Science.gov

Sample records for mitigation assessment results

  1. Mitigation assessment results and priorities in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Zongxin; Wei Zhihong

    1996-12-31

    In this paper energy related CO2 emission projections of China by 2030 are given. CO2 mitigation potential and technology options in main fields of energy conservation and energy substitution are analyzed. CO2 reduction costs of main mitigation technologies are estimated and the AHP approach is used for helping assessment of priority technologies.

  2. Enforcement of mitigation measures resulting from environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollick, Malcolm

    1981-11-01

    Until recently, relatively little attention has been paid to the problem of enforcing mitigation measures identified in environmental impact assessment. Present or proposed enforcement systems in the USA, New South Wales, South Australia, and Western Australia are described and discussed. Although the best enforcement system would depend on the local social, political, and legal systems, five universally desirable features are identified. First, a comprehensive coordinated monitoring and reassessment system is needed. Second, the agencies concerned must have adequate resources to do the work and incentives to carry it out well. Third, there must be the necessary legal powers. Fourth, provision must be made for changing the conditions based on experience. And fifth, the system should be equally effective against private companies and public authorities.

  3. Assessing information system readiness for mitigating malpractice risk through simulation: results of a multi-site study.

    PubMed

    Wright, Adam; Maloney, Francine L; Wien, Matthew; Samal, Lipika; Emani, Srinivas; Zuccotti, Gianna

    2015-09-01

    To develop and test an instrument for assessing a healthcare organization's ability to mitigate malpractice risk through clinical decision support (CDS). Based on a previously collected malpractice data set, we identified common types of CDS and the number and cost of malpractice cases that might have been prevented through this CDS. We then designed clinical vignettes and questions that test an organization's CDS capabilities through simulation. Seven healthcare organizations completed the simulation. All seven organizations successfully completed the self-assessment. The proportion of potentially preventable indemnity loss for which CDS was available ranged from 16.5% to 73.2%. There is a wide range in organizational ability to mitigate malpractice risk through CDS, with many organizations' electronic health records only being able to prevent a small portion of malpractice events seen in a real-world dataset. The simulation approach to assessing malpractice risk mitigation through CDS was effective. Organizations should consider using malpractice claims experience to facilitate prioritizing CDS development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Compensatory Mitigation Rule Final Environmental Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EA performed to determine the costs resulting from implementation of the Compensatory Mitigation Rule and the extent to which the rule changes aggregate mitigation costs borne by permittees and Corps administrative burdens and associated costs.

  5. The Vulnerability Assessment & Mitigation Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Defense Systems........................................ 111 A.37. Vulnerabilities That Can Be Incurred from Vaccination ........... 112 A.38...protect against future threats or system failures while mitigating current and past threats and weaknesses. Also, sophisticated adver - saries are...and recovery • Adaptability and learning • Immunological defense systems • Vaccination ISR and Self-Awareness • Intelligence operations • Self

  6. Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bertini, H.W.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; Wright, T.

    1990-12-01

    During the reporting period, June, 1 1989, through May 30, 1990, radon detectors were sent to all Department of the Navy installations that contained housing areas, childcare centers, schools, hospitals, bachelor quarters, and brigs. This action was part of the screening phase of the Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. Because of detector losses, a few facilities will require rescreening. The length of time the detectors are exposed in the buildings is dependent on the time or year they were placed and the time when the doors and windows are normally closed. A 3-month exposure time is sufficient for facilities that placed detectors in building when they would be closed. Otherwise detectors will be exposed for about 1 year. To date, about 9,000 detectors (out of a total of 27,100 detectors sent to the field) have been returned for a determination of exposure levels. About 2,000 detectors have been analyzed and the information sent to the Navel Facilities Engineering Command Headquarters for forwarding to the installations. Except for the additional installations requiring rescreening, the screening effort results should be available this calendar year. The rescreening results should be available by mid-1991. Assessment will start this calendar year based on the results from screening. Initial emphasis will be on housing, child-care centers, schools, and hospitals. 6 refs., 17 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. Compensatory Mitigation Rule Draft Environmental Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Draft Compensatory Mitigation Rule intended to promote regulatory efficiency by establishing standards and criteria that would apply to compensatory mitigation required for DA permits issued under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act.

  8. A toolbox to visualise benefits resulting from flood hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Thaler, Thomas; Heiser, Micha

    2017-04-01

    In order to visualize the benefits resulting from technical mitigation, a toolbox was developed within an open-source environment that allows for an assessment of gains and losses for buildings exposed to flood hazards. Starting with different scenarios showing the changes in flood magnitude with respect to the considered management options, the computation was based on the amount and value of buildings exposed as well as their vulnerability, following the general concept of risk assessment. As a result, beneficiaries of risk reduction may be identified and - more general - also different mitigation options may be strategically evaluated with respect to the height of risk reduction for different elements exposed. As such, multiple management options can be ranked according to their costs and benefits, and in order of priority. A relational database composed from different modules was created in order to mirror the requirements of an open source application and to allow for future dynamics in the data availability as well as the spatiotemporal dynamics of this data (Fuchs et al. 2013). An economic module was used to compute the monetary value of buildings exposed using (a) the building footprint, (b) the information of the building cadaster such as building type, number of storeys and utilisation, and (c) regionally averaged construction costs. An exposition module was applied to connect the spatial GIS information (X and Y coordinates) of elements at risk to the hazard information in order to achieve information on exposure. An impact module linked this information to vulnerability functions (Totschnig and Fuchs 2013; Papathoma-Köhle et al. 2015) in order to achieve the monetary level of risk for every building exposed. These values were finally computed before and after the implementation of mitigation measure in order to show gains and losses, and visualised. The results can be exported in terms of spread sheets for further computation. References Fuchs S

  9. Assessment of alternative mitigation concepts for Hanford flammable gas tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Schienbein, L.A.; Hudson, J.D.; Eschbach, E.J.; Lessor, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides a review and assessment of four selected mitigation concepts: pump jet mixing, sonic vibration, dilution, and heating. Though the relative levels of development of these concepts are quite different, some definite conclusions are made on their comparative feasibility. Key findings of this report are as follows. A mixer pump has proven to be a safe and effective active mitigation method in Tank 241-SY-101, and the authors are confident that mixer pumps will effectively mitigate other tanks with comparable waste configurations and properties. Low-frequency sonic vibration is also predicted to be effective for mitigation. Existing data cannot prove that dilution can mitigate gas release event (GRE) behavior. However, dilution is the only concept of the four that potentially offers passive mitigation. Like dilution, heating the waste cannot be proven with available information to mitigate GRE behavior. The designs, analyses, and data from which these conclusions are derived are presented along with recommendations.

  10. Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This reporting period marks the end of Phase 1 Screening and the beginning of Phase 2 Assessment. During Phase 1, radon detectors were shipped to all Department of Navy (DON) sites with family housing areas, child-care centers, schools, hospitals, bachelor quarters, and brigs. 14,350 radon detectors have been returned and analyzed, and 3.4% of the housing and nonhousing results obtained were above the Environmental Protection Agency's action level of 4 pCi/L. Suspect screening results were confirmed. Phase 2 Assessment consists of two categories, Assessment and Phase 2 Screening. All activities with radon in excess of 4 pCi/L are included in Assessment. Phase 2 Screening consists of screening Navy-Owned Reserve Centers, Rescreening (sites with inconclusive data), and screening of Nonhousing Unit Identity Codes ((UICs) activities without Phase 1 test structures). All housing assessment was scheduled to be conducted during 1991 and 1992. Phase 2 housing and nonhousing have been established. In addition, a quality assurance program and technical guidebook have been developed to achieve accurate data during Phase 2. As of July 1, 1991, assessment of housing was 40% complete, nonhousing 4%, reserve centers 100%, and nonhousing UICs were 9% complete.

  11. Aquarius Radiometer RFI Detection, Mitigation, and Impact Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Christopher; Chen, David; Le Vine, David; de Matthaeis, Paolo; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D satellite was launched on 10 June 2011 into a sun-synchronous polar orbit and the Aquarius microwave radiometers [1] became operational on 25 August 2011. Since that time, it has been measuring brightness temperatures at 1.4 GHz with vertical, horizontal and 3rd Stokes polarizations . Beginning well before the launch, there has been the concern that Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) could have an appreciable presence. This concern was initiated by, among other things, its prevalence in both early [2] and more recent [3,4] aircraft field experiments using 1.4 GHz radiometers, as well as by the strong RFI environment encountered during the recent ESA SMOS mission, also at 1.4 GHz [5]. As a result, a number of methods for RFI detection and mitigation have been developed and tested. One in particular, "glitch detection" and "pulse blanking" mitigation has been adapted for use by Aquarius [6, 7]. The early on-orbit performance of the Aquarius RFI detection and mitigation algorithm is presented here, together with an assessment of the global RFI environment at 1.4 GHz which can be derived from the Aquarius results.

  12. An Assessment Framework for Making Compensatory Mitigation Determinations in California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efficient gathering and use of assessment information will improve the ecological effectiveness of compensatory mitigation. It also will make for more efficient regulatory decision-making. Recognizing these facts, the California Water Board worked in collaboration with the USEPA...

  13. An Assessment Framework for Making Compensatory Mitigation Determinations in California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efficient gathering and use of assessment information will improve the ecological effectiveness of compensatory mitigation. It also will make for more efficient regulatory decision-making. Recognizing these facts, the California Water Board worked in collaboration with the USEPA...

  14. Induced seismicity and carbon storage: Risk assessment and mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    White, Joshua A.; Foxall, William; Bachmann, Corinne; Chiaramonte, Laura; Daley, Thomas M.

    2016-01-28

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is widely recognized as an important strategy to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Like all technologies, however, sequestration projects create a number of potential environmental and safety hazards that must be addressed. These include earthquakes—from microseismicity to large, damaging events—that can be triggered by altering pore-pressure conditions in the subsurface. To date, measured seismicity due to CO2 injection has been limited to a few modest events, but the hazard exists and must be considered. There are important similarities between CO2 injection and fluid injection from other applications that have induced significant events—e.g. geothermal systems, waste-fluid injection, hydrocarbon extraction, and others. There are also important distinctions among these technologies that should be considered in a discussion of seismic hazard. This report focuses on strategies for assessing and mitigating risk during each phase of a CO2 storage project. Four key risks related to fault reactivation and induced seismicity were considered. Induced slip on faults could potentially lead to: (1) infrastructure damage, (2) a public nuisance, (3) brine-contaminated drinking water, and (4) CO2-contaminated drinking water. These scenarios lead to different types of damage—to property, to drinking water quality, or to the public welfare. Given these four risks, this report focuses on strategies for assessing (and altering) their likelihoods of occurrence and the damage that may result. This report begins with an overview of the basic physical mechanisms behind induced seismicity. This science basis—and its gaps—is crucial because it forms the foundation for risk assessment and mitigation. Available techniques for characterizing and monitoring seismic behavior are also described. Again, this technical basis—and its limitations—must be factored into the risk

  15. Assessment of the multimedia mitigation of radon in New York.

    PubMed

    Kitto, Michael E

    2007-05-01

    Although not yet implemented, the 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act instructed the states (or local water suppliers) to address radon concentrations in community water systems (CWS). As an alternative to reducing waterborne radon concentrations in the CWS to the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 11 Bq L(-1), states (or individual CWS) would be permitted to develop a multimedia mitigation (MMM) program, which allowed a greater concentration (148 Bq L(-1)) of waterborne radon in the CWS, if it could be shown that an equivalent health risk reduction could be achieved by reducing indoor radon concentrations. For a MMM program to be acceptable, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency required the health-risk reduction attained through mitigations and radon-resistant new construction (RRNC) to offset the increased health risk due to radon in community water systems above the MCL of 11 Bq L(-1). A quantitative assessment indicates that the reduction in health risk currently achieved in New York State through radon mitigations and RRNC exceeded the increase in risk associated with an alternative MCL of 148 Bq L(-1). The implementation of a MMM program in New York would result in an overall reduction in the health risk associated with exposure to radon.

  16. Compensatory mitigation and screening rules in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, Andrew Waugh, Lauren

    2014-11-15

    Concerns about the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) have prompted proposals to improve its performance by limiting the discretion of decision-makers in screening. To investigate whether such proposals are likely to generate the desired results, we conducted an evaluation of the screening process under the Australian government's EIA regime from its introduction on 16 July 2000 to 30 June 2013 (study period). Almost 1 in 5 ‘particular manner’ decisions—a type of screening decision under the regime—were found to be unlawful. The extent of non-compliance is explained on the basis of convenience. The department was required to assess a large number of projects under tight timeframes and with limited resources, while being pressured by proponents to allow their projects to bypass EIA. These pressures resulted in the development of an informal custom whereby the formal compensatory mitigation restrictions were frequently ignored. The results highlight the relative significance of formal and informal institutions in EIA. Formal EIA rules typically provide a mere outline of the process. The informal institutions adopted by administrators often have a greater influence on how the process operates and what it achieves. - Highlights: • Concerns about the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) have prompted proposals to improve its performance by limiting the discretion of decision-makers in screening. • To investigate whether such proposals are likely to generate the desired results, we conducted an evaluation of the Australian government's screening process, looking at the extent of compliance with a formal prohibition on the consideration of compensatory mitigation. • Almost 1 in 5 ‘particular manner’ decisions – a type of screening decision under the regime – were found to be unlawful (with a 95% confidence interval of between 1:4 and 1:7) because of a failure to abide by the compensatory mitigation restrictions

  17. Ecological mitigation measures in English Environmental Impact Assessment.

    PubMed

    Drayson, Katherine; Thompson, Stewart

    2013-04-15

    Built development is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss in the UK. Major built developments usually require an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be conducted, which frequently includes an Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) chapter. By identifying the flaws in EcIA mitigation measure proposals and their implementation in completed developments, it may be possible to develop measures to reduce biodiversity loss and help meet the UK's EU obligation to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. A review of 112 English EcIAs from 2000 onwards was conducted to provide a broad-scale overview of the information provision and detail of ecological mitigation measures. Audits of seven EIA development case study sites provided finer-scale detail of mitigation measure implementation, and the effectiveness of their grassland and marginal habitat creation and management measures was assessed using standard NVC methodology. Despite higher than expected levels of mitigation measure implementation in completed developments, EcIA mitigation proposal information and detail has seen little improvement since a 1997 review, and the effectiveness of the habitat mitigation measures studied was poor. This suggests that measures to improve ecological mitigation measures are best targeted at ecological consultants. A recommendation for EcIA-specific training of Competent Authorities is also made. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Asia in Mitigating Climate Change: Results from the Asia Modeling Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Krey, Volker; Blanford, Geoffrey J.; Jiang, Kejun; Kainuma, M.; Kriegler, Elmar; Luderer, Gunnar; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, Asia accounted for 60% of global population, 39% of Gross World Product, 44% of global energy consumption and nearly half of the world’s energy system CO2 emissions. Thus, Asia is an important region to consider in any discussion of climate change or climate change mitigation. This paper explores the role of Asia in mitigating climate change, by comparing the results of 23 energy-economy and integrated assessment models. We focus our analysis on seven key areas: base year data, future energy use and emissions absent climate policy, the effect of urban and rural development on future energy use and emissions, the role of technology in emissions mitigation, regional emissions mitigation, and national climate policies

  19. Assessment of GHG mitigation technology measures in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Raptsoun, N.; Parasiouk, N.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1992 the representatives of 176 countries including Ukraine met in Rio de Janeiro at the UN Conference to coordinate its efforts in protecting and guarding the environment. Signature of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change by around 150 countries indicates that climate change is potentially a major threat to the world`s environment and economic development. The project {open_quotes}Country Study on Climate Change in Ukraine{close_quotes} coordinated by the Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENIA-ECO) and supported by the US Country Studies Program Support for Climate Change Studies. The aim of the project is to make the information related to climate change in Ukraine available for the world community by using the potential of Ukrainian research institutes for further concerted actions to solve the problem of climate change on the global scale. The project consists of four elements: (1) the development of the GHG Inventory in Ukraine; (2) assessments of ecosystems-vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options; and (3) mitigation options analysis; (4) public education and outreach activities. This paper contains the main results of the third element for the energy and non-energy sectors. Main tasks of the third element were: (1) to select, test and describe or develop the methodology for mitigation options assessment; (2) to analyze the main sources of GHG emissions in Ukraine; (3) to give the macro economic analysis of Ukrainian development and the development of main economical sectors industry, energy, transport, residential, forestry and agriculture; (4) to forecast GHG emissions for different scenarios of the economic development; and (5) to analyze the main measures to mitigate climate change.

  20. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  1. Assessing Compliance with United States Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no exceptions or special considerations for CubeSats in the United States Government (USG) Orbital Debris (OD) Mitigation Guidelines. For all objects launched into space the 2010 United States Space Policy requires that any failure to comply with the USG OD Mitigation Guidelines requires approval by the head of the launching agency. In addition it requires that the US Secretary of State be notified of any non-compliance. For these reasons it is important that missions consider these policies during their design phase. This paper will discuss methods to assess compliance with USG OD mitigation guidelines as they apply to CubeSat missions using tools such as the NASA Debris Assessment Software (DAS).

  2. Assessment and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This was an invited 45 minute oral presentation concerning assessment and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from feedlots. The audience at the summit (about 60 people) included university professors, environmental regulators, and producers. The presentation included a brief review of environm...

  3. Assessment of Mitigation Systems on Vapor Intrusion ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vapor intrusion is the migration of subsurface vapors, including radon and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in soil gas from the subsurface to indoor air. Vapor intrusion happens because there are pressure and concentration differentials between indoor air and soil gas. Indoor environments are often negatively pressurized with respect to outdoor air and soil gas (for example, from exhaust fans or the stack effect), and this pressure difference allows soil gas containing subsurface vapors to flow into indoor air through advection. In addition, concentration differentials cause VOCs and radon to migrate from areas of higher to lower concentrations through diffusion, which is another cause of vapor intrusion. Current practice for evaluating the vapor intrusion pathway involves a multiple line of evidence approach based on direct measurements in groundwater, external soil gas, subslab soil gas, and/or indoor air. No single line of evidence is considered definitive, and direct measurements of vapor intrusion can be costly, especially where significant spatial and temporal variability require repeated measurements at multiple locations to accurately assess the chronic risks of long-term exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) like chloroform, perchloroethylene (PCE), and trichloroethylene (TCE).

  4. Blue Creek Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project : Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs; Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington

    1994-11-01

    This preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities are analyzed: Habitat protection; Habitat enhancement; Operation and maintenance; and Monitoring and evaluation. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir.

  5. Strategic environmental assessment of greenhouse gas mitigation options in the Canadian agricultural sector.

    PubMed

    Noble, Bram F; Christmas, Lisa M

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a methodological framework for strategic environmental assessment (SEA) application. The overall objective is to demonstrate SEA as a systematic and structured policy, plan, and program (PPP) decision support tool. In order to accomplish this objective, a stakeholder-based SEA application to greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy options in Canadian agriculture is presented. Using a mail-out impact assessment exercise, agricultural producers and nonproducers from across the Canadian prairie region were asked to evaluate five competing GHG mitigation options against 13 valued environmental components (VECs). Data were analyzed using multi-criteria and exploratory analytical techniques. The results suggest considerable variation in perceived impacts and GHG mitigation policy preferences, suggesting that a blanket policy approach to GHG mitigation will create gainers and losers based on soil type and associate cropping and on-farm management practices. It is possible to identify a series of regional greenhouse gas mitigation programs that are robust, socially meaningful, and operationally relevant to both agricultural producers and policy decision makers. The assessment demonstrates the ability of SEA to address, in an operational sense, environmental problems that are characterized by conflicting interests and competing objectives and alternatives. A structured and systematic SEA methodology provides the necessary decision support framework for the consideration of impacts, and allows for PPPs to be assessed based on a much broader set of properties, objectives, criteria, and constraints whereas maintaining rigor and accountability in the assessment process.

  6. 33 CFR 401.202 - Statute providing for assessment, mitigation or remission of civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statute providing for assessment, mitigation or remission of civil penalties. 401.202 Section 401.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT... Assessment, Mitigation or Remission of Penalties § 401.202 Statute providing for assessment, mitigation or...

  7. 76 FR 23613 - Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Hazard Mitigation Safe Room Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Hazard Mitigation Safe Room Construction AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) may provide funding...

  8. US country studies program: Results from mitigation studies

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Country Studies Program which was implemented to support the principles and objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). There were three principle objectives in this program: to enhance capabilities to conduct climate change assessments, prepare action plans, and implement technology projects; to help establish a process for developing and implementing national policies and measures; to support principles and objective of the FCCC. As a result, 55 countries are completing studies, more than 2000 analysts engaged in the studies have been trained, and there is a much broader understanding and support for climate change concerns. The article describes experiences of some countries, and general observations and conclusions which are broadly seperated into developed countries and those with economies in transition.

  9. Blue Creek Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs; Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington

    1994-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir.

  10. Risk Assessment of Arsenic Mitigation Options in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, M. Feroze; Shamsuddin, Abu Jafar; Mahmud, Shamsul Gafur; Deere, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The provision of alternative water sources is the principal arsenic mitigation strategy in Bangladesh, but can lead to risk substitution. A study of arsenic mitigation options was undertaken to assess water quality and sanitary condition and to estimate the burden of disease associated with each technology in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Dugwells and pond-sand filters showed heavy microbial contamination in both dry and monsoon seasons, and the estimated burden of disease was high. Rainwater was of good quality in the monsoon but deteriorated in the dry season. Deep tubewells showed microbial contamination in the monsoon but not in the dry season and was the only technology to approach the World Health Organization's reference level of risk of 10-6 DALYs. A few dugwells and one pond-sand filter showed arsenic in excess of 50 μg/L. The findings suggest that deep tubewells and rainwater harvesting provide safer water than dugwells and pond-sand filters and should be the preferred options. PMID:17366776

  11. Risk assessment of arsenic mitigation options in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Howard, Guy; Ahmed, M Feroze; Shamsuddin, Abu Jafar; Mahmud, Shamsul Gafur; Deere, Daniel

    2006-09-01

    The provision of alternative water sources is the principal arsenic mitigation strategy in Bangladesh, but can lead to risk substitution. A study of arsenic mitigation options was undertaken to assess water quality and sanitary condition and to estimate the burden of disease associated with each technology in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Dugwells and pond-sand filters showed heavy microbial contamination in both dry and monsoon seasons, and the estimated burden of disease was high. Rainwater was of good quality in the monsoon but deteriorated in the dry season. Deep tubewells showed microbial contamination in the monsoon but not in the dry season and was the only technology to approach the World Health Organization's reference level of risk of 10-6 DALYs. A few dugwells and one pond-sand filter showed arsenic in excess of 50 microg/L. The findings suggest that deep tubewells and rainwater harvesting provide safer water than dugwells and pond-sand filters and should be the preferred options.

  12. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. This area consists of several separated land parcels, of which 2,000 hectares (4,943 acres) have been purchased by BPA and an additional 4,640 hectares (11,466 acres) have been identified by the Colville Confederated Tribes for inclusion in the Project. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  13. Assessing the resources and mitigation potential of European forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenauer, Hubert; Neumann, Mathias; Moreno, Adam; Running, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Today 40 % of the European land area is covered with forests managed for the provision of ecosystem services including timber production. Forests store large amounts of carbon and are the main resource for the growing demand of a bio-based economy. They are also a major source for biodiversity. Thus a consistent pan-European gridded data set on the state of forest resources is essential for researchers, policy makers and conservationists to study and understand the European forests for the global carbon cycle independent of political boundaries. The purpose of this study is to use existing European data to develop a consistent pan-European data set for Net Primary Production (NPP), live tree carbon per hectare, volume per hectare, mean tree height and mean tree age by integrating remotely sensed satellite data and harmonized NFI data from 13 different European countries. We provide new NPP estimates using the MOD17 algorithm by collating a newly down-scaled daily climate dataset across Europe. By consolidating these two independent productivity data sources (top down satellite versus bottom up terrestrial forest NFI data) for assessing forest resources in Europe, we are able to detect and quantify forest management impacts. We produce a pan-European map for each of the five key variables on a 0.133° grid representing the time period 2000-2010. The results show distinct differences in the carbon storage of European forests due to biophysical limits and regional historic drivers in forest management, which directly affect the carbon mitigation option of European forests. We use this data to assess the state of forest resources across Europe showing that mountainous regions have the highest carbon and volume per hectare values, central Europe has the tallest mean tree heights and Austria and Northern Scandinavia have the oldest mean tree ages. Cross-validation of the data indicates that the error varies by forest characteristic but shows negligible biases for all. We

  14. Assessing the Climatic Benefits of Black Carbon Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Kopp, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    To limit mean global warming to 2 °C, a goal supported by more than 100 countries, it will likely be necessary to reduce emissions not only of greenhouse gases but also of air pollutants with high radiative forcing (RF), particularly black carbon (BC). Although several recent research papers have attempted to quantify the effects of BC on climate, not all these analyses have incorporated all the mechanisms that contribute to its RF (including the effects of BC on cloud albedo, cloud coverage, and snow and ice albedo, and the optical consequences of aerosol mixing) and have reported their results in different units and with different ranges of uncertainty. Here we attempt to reconcile their results and present them in uniform units that include the same forcing factors. We use the best estimate of effective RF obtained from these results to analyze the benefits of mitigating BC emissions for achieving a specific equilibrium temperature target. For a 500 ppm CO2e (3.1 Wm-2) effective RF target in 2100, which would offer about a 50% chance of limiting equilibrium warming to 2.5 °C above preindustrial temperatures, we estimate that failing to reduce carbonaceous aerosol emissions from contained combustion would require CO2 emission cuts about 8 years (range of 1-15 years) earlier than would be necessary with full mitigation of these emissions.

  15. Assessing the climatic benefits of black carbon mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Robert E.; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    2010-01-01

    To limit mean global warming to 2 °C, a goal supported by more than 100 countries, it will likely be necessary to reduce emissions not only of greenhouse gases but also of air pollutants with high radiative forcing (RF), particularly black carbon (BC). Although several recent research papers have attempted to quantify the effects of BC on climate, not all these analyses have incorporated all the mechanisms that contribute to its RF (including the effects of BC on cloud albedo, cloud coverage, and snow and ice albedo, and the optical consequences of aerosol mixing) and have reported their results in different units and with different ranges of uncertainty. Here we attempt to reconcile their results and present them in uniform units that include the same forcing factors. We use the best estimate of effective RF obtained from these results to analyze the benefits of mitigating BC emissions for achieving a specific equilibrium temperature target. For a 500 ppm CO2e (3.1 W m-2) effective RF target in 2100, which would offer about a 50% chance of limiting equilibrium warming to 2.5 °C above preindustrial temperatures, we estimate that failing to reduce carbonaceous aerosol emissions from contained combustion would require CO2 emission cuts about 8 years (range of 1–15 years) earlier than would be necessary with full mitigation of these emissions. PMID:20566891

  16. Assessing the climatic benefits of black carbon mitigation.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Robert E; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2010-06-29

    To limit mean global warming to 2 degrees C, a goal supported by more than 100 countries, it will likely be necessary to reduce emissions not only of greenhouse gases but also of air pollutants with high radiative forcing (RF), particularly black carbon (BC). Although several recent research papers have attempted to quantify the effects of BC on climate, not all these analyses have incorporated all the mechanisms that contribute to its RF (including the effects of BC on cloud albedo, cloud coverage, and snow and ice albedo, and the optical consequences of aerosol mixing) and have reported their results in different units and with different ranges of uncertainty. Here we attempt to reconcile their results and present them in uniform units that include the same forcing factors. We use the best estimate of effective RF obtained from these results to analyze the benefits of mitigating BC emissions for achieving a specific equilibrium temperature target. For a 500 ppm CO(2)e (3.1 W m(-2)) effective RF target in 2100, which would offer about a 50% chance of limiting equilibrium warming to 2.5 degrees C above preindustrial temperatures, we estimate that failing to reduce carbonaceous aerosol emissions from contained combustion would require CO(2) emission cuts about 8 years (range of 1-15 years) earlier than would be necessary with full mitigation of these emissions.

  17. Global assessment of technological innovation for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing world.

    PubMed

    Adenle, Ademola A; Azadi, Hossein; Arbiol, Joseph

    2015-09-15

    Concerns about mitigating and adapting to climate change resulted in renewing the incentive for agricultural research investments and developing further innovation priorities around the world particularly in developing countries. In the near future, development of new agricultural measures and proper diffusion of technologies will greatly influence the ability of farmers in adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Using bibliometric approaches through output of academic journal publications and patent-based data, we assess the impact of research and development (R&D) for new and existing technologies within the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We show that many developing countries invest limited resources for R&D in relevant technologies that have great potential for mitigation and adaption in agricultural production. We also discuss constraints including weak infrastructure, limited research capacity, lack of credit facilities and technology transfer that may hinder the application of innovation in tackling the challenges of climate change. A range of policy measures is also suggested to overcome identified constraints and to ensure that potentials of innovation for climate change mitigation and adaptation are realized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Scheme for the Integrated Assessment of Mitigation Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, H.; Edenhofer, O.

    2003-04-01

    After some consensus has been achieved that the global mean temperature will have increased by 1.4 to 5.8^oC at the end of this century in case of continued ``business as usual'' greenhouse gas emissions, society has to decide if or which mitigation measures should be taken. A new integrated assessment project on this very issue will be started at PIK in spring 2003. The assessment will cover economic aspects as well as potential side effects of various measures. In the economic module, the effects of investment decisions on technological innovation will be explicitly taken into account. Special emphasize will be put on the issue of uncertainty. Hereby we distinguish the uncertainty related to the Integrated Assessment modules, including the economic module, from the fact that no over-complex system can be fully captured by a model. Therefore, a scheme for the assessment of the ``residual'', the non-modelled part of the system, needs to be worked out. The scheme must be truly interdisciplinary, i.e. must be applicable to at least the natural science and the economic aspects. A scheme based on meta-principles like minimum persistence, ubiquity, or irreversibility of potential measures appears to be a promising candidate. An implementation of ubiquity as at present successfully operated in environmental chemistry may serve as a guideline [1]. Here, the best-known mechanism within a complex impact chain of potentially harmful chemicals, their transport, is captured by a reaction-diffusion mechanism [2]. begin{thebibliography}{0} bibitem{s} M. Scheringer, Persistence and spatial range as endpoints of an exposure-based assessment of organic chemicals. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30: 1652-1659 (1996). bibitem{h} H. Held, Robustness of spatial ranges of environmental chemicals with respect to model dimension, accepted for publication in Stoch. Environ. Res. Risk Assessment.

  19. Debris flow hazards mitigation--Mechanics, prediction, and assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, C.-L.; Major, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the Fourth International Conference on Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation: Mechanics, Prediction, and Assessment held in Chengdu, China, September 10-13, 2007. The papers cover a wide range of topics on debris-flow science and engineering, including the factors triggering debris flows, geomorphic effects, mechanics of debris flows (e.g., rheology, fluvial mechanisms, erosion and deposition processes), numerical modeling, various debris-flow experiments, landslide-induced debris flows, assessment of debris-flow hazards and risk, field observations and measurements, monitoring and alert systems, structural and non-structural countermeasures against debris-flow hazards and case studies. The papers reflect the latest devel-opments and advances in debris-flow research. Several studies discuss the development and appli-cation of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) technologies in debris-flow hazard/risk assessment. Timely topics presented in a few papers also include the development of new or innovative techniques for debris-flow monitoring and alert systems, especially an infra-sound acoustic sensor for detecting debris flows. Many case studies illustrate a wide variety of debris-flow hazards and related phenomena as well as their hazardous effects on human activities and settlements.

  20. Climate change mitigation: comparative assessment of Malaysian and ASEAN scenarios.

    PubMed

    Rasiah, Rajah; Ahmed, Adeel; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Chenayah, Santha

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses empirically the optimal climate change mitigation policy of Malaysia with the business as usual scenario of ASEAN to compare their environmental and economic consequences over the period 2010-2110. A downscaling empirical dynamic model is constructed using a dual multidisciplinary framework combining economic, earth science, and ecological variables to analyse the long-run consequences. The model takes account of climatic variables, including carbon cycle, carbon emission, climatic damage, carbon control, carbon concentration, and temperature. The results indicate that without optimal climate policy and action, the cumulative cost of climate damage for Malaysia and ASEAN as a whole over the period 2010-2110 would be MYR40.1 trillion and MYR151.0 trillion, respectively. Under the optimal policy, the cumulative cost of climatic damage for Malaysia would fall to MYR5.3 trillion over the 100 years. Also, the additional economic output of Malaysia will rise from MYR2.1 billion in 2010 to MYR3.6 billion in 2050 and MYR5.5 billion in 2110 under the optimal climate change mitigation scenario. The additional economic output for ASEAN would fall from MYR8.1 billion in 2010 to MYR3.2 billion in 2050 before rising again slightly to MYR4.7 billion in 2110 in the business as usual ASEAN scenario.

  1. Disease Risk Mitigation: The Equivalence of Two Selective Mixing Strategies on Aggregate Contact Patterns & Resulting Epidemic Spread☆

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Benjamin R; Perrings, Charles; Levin, Simon; Kinzig, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The personal choices affecting the transmission of infectious diseases include the number of contacts an individual makes, and the risk-characteristics of those contacts. We consider whether these different choices have distinct implications for the course of an epidemic. We also consider whether choosing contact mitigation (how much to mix) and affinity mitigation (with whom to mix) strategies together has different epidemiological effects than choosing each separately. We use a set of differential equation compartmental models of the spread of disease, coupled with a model of selective mixing. We assess the consequences of varying contact or affinity mitigation as a response to disease risk. We do this by comparing disease incidence and dynamics under varying contact volume, contact type, and both combined across several different disease models. Specifically, we construct a change of variables that allows one to transition from contact mitigation to affinity mitigation, and vice versa. In the absence of asymptomatic infection we find no difference in the epidemiological impacts of the two forms of disease risk mitigation. Furthermore, since models that include both mitigation strategies are under-determined, varying both results in no outcome that could not be reached by choosing either separately. Which strategy is actually chosen then depends not on their epidemiological consequences, but on the relative cost of reducing contact volume versus altering contact type. Although there is no fundamental epidemiological difference between the two forms of mitigation, the social cost of alternative strategies can be very different. From a social perspective, therefore, whether one strategy should be promoted over another depends on economic not epidemiological factors. PMID:25150459

  2. Disease risk mitigation: the equivalence of two selective mixing strategies on aggregate contact patterns and resulting epidemic spread.

    PubMed

    Morin, Benjamin R; Perrings, Charles; Levin, Simon; Kinzig, Ann

    2014-12-21

    The personal choices affecting the transmission of infectious diseases include the number of contacts an individual makes, and the risk-characteristics of those contacts. We consider whether these different choices have distinct implications for the course of an epidemic. We also consider whether choosing contact mitigation (how much to mix) and affinity mitigation (with whom to mix) strategies together has different epidemiological effects than choosing each separately. We use a set of differential equation compartmental models of the spread of disease, coupled with a model of selective mixing. We assess the consequences of varying contact or affinity mitigation as a response to disease risk. We do this by comparing disease incidence and dynamics under varying contact volume, contact type, and both combined across several different disease models. Specifically, we construct a change of variables that allows one to transition from contact mitigation to affinity mitigation, and vice versa. In the absence of asymptomatic infection we find no difference in the epidemiological impacts of the two forms of disease risk mitigation. Furthermore, since models that include both mitigation strategies are underdetermined, varying both results in no outcome that could not be reached by choosing either separately. Which strategy is actually chosen then depends not on their epidemiological consequences, but on the relative cost of reducing contact volume versus altering contact type. Although there is no fundamental epidemiological difference between the two forms of mitigation, the social cost of alternative strategies can be very different. From a social perspective, therefore, whether one strategy should be promoted over another depends on economic not epidemiological factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Accounting for vulnerable populations in rural hazard mitigation plans: results of a survey of emergency managers.

    PubMed

    Horney, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Mai; Cooper, John; Simon, Matthew; Ricchetti-Masterson, Kristen; Grabich, Shannon; Salvesen, David; Berke, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States are uniquely vulnerable to the impacts of natural disasters. One possible way to mitigate vulnerability to disasters in rural communities is to have a high-quality hazard mitigation plan in place. To understand the resources available for hazard mitigation planning and determine how well hazard mitigation plans in rural counties meet the needs of vulnerable populations, we surveyed the lead planning or emergency management official responsible for hazard mitigation plans in 96 rural counties in eight states in the Southeastern United States. In most counties, emergency management was responsible for implementing the county's hazard mitigation plan and the majority of counties had experienced a presidentially declared disaster in the last 5 years. Our research findings demonstrated that there were differences in subjective measures of vulnerability (as reported by survey respondents) and objective measures of vulnerability (as determined by US Census data). In addition, although few counties surveyed included outreach to vulnerable groups as a part of their hazard mitigation planning process, a majority felt that their hazard mitigation plan addressed the needs of vulnerable populations "well" or "very well." These differences could result in increased vulnerabilities in rural areas, particularly for certain vulnerable groups.

