IgE reactivity by disrupting intramolecular disulphide bonds in Der f 2. These derivatives were produced specifically as secretory proteins in the endosperm tissue of seeds under the control of the endosperm-specific glutelin GluB-1 promoter. Notably, modified Der f 2 derivatives aggregated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen and were deposited in a unique protein body (PB)-like structure tentatively called the Der f 2 body. Der f 2 bodies were characterized by their intracellular localization and physico-chemical properties, and were distinct from ER-derived PBs (PB-Is) and protein storage vacuoles (PB-IIs). Unlike ER-derived organelles such as PB-Is, Der f 2 bodies were rapidly digested in simulated gastric fluid in a manner similar to that of PB-IIs. Oral administration in mice of transgenic rice seeds containing Der f 2 derivatives encapsulated in Der f 2 bodies suppressed Der f 2-specific IgE and IgG production compared with that in mice fed non-transgenic rice seeds, and the effect was dependent on the type of Der f 2 derivative expressed. These results suggest that engineered hypoallergenic Der f 2 derivatives expressed in the rice seed endosperm could serve as a basis for the development of viable strategies for the oral delivery of vaccines against HDM allergy. PMID:22378952

  17. Expression of hypoallergenic Der f 2 derivatives with altered intramolecular disulphide bonds induces the formation of novel ER-derived protein bodies in transgenic rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijun; Hirose, Sakiko; Suzuki, Kazuya; Hiroi, Takachika; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2012-05-01

    House dust mites (HDM) are the most common source of indoor allergens and are associated with allergic diseases worldwide. To benefit allergic patients, safer and non-invasive mucosal routes of oral administration are considered to be the best alternative to conventional allergen-specific immunotherapy. In this study, transgenic rice was developed expressing derivatives of the major HDM allergen Der f 2 with reduced Der f 2-specific IgE reactivity by disrupting intramolecular disulphide bonds in Der f 2. These derivatives were produced specifically as secretory proteins in the endosperm tissue of seeds under the control of the endosperm-specific glutelin GluB-1 promoter. Notably, modified Der f 2 derivatives aggregated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen and were deposited in a unique protein body (PB)-like structure tentatively called the Der f 2 body. Der f 2 bodies were characterized by their intracellular localization and physico-chemical properties, and were distinct from ER-derived PBs (PB-Is) and protein storage vacuoles (PB-IIs). Unlike ER-derived organelles such as PB-Is, Der f 2 bodies were rapidly digested in simulated gastric fluid in a manner similar to that of PB-IIs. Oral administration in mice of transgenic rice seeds containing Der f 2 derivatives encapsulated in Der f 2 bodies suppressed Der f 2-specific IgE and IgG production compared with that in mice fed non-transgenic rice seeds, and the effect was dependent on the type of Der f 2 derivative expressed. These results suggest that engineered hypoallergenic Der f 2 derivatives expressed in the rice seed endosperm could serve as a basis for the development of viable strategies for the oral delivery of vaccines against HDM allergy.

  18. Nomenclature and structural biology of allergens.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna; Breiteneder, Heimo; Ferreira, Fatima

    2007-02-01

    Purified allergens are named using the systematic nomenclature of the Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee of the World Health Organization and International Union of Immunological Societies. The system uses abbreviated Linnean genus and species names and an Arabic number to indicate the chronology of allergen purification. Most major allergens from mites, animal dander, pollens, insects, and foods have been cloned, and more than 40 three-dimensional allergen structures are in the Protein Database. Allergens are derived from proteins with a variety of biologic functions, including proteases, ligand-binding proteins, structural proteins, pathogenesis-related proteins, lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and calcium-binding proteins. Biologic function, such as the proteolytic enzyme allergens of dust mites, might directly influence the development of IgE responses and might initiate inflammatory responses in the lung that are associated with asthma. Intrinsic structural or biologic properties might also influence the extent to which allergens persist in indoor and outdoor environments or retain their allergenicity in the digestive tract. Analyses of the protein family database suggest that the universe of allergens comprises more than 120 distinct protein families. Structural biology and proteomics define recombinant allergen targets for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and identify motifs, patterns, and structures of immunologic significance.

  19. Early cytokine modulation after the rapid induction phase of sublingual immunotherapy with mite monomeric allergoids.

    PubMed

    Di Gioacchino, M; Perrone, A; Petrarca, C; Di Claudio, F; Mistrello, G; Falagiani, P; Dadorante, V; Verna, N; Braga, M; Ballone, E; Cavallucci, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of different treatment schedules of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in activating IL-10-producing T-cells, crucial in inducing allergen-specific tolerance, is not completely understood. The present work was designed to evaluate allergen driven interleukin release by mononuclear cells in the early phase of SLIT, after application of different induction schemes. Twenty mite-allergic patients were enrolled, 10 (group A) treated with a traditional 98 day induction scheme and 10 (group B) with a 16 day scheme with monomeric allergoid vaccine. At the end of the induction phase, the cumulative doses taken by group A and group B patients were equivalent to 50.5 and 50.3 microg of mite group 1 allergens, respectively. The release of Th1-, Th2- and Treg-related interleukins was assessed in culture supernatants of 5 microg/ml Der-p1-stimulated mononuclear cells, isolated before and after the induction phases. No relevant treatment-related side effects were observed. Interleukin release was similar in the two groups at the enrolment. Non-stimulated and Der p 1 stimulated release of studied cytokines was similar in the two groups at enrolment. Der p 1 stimulation significantly increased IL-10 release (p<0.0002) after treatment in group B patients, and this effect was higher (p=0.05) compared to group A patients. Furthermore, at the end of SLIT induction TNF-alpha, IL-4 and IFN-gamma production were reduced in group B patients (p<0.05, p=0.062 and p=0.060, respectively). The rapid induction scheme of sublingual immunotherapy induces an early immune suppression more effectively than the slower one. The rapid induction scheme should be the preferential way to start sublingual immunotherapy, particularly when monomeric allergoids are utilized.

  20. Th2 polarization by Der p 1--pulsed monocyte-derived dendritic cells is due to the allergic status of the donors.

    PubMed

    Hammad, H; Charbonnier, A S; Duez, C; Jacquet, A; Stewart, G A; Tonnel, A B; Pestel, J

    2001-08-15

    The polarization of the immune response toward a Th2 or a Th1 profile can be mediated by dendritic cells (DCs) following antigen presentation and interaction with T cells. Costimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 expressed by DCs, the polarizing cytokine environment during DC--T-cell interaction, and also the nature of the antigen are critical in the orientation of the immune response. In this study, the effect of the cysteine protease Der p 1, one of the major allergens of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, on these different parameters was evaluated comparatively on monocyte-derived DCs obtained from healthy donors, from pollen-sensitive patients, or from patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Results showed that Der p 1 induced an increase in CD86 expression only on DCs from house dust mite--sensitive patients. This was also associated with a higher capacity to induce T-cell proliferation, a rapid increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor--alpha and interleukin (IL)-1 beta, and the type 2 cytokine IL-10. No changes in the release of IL-12 p70 were induced by Der p 1. Finally, purified T cells from house dust mite-sensitive patients stimulated by autologous Der p 1--pulsed DCs preferentially produced IL-4 rather than interferon-gamma. These effects were abolished in the presence of the inactive precursor of Der p 1 (ProDer p 1). Taken together, these data suggest that DCs from house dust mite--sensitive patients, in contrast to DCs from healthy donors and from pollen-sensitive patients, exposed to Der p 1 play a pivotal role in the enhancement of the Th2 response associated with the allergic reaction developed in response to house dust mite exposure. (Blood. 2001;98:1135-1141)

  1. Pancake Syndrome (Oral Mite Anaphylaxis)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Oral mite anaphylaxis is a new syndrome characterized by severe allergic manifestations occurring in atopic patients shortly after the intake of foods made with mite-contaminated wheat flour. This clinical entity, observed more frequently in tropical/subtropical environments, is more often triggered by pancakes and for that reason it has been designated "pancake syndrome". Because cooked foods are able to induce the symptoms, it has been proposed that thermoresistant allergens are involved in its production. A novel variety of this syndrome occurs during physical exercise and therefore has been named dust mite ingestion-associated exercise-induced anaphylaxis. To prevent mite proliferation and the production of anaphylaxis, it has been recommended that wheat flour be stored at low temperatures in the refrigerator. PMID:23283016

  2. Allergen nomenclature*

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The revised nomenclature for allergens is presented together with proposed nomenclatures for (a) allergen genes, mRNAs and cDNAs, and (b) recombinant and synthetic peptides of allergenic interest. PMID:7955031

  3. Suppression of dust mite allergy by mucosal delivery of a hypoallergenic derivative in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ai, Chunqing; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Ding, Junrong; Ren, Chengcheng; Wang, Gang; Liu, Xiaoming; Tian, Fengwei; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Allergic asthma caused by house dust mite (HDM) is becoming a public health problem. Specific immunotherapy is considered to be the only curative treatment, but it is always associated with IgE-mediated side effects in the therapy process. A few studies showed that the disruption of allergen IgE epitopes could reduce IgE reactivity and thus reduce allergenic activity. In this study, a hypoallergenic derivative of the major HDM allergen Der p2 was constructed by genetic engineering. This derivative was confirmed to have a considerably reduced IgE reactivity compared with Der p2. For its application in vivo, recombinant Lactococcus lactis (LL-DM) was engineered to deliver the Der p2 derivative to the intestinal mucosal surface. Oral administration of LL-DM significantly alleviated Der p2-induced airway inflammation, as shown by reduced inflammatory infiltration and a reduction in Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage. This protective effect was associated with an up-regulation of specific IgG2a and a decrease in IL-4 level in the spleen which may affect specific IgE response. Moreover, the levels of regulatory T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen were markedly increased in mice fed with LL-DM, suggesting that LL-DM can inhibit allergic responses via the induction of regulatory T cell. Our results indicate that the Der p2 derivative is a promising therapeutic molecule for specific immunotherapy and recombinant lactic acid bacteria could be developed as a promising treatment or prevention strategy for allergic diseases.

  4. Allergens involved in the cross-reactivity of Aedes aegypti with other arthropods.

    PubMed

    Cantillo, Jose Fernando; Puerta, Leonardo; Lafosse-Marin, Sylvie; Subiza, Jose Luis; Caraballo, Luis; Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique

    2017-06-01

    Cross-reactivity between Aedes aegypti and mites, cockroaches, and shrimp has been previously suggested, but the involved molecular components have not been fully described. To evaluate the cross-reactivity between A aegypti and other arthropods. Thirty-four serum samples from patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis were selected, and specific IgE to A aegypti, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Periplaneta americana. and Litopenaeus vannamei was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cross-reactivity was investigated using pooled serum samples from allergic patients, allergenic extracts, and the recombinant tropomyosins (Aed a 10.0201, Der p 10, Blo t 10, Lit v 1, and Per a 7). Four IgE reactive bands were further characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time of flight. Frequency of positive IgE reactivity was 82.35% to at least one mite species, 64.7% to A aegypti, 29.4% to P americana, and 23.5% to L vannamei. The highest IgE cross-reactivity was seen between A aegypti and D pteronyssinus (96.6%) followed by L vannamei (95.4%), B tropicalis (84.4%), and P americana (75.4%). Recombinant tropomyosins from mites, cockroach, or shrimp inhibited the IgE reactivity to the mosquito at a lower extent than the extracts from these arthropods. Several bands of A aegypti cross-reacted with arthropod extracts, and 4 of them were identified as odorant binding protein, mitochondrial cytochrome C, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, and protein with hypothetical magnesium ion binding function. We identified 4 novel cross-reactive allergens in A aegypti allergenic extract. These molecules could influence the manifestation of allergy to environmental allergens in the tropics. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Allergen-induced generation of mediators in the mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Mattoli, S

    2001-01-01

    The inhalation of antigens does not normally lead to allergic inflammation, but airway resident cells and their products may affect the outcome of antigen exposure. It is therefore important to elucidate how potential allergens interact with airway epithelial cells and other cells located within and below the epithelium. Some studies have indicated that certain antigens, particularly the major house dust mite antigen Der p1, penetrate the airway epithelium by intracellular transportation or paracellular passage, depending on their concentrations, time of exposure, and ability of the cells to inactivate them. If an antigen possesses proteolytic activity, such as Der p1, and it reaches high concentrations or the exposure is prolonged, the disruption of the tight junction can also favor the transepithelial passage of other antigens. In this way, the antigens can easily encounter the effector cells located between epithelial cells and below the basement membrane. The magnitude of this phenomenon may be more prominent in the airways of asthmatic patients, as their epithelium is more permeable to Der p1 than the epithelium of nonasthmatic patients and releases cytokines after exposure to very low concentrations of this antigen for brief periods. Epithelial cell activation may facilitate the development of allergic mucosal sensitization to Der p1 and contribute to the antigen-induced inflammatory response by affecting the migration and function of dendritic cells, mast cells, and eosinophils. Also, there might be a secondary release of interleukin-6 and endothelin-1, which can have a detrimental effect on the cardiovascular function. PMID:11544162

  6. Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study: low-allergen environment can be achieved and maintained during pregnancy and in early life.

    PubMed

    Custovic, A; Simpson, B M; Simpson, A; Hallam, C; Craven, M; Brutsche, M; Woodcock, A

    2000-02-01

    Early exposure to dust mite allergens may be critical for primary sensitization. Reducing exposure may offer a realistic chance for primary prevention of sensitization and asthma, but it is essential to implement measures that can achieve and maintain the low-allergen environment. Our purpose was to assess the effectiveness of mite allergen avoidance measures in achieving and maintaining a low-allergen environment during pregnancy and in the first year of life. The Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study is a prospective, prenatally randomized study that follows the development of asthma and atopy in a cohort of infants at high risk (both parents atopic) who are randomly allocated to full mite allergen avoidance or to a normal regimen. Avoidance measures comprise (1) mite-proof covers (mattress, pillow, and quilt) for parental bed, (2) high-filtration vacuum cleaner, (3) vinyl flooring in infant's bedroom, (4) new crib and portable crib mattresses encased in mite-proof material, (5) benzyl benzoate (Acarosan) applied on carpets and soft furniture, (6) bed linens washed in hot water weekly, and (7) washable soft toys. Dust samples from the parental bed, bedroom floor, living room floor, infant's mattress, and nursery floor were collected between the 10th and 14th weeks of pregnancy, immediately after birth, and then at age 6 months and 1 year, and Der p 1 levels were determined by mAb-based ELISA. Recovered Der p 1 from maternal mattress was reduced by 97. 25% (95% confidence interval [CI] 95.25%-98.41%) during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, with the effect persisting for 6 months (98% reduction, 95% CI 97.25%-99.1%) and 12 months (97.6% reduction, 95% CI 95.7%-98.6%) after the birth (active vs control, P <.000001). Total Der p 1 from bedroom floor in the active group was reduced by 53.7% (95% CI 25.7%-71.2%) in samples collected within 4 weeks of the child's birth, with the percentage reduction being 62. 8% (95% CI 39.3%-77.2%) at 6 months and 26.5% (95

  7. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  8. Proteomic and Immunochemical Characterization of Glutathione Transferase as a New Allergen of the Nematode Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G.; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments. PMID:24223794

  9. Endotoxin, ergosterol, fungal DNA and allergens in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- associations with asthma and respiratory infections in pupils.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380-690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention.

  10. Endotoxin, Ergosterol, Fungal DNA and Allergens in Dust from Schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- Associations with Asthma and Respiratory Infections in Pupils

    PubMed Central

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor’s diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380–690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention. PMID

  11. Characterization of an immunomodulatory Der p 2-FIP-fve fusion protein produced in transformed rice suspension cell culture.

    PubMed

    Su, Chin-Fen; Kuo, I-Chun; Chen, Peng-Wen; Huang, Chiung-Hui; Seow, See Voon; Chua, Kaw Yan; Yu, Su-May

    2012-02-01

    Der p 2, a major allergen of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus mites, is one of the most clinically relevant allergens to allergic patients worldwide. FIP-fve protein (Fve) from the golden needle mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) is an immunomodulatory protein with potential Th1-skewed adjuvant properties. Here, we produced and immunologically evaluated a Der p 2-Fve fusion protein as a potential immunotherapeutic for allergic diseases. Using an inducible expression system in cultured rice suspension cells, the recombinant Der p 2-Fve fusion protein (designated as OsDp2Fve) was expressed in rice cells under the control of an α-amylase gene (αAmy8) promoter and secreted under sucrose starvation. OsDp2Fve was partially purified from the cultured medium. The conformation of Der p 2 in OsDp2Fve remains intact as reflected by its unaltered allergenicity, as assessed by human IgE ELISA and histamine release assays, compared to non-fusion Der p 2 protein. Furthermore, the Fve protein expressed in OsDp2Fve retains its in vitro lymphoproliferative activity but loses its hemagglutination and lymphoagglutination effects compared to the native protein. Notably, in vivo evaluation showed that mice administered with OsDp2Fve possessed an enhanced production of Der p 2-specific IgG antibodies without potentiating the production of Der p 2-specific IgE and Th2 effector cytokines in comparison with mice co-administered with native Fve and Der p 2 proteins. These results suggest that the recombinant Der p 2-Fve fusion protein produced in rice suspension cell cultures has a great potential for allergy immunotherapy.

  12. Cytokine and chemokine responses to helminth and protozoan parasites and to fungus and mite allergens in neonates, children, adults, and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Christian J; Komander, Karl; Hegewald, Jana; Huang, Xiangsheng; Gantin, Richard G; Soboslay, Peter T; Agossou, Abram; Banla, Meba; Köhler, Carsten

    2013-07-15

    In rural sub-Saharan Africa, endemic populations are often infected concurrently with several intestinal and intravascular helminth and protozoan parasites. A specific, balanced and, to an extent, protective immunity will develop over time in response to repeated parasite encounters, with immune responses initially being poorly adapted and non-protective. The cellular production of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines and chemokines in response to helminth, protozoan antigens and ubiquitous allergens were studied in neonates, children, adults and the elderly. In children schistosomiasis prevailed (33%) while hookworm and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was found in up to half of adults and the elderly. Mansonella perstans filariasis was only present in adults (24%) and the elderly (25%). Two or more parasite infections were diagnosed in 41% of children, while such polyparasitism was present in 34% and 38% of adults and the elderly. Cytokine and chemokine production was distinctively inducible by parasite antigens; pro-inflammatory Th2-type cytokine IL-19 was activated by Entamoeba and Ascaris antigens, being low in neonates and children while IL-19 production enhanced "stepwise" in adults and elderly. In contrast, highest production of MIP-1delta/CCL15 was present in neonates and children and inducible by Entamoeba-specific antigens only. Adults and the elderly had enhanced regulatory IL-27 cytokine responses, with Th2-type chemokines (MCP-4/CCL13, Eotaxin-2/CCL24) and cytokines (IL-33) being notably inducible by helminth- and Entamoeba-specific antigens and fungus-derived allergens. The lower cellular responsiveness in neonates and children highlighted the development of a parasite-specific cellular response profile in response to repeated episodes of exposure and re-infection. Following repeated exposure to parasites, and as a consequence of host inability to prevent or eliminate intestinal helminth or protozoa infections, a repertoire of immune responses

  13. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away. PMID:25138294

  14. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations.