  4. Ancillary human health benefits of improved air quality resulting from climate change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L; Davis, Devra L; Cifuentes, Luis A; Krupnick, Alan J; Morgenstern, Richard D; Thurston, George D

    2008-07-31

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies can provide ancillary benefits in terms of short-term improvements in air quality and associated health benefits. Several studies have analyzed the ancillary impacts of GHG policies for a variety of locations, pollutants, and policies. In this paper we review the existing evidence on ancillary health benefits relating to air pollution from various GHG strategies and provide a framework for such analysis. We evaluate techniques used in different stages of such research for estimation of: (1) changes in air pollutant concentrations; (2) avoided adverse health endpoints; and (3) economic valuation of health consequences. The limitations and merits of various methods are examined. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for ancillary benefits analysis and related research gaps in the relevant disciplines. We found that to date most assessments have focused their analysis more heavily on one aspect of the framework (e.g., economic analysis). While a wide range of methods was applied to various policies and regions, results from multiple studies provide strong evidence that the short-term public health and economic benefits of ancillary benefits related to GHG mitigation strategies are substantial. Further, results of these analyses are likely to be underestimates because there are a number of important unquantified health and economic endpoints. Remaining challenges include integrating the understanding of the relative toxicity of particulate matter by components or sources, developing better estimates of public health and environmental impacts on selected sub-populations, and devising new methods for evaluating heretofore unquantified and non-monetized benefits.

  5. Assessing Flood Mitigation Alternatives in Brezovička Village in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvijáková, Lenka; Zeleňáková, Martina

    2013-06-01

    Flooding due to extreme rain events in urban environments is a problem and a growing concern. There is an increasing demand for a new paradigm to improve flood-mitigation decision processes that calls for riskreduction strategies at several levels. Therefore is a challenge in assessing and comparing different flood mitigation measures. The aim of this paper is to explore a new method to improve an environmental impact assessment of flood-mitigation measures in decision processes by risk analysis method.

  6. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Today`s notice announces BPA`s proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA`s obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  7. Current issues in dietary acrylamide: formation, mitigation and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pedreschi, Franco; Mariotti, María Salomé; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-15

    Acrylamide (AA) is known as a neurotoxin in humans and it is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency of Research on Cancer. AA is produced as by-product of the Maillard reaction in starchy foods processed at high temperatures (>120 °C). This review includes the investigation of AA precursors, mechanisms of AA formation and AA mitigation technologies in potato, cereal and coffee products. Additionally, most relevant issues of AA risk assessment are discussed. New technologies tested from laboratory to industrial scale face, as a major challenge, the reduction of AA content of browned food, while still maintaining its attractive organoleptic properties. Reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose are the major contributors to AA in potato-based products. On the other hand, the limiting substrate of AA formation in cereals and coffee is the free amino acid asparagine. For some products the addition of glycine or asparaginase reduces AA formation during baking. Since, for potatoes, the limiting substrate is reducing sugars, increases in sugar content in potatoes during storage then introduce some difficulties and potentially quite large variations in the AA content of the final product. Sugars in potatoes may be reduced by blanching. Levels of AA in different foods show large variations and no general upper limit is easily applicable, since some formation will always occur. Current policy is that practical measures should be taken voluntarily to reduce AA formation in vulnerable foods since AA is considered a health risk at the concentrations found in foods.

  8. Assessing Debris Mitigation Efficiency Using Risk-Oriented Criteria: Application to LEO European Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Thibault; Destefanis, Roberto; Evans, Leanne; Grassi, Lilith; Kempf, Scott; Schaefer, Frank; Donath, Therese

    2013-08-01

    This paper addresses the first results of the application of a generic methodology developed to assess the risk of space missions due to the threat of space debris. This work is performed as part of the 30 months P²-ROTECT project (Prediction, Protection & Reduction of OrbiTal Exposure to Collision Threats) that was initiated in March 2011 within the EU seventh framework programme. The method is briefly presented through the vulnerability assessment of the mission of a "SENTINEL-1 type" sub system. Different mitigation scenarios are considered and their efficiencies quantified using the risk-oriented criteria. Numerical results are presented and analysed to illustrate the proposed approach.

  9. Northeast Oregon Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribe

    1996-08-01

    Development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin has had far-reaching effects on many species of wildlife. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the Federal portion of this system, as allocated to the purpose of power production. BPA needs to mitigate for loss of wildlife habitat in the Snake River Subbasin.

  10. Stream Assessment and Mitigation Protocols: A Review of Commonalities and Differences

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Various stream assessment and stream mitigation protocols in use by federal and state agencies nationwide were compiled and evaluated to determine the degree to which they presented unique, comprehensive procedures to assess stream and riparian functions.

  11. Assessment and mitigation of DNA loss utilizing centrifugal filtration devices.

    PubMed

    Doran, Ashley E; Foran, David R

    2014-11-01

    Maximizing DNA recovery during its isolation can be vital in forensic casework, particularly when DNA yields are expected to be low, such as from touch samples. Many forensic laboratories utilize centrifugal filtration devices to purify and concentrate the DNA; however, DNA loss has been reported when using them. In this study, all centrifugal filtration devices tested caused substantial DNA loss, affecting low molecular weight DNA (PCR product) somewhat more than high molecular weight DNA. Strategies for mitigating DNA loss were then examined, including pre-treatment with glucose, glycogen, silicone (RainX(®)), bovine serum albumin, yeast RNA, or high molecular weight DNA. The length of pre-treatment and UV irradiation of pre-treatment reagents were also investigated. Pre-treatments with glucose and glycogen resulted in little or no improvement in DNA recovery, and most or all DNA was lost after silicone pre-treatment. Devices pre-treated with BSA produced irregular and uninterpretable quantitative PCR amplification curves for the DNA and internal PCR control. On the other hand, nucleic acid pre-treatments greatly improved recovery of all DNAs. Pre-treatment time and its UV irradiation did not influence DNA recovery. Overall, the results show that centrifugal filtration devices trap DNA, yet their proper pre-treatment can circumvent that loss, which is critical in the case of low copy forensic DNA samples.

  12. Mitigation of elevated indoor radon gas resulting from underground air return usage.

    PubMed

    Kearfott, K J; Metzger, R L; Kraft, K R; Holbert, K E

    1992-12-01

    Underground air returns have been found to be active transportation pathways for radon gas entry into homes. Several homes for which underground air returns were contributing to elevated indoor 222Rn concentrations were evaluated for possible mitigation. Two houses with such problems were successfully mitigated by inserting flexible ducts into the returns. In one of these houses, the initial mitigation attempt resulted in an exacerbation of the problem due to leakage of the ducting. This was solved by re-sleeving the returns using a stronger material. Mitigation of elevated indoor radon gas caused by use of underground air returns by inserting flexible ducts is not possible for all situations, especially those for which the returns are small, filled with debris, misaligned, or inaccessible.

  13. Mapping of soil organic carbon stocks for spatially explicit assessments of climate change mitigation potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vågen, Tor-Gunnar; Winowiecki, Leigh A.

    2013-03-01

    Current methods for assessing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are generally not well suited for understanding variations in SOC stocks in landscapes. This is due to the tedious and time-consuming nature of the sampling methods most commonly used to collect bulk density cores, which limits repeatability across large areas, particularly where information is needed on the spatial dynamics of SOC stocks at scales relevant to management and for spatially explicit targeting of climate change mitigation options. In the current study, approaches were explored for (i) field-based estimates of SOC stocks and (ii) mapping of SOC stocks at moderate to high resolution on the basis of data from four widely contrasting ecosystems in East Africa. Estimated SOC stocks for 0-30 cm depth varied both within and between sites, with site averages ranging from 2 to 8 kg m-2. The differences in SOC stocks were determined in part by rainfall, but more importantly by sand content. Results also indicate that managing soil erosion is a key strategy for reducing SOC loss and hence in mitigation of climate change in these landscapes. Further, maps were developed on the basis of satellite image reflectance data with multiple R-squared values of 0.65 for the independent validation data set, showing variations in SOC stocks across these landscapes. These maps allow for spatially explicit targeting of potential climate change mitigation efforts through soil carbon sequestration, which is one option for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Further, the maps can be used to monitor the impacts of such mitigation efforts over time.

  14. Ancillary human health benefits of improved air quality resulting from climate change mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L; Davis, Devra L; Cifuentes, Luis A; Krupnick, Alan J; Morgenstern, Richard D; Thurston, George D

    2008-01-01

    Background Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies can provide ancillary benefits in terms of short-term improvements in air quality and associated health benefits. Several studies have analyzed the ancillary impacts of GHG policies for a variety of locations, pollutants, and policies. In this paper we review the existing evidence on ancillary health benefits relating to air pollution from various GHG strategies and provide a framework for such analysis. Methods We evaluate techniques used in different stages of such research for estimation of: (1) changes in air pollutant concentrations; (2) avoided adverse health endpoints; and (3) economic valuation of health consequences. The limitations and merits of various methods are examined. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for ancillary benefits analysis and related research gaps in the relevant disciplines. Results We found that to date most assessments have focused their analysis more heavily on one aspect of the framework (e.g., economic analysis). While a wide range of methods was applied to various policies and regions, results from multiple studies provide strong evidence that the short-term public health and economic benefits of ancillary benefits related to GHG mitigation strategies are substantial. Further, results of these analyses are likely to be underestimates because there are a number of important unquantified health and economic endpoints. Conclusion Remaining challenges include integrating the understanding of the relative toxicity of particulate matter by components or sources, developing better estimates of public health and environmental impacts on selected sub-populations, and devising new methods for evaluating heretofore unquantified and non-monetized benefits. PMID:18671873

  15. A multi-model assessment of the co-benefits of climate mitigation for global air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Shilpa; Klimont, Zbigniew; Leitao, Joana; Riahi, Keywan; van Dingenen, Rita; Aleluia Reis, Lara; Calvin, Katherine; Dentener, Frank; Drouet, Laurent; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harmsen, Mathijs; Luderer, Gunnar; Heyes, Chris; Strefler, Jessica; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-12-01

    We present a model comparison study that combines multiple integrated assessment models with a reduced-form global air quality model to assess the potential co-benefits of global climate mitigation policies in relation to the World Health Organization (WHO) goals on air quality and health. We include in our assessment, a range of alternative assumptions on the implementation of current and planned pollution control policies. The resulting air pollution emission ranges significantly extend those in the Representative Concentration Pathways. Climate mitigation policies complement current efforts on air pollution control through technology and fuel transformations in the energy system. A combination of stringent policies on air pollution control and climate change mitigation results in 40% of the global population exposed to PM levels below the WHO air quality guideline; with the largest improvements estimated for India, China, and Middle East. Our results stress the importance of integrated multisector policy approaches to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

  16. Meteorological Hazard Assessment and Risk Mitigation in Rwanda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nduwayezu, Emmanuel; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Bugnon, Pierre-Charles; Nsengiyumva, Jean-Baptiste; Horton, Pascal; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2015-04-01

    Between 10 and 13 April 2012, heavy rains hit sectors adjacent to the Vulcanoes National Park (Musanze District in the Northern Province and Nyabihu and Rubavu Districts in the Western Province of RWANDA), causing floods that affected about 11,000 persons. Flooding caused deaths and injuries among the affected population, and extensive damage to houses and properties. 348 houses were destroyed and 446 were partially damaged or have been underwater for several days. Families were forced to leave their flooded homes and seek temporal accommodation with their neighbors, often in overcrowded places. Along the West-northern border of RWANDA, Virunga mountain range consists of 6 major volcanoes. Mount Karisimbi is the highest volcano at 4507m. The oldest mountain is mount Sabyinyo which rises 3634m. The hydraulic network in Musanze District is formed by temporary torrents and permanent watercourses. Torrents surge during strong storms, and are provoked by water coming downhill from the volcanoes, some 20 km away. This area is periodically affected by flooding and landslides because of heavy rain (Rwanda has 2 rainy seasons from February to April and from September to November each year in general and 2 dry seasons) striking the Volcano National Park. Rain water creates big water channels (in already known torrents or new ones) that impact communities, agricultural soils and crop yields. This project aims at identifying hazardous and risky areas by producing susceptibility maps for floods, debris flow and landslides over this sector. Susceptibility maps are being drawn using field observations, during and after the 2012 events, and an empirical model of propagation for regional susceptibility assessments of debris flows (Flow-R). Input data are 10m and 30m resolution DEMs, satellite images, hydrographic network, and some information on geological substratum and soil occupation. Combining susceptibility maps with infrastructures, houses and population density maps will be

  17. A systematic review of financial and economic assessments of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) prevention and mitigation activities worldwide.

    PubMed

    Pinior, Beate; Firth, Clair L; Richter, Veronika; Lebl, Karin; Trauffler, Martine; Dzieciol, Monika; Hutter, Sabine E; Burgstaller, Johann; Obritzhauser, Walter; Winter, Petra; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2017-02-01

    Infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in major economic losses either directly through decreased productive performance in cattle herds or indirectly, such as through expenses for control programs. The aim of this systematic review was to review financial and/or economic assessment studies of prevention and/or mitigation activities of BVDV at national, regional and farm level worldwide. Once all predefined criteria had been met, 35 articles were included for this systematic review. Studies were analyzed with particular focus on the type of financially and/or economically-assessed prevention and/or mitigation activities. Due to the wide range of possible prevention and/or mitigation activities, these activities were grouped into five categories: i) control and/or eradication programs, ii) monitoring or surveillance, iii) prevention, iv) vaccination and v) individual culling, control and testing strategies. Additionally, the studies were analyzed according to economically-related variables such as efficiency, costs or benefits of prevention and/or mitigation activities, the applied financial and/or economic and statistical methods, the payers of prevention and/or mitigation activities, the assessed production systems, and the countries for which such evaluations are available. Financial and/or economic assessments performed in Europe were dominated by those from the United Kingdom, which assessed mostly vaccination strategies, and Norway which primarily carried out assessments in the area of control and eradication programs; whereas among non-European countries the United States carried out the majority of financial and/or economic assessments in the area of individual culling, control and testing. More than half of all studies provided an efficiency calculation of prevention and/or mitigation activities and demonstrated whether the inherent costs of implemented activities were or were not justified. The dairy sector was three times more likely to

  18. Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

    2009-04-01

    Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although

  19. Improved representation of investment decisions in assessments of CO2 mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Gokul C.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Flannery, Brian P.; Hultman, Nathan E.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Victor, David G.

    2015-05-01

    Assessments of emissions mitigation patterns have largely ignored the huge variation in real-world factors--in particular, institutions--that affect where, how and at what costs firms deploy capital. We investigate one such factor--how national institutions affect investment risks and thus the cost of financing. We use an integrated assessment model (IAM; ref. ) to represent the variation in investment risks across technologies and regions in the electricity generation sector--a pivotally important sector in most assessments of climate change mitigation--and compute the impact on the magnitude and distribution of mitigation costs. This modified representation of investment risks has two major effects. First, achieving an emissions mitigation goal is more expensive than it would be in a world with uniform investment risks. Second, industrialized countries mitigate more, and developing countries mitigate less. Here, we introduce a new front in the research on how real-world factors influence climate mitigation. We also suggest that institutional reforms aimed at lowering investment risks could be an important element of cost-effective climate mitigation strategies.

  20. Assessment of management to mitigate anthropogenic effects on large whales.

    PubMed

    Van der Hoop, Julie M; Moore, Michael J; Barco, Susan G; Cole, Timothy V N; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Henry, Allison G; McAlpine, Donald F; McLellan, William A; Wimmer, Tonya; Solow, Andrew R

    2013-02-01

    United States and Canadian governments have responded to legal requirements to reduce human-induced whale mortality via vessel strikes and entanglement in fishing gear by implementing a suite of regulatory actions. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of mortality of large whales in the Northwest Atlantic (23.5°N to 48.0°N), 1970 through 2009, in the context of management changes. We used a multinomial logistic model fitted by maximum likelihood to detect trends in cause-specific mortalities with time. We compared the number of human-caused mortalities with U.S. federally established levels of potential biological removal (i.e., species-specific sustainable human-caused mortality). From 1970 through 2009, 1762 mortalities (all known) and serious injuries (likely fatal) involved 8 species of large whales. We determined cause of death for 43% of all mortalities; of those, 67% (502) resulted from human interactions. Entanglement in fishing gear was the primary cause of death across all species (n = 323), followed by natural causes (n = 248) and vessel strikes (n = 171). Established sustainable levels of mortality were consistently exceeded in 2 species by up to 650%. Probabilities of entanglement and vessel-strike mortality increased significantly from 1990 through 2009. There was no significant change in the local intensity of all or vessel-strike mortalities before and after 2003, the year after which numerous mitigation efforts were enacted. So far, regulatory efforts have not reduced the lethal effects of human activities to large whales on a population-range basis, although we do not exclude the possibility of success of targeted measures for specific local habitats that were not within the resolution of our analyses. It is unclear how shortfalls in management design or compliance relate to our findings. Analyses such as the one we conducted are crucial in critically evaluating wildlife-management decisions. The results of these analyses can provide

  1. An assessment of potential hydrologic and ecologic impacts of constructing mitigation wetlands, Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA project sites

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This-assessment examines the consequences and risks that could result from the proposed construction of mitigation wetlands at the New and Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites near Rifle, Colorado. Remediation of surface contamination at those sites is now under way. Preexisting wetlands at or near the Old and New Rifle sites have been cleaned up, resulting in the loss of 0.7 and 10.5 wetland acres (ac) (0.28 and 4.2 hectares [ha]) respectively. Another 9.9 ac (4.0 ha) of wetlands are in the area of windblown contamination west of the New Rifle site. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has jurisdiction over the remediated wetlands. Before remedial action began, and before any wetlands were eliminated, the USACE issued a Section 404 Permit that included a mitigation plan for the wetlands to be lost. The mitigation plan calls for 34.2 ac (1 3.8 ha) of wetlands to be constructed at the south end and to the west of the New Rifle site. The mitigation wetlands would be constructed over and in the contaminated alluvial aquifer at the New Rifle site. As a result of the hydrologic characteristics of this aquifer, contaminated ground water would be expected to enter the environment through the proposed wetlands. A preliminary assessment was therefore required to assess any potential ecological risks associated with constructing the mitigation wetlands at the proposed location.

  2. Regional climate change mitigation with crops: context and assessment.

    PubMed

    Singarayer, J S; Davies-Barnard, T

    2012-09-13

    The intention of this review is to place crop albedo biogeoengineering in the wider picture of climate manipulation. Crop biogeoengineering is considered within the context of the long-term modification of the land surface for agriculture over several thousand years. Biogeoengineering is also critiqued in relation to other geoengineering schemes in terms of mitigation power and adherence to social principles for geoengineering. Although its impact is small and regional, crop biogeoengineering could be a useful and inexpensive component of an ensemble of geoengineering schemes to provide temperature mitigation. The method should not detrimentally affect food security and there may even be positive impacts on crop productivity, although more laboratory and field research is required in this area to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  3. EPA Releases Technical Guides to Support Vapor Intrusion Assessment and Mitigation Activities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON -- Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released two technical guides to support assessment and mitigation activities at sites where vapor intrusion is an actual or potential concern.

  4. Comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) - Description and instruction manual

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy; Sathaye, Jayant

    2001-11-09

    In order to prepare policies and plans to reduce GHG emissions, national policy-makers need information on the costs and benefits of different mitigation options in addition to their carbon implications. Policy-makers must weigh the costs, benefits, and impacts of climate change mitigation and adaptation options, in the face of competition for limited resources. The policy goal for mitigation options in the land use sector is to identify which mix of options is likely to best achieve the desired forestry service and production objectives at the least cost, while attempting to maximize economic and social benefits, and minimize negative environmental and social impacts. Improved national-level cost estimates of response options in the land use sector can be generated by estimating the costs and benefits of different forest management practices appropriate for specific country conditions which can be undertaken within the constraint of land availability and its opportunity cost. These co st and land use estimates can be combined to develop cost curves, which would assist policy-makers in constructing policies and programs to implement forest responses.

  5. NPH Risk Assessment and Mitigation of a SRS Facility for the Safe Storage of Tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.; Griffin, M.J.; Bjorkman, G.S.

    1995-10-18

    Because of the reduction in the nation`s stockpile of weapon systems a large amount of tritium is being returned to the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Due to the increased quantity of tritium returning to SRS, the SRS Tritium Facility was tasked to determine the most cost effective means to safely store the tritium gas in a short period of time. This paper presents results of the risk assessment developed to evaluate the safe storage of tritium at SRS, and highlights the structural design of the HIVES used as the cost-effective short term NPH mitigation solution.

  6. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  7. Assessment of indirect losses and costs of emergency for project planning of alpine hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenda, Lisa; Pfurtscheller, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    By virtue of augmented settling in hazardous areas and increased asset values, natural disasters such as floods, landslides and rockfalls cause high economic losses in Alpine lateral valleys. Especially in small municipalities, indirect losses, mainly stemming from a breakdown of transport networks, and costs of emergency can reach critical levels. A quantification of these losses is necessary to estimate the worthiness of mitigation measures, to determine the appropriate level of disaster assistance and to improve risk management strategies. There are comprehensive approaches available for assessing direct losses. However, indirect losses and costs of emergency are widely not assessed and the empirical basis for estimating these costs is weak. To address the resulting uncertainties of project appraisals, a standardized methodology has been developed dealing with issues of local economic effects and emergency efforts needed. In our approach, the cost-benefit-analysis for technical mitigation of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control (TAC) will be optimized and extended using the 2005-debris flow as a design event, which struggled a small town in the upper Inn valley in southwest Tyrol (Austria). Thereby, 84 buildings were affected, 430 people were evacuated and due to this, the TAC implemented protection measures for 3.75 million Euros. Upgrading the method of the TAC and analyzing to what extent the cost-benefit-ratio is about to change, is one of the main objectives of this study. For estimating short-run indirect effects and costs of emergency on the local level, data was collected via questionnaires, field mapping, guided interviews, as well as intense literature research. According to this, up-to-date calculation methods were evolved and the cost-benefit-analysis of TAC was recalculated with these new-implemented results. The cost-benefit-ratio will be more precise and specific and hence, the decision, which mitigation alternative will be carried out

  8. Identifying and Mitigating Industrial Base Risk for the DoD: Results of a Pilot Study: Sector-by-Sector, Tier-by-Tier(S2T2) Fragility and Criticality Assessments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    DASD (MIBP) – Elana Broitman PD (MIBP) – vacant USD (AT&L) PDUSD (AT&L) Secretary of Defense Deputy Secretary of Defense Assessments...Procurement RDT& E Total Investment Will Warfighter Get Support When Needed? Capitalism: Markets will right-size based on demand Companies enter when it is...Rev Date 01NOV2013 Rating a b c d e Technology, part. Criticality = Characteristics that make a specific product or service difficult to replace if

  9. Linking Physical Climate Research and Economic Assessments of Mitigation Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stainforth, David; Calel, Raphael

    2017-04-01

    Evaluating climate change policies requires economic assessments which balance the costs and benefits of climate action. A certain class of Integrated Assessment Models (IAMS) are widely used for this type of analysis; DICE, PAGE and FUND are three of the most influential. In the economics community there has been much discussion and debate about the economic assumptions implemented within these models. Two aspects in particular have gained much attention: i) the costs of damages resulting from climate change - the so-called damage function, and ii) the choice of discount rate applied to future costs and benefits. There has, however, been rather little attention given to the consequences of the choices made in the physical climate models within these IAMS. Here we discuss the practical aspects of the implementation of the physical models in these IAMS, as well as the implications of choices made in these physical science components for economic assessments[1]. We present a simple breakdown of how these IAMS differently represent the climate system as a consequence of differing underlying physical models, different parametric assumptions (for parameters representing, for instance, feedbacks and ocean heat uptake) and different numerical approaches to solving the models. We present the physical and economic consequences of these differences and reflect on how we might better incorporate the latest physical science understanding in economic models of this type. [1] Calel, R. and Stainforth D.A., "On the Physics of Three Integrated Assessment Models", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, in press.

  10. Evaluation of impacts and mitigation assessments for the UMTRA Project: Gunnison and Durango pilot studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beranich, S.J.

    1994-08-24

    This report evaluates the impacts assessment and proposed mitigations provided in environmental documents concerning the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The projected impacts and proposed mitigations identified in UMTRA Project environmental documents were evaluated for two UMTRA Project sites. These sites are Gunnison and Durango, which are representative of currently active and inactive UMTRA Project sites, respectively. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation was prepared for the remedial action at Durango and Gunnison as well as for the provision of an alternate water supply system at Gunnison. Additionally, environmental analysis was completed for mill site demolition Gunnison, and for a new road related to the Durango remedial action. The results in this report pertain only to the impact assessments prepared by the Regulatory Compliance staff as a part of the NEPA compliance requirements. Similarly, the mitigative measures documented are those that were identified during the NEPA process.

  11. Assessment, Planning, and Execution Considerations for Conjunction Risk Assessment and Mitigation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigm, Ryan C.; Levi, Joshua A.; Mantziaras, Dimitrios C.

    2010-01-01

    An operational Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) concept is the real-time process of assessing risk posed by close approaches and reacting to those risks if necessary. The most effective way to completely mitigate conjunction risk is to perform an avoidance maneuver. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has implemented a routine CARA process since 2005. Over this period, considerable experience has been gained and many lessons have been learned. This paper identifies and presents these experiences as general concepts in the description of the Conjunction Assessment, Flight Dynamics, and Flight Operations methodologies and processes. These general concepts will be tied together and will be exemplified through a case study of an actual high risk conjunction event for the Aura mission.

  12. Assessing existing drought monitoring and forecasting capacities, mitigation and adaptation practices in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyabeze, W. R.; Dlamini, L.; Lahlou, O.; Imani, Y.; Alaoui, S. B.; Vermooten, J. S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Drought is one of the major natural hazards in many parts of the world, including Africa and some regions in Europe. Drought events have resulted in extensive damages to livelihoods, environment and economy. In 2011, a consortium consisting of 19 organisations from both Africa and Europe started a project (DEWFORA) aimed at developing a framework for the provision of early warning and response through drought impact mitigation for Africa. This framework covers the whole chain from monitoring and vulnerability assessment to forecasting, warning, response and knowledge dissemination. This paper presents the first results of the capacity assessment of drought monitoring and forecasting systems in Africa, the existing institutional frameworks and drought mitigation and adaptation practices. Its focus is particularly on the historical drought mitigation and adaptation actions identified in the North Africa - Maghreb Region (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. This is based on an extensive review of historical drought experiences. From the 1920's to 2009, the study identified 37 drought seasons in the North African - Maghreb Region and 33 drought seasons in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. Existing literature tends to capture the spatial extent of drought at national and administrative scale in great detail. This is driven by the need to map drought impacts (food shortage, communities affected) in order to inform drought relief efforts (short-term drought mitigation measures). However, the mapping of drought at catchment scale (hydrological unit), required for longer-term measures, is not well documented. At regional level, both in North Africa and Southern Africa, two organisations are involved in drought monitoring and forecasting, while at national level 22 organisations are involved in North Africa and 37 in Southern Africa. Regarding drought related mitigation actions, the inventory shows that the most common actions

  13. Aquarius RFI Detection and Mitigation Algorithm: Assessment and Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, David M.; De Matthaeis, P.; Ruf, Christopher S.; Chen, D. D.

    2013-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band radiometer system designed to map sea surface salinity from space. This is a sensitive measurement, and protection from radio frequency interference (RFI) is important for success. An initial look at the performance of the Aquarius RFI detection and mitigation algorithm is reported together with examples of the global distribution of RFI at the L-band. To protect against RFI, Aquarius employs rapid sampling (10 ms) and a "glitch" detection algorithm that looks for outliers among the samples. Samples identified as RFI are removed, and the remainder is averaged to produce an RFI-free signal for the salinity retrieval algorithm. The RFI detection algorithm appears to work well over the ocean with modest rates for false alarms (5%) and missed detection. The global distribution of RFI coincides well with population centers and is consistent with observations reported by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission.

  14. Aquarius RFI Detection and Mitigation Algorithm: Assessment and Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, David M.; De Matthaeis, P.; Ruf, Christopher S.; Chen, D. D.

    2013-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band radiometer system designed to map sea surface salinity from space. This is a sensitive measurement, and protection from radio frequency interference (RFI) is important for success. An initial look at the performance of the Aquarius RFI detection and mitigation algorithm is reported together with examples of the global distribution of RFI at the L-band. To protect against RFI, Aquarius employs rapid sampling (10 ms) and a "glitch" detection algorithm that looks for outliers among the samples. Samples identified as RFI are removed, and the remainder is averaged to produce an RFI-free signal for the salinity retrieval algorithm. The RFI detection algorithm appears to work well over the ocean with modest rates for false alarms (5%) and missed detection. The global distribution of RFI coincides well with population centers and is consistent with observations reported by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission.

  15. Assessment of Management to Mitigate Anthropogenic Effects on Large Whales

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Hoop, Julie M; Moore, Michael J; Barco, Susan G; Cole, Timothy VN; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Henry, Allison G; McAlpine, Donald F; McLellan, William A; Wimmer, Tonya; Solow, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract United States and Canadian governments have responded to legal requirements to reduce human-induced whale mortality via vessel strikes and entanglement in fishing gear by implementing a suite of regulatory actions. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of mortality of large whales in the Northwest Atlantic (23.5°N to 48.0°N), 1970 through 2009, in the context of management changes. We used a multinomial logistic model fitted by maximum likelihood to detect trends in cause-specific mortalities with time. We compared the number of human-caused mortalities with U.S. federally established levels of potential biological removal (i.e., species-specific sustainable human-caused mortality). From 1970 through 2009, 1762 mortalities (all known) and serious injuries (likely fatal) involved 8 species of large whales. We determined cause of death for 43% of all mortalities; of those, 67% (502) resulted from human interactions. Entanglement in fishing gear was the primary cause of death across all species (n = 323), followed by natural causes (n = 248) and vessel strikes (n = 171). Established sustainable levels of mortality were consistently exceeded in 2 species by up to 650%. Probabilities of entanglement and vessel-strike mortality increased significantly from 1990 through 2009. There was no significant change in the local intensity of all or vessel-strike mortalities before and after 2003, the year after which numerous mitigation efforts were enacted. So far, regulatory efforts have not reduced the lethal effects of human activities to large whales on a population-range basis, although we do not exclude the possibility of success of targeted measures for specific local habitats that were not within the resolution of our analyses. It is unclear how shortfalls in management design or compliance relate to our findings. Analyses such as the one we conducted are crucial in critically evaluating wildlife-management decisions. The results of these analyses can

  16. Post-mitigation impact risk assessment for NASA's DART kinetic impactor mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Hestroffer, Daniel; DART, AIM

    2016-10-01

    Field-testing kinetic impactors to deflect potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) is essential to better understand the challenges of future asteroid impact threat mitigation. The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission (AIDA, Cheng et al. 2016), a collaborative effort between NASA and ESA, offers a timely opportunity to validate kinetic impact deflection strategies. Although the main goal of NASA's kinetic impactor (DART) is to change the circumprimary orbit of (65803) Didymos' moonlet, the imparted momentum will also slightly change the heliocentric orbit of the whole binary asteroid system. Given the high degree of non-linearity of the near-Earth dynamical environment, however, even a small change in initial conditions can affect long term predictions of the encounter distances between Didymos and the Earth. Belonging to the dynamical class of PHAs, (65803) Didymos has several encounters with the Earth over the upcoming decades, some of which are closer than 20 lunar distances. In order to confirm that no planetary safety issues arise as a consequence of DART, we conducted a post-mitigation impact risk assessment (PMIRA, Eggl et al. 2015) for the currently foreseen DART impact trajectories. In this contribution we present the latest PMIRA results and discuss the role of ESA's AIM spacecraft in reducing uncertainties arising in the deflection process.

  17. Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Using a Systems Analysis Approach to Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, M.; Eguchi, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    The earthquake hazard mitigation goal is to reduce losses due to severe natural events. The first step is to conduct a Seismic Risk Assessment consisting of 1) hazard estimation, 2) vulnerability analysis, 3) exposure compilation. Seismic hazards include ground deformation, shaking, and inundation. The hazard estimation may be probabilistic or deterministic. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) is generally applied to site-specific Risk assessments, but may involve large areas as in a National Seismic Hazard Mapping program. Deterministic hazard assessments are needed for geographically distributed exposure such as lifelines (infrastructure), but may be important for large communities. Vulnerability evaluation includes quantification of fragility for construction or components including personnel. Exposure represents the existing or planned construction, facilities, infrastructure, and population in the affected area. Risk (expected loss) is the product of the quantified hazard, vulnerability (damage algorithm), and exposure which may be used to prepare emergency response plans, retrofit existing construction, or use community planning to avoid hazards. The risk estimate provides data needed to acquire earthquake insurance to assist with effective recovery following a severe event. Earthquake Scenarios used in Deterministic Risk Assessments provide detailed information on where hazards may be most severe, what system components are most susceptible to failure, and to evaluate the combined effects of a severe earthquake to the whole system or community. Casualties (injuries and death) have been the primary factor in defining building codes for seismic-resistant construction. Economic losses may be equally significant factors that can influence proactive hazard mitigation. Large urban earthquakes may produce catastrophic losses due to a cascading of effects often missed in PSHA. Economic collapse may ensue if damaged workplaces, disruption of utilities, and

  18. Agrochemical spray drift; assessment and mitigation--a review.

    PubMed

    Felsot, Allan S; Unsworth, John B; Linders, Jan B H J; Roberts, Graham; Rautman, Dirk; Harris, Caroline; Carazo, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    During application of agrochemicals spray droplets can drift beyond the intended target to non-target receptors, including water, plants and animals. Factors affecting this spray drift include mode of application, droplet size, which can be modified by the nozzle types, formulation adjuvants, wind direction, wind speed, air stability, relative humidity, temperature and height of released spray relative to the crop canopy. The rate of fall of spray droplets depends upon the size of the droplets but is modified by entrainment in a mobile air mass and is also influenced by the rate of evaporation of the liquid constituting the aerosol. The longer the aerosol remains in the air before falling to the ground (or alternatively striking an object above ground) the greater the opportunity for it to be carried away from its intended target. In general, all size classes of droplets are capable of movement off target, but the smallest are likely to move the farthest before depositing on the ground or a non-target receptor. It is not possible to avoid spray drift completely but it can be minimized by using best-management practices. These include using appropriate nozzle types, shields, spray pressure, volumes per area sprayed, tractor speed and only spraying when climatic conditions are suitable. Field layout can also influence spray drift, whilst crop-free and spray-free buffer zones and windbreak crops can also have a mitigating effect. Various models are available to estimate the environmental exposure from spray drift at the time of application.

  19. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37 % of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90 %) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  20. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects.

    PubMed

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37% of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90%) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  1. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century - Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J.; Clarke, L.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E.; Chaturvedi, V.; Eom, J.; Wise, M.; Patel, P.; Calvin, K.

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity both globally and regionally using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. Three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W m-2 in year 2095 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), under two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The results are compared to a baseline scenario (i.e. no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m-2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) by 2095. When compared to the baseline scenario and maintaining the same baseline socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy but increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 particularly with more stringent climate mitigation targets. The decreasing trend with UCT policy stringency is due to substitution from more water-intensive to less water-intensive choices in food and energy production, and in land use. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops. This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water availability in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change. Future research will be directed at incorporating water shortage feedbacks in GCAM to better understand how such stresses will propagate across the various human and natural systems in GCAM.

  2. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century - Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity both globally and regionally using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. Three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W/m2 in year 2095 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), under two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The results are compared to a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) by 2095. When compared to the baseline scenario and maintaining the same baseline underlying socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy while increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 with more stringent climate mitigation targets. The decreasing trend with UCT policy stringency is due to substitution from more water-intensive to less water-intensive choices in food, energy, and land use. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops. This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water availability in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change. Future research will be directed at incorporating water shortage feedbacks in GCAM to better understand how such stresses will propagate across the various human and natural systems in GCAM.

  3. Personalized Assessment as a Means to Mitigate Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoharan, Sathiamoorthy

    2017-01-01

    Although every educational institution has a code of academic honesty, they still encounter incidents of plagiarism. These are difficult and time-consuming to detect and deal with. This paper explores the use of personalized assessments with the goal of reducing incidents of plagiarism, proposing a personalized assessment software framework…

  4. Dissemination of well water arsenic results to homeowners in Central Maine: influences on mitigation behavior and continued risks for exposure.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Sara V; Marvinney, Robert G; Johnston, Robert A; Yang, Qiang; Zheng, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Private wells in the United States are unregulated for drinking water standards and are the homeowner's responsibility to test and treat. Testing for water quality parameters such as arsenic (As) is a crucial first step for homeowners to take protective actions. This study seeks to identify key behavioral factors influencing homeowners' decisions to take action after receiving well As test results. A January 2013 survey of central Maine households (n=386, 73% response) who were notified 3-7 years earlier that their well water contained As above 10 μg/L found that 43% of households report installing As treatment systems. Another 30% report taking other mitigation actions such as drinking bottled water because of the As, but the remaining 27% of households did not act. Well water As level appears to be a motivation for mitigation: 31% of households with well water level between 10 and 50 μg/L did not act, compared to 11% of households with well water >50 μg/L. The belief that the untreated water is not safe to drink (risk) and that reducing drinking water As would increase home value (instrumental attitude) were identified as significant predictors of mitigating As. Mitigating As exposure is associated with less worry about the As level (affective attitude), possibly because those acting to reduce exposure feel less worried about As. Use of a treatment system specifically was significantly predicted by confidence that one can maintain a treatment system, even if there are additional costs (self-efficacy). An assessment of As treatment systems used by 68 of these households with well water As >10 μg/L followed up within August-November 2013 found that 15% of treatment units failed to produce water below As 10 μg/L, suggesting that there are continued risks for exposure even after the decision is made to treat.

  5. Dissemination of well water arsenic results to homeowners in Central Maine: Influences on mitigation behavior and continued risks for exposure

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Sara V.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Johnston, Robert A.; Yang, Qiang; Zheng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Private wells in the United States are unregulated for drinking water standards and are the homeowner’s responsibility to test and treat. Testing for water quality parameters such as arsenic (As) is a crucial first step for homeowners to take protective actions. This study seeks to identify key behavioral factors influencing homeowners’ decisions to take action after receiving well As test results. A January 2013 survey of central Maine households (n=386, 73% response) who were notified 3–7 years earlier that their well water contained As above 10 μg/L found that 43% of households report installing As treatment systems. Another 30% report taking other mitigation actions such as drinking bottled water because of the As, but the remaining 27% of households did not act. Well water As level appears to be a motivation for mitigation: 31% of households with well water level between 10 and 50 μg/L did not act, compared to 13% of households with well water > 50 μg/L. Belief that the untreated water is not safe to drink (risk) and that reducing drinking water As would increase home value (instrumental attitude) were identified as significant predictors of mitigating As. Mitigating As exposure is associated with less worry about the As level (affective attitude), possibly because those acting to reduce exposure feel less worried about As. Use of a treatment system specifically was significantly predicted by confidence that one can maintain a treatment system, even if there are additional costs (self-efficacy). An assessment of As treatment systems used by 68 of these households with well water As >10 μg/L followed up with in August-November 2013 found that 15% of treatment units failed to produce water below As 10 μg/L, suggesting there are continued risks for exposure even after the decision is made to treat. PMID:24726512

  6. Human Mars EDL Pathfinder Study: Assessment of Technology Development Gaps and Mitigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillard, Randolph; Olejniczak, Joe; Polsgrove, Tara; Cianciolo, Alice Dwyer; Munk, Michelle; Whetsel, Charles; Drake, Bret

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a NASA initiated Agency-wide assessment to better characterize the risks and potential mitigation approaches associated with landing human class Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems on Mars. Due to the criticality and long-lead nature of advancing EDL techniques, it is necessary to determine an appropriate strategy to improve the capability to land large payloads. A key focus of this study was to understand the key EDL risks and with a focus on determining what "must" be tested at Mars. This process identified the various risks and potential risk mitigation strategies along with the key near term technology development efforts required and in what environment those technology demonstrations were best suited. The study identified key risks along with advantages to each entry technology. In addition, it was identified that provided the EDL concept of operations (con ops) minimized large scale transition events, there was no technology requirement for a Mars pre-cursor demonstration. Instead, NASA should take a direct path to a human-scale lander.

  7. Temporal Wind Pairs for Space Launch Vehicle Capability Assessment and Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Space launch vehicles incorporate upper-level wind assessments to determine wind effects on the vehicle and for a commit to launch decision. These assessments make use of wind profiles measured hours prior to launch and may not represent the actual wind the vehicle will fly through. Uncertainty in the winds over the time period between the assessment and launch introduces uncertainty in assessment of vehicle controllability and structural integrity that must be accounted for to ensure launch safety. Temporal wind pairs are used in engineering development of allowances to mitigate uncertainty. Five sets of temporal wind pairs at various times (0.75, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4-hrs) at the United States Air Force Eastern Range and Western Range, as well as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Wallops Flight Facility are developed for use in upper-level wind assessments on vehicle performance. Historical databases are compiled from balloon-based and vertically pointing Doppler radar wind profiler systems. Various automated and manual quality control procedures are used to remove unacceptable profiles. Statistical analyses on the resultant wind pairs from each site are performed to determine if the observed extreme wind changes in the sample pairs are representative of extreme temporal wind change. Wind change samples in the Eastern Range and Western Range databases characterize extreme wind change. However, the small sample sizes in the Wallops Flight Facility databases yield low confidence that the sample population characterizes extreme wind change that could occur.

  8. Temporal Wind Pairs for Space Launch Vehicle Capability Assessment and Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Space launch vehicles incorporate upper-level wind assessments to determine wind effects on the vehicle and for a commit to launch decision. These assessments make use of wind profiles measured hours prior to launch and may not represent the actual wind the vehicle will fly through. Uncertainty in the winds over the time period between the assessment and launch introduces uncertainty in assessment of vehicle controllability and structural integrity that must be accounted for to ensure launch safety. Temporal wind pairs are used in engineering development of allowances to mitigate uncertainty. Five sets of temporal wind pairs at various times (0.75, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4-hrs) at the United States Air Force Eastern Range and Western Range, as well as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Wallops Flight Facility are developed for use in upper-level wind assessments on vehicle performance. Historical databases are compiled from balloon-based and vertically pointing Doppler radar wind profiler systems. Various automated and manual quality control procedures are used to remove unacceptable profiles. Statistical analyses on the resultant wind pairs from each site are performed to determine if the observed extreme wind changes in the sample pairs are representative of extreme temporal wind change. Wind change samples in the Eastern Range and Western Range databases characterize extreme wind change. However, the small sample sizes in the Wallops Flight Facility databases yield low confidence that the sample population characterizes extreme wind change that could occur.

  9. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission–intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  10. Assessment and Mitigation of Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Impacts at Short-pulse Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jr., C G; Bond, E; Clancy, T; Dangi, S; Eder, D C; Ferguson, W; Kimbrough, J; Throop, A

    2009-10-02

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be impacted by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) during normal long-pulse operation, but the largest impacts are expected during short-pulse operation utilizing the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC). Without mitigation these impacts could range from data corruption to hardware damage. We describe our EMP measurement systems on Titan and NIF and present some preliminary results and thoughts on mitigation.

  11. Assessment and Mitigation of Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Impacts at Short-pulse Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jr., C G; Bond, E; Clancy, T; Dangi, S; Eder, D C; Ferguson, W; Kimbrough, J; Throop, A

    2010-02-04

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be impacted by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) during normal long-pulse operation, but the largest impacts are expected during short-pulse operation utilizing the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC). Without mitigation these impacts could range from data corruption to hardware damage. We describe our EMP measurement systems on Titan and NIF and present some preliminary results and thoughts on mitigation.

  12. Identifying, Assessing, and Mitigating Risk of Single-Point Inspections on the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhalgh, Phillip O.

    2004-01-01

    In the production of each Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), over 100,000 inspections are performed. ATK Thiokol Inc. reviewed these inspections to ensure a robust inspection system is maintained. The principal effort within this endeavor was the systematic identification and evaluation of inspections considered to be single-point. Single-point inspections are those accomplished on components, materials, and tooling by only one person, involving no other check. The purpose was to more accurately characterize risk and ultimately address and/or mitigate risk associated with single-point inspections. After the initial review of all inspections and identification/assessment of single-point inspections, review teams applied risk prioritization methodology similar to that used in a Process Failure Modes Effects Analysis to derive a Risk Prioritization Number for each single-point inspection. After the prioritization of risk, all single-point inspection points determined to have significant risk were provided either with risk-mitigating actions or rationale for acceptance. This effort gave confidence to the RSRM program that the correct inspections are being accomplished, that there is appropriate justification for those that remain as single-point inspections, and that risk mitigation was applied to further reduce risk of higher risk single-point inspections. This paper examines the process, results, and lessons learned in identifying, assessing, and mitigating risk associated with single-point inspections accomplished in the production of the Space Shuttle RSRM.

  13. Tools to aid post-wildfire assessment and erosion-mitigation treatment decisions

    Treesearch

    Peter R. Robichaud; Louise E. Ashmun

    2013-01-01

    A considerable investment in post-fire research over the past decade has improved our understanding of wildfire effects on soil, hydrology, erosion and erosion-mitigation treatment effectiveness. Using this new knowledge, we have developed several tools to assist land managers with post-wildfire assessment and treatment decisions, such as prediction models, research...

  14. The Definition, Assessment, and Mitigation of State Boredom within Educational Settings: A Comprehensive Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel-Walcutt, Jennifer J.; Fiorella, Logan; Carper, Teresa; Schatz, Sae

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating the situational factors that give rise to state boredom is a consistent challenge facing educators. Despite the growing amount of literature devoted to the construct, the field has yet to arrive at a consensus regarding a clear theoretical or operational definition. Subsequently, inconsistencies exist in the assessment methodologies,…

  15. The Definition, Assessment, and Mitigation of State Boredom within Educational Settings: A Comprehensive Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel-Walcutt, Jennifer J.; Fiorella, Logan; Carper, Teresa; Schatz, Sae

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating the situational factors that give rise to state boredom is a consistent challenge facing educators. Despite the growing amount of literature devoted to the construct, the field has yet to arrive at a consensus regarding a clear theoretical or operational definition. Subsequently, inconsistencies exist in the assessment methodologies,…

  16. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wende, Wolfgang; Bond, Alan; Bobylev, Nikolai; Stratmann, Lars

    2012-01-15

    Countries are implementing CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 Degree-Sign C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO{sub 2} reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

  17. An Assessment of Molecular Dynamic Force Fields for Silica for Use in Simulating Laser Damage Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Soules, T F; Gilmer, G H; Matthews, M J; Stolken, J S; Feit, M D

    2010-10-21

    We compare force fields (FF's) that have been used in molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of silica in order to assess their applicability for use in simulating IR-laser damage mitigation. Although pairwise FF?s obtained by fitting quantum mechanical calculations such as the BKS and CHIK potentials have been shown to reproduce many of the properties of silica including the stability of silica polymorphs and the densification of the liquid, we show that melting temperatures and fictive temperatures are much too high. Softer empirical force fields give liquid and glass properties at experimental temperatures but may not predict all properties important to laser mitigation experiments.

  18. Power transformer oil leak mitigation -- technology assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, J.M.; Azizian, H.; Kotowicz, M.; Lewak, R.; Maak, P.; McGoey, L.

    1998-12-01

    An assessment of in-situ power transformers leak repair technologies was performed, addressing the severe multi-stress environment of an operating transformer, combining vibration, extremes of temperature (from {minus}40 C to well over 100 C), UV exposure, and thermal aging, in addition to poor application conditions on oily surfaces. Oil leaks can originate from gas relay piping, packing on valves, CT pockets, tap changers, radiators and main tank covers; focus on the present activity was on flanges for radiators and pumps for units 25 MVA and up. The range of applicability of welding technologies was established. The recommended process for field weld repairing is Flux Cored Arc (FCAW), either in the semi-automatic mode (hand held) or in a mechanized mode (travel carriage). SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) should be considered as a second choice after FCAW (only for materials 1/4 inches and thicker). Welding repairs completed with an oil backing have no risk of paint carbonization; with an air backing, 1/2 inch material and thicker can be welded without concern while a multi-pass technique should be used for welding 1/4 inch thick material. The best welding procedures were compiled into a free standing document, ``Guidelines for Repair Welding Transformer Components Using the Shielded Metal Arc Welding and Flux Cored Arc Welding Processes,`` included in the present report. It is recommended that further development be undertaken in the more challenging vertical welding position using both SMAW and FCAW. In addition, it is recommended that repair welding techniques be developed for repair of corrosion leaks on radiators.

  19. A Critical Assessment of the Ecological Assumptions Underpinning Compensatory Mitigation of Salmon-Derived Nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Scott F.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2015-09-01

    We critically evaluate some of the key ecological assumptions underpinning the use of nutrient replacement as a means of recovering salmon populations and a range of other organisms thought to be linked to productive salmon runs. These assumptions include: (1) nutrient mitigation mimics the ecological roles of salmon, (2) mitigation is needed to replace salmon-derived nutrients and stimulate primary and invertebrate production in streams, and (3) food resources in rearing habitats limit populations of salmon and resident fishes. First, we call into question assumption one because an array of evidence points to the multi-faceted role played by spawning salmon, including disturbance via redd-building, nutrient recycling by live fish, and consumption by terrestrial consumers. Second, we show that assumption two may require qualification based upon a more complete understanding of nutrient cycling and productivity in streams. Third, we evaluate the empirical evidence supporting food limitation of fish populations and conclude it has been only weakly tested. On the basis of this assessment, we urge caution in the application of nutrient mitigation as a management tool. Although applications of nutrients and other materials intended to mitigate for lost or diminished runs of Pacific salmon may trigger ecological responses within treated ecosystems, contributions of these activities toward actual mitigation may be limited.

  20. A critical assessment of the ecological assumptions underpinning compensatory mitigation of salmon-derived nutrients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Scott F.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    We critically evaluate some of the key ecological assumptions underpinning the use of nutrient replacement as a means of recovering salmon populations and a range of other organisms thought to be linked to productive salmon runs. These assumptions include: (1) nutrient mitigation mimics the ecological roles of salmon, (2) mitigation is needed to replace salmon-derived nutrients and stimulate primary and invertebrate production in streams, and (3) food resources in rearing habitats limit populations of salmon and resident fishes. First, we call into question assumption one because an array of evidence points to the multi-faceted role played by spawning salmon, including disturbance via redd-building, nutrient recycling by live fish, and consumption by terrestrial consumers. Second, we show that assumption two may require qualification based upon a more complete understanding of nutrient cycling and productivity in streams. Third, we evaluate the empirical evidence supporting food limitation of fish populations and conclude it has been only weakly tested. On the basis of this assessment, we urge caution in the application of nutrient mitigation as a management tool. Although applications of nutrients and other materials intended to mitigate for lost or diminished runs of Pacific salmon may trigger ecological responses within treated ecosystems, contributions of these activities toward actual mitigation may be limited.

  1. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forest sector of Russia: National and project level assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, T.S.; Kolchugina, T.P.; Andrasko, K.A.

    1996-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options in the Russian forest sector include: afforestation and reforestation of unforested/degraded land area; enhanced forest productivity; incorporation of nondestructive methods of wood harvesting in the forest industry; establishment of land protective forest stands; increase in stand age of final harvest in the European part of Russia; increased fire control; increased disease and pest control; and preservation of old growth forests in the Russian Far-East, which are presently threatened. Considering the implementation of all of the options presented, the GHG mitigation potential within the forest and agroforestry sectors of Russia is approximately 0.6-0.7 Pg C/yr or one half of the industrial carbon emissions of the United States. The difference between the GHG mitigation potential and the actual level of GHGs mitigated in the Russian forest sector will depend to a great degree on external financing that may be available. One possibility for external financing is through joint implementation (JI). However, under the JI process, each project will be evaluated by considering a number of criteria including also the difference between the carbon emissions or sequestration for the baseline (or reference) and the project case, the permanence of the project, and leakage. Consequently, a project level assessment must appreciate the near-term constraints that will face practitioners who attempt to realize the GHG mitigation potential in the forest and agroforestry sectors of their countries. 25 refs.

  2. A Critical Assessment of the Ecological Assumptions Underpinning Compensatory Mitigation of Salmon-Derived Nutrients.

    PubMed

    Collins, Scott F; Marcarelli, Amy M; Baxter, Colden V; Wipfli, Mark S

    2015-09-01

    We critically evaluate some of the key ecological assumptions underpinning the use of nutrient replacement as a means of recovering salmon populations and a range of other organisms thought to be linked to productive salmon runs. These assumptions include: (1) nutrient mitigation mimics the ecological roles of salmon, (2) mitigation is needed to replace salmon-derived nutrients and stimulate primary and invertebrate production in streams, and (3) food resources in rearing habitats limit populations of salmon and resident fishes. First, we call into question assumption one because an array of evidence points to the multi-faceted role played by spawning salmon, including disturbance via redd-building, nutrient recycling by live fish, and consumption by terrestrial consumers. Second, we show that assumption two may require qualification based upon a more complete understanding of nutrient cycling and productivity in streams. Third, we evaluate the empirical evidence supporting food limitation of fish populations and conclude it has been only weakly tested. On the basis of this assessment, we urge caution in the application of nutrient mitigation as a management tool. Although applications of nutrients and other materials intended to mitigate for lost or diminished runs of Pacific salmon may trigger ecological responses within treated ecosystems, contributions of these activities toward actual mitigation may be limited.

  3. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

  4. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century under multiple climate change mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J.; Clarke, L.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E.; Chaturvedi, V.; Wise, M.; Patel, P.; Eom, J.; Calvin, K.

    2014-08-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change and climate mitigation policies, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community-integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model - namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) - is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5° × 0.5° resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m-2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W m-2 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), we investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity. Two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The baseline scenario results in more than half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 36% (28%) and 44% (39%) of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in grid cells (in basins) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). When comparing the climate policy scenarios to the baseline scenario while maintaining

  5. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century under multiple climate change mitigation policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-08-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change and climate mitigation policies, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), we investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity. Two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The baseline scenario results in more than half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 36% (28%) and 44% (39%) of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in grid cells (in basins) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). When comparing the climate policy scenarios to the baseline scenario while maintaining

  6. Assessment of rainfall-runoff modelling for climate change mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otieno, Hesbon; Han, Dawei; Woods, Ross

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable water resources management requires reliable methods for quantification of hydrological variables. This is a big challenge in developing countries, due to the problem of inadequate data as a result of sparse gauge networks. Successive occurrence of both abundance and shortage of water can arise in a catchment within the same year, with deficit situations becoming an increasingly occurring phenomenon in Kenya. This work compares the performance of two models in the Tana River catchment in Kenya, in generation of synthetic flow data. One of the models is the simpler USGS Thornthwaite monthly water balance model that uses a monthly time step and has three parameters. In order to explore alternative modelling schemes, the more complex Pitman model with 19 parameters was also applied in the catchment. It is uncertain whether the complex model (Pitman) will do better than the simple model, because a model with a large number of parameters may do well in the current system but poorly in future. To check this we have used old data (1970-1985) to calibrate the models and to validate with recent data (after 1985) to see which model is robust over time. This study is relevant and useful to water resources managers in scenario analysis for water resources management, planning and development in African countries with similar climates and catchment conditions.

  7. Mitigation of tank 241-SY-101 by pump mixing: Results of full-scale testing

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Hudson, J.D.; Friley, J.R.; Panisko, F.E.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Irwin, J.J.; Fadeff, J.G.; Efferding, L.F.; Michener, T.E.; Kirch, N.W.

    1994-06-01

    The Full-Scale Mixer Pump Test Program was performed in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 from February 4 to April 13, 1994, to confirm the long-term operational strategy for flammable gas mitigation and to demonstrate that mixing can control the gas release and waste level. Since its installation on July 3, 1993, the current pump, operating only a few hours per week, has proved capable of mixing the waste sufficiently to release gas continuously instead of in large episodic events. The results of Full-Scale Testing demonstrated that the pump can control gas release and waste level for long-term mitigation, and the four test sequences formed the basis for the long-term operating schedule. The last test sequence, jet penetration tests, showed that the current pump jet creates flow near the tank wall and that it can excavate portions of the bottom sludge layer if run at maximum power. Pump mixing has altered the {open_quote}normal{close_quote} configuration of the waste; most of the original nonconvective sludge has been mixed with the supernatant liquid into a mobile convective slurry that has since been maintained by gentle pump operation and does not readily return to sludge.

  8. Tsunami prevention and mitigation necessities and options derived from tsunami risk assessment in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Steinmetz, T.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Anwar, H. Z.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.

    2009-04-01

    Risk and vulnerability assessment is an important component of an effective End-to-End Tsunami Early Warning System and therefore contributes significantly to disaster risk reduction. Risk assessment is a key strategy to implement and design adequate disaster prevention and mitigation measures. The knowledge about expected tsunami hazard impacts, exposed elements, their susceptibility, coping and adaptation mechanisms is a precondition for the development of people-centred warning structures, local specific response and recovery policy planning. The developed risk assessment and its components reflect the disaster management cycle (disaster time line) and cover the early warning as well as the emergency response phase. Consequently the components hazard assessment, exposure (e.g. how many people/ critical facilities are affected?), susceptibility (e.g. are the people able to receive a tsunami warning?), coping capacity (are the people able to evacuate in time?) and recovery (are the people able to restore their livelihoods?) are addressed and quantified. Thereby the risk assessment encompasses three steps: (i) identifying the nature, location, intensity and probability of potential tsunami threats (hazard assessment); (ii) determining the existence and degree of exposure and susceptibility to those threats; and (iii) identifying the coping capacities and resources available to address or manage these threats. The paper presents results of the research work, which is conducted in the framework of the GITEWS project and the Joint Indonesian-German Working Group on Risk Modelling and Vulnerability Assessment. The assessment methodology applied follows a people-centred approach to deliver relevant risk and vulnerability information for the purposes of early warning and disaster management. The analyses are considering the entire coastal areas of Sumatra, Java and Bali facing the Sunda trench. Selected results and products like risk maps, guidelines, decision support

  9. Assess/Mitigate Risk through the Use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to perform an independent assessment of the mitigation of the Constellation Program (CxP) Risk 4421 through the use of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools. With the cancellation of the CxP, the assessment goals were modified to capture lessons learned and best practices in the use of CASE tools. The assessment goal was to prepare the next program for the use of these CASE tools. The outcome of the assessment is contained in this document.

  10. Corral Monitoring System assessment results

    SciTech Connect

    Filby, E.E.; Haskel, K.J.

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the results of a functional and operational assessment of the Corral Monitoring Systems (CMS), which was designed to detect and document accountable items entering or leaving a monitored site. Its development was motivated by the possibility that multiple sites in the nuclear weapons states of the former Soviet Union might be opened to such monitoring under the provisions of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. The assessment was performed at three levels. One level evaluated how well the planned approach addressed the target application, and which involved tracking sensitive items moving into and around a site being monitored as part of an international treaty or other agreement. The second level examined the overall design and development approach, while the third focused on individual subsystems within the total package. Unfortunately, the system was delivered as disassembled parts and pieces, with very poor documentation. Thus, the assessment was based on fragmentary operating data coupled with an analysis of what documents were provided with the system. The system design seemed to be a reasonable match to the requirements of the target application; however, important questions about site manning and top level administrative control were left unanswered. Four weaknesses in the overall design and development approach were detected: (1) poor configuration control and management, (2) inadequate adherence to a well defined architectural standard, (3) no apparent provision for improving top level error tolerance, and (4) weaknesses in the object oriented programming approach. The individual subsystems were found to offer few features or capabilities that were new or unique, even at the conceptual level. The CMS might possibly have offered a unique combination of features, but this level of integration was never realized, and it had no unique capabilities that could be readily extracted for use in another system.

  11. Best Practices in Grid Integration of Variable Wind Power: Summary of Recent US Case Study Results and Mitigation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. Charles; Parsons, Brian; Acker, Thomas; Milligan, Michael; Zavidil, Robert; Schuerger, Matthew; DeMeo, Edgar

    2010-01-22

    This paper will summarize results from a number of utility wind integration case studies conducted recently in the US, and outline a number of mitigation measures based on insights from those studies.

  12. National Lakes Assessment 2007 Results

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Lakes Assessment samples over 1,000 lakes, ponds and reservoirs across the country. Key findings from this assessment in 2007 include the biological condition and most widespread stressors of these waterbodies.

  13. Assessment of Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies in Oncology: Summary of the Oncology Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Frame, James N.; Jacobson, Joseph O.; Vogel, Wendy H.; Griffith, Niesha; Wariabharaj, Darshan; Garg, Rekha; Zon, Robin; Stephens, Cyntha L.; Bialecki, Alison M.; Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Allen, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    To address oncology community stakeholder concerns regarding implementation of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) program, ASCO sponsored a workshop to gather REMS experiences from representatives of professional societies, patient organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Stakeholder presentations and topical panel discussions addressed REMS program development, implementation processes, and practice experiences, as well as oncology drug safety processes. A draft REMS decision tool prepared by the ASCO REMS Steering Committee was presented for group discussion with facilitated, goal-oriented feedback. The workshop identified several unintended consequences resulting from current oncology REMS: (1) the release of personal health information to drug sponsors as a condition for gaining access to a needed drug; (2) risk information that is not tailored—and therefore not accessible—to all literacy levels; (3) exclusive focus on drug risk, thereby affecting patient-provider treatment discussion; (4) REMS elements that do not consider existing, widely practiced oncology safety standards, professional training, and experience; and (5) administrative burdens that divert the health care team from direct patient care activities and, in some cases, could limit patient access to important therapies. Increased provider and professional society participation should form the basis of ongoing and future REMS standardization discussions with the FDA to work toward overall improvement of risk communication. PMID:23814522

  14. Assessment of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies in oncology: summary of the oncology risk evaluation and mitigation strategies workshop.

    PubMed

    Frame, James N; Jacobson, Joseph O; Vogel, Wendy H; Griffith, Niesha; Wariabharaj, Darshan; Garg, Rekha; Zon, Robin; Stephens, Cyntha L; Bialecki, Alison M; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Allen, Steven L

    2013-03-01

    To address oncology community stakeholder concerns regarding implementation of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) program, ASCO sponsored a workshop to gather REMS experiences from representatives of professional societies, patient organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Stakeholder presentations and topical panel discussions addressed REMS program development, implementation processes, and practice experiences, as well as oncology drug safety processes. A draft REMS decision tool prepared by the ASCO REMS Steering Committee was presented for group discussion with facilitated, goal-oriented feedback. THE WORKSHOP IDENTIFIED SEVERAL UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES RESULTING FROM CURRENT ONCOLOGY REMS: (1) the release of personal health information to drug sponsors as a condition for gaining access to a needed drug; (2) risk information that is not tailored-and therefore not accessible-to all literacy levels; (3) exclusive focus on drug risk, thereby affecting patient-provider treatment discussion; (4) REMS elements that do not consider existing, widely practiced oncology safety standards, professional training, and experience; and (5) administrative burdens that divert the health care team from direct patient care activities and, in some cases, could limit patient access to important therapies. Increased provider and professional society participation should form the basis of ongoing and future REMS standardization discussions with the FDA to work toward overall improvement of risk communication.

  15. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Microwave Radiometer Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation: Initial On-Orbit Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Johnson, Joel T.; Aksoy, Mustafa; Bringer, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, launched in January 2015, provides global measurements of soil moisture using a microwave radiometer. SMAPs radiometer passband lies within the passive frequency allocation. However, both unauthorized in-band transmitters as well as out-of-band emissions from transmitters operating at frequencies adjacent to this allocated spectrum have been documented as sources of radio frequency interference (RFI) to the L-band radiometers on SMOS and Aquarius. The spectral environment consists of high RFI levels as well as significant occurrences of low level RFI equivalent to 0.1 to 10 K. The SMAP ground processor reports the antenna temperature both before and after RFI mitigation is applied. The difference between these quantities represents the detected RFI level. The presentation will review the SMAP RFI detection and mitigation procedure and discuss early on-orbit RFI measurements from the SMAP radiometer. Assessments of global RFI properties and source types will be provided, as well as the implications of these results for SMAP soil moisture measurements.

  16. T-cell dependent immunogenicity of protein therapeutics: Preclinical assessment and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Jawa, Vibha; Cousens, Leslie P; Awwad, Michel; Wakshull, Eric; Kropshofer, Harald; De Groot, Anne S

    2013-12-01

    Protein therapeutics hold a prominent and rapidly expanding place among medicinal products. Purified blood products, recombinant cytokines, growth factors, enzyme replacement factors, monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins, and chimeric fusion proteins are all examples of therapeutic proteins that have been developed in the past few decades and approved for use in the treatment of human disease. Despite early belief that the fully human nature of these proteins would represent a significant advantage, adverse effects associated with immune responses to some biologic therapies have become a topic of some concern. As a result, drug developers are devising strategies to assess immune responses to protein therapeutics during both the preclinical and the clinical phases of development. While there are many factors that contribute to protein immunogenicity, T cell- (thymus-) dependent (Td) responses appear to play a critical role in the development of antibody responses to biologic therapeutics. A range of methodologies to predict and measure Td immune responses to protein drugs has been developed. This review will focus on the Td contribution to immunogenicity, summarizing current approaches for the prediction and measurement of T cell-dependent immune responses to protein biologics, discussing the advantages and limitations of these technologies, and suggesting a practical approach for assessing and mitigating Td immunogenicity. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Public Perception of Greenhouse Gases as Precursor to Climate Change Mitigation in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwankwo, L.

    2013-12-01

    The rising concentrations of both CO2 and Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases in the earth's atmosphere are leading to global climate change. The need to address this climate change has gained momentum in recent times, and as a result public awareness of such greenhouse gases serves as a precursor to climatic change mitigation strategy. Therefore, this study entails collection of information about public perception of Climate Change and identification of carbon dioxide, methane, fluorocarbons, and aerosols as contributors to climate forcing. The assessment was completed using conventional survey technique applied amid 1000 people in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. The results show 34.9%, 23.6%, 4.5%, 12.3% and 0.2% levels of recognition or understanding of climate change, carbon dioxide, methane, fluorocarbons and aerosols respectively. The results reveal that public awareness of climate change is low in the study area, while Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases as contributor to Climate Change is extremely low compared to CO2. The study is a preliminary effort to elicit public views and therefore, would assist decision makers and enhance communication with the public in the context of Science and Environment Policy.

  18. Assessing Risk and Driving Risk Mitigation for First-of-a-Kind Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Collins

    2011-09-01

    Planning and decision making amidst programmatic and technological risks represent significant challenges for projects. This presentation addresses the four step risk-assessment process needed to determine clear path forward to mature needed technology and design, license, and construct advanced nuclear power plants, which have never been built before, including Small Modular Reactors. This four step process has been carefully applied to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. STEP 1 - Risk Identification Risks are identified, collected, and categorized as technical risks, programmatic risks, and project risks, each of which result in cost and schedule impacts if realized. These include risks arising from the use of technologies not previously demonstrated in a relevant application. These risks include normal and accident scenarios which the SMR could experience including events that cause the disablement of engineered safety features (typically documented in Phenomena Identification Ranking Tables (PIRT) as produced with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission) and design needs which must be addressed to further detail the design. Product - Project Risk Register contained in a database with sorting, presentation, rollup, risk work off functionality similar to the NGNP Risk Management System . STEP 2 - Risk Quantification The risks contained in the risk register are then scored for probability of occurrence and severity of consequence, if realized. Here the scoring methodology is established and the basis for the scoring is well documented. Product - Quantified project risk register with documented basis for scoring. STEP 3 - Risk Handling Strategy Risks are mitigated by applying a systematic approach to maturing the technology through Research and Development, modeling, test, and design. A Technology Readiness Assessment is performed to determine baseline Technology Readiness Levels (TRL). Tasks needed to mature the technology are developed and documented in a roadmap

  19. Assessing the effectiveness of actions to mitigate nutrient loss from agriculture: a review of methods.

    PubMed

    Cherry, K A; Shepherd, M; Withers, P J A; Mooney, S J

    2008-11-15

    Diffuse nutrient loss from agriculture is degrading surface and groundwater quality throughout Europe, leaving water bodies at risk of not reaching targets set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Mitigation methods to reduce diffuse agricultural nutrient loss need to be implemented where water bodies have been identified as at risk of not reaching good status by 2015. Though the effectiveness of individual mitigation methods has usually been assessed in controlled experiments, it is necessary to quantify impact under a wider range of environmental and agricultural conditions and at the catchment scale to ensure that action taken now will be sufficient to meet WFD targets. Due to catchment buffering and long transit times (>50 years), it is unlikely that responses to intervention will be observed by 2015 in many water bodies. In this review, we compare the attributes and usefulness of different approaches (direct measurement, nutrient budgeting, risk assessment and modelling) to assess the efficacy of actions to mitigate sources and transport of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from agricultural land to water. Modelling and 'measured changes in farm activity' through budgeting avoid the time lags associated with direct measurement and enable rapid evaluations of different options before implementation. Budgeting approaches using on-farm data also provide a simpler, more communicable means of assessment but currently fail to consider the timing and transport aspects of mitigation and assume a direct causal relationship between potential and actual nutrient loss. Risk assessment and modelling applications are potentially more comprehensive and able to better reflect choice of mitigation at a range of scales, but assessments demand increased availability of data, and there is a large degree of uncertainty associated with their spatial and temporal dimensions which is difficult to validate adequately. The failings of individual approaches suggest that these

  20. Assessing mitigation of wildfire severity by fuel treatments - An example from the coastal plain of Mississippi

    Treesearch

    Erik J. Martinson; Philip N. Omi

    2006-01-01

    Fuel treatments such as prescribed fire are a controversial tenet of wildfire management. Despite a well-established theoretical basis for their use, scant empirical evidence currently exists on fuel treatment effectiveness for mitigating the behavior and effects of extreme wildfire events. We report the results of a fire severity evaluation of an escaped prescribed...

  1. Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Health Co-Benefits: A Structured Review of Lifestyle-Related Climate Change Mitigation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Quam, Vivian G M; Rocklöv, Joacim; Quam, Mikkel B M; Lucas, Rebekah A I

    2017-04-27

    This is the first structured review to identify and summarize research on lifestyle choices that improve health and have the greatest potential to mitigate climate change. Two literature searches were conducted on: (1) active transport health co-benefits, and (2) dietary health co-benefits. Articles needed to quantify both greenhouse gas emissions and health or nutrition outcomes resulting from active transport or diet changes. A data extraction tool (PRISMA) was created for article selection and evaluation. A rubric was devised to assess the biases, limitations and uncertainties of included articles. For active transport 790 articles were retrieved, nine meeting the inclusion criteria. For diet 2524 articles were retrieved, 23 meeting the inclusion criteria. A total of 31 articles were reviewed and assessed using the rubric, as one article met the inclusion criteria for both active transport and diet co-benefits. Methods used to estimate the effect of diet or active transport modification vary greatly precluding meta-analysis. The scale of impact on health and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) outcomes depends predominately on the aggressiveness of the diet or active transport scenario modelled, versus the modelling technique. Effective mitigation policies, infrastructure that supports active transport and low GHGE food delivery, plus community engagement are integral in achieving optimal health and GHGE outcomes. Variation in culture, nutritional and health status, plus geographic density will determine which mitigation scenario(s) best suit individual communities.

  2. Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Health Co-Benefits: A Structured Review of Lifestyle-Related Climate Change Mitigation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Vivian G. M.; Rocklöv, Joacim; Quam, Mikkel B. M.; Lucas, Rebekah A. I.

    2017-01-01

    This is the first structured review to identify and summarize research on lifestyle choices that improve health and have the greatest potential to mitigate climate change. Two literature searches were conducted on: (1) active transport health co-benefits, and (2) dietary health co-benefits. Articles needed to quantify both greenhouse gas emissions and health or nutrition outcomes resulting from active transport or diet changes. A data extraction tool (PRISMA) was created for article selection and evaluation. A rubric was devised to assess the biases, limitations and uncertainties of included articles. For active transport 790 articles were retrieved, nine meeting the inclusion criteria. For diet 2524 articles were retrieved, 23 meeting the inclusion criteria. A total of 31 articles were reviewed and assessed using the rubric, as one article met the inclusion criteria for both active transport and diet co-benefits. Methods used to estimate the effect of diet or active transport modification vary greatly precluding meta-analysis. The scale of impact on health and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) outcomes depends predominately on the aggressiveness of the diet or active transport scenario modelled, versus the modelling technique. Effective mitigation policies, infrastructure that supports active transport and low GHGE food delivery, plus community engagement are integral in achieving optimal health and GHGE outcomes. Variation in culture, nutritional and health status, plus geographic density will determine which mitigation scenario(s) best suit individual communities. PMID:28448460

  3. Using Remote Sensing Data and Research Results for Urban Heat Island Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Maury; Luvall, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides information on the characteristics of the urban heat island, research designed to provide the data needed to develop effective urban heat island reduction strategies, and the development of local working groups to develop implementation plans. As background, an overview of research results on the urban heat island phenomenon and the resultant effect on energy usage and air quality will be explored. The use of more reflective roofing materials, paving materials, tree planting, and other initiatives will be explored as a basis for strategies to mitigate urban heat islands and improve the urban environment. Current efforts to use aircraft remote sensing data in Atlanta, Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City and our work with non-profit organizations designated to lead public education and strategic development efforts will be presented. Efforts to organize working groups comprised of key stakeholders, the process followed in communicating research results, and methodology for soliciting feedback and incorporating ideas into local plans, policies and decision-making will be discussed. Challenges in developing and transferring data products and research results to stakeholders will be presented. It is our ultimate goal that such efforts be integrated into plans and/or decision models that encourage sustainable development.

  4. Using Remote Sensing Data and Research Results for Urban Heat Island Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Maury; Luvall, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides information on the characteristics of the urban heat island, research designed to provide the data needed to develop effective urban heat island reduction strategies, and the development of local working groups to develop implementation plans. As background, an overview of research results on the urban heat island phenomenon and the resultant effect on energy usage and air quality will be explored. The use of more reflective roofing materials, paving materials, tree planting, and other initiatives will be explored as a basis for strategies to mitigate urban heat islands and improve the urban environment. Current efforts to use aircraft remote sensing data in Atlanta, Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City and our work with non-profit organizations designated to lead public education and strategic development efforts will be presented. Efforts to organize working groups comprised of key stakeholders, the process followed in communicating research results, and methodology for soliciting feedback and incorporating ideas into local plans, policies and decision-making will be discussed. Challenges in developing and transferring data products and research results to stakeholders will be presented. It is our ultimate goal that such efforts be integrated into plans and/or decision models that encourage sustainable development.

  5. Mitigated Transfer Line Leaks that Result in Surface Pools and Spray Leaks into Pits

    SciTech Connect

    HEY, B.E.

    1999-12-07

    This analysis provides radiological and toxicological consequence calculations for postulated mitigated leaks during transfers of six waste compositions. Leaks in Cleanout Boxes equipped with supplemental covers and leaks in pits are analyzed.