    PubMed

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away.

  15. Allergen nomenclature.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, D. G.; Goodfriend, L.; King, T. P.; Lowenstein, H.; Platts-Mills, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    This article presents a nomenclature system for allergens which has been officially recommended by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). The nomenclature is based on proposals of the IUIS Sub-Committee for Allergen Nomenclature and is applicable to highly purified, well-characterized allergens and to non-purified or partially purified allergenic extracts. PMID:3492310

  16. Cockroach allergen exposure and plasma cytokines among children in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Medsker, Brock H; Forno, Erick; Han, Yueh-Ying; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Alvarez, Maria; Alcorn, John F; Canino, Glorisa J; Celedón, Juan C

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the effects of socioeconomic status or cockroach allergen on immune responses in school-age children, particularly in tropical environments. To examine whether cockroach allergen and/or socioeconomic status is associated with plasma cytokine levels in Puerto Rican children. This was a cross-sectional study of 532 children (6-14 years old) with (n = 272) and without (n = 260) asthma in San Juan (Puerto Rico). House dust allergens (cockroach [Bla g 2], dust mite [Der p 1], cat dander [Fel d 1], dog dander [Can f 1], and mouse urinary protein [Mus m 1]) were quantified using monoclonal antibody arrays. A panel of 14 cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α) was measured in plasma samples. Low household income was defined as less than $15,000 per year (below the median income for Puerto Rico in 2008-2009). Linear regression was used for the analysis of cockroach allergen and plasma cytokines. In a multivariable analysis adjusting for low income and other allergen levels, cockroach allergen was significantly associated with decreased IL-17A and with increased levels of 8 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-25, IL-31, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α). After stratifying this analysis by cockroach allergy (ie, having a cockroach positive immunoglobulin E reaction), our findings remained largely unchanged for children sensitized to cockroach but became weaker and statistically nonsignificant for non-sensitized children. Cockroach allergen has broad effects on adaptive immune responses in school-age children in a tropical environment, particularly in those sensitized to cockroach. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to indoor allergens and association with allergy symptoms of employees in a work environment.

    PubMed

    Brunetto, Barbara; Brescianini, Sonia; Barletta, Bianca; Butteroni, Cinzia; Rotondi, Daniela; Masciulli, Rosalba; Aliberti, Malaguti; Pini, Carlo; Di Felice, Gabriella; Iacovacci, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens is an important risk factor for sensitisation and respiratory allergy. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the levels of mite, cat and latex allergens in dust collected from an indoor workplace and to assess whether the exposure to these allergens was associated with the allergy symptoms reported by employees. Sixty dust samples were collected. Allergen concentrations were measured with antibody based ELISAs. All 144 participants compiled a questionnaire exploring possible symptoms of allergy. No association between latex allergen exposure and symptoms was found in spite of the high frequency of latex allergens. Mite allergens were detected in a minority of rooms. Cat allergen was the most important indoor allergen in the sampled workplace and exposure to this allergen could represent a risk for employees.

  18. IL-33-mediated innate response and adaptive immune cells contribute to maximum responses of protease allergen-induced allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Seiji; Takeda, Haruna; Tokura, Tomoko; Suzuki, Mayu; Inui, Kyoko; Hara, Mutsuko; Matsuda, Hironori; Matsuda, Akira; Oboki, Keisuke; Ohno, Tatsukuni; Saito, Hirohisa; Nakae, Susumu; Sudo, Katsuko; Suto, Hajime; Ichikawa, Saori; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Takai, Toshiro

    2013-05-01

    How the innate and adaptive immune systems cooperate in the natural history of allergic diseases has been largely unknown. Plant-derived allergen, papain, and mite allergens, Der f 1 and Der p 1, belong to the same family of cysteine proteases. We examined the role of protease allergens in the induction of Ab production and airway inflammation after repeated intranasal administration without adjuvants and that in basophil/mast cell stimulation in vitro. Papain induced papain-specific IgE/IgG1 and lung eosinophilia. Der f 1 induced Der f 1-specific IgG1 and eosinophilia. Although papain-, Der f 1-, and Der p 1-stimulated basophils expressed allergy-inducing cytokines, including IL-4 in vitro, basophil-depleting Ab and mast cell deficiency did not suppress the papain-induced in vivo responses. Protease inhibitor-treated allergens and a catalytic site mutant did not induce the responses. These results indicate that protease activity is essential to Ab production and eosinophilia in vivo and basophil activation in vitro. IL-33-deficient mice lacked eosinophilia and had reduced papain-specific IgE/IgG1. Coadministration of OVA with papain induced OVA-specific IgE/IgG1, which was reduced in IL-33-deficient mice. We demonstrated IL-33 release, subsequent IL-33-dependent IL-5/IL-13 release, and activation of T1/ST2-expressing lineage(-)CD25(+)CD44(+) innate lymphoid cells in the lung after papain inhalation, suggesting the contribution of the IL-33-type 2 innate lymphoid cell-IL-5/IL-13 axis to the papain-induced airway eosinophilia. Rag2-deficient mice, which lack adaptive immune cells, showed significant, but less severe, eosinophilia. Collectively, these results suggest cooperation of adaptive immune cells and IL-33-responsive innate cells in protease-dependent allergic airway inflammation.

  19. Prior or coinstantaneous oral exposure to environmental immunosuppressive agents aggravates mite allergen-induced atopic dermatitis-like immunoreaction in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, T; Tajima, Y; Hayashi, K; Ueda, H; Kosaka, T

    2011-11-18

    Immunosuppressive environmental chemicals may increase the potency of allergens and thereby play a role in the development of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD). This study's primary objective was to examine the mechanisms behind the development of allergic diseases and immunosuppression induced by some environmental chemicals. We focused on the aggravation of AD by the organophosphorus pesticide O,O-diethyl-O-4-nitro-phenylthiophosphate (parathion) and the organochlorine pesticide 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane (methoxychlor), in NC/Nga mice sensitized with extract of Dermatophagoides farinae (Df). NC/Nga mice were exposed orally to parathion or methoxychlor prior or coinstantaneous with sensitization with Df. The mice were subsequently challenged with Df. One day after the last challenge with Df, we analyzed dermatitis severity and expression of genes in the ear auricle, immunoglobulin (Ig) E and IgG(2a) levels in serum, and in auricular lymph nodes, T- or B-cell numbers and cytokine production. Prior exposure to parathion or methoxychlor induced marked increases in the following: dermatitis severity and gene expression in the ear auricle, IgE and IgG(2a) levels in serum, expression of surface antigens on helper T-cell and IgE-positive B-cell, production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and production of IgE in auricular lymph-node cells. In contrast, coinstantaneous exposure to parathion or methoxychlor yielded, at most, small but significant decreases in all parameters. Our results indicate that atopic dermatitis can be aggravated by prior exposure to immunosuppressive environmental chemicals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Elston, Carly A; Elston, Dirk M

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mites are normal inhabitants of human hair follicles. D folliculorum is found predominantly in the follicular infundibulum of facial skin and is typically present in small groups. D brevis, the smaller of the two species, predominates on the trunk, typically as solitarily mites within the sebaceous glands and ducts. In a wide variety of animals, Demodex mites are recognized as a cause of mange. The role of Demodex mites as agents of human disease has been more controversial, but evidence favors their involvement in acneiform eruptions, folliculitis, and a range of eruptions in immunosuppressed patients.

  1. Mechanisms and patient compliance of dust-mite avoidance regimens in dwellings of mite-allergic rhinitic patients.

    PubMed

    Kniest, F M; Wolfs, B J; Vos, H; Ducheine, B O; van Schayk-Bakker, M J; de Lange, P J; Vos, E M; van Bronswijk, J E

    1992-07-01

    We report on the mechanisms, the environmental changes and patient compliance with regard to conventional and new dust and mite avoidance measures to prevent allergic symptoms caused by mite allergens, taking into account both allergen contamination and the developmental success of pyroglyphid Acari. Twenty patients with persisting rhinitic complaints were selected and matched. Although the patients had performed some conventional dust and mite avoidance measures (patient compliance was 90%), the dwellings proved to be a stimulus for mite development. Moisture problems due to faulty construction and excessive moisture production were common. Since humidity conditions could not be changed at short notice, the 20 homes were subjected to the new variants of mite allergen avoidance based on intensive cleaning without (control) and with an acaricide incorporated (acaricidal cleaner [Acarosan]). After the carrying out of conventional avoidance measures, these patients still had allergic symptoms, and dust from only 23 to 52% of their textile objects was under the proposed guanine (mite faeces indicator) risk level. Only the acaricidal cleaner was able to decrease the allergenic mite load (and the burden of the patients) significantly in this 12 month period. With respect to mite-extermination, acaricidal cleaning was 88% better than intensive cleaning. Reduction of guanine was 38% better in the Acarosan treatment group. Clinical results have been reported elsewhere. A significant difference in favour of the acaricidal cleaning was seen in both subjective (as regards symptoms) and in objective data (total IgE). Another 50 patients were questioned.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Early allergen exposure and atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Harris, J M; Williams, H C; White, C; Moffat, S; Mills, P; Newman Taylor, A J; Cullinan, P

    2007-04-01

    The relationship between exposure to indoor aeroallergens in early life and subsequent eczema is unclear. We have previously failed to show any significant associations between early life exposure to house dust mite and cat fur allergens and either sensitization to these allergens or wheeze. We have also previously reported a lower prevalence of parent-reported, doctor-diagnosed eczema by age 2 years for children exposed to higher concentrations of house dust mite, but no other associations with other definitions of eczema or for exposure to cat allergen. To extend the exposure-response analysis of allergen exposure and eczema outcomes measured up to age 8 years, and to investigate the role of other genetic and environmental determinants. A total of 593 children (92 x 4% of those eligible) born to all newly pregnant women attending one of three general practitioner surgeries in Ashford, Kent, were followed from birth to age 8 years. Concentrations of house dust mite and cat allergen were measured in dust samples collected from the home at 8 weeks after birth. The risk of subsequent eczema as defined by the U.K. diagnostic criteria was determined according to different levels (quintiles) of allergen exposure at birth. By age 8 years, 150 (25 x 3%) children had met the diagnostic criteria for eczema at least once. Visible flexural dermatitis was recorded at least once for 129 (28 x 0%). As in other studies, parental allergic history was positively associated with most eczema outcomes, as were higher maternal education and less crowded homes. No clear linear associations between early exposure to house dust mite or cat allergen were found, regardless of the definition of eczema used. The risk of eczema appeared to increase for the three lowest quintiles of house dust mite allergen exposure (odds ratio, OR 1 x 37 for third quintile compared with first), and then to fall for the two highest quintiles (OR 0 x 66 and 0 x 71) even after controlling for confounding factors

  3. Indoor Allergens and Allergic Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Martin D.; Wünschmann, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to evaluate the most recent findings on indoor allergens and their impact on allergic diseases. Recent findings Indoor allergens are present inside buildings (home, work environment, school), and given the chronic nature of the exposures, indoor allergies tend to be associated with the development of asthma. The most common indoor allergens are derived from dust mites, cockroaches, mammals (including wild rodents and pets), and fungi. The advent of molecular biology and proteomics has led to the identification, cloning, and expression of new indoor allergens, which have facilitated research to elucidate their role in allergic diseases. This review is an update on new allergens and their molecular features, together with the most recent reports on their avoidance for allergy prevention and their use for diagnosis and treatment. Summary Research progress on indoor allergens will result in the development of new diagnostic tools and design of coherent strategies for immunotherapy. PMID:27184001

  4. [Allergens causing respiratory allergy: the aeroallergens].

    PubMed

    Deschildre, A

    1999-01-01

    Aeroallergens play a major role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, particularly asthma and rhinitis. Indoor allergens, including house dust mites, domestic pets, cockroaches, and molds are of particular importance. Pollens are also recognized as a major source of allergens. The role of these different allergens varies with environment conditions, such as climatic factors, and degree of exposure. Knowledge about allergens has progressed, especially with recent molecular biology studies. Structure and function have been identified. These studies have provided explanations about the relationship between allergic sensitization, allergen exposure, and disease activity, about clinical observations such as allergic cross reactions, and improvement in the production of allergenic extracts (necessary to diagnosis and immunotherapy). Environmental control measures are of particular importance in the prevention and management of allergic diseases.

  5. Indoor Allergens and Allergic Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Pomés, Anna; Chapman, Martin D; Wünschmann, Sabina

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the most recent findings on indoor allergens and their impact on allergic diseases. Indoor allergens are present inside buildings (home, work environment, school), and given the chronic nature of the exposures, indoor allergies tend to be associated with the development of asthma. The most common indoor allergens are derived from dust mites, cockroaches, mammals (including wild rodents and pets), and fungi. The advent of molecular biology and proteomics has led to the identification, cloning, and expression of new indoor allergens, which have facilitated research to elucidate their role in allergic diseases. This review is an update on new allergens and their molecular features, together with the most recent reports on their avoidance for allergy prevention and their use for diagnosis and treatment. Research progress on indoor allergens will result in the development of new diagnostic tools and design of coherent strategies for immunotherapy.

  6. Strain-Dependent Genomic Factors Affect Allergen-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kelada, Samir N. P.; Wilson, Mark S.; Tavarez, Urraca; Kubalanza, Kari; Borate, Bhavesh; Whitehead, Greg S.; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Roy, Michelle G.; Olive, Michelle; Carpenter, Danielle E.; Brass, David M.; Wynn, Thomas A.; Cook, Donald N.; Evans, Christopher M.; Schwartz, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is etiologically and clinically heterogeneous, making the genomic basis of asthma difficult to identify. We exploited the strain-dependence of a murine model of allergic airway disease to identify different genomic responses in the lung. BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice were sensitized with the immunodominant allergen from the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus species of house dust mite (Der p 1), without exogenous adjuvant, and the mice then underwent a single challenge with Der p 1. Allergic inflammation, serum antibody titers, mucous metaplasia, and airway hyperresponsiveness were evaluated 72 hours after airway challenge. Whole-lung gene expression analyses were conducted to identify genomic responses to allergen challenge. Der p 1–challenged BALB/cJ mice produced all the key features of allergic airway disease. In comparison, C57BL/6J mice produced exaggerated Th2-biased responses and inflammation, but exhibited an unexpected decrease in airway hyperresponsiveness compared with control mice. Lung gene expression analysis revealed genes that were shared by both strains and a set of down-regulated genes unique to C57BL/6J mice, including several G-protein–coupled receptors involved in airway smooth muscle contraction, most notably the M2 muscarinic receptor, which we show is expressed in airway smooth muscle and was decreased at the protein level after challenge with Der p 1. Murine strain–dependent genomic responses in the lung offer insights into the different biological pathways that develop after allergen challenge. This study of two different murine strains demonstrates that inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness can be decoupled, and suggests that the down-modulation of expression of G-protein–coupled receptors involved in regulating airway smooth muscle contraction may contribute to this dissociation. PMID:21378263

  7. Other Allergens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ...

  8. Mites and the implications on human health.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Patrícia; Bosco, Simone Morelo Dal; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2014-01-01

    The infestation by mites of stored products is of great economic importance and public health, with consequences to human health. To describe the mite species associated to food and stored products that cause implications to human health as well as to analyze the loss of quality and nutritional composition of infested food. Literature review in LILACS-BIREME, SciELO and MEDLINE databases for publications in English, Portuguese and Spanish with the descriptors "mites", "foods", "storage mites", "store product mites", "dust mites", "quality control", "quality foods", "chemical composition", "chemistry", "allergens" and "health". There were identified 80 articles, but only 55 were related to the objectives of the study. Sixteen references were mentioned in the articles that were found after checked for relevance. The activity of the mites causes loss of sanitary quality, weight and nutritional composition of the infested products, with great economic loss in the grain industry. Inhalation, ingestion or contact of mites, byproducts of metabolism and feces may sensitize susceptible individuals and cause asthma, allergic rhinitis, contact dermatitis, enteritis and lead to anaphylaxis. The monitoring of temperature and humidity is essential for the control of mites, as well as better conservation and hygiene of the units of grain storage. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. [Cloning, expression and identification of Der f7 gene from Dermatophagoides farinae and its immunological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Man-Yin; Wu, Yu-Lan; Yan, Hao; Ji, Kun-Mei; Liu, Zhi-Gang

    2013-10-01

    To clone and express Der f7 gene of Dermatophagoides farinae, and identify its immunogenicity. Total RNA was extracted from D. farinae mites. A reference sequence (Accession No. AY283292) was used to design specific primers. The Der f7 gene fragment was amplified by RT-PCR, and cloned into pET-32a vector. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) and induced with IPTG for protein expression. The recombinant protein was purified by Ni2+ chelating affinity chromatography and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The Der f7 gene fragment was about 650 bp, and shared 99% homology with the published one (Accession No. FJ436108). SDS-PAGE result showed its relative molecular weight (M(r)) of 23 000. The recombinant protein showed appropriate combination ability with IgE in sera of mite allergic patients. Der f 7 gene has been expressed in prokaryotic expression system and shows allergenicity.

  10. Recombinant allergens

    PubMed Central

    Jutel, Marek; Solarewicz-Madejek, Katarzyna; Smolinska, Sylwia

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only known causative treatment of allergic diseases. Recombinant allergen-based vaccination strategies arose from a strong need to both to improve safety and enhance efficacy of SIT. In addition, new vaccines can be effective in allergies including food allergy or atopic dermatitis, which poorly respond to the current treatment with allergen extracts. A number of successful clinical studies with both wild-type and hypoallergenic derivatives of recombinant allergens vaccines have been reported for the last decade. They showed high efficacy and safety profile as well as very strong modulation of T and B cell responses to specific allergens. PMID:23095874

  11. Involvement of the N-terminus of Der p 2 in IgE and monoclonal antibody binding.

    PubMed

    Hakkaart, G A; Aalberse, R C; van Ree, R

    1998-02-01

    The major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 was expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli either with glutathione-S-transferase as fusion partner or with a poly-histidine tag. Both recombinant fusion proteins failed to react with 3/14 Der p 2-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). When Der p 2 was expressed in yeast with one alanine linked N-terminally to the allergen, no reactivity was observed. When expressed without any fusion partner, all 14 mAbs showed reactivity. The addition of a single N-terminal alanine also disrupted an important epitope for IgE. In RAST inhibitions, an average decrease in inhibitory potency of 72+/-32% was observed (n = 16) with a maximum decrease of 91%. These observations suggest that the N-terminus of Der p 2 is involved in an important epitope for IgE that is disrupted by the addition of one single amino-acid. Recombinant Der p 2 molecules should therefore preferably lack any fusion peptide.

  12. Analysis of glutathione S-transferase allergen cross-reactivity in a North American population: Relevance for molecular diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Geoffrey A; Pedersen, Lars C; Glesner, Jill; Edwards, Lori L; Zakzuk, Josefina; London, Robert E; Arruda, Luisa Karla; Chapman, Martin D; Caraballo, Luis; Pomés, Anna

    2015-11-01

    It is not clear whether cross-reactivity or cosensitization to glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) occurs in tropical and subtropical environments. In the United States, Bla g 5 is the most important GST allergen and lack of coexposure to GSTs from certain species allows a better assessment of cross-reactivity. To examine the molecular structure of GST allergens from cockroach (Bla g 5), dust mites (Der p 8 and Blo t 8), and helminth (Asc s 13) for potential cross-reactive sites, and to assess the IgE cross-reactivity of sensitized patients from a temperate climate for these allergens for molecular diagnostic purposes. Four crystal structures were determined. Sera from patients allergic to cockroach and mite were tested for IgE reactivity to these GSTs. A panel of 6 murine anti-Bla g 5 mAb was assessed for cross-reactivity with the other 3 GSTs using antibody binding assays. Comparisons of the allergen structures, formed by 2-domain monomers that dimerize, revealed few contiguous regions of similar exposed residues, rendering cross-reactivity unlikely. Accordingly, anti-Bla g 5 or anti-Der p 8 IgE from North American patients did not recognize Der p 8 or Bla g 5, respectively, and neither showed binding to Blo t 8 or Asc s 13. A weaker binding of anti-Bla g 5 IgE to Der p 8 versus Bla g 5 (∼ 100-fold) was observed by inhibition assays, similar to a weak recognition of Der p 8 by anti-Bla g 5 mAb. Patients from tropical Colombia had IgE to all 4 GSTs. The lack of significant IgE cross-reactivity among the 4 GSTs is in agreement with the low shared amino acid identity at the molecular surface. Each GST is needed for accurate molecular diagnosis in different geographic areas. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of recombinant allergens in plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A large percentage of allergenic proteins are of plant origin. Hence, plant-based expression systems are considered ideal for the recombinant production of certain allergens. First attempts to establish production of plant-derived allergens in plants focused on transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana infected with recombinant viral vectors. Accordingly, allergens from birch and mugwort pollen, as well as from apple have been expressed in plants. Production of house dust mite allergens has been achieved by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco plants. Beside the use of plants as production systems, other approaches have focused on the development of edible vaccines expressing allergens or epitopes thereof, which bypasses the need of allergen purification. The potential of this approach has been convincingly demonstrated for transgenic rice seeds expressing seven dominant human T cell epitopes derived from Japanese cedar pollen allergens. Parallel to efforts in developing recombinant-based diagnostic and therapeutic reagents, different gene-silencing approaches have been used to decrease the expression of allergenic proteins in allergen sources. In this way hypoallergenic ryegrass, soybean, rice, apple, and tomato were developed. PMID:21258627

  14. [Elimination of airborne allergens from the household environment].

    PubMed

    de Blay, F; Casel, S; Colas, F; Spirlet, F; Pauli, G

    2000-02-01

    Exposure to allergens could be either a risk factor of sensitization and nonspecific hyperresponsiveness in genetically predisposed patients or a risk of onset of asthma attack in certain allergic asthma. During the past 20 years, in western countries the houses have become higher and the number of furred pets have increased and have been more kept inside the house which makes probable that exposure to indoor aeroallergen has increased. The development of new methods of allergen measurements allows a more precise identification of allergen source and reservoirs, an assessment of allergen exposure and a monitoring of allergen eviction methods. Concerning mite allergens, controlled studies which showed a clinical efficacy are those with a global mite eviction and at least a 6 months follow-up for cat and dog allergens, high efficiency-filters air cleaners or vacuum-cleaners are able to reduce airborne cat or dog allergen levels. According to the increasing number of papers about allergen eviction, it seems logical to propose allergen eviction as "first line treatment" of allergic asthma. In the future, it would be interesting to develop biological markers to identify more accurately patients who have a clinical improvement after allergen eviction.

  15. Beneficial cross-protection of allergen-specific immunotherapy on airway eosinophilia using unrelated or a partial repertoire of allergen(s) implicated in experimental feline asthma.

    PubMed

    Reinero, Carol; Lee-Fowler, Tekla; Chang, Chee-Hoon; Cohn, Leah; Declue, Amy

    2012-06-01

    The study hypothesis was that in experimentally asthmatic cats rush immunotherapy (RIT) using allergens not completely matched with sensitizing allergen(s) would at least partially attenuate the asthmatic phenotype and modulate the aberrant immune response. In phase I, cats sensitized to Bermuda grass allergen (BGA), house dust mite allergen (HDMA) or placebo received BGA RIT. In phase II, cats dually sensitized to BGA and HDMA received RIT using BGA, HDMA or placebo. Efficacy of RIT was assessed using percentage bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) eosinophils. Additionally, a variety of immunologic assays were performed. Eosinophilic airway inflammation significantly decreased over time in asthmatic cats given RIT using sensitizing allergen or unrelated allergen (P<0.001). In dually sensitized cats, single allergen RIT but not placebo reduced airway eosinophilia (P=0.038). Differences in allergen-specific lymphocyte proliferation, in the number of IL-10 producing cells and in the percentage T regulatory cells were detected between asthmatic cats getting RIT and controls. Cross-protection manifested by reduced airway eosinophilia was noted in cats treated with RIT allergens which did not completely match allergen used in asthma induction. However, the mechanism of immunologic tolerance may differ when improperly matched allergens to the sensitizing allergens are used in RIT.

  16. Airborne allergens, endotoxins, and particulate matter in elementary schools, results from Germany (LUPE 2).

    PubMed

    Fromme, Hermann; Bischof, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Silvio; Lahrz, Thomas; Schierl, Rudolf; Schwegler, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Allergic disorders are the most common childhood-related chronic diseases in developed countries. It is essential to assess the exposure, especially in schools, where children spend a large portion of their time. We aimed to investigate allergen and endotoxin levels in the air of schools and to observe seasonal variations of these factors. We evaluated airborne concentrations of house dust mites allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat allergen (Fel d 1), and endotoxin in PM10 in 14 classrooms during the school days in the region of Munich, each over 20 consecutive days and in 1 classroom over the course of a year (at 83 days); we also tested outdoor air close to the schools. Endotoxin levels were quantified using two different analytical methods. In addition, indoor air climate parameters were measured. The median daily indoor CO2 and PM10 concentrations in the classrooms ranged from 423 to 3,135 ppm (median: 1,211 ppm) and 9 to 390 μg/m(3) (median: 127 μg/m(3)), respectively. Fel d 1 in the PM10 samples was the most frequently detected allergen, with levels from 0.02 to 1.15 ng/m(3) in a total of 301 samples (median: 0.19 ng/m(3), 95th percentile: 0.57 ng/m(3)). Der p 1 and Der f 1 were detected in only 51% and 19% of the samples, with 95th percentiles at 0.5 and 0.3 ng/m(3). Endotoxin levels in the PM10 and inhalable dust samples ranged from 0.5 to 84.1 EU/m(3) (median: 15.3 EU/m(3); 95th percentile: 58.2 EU/m(3)) and from 0.03 to 115 EU/m(3) (median: 8.4 EU/m(3); 95th percentile: 27.9 EU/m(3)). Fel d 1 and endotoxin were found in higher levels in the winter months. The results of the two different indoor sampling techniques for endotoxin were statistically significantly correlated. The results of airborne allergens indicate a generally low exposure level in classrooms. With regard to endotoxin, our study showed higher levels in schools compared with residences.

  17. International consensus (ICON) on: clinical consequences of mite hypersensitivity, a global problem.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique; Thomas, Wayne R; Chapman, Martin D; Lee, Bee Wah; Caraballo, Luis; Acevedo, Nathalie; Chew, Fook Tim; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Behrooz, Leili; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Pascal, Demoly; Rosario, Nelson; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Geller, Mario; Quirce, Santiago; Vrtala, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Ollert, Markus; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Calderón, Moises A; Barnes, Charles S; Custovic, Adnan; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Capriles-Hulett, Arnaldo

    2017-01-01

    Since mite allergens are the most relevant inducers of allergic diseases worldwide, resulting in significant morbidity and increased burden on health services, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has proposed to issue an International Consensus (ICON) on the clinical consequences of mite hypersensitivity. The objectives of this document are to highlight aspects of mite biology that are clinically relevant, to update the current knowledge on mite allergens, routes of sensitization, the genetics of IgE responses to mites, the epidemiologic aspects of mite hypersensitivity, the clinical pictures induced by mites, the diagnosis, specific immunotherapeutic approaches, and prevention.

  18. An investigation into IgE-facilitated allergen recognition and presentation by human dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergen recognition by dendritic cells (DCs) is a key event in the allergic cascade leading to production of IgE antibodies. C-type lectins, such as the mannose receptor and DC-SIGN, were recently shown to play an important role in the uptake of the house dust mite glycoallergen Der p 1 by DCs. In addition to mannose receptor (MR) and DC-SIGN the high and low affinity IgE receptors, namely FcϵRI and FcϵRII (CD23), respectively, have been shown to be involved in allergen uptake and presentation by DCs. Objectives This study aims at understanding the extent to which IgE- and IgG-facilitated Der p 1 uptake by DCs influence T cell polarisation and in particular potential bias in favour of Th2. We have addressed this issue by using two chimaeric monoclonal antibodies produced in our laboratory and directed against a previously defined epitope on Der p 1, namely human IgE 2C7 and IgG1 2C7. Results Flow cytometry was used to establish the expression patterns of IgE (FcϵRI and FcϵRII) and IgG (FcγRI) receptors in relation to MR on DCs. The impact of FcϵRI, FcϵRII, FcγRI and mannose receptor mediated allergen uptake on Th1/Th2 cell differentiation was investigated using DC/T cell co-culture experiments. Myeloid DCs showed high levels of FcϵRI and FcγRI expression, but low levels of CD23 and MR, and this has therefore enabled us to assess the role of IgE and IgG-facilitated allergen presentation in T cell polarisation with minimal interference by CD23 and MR. Our data demonstrate that DCs that have taken up Der p 1 via surface IgE support a Th2 response. However, no such effect was demonstrable via surface IgG. Conclusions IgE bound to its high affinity receptor plays an important role in Der p 1 uptake and processing by peripheral blood DCs and in Th2 polarisation of T cells. PMID:24330349

  19. Chapter 1: an overview of allergens.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rachna; Grammer, Leslie C

    2012-01-01

    Most allergens are proteins or glycoproteins that range in molecular weight from 5000 to 100,000 Da, although polysaccharides and low molecular weight substances also may be allergenic. Common allergens include pollens, fungal spores, house-dust mites, and animal epithelial materials but can also include drugs, biological products, and insect venoms. The allergic response is dependent on the route of exposure. If exposure is to an inhaled aeroallergen, the allergic response will be a respiratory reaction in nature. Ingested or injected exposure gives rise to gastrointestinal, cutaneous, or anaphylactic reactions. Size of pollen determines clinical manifestation of allergy. For example, particles between 20 and 60 μm in diameter can be carried in the wind and cause nasal and ocular symptoms (allergic rhinoconjunctivitis). Particles <7 μm can deposit in the airways and cause symptoms of asthma. Animals produce allergens in forms unique to each species. Cat allergen, most importantly Fel d 1, is found mainly in cat saliva, sebaceous glands in the skin, and in urine of male cats. It is buoyant and "sticky," which means it easily remains airborne and may last in a home for up to 6-9 months after the source is removed. Cat allergen adheres to clothes and can be found in public places such as schools. Dog allergen, particularly Can f 1, is present in dander, saliva, urine, and serum. There are allergens specific to dog breeds, but all breeds produce allergenic proteins (even poodles and "hairless" dogs).

  20. Evaluation of storage mite contamination of commercial dry dog food.

    PubMed

    Brazis, Pilar; Serra, Montserrat; Sellés, Alex; Dethioux, Fabienne; Biourge, Vincent; Puigdemont, Anna

    2008-08-01

    Storage mites may be considered important allergens in dogs with atopic dermatitis. High sensitization rates to Tyrophagus, Acarus, and Lepidoglyphus species have been reported in atopic dogs, and dry pet food has been suggested as a potential source of storage mite exposure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate commercial dry dog food for contamination with storage mites, and how storage time and conditions could influence the risk of contamination. Ten different premium commercial dry dog foods formulated for skin disorders were selected. Food bags were opened and stored for 6 weeks under two different environmental conditions. At different time points, samples from each bag were collected and analysed by microscopy, guanine test, storage mite-specific traps, and a modified flotation technique. On opening, two storage mites identified as Acarus siro were isolated from one of the 10 bags by flotation technique, indicating that storage mites can be present in packaged dry dog food bags. After 5 weeks of storage under environmental conditions optimal for mite growth (23.2 +/- 2.1 degrees C and 71 +/- 5.6% of relative humidity), mites were detected by microscopic observation in nine of the 10 diets. When mites were identified by the flotation technique, Tyrophagus spp. were found to be the most common contaminating species. These results show that dry dog food can be a suitable substrate for storage mite reproduction, and that environmental and storage conditions may influence food contamination and mite development.

  1. Clinical and Laboratory Studies of the Fate of Intranasal Allergen

    PubMed Central

    Rimmer, Janet; Santos, Conceição; Yli-Panula, Eija; Noronha, Virginia; Viander, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Background The precise way in which allergen is handled by the nose is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine recovery of Der p 1 allergen following nasal administration and to determine whether Der p 1 can be detected in nasal biopsies after natural exposure and nasal challenge to allergen. Methods (1) 20 nonatopic non-rhinitics were challenged with Der p 1 and recovery was measured by ELISA in the nasal wash, nasal mucus and induced sputum up to 30 minutes. Particulate charcoal (<40 μm) served as control. (2) In 8 subjects (5 atopics), 30 to 60 minutes after challenge histological localisation of Der p 1 in the nasal mucosal epithelium, subepithelial mucous glands and lamina propria was performed. Co-localisation of Der p 1 with macrophages and IgE-positive cells was undertaken. Results (1) Less than 25% of total allergen was retrievable after aqueous or particulate challenge, most from the nasal mucus during 1-5 min after the challenge. The median of carbon particles recovered was 9%. (2) Prechallenge Der p 1 staining was associated with the epithelium and subepithelial mucous glands. After challenge there was a trend for greater Der p 1 deposition in atopics, but both atopics and nonatopics showed increases in the number of Der p 1 stained cells and stained tissue compartments. In atopics, increased eosinophils, macrophages and IgE positive cells co-localized with Der p 1 staining. Conclusions Der p 1 allergen is detected in nasal tissue independent of atopic status after natural exposure. After challenge the nose effectively retains allergen, which remains mucosally associated; in atopics there is greater Der p 1 deposition and inflammatory response than in nonatopics. These results support the hypothesis that nasal mucus and tissue act as a reservoir for the inhaled Der p 1 allergen leading to a persistent allergic inflammatory response in susceptible individuals. PMID:25969994

  2. Mite allergy and mite exposure in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Hallas, Thorkil E; Gislason, Thorarinn; Gislason, David

    2011-01-01

    In this overview of investigations into mite allergy in Iceland and of the current understanding of the sources of exposure, 2 major categories of mite-induced allergies were encountered. The first was house dust mite allergy due to house dust mites from unknown sources, and the second was barn allergy caused by mites connected with the degradation of stored hay. Characteristics of these diseases have been obtained from surveys where skin prick tests were made with commercially available extracts of mites and from zoological investigations where mites had been found in different kinds of dusts relevant for the tested persons. The investigations uncovered a discrepancy between the capital Reykjavik and countryside farms. While the frequencies of sensitization to house dust mites and barn mites are rather similar in the capital area and in the rural area, the exposure to these mites is unexpectedly low in the capital area. Thus, sensitization appears to take place preferably in the rural area.

  3. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  4. MITE display.

    PubMed

    Casa, Alexandra M; Nagel, Alexander; Wessler, Susan R

    2004-01-01

    Genome size differences among crop plants are largely due to unequal accumulation of repetitive DNA sequences, mainly transposable elements (TEs). Over the past decade, many families of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) have been identified and characterized in a variety of organisms including animals and plants. MITEs are characterized by short terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) (10-15 bp), small size (approx 100 to 500 bp), high-copy-number (approx 1000 to 15,000 per haploid genome), and a preference for insertion into 2-bp to 3-bp targets that are rich in A and T residues. In this chapter, we present a modified transposon display procedure based on the maize MITE family Heartbreaker (Hbr). This technique is similar to AFLP in which AFLP adaptors are ligated to compatible ends of digested genomic DNA. Subsets of Hbr-containing fragments are then amplified using one AFLP primer and another primer complementary to an internal sequence of the Hbr element. Like AFLP, the Hbr display method permits the simultaneous analysis of numerous DNA fragments. Given the plethora of available marker systems, the major advantage of Hbr markers, and perhaps most MITE-based markers, is a preference for insertion in or near transcriptionally active genomic regions. This feature may be especially valuable in the large genomes of agriculturally important plants like maize, wheat, and barley where gene-rich islands are thought to exist in a sea of retrotransposons. Having a class of markers that are enriched in genic regions, coupled with the ease of isolating MITE markers, could expedite chromosome walks and map-based cloning protocols in these organisms.

  5. Can house dust mite-triggered atopic dermatitis be alleviated using acaricides?

    PubMed

    Cameron, M M

    1997-07-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergens are the most important triggers for atopic dermatitis. Reducing exposure to these allergens may alleviate clinical symptoms. Chemicals with acaricidal activity have been used to treat upholstered furniture, carpets and bedding with the aim to reduce HDM allergen exposure. These chemicals, by reducing HDM, can decrease the concentration of mite allergens in dust but improvements in clinical symptoms are not always apparent. Clinical improvement is more likely to occur if bedding has been treated rather than carpets and upholstery. Future control strategies should be aimed at treating bedding. Permethrin is a very efficient killer of mites. It is used topically to treat scabies and head lice and is impregnated in bed nets to prevent mosquito bites. Even when applied to the skin in high concentrations, it has a very low toxicity in humans and other mammals. Permethrin-impregnated bedding may prove to be the best control method in the treatment of HDM allergen-triggered atopic conditions.