  6. Results of applying a non-evaporative mitigation technique to laser-initiated surface damage on fused-silica

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J J; Bolourchi, M; Bude, J D; Guss, G M; Matthews, M J; Nostrand, M C

    2010-10-26

    We present results from a study to determine an acceptable CO{sub 2} laser-based non-evaporative mitigation protocol for use on surface damage sites in fused-silica optics. A promising protocol is identified and evaluated on a set of surface damage sites created under ICF-type laser conditions. Mitigation protocol acceptability criteria for damage re-initiation and growth, downstream intensification, and residual stress are discussed. In previous work, we found that a power ramp at the end of the protocol effectively minimizes the residual stress (<25 MPa) left in the substrate. However, the biggest difficulty in determining an acceptable protocol was balancing between low re-initiation and problematic downstream intensification. Typical growing surface damage sites mitigated with a candidate CO{sub 2} laser-based mitigation protocol all survived 351 nm, 5 ns damage testing to fluences >12.5 J/cm{sup 2}. The downstream intensification arising from the mitigated sites is evaluated, and all but one of the sites has 100% passing downstream damage expectation values. We demonstrate, for the first time, a successful non-evaporative 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser mitigation protocol applicable to fused-silica optics used on fusion-class lasers like the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  7. [Preliminary assessment of the potential of biochar technology in mitigating the greenhouse effect in China].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Xiang; Zheng, Hao; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-06-01

    The production of biochar by pyrolysis and its application to soil can sequester the CO2 which was absorbed by plants from atmosphere into soil, in addition it can also bring multiple benefits for agriculture production. On the basis of the available potential survey of the biomass residues from agriculture and forestry section, life cycle assessment was employed to quantify the potential of biochar technology in mitigation of greenhouse gases in our country. The results showed: In China, the amount of available biomass resource was 6.04 x 10(8) t every year and its net greenhouse effect potential was 5.32 x 10(8) t CO(2e) (CO(2e): CO2 equivalent), which was equivalent to 0.88 t CO(2e) for every ton biomass. The greatest of contributor to the total potential was plant carbon sequestration in soil as the form of biochar which accounts for 73.94%, followed by production of renewable energy and its percentage was 23.85%. In summary, production of biochar from agriculture and forestry biomass residues had a significant potential for our country to struggle with the pressure of greenhouse gas emission.

  8. Conforth Ranch (Wanaket) Wildlife Mitigation Project : Draft Management Plan and Draft Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation, Oregon.

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to mitigate for loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of Columbia River Basin hydroelectric projects, including McNary dam. The proposed wildlife mitigation project involves wildlife conservation on 1140 hectares (ha)(2817 acres) of land (including water rights) in Umatilla County, Oregon. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA)(DOE/EA- 1016) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  9. Assessment and mitigation of the environmental burdens to air from land applied food-based digestate.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, A; Williams, I D; Pant, D C; Kishore, V V N

    2015-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of putrescible urban waste for energy recovery has seen rapid growth over recent years. In order to ascertain its systems scale sustainability, however, determination of the environmental fate of the large volume of digestate generated during the process is indispensable. This paper evaluates the environmental burdens to air associated with land applied food-based digestate in terms of primary pollutants (ammonia, nitrogen dioxide) and greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide). The assessments have been made in two stages - first, the emissions from surface application of food-based digestate are quantified for the business as usual (BAU). In the next step, environmental burden minimisation potentials for the following three mitigation measures are estimated - mixed waste digestate (MWD), soil-incorporated digestate (SID), and post-methanated digestate (PMD). Overall, the mitigation scenarios demonstrated considerable NH3, CH4 and N2O burden minimisation potentials, with positive implications for both climate change and urban pollution.

  10. Listeria monocytogenes in Retail Delicatessens: An Interagency Risk Assessment-Risk Mitigations.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Daniel; Pouillot, Régis; Hoelzer, Karin; Tang, Jia; Dennis, Sherri B; Kause, Janell R

    2016-07-01

    Cross-contamination, improper holding temperatures, and insufficient sanitary practices are known retail practices that may lead to product contamination and growth of Listeria monocytogenes. However, the relative importance of control options to mitigate the risk of invasive listeriosis from ready-to-eat (RTE) products sliced or prepared at retail is not well understood. This study illustrates the utility of a quantitative risk assessment model described in a first article of this series (Pouillot, R., D. Gallagher, J. Tang, K. Hoelzer, J. Kause, and S. B. Dennis, J. Food Prot. 78:134-145, 2015) to evaluate the public health impact associated with changes in retail deli practices and interventions. Twenty-two mitigation scenarios were modeled and evaluated under six different baseline conditions. These scenarios were related to sanitation, worker behavior, use of growth inhibitors, cross-contamination, storage temperature control, and reduction of the level of L. monocytogenes on incoming RTE food products. The mean risk per serving of RTE products obtained under these scenarios was then compared with the risk estimated in the baseline condition. Some risk mitigations had a consistent impact on the predicted listeriosis risk in all baseline conditions (e.g. presence or absence of growth inhibitor), whereas others were greatly dependent on the initial baseline conditions or practices in the deli (e.g. preslicing of products). Overall, the control of the bacterial growth and the control of contamination at its source were major factors of listeriosis risk in these settings. Although control of cross-contamination and continued sanitation were also important, the decrease in the predicted risk was not amenable to a simple solution. Findings from these predictive scenario analyses are intended to encourage improvements to retail food safety practices and mitigation strategies to control L. monocytogenes in RTE foods more effectively and to demonstrate the utility of

  11. An Integrated Assessment of Water Scarcity Effects on Energy and Land Use Decisions and Mitigation Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Kim, S. H.; Liu, L.; Liu, Y.; Calvin, K. V.; Leon, C.; Edmonds, J.; Kyle, P.; Patel, P.; Wise, M. A.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Water is essential for the world's food supply, for energy production, including bioenergy and hydroelectric power, and for power system cooling. Water is already scarce in many regions and could present a critical constraint as society attempts simultaneously to mitigate climate forcing and adapt to climate change, and to provide food for an increasing population. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), where interactions between population, economic growth, energy, land and water resources interact simultaneously in a dynamically evolving system, to investigate how water scarcity affects energy and land use decisions as well as mitigation policies. In GCAM, competing claims on water resources from all claimants—energy, land, and economy—are reconciled with water resource availability—from renewable water, non-renewable groundwater sources and desalinated water—across 235 major river basins. Limits to hydrologic systems have significant effects on energy and land use induced emissions via constraints on decisions of their use. We explore these effects and how they evolve under climate change mitigation policies, which can significantly alter land use patterns, both by limiting land use change emissions and by increasing bioenergy production. The study also explores the mitigation scenarios in the context of the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). We find that previous estimates of global water withdrawal projections are overestimated, as our simulations show that it is more economical in some basins to alter agricultural and energy activities rather than utilize non-renewable groundwater or desalinated water. This study highlights the fact that water is a binding factor in agriculture, energy and land use decisions in integrated assessment models (IAMs), and stresses the crucial role of water in regulating agricultural commodities trade and land-use and energy decisions.

  12. How HRP Research Results Contribute to Human Space Exploration Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkins, S. B.; Mindock, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the scientific value of publications derived from research, results from Human Research Program (HRP) research also support HRP’s goals of mitigating crew health and performance risks in space flight. Research results are used to build the evidence base characterizing crew health and performance risks, to support risk research plan development, to inform crew health and performance standards, and to provide technologies to programs for meeting those standards and optimizing crew health and performance in space. This talk will describe examples of how research results support these efforts. For example, HRP research results are used to revise or even create new standards for human space flight, which have been established to protect crew health and performance during flight, and prevent negative long-term health consequences due to space flight. These standards are based on the best available clinical and scientific evidence, as well as operational experience from previous space flight missions, and are reviewed as new evidence emerges. Research results are also used to update the HRP evidence base, which is comprised of a set of reports that provide a current record of the state of knowledge from research and operations for each of the defined human health and performance risks for future NASA exploration missions. A discussion of the role of evidence within the HRP architecture will also be presented. The scope of HRP research results extends well beyond publications, as they are used in several capacities to support HRP deliverables and, ultimately, the advancement of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit.

  13. How HRP Research Results Contribute to Human Space Exploration Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkins, Sarah; Mindock, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the scientific value of publications derived from research, results from Human Research Program (HRP) research also support HRP's goals of mitigating crew health and performance risks in space flight. Research results are used to build the evidence base characterizing crew health and performance risks, to support risk research plan development, to inform crew health and performance standards, and to provide technologies to programs for meeting those standards and optimizing crew health and performance in space. This talk will describe examples of how research results support these efforts. For example, HRP research results are used to revise or even create new standards for human space flight, which have been established to protect crew health and performance during flight, and prevent negative long-term health consequences due to space flight. These standards are based on the best available clinical and scientific evidence, as well as operational experience from previous space flight missions, and are reviewed as new evidence emerges. Research results are also used to update the HRP evidence base, which is comprised of a set of reports that provide a current record of the state of knowledge from research and operations for each of the defined human health and performance risks for future NASA exploration missions. A discussion of the role of evidence within the HRP architecture will also be presented. The scope of HRP research results extends well beyond publications, as they are used in several capacities to support HRP deliverables and, ultimately, the advancement of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit.

  14. Earth sciences, GIS and geomatics for natural hazards assessment and risks mitigation: a civil protection perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, Luigi; Conte, Riccardo; Lanfranco, Massimo; Perrone, Gianluigi; Giardino, Marco; Ratto, Sara

    2010-05-01

    Valley, NW-Italy), for preventing and recovering measures; 3) geological and geomorphological controlling factors of seismicity, to provide microzonation maps and scenarios for co-seismic response of instable zones (Dronero, NW- Italian Alps); 4) earthquake effects on ground and infrastructures, in order to register early assessment for awareness situations and for compile damage inventories (Asti-Alessandria seismic events, 2000, 2001, 2003). The research results has been able to substantiate early warning models by structuring geodatabases on natural disasters, and to support humanitarian relief and disaster management activities by creating and testing SRG2, a mobile-GIS application for field-data collection on natural hazards and risks.

  15. First results on disruption mitigation by massive gas injection in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Yaowei; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Hak-Kun; Kim, Hong-Tack; Kim, Woong-Chae; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Son, Soo-Hyun; Bang, Eun-Nam; Hong, Suk-Ho; Yoon, Si-Woo; Zhuang Huidong; Chen Zhongyong

    2012-12-15

    Massive gas injection (MGI) system was developed on Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) in 2011 campaign for disruption studies. The MGI valve has a volume of 80 ml and maximum injection pressure of 50 bar, the diameter of valve orifice to vacuum vessel is 18.4 mm, the distance between MGI valve and plasma edge is {approx}3.4 m. The MGI power supply employs a large capacitor of 1 mF with the maximum voltage of 3 kV, the valve can be opened in less than 0.1 ms, and the amount of MGI can be controlled by the imposed voltage. During KSTAR 2011 campaign, MGI disruptions are carried out by triggering MGI during the flat top of circular and limiter discharges with plasma current 400 kA and magnetic field 2-3.5 T, deuterium injection pressure 39.7 bar, and imposed voltage 1.1-1.4 kV. The results show that MGI could mitigate the heat load and prevent runaway electrons with proper MGI amount, and MGI penetration is deeper under higher amount of MGI or lower magnetic field. However, plasma start-up is difficult after some of D{sub 2} MGI disruptions due to the high deuterium retention and consequently strong outgassing of deuterium in next shot, special effort should be made to get successful plasma start-up after deuterium MGI under the graphite first wall.

  16. Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington . Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

  17. Assessing NEO hazard mitigation in terms of astrodynamics and propulsion systems requirements.

    PubMed

    Remo, John L

    2004-05-01

    Uncertainties associated with assessing valid near-Earth object (NEO) threats and carrying out interception missions place unique and stringent burdens on designing mission architecture, astrodynamics, and spacecraft propulsion systems. A prime uncertainty is associated with the meaning of NEO orbit predictability regarding Earth impact. Analyses of past NEO orbits and impact probabilities indicate uncertainties in determining if a projected NEO threat will actually materialize within a given time frame. Other uncertainties regard estimated mass, composition, and structural integrity of the NEO body. At issue is if one can reliably estimate a NEO threat and its magnitude. Parameters that determine NEO deflection requirements within various time frames, including the terminal orbital pass before impact, and necessary energy payloads, are quantitatively discussed. Propulsion system requirements for extending space capabilities to rapidly interact with NEOs at ranges of up to about 1 AU (astronomical unit) from Earth are outlined. Such missions, without gravitational boosts, are deemed critical for a practical and effective response to mitigation. If an impact threat is confirmed on an immediate orbital pass, the option for interactive reconnaissance, and interception, and subsequent NEO orbit deflection must be promptly carried out. There also must be an option to abort the mitigation mission if the NEO is subsequently found not to be Earth threatening. These options require optimal decision latitude and operational possibilities for NEO threat removal while minimizing alarm. Acting too far in advance of the projected impact could induce perturbations that ultimately exacerbate the threat. Given the dilemmas, uncertainties, and limited options associated with timely NEO mitigation within a decision making framework, currently available propulsion technologies that appear most viable to carry out a NEO interception/mitigation mission within the greatest margin of

  18. Simultaneous Assessment of Acidogenesis-Mitigation and Specific Bacterial Growth-Inhibition by Dentifrices

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Sarah; Latimer, Joe; Sreenivasan, Prem K.; McBain, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Dentifrices can augment oral hygiene by inactivating bacteria and at sub-lethal concentrations may affect bacterial metabolism, potentially inhibiting acidogenesis, the main cause of caries. Reported herein is the development of a rapid method to simultaneously measure group-specific bactericidal and acidogenesis-mitigation effects of dentifrices on oral bacteria. Saliva was incubated aerobically and anaerobically in Tryptone Soya Broth, Wilkins-Chalgren Broth with mucin, or artificial saliva and was exposed to dentifrices containing triclosan/copolymer (TD); sodium fluoride (FD); stannous fluoride and zinc lactate (SFD1); or stannous fluoride, zinc lactate and stannous chloride (SFD2). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined turbidometrically whilst group-specific minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were assessed using growth media and conditions selective for total aerobes, total anaerobes, streptococci and Gram-negative anaerobes. Minimum acid neutralization concentration (MNC) was defined as the lowest concentration of dentifrice at which acidification was inhibited. Differences between MIC and MNC were calculated and normalized with respect to MIC to derive the combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC), a cumulative measure of acidogenesis-mitigation and growth inhibition. The overall rank order for growth inhibition potency (MIC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was: TD> SFD2> SFD1> FD. Acidogenesis-mitigation (MNC) was ordered; TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1. CINC was ordered TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1 aerobically and TD> FD> SFD1> SFD2 anaerobically. With respect to group-specific bactericidal activity, TD generally exhibited the greatest potency, particularly against total aerobes, total anaerobes and streptococci. This approach enables the rapid simultaneous evaluation of acidity mitigation, growth inhibition and specific antimicrobial activity by dentifrices. PMID:26882309

  19. Simultaneous Assessment of Acidogenesis-Mitigation and Specific Bacterial Growth-Inhibition by Dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Sarah; Latimer, Joe; Sreenivasan, Prem K; McBain, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Dentifrices can augment oral hygiene by inactivating bacteria and at sub-lethal concentrations may affect bacterial metabolism, potentially inhibiting acidogenesis, the main cause of caries. Reported herein is the development of a rapid method to simultaneously measure group-specific bactericidal and acidogenesis-mitigation effects of dentifrices on oral bacteria. Saliva was incubated aerobically and anaerobically in Tryptone Soya Broth, Wilkins-Chalgren Broth with mucin, or artificial saliva and was exposed to dentifrices containing triclosan/copolymer (TD); sodium fluoride (FD); stannous fluoride and zinc lactate (SFD1); or stannous fluoride, zinc lactate and stannous chloride (SFD2). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined turbidometrically whilst group-specific minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were assessed using growth media and conditions selective for total aerobes, total anaerobes, streptococci and Gram-negative anaerobes. Minimum acid neutralization concentration (MNC) was defined as the lowest concentration of dentifrice at which acidification was inhibited. Differences between MIC and MNC were calculated and normalized with respect to MIC to derive the combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC), a cumulative measure of acidogenesis-mitigation and growth inhibition. The overall rank order for growth inhibition potency (MIC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was: TD> SFD2> SFD1> FD. Acidogenesis-mitigation (MNC) was ordered; TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1. CINC was ordered TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1 aerobically and TD> FD> SFD1> SFD2 anaerobically. With respect to group-specific bactericidal activity, TD generally exhibited the greatest potency, particularly against total aerobes, total anaerobes and streptococci. This approach enables the rapid simultaneous evaluation of acidity mitigation, growth inhibition and specific antimicrobial activity by dentifrices.

  20. NUREG-1150 risk assessment results

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, A.S.; Kunsman, D.M.; Boyd, G.J.; Lewis, S.R.; Amos, C.N.; Smith, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    The methodology developed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) evaluation of severe accident risks in NUREG-1150 is noted. This paper discusses the results. The principal technical analyses for NUREG-1150 were performed at Sandia National Labs. under the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program and the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program. The analyses have been completed so far for four reference plants: (a) a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a dry, subatmospheric containment (Surry Unit 1), (b) a PWR with an ice condenser containment (Sequoyah Unit 1), (c) a boiling water reactor (BWR) with a Mark I containment (Peach Bottom Unit 2), and (d) a BWR with a Mark III containment (Grand Gulf Unit 1). A fifth NUREG-1150 plant, a PWR with a large, dry containment (Zion Unit 1), has been evaluated separately by Brookhaven National Lab. Sample risk results for one of the plants (Surry) are presented. The results for Sequoyah, Peach Bottom, and Grand Gulf are broadly compared with those for Surry.

  1. A method to assess the potential effects of air pollution mitigation on healthcare costs.

    PubMed

    Sætterstrøm, Bjørn; Kruse, Marie; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to assess the potential effects of air pollution mitigation on healthcare costs and to apply this method to assess the potential savings related to a reduction in fine particle matter in Denmark. The effects of air pollution on health were used to identify "exposed" individuals (i.e., cases). Coronary heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer were considered to be associated with air pollution. We used propensity score matching, two-part estimation, and Lin's method to estimate healthcare costs. Subsequently, we multiplied the number of saved cases due to mitigation with the healthcare costs to arrive to an expression for healthcare cost savings. The potential cost saving in the healthcare system arising from a modelled reduction in air pollution was estimated at €0.1-2.6 million per 100,000 inhabitants for the four diseases. We have illustrated an application of a method to assess the potential changes in healthcare costs due to a reduction in air pollution. The method relies on a large volume of administrative data and combines a number of established methods for epidemiological analysis.

  2. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: BWR (boiling water reactor), Mark I containment design

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, W.T.; Eltawila, F.; Perkins, K.R.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Luckas, W.J.; Lehner, J.R.; Davis, P.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions, which have been found to be important in either preventing or mitigating severe accidents in BWRs with Mark I containments (BWR Mark I's) have been identified. These features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of in-depth risk assessments performed specifically for the Peach Bottom plant and from assessment of other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the BWR Mark I to severe accident containment loads were also identified. In addition, those features of a BWR Mark I, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were also identified. This report is issued to provide focus to an analyst examining an individual plant. This report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic attributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Peach Bottom and other Mark I plants. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance.

  3. Assessment and mitigation of power quality problems for PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Mohd Fazli; Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K.

    2017-01-01

    An electrical power systems are exposed to different types of power quality disturbances. Investigation and monitoring of power quality are necessary to maintain accurate operation of sensitive equipment especially for nuclear installations. This paper will discuss the power quality problems observed at the electrical sources of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP). Assessment of power quality requires the identification of any anomalous behavior on a power system, which adversely affects the normal operation of electrical or electronic equipment. A power quality assessment involves gathering data resources; analyzing the data (with reference to power quality standards) then, if problems exist, recommendation of mitigation techniques must be considered. Field power quality data is collected by power quality recorder and analyzed with reference to power quality standards. Normally the electrical power is supplied to the RTP via two sources in order to keep a good reliability where each of them is designed to carry the full load. The assessment of power quality during reactor operation was performed for both electrical sources. There were several disturbances such as voltage harmonics and flicker that exceeded the thresholds. To reduce these disturbances, mitigation techniques have been proposed, such as to install passive harmonic filters to reduce harmonic distortion, dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) to reduce voltage disturbances and isolate all sensitive and critical loads.

  4. Mitigation, adaptation, and climate change: results from recent research on US timber markets.

    Treesearch

    Brent Sohngen; Ralph. Alig

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies that have addressed how US timber markets may adapt to climate change, and how US forests could be used to mitigate potential climate change. The studies are discussed in light of the ecological and economic assumptions used to estimate adaptation. Estimates of both economic impacts and carbon sequestration costs depend heavily on the...

  5. Residual flood-risk: assessing the effectiveness of alternative large-scale mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio

    2016-04-01

    The EU Flood Directive (2007/60/CE) requires institutions and public bodies, in order to formulate robust flood-risk management strategies for large European rivers, to address several fundamental tasks. For instance, they have to address the problem of flood-risk mitigation from a global perspective (i.e., entire middle-lower river reaches) by identifying critical reaches, inundation areas and corresponding overflow volumes. To this aim, we focus on the identification of large-scale flood risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of the Po river, the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. We refer to the so-called residual flood-risk and in particular to its portion referring to the possibility to experience events associated with larger return periods than the reference one (e.g. ~200 years in our case). In particular, being a further levee heightening not technically viable nor economically conceivable for the case study, the study develops and tests the applicability of a quasi-2D hydraulic model for the identification of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies relative to a 500-year flood event. In particular, we consider and model in the study different geometrical configurations of the main embankment system for a ~400km reach stretching from Isola S.Antonio to the Po river delta in the Adriatic Sea: overtopping without levee breaching, overtopping and natural levee breaching, overtopping and forced levee breaching. The simulations enable the assessment of the overflowed volumes and water depths on flooded areas. Expected damages are estimated using simplified graphical tools, which we termed "Vulnerability Hypsometric Curves" (HVCs) and report the extent of the area for a given land use category that is located below a certain elevation. The analysis aims at finding the optimal configuration that minimizes the expected damages in the areas prone to flood. The outcomes of our study indicate that coupling a large

  6. A framework for the case-specific assessment of Green Infrastructure in mitigating urban flood hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Jochen E.; Burns, Matthew J.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Sanders, Brett F.

    2017-10-01

    This research outlines a framework for the case-specific assessment of Green Infrastructure (GI) performance in mitigating flood hazard in small urban catchments. The urban hydrologic modeling tool (MUSIC) is coupled with a fine resolution 2D hydrodynamic model (BreZo) to test to what extent retrofitting an urban watershed with GI, rainwater tanks and infiltration trenches in particular, can propagate flood management benefits downstream and support intuitive flood hazard maps useful for communicating and planning with communities. The hydrologic and hydraulic models are calibrated based on current catchment conditions, then modified to represent alternative GI scenarios including a complete lack of GI versus a full implementation of GI. Flow in the hydrologic/hydraulic models is forced using a range of synthetic rainfall events with annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs) between 1-63% and durations from 10 min to 24 h. Flood hazard benefits mapped by the framework include maximum flood depths and extents, flow intensity (m2/s), flood duration, and critical storm duration leading to maximum flood conditions. Application of the system to the Little Stringybark Creek (LSC) catchment shows that across the range of AEPs tested and for storm durations equal or less than 3 h, presently implemented GI reduces downstream flooded area on average by 29%, while a full implementation of GI would reduce downstream flooded area on average by 91%. A full implementation of GI could also lower maximum flow intensities by 83% on average, reducing the drowning hazard posed by urban streams and improving the potential for access by emergency responders. For storm durations longer than 3 h, a full implementation of GI lacks the capacity to retain the resulting rainfall depths and only reduces flooded area by 8% and flow intensity by 5.5%.

  7. A methodology for the sustainability assessment of arsenic mitigation technology for drinking water.

    PubMed

    Etmannski, T R; Darton, R C

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we show how the process analysis method (PAM) can be applied to assess the sustainability of options to mitigate arsenic in drinking water in rural India. Stakeholder perspectives, gathered from a fieldwork survey of 933 households in West Bengal in 2012 played a significant role in this assessment. This research found that the 'most important' issues as specified by the technology users are cost, trust, distance from their home to the clean water source (an indicator of convenience), and understanding the health effects of arsenic. We show that utilisation of a technology is related to levels of trust and confidence in a community, making use of a composite trust-confidence indicator. Measures to improve trust between community and organisers of mitigation projects, and to raise confidence in technology and also in fair costing, would help to promote successful deployment of appropriate technology. Attitudes to cost revealed in the surveys are related to the low value placed on arsenic-free water, as also found by other investigators, consistent with a lack of public awareness about the arsenic problem. It is suggested that increased awareness might change attitudes to arsenic-rich waste and its disposal protocols. This waste is often currently discarded in an uncontrolled manner in the local environment, giving rise to the possibility of point-source recontamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. AgMIP 1.5°C Assessment: Mitigation and Adaptation at Coordinated Global and Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2016-12-01

    The AgMIP 1.5°C Coordinated Global and Regional Integrated Assessments of Climate Change and Food Security (AgMIP 1.5 CGRA) is linking site-based crop and livestock models with similar models run on global grids, and then links these biophysical components with economics models and nutrition metrics at regional and global scales. The AgMIP 1.5 CGRA assessment brings together experts in climate, crop, livestock, economics, nutrition, and food security to define the 1.5°C Protocols and guide the process throughout the assessment. Scenarios are designed to consistently combine elements of intertwined storylines of future society including socioeconomic development (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways), greenhouse gas concentrations (Representative Concentration Pathways), and specific pathways of agricultural sector development (Representative Agricultural Pathways). Shared Climate Policy Assumptions will be extended to provide additional agricultural detail on mitigation and adaptation strategies. The multi-model, multi-disciplinary, multi-scale integrated assessment framework is using scenarios of economic development, adaptation, mitigation, food policy, and food security. These coordinated assessments are grounded in the expertise of AgMIP partners around the world, leading to more consistent results and messages for stakeholders, policymakers, and the scientific community. The early inclusion of nutrition and food security experts has helped to ensure that assessment outputs include important metrics upon which investment and policy decisions may be based. The CGRA builds upon existing AgMIP research groups (e.g., the AgMIP Wheat Team and the AgMIP Global Gridded Crop Modeling Initiative; GGCMI) and regional programs (e.g., AgMIP Regional Teams in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia), with new protocols for cross-scale and cross-disciplinary linkages to ensure the propagation of expert judgment and consistent assumptions.

  9. Longitudinal assessment of hydropeaking impacts on various scales for an improved process understanding and the design of mitigation measures.

    PubMed

    Hauer, C; Holzapfel, P; Leitner, P; Graf, W

    2017-01-01

    Hydropeaking is one of the main pressures on the aquatic ecology in alpine rivers. Beside studies on abiotic process and biotic response on the local scale there is a lack in process understanding on the reach scale. Especially longitudinal changes of hydropeaking impacts based on retention processes have not been studied yet. Thus, based on unsteady one-dimensional and two-dimensional depth averaged modelling it was targeted to investigate possible changes in vertical ramping velocity for the discussion of possible mitigation measures at the local scale. Here, we compared artificial and natural sheltering habitats in terms of peak flow. Additionally, the hydropeaking assessment on various river scales was supported by an evaluation of tributaries in an alpine river system. Based on the modelling results and the discussion of the impact assessment of hydropeaking in different case studies we state, that on the first 5km downstream of the turbine outlet a significant decrease in vertical ramping velocity occurs. In this reach, habitat improvements should focus on increasing retention processes considering the higher risk of stranding for juvenile fish and macroinvertebrates. For morphological mitigation measures at the local scale, it turned out that self-formed, near-natural morphology should be targeted in terms of mitigation measure design compared to artificial sheltering habitats. Abundance and biomass of macroinvertebrates are directly linked to substrate variability in self-formed sheltering habitats downstream of gravel bars. Moreover, we ascertained that tributaries are able to contribute to the 'ecological potential' in multi-stressed hydropeaking rivers by providing spawning and rearing habitats for fish. However, for a sustainable improvement of the aquatic environment on all relevant scales, both sediment and flood dynamics have to be considered as important drivers to establish self-formed sheltering habitats in terms of hydropeaking. Copyright © 2016

  10. Turbine Aeration Design Software for Mitigating Adverse Environmental Impacts Resulting From Conventional Hydropower Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliver, John S.

    2015-03-01

    Conventional hydropower turbine aeration test-bed for computational routines and software tools for improving environmental mitigation technologies for conventional hydropower systems. In achieving this goal, we have partnered with Alstom, a global leader in energy technology development and United States power generation, with additional funding from the Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment (IREE) and the College of Science and Engineering (CSE) at the UMN

  11. Identifying and Mitigating Industrial Base Risk for the DoD: Results of a Pilot Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    industrial base . Implementing a reliable and validated methodology would facilitate DoD-wide mitigation actions designed to preserve or enhance key industrial base capabilities. The Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manufacturing and Industrial Base Policy has developed and tested a methodology for measuring the criticality of key capabilities (products, components, technologies) and their fragility within the industrial base (vendors and markets). The methodology is designed to be used

  12. The influence of hazard models on GIS-based regional risk assessments and mitigation policies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, R.L.; Rabinovici, S.J.M.; Wood, N.J.; Dinitz, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are important tools for understanding and communicating the spatial distribution of risks associated with natural hazards in regional economies. We present a GIS-based decision support system (DSS) for assessing community vulnerability to natural hazards and evaluating potential mitigation policy outcomes. The Land Use Portfolio Modeler (LUPM) integrates earth science and socioeconomic information to predict the economic impacts of loss-reduction strategies. However, the potential use of such systems in decision making may be limited when multiple but conflicting interpretations of the hazard are available. To explore this problem, we conduct a policy comparison using the LUPM to test the sensitivity of three available assessments of earthquake-induced lateral-spread ground failure susceptibility in a coastal California community. We find that the uncertainty regarding the interpretation of the science inputs can influence the development and implementation of natural hazard management policies. Copyright ?? 2006 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  13. The relative impact of climate change mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity - An integrated assessment modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J. A.; Clarke, L. E.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Chaturvedi, V.; Patel, P.; Eom, J.; Wise, M.; Kim, S.; Calvin, K. V.; Moss, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the relative effects of climate emission mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally, by estimating both water availability and demand within a technologically-detailed global integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change - the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). We first develop a global gridded monthly hydrologic model that reproduces historical streamflow observations and simulates the future availability of freshwater under both a changing climate and an evolving landscape, and incorporate this model into GCAM. We then develop and incorporate technologically oriented representations of water demands for the agricultural (irrigation and livestock), energy (electricity generation, primary energy production and processing), industrial (manufacturing and mining), and municipal sectors. The energy, industrial, and municipal sectors are represented in fourteen geopolitical regions, with the agricultural sector further disaggregated into as many as eighteen agro-ecological zones (AEZs) within each region. To perform the water scarcity analysis at the grid scale, the global water demands for the six demand sectors are spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. The water scarcity index (WSI) compares total water demand to the total amount of renewable water available, and defines extreme water scarcity in any region as demand greater than 40% of total water availability. Using a reference scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 by 2095 and a global population of 14 billion, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demands for water exceed the total

  14. The hidden costs of coastal hazards: Implications for risk assessment and mitigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunreuther, H.; Platt, R.; Baruch, S.; Bernknopf, R.L.; Buckley, M.; Burkett, V.; Conrad, D.; Davidson, T.; Deutsch, K.; Geis, D.; Jannereth, M.; Knap, A.; Lane, H.; Ljung, G.; McCauley, M.; Mileti, D.; Miller, T.; Morrow, B.; Meyers, J.; Pielke, R.; Pratt, A.; Tripp, J.

    2000-01-01

    Society has limited hazard mitigation dollars to invest. Which actions will be most cost effective, considering the true range of impacts and costs incurred? In 1997, the H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment began a two-year study with a panel of experts to help develop new strategies to identify and reduce the costs of weather-related hazards associated with rapidly increasing coastal development activities.The Hidden Costs of Coastal Hazards presents the panel's findings, offering the first in-depth study that considers the costs of coastal hazards to natural resources, social institutions, business, and the built environment. Using Hurricane Hugo, which struck South Carolina in 1989, as a case study, it provides for the first time information on the full range of economic costs caused by a major coastal hazard event. The book:describes and examines unreported, undocumented, and hidden costs such as losses due to business interruption, reduction in property values, interruption of social services, psychological trauma, damage to natural systems, and othersexamines the concepts of risk and vulnerability, and discusses conventional approaches to risk assessment and the emerging area of vulnerability assessmentrecommends a comprehensive framework for developing and implementing mitigation strategiesdocuments the human impact of Hurricane Hugo and provides insight from those who lived through it.The Hidden Costs of Coastal Hazards takes a structured approach to the problem of coastal hazards, offering a new framework for community-based hazard mitigation along with specific recommendations for implementation. Decisionmakers -- both policymakers and planners -- who are interested in coastal hazard issues will find the book a unique source of new information and insight, as will private-sector decisionmakers including lenders, investors, developers, and insurers of coastal property.

  15. D Applications in Disaster Mitigation and Management: Core Results of Ditac Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaptan, K.; Kavlak, U.; Yilmaz, O.; Celik, O. T.; Manesh, A. K.; Fischer, P.; Lupescu, O.; Ingrassia, P. L.; Ammann, W. J.; Ashkenazi, M.; Arculeo, C.; Komadina, R.; Lechner, K.; Arnim, G. v.; Hreckovski, B.