  6. Fungal allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy to fungi require well-characterized or standardized extracts that contain the relevant allergen(s) of the appropriate fungus. Production of standardized extracts is difficult since fungal extracts are complex mixtures and a variety of fungi are allergenic. Thus, the currently available extracts are largely nonstandardized, even uncharacterized, crude extracts. Recent significant progress in isolating and characterizing relevant fungal allergens is summarized in the present review. Particularly, some allergens from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium are now thoroughly characterized, and allergens from several other genera, including some basidiomycetes, have also been purified. The availability of these extracts will facilitate definitive studies of fungal allergy prevalence and immunotherapy efficacy as well as enhance both the diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy. PMID:7621398

  7. Outdoor allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  8. Allergen databases and allergen semantics.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M

    2009-08-01

    The efficacy of any specific bioinformatic analysis of the potential allergenicity of new food proteins depends directly on the nature and content of the databases that are used in the analysis. A number of different allergen-related databases have been developed, each designed to meet a different need. These databases differ in content, organization, and accessibility. These differences create barriers for users and prevent data sharing and integration. The development and application of appropriate semantic web technologies, (for example, a food allergen ontology) could help to overcome these barriers and promote the development of more advanced analytic capabilities.

  9. Exposure to a farming environment has allergen-specific protective effects on TH2-dependent isotype switching in response to common inhalants.

    PubMed

    Stern, Debra A; Riedler, Josef; Nowak, Dennis; Braun-Fahrlander, Charlotte; Swoboda, Ines; Balic, Nadja; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Vrtala, Susanne; Grönlund, Hans; van Hage, Marianne; Valenta, Rudolf; Spitzauer, Susanne; Von Mutius, Erika; Vercelli, Donata

    2007-02-01

    IgE synthesis by human B cells results from allergen-dependent, T(H)2-mediated isotype switching. Exposure to a farming environment protects against IgE responses. We reconstructed allergen-dependent switching patterns in vivo to identify the level or levels at which farm exposure acts to protect against atopy. Serum IgG1 to IgG4 and IgE to grass (rPhl p 1 and rPhl p 5), cat (rFel d 1), and mite (rDer p 2) were assessed by means of ELISA in the Allergy and Endotoxin study population (812 children). Farm exposure was defined as currently living on a farm, exposure to stables/farm milk in the first year of life, or both. Farm exposure did not affect allergen-specific IgG2 and IgG3 levels but had complex allergen-specific effects on IgG1, IgG4, and IgE levels. Exposure protected against grass-specific responses at every step along the IgG1/IgG4/IgE switching pathway but had no significant effect on mite responses. Protection from cat responses was concentrated at the IgG1 level. For all allergens, failure to express IgG1 was associated with low prevalence of IgG4 or IgE responses. Notably, coexpression of IgG1, IgG4, and IgE to grass was associated with increased risk of allergic disease and higher IgE levels compared with production of IgG1 and IgE without IgG4, suggesting IgG4 coexpression marks stronger activation of T(H)2-dependent events. The protective effects of farm exposure were confined to T(H)2-dependent IgG1, IgG4, and IgE expression and were allergen and switch stage specific, suggesting that distinct mechanisms regulate individual steps within allergen-induced class switching in vivo. Environmental interventions to prevent IgE expression might need to be tailored to specific allergens.

  10. Skin sensitivity reactions to some allergens in different population groups of Ethiopian subjects.

    PubMed

    Desalegn, Kassahun; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Kassu, Afework; Mulu, Andargachew; Yismaw, Gizachew; Yifru, Sisay; Ota, Fusao

    2007-12-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases to a variety of allergens has only been studied in a few countries and it has never been studied in Ethiopia. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of skin sensitivity reactions to allergens in Ethiopian subjects. A total of 216 subjects were tested with a skin scratch test using five types of allergens and also for total and differential white blood cell counts. Positive reaction to one or more allergens was detected in 49.5% of the subjects, the most prevalent allergen being mite extract. Some 27% showed a positive reaction to multiple allergens. The mean eosinophil count was higher in the subjects reacting to at least one of the allergens compared to those with no reaction (p=0.038). The results demonstrate a high prevalence of allergic reactions to the few allergens tested. Further studies using several allergens are recommended to substantiate this finding.

  11. Occurrence of Respiratory Symptoms Resulting from Exposure to House Dust Mites in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Zembala, Marek; Hajto, Barbara; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata; Perera, Frederica P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of house dust mite (HDM) allergens within homes of three-year-old children, to identify factors responsible for its variation and to test the hypothesis whether the content of HDM allergens exceeding 2 [mu]g/g dust may be regarded as a risk level of sensitization possibly affecting respiratory…

  12. Occurrence of Respiratory Symptoms Resulting from Exposure to House Dust Mites in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Zembala, Marek; Hajto, Barbara; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata; Perera, Frederica P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of house dust mite (HDM) allergens within homes of three-year-old children, to identify factors responsible for its variation and to test the hypothesis whether the content of HDM allergens exceeding 2 [mu]g/g dust may be regarded as a risk level of sensitization possibly affecting respiratory…

  13. Reduction of the number of major representative allergens: from clinical testing to 3-dimensional structures.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Liu, Xueting; Huang, Yuyi; Zou, Zehong; Chen, Huifang; Lai, He; Zhang, Lida; Wu, Qiurong; Zhang, Junyan; Wang, Shan; Zhang, Jianguo; Tao, Ailin; Sun, Baoqing

    2014-01-01

    Vast amounts of allergen sequence data have been accumulated, thus complicating the identification of specific allergenic proteins when performing diagnostic allergy tests and immunotherapy. This study aims to rank the importance/potency of the allergens so as to logically reduce the number of allergens and/or allergenic sources. Meta-analysis of 62 allergenic sources used for intradermal testing on 3,335 allergic patients demonstrated that in southern China, mite, sesame, spiny amaranth, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and house dust account for 88.0% to 100% of the observed positive reactions to the 62 types of allergenic sources tested. The Kolmogorov-Smironov Test results of the website-obtained allergen data and allergen family featured peptides suggested that allergen research in laboratories worldwide has been conducted in parallel on many of the same species. The major allergens were reduced to 21 representative allergens, which were further divided into seven structural classes, each of which contains similar structural components. This study therefore has condensed numerous allergenic sources and major allergens into fewer major representative ones, thus allowing for the use of a smaller number of allergens when conducting comprehensive allergen testing and immunotherapy treatments.

  14. Cloning, expression, purification, characterization, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of recombinant Der f 21 (rDer f 21) from Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Pang, Sze Lei; Ho, Kok Lian; Waterman, Jitka; Teh, Aik Hong; Chew, Fook Tim; Ng, Chyan Leong

    2015-11-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae is one of the major house dust mite (HDM) species that cause allergic diseases. N-terminally His-tagged recombinant Der f 21 (rDer f 21), a group 21 allergen, with the signal peptide truncated was successfully overexpressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. The purified rDer f 21 protein was initially crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Well diffracting protein crystals were obtained after optimization of the crystallization conditions using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with a reservoir solution consisting of 0.19 M Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 32% PEG 400 at 293 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.49 Å resolution using an in-house X-ray source. The crystal belonged to the C-centered monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 123.46, b = 27.71, c = 90.25 Å, β = 125.84°. The calculated Matthews coefficient (VM) of 2.06 Å(3) Da(-1) suggests that there are two molecules per asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 40.3%. Despite sharing high sequence identity with Blo t 5 (45%) and Blo t 21 (41%), both of which were determined to be monomeric in solution, size-exclusion chromatography, static light scattering and self-rotation function analysis indicate that rDer f 21 is likely to be a dimeric protein.

  15. Identification of the cysteine protease Amb a 11 as a novel major allergen from short ragweed.

    PubMed

    Bouley, Julien; Groeme, Rachel; Le Mignon, Maxime; Jain, Karine; Chabre, Henri; Bordas-Le Floch, Véronique; Couret, Marie-Noëlle; Bussières, Laetitia; Lautrette, Aurélie; Naveau, Marie; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Lombardi, Vincent; Mascarell, Laurent; Batard, Thierry; Nony, Emmanuel; Moingeon, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Allergy to pollen from short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is a serious and expanding health problem in the United States and in Europe. We sought to investigate the presence of undescribed allergens in ragweed pollen. Ragweed pollen proteins were submitted to high-resolution gel electrophoresis and tested for IgE reactivity by using sera from 92 American or European donors with ragweed allergy. Pollen transcriptome sequencing, mass spectrometry (MS), and recombinant DNA technologies were applied to characterize new IgE-binding proteins. High-resolution IgE immunoblotting experiments revealed that 50 (54%) of 92 patients with ragweed allergy were sensitized to a 37-kDa allergen distinct from Amb a 1. The full-length cDNA sequence for this molecule was obtained by means of PCR cloning after MS sequencing of the protein combined with ragweed pollen RNA sequencing. The purified allergen, termed Amb a 11, was fully characterized by MS and confirmed to react with IgEs from 66% of patients. This molecule is a 262-amino-acid thiol protease of the papain family expressed as a combination of isoforms and glycoforms after proteolytic removal of N- and C-terminal propeptides from a proform. Three-dimensional modeling revealed a high structural homology with known cysteine proteases, including the mite Der p 1 allergen. The protease activity of Amb a 11, as well as its capacity to activate basophils from patients with ragweed allergy, were confirmed. The production of a nonglycosylated recombinant form of Amb a 11 in Escherichia coli established that glycosylation is not required for IgE binding. We identified the cysteine protease Amb a 11 as a new major allergen from ragweed pollen. Given the similar physicochemical properties shared by the 2 major allergens, we hypothesize that part of the allergenic activity previously ascribed to Amb a 1 is rather borne by Amb a 11. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Animal Allergens and Their Presence in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to animal allergens is a major risk factor for sensitization and allergic diseases. Besides mites and cockroaches, the most important animal allergens are derived from mammals. Cat and dog allergies affect the general population; whereas, allergies to rodents or cattle is an occupational problem. Exposure to animal allergens is not limited to direct contact to animals. Based on their aerodynamic properties, mammalian allergens easily become airborne, attach to clothing and hair, and can be spread from one environment to another. For example, the major cat allergen Fel d 1 was frequently found in homes without pets and in public buildings, including schools, day-care centers, and hospitals. Allergen concentrations in a particular environment showed high variability depending on numerous factors. Assessment of allergen exposure levels is a stepwise process that involves dust collection, allergen quantification, and data analysis. Whereas a number of different dust sampling strategies are used, ELISA assays have prevailed in the last years as the standard technique for quantification of allergen concentrations. This review focuses on allergens arising from domestic, farm, and laboratory animals and describes the ubiquity of mammalian allergens in the human environment. It includes an overview of exposure assessment studies carried out in different indoor settings (homes, schools, workplaces) using numerous sampling and analytical methods and summarizes significant factors influencing exposure levels. However, methodological differences among studies have contributed to the variability of the findings and make comparisons between studies difficult. Therefore, a general standardization of methods is needed and recommended. PMID:24624129

  17. Structural and functional localization of airway effects from episodic exposure of infant monkeys to allergen and/or ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Joad, Jesse P. . E-mail: jesse.joad@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu; Kott, Kayleen S.; Bric, John M.; Peake, Janice L.; Plopper, Charles G.; Schelegle, Edward S.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2006-08-01

    Both allergen and ozone exposure increase asthma symptoms and airway responsiveness in children. Little is known about how these inhalants may differentially modify airway responsiveness in large proximal as compared to small distal airways. We evaluated whether bronchi and respiratory bronchioles from infant monkeys exposed episodically to allergen and/or ozone differentially develop intrinsic hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and whether eosinophils and/or pulmonary neuroendocrine cells play a role. Infant monkeys were exposed episodically for 5 months to: (1) filtered air, (2) aerosolized house dust mite allergen, (3) ozone 0.5 ppm, or (4) house dust mite allergen + ozone. Studying the function/structure relationship of the same lung slices, we evaluated methacholine airway responsiveness and histology of bronchi and respiratory bronchioles. In bronchi, intrinsic responsiveness was increased by allergen exposure, an effect reduced by bombesin antagonist. In respiratory bronchioles, intrinsic airway responsiveness was increased by allergen + ozone exposure. Eosinophils were increased by allergen and allergen + ozone exposure in bronchi and by allergen exposure in respiratory bronchioles. In both airways, exposure to allergen + ozone resulted in fewer tissue eosinophils than did allergen exposure alone. In bronchi, but not in respiratory bronchioles, the number of eosinophils and neuroendocrine cells correlated with airway responsiveness. We conclude that episodically exposing infant monkeys to house dust mite allergen with or without ozone increased intrinsic airway responsiveness to methacholine in bronchi differently than in respiratory bronchioles. In bronchi, eosinophils and neuroendocrine cells may play a role in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness.

  18. Respiratory allergy caused by house dust mites: What do we really know?

    PubMed

    Calderón, Moisés A; Linneberg, Allan; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; De Blay, Frédéric; Hernandez Fernandez de Rojas, Dolores; Virchow, Johann Christian; Demoly, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) is a major perennial allergen source and a significant cause of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. However, awareness of the condition remains generally low. This review assesses the links between exposure to HDM, development of the allergic response, and pathologic consequences in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We investigate the epidemiology of HDM allergy to explore the interaction between mites and human subjects at the population, individual, and molecular levels. Core and recent publications were identified by using "house dust mite" as a key search term to evaluate the current knowledge of HDM epidemiology and pathophysiology. Prevalence data for HDM allergen sensitization vary from 65 to 130 million persons in the general population worldwide to as many as 50% among asthmatic patients. Heterogeneity of populations, terminology, and end points in the literature confound estimates, indicating the need for greater standardization in epidemiologic research. Exposure to allergens depends on multiple ecological strata, including climate and mite microhabitats within the domestic environment, with the latter providing opportunity for intervention measures to reduce allergen load. Inhaled mite aeroallergens are unusually virulent: they are able to activate both the adaptive and innate immune responses, potentially offering new avenues for intervention. The role of HDM allergens is crucial in the development of allergic rhinitis and asthma, but the translation of silent sensitization into symptomatic disease is still incompletely understood. Improved understanding of HDMs, their allergens, and their microhabitats will enable development of more effective outcomes for patients with HDM allergy.

  19. Progress in the development of specific immunotherapies for house dust mite allergies.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to treat patients exposed and co-sensitized to the two common house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae. Based on seroepidemiological studies and a detailed characterization of mite allergens, an optimal immunotherapeutic product should associate extracts from the two Dermatophagoides species, and include both bodies and fecal particles. Both subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapies performed with aqueous mite extracts are safe and efficacious in children and adults with mite-induced rhinitis and/or asthma. Double-blind placebo-controlled studies are conducted to further document the efficacy of immunotherapeutic products, with promising results that were obtained already with sublingual tablets. Current developments of second-generation products relying upon recombinant allergens and peptides are reviewed.

  20. Skin reactivity to allergens in Rabigh Area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamad Salah M; Tayeb, Moufag; Amir, Elamir Mahmoud; Wali, Akram Mohammad; Mohamed, Fawaz Sidig

    2013-08-01

    This study determined the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to allergens in patients with airway allergy residing in Rabigh Area, based on data analysis of skin prick test results. Skin prick tests of 160 Saudi attended Al Nakheel Polyclinic between July, 2012 and April, 2013. Allergen extracts set was used to test them. Out 160 patients, 114 (71%) reacted to one or more allergens, who were 73 (64%) adults and 41(36 %) children. The majority of adults (17.8%) reacted to six allergens and children (19.5%) reacted to five ones. The most frequently reacting allergen was house dust mites followed by Candida albicans then Cladosporium spp. The maximum number of positive tests per patients was 13 in adults, compared to 10 in children. A significantly higher proportion of adults were reacting to house dust mites, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Sensitivity to allergens was common in patients with airway allergy residing in Rabigh area

  1. Optimization of allergen standardization.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Hong, Chein-Soo; Lee, Joo-Shil; Park, Jung-Won

    2011-05-01

    Preparation of high quality allergen extracts is essential for the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergic disorders. Standardization of allergen extracts concerns determination of the allergen unit, development of reference material and measurement of the overall IgE binding capacity of an allergen extract. Recently, quantification of individual allergens has been the main focus of allergen standardization because the allergenicity of most allergen extracts is known to be mainly dependent on the content of a small number of allergen molecules. Therefore, characterization of major allergens will facilitate the standardization of allergens. In this article, we review the current state of allergen standardization. In addition, we briefly summarize the components of allergen extracts that should be under control for the optimization of allergen standardization, since its adjuvant-like activities could play an important role in allergic reactions even though the molecule itself does not bind to the IgE antibodies from subjects.

  2. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    SciTech Connect

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. )

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  3. Comparative analysis of biological activities of Der p I-derived peptides on Fc epsilon receptor-bearing cells from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-sensitive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Jeannin, P; Pestel, J; Bossus, M; Lassalle, P; Tartar, A; Tonnel, A B

    1993-01-01

    The ability of four uncoupled synthetic peptides (p52-71, p117-133, p176-187, p188-199) derived from Der p I, a major allergen from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) to stimulate Fc epsilon R+ cells from Dpt-sensitive patients was comparatively analysed. Each free peptide may specifically stimulate basophils (Fc epsilon RI+ cells) and platelets (Fc epsilon RII+ cells) from patients with significant levels of anti-Der p I IgE antibodies; p52-71 and p117-133 appear the best cell stimulation inducers. Both concentration-dependent biological activities of Der p I-peptide on Fc epsilon R+ cells are enhanced by coupling peptide to a carrier (as human serum albumin). Interestingly each Der p I-sensitive patient tested presents an individual pattern of response to peptide. Thus, from our results it appears that different Der p I sequences could be involved in the immune response to Der p I. PMID:7682161

  4. [Allergy to house dust mites: allergy independent symptoms dominate].

    PubMed

    Herwig, L M; Helbling, A; Pichler, W J; Pichler, C E

    2004-02-18

    A sensitisation to allergens has not always a clinical relevance. Therefore, the history has an uppermost importance for defining the relevance of a sensitisation. In contrast to the history in seasonal rhino-conjunctivitis, which causes typical complains in a restricted time period patients with house dust mite allergy seem to have less defined complaints. To define the most relevant symptoms of this frequent allergy, we evaluated 35 patients with clearly defined house dust mite allergy by a questionnaire and evaluated the same questionnaire also in a control group of 18 patients without sensitisation or asthma. The symptoms described in the patient group confirm that symptoms of house dust mite allergy are frequently not related to a direct allergen exposure. Some patients complained about itchy red eyes in the morning, but the majority of symptoms occurred independent from allergen exposure. These are blocked nose as well as exercise induced asthma. These symptoms are present all year around and are not only restricted to mite exposed areas. They are probably related to the underling eosinophilic inflammation. Thus exercise induced asthma and blocked nose are symptoms, which may indicate a mite allergy, particular in younger patients.