    2013-08-01

    According to statistical data, natural disasters as well as the number of people affected by them are occurring with increasing frequency compared to the past. This situation is also seen in Europe Union; So, Strengthening the EU capacity to respond to Disasters is very important. This paper represents the baseline results of the FP-7 founded DITAC project, which aims to develop a holistic and highly structured curriculum for responders and strategic crisis managers. Up-to-date geospatial information is required in order to create an effective disaster response plan. Common sources for geospatial information such as Google Earth, GIS databases, and aerial surveys are frequently outdated, or insufficient. This limits the effectiveness of disaster planning. Disaster Management has become an issue of growing importance. Planning for and managing large scale emergencies is complex. The number of both victims and relief workers is large and the time pressure is extreme. Emergency response and triage systems with 2D user interfaces are currently under development and evaluation. Disasters present a number of spatially related problems and an overwhelming quantity of information. 3D user interfaces are well suited for intuitively solving basic emergency response tasks. Such tasks include commanding rescue agents and prioritizing the disaster victims according to the severity of their medical condition. Further, 3D UIs hold significant potential for improving the coordination of rescuers as well as their awareness of relief workers from other organizations. This paper describes the outline of a module in a Disaster Management Course related to 3D Applications in Disaster Mitigation and Management. By doing this, the paper describes the gaps in existing systems and solutions. Satellite imageries and digital elevation data of Turkey are investigated for detecting sites prone to natural hazards. Digital image processing methods used to enhance satellite data and to produce

  16. Assessment of farm soil, biochar, compost and weathered pine mulch to mitigate methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Syed, Rashad; Saggar, Surinder; Tate, Kevin; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the effective utility of volcanic pumice soil to mitigate both high and low levels of methane (CH4) emissions through the activity of both γ-proteobacterial (type I) and α-proteobacterial (type II) aerobic methanotrophs. However, the limited availability of volcanic pumice soil necessitates the assessment of other farm soils and potentially suitable, economical and widely available biofilter materials. The potential biofilter materials, viz. farm soil (isolated from a dairy farm effluent pond bank area), pine biochar, garden waste compost and weathered pine bark mulch, were inoculated with a small amount of volcanic pumice soil. Simultaneously, a similar set-up of potential biofilter materials without inoculum was studied to understand the effect of the inoculum on the ability of these materials to oxidise CH4 and their effect on methanotroph growth and activity. These materials were incubated at 25 °C with periodic feeding of CH4, and flasks were aerated with air (O2) to support methanotroph growth and activity by maintaining aerobic conditions. The efficiency of CH4 removal was monitored over 6 months. All materials supported the growth and activity of methanotrophs. However, the efficiency of CH4 removal by all the materials tested fluctuated between no or low removal (0-40 %) and high removal phases (>90 %), indicating biological disturbances rather than physico-chemical changes. Among all the treatments, CH4 removal was consistently high (>80 %) in the inoculated farm soil and inoculated biochar, and these were more resilient to changes in the methanotroph community. The CH4 removal from inoculated farm soil and inoculated biochar was further enhanced (up to 99 %) by the addition of a nutrient solution. Our results showed that (i) farm soil and biochar can be used as a biofilter material by inoculating with an active methanotroph community, (ii) an abundant population of α-proteobacterial methanotrophs is essential

  17. Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, Norm

    2009-02-18

    The overarching goals of the 'Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation' Project (BPA Project No.2002-011-00) are to: (1) assess abiotic and biotic factors (i.e., geomorphologic, hydrological, aquatic and riparian/floodplain communities) in determining a definitive composition of ecological integrity, (2) develop strategies to assess and mitigate losses of ecosystem functions, and (3) produce a regional operational loss assessment framework. To produce a scientifically defensible, repeatable, and complete assessment tool, KTOI assembled a team of top scientists in the fields of hydrology, hydraulics, ornithology, entomology, statistics, and river ecology, among other expertise. This advisory team is known as the Research Design and Review Team (RDRT). The RDRT scientists drive the review, selection, and adaptive management of the research designs to evaluate the ecologic functions lost due to the operation of federal hydropower facilities. The unique nature of this project (scientific team, newest/best science, adaptive management, assessment of ecological functions, etc.) has been to work in a dynamic RDRT process. In addition to being multidisciplinary, this model KTOI project provides a stark contrast to the sometimes inflexible process (review, re-review, budgets, etc.) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The project RDRT is assembled annually, with subgroups meeting as needed throughout the year to address project issues, analyses, review, and interpretation. Activities of RDRT coordinated and directed the selection of research and assessment methodologies appropriate for the Kootenai River Watershed and potential for regional application in the Columbia River Basin. The entire RDRT continues to meet annually to update and discuss project progress. RDRT Subcontractors work in smaller groups throughout the year to meet project objectives. Determining the extent to which

  18. Managing Space Radiation Risks on Lunar and Mars Missions: Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; George, K.; Hu, X.; Kim, M. H.; Nikjoo, H.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation-induced health risks are a primary concern for human exploration outside the Earth's magnetosphere, and require improved approaches to risk estimation and tools for mitigation including shielding and biological countermeasures. Solar proton events are the major concern for short-term lunar missions (<60 d), and for long-term missions (>60 d) such as Mars exploration, the exposures to the high energy and charge (HZE) ions that make-up the galactic cosmic rays are the major concern. Health risks from radiation exposure are chronic risks including carcinogenesis and degenerative tissue risks, central nervous system effects, and acute risk such as radiation sickness or early lethality. The current estimate is that a more than four-fold uncertainty exists in the projection of lifetime mortality risk from cosmic rays, which severely limits analysis of possible benefits of shielding or biological countermeasure designs. Uncertainties in risk projections are largely due to insufficient knowledge of HZE ion radiobiology, which has led NASA to develop a unique probabilistic approach to radiation protection. We review NASA's approach to radiation risk assessment including its impact on astronaut dose limits and application of the ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle. The recently opened NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) provides the capability to simulate the cosmic rays in controlled ground-based experiments with biological and shielding models. We discuss how research at NSRL will lead to reductions in the uncertainties in risk projection models. In developing mission designs, the reduction of health risks and mission constraints including costs are competing concerns that need to be addressed through optimization procedures. Mitigating the risks from space radiation is a multi-factorial problem involving individual factors (age, gender, genetic makeup, and exposure history), operational factors (planetary destination, mission length, and period

  19. Managing Space Radiation Risks On Lunar and Mars Missions: Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; George, K.; Hu, X.; Kim, M. H.; Nikjoo, H.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation-induced health risks are a primary concern for human exploration outside the Earth's magnetosphere, and require improved approaches to risk estimation and tools for mitigation including shielding and biological countermeasures. Solar proton events are the major concern for short-term lunar missions (<60 d), and for long-term missions (>60 d) such as Mars exploration, the exposures to the high energy and charge (HZE) ions that make-up the galactic cosmic rays are the major concern. Health risks from radiation exposure are chronic risks including carcinogenesis and degenerative tissue risks, central nervous system effects, and acute risk such as radiation sickness or early lethality. The current estimate is that a more than four-fold uncertainty exists in the projection of lifetime mortality risk from cosmic rays, which severely limits analysis of possible benefits of shielding or biological countermeasure designs. Uncertainties in risk projections are largely due to insufficient knowledge of HZE ion radiobiology, which has led NASA to develop a unique probabilistic approach to radiation protection. We review NASA's approach to radiation risk assessment including its impact on astronaut dose limits and application of the ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle. The recently opened NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) provides the capability to simulate the cosmic rays in controlled ground-based experiments with biological and shielding models. We discuss how research at NSRL will lead to reductions in the uncertainties in risk projection models. In developing mission designs, the reduction of health risks and mission constraints including costs are competing concerns that need to be addressed through optimization procedures. Mitigating the risks from space radiation is a multi-factorial problem involving individual factors (age, gender, genetic makeup, and exposure history), operational factors (planetary destination, mission length, and period

  20. Managing Space Radiation Risks on Lunar and Mars Missions: Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; George, K.; Hu, X.; Kim, M. H.; Nikjoo, H.; Ponomarev, A.; Ren, L.; Shavers, M. R.; Wu, H.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation-induced health risks are a primary concern for human exploration outside the Earth's magnetosphere, and require improved approaches to risk estimation and tools for mitigation including shielding and biological countermeasures. Solar proton events are the major concern for short-term lunar missions (<60 d), and for long-term missions (>60 d) such as Mars exploration, the exposures to the high energy and charge (HZE) ions that make-up the galactic cosmic rays are the major concern. Health risks from radiation exposure are chronic risks including carcinogenesis and degenerative tissue risks, central nervous system effects, and acute risk such as radiation sickness or early lethality. The current estimate is that a more than four-fold uncertainty exists in the projection of lifetime mortality risk from cosmic rays, which severely limits analysis of possible benefits of shielding or biological countermeasure designs. Uncertainties in risk projections are largely due to insufficient knowledge of HZE ion radiobiology, which has led NASA to develop a unique probabilistic approach to radiation protection. We review NASA's approach to radiation risk assessment including its impact on astronaut dose limits and application of the ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle. The recently opened NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) provides the capability to simulate the cosmic rays in controlled ground-based experiments with biological and shielding models. We discuss how research at NSRL will lead to reductions in the uncertainties in risk projection models. In developing mission designs, the reduction of health risks and mission constraints including costs are competing concerns that need to be addressed through optimization procedures. Mitigating the risks from space radiation is a multi-factorial problem involving individual factors (age, gender, genetic makeup, and exposure history), operational factors (planetary destination, mission length, and period

  1. Managing Space Radiation Risks on Lunar and Mars Missions: Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; George, K.; Hu, X.; Kim, M. H.; Nikjoo, H.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation-induced health risks are a primary concern for human exploration outside the Earth's magnetosphere, and require improved approaches to risk estimation and tools for mitigation including shielding and biological countermeasures. Solar proton events are the major concern for short-term lunar missions (<60 d), and for long-term missions (>60 d) such as Mars exploration, the exposures to the high energy and charge (HZE) ions that make-up the galactic cosmic rays are the major concern. Health risks from radiation exposure are chronic risks including carcinogenesis and degenerative tissue risks, central nervous system effects, and acute risk such as radiation sickness or early lethality. The current estimate is that a more than four-fold uncertainty exists in the projection of lifetime mortality risk from cosmic rays, which severely limits analysis of possible benefits of shielding or biological countermeasure designs. Uncertainties in risk projections are largely due to insufficient knowledge of HZE ion radiobiology, which has led NASA to develop a unique probabilistic approach to radiation protection. We review NASA's approach to radiation risk assessment including its impact on astronaut dose limits and application of the ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle. The recently opened NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) provides the capability to simulate the cosmic rays in controlled ground-based experiments with biological and shielding models. We discuss how research at NSRL will lead to reductions in the uncertainties in risk projection models. In developing mission designs, the reduction of health risks and mission constraints including costs are competing concerns that need to be addressed through optimization procedures. Mitigating the risks from space radiation is a multi-factorial problem involving individual factors (age, gender, genetic makeup, and exposure history), operational factors (planetary destination, mission length, and period

  2. Managing Space Radiation Risks on Lunar and Mars Missions: Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; George, K.; Hu, X.; Kim, M. H.; Nikjoo, H.; Ponomarev, A.; Ren, L.; Shavers, M. R.; Wu, H.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation-induced health risks are a primary concern for human exploration outside the Earth's magnetosphere, and require improved approaches to risk estimation and tools for mitigation including shielding and biological countermeasures. Solar proton events are the major concern for short-term lunar missions (<60 d), and for long-term missions (>60 d) such as Mars exploration, the exposures to the high energy and charge (HZE) ions that make-up the galactic cosmic rays are the major concern. Health risks from radiation exposure are chronic risks including carcinogenesis and degenerative tissue risks, central nervous system effects, and acute risk such as radiation sickness or early lethality. The current estimate is that a more than four-fold uncertainty exists in the projection of lifetime mortality risk from cosmic rays, which severely limits analysis of possible benefits of shielding or biological countermeasure designs. Uncertainties in risk projections are largely due to insufficient knowledge of HZE ion radiobiology, which has led NASA to develop a unique probabilistic approach to radiation protection. We review NASA's approach to radiation risk assessment including its impact on astronaut dose limits and application of the ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle. The recently opened NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) provides the capability to simulate the cosmic rays in controlled ground-based experiments with biological and shielding models. We discuss how research at NSRL will lead to reductions in the uncertainties in risk projection models. In developing mission designs, the reduction of health risks and mission constraints including costs are competing concerns that need to be addressed through optimization procedures. Mitigating the risks from space radiation is a multi-factorial problem involving individual factors (age, gender, genetic makeup, and exposure history), operational factors (planetary destination, mission length, and period

  3. Managing Space Radiation Risks On Lunar and Mars Missions: Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; George, K.; Hu, X.; Kim, M. H.; Nikjoo, H.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation-induced health risks are a primary concern for human exploration outside the Earth's magnetosphere, and require improved approaches to risk estimation and tools for mitigation including shielding and biological countermeasures. Solar proton events are the major concern for short-term lunar missions (<60 d), and for long-term missions (>60 d) such as Mars exploration, the exposures to the high energy and charge (HZE) ions that make-up the galactic cosmic rays are the major concern. Health risks from radiation exposure are chronic risks including carcinogenesis and degenerative tissue risks, central nervous system effects, and acute risk such as radiation sickness or early lethality. The current estimate is that a more than four-fold uncertainty exists in the projection of lifetime mortality risk from cosmic rays, which severely limits analysis of possible benefits of shielding or biological countermeasure designs. Uncertainties in risk projections are largely due to insufficient knowledge of HZE ion radiobiology, which has led NASA to develop a unique probabilistic approach to radiation protection. We review NASA's approach to radiation risk assessment including its impact on astronaut dose limits and application of the ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle. The recently opened NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) provides the capability to simulate the cosmic rays in controlled ground-based experiments with biological and shielding models. We discuss how research at NSRL will lead to reductions in the uncertainties in risk projection models. In developing mission designs, the reduction of health risks and mission constraints including costs are competing concerns that need to be addressed through optimization procedures. Mitigating the risks from space radiation is a multi-factorial problem involving individual factors (age, gender, genetic makeup, and exposure history), operational factors (planetary destination, mission length, and period

  4. Mitigation of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure management chains: a meta-analysis and integrated assessment.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yong; Velthof, Gerard L; Oenema, Oene

    2015-03-01

    Livestock manure contributes considerably to global emissions of ammonia (NH3 ) and greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O). Various measures have been developed to mitigate these emissions, but most of these focus on one specific gas and/or emission source. Here, we present a meta-analysis and integrated assessment of the effects of mitigation measures on NH3 , CH4 and (direct and indirect) N2 O emissions from the whole manure management chain. We analysed the effects of mitigation technologies on NH3 , CH4 and N2 O emissions from individual sources statistically using results of 126 published studies. Whole-chain effects on NH3 and GHG emissions were assessed through scenario analysis. Significant NH3 reduction efficiencies were observed for (i) housing via lowering the dietary crude protein (CP) content (24-65%, compared to the reference situation), for (ii) external slurry storages via acidification (83%) and covers of straw (78%) or artificial films (98%), for (iii) solid manure storages via compaction and covering (61%, compared to composting), and for (iv) manure application through band spreading (55%, compared to surface application), incorporation (70%) and injection (80%). Acidification decreased CH4 emissions from stored slurry by 87%. Significant increases in N2 O emissions were found for straw-covered slurry storages (by two orders of magnitude) and manure injection (by 26-199%). These side-effects of straw covers and slurry injection on N2 O emission were relatively small when considering the total GHG emissions from the manure chain. Lowering the CP content of feed and acidifying slurry are strategies that consistently reduce NH3 and GHG emissions in the whole chain. Other strategies may reduce emissions of a specific gas or emissions source, by which there is a risk of unwanted trade-offs in the manure management chain. Proper farm-scale combinations of mitigation measures are important to minimize impacts of

  5. Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Working Group III (Mitigation).

    PubMed

    Bogner, Jean; Pipatti, Riitta; Hashimoto, Seiji; Diaz, Cristobal; Mareckova, Katarina; Diaz, Luis; Kjeldsen, Peter; Monni, Suvi; Faaij, Andre; Gao, Qingxian; Zhang, Tianzhu; Ahmed, Mohammed Abdelrafie; Sutamihardja, R T M; Gregory, Robert

    2008-02-01

    . Existing studies on mitigation potentials and costs for the waste sector tend to focus on landfill CH4 as the baseline. The commercial recovery of landfill CH4 as a source of renewable energy has been practised at full scale since 1975 and currently exceeds 105 Mt CO2-eq year(-1). Although landfill CH4 emissions from developed countries have been largely stabilized, emissions from developing countries are increasing as more controlled (anaerobic) landfilling practices are implemented; these emissions could be reduced by accelerating the introduction of engineered gas recovery, increasing rates of waste minimization and recycling, and implementing alternative waste management strategies provided they are affordable, effective, and sustainable. Aided by Kyoto mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI), the total global economic mitigation potential for reducing waste sector emissions in 2030 is estimated to be > 1000 Mt CO2-eq (or 70% of estimated emissions) at costs below 100 US$ t(-1) CO2-eq year(-1). An estimated 20-30% of projected emissions for 2030 can be reduced at negative cost and 30-50% at costs < 20 US$ t(-) CO2-eq year(-1). As landfills produce CH4 for several decades, incineration and composting are complementary mitigation measures to landfill gas recovery in the short- to medium-term--at the present time, there are > 130 Mt waste year(-1) incinerated at more than 600 plants. Current uncertainties with respect to emissions and mitigation potentials could be reduced by more consistent national definitions, coordinated international data collection, standardized data analysis, field validation of models, and consistent application of life-cycle assessment tools inclusive of fossil fuel offsets.

  6. Results of the UCAR 2008 Forum on Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellows, J.; Barron, E.

    2008-12-01

    Mayors, governors, and local decision makers are developing climate change action plans. They are not waiting for the federal carbon emission reduction debates to conclude (e.g., cap and trade or carbon tax legislation). Many of them are struggling with what should be in these plans, what they should be assuming about future weather and climate trends, and what the impact might be on their community and its infrastructure. In October 2008, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research held a forum at its 2008 Members' Meeting that focused on the UCAR community's role in climate change adaptation and mitigation. Many of UCAR's 71 university members are involved in projects with local and regional decision makers struggling with planning for the future in the face of climate change. The forum focused on the following questions: 1. How are these projects working and what lessons have we learned? 2. What can our community can do to assist these partnerships (e.g., models and other tools, better information, training opportunities, outreach, sharing ideas, etc.)? 3. Can we help our nation deal more effectively with climate mitigation and adaptation by being more strategic with these partnerships (e.g., more coordination, creating packages of tools and information, creating common approaches to climate action plans, developing better communication tools, community strategic planning effort, etc.)? This presentation will provide a summary of the forum outcomes.

  7. Watershed Assessment, Tracking & Environmental ResultS (WATERS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Watershed Assessment, Tracking & Environmental Results (WATERS) is an integrated information system for the nation's surface waters connecting Office of Water databases to a larger network of water information.

  8. An assessment of the dilution required to mitigate Hanford tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, J.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Felmy, A.R.; Stewart, C.W.; Tingey, J.M.; Trent, D.S.; Barney, G.S.; Herting, D.L.; Larrick, A.P.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    A group of experts from PNL and WHC convened November 2 and 3, 1994, to screen the current state of knowledge about dilution and reach a consensus on the minimum dilution ratio that will achieve passive mitigation of Tank 241-SY-101 wastes and the dilution ratio that would satisfy the given cross-site transfer criteria with reasonable assurance. The panel evaluated the effects of dilution on the parameters important in gas generation, retention, and release and reached the following conclusions, which are deduced from the existing body of data, experience, and analyses: (1) Dissolution of solids is the single most important aspect of mitigation by dilution. We are confident that diluting until nitrates, nitrites, and aluminum salts are dissolved will mitigate Hanford flammable gas tanks; (2) Sufficient solids dissolution can be achieved in Tank 241-SY-101 at a dilution ratio of 1:1, which will result in a average specific gravity of approximately 1.35. It is likely that a 0.5:1 dilution will also mitigate 241-SY-101, but the current uncertainty is too high to recommend this dilution ratio; (3) The recommended dilution requires a diluent with at least 2 molar free hydroxide, because aluminum probably precipitates at lower hydroxide concentrations. The transfer criteria for Tank 241-SY-101 waste were also evaluated. These criteria have been specified as solids content {<=}30% (volume), viscosity {<=}30% cP and density <1.5 g/mL. (1) Solids content is the limiting criterion if it is defined as volume fraction of settled solids. A 1:1 dilution will satisfy this criterion at nominal premixing conditions in Tank 241-SY-101; however, analysis of Window E core samples suggests that up to 1.5:1 might be required. If the solids content is interpreted simply as solids volume fraction no further dilution is necessary, because Tank 241-SY-101 waste (excluding the crust) is already below 30%; (2) Bulk density is the next limiting criterion and is met at 0.4:1 dilution.

  9. An intergenerational women's empowerment intervention to mitigate domestic violence: results of a pilot study in Bengaluru, India.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Subbiah, Kalyani; Khanum, Sajida; Chandra, Prabha S; Padian, Nancy S

    2012-03-01

    A growing body of literature has documented the global prevalence of domestic violence against women of reproductive age as well as the association between violence and an array of adverse reproductive, psychosocial, and child health outcomes. However, there is a dearth of research on domestic violence prevention interventions in the peer-reviewed literature to guide program planning and policy-making efforts. In this article, the authors describe the development and assessment of the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of an intergenerational women's empowerment-based intervention to mitigate domestic violence and related adverse health outcomes in low-income urban communities in Southern India.

  10. Eye disease resulting from increased use of fluorescent lighting as a climate change mitigation strategy.

    PubMed

    Walls, Helen L; Walls, Kelvin L; Benke, Geza

    2011-12-01

    Increased use of fluorescent lighting as a climate change mitigation strategy may increase eye disease. The safe range of light to avoid exposing the eye to potentially damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation is 2000 to 3500K and greater than 500 nanometers. Some fluorescent lights fall outside this safe range. Fluorescent lighting may increase UV-related eye diseases by up to 12% and, according to our calculations, may cause an additional 3000 cases of cataracts and 7500 cases of pterygia annually in Australia. Greater control of UV exposure from fluorescent lights is required. This may be of particular concern for aging populations in developed countries and countries in northern latitudes where there is a greater dependence on artificial lighting.

  11. Eye Disease Resulting From Increased Use of Fluorescent Lighting as a Climate Change Mitigation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Kelvin L.; Benke, Geza

    2011-01-01

    Increased use of fluorescent lighting as a climate change mitigation strategy may increase eye disease. The safe range of light to avoid exposing the eye to potentially damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation is 2000 to 3500K and greater than 500 nanometers. Some fluorescent lights fall outside this safe range. Fluorescent lighting may increase UV-related eye diseases by up to 12% and, according to our calculations, may cause an additional 3000 cases of cataracts and 7500 cases of pterygia annually in Australia. Greater control of UV exposure from fluorescent lights is required. This may be of particular concern for aging populations in developed countries and countries in northern latitudes where there is a greater dependence on artificial lighting. PMID:22021286

  12. Assessment of human thermal comfort and mitigation measures in different urban climatotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, N.; Kuttler, W.

    2012-04-01

    This study analyses thermal comfort in the model city of Oberhausen as an example for the densely populated metropolitan region Ruhr, Germany. As thermal loads increase due to climate change negative impacts especially for city dwellers will arise. Therefore mitigation strategies should be developed and considered in urban planning today to prevent future thermal stress. The method consists of the combination of in-situ measurements and numerical model simulations. So in a first step the actual thermal situation is determined and then possible mitigation strategies are derived. A measuring network was installed in eight climatotopes for a one year period recording air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction. Based on these parameters the human thermal comfort in terms of physiological equivalent temperature (PET) was calculated by RayMan Pro software. Thus the human comfort of different climatotopes was determined. Heat stress in different land uses varies, so excess thermal loads in urban areas could be detected. Based on the measuring results mitigation strategies were developed, such as increasing areas with high evaporation capacity (green areas and water bodies). These strategies were implemented as different plan scenarios in the microscale urban climate model ENVI-met. The best measure should be identified by comparing the range and effect of these scenarios. Simulations were run in three of the eight climatotopes (city center, suburban and open land site) to analyse the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies in several land use structures. These cover the range of values of all eight climatotopes and therefore provide representative results. In the model area of 21 ha total, the modified section in the different plan scenarios was 1 ha. Thus the effect of small-scale changes could be analysed. Such areas can arise due to population decline and structural changes and hold conversion potential. Emphasis was also laid on analysing the

  13. Policy learning for flood mitigation: a longitudinal assessment of the community rating system in Florida.

    PubMed

    Brody, Samuel D; Zahran, Sammy; Highfield, Wesley E; Bernhardt, Sarah P; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2009-06-01

    Floods continue to inflict the most damage upon human communities among all natural hazards in the United States. Because localized flooding tends to be spatially repetitive over time, local decisionmakers often have an opportunity to learn from previous events and make proactive policy adjustments to reduce the adverse effects of a subsequent storm. Despite the importance of understanding the degree to which local jurisdictions learn from flood risks and under what circumstances, little if any empirical, longitudinal research has been conducted along these lines. This article addresses the research gap by examining the change in local flood mitigation policies in Florida from 1999 to 2005. We track 18 different mitigation activities organized into four series of activities under the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) Community Rating System (CRS) for every local jurisdiction in Florida participating in the FEMA program on a yearly time step. We then identify the major factors contributing to policy changes based on CRS scores over the seven-year study period. Using multivariate statistical models to analyze both natural and social science data, we isolate the effects of several variables categorized into the following groups: hydrologic conditions, flood disaster history, socioeconomic and human capital controls. Results indicate that local jurisdictions do in fact learn from histories of flood risk and this process is expedited under specific conditions.

  14. The asteroid and comet impact hazard: risk assessment and mitigation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritzner, Christian; Dürfeld, Kai; Kasper, Jan; Fasoulas, Stefanos

    2006-08-01

    The impact of extraterrestrial matter onto Earth is a continuous process. On average, some 50,000 tons of dust are delivered to our planet every year. While objects smaller than about 30 m mainly disintegrate in the Earth’s atmosphere, larger ones can penetrate through it and cause damage on the ground. When an object of hundreds of meters in diameter impacts an ocean, a tsunami is created that can devastate coastal cities. Further, if a km-sized object hit the Earth it would cause a global catastrophe due to the transport of enormous amounts of dust and vapour into the atmosphere resulting in a change in the Earth’s climate. This article gives an overview of the near-Earth asteroid and comet (near-Earth object-NEO) impact hazard and the NEO search programmes which are gathering important data on these objects. It also points out options for impact hazard mitigation by using deflection systems. It further discusses the critical constraints for NEO deflection strategies and systems as well as mitigation and evacuation costs and benefits. Recommendations are given for future activities to solve the NEO impact hazard problem.

  15. The asteroid and comet impact hazard: risk assessment and mitigation options.

    PubMed

    Gritzner, Christian; Dürfeld, Kai; Kasper, Jan; Fasoulas, Stefanos

    2006-08-01

    The impact of extraterrestrial matter onto Earth is a continuous process. On average, some 50,000 tons of dust are delivered to our planet every year. While objects smaller than about 30 m mainly disintegrate in the Earth's atmosphere, larger ones can penetrate through it and cause damage on the ground. When an object of hundreds of meters in diameter impacts an ocean, a tsunami is created that can devastate coastal cities. Further, if a km-sized object hit the Earth it would cause a global catastrophe due to the transport of enormous amounts of dust and vapour into the atmosphere resulting in a change in the Earth's climate. This article gives an overview of the near-Earth asteroid and comet (near-Earth object-NEO) impact hazard and the NEO search programmes which are gathering important data on these objects. It also points out options for impact hazard mitigation by using deflection systems. It further discusses the critical constraints for NEO deflection strategies and systems as well as mitigation and evacuation costs and benefits. Recommendations are given for future activities to solve the NEO impact hazard problem.

  16. Integrated Modeling and Assessment of Climate Change Mitigation in North America: Lessons learned from Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olguin-Alvarez, M. I.; Kurz, W. A.; Wayson, C.; Birdsey, R.; Richardson, K.; Angeles, G.; Vargas, B.; Corral, J.; Magnan, M.; Fellows, M.; Morken, S.; Maldonado, V.; Mascorro, V.; Meneses, C.; Galicia, G.; Serrano, E.

    2016-12-01

    assessment in strategic landscapes in North America can help estimate the impact of several mitigation options consistent with national goals of GHG emission reductions.

  17. Assessing the bio-mitigation effect of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture on marine environment by a numerical approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junbo; Kitazawa, Daisuke

    2016-09-15

    With increasing concern over the aquatic environment in marine culture, the integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) has received extensive attention in recent years. A three-dimensional numerical ocean model is developed to explore the negative impacts of aquaculture wastes and assess the bio-mitigation effect of IMTA systems on marine environments. Numerical results showed that the concentration of surface phytoplankton could be controlled by planting seaweed (a maximum reduction of 30%), and the percentage change in the improvement of bottom dissolved oxygen concentration increased to 35% at maximum due to the ingestion of organic wastes by sea cucumbers. Numerical simulations indicate that seaweeds need to be harvested in a timely manner for maximal absorption of nutrients, and the initial stocking density of sea cucumbers >3.9 individuals m(-2) is preferred to further eliminate the organic wastes sinking down to the sea bottom.

  18. Modeling of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) using WRF - Assessment of adaptation and mitigation strategies for the city of Stuttgart.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Suppan, Peter; Emeis, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Cities are warmer than their surroundings (called urban heat island, UHI). UHI influence urban atmospheric circulation, air quality, and ecological conditions. UHI leads to upward motion and compensating near-surface inflow from the surroundings which import rural trace substances. Chemical and aerosol formation processes are modified due to increased temperature, reduced humidity and modified urban-rural trace substance mixtures. UHIs produce enhanced heat stress for humans, animals and plants, less water availability and modified air quality. Growing cities and Climate Change will aggravate the UHI and its effects and urgently require adaptation and mitigation strategies. Prior to this, UHI properties must be assessed by surface observations, ground- and satellite-based vertical remote sensing and numerical modelling. The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is an instrument to simulate and assess this phenomenon based on boundary conditions from observations and global climate models. Three urbanization schemes are available with WRF, which are tested during this study for different weather conditions in central Europe and will be enhanced if necessary. High resolution land use maps are used for this modeling effort. In situ measurements and Landsat thermal images are employed for validation of the results. The study will focus on the city of Stuttgart located in the south western part of Germany that is situated in a caldera-like orographic feature. This municipality has a long tradition in urban climate research and thus is well equipped with climatologic measurement stations. By using Geographical Information Systems (GIS), it is possible to simulate several scenarios for different surface properties. By increasing the albedo of roof and wall layers in the urban canopy model or by replacing urban land use by natural vegetation, simple urban planning strategies can be tested and the effect on urban heat island formation and air quality can be

  19. A methodological frame for assessing benzene induced leukemia risk mitigation due to policy measures.

    PubMed

    Karakitsios, Spyros P; Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis Α; Gotti, Alberto; Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Pilidis, Georgios A

    2013-01-15

    The study relies on the development of a methodology for assessing the determinants that comprise the overall leukemia risk due to benzene exposure and how these are affected by outdoor and indoor air quality regulation. An integrated modeling environment was constructed comprising traffic emissions, dispersion models, human exposure models and a coupled internal dose/biology-based dose-response risk assessment model, in order to assess the benzene imposed leukemia risk, as much as the impact of traffic fleet renewal and smoking banning to these levels. Regarding traffic fleet renewal, several "what if" scenarios were tested. The detailed full-chain methodology was applied in a South-Eastern European urban setting in Greece and a limited version of the methodology in Helsinki. Non-smoking population runs an average risk equal to 4.1·10(-5) compared to 23.4·10(-5) for smokers. The estimated lifetime risk for the examined occupational groups was higher than the one estimated for the general public by 10-20%. Active smoking constitutes a dominant parameter for benzene-attributable leukemia risk, much stronger than any related activity, occupational or not. From the assessment of mitigation policies it was found that the associated leukemia risk in the optimum traffic fleet scenario could be reduced by up to 85% for non-smokers and up to 8% for smokers. On the contrary, smoking banning provided smaller gains for (7% for non-smokers, 1% for smokers), while for Helsinki, smoking policies were found to be more efficient than traffic fleet renewal. The methodology proposed above provides a general framework for assessing aggregated exposure and the consequent leukemia risk from benzene (incorporating mechanistic data), capturing exposure and internal dosimetry dynamics, translating changes in exposure determinants to actual changes in population risk, providing a valuable tool for risk management evaluation and consequently to policy support.

  20. 77 FR 26292 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... its best to accommodate requests to speak. Individuals and organizations with common interests are... possible, the Agency seeks to solicit information and feedback about valid survey methods that can improve the quality and consistency of REMS assessment surveys. In addition, FDA seeks feedback on...

  1. Caffeine administration at night during extended wakefulness effectively mitigates performance impairment but not subjective assessments of fatigue and sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Paech, Gemma M; Banks, Siobhan; Pajcin, Maja; Grant, Crystal; Johnson, Kayla; Kamimori, Gary H; Vedova, Chris B Della

    2016-06-01

    The current study investigated the effects of repeated caffeine administration on performance and subjective reports of sleepiness and fatigue during 50h extended wakefulness. Twenty-four, non-smokers aged 22.5±2.9y (mean±SD) remained awake for two nights (50h) in a controlled laboratory environment. During this period, 200mg of caffeine or placebo gum was administered at 01:00, 03:00, 05:00 and 07:00 on both nights (total of 800mg/night). Neurobehavioral performance and subjective reports were assessed throughout the wake period. Caffeine improved performance compared to placebo, but did not affect overall ratings of subjective sleepiness and fatigue. Performance and sleepiness worsened with increasing time awake for both conditions. However, caffeine slowed performance impairments such that after 50h of wakefulness performance was better following caffeine administration compared to placebo. Caffeine also slowed the increase in subjective sleepiness and performance ratings, but only during the first night of wakefulness. After two nights of sleep deprivation, there was no difference in sleepiness ratings between the two conditions. These results demonstrate that strategic administration of caffeine effectively mitigates performance impairments associated with 50h wakefulness but does not improve overall subjective assessments of sleepiness, fatigue and performance. Results indicate that while performance impairment is alleviated, individuals may continue to report feelings of sleepiness. Individuals who use caffeine as a countermeasure in sustained operations may feel as though caffeine is not effective despite impairments in objective performance being largely mitigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of the water supply:demand ratios in a Mediterranean basin under different global change scenarios and mitigation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Boithias, Laurie; Acuña, Vicenç; Vergoñós, Laura; Ziv, Guy; Marcé, Rafael; Sabater, Sergi

    2014-02-01

    Spatial differences in the supply and demand of ecosystem services such as water provisioning often imply that the demand for ecosystem services cannot be fulfilled at the local scale, but it can be fulfilled at larger scales (regional, continental). Differences in the supply:demand (S:D) ratio for a given service result in different values, and these differences might be assessed with monetary or non-monetary metrics. Water scarcity occurs where and when water resources are not enough to meet all the demands, and this affects equally the service of water provisioning and the ecosystem needs. In this study we assess the value of water in a Mediterranean basin under different global change (i.e. both climate and anthropogenic changes) and mitigation scenarios, with a non-monetary metric: the S:D ratio. We computed water balances across the Ebro basin (North-East Spain) with the spatially explicit InVEST model. We highlight the spatial and temporal mismatches existing across a single hydrological basin regarding water provisioning and its consumption, considering or not, the environmental demand (environmental flow). The study shows that water scarcity is commonly a local issue (sub-basin to region), but that all demands are met at the largest considered spatial scale (basin). This was not the case in the worst-case scenario (increasing demands and decreasing supply), as the S:D ratio at the basin scale was near 1, indicating that serious problems of water scarcity might occur in the near future even at the basin scale. The analysis of possible mitigation scenarios reveals that the impact of global change may be counteracted by the decrease of irrigated areas. Furthermore, the comparison between a non-monetary (S:D ratio) and a monetary (water price) valuation metrics reveals that the S:D ratio provides similar values and might be therefore used as a spatially explicit metric to valuate the ecosystem service water provisioning. © 2013.

  3. A safety assessment for proposed pump mixing operations to mitigate episodic gas releases in tank 241-SY-101: Hanford Site,Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Lentsch, J.W.

    1996-07-01

    This safety assessment addresses each of the elements required for the proposed action to remove a slurry distributor and to install, operate, and remove a mixing pump in Tank 241-SY-101,which is located within the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington.The proposed action is required as part of an ongoing evaluation of various mitigation concepts developed to eliminate episodic gas releases that result in hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space that exceed the lower flammability limit.

  4. Safety assessment for proposed pump mixing operations to mitigate episodic gas releases in tank 241-101-SY: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Lentsch, J.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-16

    This safety assessment addresses each of the elements required for the proposed action to remove a slurry distributor and to install, operate, and remove a mixing pump in Tank 241-SY-101, which is located within the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The proposed action is required as part of an ongoing evaluation of various mitigation concepts developed to eliminate episodic gas releases that result in hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space that exceed the lower flammability limit.

  5. A new large initial condition ensemble to assess avoided impacts in a climate mitigation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, B. M.; Tebaldi, C.; Knutti, R.; Oleson, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that when considering timescales of up to 50 years, natural variability may play an equal role to anthropogenic forcing on subcontinental trends for a variety of climate indicators. Thus, for many questions assessing climate impacts on such time and spatial scales, it has become clear that a significant number of ensemble members may be required to produce robust statistics (and especially so for extreme events). However, large ensemble experiments to date have considered the role of variability in a single scenario, leaving uncertain the relationship between the forced climate trajectory and the variability about that path. To address this issue, we present a new, publicly available, 15 member initial condition ensemble of 21st century climate projections for the RCP 4.5 scenario using the CESM1.1 Earth System Model, which we propose as a companion project to the existing 40 member CESM large ensemble which uses the higher greenhouse gas emission future of RCP8.5. This provides a valuable data set for assessing what societal and ecological impacts might be avoided through a moderate mitigation strategy in contrast to a fossil fuel intensive future. We present some early analyses of these combined ensembles to assess to what degree the climate variability can be considered to combine linearly with the underlying forced response. In regions where there is no detectable relationship between the mean state and the variability about the mean trajectory, then linear assumptions can be trivially exploited to utilize a single ensemble or control simulation to characterize the variability in any scenario of interest. We highlight regions where there is a detectable nonlinearity in extreme event frequency, how far in the future they will be manifested and propose mechanisms to account for these effects.

  6. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  7. Multidisciplinary assessment of pesticide mitigation in soil amended with vermicomposted agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jean Manuel; Beguet, Jérèmie; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-03-05

    Soil organic amendment affects biotic and abiotic processes that control the fate of pesticides, but the treatment history of the soil is also relevant. These processes were assessed in a multidisciplinary study with the aim of optimizing pesticide mitigation in soils. Soil microcosms pre-treated (E2) or not with diuron (E1) were amended with either winery (W) or olive waste (O) vermicomposts. Herbicide dissipation followed a double first-order model in E1 microcosms, but a single first-order model in E2. Also, diuron persistence was longer in E1 than in E2 (E1-DT50>200 day(-1), E2-DT50<16 day(-1)). The genetic structure of the bacterial community was modified by both diuron exposure and amendment. O-vermicompost increased enzymatic activities in both experiments, but diuron-degrading genetic potential (puhB) was quantified only in E2 microcosms in accordance with reduced diuron persistence. Therefore, O-vermicompost addition favoured the proliferation of diuron degraders, increasing the soil diuron-depuration capability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mitigating climate change by sequestering carbon soils: A hypertext-based scientific assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, H.M.; Alban, D.H. ); Johnson, D.W. )

    1992-01-01

    The general objective of this project is the development of a hypertext-based scientific assessment on the subject of mitigating climate change by sequestering carbon in soils. Specifically, the authors want to (1) translate the scientific knowledge base on soil carbon cycling into a form meaningful for policy makers by using the theory of issue-based hypertext for problem solving using the argumentative approach developed by the late Horst Rittel, professor of planning and design at the University of California, Berkeley; (2) provide an organized and evaluated scientific knowledge base on soil carbon dynamics for research scientists to aid in the rapid and economical review and understanding of the subfield of science; and (3) test this new hybrid hypertext and AI methodology for use as a tool for program managers to help them evaluate a research domain to find knowledge gaps, to prioritize these knowledge gaps, to channel available research funding to these projects aimed at filling the most promising knowledge gaps in order to have the greatest possible impact on the entire knowledge base of the field, and to help explicitly measure scientific progress in terms that funding sources can understand. The authors began this project in fall 1991 and expect to complete it by fall 1993.

  9. Measurement-based auralization methodology for the assessment of noise mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Pieter; Wei, Weigang; Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick

    2016-09-01

    The effect of noise mitigation measures is generally expressed by noise levels only, neglecting the listener's perception. In this study, an auralization methodology is proposed that enables an auditive preview of noise abatement measures for road traffic noise, based on the direction dependent attenuation of a priori recordings made with a dedicated 32-channel spherical microphone array. This measurement-based auralization has the advantage that all non-road traffic sounds that create the listening context are present. The potential of this auralization methodology is evaluated through the assessment of the effect of an L-shaped mound. The angular insertion loss of the mound is estimated by using the ISO 9613-2 propagation model, the Pierce barrier diffraction model and the Harmonoise point-to-point model. The realism of the auralization technique is evaluated by listening tests, indicating that listeners had great difficulty in differentiating between a posteriori recordings and auralized samples, which shows the validity of the followed approaches.