  5. Indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of experimental eosinophilic esophagitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rayapudi, Madhavi; Mavi, Parm; Zhu, Xiang; Pandey, Akhilesh K.; Abonia, J. Pablo; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Mishra, Anil

    2010-01-01

    EE is an emerging disease reported in children and adults of urbanized countries, where indoor insect allergens are major health risk factors. Review of our hospital patient database uncovered that a number of EE patients have hypersensitivity to indoor cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergens. We tested the hypothesis whether inhaled indoor insect allergens are effective inducers of experimental EE. We delivered cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergen extracts intranasally to wild-type and eotaxin-1/2-, CCR3-, and IL-5-deficient mice. Interestingly, wild-type mice exposed to cockroach or dust mite allergens develop a significant increase in the levels of esophageal eosinophils and mast cells compared with saline-challenged mice. The eosinophil numbers in the esophagus of cockroach- and dust mite-exposed mice were 18.3 ± 6.8/mm2 and 33.4 ± 11.1/mm2 compared with 2.3 ± 1.8/mm2 and 2.1 ± 1.2/mm2 in saline-challenged mice. Additionally, we observed an additive effect of these two allergens in inducing esophageal eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Histopathological analysis detected intraepithelial esophageal eosinophilia in mice exposed to both allergens. Furthermore, mice exposed to cockroach and/or dust mite had increased levels of total IgE and antigen-specific IgG1 in the blood and increased esophageal expression of eosinophil-active cytokines (IL-13) and chemokines (eotaxin-1). Notably, mice deficient in eotaxin-1/2, CCR3, and IL-5 showed ablated esophageal eosinophilia following cockroach or dust mite allergen exposure. These data indicate that indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of IL-5 and eotaxin-mediated esophageal eosinophilia. These experimental studies are in accordance with clinical data but may have some limitations inherent to animal models of human disease. PMID:20413729

  6. Indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of experimental eosinophilic esophagitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Rayapudi, Madhavi; Mavi, Parm; Zhu, Xiang; Pandey, Akhilesh K; Abonia, J Pablo; Rothenberg, Marc E; Mishra, Anil

    2010-08-01

    EE is an emerging disease reported in children and adults of urbanized countries, where indoor insect allergens are major health risk factors. Review of our hospital patient database uncovered that a number of EE patients have hypersensitivity to indoor cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergens. We tested the hypothesis whether inhaled indoor insect allergens are effective inducers of experimental EE. We delivered cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mite allergen extracts intranasally to wild-type and eotaxin-1/2-, CCR3-, and IL-5-deficient mice. Interestingly, wild-type mice exposed to cockroach or dust mite allergens develop a significant increase in the levels of esophageal eosinophils and mast cells compared with saline-challenged mice. The eosinophil numbers in the esophagus of cockroach- and dust mite-exposed mice were 18.3+/-6.8/mm2 and 33.4+/-11.1/mm2 compared with 2.3+/-1.8/mm2 and 2.1+/-1.2/mm2 in saline-challenged mice. Additionally, we observed an additive effect of these two allergens in inducing esophageal eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Histopathological analysis detected intraepithelial esophageal eosinophilia in mice exposed to both allergens. Furthermore, mice exposed to cockroach and/or dust mite had increased levels of total IgE and antigen-specific IgG1 in the blood and increased esophageal expression of eosinophil-active cytokines (IL-13) and chemokines (eotaxin-1). Notably, mice deficient in eotaxin-1/2, CCR3, and IL-5 showed ablated esophageal eosinophilia following cockroach or dust mite allergen exposure. These data indicate that indoor insect allergens are potent inducers of IL-5 and eotaxin-mediated esophageal eosinophilia. These experimental studies are in accordance with clinical data but may have some limitations inherent to animal models of human disease.

  7. Longitudinal evaluation of allergen and culturable fungal concentrations in inner-city households.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sook Ja; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Grengs, Jason; Ryan, Andrew D; Eberly, Lynn E; Adgate, John L

    2008-02-01

    To characterize seasonal variation of three allergens (dust mite, cat, and cockroach) and total culturable fungi and to explore whether residential characteristics were associated with the concentrations of these agents, floor dust was collected from 47 inner-city homes in Minneapolis, Minnesota, over a 1-year period. A longitudinal analysis of allergen and fungal concentrations was carried out using mixed-effect models. Overall, relative humidity was a better predictor of allergen concentrations over time than indoor temperature. Seasonal variation of cat and cockroach allergens was negligible compared with the variability associated with residential characteristics such as race/ethnicity, family income, and the presence of cats. Fungal concentrations showed significant seasonal variation that outweighed the variability associated with residential characteristics. Less than 30% of the dust mite allergen and cockroach allergens concentrations were above limits of detection. Observed cockroach allergen concentrations were higher in Spanish- and Somali-speaking households than in English-speaking households, while English-speaking households had significantly higher cat allergen concentrations compared with the other language groups. The ratios of within-home to between-home variance for total culturable fungi, dust mite, cockroach, and cat allergen concentrations were 2.54, 1.91, 0.55, and 0.24, respectively. This ratio is used to predict the number of repeated measurements of each allergen required to robustly estimate long-term exposure estimates such that exposure misclassification bias is kept within acceptable limits. It is not clear whether repeated measurements of dust mite and cockroach allergens are required for long-term average exposure because of the large fraction of nondetects. It is concluded that a single measurement of cat allergen is a reasonable surrogate for long-term average exposure, since repeated measurements over time were highly correlated

  8. Direct regulatory immune activity of lactic acid bacteria on Der p 1-pulsed dendritic cells from allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Pochard, Pierre; Hammad, Hamida; Ratajczak, Céline; Charbonnier-Hatzfeld, Anne-Sophie; Just, Nicolas; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2005-07-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suggested to play a regulatory role in the development of allergic reactions. However, their potential effects on dendritic cells (DCs) directing the immune polarization remain unclear. The immunologic effect of Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 (LAB1) on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs) from patients allergic to house dust mite was evaluated. MD-DCs were stimulated for 24 hours with the related allergen Der p 1 in the presence or absence of LAB1. Cell-surface markers were assessed by means of FACS analysis, and the key polarizing cytokines IL-12 and IL-10 were quantified. The subsequent regulatory effect of pulsed MD-DCs on naive or memory T cells was evaluated by determining the T-cell cytokine profile. LAB1 induced the maturation of MD-DCs, even if pulsed with Der p 1. Interestingly, after incubation with LAB1 and Der p 1, MD-DCs produced higher amounts of IL-12 than Der p 1-pulsed DCs. Indeed, the T H 2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-5) production observed when naive or memory autologous T cells were cocultured with Der p 1-pulsed MD-DCs was highly reduced in the presence of LAB1. Finally, in contrast to naive or memory T cells exposed once to Der p 1-pulsed DCs, T cells stimulated by MD-DCs pulsed with Der p 1 and LAB1 failed to produce T H 2 cytokines in response to a new stimulation with Der p 1-pulsed DCs. Thus in the presence of LAB1, MD-DCs from allergic patients tend to reorientate the T-cell response toward a beneficial T H 1 profile.

  9. Mite and Booklouse Fauna From Vacuumed Dust Samples From Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin-Lu; Shen, Lian; Chen, Jun; Yu, Jin-Miao

    2014-01-01

    A significant-source of allergens come from house dust that contain particles derived from arthropods, molds, and pet dander. This study evaluated mite and booklouse fauna from vacuumed dust samples in Beijing China (a temperate zone). Our survey was carried out in Beijing in the homes of mite allergic patients who visited our Allergy Department. In total, 38 homes were selected for the collection of dust samples by vacuuming, from December 2008 to January 2010. The flotation method was used to isolate mites from house dust. Permanent slides were prepared for mite specimens and mites were identified and counted under a microscope. In total, 1,798 separate mite and insect specimens were found in 345 dust samples taken from 38 homes. A total of 95 individual Dermatophagoides (D) siboney were detected in 35 dust samples from 19 homes (representing 5.3% of all mite and insect species found in house dust); in addition, this mite was found to co-exist with D. farinae (Hughes, 1961) in 33 dust samples. Our results demonstrated the presence D. siboney that co-existed with D. farinae in house dust in Beijing China (a temperate zone). PMID:24843802

  10. [Outdoor and indoor allergens and the respiratory tract].

    PubMed

    Kanceljak-Macán, B; Macan, J; Plavec, D

    2000-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of common outdoor and indoor allergens which cause sensitisation of the respiratory tract and considers relevant biological and ecological hallmarks and symptoms of allergies. Grass, tree, and weed pollens as well as moulds (Cladosporium and Alternaria species) are a major source of allergens in the outdoor environment whereas mites (Pyroglyphidae, Acaridae, and Glycyphagidae), animals (pets, rodents, and insects), and moulds (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor species) are a major source in the indoor environment. The paper pays attention to the seasonal, geographical, and climatic influence on the concentration of allergen in the environment. The authors discuss differences between exposure to outdoor and indoor allergens, as well as the impact of pollutants on sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The paper proceeds with a short description of the primary prevention measures such as avoidance of the allergens and the secondary measures which are intended to prevent the occurrence or deterioration of respiratory symptoms in sensitised persons.

  11. Cross-reactivity of termite myosin; a potential allergen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Myosin and myosin isoforms are common food allergens in crustaceans; such as, shrimp, lobster, and crab. Allergy to Shellfish is a prevalent and potentially long lasting disorder that can severely affect health and quality of life. Myosin and myosin isoforms of dust mites and cockroaches are simil...

  12. New contact allergens and allergen sources.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, E; Grzywa, Z; Krajewska, D; Kozłowska, A; Czerwińska-Dihm, I

    1978-01-01

    In the report new contact allergens and allergen sources detected in Warsaw in the period 1975-1977 are described. They are divided into 3 groups: industrial allergens, remaining occupational allergens and cosmetics. There are given some data concerning the substances present in industrial oils, hardeners and epoxy resin solvents, drugs sensitizing nurses, several new sources of chromium allergens, essential oils and synthetic flavours. Results obtained with various star anise oil samples are described. Essential oils and synthetic flavours. Results obtained with various star anise oil samples are described. Essential oils and synthetic flavours are discussed as the main allergens in cosmetics.

  13. Dynamics of house dust mite transfer in modern clothing fabrics.

    PubMed

    Clarke, David; Burke, Daniel; Gormally, Michael; Byrne, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is largely presumed as being the mechanism by which house dust mites are distributed among locations in homes, yet little research to date has investigated the capacity with which various clothing fabric types serve as vectors for their accumulation and dispersal. Although previous research has indicated that car seats provide a habitat for mite populations, dynamics involved in the transfer of mites to clothing via car seat material is still unknown. To investigate the dynamics involved in the transfer of house dust mites from car seat material to modern clothing fabrics. A total of 480 samples of car seat material were seeded with mites and subjected to contact with plain woven cotton, denim, and fleece. Contact forces equivalent to the mass of a typical adult and child were administered for different durations of contact. Mean transfer efficiencies of mites from car seat material to receiving clothing fabrics ranged from 7.2% to 19.1%. Fabric type, mite condition (live or dead), and the force applied all revealed a significant effect (P < .001 for each variable) on the transfer efficiency of house dust mites from seeded material to receiving fabrics, whereas duration of contact revealed no effect (P = .20). In particular, mean numbers of mites transferred to fleece (compared with denim and plain woven cotton) were greater for each treatment. These findings indicate that clothing type can have important implications for the colonization of other biotopes by house dust mites, with potential for affecting an individuals' personal exposure to dust mite allergens. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of local nasal immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis: using strips of the allergen dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jaw-Ji; Liao, En-Chih; Tsai, Fu-Hsu; Hsieh, Ching-Chen; Lee, Mey-Fan

    2009-03-01

    Local nasal immunotherapy (LNIT) has been reported to be effective for mite-induced allergic rhinitis. However, its compliance is poor due to persistent nasal reactions and difficult application. The main objective of this study was to develop a Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p)-coated strip for self-application and to evaluate its clinical efficacy. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were carried out to evaluate the efficacy and compliance of LNIT. A total of 35 patients with allergic rhinitis from the allergy clinic were recruited to receive four months of LNIT. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by the symptoms of sneezing, rhinorrhea and nasal stuffiness. Local and systemic effects were evaluated by measuring histamine and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in nasal discharge and allergen-specific IgG1, IgG4 and IgE in sera. LNIT with Der p-coated strips could reduce nasal symptoms and modulate the serum levels of Der p-specific IgG1, IgG4 and IgE. The secretion of both histamine and ECP was reduced within four months after treatment. When the symptomatic and immunological changes were compared between active treatment and placebo groups, the improvements were greater in the active treatment groups for all three symptom scores. There were no severe adverse events except nasal response persisting within the first month in some cases. LNIT with a steady dose of Der p-coated strips can be self-administered at home without any systemic reactions. Both local and systemic immune responses were observed after LNIT. This therapeutic modality may serve as a good alternative treatment for allergic rhinitis.

  15. Investigation of different approaches to reduce allergens in asthmatic children's homes--the Breath of Fresh Air Project, Cornwall, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Eick, Susan Ann; Richardson, George

    2011-09-01

    During 2001 to 2004, a study was conducted to assess the indoor environmental and health impact of installing allergen-reducing interventions in the homes of asthmatic children. Based on the results of a pilot study, to determine an intervention that would provide improved symptom scores and a reduction in house dust mite allergen (Der p 1), mechanical ventilation and heat recovery (MVHR) systems were installed in 16 homes. Environmental and respiratory health assessments were conducted before and after the installation of the MVHR systems. The results indicated that the installation of MVHR systems reduced Der p 1 concentrations in living room carpets and mattresses. There were significant reductions in symptom scores for breathlessness during exercise, wheezing, and coughing during the day and night. Although, there was not a parallel control group for the main study, the lack of change in the pilot study control group (who did not receive an intervention), indicated that the changes in symptom scores were in part to do with the intervention. Larger scale trials are needed to determine the efficacy of MVHR systems in homes to improve indoor air quality and reduce asthma symptoms.

  16. An integrated lab-on-a-disc for automated cell-based allergen screening bioassays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q L; Cheung, K L; Kong, S K; Zhou, J Q; Kwan, Y W; Wong, C K; Ho, H P

    2012-08-15

    We have utilized various valving scheme to leverage purely rotation-regulated flow control to enable comprehensive cell-based bioassays (CBBs) on centrifuge-based lab-on-a-disc (LOAD). A LOAD has been developed to examine allergic degranulation from live basophils for allergens screening for the first time, which can also be adjusted to suit a wide range of CBBs. In this system, controlled allergic reaction together with mediator separation from basophils using siphon valving and centrifugal sedimentation are realized inside microstructured network. The entire degranulation analysis process including on-demand release of samples, reaction and degranulation, allergic mediator separation and detection is executed in an automatic sequence within a single run. To validate our cell-based approach, detection of degranulation mediated by known secretagagues, ionomycin or chemotatic peptide formyl-methionine-leucine-pheylalanine (fMLP), is first demonstrated. Further experiments using real allergens house dust mite protein (Der p1) and its corresponding human serum IgE also show positive results. The overall efficiency of the assay is 80.6%, which is comparable to other conventional methods. With 4 identical units on a disc running in a parallel format, the device offers the possibility of single-step, multiplexed allergens screening. The device is capable of reporting a result within 30 min. It has many desirable merits including fast and multiplexed analysis, low cost, single-step operation, minimal sample volume, less discomfort and most importantly increased safety as patients are no longer susceptible to possible anaphylactic shock reactions induced by the common skin-prick-test. The flexibility of the flow control within the device makes it suitable to a wide range of CBBs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aero-allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia based on 1000 intradermal skin tests.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R S; Bettenay, S V; Tideman, L

    2000-06-01

    To determine the most relevant aero-allergens involved in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia and provide information about these aero-allergens to the general practitioner. Dogs presented to the Animal Skin & Allergy Clinic with history and clinical signs of atopic dermatitis were injected intradermally with 38 different allergens and negative and positive control. Intradermal skin tests in 1000 dogs were retrospectively evaluated. One third of all patients reacted to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. Allergens reacting in more than 15% of the patients were wheat (Triticum aestivum), sweet vernal (Anthoxanthum odoratum), English couch (Agropyron repens), yellow dock (Rumex crispus), Mexican tea (Chenopodium ambrosioides), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) and peppercorn (Schimus spp). House dust mites are the most common allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia and D farinae is involved most frequently. However, a number of grass, weed and tree pollens also are involved regularly.

  18. New shrimp IgE-binding proteins involved in mite-seafood cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Cristina; Zafra, M Paz; Boquete, Manuel; Sanz, Verónica; Mazzeo, Carla; Ibáñez, M Dolores; Sánchez-García, Silvia; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2014-09-01

    Shrimp is a seafood consumed worldwide and the main cause of severe allergenic reactions to crustaceans. Seafood allergy has been related to mite sensitization, mainly mediated by tropomyosin, but other proteins could be involved. The aim of the study was to identify new shrimp allergens implicated in mite-seafood cross-reactivity (CR) in two different climate populations: dry and humid climates. Shrimp and mite IgE-binding profiles of patients from continental dry and humid climates were analyzed by immunoblotting, and the most frequently recognized Solenocera melantho shrimp proteins were identified by MS as α-actinin, β-actin, fructose biphosphate aldolase, arginine kinase, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, and ubiquitin. Using inhibition immunoblot assays, we demonstrate that tropomyosin and ubiquitin were responsible for mite-seafood CR from both climates; but also α-actinin and arginine kinase are implicated in dry- and humid-climate populations, respectively. Reciprocal inhibition assays demonstrated that mites are the primary sensitizer in humid-climate, as shrimp is in continental dry-climate population. Several new shrimp allergens have been identified and should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of shrimp allergy and mite-seafood CR. Differences in mite-seafood CR were founded to be based on the climate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Diversity of House Dust Mite Species in Xishuangbanna Dai, a Tropical Rainforest Region in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing-Miao; Luo, Qing-Hua; Sun, Jin-Lu; Shi, Cun-Lian; Yin, Jia; Zhou, Yu-Ling; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Zhang; Chen, Meng

    2015-01-01

    To survey the species diversity of home dust mites (HDM) in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China. From August 2010 to January 2011, mite-allergic patients and healthy controls were invited to participate. Dust samples from the patients' homes were collected, and mites in the samples were isolated. Permanent slides were prepared for morphologically based species determination. In total, 6316 mite specimens of morphologically identifiable species were found in 233 dust samples taken from 41 homes. The result shows that the mite family of Pyroglyphidae occupied the highest percentage of the total amount of mites collected, followed by Cheyletidae family. The most common adult Pyroglyphidae mites were Dermatophagoides (D.) farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and D. siboney. The most common mites found from other families were Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Four main allergenic dust mite species D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, D. siboney, and Blomia tropicalis were found to be coinhabiting in 6/41 homes. The HDM population in homes in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China, has its own characteristics. It has rich dust mite species and the dust mite densities do not show significant variation across seasons.