  10. Assessing and Mitigating the Effects of Windblown Soil on Rare and Common Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, Sean M.; Faucette, Dave T.; Toyofuku, Mai M.; Torres, Carlos A.; Bagley, Calvin F.

    2007-12-01

    Acting under the auspices of the US Endangered Species Act, we quantified wind erosion and its effects on rare and common plant species on a semi-arid military installation in Hawaii. Our goal was to develop management strategies, based on local data, to aid the conservation of rare and common indigenous plants and their habitats. We collected windblown soil coming off of roads and other disturbed soils to assess likely impacts to plants occurring at certain heights and distances from disturbed surfaces. We then subjected plants in a glasshouse to windblown dust treatments, designed from our field data to simulate erosion events, and evaluated the effect of these treatments on photosynthesis and survival. We also designed several field experiments to examine the in-situ effects of windblown soil and soil substrate on germination, growth rate, and survival of indigenous and nonindigenous plants. We conclude from these experiments that most direct effects of windblown soil to plants can be effectively mitigated by locating roads and training areas at least 40 m from sensitive plant habitats and through vegetation management to maintain at least 11% aerial cover on disturbed surfaces. Effects of soil type on germination, growth, and survival was species-specific, emphasizing the importance of species trials prior to, or during, rehabilitation efforts.

  11. Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards and success stories in disaster prevention and mitigation in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    The Philippines, being a locus of typhoons, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. Natural hazards inflict loss of lives and costly damage to property in the country. In 2011, after tropical storm Washi devastated cities in southern Philippines, the Department of Science and Technology put in place a responsive program to warn and give communities hours-in-advance lead-time to prepare for imminent hazards and use advanced science and technology to enhance geohazard maps for more effective disaster prevention and mitigation. Since its launch, there have been many success stories on the use of Project NOAH, which after Typhoon Haiyan was integrated into the Pre-Disaster Risk Assessment (PDRA) system of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), the government agency tasked to prepare for, and respond to, natural calamities. Learning from past disasters, NDRRMC now issues warnings, through scientific advise from DOST-Project NOAH and PAGASA (Philippine Weather Bureau) that are hazards-specific, area-focused and time-bound. Severe weather events in 2015 generated dangerous hazard phenomena such as widespread floods and massive debris flows, which if not for timely, accessible and understandable warnings, could have turned into disasters. We call these events as "disasters that did not happen". The innovative warning system of the Philippine government has so far proven effective in addressing the impacts of hydrometeorological hazards and can be employed elsewhere in the world.

  12. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  13. Techniques to Assess and Mitigate the Environmental Risk Posed by use of Airguns: Recent Advances from Academic Research Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, P. J.; Tyack, P. L.; Johnson, M. P.; Madsen, P. T.; King, R.

    2006-05-01

    There is considerable uncertainty about the ways in which marine mammals might react to noise, the biological significance of reactions, and the effectiveness of planning and real-time mitigation techniques. A planning tool commonly used to assess environmental risk of acoustic activities uses simulations to predict acoustic exposures received by animals, and translates exposure to response using a dose-response function to yield an estimate of the undesired impact on a population. Recent advances show promise to convert this planning tool into a real-time mitigation tool, using Bayesian statistical methods. In this approach, being developed for use by the British Navy, the environmental risk simulation is updated continuously during field operations. The distribution of exposure, set initially based on animal density, is updated in real-time using animal sensing data or environmental data known to correlate with the absence or presence of marine mammals. This conditional probability of animal presence should therefore be more accurate than prior probabilities used during planning, which enables a more accurate and quantitative assessment of both the impact of activities and reduction of impact via mitigation decisions. Two key areas of uncertainty in addition to animal presence/absence are 1.) how biologically-relevant behaviours are affected by exposure to noise, and 2.) whether animals avoid loud noise sources, which is the basis of ramp-up as a mitigation tool. With support from MMS and industry partners, we assessed foraging behaviour and avoidance movements of 8 tagged sperm whales in the Gulf of Mexico during experimental exposure to airguns. The whale that was approached most closely prolonged a surface resting bout hours longer than typical, but resumed foraging immediately after the airguns ceased, suggesting avoidance of deep diving necessary for foraging near active airguns. Behavioral indices of foraging rate (echolocation buzzes produced during prey

  14. Assessment and Mitigation of PM pollution in the border regions of Austria and Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrner, Ulrich; Reifeltshammer, Rafael; Lackner, Bettina; Forkel, Renate; Sturm, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Many cities, towns and regions located at the southern fringe of the Alps face remarkably high PM levels particularly during the winter period. The project PMinter aimed 1) to analyse the air quality in S-Styria, S-Carinthia and N-Slovenia, 2) to evaluate local and regional measures to develop effective air quality management plans and finally 3) to support a sustainable improvement of air quality in the project region. Using wood for residential heating is very popular in Austria and in Slovenia. To assess the contribution from wood smoke to the total PM burden and the impact of regional and large scale transport as well as the impact of secondary aerosols were major goals of PMinter. Due to the complex terrain air quality and exposure assessment is challenging. To resolve sources which are located in valleys and basins, emissions were computed or processed on 1 km x 1 km resolution for the entire program area. A new combined model approach was developed and tested successfully using a state-of-the-art CTM (WRF/Chem) on the regional scale and the Lagrangian particle model GRAL on the local scale. A detailed analysis and comparisons with measurements and regional/local scale scenario simulations were carried out. Residential heating using wood was identified as the major source and PM component dominant on the "local scale" ( 10 km), secondary inorganic aerosol was the dominant PM component on the regional scale ( 10 km - 150 km) and above. Various mitigation scenarios for PM were computed. A "local" scenario where individual heating facilities using solid fuels were replaced by district heating and a regional scenario with 35% reduced ammonia emissions from agriculture proved to be most effective.

  15. The 3D Elevation Program—Landslide recognition, hazard assessment, and mitigation support

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Carswell, Jr., William J.

    2017-01-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Program conducts landslide hazard assessments, pursues landslide investigations and forecasts, provides technical assistance to respond to landslide emergencies, and engages in outreach. All of these activities benefit from the availability of high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) elevation information in the form of light detection and ranging (lidar) data and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) data. Research on landslide processes addresses critical questions of where and when landslides are likely to occur as well as their size, speed, and effects. This understanding informs the development of methods and tools for hazard assessment and situational awareness used to guide efforts to avoid or mitigate landslide impacts. Such research is essential for the USGS to provide improved information on landslide potential associated with severe storms, earthquakes, volcanic activity, coastal wave erosion, and wildfire burn areas.Decisionmakers in government and the private sector increasingly depend on information the USGS provides before, during, and following disasters so that communities can live, work, travel, and build safely. The USGS 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) provides the programmatic infrastructure to generate and supply lidar-derived superior terrain data to address landslide applications and a wide range of other urgent needs nationwide. By providing data to users, 3DEP reduces users’ costs and risks and allows them to concentrate on their mission objectives. 3DEP includes (1) data acquisition partnerships that leverage funding, (2) contracts with experienced private mapping firms, (3) technical expertise, lidar data standards, and specifications, and (4) most important, public access to high-quality 3D elevation data.

  16. Industrial fouling: problem characterization, economic assessment, and review of prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    A comprehensive overview of heat exchanger fouling in the manufacturing industries is provided. Specifically, this overview addresses: the characteristics of industrial fouling problems; the mitigation and accommodation techniques currently used by industry; and the types and magnitude of costs associated with industrial fouling. A detailed review of the fouling problems, costs and mitigation techniques is provided for the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum, cement, glass and primary metals industries.

  17. Rockfall hazard assessment, risk quantification, and mitigation options for reef cove resort development, False Cape, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlotfeldt, P.

    2009-04-01

    GIS and 2-D rock fall simulations were used as the primary tools during a rock fall hazard assessment and analyses for a major resort and township development near Cairns, Queensland in Australia. The methods used included 1) the development of a digital elevation model (DEM); undertaking rock fall trajectory analyses to determine the end points of rockfalls, the distribution of kinetic energy for identified rock fall runout Zones, and 3) undertaking event tree analyses based on a synthesis of all data in order to establish Zones with the highest risk of fatalities. This paper describes the methodology used and the results of this work. Recommendations to mitigate the hazard included having exclusions zones with no construction, scaling (including trim blasting), construction of berms and rockfall catch fences. Keywords: GIS, rockfall simulation, rockfall runout Zones, mitigation options INTRODUCTION False Cape is located on the east side of the Trinity inlet near Cairns (Figure 1). Construction is underway for a multi-million dollar development close the beach front. The development will ultimately cover about 1.5 km of prime coast line. The granite slopes above the development are steep and are covered with a number of large, potentially unstable boulders. Sheet jointing is present in the in-situ bedrock and these combined with other tectonic joint sets have provided a key mechanism for large side down slope on exposed bedrock. With each rock fall (evidence by boulders strew in gullies, over the lower parts of the slope, and on the beach) the failure mechanism migrates upslope. In order for the Developer to proceed with construction he needs to mitigate the identified rock fall hazard. The method used to study the hazard and key finding are presented in this paper. Discussion is provided in the conclusion on mitigation options. KEY METHODS USED TO STUDY THE HAZARD In summary the methods used to study the hazard for the False Cape project include; 1. The

  18. Assessment of Weld Overlays for Mitigating Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking at Nickel Alloy Butt Welds in Piping Systems Approved for Leak-Before-Break

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Edward J.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-08-01

    This TLR provides an assessment of weld overlays as a mitigation strategy for PWSCC, and includes an assessment of the WOL-related inspection requirements of Code Case N-770-1, as conditioned in §50.55a.

  19. Acceleration-based methodology to assess the blast mitigation performance of explosive ordnance disposal helmets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionne, J. P.; Levine, J.; Makris, A.

    2017-07-01

    To design the next generation of blast mitigation helmets that offer increasing levels of protection against explosive devices, manufacturers must be able to rely on appropriate test methodologies and human surrogates that will differentiate the performance level of various helmet solutions and ensure user safety. Ideally, such test methodologies and associated injury thresholds should be based on widely accepted injury criteria relevant within the context of blast. Unfortunately, even though significant research has taken place over the last decade in the area of blast neurotrauma, there currently exists no agreement in terms of injury mechanisms for blast-induced traumatic brain injury. In absence of such widely accepted test methods and injury criteria, the current study presents a specific blast test methodology focusing on explosive ordnance disposal protective equipment, involving the readily available Hybrid III mannequin, initially developed for the automotive industry. The unlikely applicability of the associated brain injury criteria (based on both linear and rotational head acceleration) is discussed in the context of blast. Test results encompassing a large number of blast configurations and personal protective equipment are presented, emphasizing the possibility to develop useful correlations between blast parameters, such as the scaled distance, and mannequin engineering measurements (head acceleration). Suggestions are put forward for a practical standardized blast testing methodology taking into account limitations in the applicability of acceleration-based injury criteria as well as the inherent variability in blast testing results.

  20. Carbon mitigation with biomass: An engineering, economic and policy assessment of opportunities and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, James S., III

    2007-12-01

    Industrial bio-energy systems provide diverse opportunities for abating anthropogenic greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions and for advancing other important policy objectives. The confluence of potential contributions to important social, economic, and environmental policy objectives with very real challenges to deployment creates rich opportunities for study. In particular, the analyses developed in this thesis aim to increase understanding of how industrial bio-energy may be applied to abate GHG emissions in prospective energy markets, the relative merits of alternate bio-energy systems, the extent to which public support for developing such systems is justified, and the public policy instruments that may be capable of providing such support. This objective is advanced through analysis of specific industrial bio-energy technologies, in the form of bottom-up engineering-economic analyses, to determine their economic performance relative to other mitigation options. These bottom-up analyses are used to inform parameter definitions in two higher-level stochastic models that explicitly account for uncertainty in key model parameters, including capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, and fuel costs. One of these models is used to develop supply curves for electricity generation and carbon mitigation from biomass-coal cofire in the U.S. The other is used to characterize the performance of multiple bio-energy systems in the context of a competitive market for low-carbon energy products. The results indicate that industrial bio-energy systems are capable of making a variety of potentially important contributions under scenarios that value anthropogenic GHG emissions. In the near term, cofire of available biomass in existing coal fired power plants has the potential to provide substantial emissions reductions at reasonable costs. Carbon prices between 30 and 70 per ton carbon could induce reductions in U.S. carbon emissions by 100 to 225 megatons carbon ("Mt

  1. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Volume One, Libby Dam Project, Operator, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

    SciTech Connect

    Yde, Chris A.

    1984-10-01

    This assessment addresses the impacts to the wildlife populations and wildlife habitats due to the Libby Dam project on the Kootenai River and previous mitigation of these losses. The current assessment documents the best available information concerning the impacts to the wildlife populations inhabiting the project area prior to construction of the dam and creation of the reservoir. Many of the impacts reported in this assessment differ from those contained in the earlier document compiled by the Fish and Wildlife Service; however, this document is a thorough compilation of the available data (habitat and wildlife) and, though conservative, attempts to realistically assess the impacts related to the Libby Dam project. Where appropriate the impacts resulting from highway construction and railroad relocation were included in the assessment. This was consistent with the previous assessments.

  2. Climate model emulation in an integrated assessment framework: a case study for mitigation policies in the electricity sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, A. M.; Holden, P. B.; Edwards, N. R.; Mercure, J.-F.; Salas, P.; Pollitt, H.; Chewpreecha, U.

    2016-02-01

    We present a carbon-cycle-climate modelling framework using model emulation, designed for integrated assessment modelling, which introduces a new emulator of the carbon cycle (GENIEem). We demonstrate that GENIEem successfully reproduces the CO2 concentrations of the Representative Concentration Pathways when forced with the corresponding CO2 emissions and non-CO2 forcing. To demonstrate its application as part of the integrated assessment framework, we use GENIEem along with an emulator of the climate (PLASIM-ENTSem) to evaluate global CO2 concentration levels and spatial temperature and precipitation response patterns resulting from CO2 emission scenarios. These scenarios are modelled using a macroeconometric model (E3MG) coupled to a model of technology substitution dynamics (FTT), and represent different emissions reduction policies applied solely in the electricity sector, without mitigation in the rest of the economy. The effect of cascading uncertainty is apparent, but despite uncertainties, it is clear that in all scenarios, global mean temperatures in excess of 2 °C above pre-industrial levels are projected by the end of the century. Our approach also highlights the regional temperature and precipitation patterns associated with the global mean temperature change occurring in these scenarios, enabling more robust impacts modelling and emphasizing the necessity of focusing on spatial patterns in addition to global mean temperature change.

  3. Forest bioenergy or forest carbon? Assessing trade-offs in greenhouse gas mitigation with wood-based fuels.

    PubMed

    McKechnie, Jon; Colombo, Steve; Chen, Jiaxin; Mabee, Warren; MacLean, Heather L

    2011-01-15

    The potential of forest-based bioenergy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when displacing fossil-based energy must be balanced with forest carbon implications related to biomass harvest. We integrate life cycle assessment (LCA) and forest carbon analysis to assess total GHG emissions of forest bioenergy over time. Application of the method to case studies of wood pellet and ethanol production from forest biomass reveals a substantial reduction in forest carbon due to bioenergy production. For all cases, harvest-related forest carbon reductions and associated GHG emissions initially exceed avoided fossil fuel-related emissions, temporarily increasing overall emissions. In the long term, electricity generation from pellets reduces overall emissions relative to coal, although forest carbon losses delay net GHG mitigation by 16-38 years, depending on biomass source (harvest residues/standing trees). Ethanol produced from standing trees increases overall emissions throughout 100 years of continuous production: ethanol from residues achieves reductions after a 74 year delay. Forest carbon more significantly affects bioenergy emissions when biomass is sourced from standing trees compared to residues and when less GHG-intensive fuels are displaced. In all cases, forest carbon dynamics are significant. Although study results are not generalizable to all forests, we suggest the integrated LCA/forest carbon approach be undertaken for bioenergy studies.

  4. Assessing the IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines: A Case for Ontology-based Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, R.; Gaylor, D.; Reddy, V.; Furfaro, R.; Jah, M.

    2016-09-01

    As the population of man-made debris orbiting the Earth increases, so does the risk of damaging collisions. The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) has issued space debris mitigation guidelines including a key recommendation that before mission's end, spacecraft should move far enough from GEO so as not to be an operational hazard to other objects in active missions. It can be extremely difficult to determine if a spacecraft or operator is in compliance with this guideline, as it requires prediction of future actions based upon many data types. Furthermore, there has been no comprehensive assessment of the adequacy or validity of the IADC recommendations. The EU strives for a Code of Conduct in space, the United Nations-Committee On Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS) strives for guidelines to ensure the Long Term Sustainability of Space Activities (LTSSA), the FAA is concerned with Space Traffic Management (STM), etc. If rules, policies, guidelines, and laws are put in place, how can any entity know who and what is adhering to them, when we don't even know how to quantify and assess behavior of space objects? The University of Arizona aims to address this salient issue. As part of its new Space Object Behavioral Sciences (SOBS) initiative, the University of Arizona is developing an ontology-based system to support integration, use, and sharing of space domain data. As a first use-case, we will test the system's ability to assess compliance with the IADC recommendation to move beyond GEO at the end of a mission as well as the adequacy and validity of recommendations. We describe the relevant data types gathered for this use-case, present a prototype ontology, and outline methods for combining semantic analysis with astrodynamics modeling. Without loss of generality, we present this method as an approach that will form the foundation of SOBS and be used to address pressing challenges in Space Situational Awareness (SSA), Orbital Safety

  5. Preliminary Results of Bedrock Variations in the Tekirdag Region (NW Turkey) by Multidisciplinary Geophysical Methods for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuncer, M. K.; Arslan, M. S.; Ozel, A. O.; İşseven, T.; Genc, T.; Aksahin, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    As it is well known, North Anatolian fault Zone is highly capable of producing destructive earthquakes. Hence, earthquake hazard mitigation studies are very important for the urban areas which is close to the major faults. From this point of view, multidisciplinary geophysical methods has important role for the study of seismic hazard problems including seismotectonic zoning. Our study area Tekirdag region which located western end of Nort Anatolian Fault Zone is quite close to the North Anatolian Fault which is capable of producing a large earthquake. We carried out research on determination of bedrock variations has been carried out in the Tekirdag Region which took place in the western end of North Anatolian Fault Zone by using multidisciplinary geophysical methods. This research has been performed in the frame of a national project, which is a complimentary project of the joint project between Turkey and Japan (JICA&JST), named as "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education. Microgravity and magnetic measurements are performed on the seven profiles of 45km to 60km length. We attempt to map variations in bedrock, its geologic structure along the profiles. According to the results obtained in the region where the north-south direction is toward the north branch of the bedrock, and also in the east-west direction it was determined to be deepening westward. Final target would be 3-dimensional mapping of bedrock in the area.

  6. Therapeutic outcomes, assessments, risk factors and mitigation efforts of immunogenicity of therapeutic protein products.

    PubMed

    Yin, Liusong; Chen, Xiaoying; Vicini, Paolo; Rup, Bonita; Hickling, Timothy P

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic protein products (TPPs) are of considerable value in the treatment of a variety of diseases, including cancer, hemophilia, and autoimmune diseases. The success of TPP mainly results from prolonged half-life, increased target specificity and decreased intrinsic toxicity compared with small molecule drugs. However, unwanted immune responses against TPP, such as generation of anti-drug antibody, can impact both drug efficacy and patient safety, which has led to requirements for increased monitoring in regulatory studies and clinical practice, termination of drug development, or even withdrawal of marketed products. We present an overview of current knowledge on immunogenicity of TPP and its impact on efficacy and safety. We also discuss methods for measurement and prediction of immunogenicity and review both product-related and patient-related risk factors that affect its development, and efforts that may be taken to mitigate it. Lastly, we discuss gaps in knowledge and technology and what is needed to fill these. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated Assessment of Global Water Scarcity over the 21st Century under Multiple Climate Change Mitigation Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and a global population of 14 billion by 2095, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demand for water exceeds the amount of water availability in two GCAM regions, the Middle East and India. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 20% and 27% of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in areas (grid cells) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change.

  8. Fish and wildlife mitigation options for port development in Tampa Bay: results of a workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auble, Gregor T.; Andrews, Austin K.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.

    1985-01-01

    This report records the results of a workshop held September 25-27, 1983, in Tampa, Florida. The organization of the report closely follows the organization of the workshop itself. The workshop began with a definition of objectives and several presentations providing general background. The context and objectives of the workshop are covered in the INTRODUCTION. A summary of the results of two group discussions is presented in the WORKSHOP RESULTS section. One group identified ways to conduct or locate port development activities in Tampa Bay so as to lessen their adverse impacts; the other group identified ways to compensate for unavoidable impacts by creating or improving important fish and wildlife habitats. Finally, the DISCUSSION section contains the authors' synthesis of more general comments made throughout the workshop, especially during the closing session.

  9. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation from changes to crop root mass and architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Paustian, Keith; Campbell, Nell; Dorich, Chris; Marx, Ernest; Swan, Amy

    2016-01-29

    Reducing (and eventually reversing) the increase in greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere due to human activities, and thus reducing the extent and severity of anthropogenic climate change, is one of the great challenges facing humanity. While most of the man-caused increase in GHGs has been due to fossil fuel use, land use (including agriculture) currently accounts for about 25% of total GHG emissions and thus there is a need to include emission reductions from the land use sector as part of an effective climate change mitigation strategy. In addition, analyses included in the recent IPCC 5th Climate Change Assessment report suggests that it may not be possible to achieve large enough emissions reductions in the energy, transport and industrial sectors alone to stabilize GHG concentrations at a level commensurate with a less than 2°C global average temperature increase, without the help of a substantial CO2 sink (i.e., atmospheric CO2 removal) from the land use sector. One of the potential carbon sinks that could contribute to this goal is increasing C storage in soil organic matter on managed lands. This report details a preliminary scoping analysis, to assess the potential agricultural area in the US – where appropriate soil, climate and land use conditions exist – to determine the land area on which ‘improved root phenotype’ crops could be deployed and to evaluate the potential long-term soil C storage, given a set of ‘bounding scenarios’ of increased crop root input and/or rooting depth for major crop species (e.g., row crops (corn, sorghum, soybeans), small grains (wheat, barley, oats), and hay and pasture perennial forages). The enhanced root phenotype scenarios assumed 25, 50 and 100% increase in total root C inputs, in combination with five levels of modifying crop root distributions (i.e., no change and four scenarios with increasing downward shift in root distributions). We also analyzed impacts of greater root

  10. Wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry: Assessment, conclusions, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkey, P.L.; Sundell, R.C.; Bailey, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Wetland mitigation banks are already in existence in the United States, and the number is increasing. To date, most of these banks have been created and operated for mitigation of impacts arising from highway or commercial development and have not been associated with the oil and gas industry. Argonne National Laboratory evaluated the positive and negative aspects of wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry by examining banks already created for other uses by federal, state, and private entities. Specific issues addressed in this study include (1) the economic, ecological, and technical effectiveness of existing banks; (2) the changing nature of local, state, and federal jurisdiction; and (3) the unique regulatory and jurisdictional problems affecting bank developments associated with the oil and gas industry.

  11. Resource Assessment Project: User needs survey results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulstrom, R. L.

    1989-11-01

    This document presents the results of an extensive survey conducted by the Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) Resource Assessment and Instrumentation Branch. This survey addressed the needs for solar radiation data, models, algorithms, forecasts, and instrumentation, according to the various solar energy conversion technologies (photovoltaics, solar thermal, passive heating/cooling/daylighting, active solar heating/cooling (ASHC), and biomass). The survey was actually conducted during fiscal years 1984 and 1985 as input to the establishment of a formal Department of Energy (DOE) Resource Assessment Program. The survey included only solar radiation, as opposed to wind and other renewable resources. SERI is responsible for the solar radiation portion of the DOE Resource Assessment Program. The survey was conducted by sending a questionnaire to 135 individuals at DOE, the Department of Agriculture, industry, and various national laboratories, universities, and utilities, to represent a cross section of the previously named solar energy conversion technologies. The results of the survey were analyzed and summarized. The exact needs for solar radiation data, models, algorithms, forecasts, and instrumentation will surely change with time. Therefore, the SERI Resource Assessment and Instrumentation Branch will update the list continually.

  12. SNS Emittance Scanner, Increasing Sensitivity and Performance through Noise Mitigation ,Design, Implementation and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pogge, J.

    2006-11-20

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The SNS MEBT Emittance Harp consists of 16 X and 16 Y wires, located in close proximity to the RFQ, Source, and MEBT Choppers. Beam Studies for source and LINAC commissioning required an overall increase in sensitivity for halo monitoring and measurement, and at the same time several severe noise sources had to be effectively removed from the harp signals. This paper is an overview of the design approach and techniques used in increasing gain and sensitivity while maintaining a large signal to noise ratio for the emittance scanner device. A brief discussion of the identification of the noise sources, the mechanism for transmission and pick up, how the signals were improved and a summary of results.

  13. Making the Handoff from Earthquake Hazard Assessments to Effective Mitigation Measures (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, D.

    2010-12-01

    This year has witnessed a barrage of large earthquakes worldwide with the resulting damages ranging from inconsequential to truly catastrophic. We cannot predict when earthquakes will strike, but we can build communities that are resilient to strong shaking as well as to secondary hazards such as landslides and liquefaction. The contrasting impacts of the magnitude-7 earthquake that struck Haiti in January and the magnitude-8.8 event that struck Chile in April underscore the difference that mitigation and preparedness can make. In both cases, millions of people were exposed to severe shaking, but deaths in Chile were measured in the hundreds rather than the hundreds of thousands that perished in Haiti. Numerous factors contributed to these disparate outcomes, but the most significant is the presence of strong building codes in Chile and their total absence in Haiti. The financial cost of the Chilean earthquake still represents an unacceptably high percentage of that nation’s gross domestic product, a reminder that life safety is the paramount, but not the only, goal of disaster risk reduction measures. For building codes to be effective, both in terms of lives saved and economic cost, they need to reflect the hazard as accurately as possible. As one of four federal agencies that make up the congressionally mandated National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) develops national seismic hazard maps that form the basis for seismic provisions in model building codes through the Federal Emergency Management Agency and private-sector practitioners. This cooperation is central to NEHRP, which both fosters earthquake research and establishes pathways to translate research results into implementation measures. That translation depends on the ability of hazard-focused scientists to interact and develop mutual trust with risk-focused engineers and planners. Strengthening that interaction is an opportunity for the next generation

  14. Preliminary Experimental Results on the Technique of Artificial River Replenishment to Mitigate Sediment Loss Downstream Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, M. J.; Battisacco, E.; Schleiss, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The transport of sediments by water throughout the river basins, from the steep slopes of the upstream regions to the sea level, is recognizable important to keep the natural conditions of rivers with a role on their ecology processes. Over the last decades, a reduction on the supply of sand and gravel has been observed downstream dams existing in several alpine rivers. Many studies highlight that the presence of a dam strongly modifies the river behavior in the downstream reach, in terms of morphology and hydrodynamics, with consequences on local ecology. Sediment deficit, bed armoring, river incision and bank instability are the main effects which affect negatively the aquatic habitats and the water quality. One of the proposed techniques to solve the problem of sediment deficit downstream dams, already adopted in few Japanese and German rivers although on an unsatisfactory fashion, is the artificial replenishment of these. Generally, it was verified that the erosion of the replenishments was not satisfactory and the transport rate was not enough to move the sediments to sufficient downstream distances. In order to improve and to provide an engineering answer to make this technique more applicable, a series of laboratory tests are ran as preparatory study to understand the hydrodynamics of the river flow when the replenishment technique is applied. Erodible volumes, with different lengths and submergence conditions, reproducing sediment replenishments volumes, are positioned along a channel bank. Different geometrical combinations of erodible sediment volumes are tested as well on the experimental flume. The first results of the experimental research, concerning erosion time evolution, the influence of discharge and the distance travelled by the eroded sediments, will be presented and discussed.

  15. Assessing impacts of fire and post-fire on runoff and erosion from rangelands mitigation

    Treesearch

    Frederick B. Pierson; C. Jason Williams; Pete Robichaud

    2015-01-01

    To provide an overview of the immediate and short-term hydrologic impacts of fire on infiltration, runoff, and erosion by water, and of the effectiveness of various mitigation treatments in the reduction of runoff and erosion in the years following the fire.

  16. Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. Progress report, June 1990--July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This reporting period marks the end of Phase 1 Screening and the beginning of Phase 2 Assessment. During Phase 1, radon detectors were shipped to all Department of Navy (DON) sites with family housing areas, child-care centers, schools, hospitals, bachelor quarters, and brigs. 14,350 radon detectors have been returned and analyzed, and 3.4% of the housing and nonhousing results obtained were above the Environmental Protection Agency`s action level of 4 pCi/L. Suspect screening results were confirmed. Phase 2 Assessment consists of two categories, Assessment and Phase 2 Screening. All activities with radon in excess of 4 pCi/L are included in Assessment. Phase 2 Screening consists of screening Navy-Owned Reserve Centers, Rescreening (sites with inconclusive data), and screening of Nonhousing Unit Identity Codes [(UICs) activities without Phase 1 test structures]. All housing assessment was scheduled to be conducted during 1991 and 1992. Phase 2 housing and nonhousing have been established. In addition, a quality assurance program and technical guidebook have been developed to achieve accurate data during Phase 2. As of July 1, 1991, assessment of housing was 40% complete, nonhousing 4%, reserve centers 100%, and nonhousing UICs were 9% complete.

  17. Combining Turbine Blade-Strike and Life Cycle Models to Assess Mitigation Strategies for Fish Passing Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, John W.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Leonardsson, Kjell; Zabel, Richard W.; Lundqvist, Hans

    2008-08-01

    Combining the two models produced a rapid, cost effective tool for assessing dam passage impacts to fish populations and prioritizing among mitigation strategies for conserving fish stocks in regulated rivers. Estimated mortality of juvenile and adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and sea trout (S. trutta) passing turbines at two dams in northern Sweden was significantly higher for Kaplan turbines compared to Francis turbines, and for adult fish compared to juveniles based on blade strike models. Mean probability of mortality ranged from 6.7% for salmon smolts passing Francis turbines to >100% for adult salmon passing Kaplan turbines. Life cycle modeling allowed benefits to be assessed for three alternatives that mitigated this mortality. Salmon population responses varied considerably among alternatives and rivers: growth rates improved as much as 17.9%, female escapements increased up to 669%, and more than 1,300 additional female salmon were produced in one case. Protecting both smolts and adults provided benefits, and in one river, mitigating turbine mortality alone was estimated to have met the production capacity of the available habitat.

  18. Estimating the potential of energy saving and carbon emission mitigation of cassava-based fuel ethanol using life cycle assessment coupled with a biogeochemical process model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dong; Hao, Mengmeng; Fu, Jingying; Tian, Guangjin; Ding, Fangyu

    2017-09-14

    Global warming and increasing concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) have prompted considerable interest in the potential role of energy plant biomass. Cassava-based fuel ethanol is one of the most important bioenergy and has attracted much attention in both developed and developing countries. However, the development of cassava-based fuel ethanol is still faced with many uncertainties, including raw material supply, net energy potential, and carbon emission mitigation potential. Thus, an accurate estimation of these issues is urgently needed. This study provides an approach to estimate energy saving and carbon emission mitigation potentials of cassava-based fuel ethanol through LCA (life cycle assessment) coupled with a biogeochemical process model-GEPIC (GIS-based environmental policy integrated climate) model. The results indicate that the total potential of cassava yield on marginal land in China is 52.51 million t; the energy ratio value varies from 0.07 to 1.44, and the net energy surplus of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 92,920.58 million MJ. The total carbon emission mitigation from cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 4593.89 million kgC. Guangxi, Guangdong, and Fujian are identified as target regions for large-scale development of cassava-based fuel ethanol industry. These results can provide an operational approach and fundamental data for scientific research and energy planning.

  19. Nebraska wind resource assessment first year results

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, P.J.F.; Vilhauer, R.; Stooksbury, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the preliminary results from a wind resource assessment program in Nebraska sponsored by the Nebraska Power Association. During the first year the measured annual wind speed at 40 meters ranged from 6.5 - 7.5 m/s (14.6 - 16.8 mph) at eight stations across the state. The site selection process is discussed as well as an overview of the site characteristics at the monitoring locations. Results from the first year monitoring period including data recovery rate, directionality, average wind speeds, wind shear, and turbulence intensity are presented. Results from the eight sites are qualitatively compared with other midwest and west coast locations. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Stray light assessment and mitigation for the DESI front-end optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Timothy N.; Lampton, Michael; Besuner, Robert W.; Sholl, Michael J.; Liang, Ming; Ellis, Scott

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe, using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique and the growth of structure using redshift-space distortions (RSD). The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14000 square degrees will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. We will describe modeling and mitigation of stray light within the front end of DESI, consisting of the Mayall telescope and the corrector assembly. This includes the creation of a stray light model, quantitative analysis of the unwanted light at the corrector focal surface, identification of the main scattering sources, and a description of mitigation strategies to remove the sources.

  1. Global models of human decision-making for land-based mitigation and adaptation assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneth, A.; Brown, C.; Rounsevell, M. D. A.

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the links between land-use change (LUC) and climate change is vital in developing effective land-based climate mitigation policies and adaptation measures. Although mitigation and adaptation are human-mediated processes, current global-scale modelling tools do not account for societal learning and other human responses to environmental change. We propose the agent functional type (AFT) method to advance the representation of these processes, by combining socio-economics (agent-based modelling) with natural sciences (dynamic global vegetation models). Initial AFT-based simulations show the emergence of realistic LUC patterns that reflect known LUC processes, demonstrating the potential of the method to enhance our understanding of the role of people in the Earth system.

  2. Assessment of Dissolved Oxygen Mitigation at Hydropower Dams Using an Integrated Hydrodynamic/Water Quality/Fish Growth Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bevelhimer, Mark S; Coutant, Charles C

    2006-07-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) in rivers is a common environmental problem associated with hydropower projects. Approximately 40% of all FERC-licensed projects have requirements to monitor and/or mitigate downstream DO conditions. Most forms of mitigation for increasing DO in dam tailwaters are fairly expensive. One area of research of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is the development of advanced turbines that improve downstream water quality and have other environmental benefits. There is great interest in being able to predict the benefits of these modifications prior to committing to the cost of new equipment. In the case of turbine replacement or modification, there is a need for methods that allow us to accurately extrapolate the benefits derived from one or two turbines with better design to the replacement or modification of all turbines at a site. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate a modeling approach that integrates the effects of flow and water quality dynamics with fish bioenergetics to predict DO mitigation effectiveness over long river segments downstream of hydropower dams. We were particularly interested in demonstrating the incremental value of including a fish growth model as a measure of biological response. The models applied are a suite of tools (RMS4 modeling system) originally developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for simulating hydrodynamics (ADYN model), water quality (RQUAL model), and fish growth (FISH model) as influenced by DO, temperature, and available food base. We parameterized a model for a 26-mile reach of the Caney Fork River (Tennessee) below Center Hill Dam to assess how improvements in DO at the dam discharge would affect water quality and fish growth throughout the river. We simulated different types of mitigation (i.e., at the turbine and in the reservoir forebay) and different levels of improvement. The model application successfully demonstrates how a modeling approach like this one can be used

  3. Sustainability Impact Assessment of two forest-based bioenergy production systems related to mitigation and adaption to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Tuomasjukka, Diana

    2016-04-01

    New forest management strategies are necessary to resist and adapt to Climate Change (CC) and to maintain ecosystem functions such as forest productivity, water storage and biomass production. The increased use of forest-based biomass for energy generation as well as the application of combustion or pyrolysis co-products such as ash or biochar back into forest soils is being suggested as a CC mitigation and adaptation strategy while trying to fulfil the targets of both: (i) Europe 2020 growth strategy in relation to CC and energy sustainability and (ii) EU Action Plan for the Circular Economy. The energy stored in harvested biomass can be released through combustion and used for energy generation to enable national energy security (reduced oil dependence) and the substitution of fossil fuel by renewable biomass can decrease the emission of greenhouse gases.In the end, the wood-ash produced in the process can return to the forest soil to replace the nutrients exported by harvesting. Another way to use biomass in this green circular framework is to pyrolyse it. Pyrolysis of the biomass produce a carbon-rich product (biochar) that can increase carbon sequestration in the soils and liquid and gas co-products of biomass pyrolysis can be used for energy generation or other fuel use thereby offsetting fossil fuel consumption and so avoiding greenhouse gas emissions. Both biomass based energy systems differ in the amount of energy produced, in the co-product (biochar or wood ash) returned to the field, and in societal impacts they have. The Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA) was used for modelling both energy production systems. ToSIA integrates several different methods, and allows a quantification and objective comparison of economic, environmental and social impacts in a sustainability impact assessment for different decision alternatives/scenarios. We will interpret the results in order to support the bioenergy planning in temperate forests under the

  4. Participatory assessment of soil erosion severity and performance of mitigation measured using stakeholders' workshops in Koga catchment, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakew, Walle; Baartman, Jantiene; Ritsema, Coen

    2016-04-01

    There has been little effort to systematically document the experiences and perceptions of farmers on soil erosion and soil and water conservation (SWC) even though a wealth of SWC knowledge and information exists, and there is a great demand to access it. Sustainable Land Management (SLM) has largely evolved through local traditional practices than being adopted on basis of scientific evidence. This research aimed to document the experiences of farmers on soil erosion and conservation, and to increase awareness and participation of the local community in SWC. Participatory stakeholders' workshops were undertaken at local level focused on experiences and perceptions of farmers. The workshops included group discussion and field monitoring of sheet erosion indicators, profiles of rills and gullies and impacts of SWC strategies. Systematic descriptions of the status of soil erosion, soil fertility and yield were used to assess the performances of SWC strategies. Results show that farmers were aware of the harmful effects of ongoing soil erosion and impacts of mitigation strategies on their farms. Sheet erosion was found to be the most damaging form of erosion while rill damage was critical on cereal cultivated farms on steep slopes. Farmers perceived that the desired impacts of SWC practices were attained in general: runoff and soil loss rates decreased, while soil fertility and production increased. The performance of SWC measures were found to be highly affected by the design quality and management strategies on the farm. Comparatively graded stone-faced soil bunds revealed maximum desired impacts and were liked by farmers whereas all level bunds caused water logging and traditional ditches begun incising and affected production of cereals. Bund maintenance practices were low and also distracted the stability of bunds. This calls for further improvement of design of SWC technologies and their maintenance. Further research should integrate the local knowledge for

  5. Regional danger assessment of Debris flow and its engineering mitigation practice in Sichuan-Tibet highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Pengcheng; Sun, Zhengchao; li, Yong

    2017-04-01

    hazard assessment model. In this paper, regional debris flows hazard assessment method with strong universality and reliable evaluation result is presented. The whole study area is divided into 1674 units by automatically extracting and artificial identification, and then 11 factors are selected as the initial assessment factors of debris flow hazard assessment in the study area. The factors of the evaluation index system are quantified using the method of standardized watershed unit amount ratio. The relationship between debris flow occurrence and each evaluation factor is simulated using logistic regression model. The weights of evaluation factors are determined, and the model of debris flows hazard assessment is established in the study area. Danger assessment result of debris flow was applied in line optimization and engineering disaster reduction of Sichuan-Tibet highway (section of Luding-Kangding).