  20. Mites and fungi in heavily infested stores in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hubert, J; Stejskal, V; Munzbergová, Z; Kubátová, A; Vánová, M; Zd'árková, E

    2004-12-01

    Toxigenic and allergen-producing fungi represent a serious hazard to human food and animal feed safety. Ninety-four fungal species were isolated from mite-infested samples of seeds taken from Czech seed stores. Fungi were isolated from the surface of four kinds of seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, and mustard) and from the gut and external surface of five species of mites (i.e., Acarus siro L., 1758, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides (Zachvatkin, 1973), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank, 1781), Tyrophagus putrescentnae (Schrank, 1781) and Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans 1903) separately. Multivariate analysis of fungi complex composition showed that the frequency of fungal was species significantly influenced by the kind of seed. Fungal frequencies differed between mites gut and exoskeleton surface and between the surfaces of mites and seeds. Three groups of fungal species were recognized: 1) mite surface-associated fungi: Penicillium brevicompactum, Alternaria alternata, and Aspergillus versicolor; 2) mite surface- and seed-associated fungi: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus flavus; and 3) seed-associated fungi: Cladosporium herbarum, Mucor dimorphosporus f. dimorphosporus, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium griseofulvum, and Eurotium repens. Mite-carried species of microfungi are known to produce serious mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin B1, cyclopiazonic acid, sterigmatocystin, ochratoxin A, and nephrotoxic glycopeptides) as well as allergen producers (e.g., A. alternata and P. brevicompactum). Storage mites may play an important role in the spread of some medically hazardous micromycetes. In addition, these mite-fungi associations may heighten the risk of occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed stuffs and cause mixed contamination by fungal and mite allergens.

  1. Requirement of MyD88 and Fas pathways for the efficacy of allergen-free immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, D M; Wowk, P F; Paula, M O; Gembre, A F; Baruffi, M D; Fermino, M L; Turato, W M; Campos, L W; Silva, C L; Ramos, S G; Horn, C; Marchal, G; Arruda, L K; Russo, M; Bonato, V L D

    2015-03-01

    We have shown that mycobacterial antigens and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides downmodulate airway allergic inflammation by mechanisms dependent on T-cell activation. Here, we investigated the participation of the innate response, particularly the role of MyD88 adaptor, and Fas molecules in the effectiveness of DNA-HSP65 or CpG/culture filtrated proteins (CFP) immunotherapy. Mice sensitized and challenged with Der p 1 allergen were treated with DNA-HSP65, CpG/CFP, or with adoptively transferred cells from immunized mice. The treatment efficacy was assessed by evaluating eosinophil recruitment, antibody, and cytokine production. In addition to downregulating the Th2 response, DNA-HSP65 and CpG/CFP promoted IL-10 and IFN-γ production. Adoptive transfer of cells from mice immunized with DNA-HSP65 or CpG/CFP to allergic recipients downmodulated the allergic response. Notably, transfer of cells from DNA-HSP65- or CpG/CFP-immunized MyD88(-/-) mice failed to reduce allergy. Additionally, for effective reduction of allergy by cells from CpG/CFP-immunized mice, Fas molecules were required. Although DNA-HSP65 or CpG/CFP immunization stimulated antigen-specific production of IFN-γ and IL-10, the effect of DNA-HSP65 was associated with IL-10 while CpG/CFP was associated with IFN-γ. Moreover, after stimulation with mycobacterial antigens plus Der p 1 allergen, cells from mite-allergic patients with asthma exhibited similar patterns of cytokine production as those found in the lung of treated mice. This study provides new insights on the mechanisms of allergen-free immunotherapy by showing that both DNA-HSP65 and CpG/CFP downregulated house dust mite-induced allergic airway inflammation via distinct pathways that involve not only induction of mycobacterial-specific adaptive responses but also signaling via MyD88 and Fas molecules. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The role of innate immunity activation in house dust mite allergy.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Alain

    2011-10-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent inflammatory disease found worldwide. Although allergen-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells orchestrate the HDM allergic response, notably through induction of IgE directed towards mite allergens, recent studies have demonstrated that innate immunity activation also plays a critical role in HDM-induced allergy pathogenesis. HDM allergens can not only be considered proteins that induce adaptive Th2-biased responses in susceptible subjects but also as strong activators of innate immune cells, including skin keratinocytes and airway epithelial cells. The contribution of microbial adjuvant factors, derived from HDM carriers or the environment, is also essential in such cell stimulation. This review highlights how HDM allergens, together with microbial compounds, promote allergic responses through pattern recognition receptor-dependent pathways.

  3. Allergens in urban schools and homes of children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Permaul, Perdita; Hoffman, Elaine; Fu, Chunxia; Sheehan, William; Baxi, Sachin; Gaffin, Jonathan; Lane, Jeffrey; Bailey, Ann; King, Eva; Chapman, Martin; Gold, Diane; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2012-09-01

    Most studies of indoor allergens have focused on the home environment. However, schools may be an important site of allergen exposure for children with asthma. We compared school allergen exposure to home exposure in a cohort of children with asthma. Correlations between settled dust and airborne allergen levels in classrooms were examined. Settled dust and airborne samples from 12 inner-city schools were analyzed for indoor allergens using multiplex array technology (MARIA). School samples were linked to students with asthma enrolled in the School Inner-City Asthma Study (SICAS). Settled dust samples from students' bedrooms were analyzed similarly. From schools, 229 settled dust and 197 airborne samples were obtained. From homes, 118 settled dust samples were obtained. Linear mixed regression models of log-transformed variables showed significantly higher settled dust levels of mouse, cat and dog allergens in schools than homes (545% higher for Mus m 1, estimated absolute difference 0.55 μg/g, p < 0.0001; 198% higher for Fel d 1, estimated absolute difference 0.13 μg/g, p = 0.0033; and 144% higher for Can f 1, estimated absolute difference 0.05 μg/g, p = 0.0008). Airborne and settled dust Mus m 1 levels in classrooms were moderately correlated (r = 0.48; p < 0.0001). There were undetectable to very low levels of cockroach and dust mite allergens in both homes and schools. Mouse allergen levels in schools were substantial. In general, cat and dog allergen levels were low, but detectable, and were higher in schools. Aerosolization of mouse allergen in classrooms may be a significant exposure for students. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of indoor allergen exposure in schools on asthma morbidity in students with asthma. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Effect on quality of life of the mixed house dust mite/weed pollen extract immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lisha; Guan, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Although many patients with allergic rhinitis have symptoms due to sensitization to more than one kind of allergens, and mixed allergen extracts are widely used for immunotherapy, there are few published trials. Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of multiple-allergen immunotherapy on improving the symptoms and quality of life of allergic rhinitis patients. We performed a 1-year single-center observation study of subcutaneous immunotherapy using house dust mite extract (n = 12), weed pollen extract (n = 21), or mixed house dust mite/weed pollen extract (n = 11) in 44 allergic rhinitis patients. All the allergens responsible for the symptom of each patient were included in his immunotherapy. Symptom score, medication score, and quality of life of the patients were evaluated before and after 1-year immunotherapy. Quality of life was evaluated with the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire. In all 3 groups receiving subcutaneous immunotherapy, significant improvement of symptom score, medication score, and quality of life was found vs. baseline at 1 year, irrespective of the allergen used. In the weed pollen season, the changes of quality of life questionnaire score after 1-year treatment were not significantly different between the weed pollen group (1.55 ± 1.24) and the mixed house dust mite/weed pollen group (1.14 ± 1.01). The same happened in the nonpollen seasons, during which dust mite immunotherapy (1.23 ± 1.63) and mixed immunotherapy (0.60 ± 0.47) did not show significantly different effect on the quality of life. The multiple-allergen immunotherapy might be effective in polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients, and could improve their quality of life. Our result did not show significant difference between the effects of multiple-allergen immunotherapy and mono-allergen immunotherapy.

  5. Effect on quality of life of the mixed house dust mite/weed pollen extract immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lisha

    2016-01-01

    Background Although many patients with allergic rhinitis have symptoms due to sensitization to more than one kind of allergens, and mixed allergen extracts are widely used for immunotherapy, there are few published trials. Objective Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of multiple-allergen immunotherapy on improving the symptoms and quality of life of allergic rhinitis patients. Methods We performed a 1-year single-center observation study of subcutaneous immunotherapy using house dust mite extract (n = 12), weed pollen extract (n = 21), or mixed house dust mite/weed pollen extract (n = 11) in 44 allergic rhinitis patients. All the allergens responsible for the symptom of each patient were included in his immunotherapy. Symptom score, medication score, and quality of life of the patients were evaluated before and after 1-year immunotherapy. Quality of life was evaluated with the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire. Results In all 3 groups receiving subcutaneous immunotherapy, significant improvement of symptom score, medication score, and quality of life was found vs. baseline at 1 year, irrespective of the allergen used. In the weed pollen season, the changes of quality of life questionnaire score after 1-year treatment were not significantly different between the weed pollen group (1.55 ± 1.24) and the mixed house dust mite/weed pollen group (1.14 ± 1.01). The same happened in the nonpollen seasons, during which dust mite immunotherapy (1.23 ± 1.63) and mixed immunotherapy (0.60 ± 0.47) did not show significantly different effect on the quality of life. Conclusion The multiple-allergen immunotherapy might be effective in polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients, and could improve their quality of life. Our result did not show significant difference between the effects of multiple-allergen immunotherapy and mono-allergen immunotherapy. PMID:27489789

  6. Evaluation of cross-reactivity of allergens by use of intradermal testing in atopic dogs.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Ralf S; Chapman, Phillip L; Rosychuk, Rodney E W; Bettenay, Sonya V; Fieseler, Kathryn V

    2002-06-01

    To examine cross-reactivity of aeroallergens in Colorado and surrounding states by evaluating concurrent positive reactions of related and nonrelated allergens of intradermal tests in dogs. Intradermal test results of 268 atopic dogs. A retrospective evaluation of skin test results for 268 dogs was performed. Pairs of closely related and nonrelated allergens were evaluated. Group 1 consisted of closely related allergens with demonstrated antibody cross-reactivity in humans. In group 2, allergens of the same plant group (ie, trees, grasses, or weeds) that were not closely related were paired. In group 3, allergen pairs were of different plant groups. Plant allergens were paired with dust mite allergens, animal dander, or mold spores in group 4. In the last group, allergens not derived from plants were paired. Data were evaluated twice by use of a different definition of a positive reaction. Significance of the difference between group means of log odds ratios was estimated by use of a boot-strap percentile confidence interval. Significant differences in the number of concurrent positive reactions were not found between related versus nonrelated grass, weed, or tree allergens. Significant differences in the number of concurrent positive reactions were found between plant allergens of different groups (ie, grasses, weeds, and trees) and plant allergens of the same groups, related or nonrelated, as well as between plant-derived and nonplant-derived allergens. Many dogs reacting to a specific allergen did not react to a closely related allergen at the same time. These results provide evidence against clinically relevant cross-reactivity and suggest that allergen-specific immunotherapy should be formulated on the basis of single allergen test results.

  7. Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

    1985-06-01

    Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

  8. Eosinophil count in nasal mucosa is more suitable than the number of ICAM-1-positive nasal epithelial cells to evaluate the severity of house dust mite-sensitive allergic rhinitis: a clinical correlation study.

    PubMed

    Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Wannakrairot, Pongsak; Ruangvejvorachai, Preecha; Phanupak, Praphan

    2003-09-01

    House dust mite (HDM)-sensitive allergic rhinitis is a perennial rhinitis with persistent nasal inflammation. Currently, there are no reliable parameters to monitor the severity of perennial allergic rhinitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate correlations between clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with HDM-sensitive allergic rhinitis. We measured nasal symptoms, did the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der P) skin prick test (SPT), evaluated the Der P allergen nasal challenge threshold, and laboratory parameters [(1) inflammatory cell count from nasal mucosal scraping specimens: eosinophils and neutrophils and (2) immunocytochemistry: ICAM-1 expression on nasal epithelial cells] in 20 cases of HDM-sensitive allergic rhinitis and performed correlation tests between all parameters. The wheal diameter induced by Der P SPT was significantly correlated with the Der P allergen nasal challenge threshold (p = 0.001). The number of eosinophils from nasal mucosal scrapping specimens was correlated with the ICAM-1 expression on nasal epithelial cells (p = 0.039), the number of neutrophils from nasal mucosal scrapping specimens (p = 0.001), and nasal stuffiness (p = 0.037) but did not correlate with total nasal symptom scores. Clinical symptoms of HDM-sensitive allergic rhinitis showed a poor correlation with inflammatory parameters. The eosinophil count in nasal mucosa is correlated with ICAM-1 expression and more suitable than ICAM-1 levels to evaluate the severity of HDM-sensitive allergic rhinitis. This study also supports the role of the SPT in the diagnosis of nasal allergy to HDM. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Exposure to multiple indoor allergens in US homes and relationship to asthma

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Crockett, Patrick W.; Thorne, Peter S.; Cohn, Richard D.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2008-01-01

    Background The National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing was the first population-based study to measure indoor allergen levels in US homes. Objective We characterized the overall burden to multiple allergens and examined whether elevated allergen levels were associated with occupants’ asthma status. Methods This cross-sectional study surveyed a nationally representative sample of 831 housing units in 75 different locations throughout the US. Information was collected by questionnaire and environmental assessments. Allergen concentrations in dust samples were assessed by immunoassays. The following cut points were used to define elevated allergen levels: 10 μg/g for Der p 1, Der f 1, and Can f 1; 8 μg/g for Fel d 1; 8 U/g Bla g 1; 1.6 μg/g for mouse urinary protein; and 7 μg/g for Alternaria antigens. Allergen burden was considered high when 4 or more allergens exceeded elevated levels in any of the sampling locations. Results Exposure to multiple allergens was common in US homes. Of the surveyed homes, 51.5% had at least 6 detectable allergens and 45.8% had at least 3 allergens exceeding elevated levels. Occupants’ race, income, housing type, absence of children, and presence of smokers, pets, cockroaches, rodents and mold/moisture related problems were independent predictors of high allergen burden. Among atopics, high allergen burden increased the odds of having asthma symptoms (OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.04-3.15). Conclusion Elevated allergen levels in the home are associated with asthma symptoms in allergic individuals. Clinical implication In allergic asthma, indoor allergen exposures play an important role in asthma exacerbations. PMID:18255132

  10. Sensitization to common allergens among patients with allergies in major Iranian cities: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hosseini Teshnizi, Saeed; Farjadian, Shirin

    2017-01-01

    Various allergens are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases in different regions. This study attempted to identify the most common allergens among patients with allergies based on the results of skin prick tests in different parts of Iran. Relevant studies conducted from 2000 to 2016 were identified from the MEDLINE database. Six common groups of allergen types, including animal, cockroach, food, fungus, house dust mite, and pollen were considered. Subgroup analysis was performed to determine the prevalence of each type of allergen. The Egger test was used to assess publication bias. We included 44 studies in this meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of positive skin test results for at least one allergen was estimated to be 59% in patients with allergies in various parts of Iran. The number of patients was 11,646 (56% male and 44% female), with a mean age of 17.46±11.12 years. The most common allergen sources were pollen (47.0%), mites (35.2%), and food (15.3%). The prevalence of sensitization to food and cockroach allergens among children was greater than among adults. Pollen is the most common allergen sensitization in cities of Iran with a warm and dry climate; however, sensitization to house dust mites is predominant in northern and southern coastal areas of Iran.

  11. How environment affects patients with allergic disease: indoor allergens and asthma.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, T A

    1994-04-01

    Progressive changes in American housing and life styles have been associated with increased prevalence of allergen sensitization and asthma. Not only have there been large increases in the proportion of time spent indoors, but many of the changes made in houses are likely to increase exposure to indoor allergens. Thus, higher mean indoor temperatures, reduced ventilation, cool wash detergents, and the widespread use of carpeting are all changes that could have increased the levels of allergens in American homes. Over the past 15 years, dust mites, cockroaches, and cats have been identified as major sources of indoor allergens. The combination of exposure and sensitization to one of these allergens is significantly associated with acute asthma. Furthermore, clinical studies have shown a direct quantitative correlation between dust mite allergen exposure and the prevalence of both sensitization and asthma. New evidence suggests that reductions in allergen exposure may improve asthma symptoms, leading to decreased inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity. Furthermore, as understanding of sources of allergens increases, the protocols for decreasing exposure become better defined and relatively easy to implement.

  12. [Bronchial asthma due to storage mite allergy].

    PubMed

    Kroidl, R F; Schwichtenberg, U; Frank, E

    2007-08-01

    In a multicenter study (7 participating centres) 132 patients with bronchial asthma (grade II or III) and sensitization to storage mites (SM) and/or house dust mites (HSM) were screened and asked to undergo further allergological evaluation. 90 patients agreed. In addition to routine skin prick tests and RAST, quantitative skin prick tests (QSPT) and bronchial provocation tests (BPT) were also performed with the suspected mite allergens. The results were correlated with aspects of the domestic and working environments. Furthermore we questioned whether the outcome of BPT could be predicted from the results of the routine skin tests/RAST and QSPT respectively. Out of a total of 145 BPTs there were 79 positive results with SM and/or HSM. Three patients were mono-allergic to SM. The correlation with the domestic environment was unremarkable. Correlation with occupational factors revealed a strong predominance of farmers (42 of 90) and suggested the same for professions involved in work in dust-laden environments like bakers (5 of 90) and workers in wood- and paper industry (7 of 90). This also means, that SM-allergy occurs in persons not occupationally exposed to dust. A prediction as to the allergological relevance of SM-allergen was not possible from viewing the routine skin prick test however positive RAST data showed a significant correlation with positive BPT to SM Lepidoglyphus. Similarly it was possible to draw an inference from QSPT as to the relevant allergy. With a positive QSPT to the SM Lepidoglyphus destructor a positive result with a BPT was highly probable. Due to small numbers it is not possible to make a similar statement for the other SM species (Acarus and Tyrophagus).

  13. Azelastine eye drops reduce conjunctival hyperresponsiveness to hyperosmolar glucose challenge in children with asymptomatic mite conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; Catrullo, A; Tosca, M; Cerqueti, P; Mondino, C; Passalacqua, G; Canonica, G W

    1999-01-01

    Mite allergy is characterized by a continuous allergen exposure. Persistent inflammation is therefore always detectable; and during symptomless periods as well. It has been reported that mite allergic patients also present a nonspecific hyperreactivity to different stimuli, including hyperosmolar solution. Since azelastine was previously demonstrated to be able to reduce allergic inflammation, the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the drug on nonspecific conjunctival hyperreactivity in mite-allergic patients. Twenty children with mite allergy were studied. A hyperosmolar conjunctival challenge was performed before and after azelastine eye drops or placebo treatment for a period of 2 weeks. It was found that patients treated with azelastine eye drops showed a significant reduction in nonspecific conjunctival hyperreactivity compared to the placebo group (p = 0.018). It was concluded that azelastine eye drops are able to reduce the nonspecific hyperreactivity present in subjects with mite allergy.

  14. New tree nut allergens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 7S vicilin and 11S legumin seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many of the “big eight” food allergen groups. Korean pine vicilin and pecan vicilin are thus predicted to be food allergens. Recombinant vicilins were expressed in E. coli an...