  6. Rio Soliette (haiti): AN International Initiative for Flood-Hazard Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandolfi, S.; Castellarin, A.; Barbarella, M.; Brath, A.; Domeneghetti, A.; Brandimarte, L.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2013-01-01

    Natural catastrophic events are one of most critical aspects for health and economy all around the world. However, the impact in a poor region can impact more dramatically than in others countries. Isla Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), one of the poorest regions of the planet, has repeatedly been hit by catastrophic natural disasters that caused incalculable human and economic losses. After the catastrophic flood event occurred in the basin of River Soliette on May 24th, 2004, the General Direction for Development and Cooperation of the Italian Department of Foreign Affairs funded an international cooperation initiative (ICI) coordinated by the University of Bologna, that involved Haitian and Dominican institutions.Main purpose of the ICI was hydrological and hydraulic analysis of the May 2004 flood event aimed at formulating a suitable and affordable flood risk mitigation plan, consisting of structural and non-structural measures. In this contest, a topographic survey was necessary to realize the hydrological model and to improve the knowledge in some areas candidates to be site for mitigation measures.To overcome the difficulties arising from the narrowness of funds, surveyors and limited time available for the survey, only GPS technique have been used, both for framing aspects (using PPP approach), and for geometrical survey of the river by means of river cross-sections and detailed surveys in two areas (RTK technique). This allowed us to reconstruct both the river geometry and the DTM's of two expansion areas (useful for design hydraulic solutions for mitigate flood-hazard risk).

  7. Assessing cosmetic results after breast conserving surgery.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Maria João; Oliveira, Helder; Cardoso, Jaime

    2014-07-01

    "Taking less treating better" has been one of the major improvements of breast cancer surgery in the last four decades. The application of this principle translates into equivalent survival of breast cancer conserving treatment (BCT) when compared to mastectomy, with a better cosmetic outcome. While it is relatively easy to evaluate the oncological results of BCT, the cosmetic outcome is more difficult to measure due to the lack of an effective and consensual procedure. The assessment of cosmetic outcome has been mainly subjective, undertaken by a panel of expert observers or/and by patient self-assessment. Unfortunately, the reproducibility of these methods is low. Objective methods have higher values of reproducibility but still lack the inclusion of several features considered by specialists in BCT to be fundamental for cosmetic outcome. The recent addition of volume information obtained with 3D images seems promising. Until now, unfortunately, no method is considered to be the standard of care. This paper revises the history of cosmetic evaluation and guides us into the future aiming at a method that can easily be used and accepted by all, caregivers and caretakers, allowing not only the comparison of results but the improvement of performance.

  8. International Space Exploration Coordination Group Assessment of Technology Gaps for Dust Mitigation for the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Vangen, Scott; Abel, Phil; Agui, Juan; Buffington, Jesse; Calle, Carlos; Mary, Natalie; Smith, Jonathan Drew; Straka, Sharon; Mugnuolo, Raffaele; hide

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) formed two Gap Assessment teams to evaluate topic discipline areas that had not been worked at an international level to date. Accordingly, the ISECG Technology Working Group (TWG) recommended two discipline areas based on Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) Critical Technology Needs reflected within the GER Technology Development Map (GTDM): Dust Mitigation and LOX/Methane Propulsion, with this paper addressing the former. The ISECG approved the recommended Gap Assessment teams, and tasked the TWG to formulate the new teams with subject matter experts (SMEs) from the participating agencies. The participating agencies for the Dust Mitigation Gap Assessment Team were ASI, CSA, ESA, JAXA, and NASA. The team was asked to identify and make a presentation on technology gaps related to the GER2 mission scenario (including cislunar and lunar mission themes and long-lead items for human exploration of Mars) at the international level. In addition the team was tasked to produce a gap assessment in the form of a summary report and presentation identifying those GER Critical Technology Needs, including opportunities for international coordination and cooperation in closing the identified gaps. Dust is still a principal limiting factor in returning to the lunar surface for missions of any extended duration. However, viable technology solutions have been identified, but need maturation to be available to support both lunar and Mars missions.

  9. Blast Mitigation Seat Analysis - Assessment of the Effect of Personal Protective Equipment on the 5th Percentile Female Anthropomorphic Test Devices Performance in Drop Tower Evaluations (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    U.S. ARMY TANK AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER Blast Mitigation Seat Analysis – Assessment of the Effect of Personal ...notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does...AND SUBTITLE Blast Mitigation Seat Analysis - Assessment of the Effect of Personal Protective Equipment on the 5th Percentile Female Anthropomorphic

  10. Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains : mobility, hazard assessment and mitigation strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Kevin M.; Macias, Jose Luis; Naranjo, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Sergio; McGeehin, John P.

    2001-01-01

    Communities in lowlands near volcanoes are vulnerable to significant volcanic flow hazards in addition to those associated directly with eruptions. The largest such risk is from debris flows beginning as volcanic landslides, with the potential to travel over 100 kilometers. Stratovolcanic edifices commonly are hydrothermal aquifers composed of unstable, altered rock forming steep slopes at high altitudes, and the terrain surrounding them is commonly mantled by readily mobilized, weathered airfall and ashflow deposits. We propose that volcano hazard assessments integrate the potential for unanticipated debris flows with, at active volcanoes, the greater but more predictable potential of magmatically triggered flows. This proposal reinforces the already powerful arguments for minimizing populations in potential flow pathways below both active and selected inactive volcanoes. It also addresses the potential for volcano flank collapse to occur with instability early in a magmatic episode, as well as the 'false-alarm problem'-the difficulty in evacuating the potential paths of these large mobile flows. Debris flows that transform from volcanic landslides, characterized by cohesive (muddy) deposits, create risk comparable to that of their syneruptive counterparts of snow and ice-melt origin, which yield noncohesive (granular) deposits, because: (1) Volcano collapses and the failures of airfall- and ashflow-mantled slopes commonly yield highly mobile debris flows as well as debris avalanches with limited runout potential. Runout potential of debris flows may increase several fold as their volumes enlarge beyond volcanoes through bulking (entrainment) of sediment. Through this mechanism, the runouts of even relatively small collapses at Cascade Range volcanoes, in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 cubic kilometers, can extend to populated lowlands. (2) Collapse is caused by a variety of triggers: tectonic and volcanic earthquakes, gravitational failure, hydrovolcanism, and

  11. Review: Assessment of completeness of reporting in intervention studies using livestock: an example from pain mitigation interventions in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, A; Anthony, R; Bergamasco, L; Coetzee, J F; Dzikamunhenga, R S; Johnson, A K; Karriker, L A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Martineau, G P; Millman, S T; Pajor, E A; Rutherford, K; Sprague, M; Sutherland, M A; von Borell, E; Webb, S R

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results and interpretation are essential components for any scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. When animals are used in research, excellence in reporting is expected as a matter of continued ethical acceptability of animal use in the sciences. Our primary objective was to assess completeness of reporting for a series of studies relevant to mitigation of pain in neonatal piglets undergoing routine management procedures. Our second objective was to illustrate how authors can report the items in the Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials for livEstoCk and food safety (REFLECT) statement using examples from the animal welfare science literature. A total of 52 studies from 40 articles were evaluated using a modified REFLECT statement. No single study reported all REFLECT checklist items. Seven studies reported specific objectives with testable hypotheses. Six studies identified primary or secondary outcomes. Randomization and blinding were considered to be partially reported in 21 and 18 studies, respectively. No studies reported the rationale for sample sizes. Several studies failed to report key design features such as units for measurement, means, standard deviations, standard errors for continuous outcomes or comparative characteristics for categorical outcomes expressed as either rates or proportions. In the discipline of animal welfare science, authors, reviewers and editors are encouraged to use available reporting guidelines to ensure that scientific methods and results are adequately described and free of misrepresentations and inaccuracies. Complete and accurate reporting increases the ability to apply the results of studies to the decision-making process and prevent wastage of financial and animal resources.

  12. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  13. Assessment and mitigation of combustible dust hazards in the plastics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Michael C.; Ibarreta, Alfonso; Myers, Timothy J.

    2015-05-01

    A number of recent industrial combustible dust fires and explosions, some involving powders used in the plastics industry, have led to heightened awareness of combustible dust hazards, increased regulatory enforcement, and changes to the current standards and regulations. This paper provides a summary of the fundamentals of combustible dust explosion hazards, comparing and contrasting combustible dust to flammable gases and vapors. The types of tests used to quantify and evaluate the potential hazard posed by plastic dusts are explored. Recent changes in NFPA 654, a standard applicable to combustible dust in the plastics industry, are also discussed. Finally, guidance on the primary methods for prevention and mitigation of combustible dust hazards are provided.

  14. Assessing the costs of hazard mitigation through landscape interventions in the urban structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru-Dan, Maria; Aldea Mendes, Diana; Panagopoulos, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we look at an issue rarely approached, the economic efficiency of natural hazard risk mitigation. The urban scale at which a natural hazard can impact leads to the importance of urban planning strategy in risk management. However, usually natural, engineering, and social sciences deal with it, and the role of architecture and urban planning is neglected. Climate change can lead to risks related to increased floods, desertification, sea level rise among others. Reducing the sealed surfaces in cities through green spaces in the crowded centres can mitigate them, and can be foreseen in restructuration plans in presence or absence of disasters. For this purpose we reviewed the role of green spaces and community centres such as churches in games, which can build the core for restructuration efforts, as also field and archive studies show. We look at the way ICT can contribute to organize the information from the building survey to economic computations in direct modeling or through games. The roles of game theory, agent based modeling and networks and urban public policies in designing decision systems for risk management are discussed. Games rules are at the same time supported by our field and archive studies, as well as research by design. Also we take into consideration at a rare element, which is the role of landscape planning, through the inclusion of green elements in reconstruction after the natural and man-made disasters, or in restructuration efforts to mitigate climate change. Apart of existing old city tissue also landscape can be endangered by speculation and therefore it is vital to highlight its high economic value, also in this particular case. As ICOMOS highlights for the 2014 congress, heritage and landscape are two sides of the same coin. Landscape can become or be connected to a community centre, the first being necessary for building a settlement, the second raising its value, or can build connections between landmarks in urban routes

  15. Validation of a Fast-Response Urban Micrometeorological Model to Assess the Performance of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, D.; Girard, P.; Overby, M.; Pardyjak, E.; Stoll, R., II; Willemsen, P.; Bailey, B.; Parlange, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHI) are a real threat in many cities worldwide and mitigation measures have become a central component of urban planning strategies. Even within a city, causes of UHI vary from one neighborhood to another, mostly due the spatial variability in surface thermal properties, building geometry, anthropogenic heat flux releases and vegetation cover. As a result, the performance of UHI mitigation measures also varies in space. Hence, there is a need to develop a tool to quantify the efficiency of UHI mitigation measures at the neighborhood scale. The objective of this ongoing study is to validate the fast-response micrometeorological model QUIC EnvSim (QES). This model can provide all information required for UHI studies with a fine spatial resolution (up to 0.5m) and short computation time. QES combines QUIC, a CFD-based wind solver and dispersion model, and EnvSim, composed of a radiation model, a land-surface model and a turbulent transport model. Here, high-resolution (1 m) simulations are run over a subset of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) campus including complex buildings, various surfaces properties and vegetation. For nearly five months in 2006-07, a dense network of meteorological observations (92 weather stations over 0.1 km2) was deployed over the campus and these unique data are used here as a validation dataset. We present validation results for different test cases (e.g., sunny vs cloudy days, different incoming wind speeds and directions) and explore the effect of a few UHI mitigation strategies on the spatial distribution of near-surface air temperatures. Preliminary results suggest that QES may be a valuable tool in decision-making regarding adaptation of urban planning to UHI.

  16. Renewable Energy Production from Waste to Mitigate Climate Change and Counteract Soil Degradation - A Spatial Explicit Assessment for Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraxner, Florian; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Leduc, Sylvain; Fuss, Sabine; Aoki, Kentaro; Yamagata, Yoshiki

    2014-05-01

    Waste production from urban areas is growing faster than urbanization itself, while at the same time urban areas are increasingly contributing substantial emissions causing climate change. Estimates indicate for urban residents a per capita solid waste (MSW) production of 1.2 kg per day, subject to further increase to 1.5 kg beyond 2025. Waste water and sewage production is estimated at about 260 liters per capita and day, also at increasing rates. Based on these figures, waste - including e.g. MSW, sewage and animal manure - can generally be assumed as a renewable resource with varying organic components and quantity. This paper demonstrates how new and innovative technologies in the field of Waste-to-Green Products can help in various ways not only to reduce costs for waste treatment, reduce the pressure on largely overloaded dump sites, and reduce also the effect of toxic materials at the landfill site and by that i.e. protect the groundwater. Moreover, Waste-to-Green Products can contribute actively to mitigating climate change through fossil fuel substitution and carbon sequestration while at the same time counteracting negative land use effects from other types of renewable energy and feedstock production through substitution. At the same time, the co-production and recycling of fertilizing elements and biochar can substantially counteract soil degradation and improve the soil organic carbon content of different land use types. The overall objective of this paper is to assess the total climate change mitigation potential of MSW, sewage and animal manure for Japan. A techno-economic approach is used to inform the policy discussion on the suitability of this substantial and sustainable mitigation option. We examine the spatial explicit technical mitigation potential from e.g. energy substitution and carbon sequestration through biochar in rural and urban Japan. For this exercise, processed information on respective Japanese waste production, energy demand

  17. An Assessment of the Effectiveness and Viability of Various Mitigation Technologies under Different Scenarios Using the PESERA-DESMICE Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nainggolan, D.; Fleskens, L.; Stringer, L. C.

    2012-04-01

    Scenario analysis of policy options is one of the most valuable ways in which scientific models can be employed to inform decision-making process. This is particularly relevant for land degradation mitigation policies, which are rarely based on this kind of analysis. In this paper we show how the PESERA-DESMICE modelling framework can be used in the assessment of policy options to combat land degradation, illustrating the model analysis of policy options with scenarios for different study sites. The key assumption underlying our analyses is that technologies must be attractive in economic terms, i.e. have the potential to, from a land user perspective, lead to cost reductions, benefit enhancements or both. Trade-off and cost-effectiveness thus form integral parts of the framework. The sequence of options is explored by: (1) Determining which technologies are feasible in which locations. This includes an assessment of economic viability for the land user in each location; we term these the technology scenarios; (2) Determining how policy instruments such as subsidies and credit can have the potential to influence upfront investment requirements and economic viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation on the other; we term these the policy scenarios; (3) Determining how technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these the global scenarios. All types of scenario were found to be useful to policymakers in different ways. Technology scenarios may help focus the portfolio of land degradation mitigation technologies towards areas in need of policy support; policy scenarios further detail the types and levels of support necessary for promoting adoption of the technology; while global scenarios demonstrate how the changes envisaged contribute to the achievement of wider sustainable development goals. Keywords: integrated environmental model, land degradation, mitigation technologies, scenario

  18. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Initial Safety and Security Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents a preliminary safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the L-band communication system after the technology is chosen and system rollout timing is determined. The security risk analysis resulted in identifying main security threats to the proposed system as well as noting additional threats recommended for a future security analysis conducted at a later stage in the system development process. The document discusses various security controls, including those suggested in the COCR Version 2.0.

  19. Collaborative Common Assessments: Teamwork. Instruction. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkens, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    Explore the practical steps teacher teams must take to establish clear, comprehensive assessment systems that guide instruction and strengthen PLCs. This book has the capacity to reignite passion and energy assessment practices bring as tools to guide teaching and learning. Strengthen instructional agility in professional learning communities with…

  20. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types and locations which are of greatest potential concern in terms of contributing to population risk. This data source provides downloadable information on emissions at the state, county and census tract level.

  1. Assessment and Mitigation of Diagnostic-Generated Electromagnetic Interference at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C G; Ayers, M J; Felker, B; Ferguson, W; Holder, J P; Nagel, S R; Piston, K W; Simanovskaia, N; Throop, A L; Chung, M; Hilsabeck, T

    2012-04-20

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is an ever-present challenge at laser facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The major source of EMI at such facilities is laser-target interaction that can generate intense electromagnetic fields within, and outside of, the laser target chamber. In addition, the diagnostics themselves can be a source of EMI, even interfering with themselves. In this paper we describe EMI generated by ARIANE and DIXI, present measurements, and discuss effects of the diagnostic-generated EMI on ARIANE's CCD and on a PMT nearby DIXI. Finally we present some of the efforts we have made to mitigate the effects of diagnostic-generated EMI on NIF diagnostics.

  2. Assessment of the mitigation options in the energy system in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Christov, C.; Vassilev, C.; Simenova, K.

    1996-12-31

    Bulgaria signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the UNCEP in Rio in June 1992. The parliament ratified the Convention in March 1995. In compliance with the commitments arising under the Convention, Bulgaria elaborates climate change polity. The underlying principles in this policy are Bulgaria to joint the international efforts towards solving climate change problems to the extent that is adequate to both the possibilities of national economy and the options to attract foreign investments. All policies and measures implemented should be as cost-effective as possible. The Bulgarian GHG emission profile reveals the energy sector as the most significant emission source and also as an area where the great potential for GHG emissions reduction exists. This potential could be achieved in many cases by relatively low cost or even no-cost options. Mitigation analysis incorporates options in energy demand and energy supply within the period 1992-2020.

  3. Mitigation assessment of vegetated drainage ditches for collecting irrigation runoff in California.

    PubMed

    Moore, M T; Denton, D L; Cooper, C M; Wrysinski, J; Miller, J L; Reece, K; Crane, D; Robins, P

    2008-01-01

    Widespread contamination of California water bodies by the organophosphate insecticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos is well documented. While their usage has decreased over the last few years, a concomitant increase in pyrethroid usage (e.g., permethrin) (replacement insecticides) has occurred. Vegetated agricultural drainage ditches (VADD) have been proposed as a potential economical and environmentally efficient management practice to mitigate the effects of pesticides in irrigation and storm runoff. Three ditches were constructed in Yolo County, California for a field trial. A U-shaped vegetated ditch, a V-shaped vegetated ditch, and a V-shaped unvegetated ditch were each amended for 8 h with a mixture of diazinon, permethrin, and suspended sediment simulating an irrigation runoff event. Water, sediment, and plant samples were collected spatially and temporally and analyzed for diazinon and permethrin concentrations. Pesticide half-lives were similar between ditches and pesticides, ranging from 2.4 to 6.4 h. Differences in half-distances (distance required to reduce initial pesticide concentration by 50%) among pesticides and ditches were present, indicating importance of vegetation in mitigation. Cis-permethrin half-distances in V ditches ranged from 22 m (V-vegetated) to 50 m (V-unvegetated). Half-distances for trans-permethrin were similar, ranging from 21 m (V-vegetated) to 55 m (V-unvegetated). Diazinon half-distances demonstrated the greatest differences (55 m for V-vegetated and 158 m for V-unvegetated). Such economical and environmentally successful management practices will offer farmers, ranchers, and landowners a viable alternative to more conventional (and sometimes expensive) practices.

  4. Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: a case study in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Amaguchi, Hideo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Bui, Duong Du

    2013-07-01

    In recent decades, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the planning processes of infrastructure projects has created significant awareness on the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable urban development around the world. In the highly urbanized megacities in the Philippines, like Metro Manila, high priority is given by the national government to structural flood mitigation measures (SFMM) due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively executed to maximize the potential benefits of the SFMM. The common practice of EIA in the Philippines is generally qualitative and lacks clear methodology in evaluating multi-criteria systems. Thus, this study proposes the use of the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique to provide a method that would systematically and quantitatively evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of planned SFMM in Metro Manila. The RIAM technique was slightly modified to fit the requirements of this study. The scale of impact was determined for each perceived impact, and based on the results, the planned SFMM for Metro Manila will likely bring significant benefits; however, significant negative impacts may also likely occur. The proposed modifications were found to be highly compatible with RIAM, and the results of the RIAM analysis provided a clear view of the impacts associated with the implementation of SFMM projects. This may prove to be valuable in the practice of EIA in the Philippines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing climate change impacts, benefits of mitigation, and uncertainties on major global forest regions under multiple socioeconomic and emissions scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, John B.; Monier, Erwan; Sohngen, Brent; Pitts, G. Stephen; Drapek, Ray; McFarland, James; Ohrel, Sara; Cole, Jefferson

    2017-04-01

    We analyze a set of simulations to assess the impact of climate change on global forests where MC2 dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) was run with climate simulations from the MIT Integrated Global System Model-Community Atmosphere Model (IGSM-CAM) modeling framework. The core study relies on an ensemble of climate simulations under two emissions scenarios: a business-as-usual reference scenario (REF) analogous to the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario, and a greenhouse gas mitigation scenario, called POL3.7, which is in between the IPCC RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 scenarios, and is consistent with a 2 °C global mean warming from pre-industrial by 2100. Evaluating the outcomes of both climate change scenarios in the MC2 model shows that the carbon stocks of most forests around the world increased, with the greatest gains in tropical forest regions. Temperate forest regions are projected to see strong increases in productivity offset by carbon loss to fire. The greatest cost of mitigation in terms of effects on forest carbon stocks are projected to be borne by regions in the southern hemisphere. We compare three sources of uncertainty in climate change impacts on the world’s forests: emissions scenarios, the global system climate response (i.e. climate sensitivity), and natural variability. The role of natural variability on changes in forest carbon and net primary productivity (NPP) is small, but it is substantial for impacts of wildfire. Forest productivity under the REF scenario benefits substantially from the CO2 fertilization effect and that higher warming alone does not necessarily increase global forest carbon levels. Our analysis underlines why using an ensemble of climate simulations is necessary to derive robust estimates of the benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. It also demonstrates that constraining estimates of climate sensitivity and advancing our understanding of CO2 fertilization effects may considerably reduce the range of projections.

  6. Assessing climate change impacts, benefits of mitigation, and uncertainties on major global forest regions under multiple socioeconomic and emissions scenarios

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, John B.; Monier, Erwan; Sohngen, Brent; ...

    2017-03-28

    We analyze a set of simulations to assess the impact of climate change on global forests where MC2 dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) was run with climate simulations from the MIT Integrated Global System Model-Community Atmosphere Model (IGSM-CAM) modeling framework. The core study relies on an ensemble of climate simulations under two emissions scenarios: a business-as-usual reference scenario (REF) analogous to the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario, and a greenhouse gas mitigation scenario, called POL3.7, which is in between the IPCC RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 scenarios, and is consistent with a 2 °C global mean warming from pre-industrial by 2100. Evaluating the outcomesmore » of both climate change scenarios in the MC2 model shows that the carbon stocks of most forests around the world increased, with the greatest gains in tropical forest regions. Temperate forest regions are projected to see strong increases in productivity offset by carbon loss to fire. The greatest cost of mitigation in terms of effects on forest carbon stocks are projected to be borne by regions in the southern hemisphere. We compare three sources of uncertainty in climate change impacts on the world’s forests: emissions scenarios, the global system climate response (i.e. climate sensitivity), and natural variability. The role of natural variability on changes in forest carbon and net primary productivity (NPP) is small, but it is substantial for impacts of wildfire. Forest productivity under the REF scenario benefits substantially from the CO2 fertilization effect and that higher warming alone does not necessarily increase global forest carbon levels. Finally, our analysis underlines why using an ensemble of climate simulations is necessary to derive robust estimates of the benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. It also demonstrates that constraining estimates of climate sensitivity and advancing our understanding of CO2 fertilization effects may considerably reduce the range of projections.« less

  7. Relating the compensational stacking of debris-flow fans to characteristics of their underlying stratigraphy: Implications for geologic hazard assessment and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, Christopher A.; Santi, Paul M.; Pyles, David R.

    2015-11-01

    Compensational stacking is the tendency for sediment transport systems to fill topographic lows through avulsion. This article quantitatively relates, for the first time, compensational stacking patterns within debris fans to characteristics of their internal stratigraphy and discusses implications to geologic hazard assessment and mitigation. Three exceptionally well-exposed debris fans were selected in Colorado for quantitative stratigraphic analyses. In each fan, the cross-sectional stratigraphy was subdivided into discrete depositional units (debris-flow and stream-flow deposits). The bounding surfaces between the depositional units were used to analyze the compensation index (κcv) of the fans, which is a measure of their compensational or avulsion tendencies. In the measured datasets, κcv ranged from 0.63 to 1.03. Values close to 0.5 represent intermediate levels of compensation, whereas values approaching 1.0 reflect high levels of compensation. The compensational values (κcv) were statistically compared to some physical, observable characteristics of the fans including: (1) debris-flow size, (2) amount of stream-flow deposits, (3) debris-flow composition, and (4) longitudinal position on the fan. These parameters correlated, either positively or negatively, to κcv, supporting their use as proxies for assessing the degree of compensational stacking in settings where large-scale cross-sections of a fan are unavailable. Such empirical results can be used by geologists and engineers for avoidance and mitigation measures of land use on debris fans.

  8. A system of systems assessment of the mitigation of surge and nuisance flooding under present and future conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, S. C.; Bilskie, M. V.; Collini, R.; DeLorme, D.; Medeiros, S. C.; Morris, J. T.; Passeri, D. L.; Yoskowitz, D.

    2016-12-01

    Extensive transdisciplinary efforts since 2010 in the northern Gulf of Mexico (MS, AL, and the FL panhandle) have resulted in a capability to model the coastal dynamics of sea level rise and assess hydrodynamic and ecological impacts at the coastal land margin [1-7]. The establishment of this paradigm shift (i.e., beyond "bathtub" approaches) was made possible, in no small part, by directly involving coastal resource managers at the initial stages and throughout the project process. Potential deleterious effects of sea level rise (SLR) to barrier islands, shorelines, dunes, marshes, etc., are now better understood. The paradigm shift, input from coastal resource managers and future conditions provide a rationale to evaluate and quantify the ability of Natural and Nature-based Feature (NNBF) approaches to mitigate the present and future effects of surge and nuisance flooding. This presentation will describe how we are employing a system of systems approach to assess NNBFs under present and future conditions. Passeri, D.L. et al. "The dynamic effects of sea level rise on low-gradient coastal landscapes: a review." Earth's Future, 3, 159-181, 2015. Morris, J.T. et al. "Contributions of organic and inorganic matter to sediment volume and accretion in tidal wetlands at steady state," Earth's Future, Vol. 4(4), pp. 110-121, 2016. Hovenga, P.A. et al. "The response of runoff and sediment loading in the Apalachicola River, Florida to climate and land use land cover change." Earth's Future, Vol. 4(5), pp. 124-142. 2016. Plant, N.G. et al. "Coupling centennial-scale shoreline change to sea-level rise and coastal morphology in the Gulf of Mexico using a Bayesian network." Earth's Future, Vol. 4(5), pp. 143-158. 2016. Passeri, D.L. et al. "Tidal Hydrodynamics under Future Sea Level Rise and Coastal Morphology in the Northern Gulf of Mexico." Earth's Future, Vol. 4(5), pp. 159-176. 2016. Bilskie, M.V. et al. "Dynamic simulation and numerical analysis of hurricane storm surge

  9. Assessment and characterisation of yeast-based products intended to mitigate ochratoxin exposure using in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A; Hadjeba-Medjdoub, K; Ballet, N; Schrickx, J; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the capacity of several yeast-based products, derived from baker's and brewer's yeasts, to sequester the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) and to decrease its rate of absorption and DNA adduct formation in vivo. The experimental protocol included in vitro binding studies using isotherm models, in vivo chicken experiments, in which the serum and tissue concentrations of OTA were analysed in the absence and presence of the test compounds, and the profile of OTA-derived metabolites and their associated DNA adducts were determined. Additionally in vitro cell culture studies (HK2 cells) were applied to assess further the effects for yeast cell product enriched with glutathione (GSH) or selenium. Results of the in vitro binding assay in a buffer system indicated the ability of the yeast-based products, as sequester of OTA, albeit at a different level. In the in vitro experiments in chickens, decreased serum and tissue concentrations of treated animals confirmed that yeast-based products are able to prevent the absorption of OTA. A comparison of the binding affinity in a standard in vitro binding assay with the results obtained in an in vivo chicken experiment, however, showed a poor correlation and resulted in a different ranking of the products. More importantly, we could show that yeast-based products actively modulate the biotransformation of OTA in vivo as well as in vitro in a cell culture model. This effect seems to be attributable to residual enzymatic activities in the yeast-based products. An enrichment of yeast cell wall products with GSH or selenium further modulated the profile of the generated OTA metabolites and the associated pattern of OTA-induced DNA adducts by increasing the conversion of OTA into less toxic metabolites such as OTA, OTB and 4-OH-OTA. A reduced absorption and DNA adduct formation was particularly observed with GSH-enriched yeast, whereas selenium-enriched yeasts could counteract the OTA-induced decrease

  10. Maryland School Assessment Results Continue to Improve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Maryland School Assessment (MSA) is administered annually to students in grades 3-8 in reading and math. MSA data are used to meet federal No Child Let Behind (NCLB) requirements. This paper presents how Maryland students' reading and mathematics MSA scores continued to improve in 2009, and the achievement gaps among special services and…

  11. Psychological assessment and biofeedback mitigation of tension-type headaches in children.

    PubMed

    Pop-Jordanova, N; Zorcec, T

    2009-07-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). The research concerned a group of 59 children, 22 girls and 37 boys, mean age 12.5 +/- 1.24 years, with tension type headaches. Their clinical results (neurological, neuropsychological, radiological and laboratory) were normal, suggesting psychosomatic etiology. The characteristics of the headache correspond to a nosologic entity known as tension-type headache. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological characteristics of these children and their families, especially the profile of the mothers. The psychological assessment, consecutively applied, comprised: Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Emotions Profile Index (EPI), General Anxiety State (GAS) and Human Values Rank (HVR). The mothers were examined by Family Inventory Life Events (FILE) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and also checked with the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL). The results obtained showed a non-negligible level of actual anxiety in all the children, who were mostly the first-born and lived in families with accentuated stress. The emotional profile of the children was characterized by impulsiveness, a feeling of fear, moderate aggression, but still with a great level of acceptability. The EPQ confirmed their extroversion, moderate neurotic manifestations and a need for social acceptance. These results suggest that in preadolescents emotional stress, combined with a "model" for somatization, could provoke specific involuntary contraction of the head and neck muscles causing local ischaemia, which may be the pathophysiologic cause of a tension-type headache. The therapy comprised EDR and EMG biofeedback, applied once per week, of 50-minute duration. The results obtained after 20 sessions are very satisfactory. In addition, some response-measures involving a change and adjustment of family relations and school environment are recommended. Key words: headache, children, biofeedback, psychophysiology.

  12. Calculation of CO{sub 2} net sinks/emissions in Russian forests and assessment of mitigation options

    SciTech Connect

    Kokorin, A.O.; Lelyakin, A.L.; Nazarov, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    A model for the calculation of CO{sub 2} sinks and emissions in boreal forests and assessment of measures designed to sequester carbon in the Russian forests is described herein. The main features of the model are: consideration of all carbon reservoirs, including above- and below-ground biomass, litter, dry stems and humus; and an explicit description of forest dynamics and processes connected with forest fires and logging. According to model calculations, Russian forests provided a net sink of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere of 160 Mt C in the year 1993; this value has the potential to increase in the future. Mitigation options are considered in three categories: an increase of carbon sinks by re- and afforestation, management practices that reduce carbon sources, and environmental preservation projects. As a whole these options could have a mitigation effect that is more than 60 Tg C/yr, equivalent to 10% of the current technogenic CO{sub 2} emission in Russia. The realization of the potential requires huge expenses. 15 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Establishing Perchlorate and Goitrogen Risk Mitigation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas

    2015-08-26

    This paper applies probabilistic risk assessment in quantifying risks from cumulative and aggregate risk pathways for selected goitrogens in water and food. Results show that the percentages of individuals with a Hazard Index (HI) value above 1 ranges between 30% and 50% both with and without serum half-life correction when a traditional regulatory assessment approach based on establishment of a No Observed Effects Level (NOEL) is used. When an exposure-response curve is instead used and a threshold of 50% inhibition is assumed, 1.1% or less of the population exceeds an HI value of 1 with no serum half-life correction, rising to as high as 11% when serum half-life correction is applied. If 0% to 5% threshold for iodide uptake inhibition is assumed for production of adverse effects, the percentage of the population with an HI above 1 is 46.2% or less with no serum half-life correction, and 47.2% or less when serum half-life correction is applied. The probabilistic analysis shows that while there are exposed groups for whom perchlorate exposures are the primary cause of individuals having HI values above 1, these constitute significantly less than 1% of the population. Instead, the potential risk from exposure to goitrogens is dominated by nitrates without serum half-life correction and thiocyanates with serum half-life correction, suggesting public health protection is better accomplished by a focus on these and other goitrogens expect in highly limited cases where waterborne perchlorate is at unusually high concentrations.

  14. Application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Establishing Perchlorate and Goitrogen Risk Mitigation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies probabilistic risk assessment in quantifying risks from cumulative and aggregate risk pathways for selected goitrogens in water and food. Results show that the percentages of individuals with a Hazard Index (HI) value above 1 ranges between 30% and 50% both with and without serum half-life correction when a traditional regulatory assessment approach based on establishment of a No Observed Effects Level (NOEL) is used. When an exposure-response curve is instead used and a threshold of 50% inhibition is assumed, 1.1% or less of the population exceeds an HI value of 1 with no serum half-life correction, rising to as high as 11% when serum half-life correction is applied. If 0% to 5% threshold for iodide uptake inhibition is assumed for production of adverse effects, the percentage of the population with an HI above 1 is 46.2% or less with no serum half-life correction, and 47.2% or less when serum half-life correction is applied. The probabilistic analysis shows that while there are exposed groups for whom perchlorate exposures are the primary cause of individuals having HI values above 1, these constitute significantly less than 1% of the population. Instead, the potential risk from exposure to goitrogens is dominated by nitrates without serum half-life correction and thiocyanates with serum half-life correction, suggesting public health protection is better accomplished by a focus on these and other goitrogens expect in highly limited cases where waterborne perchlorate is at unusually high concentrations. PMID:26322488

  15. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis of censored microbiological contamination data for use in risk assessment and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Busschaert, P; Geeraerd, A H; Uyttendaele, M; Van Impe, J F

    2011-06-01

    Microbiological contamination data often is censored because of the presence of non-detects or because measurement outcomes are known only to be smaller than, greater than, or between certain boundary values imposed by the laboratory procedures. Therefore, it is not straightforward to fit distributions that summarize contamination data for use in quantitative microbiological risk assessment, especially when variability and uncertainty are to be characterized separately. In this paper, distributions are fit using Bayesian analysis, and results are compared to results obtained with a methodology based on maximum likelihood estimation and the non-parametric bootstrap method. The Bayesian model is also extended hierarchically to estimate the effects of the individual elements of a covariate such as, for example, on a national level, the food processing company where the analyzed food samples were processed, or, on an international level, the geographical origin of contamination data. Including this extra information allows a risk assessor to differentiate between several scenario's and increase the specificity of the estimate of risk of illness, or compare different scenario's to each other. Furthermore, inference is made on the predictive importance of several different covariates while taking into account uncertainty, allowing to indicate which covariates are influential factors determining contamination.