  15. Cockroach, tick, storage mite and other arthropod allergies: Where do we stand with molecular allergy diagnostics?: Part 15 of the Series Molecular Allergology.

    PubMed

    Hilger, Christiane; Kuehn, Annette; Raulf, Monika; Jakob, Thilo

    Arthropods form a broad phylum within the animal kingdom, comprising widely varying members such as insects, arachnids, crabs and centipedes. In addition to common allergies to house dust mites or hymenoptera venom, there are also rarer allergies that can be attributed to three major sources of allergens: cockroaches, ticks and storage mites. Other less known allergen sources include spiders, mosquitos, horseflies, red chironomid larvae, silverfish and ladybugs, as well as a variety of storage pests. At present, only extract-based test systems are available for the majority of allergens in IgE-based diagnostics. Molecular characterisation of numerous individual allergens has already been carried out. However, these individual allergens are only available for a small number of allergen sources (e. g. cockroaches and storage mites) in routine diagnostics. Particularly in the case of allergen sources with known high cross-reactivity, the use of marker allergens is believed to improve diagnostics. The currently known individual allergens of the above-mentioned allergy triggers from the arthropod realm are summarized and their potential use in allergy diagnostics discussed.

  16. IgE-sensitization to predatory mites and respiratory symptoms in Swedish greenhouse workers.

    PubMed

    Kronqvist, M; Johansson, E; Kolmodin-Hedman, B; Oman, H; Svartengren, M; van Hage-Hamsten, M

    2005-04-01

    Predatory mites are used as biological pesticides worldwide for control of spider mites and other pests in greenhouses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of occupational exposure to Phytoseiulus persimilis and Hypoaspis miles on IgE sensitization among a large group of Swedish greenhouse workers and to examine the relationship between exposure and allergic asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis. A total of 96 greenhouse workers from the southern part of Sweden, who were using the predatory mites for control of pests, were investigated with a questionnaire and a medical examination including lung function test. Blood samples were taken to test for allergen-specific IgE antibodies to Phytoseiulus persimilis and Hypoaspis miles as well as to Tetranychus urticae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus/farinae and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. Seventeen of the 96 workers were positive in ImmunoCAP to predatory mites: 17 to P. persimilis (17.7%) and 14 to H. miles (14.6%). Subjects sensitized to predatory mites were significantly more often atopic (13/17), defined as a positive Phadiatop, than those who lacked IgE against these mite species (17/79) (P <0.01). IgE antibodies to the red spider mite T. urticae were present among 23 subjects. Thirty-five of the investigated subjects displayed a positive ImmunoCAP to at least one of the investigated mite species. Furthermore, sensitization to any of the mites tested was significantly associated with asthma (OR=9.3) and rhinoconjunctivitis (OR=4.3). IgE sensitization to predatory mites, P. persimilis and H. miles, is common among greenhouse workers. The findings stress the importance of improved allergen avoidance in greenhouse environments.

  17. Sensitization Rates for Various Allergens in Children with Allergic Rhinitis in Qingdao, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hang; Lin, Rongjun; Li, Na

    2015-09-07

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to common allergens in children with allergic rhinitis (AR) living in Qingdao, China. We conducted a retrospective analysis for AR cases, who underwent skin prick tests (SPT) in Qingdao. A total of 2841 children with AR qualified for the inclusion criteria (Age 3-5 years: 1500 children; Age 6-12 years: 1341 children). The most common inhaled allergens to which the AR children were sensitive were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (69.3%), Dermatophagoides farinae (66.2%) and mould 1 (Penicillium notatum 38.9%); while the corresponding ingested allergens were mussel (39.2%), shrimp (36.3%) and carp (36.5%). The prevalence of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food allergens was higher in children >6 years of age as compared to that in children 3-5 years of age (all p < 0.05). Children >6 years old were more sensitive to dust mite as compared to children 3-5 years old (p < 0.05). Sensitization to dust mite was more common in males than in females (p = 0.05). In this study, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae were the most common allergens causing AR in children in Qingdao, China. Older children with AR, particularly males, were found to be more sensitive to dust mite.

  18. [Ficus benjamina--the hidden allergen in the house].

    PubMed

    Schenkelberger, V; Freitag, M; Altmeyer, P

    1998-01-01

    The weeping fig, Ficus benjamina (Fb), is a relatively common indoor allergen. Many cases of perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma caused by Fb hypersensitivity are not detected. These patients typically have proven sensitization to housedust mites and do not improve after avoidance of exposure (encasing) and specific immunotherapy. The number of Fb sensitizations is increasing in Germany, which can partly be explained by the cross-reactivity between Hevea brasiliensis (Hb) latex and Fb and the rapidly increasing number of mostly occupational latex allergies. But Fb itself is a potential sensitizer which is widely spread as ornamental plant in homes and offices. As relevant indoor allergen Fb ranks third after housedust mites and pets but before molds among our allergy patients. For diagnosis, prick-tests with Fb-latex seem to be more sensitive than in vitro-methods (RAST, CAPRAST). Fb plants should not be kept in the homes of atopic individuals or persons with latex (Hb) allergy.

  19. Mite hypersensitivity in patients with rhinitis and rhinosinusitis living in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borges, M; Fernández-Caldas, E; Capriles-Hulett, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F

    2014-01-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are major concerns in public health. Mites are important aetiological agents in the tropics. The present study investigated the in vivo response to mite allergens in patients with rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. All patients with presumptive nasal allergy were included. Skin tests were done with inhalants and mite extracts. Patients were classified as allergic or non-allergic according to skin tests and history. Out of 229 patients, 175 (76.4%) showed positive skin tests. Allergic patients showed positivity to mites in 97.1% of cases, 51.4% to dog dander; 40.5% to cat dander; 36.5% to German cockroach; 22.8% to moulds; and 21.1% to grass pollens. Dermatophagoides farinae induced responses in 90.8% of patients, D. pteronyssinus in 90.1%, Blomia tropicalis in 74.8%, Glycyphagus domesticus in 62.2%, Chortoglyphus arcuatus in 58.2%, Acarus siro in 46.2%, Lepidoglyphus destructor in 35.4%, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae in 35.0%. Higher correlations were found between skin test diameters induced by mites from the same family. Sensitisation to inhalant allergens is present in 76% of allergy clinics' patients with rhinitis or rhinosinusitis. Our results confirm previous observations showing that mites constitute the most important cause of respiratory allergy in tropical settings and suggest that mite allergen cross-reactivity is responsible for the positivity of skin tests to mites not present in the patient's environment since the species Glycyphagus, Chortoglyphus, Acarus, Lepidoglyphus and Tyrophagus have not been found in Caracas house dust. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative allergenic study of Tetranychus urticae from different sources.

    PubMed

    Orta, J C; Navarro, A M; Bartolomé, B; Delgado, J; Martínez, J; Sánchez, M C; Martínez, A; Valverdú, A; Conde, J; Palacios, R

    1998-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a macroscopic mite known as "red spider mite". It is a cosmopolitan and polyphagous mite which parasitizes both fruit trees and herbaceous plants, particularly in greenhouses. Contribution of T. urticae to occupational asthma among greenhouse workers has been studied to identify and describe the main T. urticae allergens. In this study we described and compared the physiochemical characteristics of the main. T. urticae allergens from three different sources, carnation, cucumber and vegetable marrow. Forty-two green-house workers with occupational T. urticae allergy were included. Extracts were prepared from mite bodies collected from the three different sources; skin prick tests, specific IgE, SDS-PAGE and SDS-PAGE immunoblotting were carried out with the three T. urticae extracts. Cross-reactivity was measured by RAST inhibition. These assays were done with each of the three extracts in solid and fluid phases. All patients showed a positive prick test to T. urticae extracts from carnation, 39 (93%) to those from cucumber, and 34 (81%) to those from vegetable marrow. Specific IgE was positive in 80% of patient sera from T. urticae extract from carnation, 58% and 63% in that from cucumber and vegetable marrow, respectively. SDS-PAGE immunoblotting of the extracts showed coincident and relevant allergens. The similar curve obtained by RAST inhibition assays revealed the high epitope similarity from the three extracts. In conclusion, T. urticae extracts from parasitic carnation, cucumber and vegetable marrow cultures showed a high epitope similarity with three relevant allergens with molecular mass of 25, 19 and 15 to 17 kDa.

  1. Indoor environmental quality in a 'low allergen' school and three standard primary schools in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Spickett, J; Rumchev, K; Lee, A H; Stick, S

    2006-02-01

    To investigate indoor environmental quality in classrooms, assessments were undertaken in a 'low allergen' school and three standard primary schools in Western Australia. Dust allergens, air pollutants and physical parameters were monitored in the four schools at four times (summer school term, autumn holiday, winter school term and winter holiday) in 2002. The levels of particulate matter (PM(10)) and volatile organic compounds were similar between the four primary schools. Although slightly decreased levels of dust-mite and cat allergens were observed in the 'low allergen' school, the reductions were not statistically significant and the allergen levels in all schools were much lower than the recommended sensitizing thresholds. However, significantly lower levels of relative humidity and formaldehyde level during summer-term were recorded in the 'low allergen' school. In conclusion, the evidence here suggests that the 'low allergen' school did not significantly improve the indoor environmental quality in classrooms. Practical Implications School is an important environment for children in terms of exposure to pollutants and allergens. By assessing the levels of key pollutants and allergens in a low allergen school and three standard primary schools in Western Australia, this study provides useful information for implementation of healthy building design that can improve the indoor environment in schools.

  2. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy: immunological mechanisms and prospects for refined vaccine preparation.

    PubMed

    O'Hehir, R E; Sandrini, A; Anderson, G P; Rolland, J M

    2007-01-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a major health issue worldwide. Mainstay treatment constitutes allergen avoidance and pharmacotherapy for symptom relief, but allergen immunotherapy offers advantages of specific treatment with long lasting efficacy, and being able to modify the course of the disease. Conventional immunotherapy involves the subcutaneous injection of gradually increasing amounts of allergen extract but the use of current whole allergen extracts is restricted by the risk of adverse IgE-mediated events especially for potent allergens such as peanut and latex and for asthmatics. This has lead to interest in alternative routes of immunotherapy. Oral tolerance is a well-documented immune process and the sublingual route of administration of allergen immunotherapy is attracting interest. Recent meta-analyses show that sublingual allergen immunotherapy for grass pollen and house dust mite allergy is clinically effective and safer than injection immunotherapy. Some studies show SLIT induces changes of T cell anergy, immune deviation, blocking antibodies, and induction of regulatory T cells, as described for injection immunotherapy pointing to the need to target allergen-specific T cells, there is emergent evidence that the oral mucosa presents distinct regulatory features. Evidence suggests that oral dendritic cells play a key role in inducing tolerance especially when allergen is taken up via Fc receptor bound IgE. This suggests that although both would target allergen-specific T cells, allergen formulations may differ with respect to IgE epitopes for optimal SLIT compared with SCIT. Identification of the molecular nature of the allergen-DC receptor interaction is required to determine whether short peptides or recombinant allergen preparations and of suitable adjuvants specifically tailored for the sublingual route will allow the development of improved allergen formulations and delivery strategies for efficacy of treatment whilst decreasing Ig

  3. Characterisation of tropomyosin and paramyosin as vaccine candidate molecules for the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Wright, Harry W; Bartley, Kathryn; Huntley, John F; Nisbet, Alasdair J

    2016-10-12

    Dermanyssus gallinae is the most economically important haematophagous ectoparasite in commercial egg laying flocks worldwide. It infests the hens during the night where it causes irritation leading to restlessness, pecking and in extreme cases anaemia and increased cannibalism. Due to an increase in the occurrence of acaricide-resistant D. gallinae populations, new control strategies are required and vaccination may offer a sustainable alternative to acaricides. In this study, recombinant forms of D. gallinae tropomyosin (Der g 10) and paramyosin (Der g 11) were produced, characterised and tested as vaccine candidate molecules. The D. gallinae paramyosin (Der g 11) coding sequence was characterised and recombinant versions of Der g 11 and D. gallinae tropomyosin (Der g 10) were produced. Hens were immunised with the recombinant proteins and the resulting antibodies were fed to D. gallinae and mite mortality evaluated. Sections of mites were probed with anti- Der g 11 and Der g 10 antibodies to identify the tissue distribution of these protein in D. gallinae. The entire coding sequence of Der g 11 was 2,622 bp encoding 874 amino acid residues. Immunohistochemical staining of mite sections revealed that Der g 10 and Der g 11 were located throughout D. gallinae tissues. In phylogenetic analyses of these proteins both clustered with orthologues from tick species rather than with orthologues from astigmatid mites. Antibodies raised in hens against recombinant forms of these proteins significantly increased D. gallinae mortality, by 19 % for Der g 10 (P < 0.001) and by 23 % for Der g 11 (P = 0.009) when fed to the mites using an in vitro feeding device. This study has shown that Der g 10 and Der g 11 were located ubiquitously throughout D. gallinae and that antibodies raised against recombinant versions of these proteins can be used to significantly increase D. gallinae mortality in an in vitro feeding assay. When comparing archived data for all recombinant

  4. Dust Mite Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... mite allergy symptoms caused by inflammation of nasal passages include: Sneezing Runny nose Itchy, red or watery ... system produces an inflammatory response in your nasal passages or lungs. Prolonged or regular exposure to the ...

  5. Dust Mite Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in dust mite allergy. What causes the allergic reaction Allergies occur when your immune system reacts to ... nurse observes your skin for signs of allergic reactions after 15 minutes. If you're allergic to ...

  6. Mites and Wee Beasties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, George H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A review is made of public health aspects of some arthropods that might be seen on a college or university campus. The diseases and infestations caused by mites, lice, bed bugs, fleas, and ticks are discussed. (JMF)

  7. Scabies mite, photomicrograph (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a photomicrograph of the scabies mite. This animal burrows in the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. Scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to scratching and damage ...

  8. Scabies mite, photomicrograph (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a photomicrograph of the scabies mite. They burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to scratching and damage ...

  9. Mites and Wee Beasties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, George H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A review is made of public health aspects of some arthropods that might be seen on a college or university campus. The diseases and infestations caused by mites, lice, bed bugs, fleas, and ticks are discussed. (JMF)

  10. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells induce a house dust mite-specific Th2 allergic inflammation in the lung of humanized SCID mice: involvement of CCR7.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N; Pochard, Pierre; Gosset, Philippe; Marquillies, Philippe; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2002-08-01

    In rodents, airway dendritic cells (DCs) capture inhaled Ag, undergo maturation, and migrate to the draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) to initiate the Ag-specific T cell response. However, the role of human DCs in the pathogenesis of the Th2 cell-mediated disease asthma remains to be clarified. Here, by using SCID mice engrafted with T cells from either house dust mite (HDM)-allergic patients or healthy donors, we show that DCs pulsed with Der p 1, one of the major allergens of HDM, and injected intratracheally into naive animals migrated into the MLN. In the MLN, Der p 1-pulsed DCs from allergic patients induced the proliferation of IL-4-producing CD4(+) T cells, whereas those from healthy donors induced IFN-gamma-secreting cells. In reconstituted human PBMC-reconstituted SCID mice primed with pulsed DCs from allergic patients, repeated exposure to aerosols of HDM induced 1) a strong pulmonary inflammatory reaction rich in T cells and eosinophils, 2) an increase in IL-4 and IL-5 production in the lung lavage fluid, and 3) increased IgE production compared with that in mice primed with unpulsed DCs. All these effects were reduced following in vivo neutralization of the CCR7 ligand secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine. These data in human PBMC-reconstituted SCID mice show that monocyte-derived DCs might play a key role in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary allergic response by inducing Th2 effector function following migration to the MLN.

  11. Allergen extracts directly mobilize and activate human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Lena; Rudin, Anna; Wennerås, Christine

    2004-06-01

    Allergic diseases are characterized by the presence of eosinophils, which are recruited to the affected tissues by chemoattractants produced by T cells, mast cells and epithelium. Our objective was to evaluate if allergens can directly activate human eosinophils. The capacity of purified allergen extracts to elicit eosinophil chemotaxis, respiratory burst, degranulation and up-regulation of the adhesion molecule complement receptor 3 (CR3) was determined in eosinophils isolated from healthy blood donors. Eosinophils stimulated with an extract from house dust mite (HDM) released the granule protein major basic protein (MBP) and up-regulated the surface expression of CR3. Cat allergen extracts also induced the up-regulation of CR3, but not the release of MBP; instead cat, as well as birch and grass allergens, elicited the release of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). In addition, grass pollen extract caused the secretion of MBP. None of the allergens stimulated eosinophilic cationic protein release, nor production of free oxygen radicals. Both HDM and birch extracts were chemotactic for eosinophils. These findings establish that common aeroallergens can directly activate eosinophils in vitro. We propose that eosinophil activation in vivo is not exclusively mediated by cytokines and chemokines of the allergic inflammatory reaction, but could partly be the result of direct interaction between allergens and eosinophils.

  12. Indoor allergen exposure in west and East Germany: a cause for different prevalences of asthma and atopy?

    PubMed

    Hirsch, T

    1999-01-01

    West and East Germans have been living in two different political systems for 40 years. These two populations have become a classic epidemiological example for the hypothesis that lifestyle changes accompanying the industrial and economic development of modern societies are responsible for an increase in the prevalence of atopic diseases. A higher prevalence of atopic sensitization, asthma, and hay fever was found in young West Germans after the unification. It has been hypothesized that this phenomenon was at least partially due to the installation of insulating windows and central heating systems in Western homes, favoring the growth of microorganisms like mites and moulds and increasing indoor allergen exposure. This review summarizes studies that have investigated reservoir concentrations of indoor allergens in public buildings and private homes in East and West Germany. Whereas a higher prevalence of atopic sensitization in West Germans was found for nearly all tested allergens (cat, mite, pollen), allergen exposure was higher only for cat allergens, but probably not for mite and cockroach allergens or moulds. The published data do not support the view that the differences in specific sensitization are caused by differences in the exposure to specific allergens.

  13. Carcases and mites.

    PubMed

    Braig, Henk R; Perotti, M Alejandra

    2009-10-01

    Mites are involved in the decomposition of animal carcases and human corpses at every stage. From initial decay at the fresh stage until dry decomposition at the skeletal stage, a huge diversity of Acari, including members of the Mesostigmata, Prostigmata, Astigmata, Endeostigmata, Oribatida and Ixodida, are an integral part of the constantly changing food webs on, in and beneath the carrion. During the desiccation stage in wave 6 of Mégnin's system, mites can become the dominant fauna on the decomposing body. Under conditions unfavourable for the colonisation of insects, such as concealment, low temperature or mummification, mites might become the most important or even the only arthropods on a dead body. Some mite species will be represented by a few specimens, whereas others might build up in numbers to several million individuals. Astigmata are most prominent in numbers and Mesostigmata in diversity. More than 100 mite species and over 60 mite families were collected from animal carcases, and around 75 species and over 20 families from human corpses.

  14. Induction of allergen-specific tolerance via mucosal routes.

    PubMed

    Mascarell, Laurent; Zimmer, Aline; Van Overtvelt, Laurence; Tourdot, Sophie; Moingeon, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment of allergies against insect venom, house dust mites, tree/grass pollens, or cat dander. Subcutaneous immunotherapy is successful to reorient the immune system and re-establish long-term tolerance. However, major drawbacks for using this route include: repeated injections, as well as the risk of anaphylaxis. In this context, alternative mucosal routes of administration are being considered together with the combined use of adjuvants/vector systems and recombinant allergens or peptide fragments. Herein, we review the current status in the use of mucosal routes (i.e., sublingual, oral, intranasal) for allergen-specific immunotherapy, as well as the latest understanding with respect to underlying mechanisms of action.

  15. Does exposure to indoor allergens contribute to the development of asthma and allergy?

    PubMed

    Arshad, S Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Common indoor allergens include house dust mite, cockroach, animal dander, and certain molds. In genetically susceptible children, exposure to these indoor allergens during the critical postnatal period may lead to sensitization in early childhood. Consistent evidence indicates that children sensitized to common indoor allergens are at several-fold higher risk of asthma and allergy. Due to conflicting evidence from prospective studies, some doubt remains regarding a direct and dose-response relationship between exposure and development of asthma. However, in recent years, evidence has accumulated that exposure to indoor allergen causes asthma and allergy, but this effect may depend on dose and type of allergen as well as the underlying genetic susceptibility of the child.

  16. Analysis of olive allergens.

    PubMed

    Esteve, C; Montealegre, C; Marina, M L; García, M C

    2012-04-15

    Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of seasonal respiratory allergy in Mediterranean countries, where this tree is intensely cultivated. Besides this, some cases of contact dermatitis and food allergy to the olive fruit and olive oil have been also described. Several scientific studies dealing with olive allergens has been reported, being the information available about them constantly increasing. Up to date, twelve allergens have been identified in olive pollen while just one allergen has been identified in olive fruit. This review article describes considerations about allergen extraction and production, also describing the different methodologies employed in the physicochemical and immunological characterization of olive allergens. Finally, a revision of the most relevant studies in the analysis of both olive pollen and olive fruit allergens is carried out.

  17. Molecular approaches to allergen standardization.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Martin D; Briza, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Molecular approaches to allergen standardization include the development of purified natural or recombinant allergen standards whose structural and allergenic properties have been validated, in tandem with certified immunoassays for allergen measurement. Purified allergens can be used individually or incorporated into multiple allergen standards. Multicenter international collaborative studies are required to validate candidate allergen standards and immunoassays, as a prelude to being approved by regulatory agencies. Mass spectrometry is a sophisticated and powerful proteomics tool that is being developed for allergen analysis. Recent results using pollen allergens show that mass spectrometry can identify and measure specific allergens in a complex mixture and can provide precise information of the variability of natural allergen extracts. In future, the combined use of immunoassays and mass spectrometry will provide complete standardization of allergenic products. Molecular standardization will form the basis of new allergy diagnostics and therapeutics, as well as assessment of environmental exposure, and will improve the quality of treatment options for allergic patients.

  18. House dust mites on skin, clothes, and bedding of atopic dermatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Teplitsky, Valery; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Babai, Ilan; Dalal, Ilan; Cohen, Rifka; Tanay, Amir

    2008-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common allergic condition in children, often associated with a positive skin reaction to house dust mite allergens. To determine the presence of house dust mites on the skin, clothes, and bedding of patients with atopic dermatitis. Nineteen patients with atopic dermatitis were examined during a 2-year period. Samples from affected and healthy skin surfaces were obtained with adhesive tape, and dust samples from bedding and clothes were collected with a vacuum cleaner at the start of the study and 3-6 weeks later, and examined for the presence of house dust mites. The findings were compared with those of 21 healthy controls. The most common mite species on skin were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, which were found in nine patients and three controls. The patient group showed a significantly larger percentage of samples with mites than did the control group (34.9% and 7.9%, respectively) (P < 0.001), and a significantly larger percentage of individuals with at least one positive sample (84.2% and 14.2%, respectively) (P < 0.0001). No correlation was found between the number of mites on the skin and clothes/bedding of patients, or between patients and controls with regard to the number of mites on the clothes and bedding. Patients with atopic dermatitis showed a higher prevalence of mites on their skin than did healthy individuals, which could be involved in allergic sensitization and disease exacerbation.

  19. Food processing and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of IgE-binding proteins from Lepidoglyphus destructor and production of monoclonal antibodies to a major allergen.

    PubMed

    Ventas, P; Carreira, J; Polo, F

    1991-08-01

    The allergen composition of one of the most important storage mites, Lepidoglyphus destructor, has been studied by immunodetection after SDS-PAGE with individual patient sera. An allergenic polypeptide of 14 kDa was identified with 95% of the sera. This major allergen was isolated in the supernatant of 60% ammonium sulfate salt precipitation of the whole extract, which was subsequently used to immunize BALB/c mice so as to produce monoclonal antibodies. Four mAbs recognizing molecules with IgE-binding ability were obtained. The specificity of the mAbs was assayed against different allergenic extracts, and the molecules recognized by them were characterized by immunoblotting. Two mAbs (Le5B5 and Le9E4) were directed to the 14-kDa allergen; the other two to several proteins of lesser allergenic significance.

  1. Specific allergens evoking immune reactions in the lung: relationship to asthma.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, T A; Chapman, M D; Pollart, S; Luczynska, C M; Ward, G W

    1991-04-01

    Over the last 20 yrs our understanding of the relationship of allergens to asthma has changed completely. This is due to several interrelated developments: firstly, it is clear that bronchial hyperreactivity can be increased by allergen exposure and that it is at least in part reversible; secondly, it is now generally accepted that asthma involves inflammation of the bronchi in which eosinophils play an important role; thirdly, there are a large number of studies demonstrating an epidemiological relationship between immediate hypersensitivity to dust mites and asthma; finally, it has been shown that natural exposure to dust mite allergens is very different from bronchial provocation. Together these findings have lead to the view that indoor allergens can play a major role in causing bronchial inflammation with consequent bronchial reactivity and that this is usually not apparent to the patient. Recently three studies in the USA have established that immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to common inhalants can also be important risk factors for acute asthma. In these studies both dust mites and pollens were significant, but cat and cockroach allergy were also important. The results imply that the management of all asthma requires evaluation of the role of immediate hypersensitivity and that treatment of inflammation in the lungs should include both anti-inflammatory drugs and allergen avoidance.

  2. The Effect of Antibiotics on Associated Bacterial Community of Stored Product Mites

    PubMed Central

    Kopecky, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Mareckova-Sagova, Marketa; Hubert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata). The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria. Methodology and Principal Findings Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and associated bacterial community structure were assessed. Mites were treated by antibiotic supplementation (1 mgg−1 of diet) for 21 days and numbers of mites and bacterial communities were analyzed and compared to the untreated control. Bacterial quantities, determined by real-time PCR, significantly decreased in antibiotic treated specimens from 5 to 30 times in A. siro and T. putrescentiae, while no decline was observed in L. destructor. Streptomycin treatment eliminated Bartonella-like bacteria in the both A. siro and T. putrescentiae and Cardinium in T. putrescentiae. Solitalea-like bacteria proportion increased in the communities of neomycin and streptomycin treated A. siro specimens. Kocuria proportion increased in the bacterial communities of ampicillin and streptomycin treated A. siro and neomycin and streptomycin treated L. destructor. Conclusions/Significance The work demonstrated the changes of mite associated bacterial community under antibiotic pressure in pests of medical importance. Pre-treatment of mites by 1 mgg−1 antibiotic diets improved mite fitness as indicated accelerated population growth of A. siro pretreated streptomycin and neomycin and L. destructor pretreated by neomycin. All tested antibiotics supplemented to diets caused the decrease of mite growth rate in comparison to the control diet. PMID:25387104

  3. Emerging pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte; Batanero, Eva; Palomares, Oscar; Salamanca, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Numerous pollen allergens have been reported over the last few years. Most of them belong to well-known families of proteins but some others constitute the first member of new allergenic families. Some of the factors that can contribute to the detection and identification of new pollen allergens are: a) advances in the technology tools for molecular analysis; and b) the deep knowledge of many allergenic sources. The combination of these factors has provided vast information on the olive pollen allergogram and the identification of minor allergens that become major ones for a significant population. The close taxonomical relationship between olive tree and ash -both Oleaceae- has permitted to identify Fra e 1 (the Ole e 1-like allergen) in ash pollen and to detect the presence of protein homologues of Ole e 3 and Ole e 6. In the other hand, extensive areas of south Europe are suffering an increasing desertification. As a consequence of this, new botanical species are spontaneously growing in these areas or being used in greening ground programs: Chenopodium album and Salsola kali are some examples recently recognized as allergenic woods. The identification of the complete panel of allergens from the hypersensitizing sources might help to develop more accurate diagnosis, and efficient and safer therapy tools for Type-I allergic diseases.

  4. Assessment of allergen-specific IgE by immunoblotting method in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonyadi, M R; Hassanzadeh, D; Seyfizadeh, N; Borzoueisileh, S

    2017-09-01

    Background and Objectives. Stimulating the immune system by exposure to various allergens to produce specific IgE has a significant role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Identifying disease-causing allergens, prevention of exposure to those allergens, and immunotherapy will play an important role in the treatment of Atopic Disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the common allergens of northwest of Iran in patients with atopic dermatitis that are resistant to treatment. Materials and methods. In this descriptive-analytical study, serum levels of total IgE and frequency of specific IgE were measured by Immunoblotting against 20 common allergens in 150 cases of patients with atopic dermatitis, attending to dermatology and asthma and allergy clinics from 2010 to 2011. The control group consisted of individuals who had been clinically healthy. Results. In the 90% of patients that were included in this study, total IgE levels were higher than in healthy people with mean serum levels of total IgE 227.51 ± 103 IU/ml. 136 patients (90.6%) had specific IgE for at least one allergen. The frequency of positive allergens among the patients who were included in this study were 53.34%, 26.8%, and 19.56% respectively in plants and fungus allergens group, animal allergens group and food allergens group. After avoiding of the allergens (which they had been sensitized to), 60% of patients were cured with immune therapy, and total IgE serum levels in the control group were not increased. Conclusion. Identifying the abundant allergens such as cultivated rye, Timothy grass, house dust mite, birch, cat, horse, potato, dog, egg white, cow milk, in order to advise patients to avoid them or to do immunotherapy and desensitization, is useful in this area.

  5. Prevention of house dust mite induced allergic airways disease in mice through immune tolerance.

    PubMed

    Agua-Doce, Ana; Graca, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Allergic airways disease is a consequence of a Th2 response to an allergen leading to a series of manifestations such as production of allergen-specific IgE, inflammatory infiltrates in the airways, and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR). Several strategies have been reported for tolerance induction to allergens leading to protection from allergic airways disease. We now show that CD4 blockade at the time of house dust mite sensitization induces antigen-specific tolerance in mice. Tolerance induction is robust enough to be effective in pre-sensitized animals, even in those where AHR was pre-established. Tolerant mice are protected from airways eosinophilia, Th2 lung infiltration, and AHR. Furthermore, anti-CD4 treated mice remain immune competent to mount immune responses, including Th2, to unrelated antigens. Our findings, therefore, describe a strategy for tolerance induction potentially applicable to other immunogenic proteins besides allergens.

  6. Influence of bronchial allergen challenge on histamine release by human basophils.

    PubMed

    Lie, W J; Van Der Veen, M J; Knol, E F; Mul, F P; Jansen, H M; Roos, D; Van Der Zee, J S

    2000-06-01

    Basophils can be primed by cytokines such as interleukin (IL) -3, IL-5 or granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). It has been described that the concentrations of these cytokines are enhanced at sites of allergic inflammation as well as systemic in allergic asthma. To investigate the priming status of basophils as detected by thapsigargin-induced histamine release during bronchial allergen challenge. Ten subjects allergic to house dust mite were challenged via an aerosol delivery system. Spontaneous leucocyte histamine release as well as histamine release induced by various stimuli was measured in vitro at several time points. In addition, lung function parameters, serum IL-5 and blood eosinophil counts were evaluated. We found no effect of bronchial allergen challenge upon spontaneous leucocyte histamine release, nor upon histamine release induced by anti-immunoglobulin (Ig) E, house dust mite extract, C5a, fMLP, IL-3, PMA+ thapsigargin or IL-3+ thapsigargin. However, the priming status of basophils as measured by thapsigargin-induced histamine release was enhanced at 24 h after bronchial allergen challenge. Analysis of the individual data showed a heterogeneous initial response (30 min, 6 h) followed by a predominant increase at 24 h after allergen challenge. This increase in the thapsigargin-induced histamine release correlated with the increase in serum IL-5 levels at 24 h after allergen challenge. The priming status of human basophils as measured by thapsigargin-induced histamine release is enhanced 24 h after allergen challenge.

  7. Allergens stimulate store-operated calcium entry and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jairaman, Amit; Maguire, Chelsea H.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Prakriya, Murali

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant immune responses to environmental allergens including insect allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches contribute to allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma in susceptible individuals. Airway epithelial cells (AECs) play a critical role in this process by sensing the proteolytic activity of allergens via protease-activated receptors (PAR2) to initiate inflammatory and immune responses in the airway. Elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ is an important signaling event in this process, yet the fundamental mechanism by which allergens induce Ca2+ elevations in AECs remains poorly understood. Here we find that extracts from dust mite and cockroach induce sustained Ca2+ elevations in AECs through the activation of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels encoded by Orai1 and STIM1. CRAC channel activation occurs, at least in part, through allergen mediated stimulation of PAR2 receptors. The ensuing Ca2+ entry then activates NFAT/calcineurin signaling to induce transcriptional production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. These findings highlight a key role for CRAC channels as regulators of allergen induced inflammatory responses in the airway. PMID:27604412

  8. Sensitization to dust mite defines different phenotypes of asthma: A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Silvia; Drago, Gaspare; Longo, Valeria; Colombo, Paolo; Balzan, Martin; Bilocca, David; Zammit, Christopher; Montefort, Stephen; Scaccianoce, Gianluca; Cuttitta, Giuseppina; Viegi, Giovanni; Cibella, Fabio

    2017-08-07

    Indoor allergens are risk factors for asthma: Thus, the characterization of indoor air quality is important for studying environment-health relationships in children. In particular, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is the dominant allergen for asthma. We cross-sectionally investigated the relationships among respiratory symptoms and function, airway inflammation, allergen sensitization, and indoor allergen concentration. One hundred and thirty-two children aging 10-14 years and living in a Southern Mediterranean area were evaluated by parental questionnaires. Spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), skin prick tests, total, and specific serum IgE analyses were performed along with the evaluation of home dust samples for the content in Der p 1 allergen. Three clusters were created on the basis of the presence/absence of wheeze in the last 12 months (Wh12m) and Der p 1-specific IgE level. Cluster 1 (Wh12m+/high Der p 1 IgE) presented higher FeNO and poorer pulmonary function (lower FEV1 and FEF25%-75% ), while its symptom score was not different from Cluster 2 (Wh12m+/low Der p 1 IgE). Cluster 3 (Wh12m-/low IgE) showed the lowest FeNO values and pulmonary function similar to Cluster 2. Within Cluster 1, both Der p 1-specific IgE and FeNO were positively correlated with dust Der p 1. Similar asthma phenotypes may occur in children despite differences in their atopic state. In atopic children, sensitizing allergens in the indoor environment may increase airway inflammation worsening pulmonary function. Moreover, environmental exposures may contribute to the development of asthma-like symptoms also in the absence of atopic sensitization, thus contributing to asthma overdiagnosis. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  9. Dermatoses associated with mites other than Sarcoptes.

    PubMed

    Ken, Kimberly M; Shockman, Solomon C; Sirichotiratana, Melissa; Lent, Megan P; Wilson, Morgan L

    2014-09-01

    Mites are arthropods of the subclass Acari (Acarina). Although Sarcoptes is the mite most commonly recognized as a cause of human skin disease in the United States, numerous other mite-associated dermatoses have been described, and merit familiarity on the part of physicians treating skin disease. This review discusses several non-scabies mites and their associated diseases, including Demodex, chiggers, Cheyletiella, bird mites, grain itch, oak leaf itch, grocer's itch, tropical rat mite, snake mite, and Psoroptes.

  10. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Poza Guedes, Paloma; Sánchez Machín, Inmaculada; Matheu, Víctor; Iraola, Víctor; González Pérez, Ruperto

    2016-01-01

    Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus) as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT) to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47) with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT), while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis.

  11. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Poza Guedes, Paloma; Sánchez Machín, Inmaculada; Matheu, Víctor; Iraola, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus) as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT) to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47) with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT), while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis. PMID:27445552

  12. Emerging risk of infestation and contamination of dried fruits by mites in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jan; Erban, Tomas; Nesvorna, Marta; Stejskal, Vaclav

    2011-09-01

    The introduction of live insects into human food is rare in developed countries. However, we report, for the first time, an emerging risk that exists from dried fruit in Central Europe. Recently, massive and frequent infestation of dried fruit imported from the Mediterranean region by the mite, Carpoglpyhus lactis L. (Acarina: Carpoglyphidae), has been found. In 180 samples taken from supermarkets, 13% were contaminated; the contamination levels ranged from 0 to 660 mites per g of dried fruit. The contamination was found in dried apricots, figs, plums and raisins. To estimate the risks and food preferences of C. lactis, its growth rate was examined under laboratory conditions. Starting with a hypothetical population of 10 mites per g of dried fruit, the risk level of 1000 mites per g of dried fruit is reached at 42 days for dried figs, 49 days for dried pineapple and 63 days for dried apricots, dates and plums at 25 °C and 85% relative humidity. We found that mites are able to enter every dried fruit packing material tested, including polypropylene and aluminum foils. This indicates that mites can move from package to package in supermarkets. Mites are known as allergen producers and vectors of mycotoxin-producing fungi. These findings indicate that an increased risk of C. lactis contamination exists in dried fruit. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  13. Cross-reactivity between aeroallergens and food allergens

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2015-01-01

    In patients with respiratory allergy, cross-reactivity between aeroallergens and foods may induce food allergy, symptoms ranging from oral allergy syndrome to severe anaphylaxis. Clinical entities due to IgE sensitization to cross-reactive aeroallergen and food allergen components are described for many sources of plant origin (pollen-food syndromes and associations, such as birch-apple, cypress-peach and celery-mugwort-spice syndromes, and mugwort-peach, mugwort-chamomile, mugwort-mustard, ragweed-melon-banana, goosefoot-melon associations), fungal origin (Alternaria-spinach syndrome), and invertebrate, mam