  16. A public health hazard mitigation planning process.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Jennifer M; Kay Carpender, S; Crouch, Jill Artzberger; Quiram, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    The Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Rural Public Health, a member of the Training and Education Collaborative System Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (TECS-PERLC), has long-standing partnerships with 2 Health Service Regions (Regions) in Texas. TECS-PERLC was contracted by these Regions to address 2 challenges identified in meeting requirements outlined by the Risk-Based Funding Project. First, within Metropolitan Statistical Areas, there is not a formal authoritative structure. Second, preexisting tools and processes did not adequately satisfy requirements to assess public health, medical, and mental health needs and link mitigation strategies to the Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, which provide guidance to prepare for, respond to, and recover from public health incidents. TECS-PERLC, with its partners, developed a framework to interpret and apply results from the Texas Public Health Risk Assessment Tool (TxPHRAT). The 3-phase community engagement-based TxPHRAT Mitigation Planning Process (Mitigation Planning Process) and associated tools facilitated the development of mitigation plans. Tools included (1) profiles interpreting TxPHRAT results and identifying, ranking, and prioritizing hazards and capability gaps; (2) a catalog of intervention strategies and activities linked to hazards and capabilities; and (3) a template to plan, evaluate, and report mitigation planning efforts. The Mitigation Planning Process provided a framework for Regions to successfully address all funding requirements. TECS-PERLC developed more than 60 profiles, cataloged and linked 195 intervention strategies, and developed a template resulting in 20 submitted mitigation plans. A public health-focused, community engagement-based mitigation planning process was developed by TECS-PERLC and successfully implemented by the Regions. The outcomes met all requirements and reinforce the effectiveness of academic practice partnerships and importance of

  17. A Screening Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Mitigation in the Great Lakes and New England Regions (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the report, A Screening Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Mitigation in the Great Lakes and New England Regions. This report is a screening-level assessment of the potential implications...

  18. A Screening Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Mitigation in the Great Lakes and New England Regions (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the report, A Screening Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Mitigation in the Great Lakes and New England Regions. This report is a screening-level assessment of the potential implications...

  19. Assessment of best management practice effects on metolachlor mitigation in an agricultural watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beasley Lake watershed in the Mississippi Delta is a 915 ha intensively cultivated watershed (49-78% in row crop production) that was monitored for the herbicide metolachlor from 1998-2009. As part of the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP), the watershed was assessed for the effecti...

  20. DairyGEM: a software tool for whole farm assessment of emission mitigation strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate assessment of the impact of management on agricultural emissions requires consideration of many farm components and their interactions. A comprehensive assessment is needed because changes made to reduce one emission type or source may increase another. A new software tool was developed tha...

  1. An Assessment of Slacker Astronomy Outreach Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A.; Gay, P. L.; Searle, T.; Brissenden, G.

    2005-12-01

    Slacker Astronomy is a weekly podcast covering recent astronomical news in a humorous, irreverent manner while respecting the intelligence of the audience. This is a new approach to astronomical outreach both technically and stylistically. Using the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) and the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) needs analysis survey system, we have have conducted an in-depth project to determine whether this new style is effective and what audience needs are outstanding. Slacker Astronomy currently has around 11,000 weekly listeners and was founded in February, 2005. Recordings and scripts are available to the public under the Creative Commons license at www.slackerastronomy.org.

  2. Atmospheric particulate mercury in the megacity Beijing: Efficiency of mitigation measures and assessment of health effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, N. J.; Schäfer, J.; Chen, Y.; Blanc, G.; Chen, Y.; Chai, F.; Cen, K.; Norra, S.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate mercury (HgP) was studied before, during, and after the Olympic Summer Games in Beijing, China, in August 2008 in order to investigate the efficiency of the emission control measures implemented by the Chinese Government. These source control measures comprised traffic reductions, increase in public transportation, planting of vegetation, establishment of parks, building freeze at construction sites, cleaner production techniques for industries and industry closures in Beijing and also in the surrounding areas. Strictest measures including the "odd-even ban" to halve the vehicle volume were enforced from the 20th of July to the 20th of September 2008. The Olympic period provided the unique opportunity to investigate the efficiency of these comprehensive actions implemented in order to reduce air pollution on a large scale. Therefore, the sampling period covered summer (August, September) and winter (December and January) samples over several years from December 2005 to September 2013. Average HgP concentrations in total suspended particulates (TSP) sampled in August 2008 were 81 ± 39 pg/m3 while TSP mass concentrations were 93 ± 49 μg/m3. This equals a reduction by about 63% for TSP mass and 65% for HgP, respectively, compared to the previous two years demonstrating the short-term success of the measures. However, after the Olympic Games, HgP concentrations increased again to pre-Olympic levels in August 2009 while values in August 2010 decreased again by 30%. Moreover, winter samples, which were 2- to 11-fold higher than corresponding August values, showed decreasing concentrations over the years indicating a long-term improvement of HgP pollution in Beijing. However, regarding adverse health effects, comparisons with soil guideline values and studies from other cities highlighted that HgP concentrations in TSP remained high in Beijing despite respective control measures. Consequently, future mitigation measures need to be tailored more

  3. The Neurovestibular Challenges of Astronauts and Balance Patients: Some Past Countermeasures and Two Alternative Approaches to Elicitation, Assessment and Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Ben D.; Rupert, Angus H.; McGrath, Braden J.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts and vestibular patients face analogous challenges to orientation function due to adaptive exogenous (weightlessness-induced) or endogenous (pathology-induced) alterations in the processing of acceleration stimuli. Given some neurovestibular similarities between these challenges, both affected groups may benefit from shared research approaches and adaptation measurement/improvement strategies. This article reviews various past strategies and introduces two plausible ground-based approaches, the first of which is a method for eliciting and assessing vestibular adaptation-induced imbalance. Second, we review a strategy for mitigating imbalance associated with vestibular pathology and fostering readaptation. In discussing the first strategy (for imbalance assessment), we review a pilot study wherein imbalance was elicited (among healthy subjects) via an adaptive challenge that caused a temporary/reversible disruption. The surrogate vestibular deficit was caused by a brief period of movement-induced adaptation to an altered (rotating) gravitoinertial frame of reference. This elicited adaptation and caused imbalance when head movements were made after reentry into the normal (non-rotating) frame of reference. We also review a strategy for fall mitigation, viz., a prototype tactile sway feedback device for aiding balance/recovery after disruptions caused by vestibular pathology. We introduce the device and review a preliminary exploration of its effectiveness in aiding clinical balance rehabilitation (discussing the implications for healthy astronauts). Both strategies reviewed in this article represent cross-disciplinary research spin-offs: the ground-based vestibular challenge and tactile cueing display were derived from aeromedical research to benefit military aviators suffering from flight simulator-relevant aftereffects or inflight spatial disorientation, respectively. These strategies merit further evaluation using clinical and astronaut populations. PMID

  4. The Neurovestibular Challenges of Astronauts and Balance Patients: Some Past Countermeasures and Two Alternative Approaches to Elicitation, Assessment and Mitigation.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Ben D; Rupert, Angus H; McGrath, Braden J

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts and vestibular patients face analogous challenges to orientation function due to adaptive exogenous (weightlessness-induced) or endogenous (pathology-induced) alterations in the processing of acceleration stimuli. Given some neurovestibular similarities between these challenges, both affected groups may benefit from shared research approaches and adaptation measurement/improvement strategies. This article reviews various past strategies and introduces two plausible ground-based approaches, the first of which is a method for eliciting and assessing vestibular adaptation-induced imbalance. Second, we review a strategy for mitigating imbalance associated with vestibular pathology and fostering readaptation. In discussing the first strategy (for imbalance assessment), we review a pilot study wherein imbalance was elicited (among healthy subjects) via an adaptive challenge that caused a temporary/reversible disruption. The surrogate vestibular deficit was caused by a brief period of movement-induced adaptation to an altered (rotating) gravitoinertial frame of reference. This elicited adaptation and caused imbalance when head movements were made after reentry into the normal (non-rotating) frame of reference. We also review a strategy for fall mitigation, viz., a prototype tactile sway feedback device for aiding balance/recovery after disruptions caused by vestibular pathology. We introduce the device and review a preliminary exploration of its effectiveness in aiding clinical balance rehabilitation (discussing the implications for healthy astronauts). Both strategies reviewed in this article represent cross-disciplinary research spin-offs: the ground-based vestibular challenge and tactile cueing display were derived from aeromedical research to benefit military aviators suffering from flight simulator-relevant aftereffects or inflight spatial disorientation, respectively. These strategies merit further evaluation using clinical and astronaut populations.

  5. Assessing the effect of nutrient mitigation measures in the watersheds of the Southern Bight of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Thieu, Vincent; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles

    2010-02-15

    The Seine, Somme, and Scheldt Rivers (France, Belgium, and Netherlands) are the major delivering rivers flowing into the continental coastal zone of the Southern Bight of the North Sea, an area regularly affected by eutrophication problems. In the present work, the Seneque-Riverstrahler model was implemented in a multi-regional case study in order to test several planned mitigation measures aimed at limiting stream nutrient contamination and restoring balanced nutrient ratios at the coastal zone. This modeling approach, which is spatially distributed at the basin scale, allows assessing the impact of any change in human activities, which widely differ over the three basins. Here, we define realistic scenarios based on currently proposed measures to reduce point and non-point sources, such as the upgrading of wastewater treatment, the introduction of catch crops, and the development of extensive farming. An analysis of the current situation showed that a 47-72% reduction in P point-source emissions within the three basins could be reached if the intended P treatment was generalized to the largest treatment plants. However, only an overall 14-23% reduction in N could be achieved at the outlet of the three basins, by combining improved wastewater treatment and land use with management measures aimed at regulating agricultural practices. Nonetheless, in spite of these efforts, N will still be exported in large excess with respect to the equilibrium defined by the Redfield ratios, even in the most optimistic hypothesis describing the long-term response of groundwater nitrate concentrations. A comprehensive assessment of these mitigation measures supports the need for additional reductions of nutrient losses from agriculture to control harmful algae development. It also stresses the relevance of this mechanistic approach, in which nutrient transfers from land to sea can be calculated, as an integrated strategy to test policy recommendations.

  6. Preliminary results of Aruba wind resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Guda, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    As part of a project to assess the possibilities for wind energy utilitization in the Dutch Antilles islands, windspeed and -direction data were collected in Aruba for two years, from March 1992 to February 1994. Five sites that were estimated to be representative for the islands` wind regimes, were monitored during this period: two sites on the windward coast, one east and one west; two inland sites, again one east and one west, and one site topping the cliffs overlooking the eastern windward coast. Additionally, twenty years worth of data were analyzed for the reference site at the airport, which is in the middle part of the island, on the leeward coast. Correlation calculations between these data and the data for the project sites were performed, in order to establish a methodology for estimating the long-term behavior of the wind regimes at these sites. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Computational assessment of a proposed technique for global warming mitigation via albedo-enhancement of marine stratocumulus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Latham, John; Sahraei, Jalil; Salter, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    cooling sufficient to compensate, globally, for the warming resulting from a doubling of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Our calculations provide quantitative support for the physical viability of the mitigation scheme and offer new insights into its technological requirements.

  8. Ecological assessment of an algaecidal naphthoquinone derivate for the mitigation of Stephanodiscus within a mesocosm.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jae-Hyoung; Kuang, Zhen; Wang, Pengbin; Park, Bum Soo; Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Han, Myung-Soo

    2017-10-01

    The novel eco-friendly algaecidal naphthoquinone derivate was used to control harmful algal bloom causing species Stephanodiscus and, its effect was assessed on other undesired and non-targeted microbial communities. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to investigate the effects of this novel algaecide on native microbial communities rearing in water collected from Nakdonggang River. Upon treatment of the mesocosm with the naphthoquinone derivate the concentration of Chl-a decreased from 20.4 μg L(-1) to 9.5 μg L(-1) after 2 days. The turbidity has also shown decrement (exhibited 15.5 NTU on the 7th day). The concentrations of DOC and phosphate in the treatment were slightly higher than those in the control due to the decomposition of dead Stephanodiscus, whereas the DO and pH in the treated condition were slightly lower than those in the control; which was due to increment of organic acids and higher degradation activity. Results showed that bacterial abundance were not significantly different but community composition were slightly different as revealed by NGS (Next generation sequencing). The variation in HNF (Heterotrophic nanoflagellates) revealed that the bacterial community composition changed following the change in bacterial abundance. During the treatment, the abundance of Stephanodiscus was significantly reduced by more than 80% after 6 days, and the abundance of ciliates and the dominant species, Halteria grandinella, had shown marked decline. The abundance of zooplankton sharply decreased to 5 ind. L(-1)on the 8th day but increased again by the end of the study period. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of phytoplankton, ciliates and zooplankton in the treated mesocosm increased significantly after 4, 7 and 8 days, respectively. The marked changes in the ecosystem structure were observed in treatment compare to control. However, the beneficial microalgal populations were not affected which indicated possibility of restoration of treated ecosystem

  9. Northwest regional climate hub assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This assessment draws from a large bank of information developed by scientists and extension specialists in the Northwest to describe where we need to focus when dealing with climate risks to working landscapes. The changing climate has many secondary effects, such as irrigation water loss, increase...

  10. Air born soil pollution assessment and mitigation in the south of ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarenko, Olga; Kharytonov, Mykola; Moschner, Christin; Khlopova, Valentina M.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric emissions made by mining and metallurgy industry account for 54 % of total air pollutions of the Dnipropetrovsk Region. As it has been shown previously, the range of pollutants depends on the number and types of the industrial enterprises located within the each urban area. In Dnipropetrovsk and surrounding cities the dominant emissions come from the waste of metallurgical and chemical industries, which is heavily developed in this area. The multipollution exposure assessment was made for the several cities in Dnipropetrovsk industrial region in the south of Ukraine. In this connection the monitoring of atmospheric air pollution in the environment of the Dnepropetrovsk megalopolis area was carried out in several industrial cities: Dnipropetrovsk, Dneprodzerzhynsk, Kryvyy Ryg and Pavlograd with use of the network of stationary monitoring stations at the Dnepropetrovsk Regional Center of Hydrometeorology. The initial evaluation of technogenic atmospheric pollution with toxic substances was performed with due to the limit values of so-called maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for harmful emissions in the atmosphere as set out in the Ukrainian Air Quality Standards. The main sources of air pollution in industrial cities are stationary. Meantime increasing road transport is a growing source of pollution. The maximum excess of MPC content of NO2 in the atmosphere of the cities has reached twice. Over the last 5 years in the atmosphere of industrial cities in the region there was an increased level of nitrogen dioxide (excess of MPC in 1, 5-2, 5 times). Number of inorganic aerosols (nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and other) has an effect of summation. In the presence of diffuse sources are superimposed individual emissions and formed the total torch actually located over the whole of the industrial agglomeration. Spatial structure of such a torch is very complicated, instant concentrations of impurities at various points in the city are substantially

  11. Gender involvement in manual material handling (mmh) tasks in agriculture and technology intervention to mitigate the resulting musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suman; Sinwal, Neelima; Rathore, Hemu

    2012-01-01

    The lifting and carrying of loads in agriculture on small landholdings are unavoidable. Rural communities often lack access to appropriate technologies which may result in various health hazards. The objective was to study gender participation in agricultural activities involving manual material handling tasks, to assess MSDs experienced in various MMH tasks and to evaluate traditional method and designed technology. The study was conducted on 100 agricultural workers. Data on gender participation in MMH tasks in household, animal husbandry and agriculture and resulting MSDs was gathered. Pre and post assessment of technology intervention was done for NIOSH Lifting Index, QEC, and RPE. The results revealed greater susceptibility of females to musculoskeletal problems in most of the household and animal husbandry tasks. The hand trucks designed were pushing type with power grasp handle. The respondents were advised to carry 5 kg of weight per lift instead of lifting more weight in one lift/minute while filling the hand truck. By decreasing the weight and increasing the number of lifts per minute the respondents were seen falling in green zone indicating significant reduction in NIOSH lifting index. QEC scores concluded that for filling the hand truck 5 kg of weight should be carried to keep the exposure level low.

  12. Assessment and mitigation processes for disease risks associated with wildlife management and conservation interventions.

    PubMed

    Hartley, M; Gill, E

    2010-04-17

    This paper describes the disease risk assessment procedure that is adopted for wildlife and conservation interventions controlled by wildlife legislation in England. A simple risk algorithm was developed that is used to identify and prioritise the procedures of most concern. The process provides a system that is intended to be practicable to implement, proportionate to the associated risks, and ensures that costs are not escalated so that the activity becomes unviable.

  13. Assessment and mitigation of radiation, EMP, debris & shrapnel impacts at megajoule-class laser facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, D. C.; Anderson, R. W.; Bailey, D. S.; Bell, P.; Benson, D. J.; Bertozzi, A. L.; Bittle, W.; Bradley, D.; Brown, C. G.; Clancy, T. J.; Chen, H.; Chevalier, J. M.; Combis, P.; Dauffy, L.; Debonnel, C. S.; Eckart, M. J.; Fisher, A. C.; Geille, A.; Glebov, V. Y.; Holder, J.; Jadaud, J. P.; Jones, O.; Kaiser, T. B.; Kalantar, D.; Khater, H.; Kimbrough, J.; Koniges, A. E.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Masters, N. D.; MacPhee, A.; Maddox, B. R.; Meyers, M.; Osher, S.; Prasad, R.; Raffestin, D.; Raimbourg, J.; Rekow, V.; Sangster, C.; Song, P.; Stoeckl, C.; Stowell, M. L.; Teran, J. M.; Throop, A.; Tommasini, R.; Vierne, J.; White, D.; Whitman, P.

    2010-08-01

    The generation of neutron/gamma radiation, electromagnetic pulses (EMP), debris and shrapnel at mega-Joule class laser facilities (NIF and LMJ) impacts experiments conducted at these facilities. The complex 3D numerical codes used to assess these impacts range from an established code that required minor modifications (MCNP - calculates neutron and gamma radiation levels in complex geometries), through a code that required significant modifications to treat new phenomena (EMSolve - calculates EMP from electrons escaping from laser targets), to a new code, ALE-AMR, that is being developed through a joint collaboration between LLNL, CEA, and UC (UCSD, UCLA, and LBL) for debris and shrapnel modelling.

  14. Assessment and Mitigation of Radiation, EMP, Debris & Shrapnel Impacts at Megajoule-Class Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, D C; Anderson, R W; Bailey, D S; Bell, P; Benson, D J; Bertozzi, A L; Bittle, W; Bradley, D; Brown, C G; Clancy, T J; Chen, H; Chevalier, J M; Combis, P; Dauffy, L; Debonnel, C S; Eckart, M J; Fisher, A C; Geille, A; Glebov, V Y; Holder, J; Jadaud, J P; Jones, O; Kaiser, T B; Kalantar, D; Khater, H; Kimbrough, J; Koniges, A E; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Masters, N D; MacPhee, A; Maddox, B R; Meyers, M; Osher, S; Prasad, R; Raffestin, D; Raimbourg, J; Rekow, V; Sangster, C; Song, P; Stoeckl, C; Stowell, M L; Teran, J M; Throop, A; Tommasini, R; Vierne, J; White, D; Whitman, P

    2009-10-05

    The generation of neutron/gamma radiation, electromagnetic pulses (EMP), debris and shrapnel at mega-Joule class laser facilities (NIF and LMJ) impacts experiments conducted at these facilities. The complex 3D numerical codes used to assess these impacts range from an established code that required minor modifications (MCNP - calculates neutron and gamma radiation levels in complex geometries), through a code that required significant modifications to treat new phenomena (EMSolve - calculates EMP from electrons escaping from laser targets), to a new code, ALE-AMR, that is being developed through a joint collaboration between LLNL, CEA, and UC (UCSD, UCLA, and LBL) for debris and shrapnel modelling.

  15. Assessment of stone columns as a mitigation technique of liquefaction-induced effects during Italian earthquakes (May 2012).

    PubMed

    Forcellini, Davide; Tarantino, Angelo Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Soil liquefaction has been observed worldwide during recent major earthquakes with induced effects responsible for much of the damage, disruption of function, and considerable replacement expenses for structures. The phenomenon has not been documented in recent time with such damage in Italian context before the recent Emilia-Romagna Earthquake (May 2012). The main lateral spreading and vertical deformations affected the stability of many buildings and impacted social life inducing valuable lessons on liquefaction risk assessment and remediation. This paper aims first of all to reproduce soil response to liquefaction-induced lateral effects and thus to evaluate stone column mitigation technique effectiveness by gradually increasing the extension of remediation, in order to achieve a satisfactory lower level of permanent deformations. The study is based on the use of a FE computational interface able to analyse the earthquake-induced three-dimensional pore pressure generation adopting one of the most credited nonlinear theories in order to assess realistically the displacements connected to lateral spreading.

  16. Building remote sensing capacity in the North Central Climate Science Center's Resource for Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation and Mitigation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisette, J. T.; Evangelista, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) has established a broad strategic initiative to address climate change on resources of concern to DOI through eight regional DOI Climate Science Centers (CSC). The North Central Climate Science Center (NC CSC) is supporting resource managers and their decision process through its Resource for Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation and Mitigation Planning (ReVAMP). The NC CSC is focused primarily on Climate data as input to the ReVAMP. However, the NASA DEVELOP program is being used to evaluate how remote sensing data sets can contribute to the ecological response models that will be implemented in the ReVAMP system. This work is demonstrating the utility of remote sensing in vulnerability assessment and then making sure the remote sensing data sets are fully embedded in the ReVAMP system. The use of remote sensing products are helping to scale ground-based measurement collected on managed lands to larger regions more suitable for analysis against climate modeling grids.

  17. Assessment of Stone Columns as a Mitigation Technique of Liquefaction-Induced Effects during Italian Earthquakes (May 2012)

    PubMed Central

    Forcellini, Davide; Tarantino, Angelo Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Soil liquefaction has been observed worldwide during recent major earthquakes with induced effects responsible for much of the damage, disruption of function, and considerable replacement expenses for structures. The phenomenon has not been documented in recent time with such damage in Italian context before the recent Emilia-Romagna Earthquake (May 2012). The main lateral spreading and vertical deformations affected the stability of many buildings and impacted social life inducing valuable lessons on liquefaction risk assessment and remediation. This paper aims first of all to reproduce soil response to liquefaction-induced lateral effects and thus to evaluate stone column mitigation technique effectiveness by gradually increasing the extension of remediation, in order to achieve a satisfactory lower level of permanent deformations. The study is based on the use of a FE computational interface able to analyse the earthquake-induced three-dimensional pore pressure generation adopting one of the most credited nonlinear theories in order to assess realistically the displacements connected to lateral spreading. PMID:24592148

  18. Looking Before We Leap: Recent Results From An Ongoing Quantitative Investigation Of Asteroid And Comet Impact Hazard Mitigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, Catherine; Weaver, R. P.; Korycansky, D. G.; Huebner, W. F.

    2010-10-01

    The asteroid and comet impact hazard is now part of public consciousness, as demonstrated by movies, Super Bowl commercials, and popular news stories. However, there is a popular misconception that hazard mitigation is a solved problem. Many people think, `we'll just nuke it.’ There are, however, significant scientific questions remaining in the hazard mitigation problem. Before we can say with certainty that an explosive yield Y at height of burst h will produce a momentum change in or dispersion of a potentially hazardous object (PHO), we need to quantify how and where energy is deposited into the rubble pile or conglomerate that may make up the PHO. We then need to understand how shock waves propagate through the system, what causes them to disrupt, and how long gravitationally bound fragments take to recombine. Here we present numerical models of energy deposition from an energy source into various materials that are known PHO constituents, and rigid body dynamics models of the recombination of disrupted objects. In the energy deposition models, we explore the effects of porosity and standoff distance as well as that of composition. In the dynamical models, we explore the effects of fragment size and velocity distributions on the time it takes for gravitationally bound fragments to recombine. Initial models indicate that this recombination time is relatively short, as little as 24 hours for a 1 km sized PHO composed of 1000 meter-scale self-gravitating fragments with an initial velocity field of v/r = 0.001 1/s.

  19. Including Alternate Assessment Results in Accountability Decisions. NCEO Policy Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Thurlow, Martha

    Alternate assessments provide a mechanism for students with complex disabilities to be included in assessment systems. An integral part of maximizing the benefits of assessing students is to include the results of alternate assessments in school accountability systems. This report addresses policy options for including the results of alternate…

  20. Assessment of the climate commitments and additional mitigation policies of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Wei, Max

    2016-12-01

    Current intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) are insufficient to meet the Paris Agreement goal of limiting temperature change to between 1.5 and 2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels, so the effectiveness of existing INDCs will be crucial to further progress. Here we assess the likely range of US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2025 and whether the US’s INDC can be met, on the basis of updated historical and projected estimates. We group US INDC policies into three categories reflecting potential future policies, and model 17 policies across these categories. With all modelled policies included, the upper end of the uncertainty range overlaps with the 2025 INDC target, but the required reductions are not achieved using reference values. Even if all modelled policies are implemented, additional GHG reduction is probably required; we discuss several potential policies.

  1. Development Impact Assessment Highlights Co-benefits of GHG Mitigation Actions

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    This EC-LEDS document describes the Development Impact Assessment (DIA) process that explores interactions between development goals and the low emission development strategies. DIA aims to support informed decision-making by considering how policies and programs intended to meet one goal may impact other development priorities. Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) is a flagship U.S. government-led effort that assists countries in developing and implementing LEDS. The program enhances partner country efforts by providing targeting technical assistance and building a shared global knowledge base on LEDS. is a flagship U.S. government-led effort that assists countries in developing and implementing LEDS. The program enhances partner country efforts by providing targeting technical assistance and building a shared global knowledge base on LEDS.

  2. Quantifying, Assessing, and Mitigating Methane Emissions from Super-emitters in the Oil and Gas Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, David Richard

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas (O&G) supply chain reduce potential climate benefits of natural gas as a replacement for other fossil fuels that emit more carbon dioxide per energy produced. O&G facilities have skewed emission rate distributions with a small fraction of sites contributing the majority of emissions. Knowledge of the identity and cause of these high emission facilities, referred to as super-emitters or fat-tail sources, is critical for reducing supply chain emissions. This dissertation addresses the quantification of super-emitter emissions, assessment of their prevalence and relationship to site characteristics, and mitigation with continuous leak detection systems. Chapter 1 summarizes the state of the knowledge of O&G methane emissions. Chapter 2 constructs a spatially-resolved emission inventory to estimate total and O&G methane emissions in the Barnett Shale as part of a coordinated research campaign using multiple top-down and bottom-up methods to quantify emissions. The emission inventory accounts for super-emitters with two-phase Monte Carlo simulations that combine site measurements collected with two approaches: unbiased sampling and targeted sampling of super-emitters. More comprehensive activity data and the inclusion of super-emitters, which account for 19% of O&G emissions, produces a emission inventory that is not statistically different than top-down regional emission estimates. Chapter 3 describes a helicopter-based survey of over 8,000 well pads in seven basins with infrared optical gas imaging to assess high emission sources. Four percent of sites are observed to have high emissions with over 90% of observed sources from tanks. The occurrence of high emissions is weakly correlated to site parameters and the best statistical model explains only 14% of variance, which demonstrates that the occurrence of super-emitters is primarily stochastic. Chapter 4 presents a Gaussian dispersion model for optimizing the placement of

  3. South Fork Snake River/Palisades Wildlife Mitigation Project: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    BPA proposes to fund the implementation of the South Fork Snake River Programmatic Management Plan to compensate for losses of wildlife and wildlife habitat due to hydroelectric development at Palisades Dam. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game drafted the plan, which was completed in May 1993. This plan recommends land and conservation easement acquisition and wildlife habitat enhancement measures. These measures would be implemented on selected lands along the South Fork of the Snake River between Palisades Dam and the confluence with the Henry`s Fork, and on portions of the Henry`s Fork located in Bonneville, Madison, and Jefferson Counties, Idaho. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating the proposed project. The EA also incorporates by reference the analyses in the South Fork Snake River Activity/Operations Plan and EA prepared jointly in 1991 by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  4. Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

  5. High Spatial Resolution Thermal Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

  6. Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

  7. High Spatial Resolution Thermal Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

  8. An Assessment of Long-Term Compliance with Performance Standards in Compensatory Mitigation Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Bosch, Kyle; Matthews, Jeffrey W.

    2017-04-01

    Under the US Clean Water Act, wetland restoration is used to compensate for adverse impacts to wetlands. Following construction, compensation wetlands are monitored for approximately 5 years to determine if they comply with project-specific performance standards. Once a compensation site complies with performance standards, it is assumed that the site will continue to meet standards indefinitely. However, there have been few assessments of long-term compliance. We surveyed, in 2012, 30 compensation sites 8-20 years after restoration to determine whether projects continued to meet performance standards. Additionally, we compared floristic quality of compensation sites to the quality of adjacent natural wetlands to determine whether wetland condition in compensation sites could be predicted based on the condition of nearby wetlands. Compensation sites met, on average, 65% of standards during the final year of monitoring and 53% of standards in 2012, a significant decrease in compliance. Although forested wetlands often failed to meet standards for planted tree survival, the temporal decrease in compliance was driven by increasing dominance by invasive plants in emergent wetlands. The presumption of continued compliance with performance standards after a 5-year monitoring period was not supported. Wetlands restored near better quality natural wetlands achieved and maintained greater floristic quality, suggesting that landscape context was an important determinant of long-term restoration outcomes. Based on our findings, we recommend that compensation wetlands should be monitored for longer time periods, and we suggest that nearby or adjacent natural wetlands provide good examples of reasonably achievable restoration outcomes in a particular landscape.

  9. An Assessment of Long-Term Compliance with Performance Standards in Compensatory Mitigation Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Van den Bosch, Kyle; Matthews, Jeffrey W

    2017-04-01

    Under the US Clean Water Act, wetland restoration is used to compensate for adverse impacts to wetlands. Following construction, compensation wetlands are monitored for approximately 5 years to determine if they comply with project-specific performance standards. Once a compensation site complies with performance standards, it is assumed that the site will continue to meet standards indefinitely. However, there have been few assessments of long-term compliance. We surveyed, in 2012, 30 compensation sites 8-20 years after restoration to determine whether projects continued to meet performance standards. Additionally, we compared floristic quality of compensation sites to the quality of adjacent natural wetlands to determine whether wetland condition in compensation sites could be predicted based on the condition of nearby wetlands. Compensation sites met, on average, 65% of standards during the final year of monitoring and 53% of standards in 2012, a significant decrease in compliance. Although forested wetlands often failed to meet standards for planted tree survival, the temporal decrease in compliance was driven by increasing dominance by invasive plants in emergent wetlands. The presumption of continued compliance with performance standards after a 5-year monitoring period was not supported. Wetlands restored near better quality natural wetlands achieved and maintained greater floristic quality, suggesting that landscape context was an important determinant of long-term restoration outcomes. Based on our findings, we recommend that compensation wetlands should be monitored for longer time periods, and we suggest that nearby or adjacent natural wetlands provide good examples of reasonably achievable restoration outcomes in a particular landscape.

  10. Mitigation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carusi, Andrea; Perozzi, Ettore; Scholl, Hans

    2005-04-01

    There are three major options for mitigation of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Deflection and disruption of NEOs require the development of new space technologies. A third option, the preparation of the target area on Earth to mitigate an impact, needs institutions for the required civil defense measures. The three options are complementary. Basic requirements for the presently most preferred strategy, deflection, are presented. To cite this article: A. Carusi et al., C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

  11. Environmental Health Assessment for Pyrotechnic Perchlorate Elimination/Mitigation Program for M118/M119 Simulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-11

    NAMIEtS] AND ADOOESS[ESl’ USA Con!", mr H.althP..o"",ti"".nd p’""",,!U’e Medici ..e Dired",ato ofToxic<>l,,~’&lfuEffects Roso..~h Program SISS Blackhawk...resulting in much more environmentally-friendly devices . 3. RECOMMENDATIONS. The current formulations for the MIl8 and Ml19 simulators should continue in...Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), and Lactation Database (LactMed) (database of drugs and other chemicals to which breastfeeding mothers may be exposed

  12. Green-house gas mitigation capacity of a small scale rural biogas plant calculations for Bangladesh through a general life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Khondokar M; Melville, Lynsey; Fulford, David; Huq, Sm Imamul

    2017-10-01

    Calculations towards determining the greenhouse gas mitigation capacity of a small-scale biogas plant (3.2 m(3) plant) using cow dung in Bangladesh are presented. A general life cycle assessment was used, evaluating key parameters (biogas, methane, construction materials and feedstock demands) to determine the net environmental impact. The global warming potential saving through the use of biogas as a cooking fuel is reduced from 0.40 kg CO2 equivalent to 0.064 kg CO2 equivalent per kilogram of dung. Biomethane used for cooking can contribute towards mitigation of global warming. Prior to utilisation of the global warming potential of methane (from 3.2 m(3) biogas plant), the global warming potential is 13 t of carbon dioxide equivalent. This reduced to 2 t as a result of complete combustion of methane. The global warming potential saving of a bioenergy plant across a 20-year life cycle is 217 t of carbon dioxide equivalent, which is 11 t per year. The global warming potential of the resultant digestate is zero and from construction materials is less than 1% of total global warming potential. When the biogas is used as a fuel for cooking, the global warming potential will reduce by 83% compare with the traditional wood biomass cooking system. The total 80 MJ of energy that can be produced from a 3.2 m(3) anaerobic digestion plant would replace 1.9 t of fuel wood or 632 kg of kerosene currently used annually in Bangladesh. The digestate can also be used as a nutrient rich fertiliser substituting more costly inorganic fertilisers, with no global warming potential impact.

  13. Assessment and Mitigation of NOx emission within a street canyon and tunnel portal micro environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrner, Ulrich; Reifeltshammer, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    Substantial breeches of the NO2 annual mean have been recorded at an air quality station located in a busy road in a German city. The daily traffic volume is about 26 000 vehicles a day and the share of heavy duty vehicles is small due to a heavy traffic driving ban. Critical is that traffic from the 540 m long city tunnel bends into the road and that there are tall buildings located at both sides of the road. 9 additional measurements with passive samplers indicate that the air quality limit value is exceeded from the tunnel portal towards the next major intersection (approximately 500 m). The objective of this study is to compute emissions from open roads versus tunnel portal emissions and to analyse their effect upon local air quality within this complex urban micro environment. The aim of this project was to evaluate the impact of tunnel ventilation and traffic reductions measures. A base case was computed using sophisticated flow and dispersion modelling, accounting for the impact of buildings and the effect of the sunken road and tunnel jet. NOx to NO2 conversion was computed using a Romberg type approach and good results were obtained for NO2 annual means compared with measurements. The effect of tunnel emissions and emissions from open roads was analysed respectively. The NOx/NO2 concentration pattern revealed that the portal area is affected by the portal emissions about 60 m in driving direction. However, kerbside concentrations are dominated only within 30 m in driving direction. At the air quality station at 150 m distance from the portal, 75 % of the NOx concentrations can be attributed to open roads and the rest is mainly attributable to urban background. A zero portal emission scenario resulted in significant improvement within the immediate vicinity of the portal. Due to the strong impact of open roads a 50 % traffic reduction scenario affecting tunnel and open roads emissions was computed. Although reductions of up to -25 µg/m3 may result

  14. Preliminary Assessment of Seals for Dust Mitigation of Mechanical Components for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Handschuh, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Component tests were conducted on spring-loaded Teflon seals to determine their performance in keeping lunar simulant out of mechanical component gearbox, motor, and bearing housings. Baseline tests were run in a dry-room without simulant for 10,000 cycles to determine wear effects of the seal against either anodized aluminum or stainless steel shafts. Repeat tests were conducted using lunar simulants JSC-1A and LHT-2M. Finally, tests were conducted with and without simulant in vacuum at ambient temperature. Preliminary results indicate minimal seal and shaft wear through 10,000 cycles, and more importantly, no simulant was observed to pass through the seal-shaft interface. Future endurance tests are planned at relevant NASA Lunar Surface System architecture shaft sizes and operating conditions.

  15. Preliminary Assessment of Seals for Dust Mitigation of Mechanical Components for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Handschuh, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Component tests were conducted on spring-loaded Teflon seals to determine their performance in keeping lunar simulant out of mechanical component gearbox, motor, and bearing housings. Baseline tests were run in a dry-room without simulant for 10,000 cycles to determine wear effects of the seal against either anodized aluminum or stainless steel shafts. Repeat tests were conducted using lunar simulants JSC-1A and LHT-2M. Finally, tests were conducted with and without simulant in vacuum at ambient temperature. Preliminary results indicate minimal seal and shaft wear through 10,000 cycles, and more importantly, no simulant was observed to pass through the seal-shaft interface. Future endurance tests are planned at relevant NASA Lunar Surface System architecture shaft sizes and operating conditions.

  16. A randomised intervention trial to assess two arsenic mitigation options in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Milton, Abul Hasnat; Smith, Wayne; Dear, Keith; Ng, Jack; Sim, Malcolm; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Lokuge, Kamalini; Caldwell, Bruce; Rahman, Ashequr; Rahman, Habibur; Shraim, Amjad; Huang, Daphne; Shahidullah, S M

    2007-10-01

    Arsenic groundwater contamination in Bangladesh warrants immediate remediation. This randomised controlled intervention trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of two possible interventions: dug wells and three-pitcher filters. A total of 640 individuals participated with 218 randomised to the dug well group, 216 to the three-pitcher group and 206 to a control group. Data were collected at baseline and at 1, 6 and 12 months after the intervention. Self reported compliance with dug wells remained below 20% during the entire 12 months of the study. The compliance with the three-pitcher filters decreased after 6 months and became similar to the compliance of the dug well group after 12 months. A substantial decrease in urinary arsenic metabolites occurred only among those who were compliant with dug wells and three-pitcher filter systems after 1 month of intervention as opposed to control participants. However, a persistent reduction in urinary arsenic concentrations was observed only among the dug well users after 12 months of intervention. Our results show that a functional dug well could be offered as a long-term alternative to tube wells, but use of this option is likely to be low, unless appropriate behavioural change measures are taken. Our study also demonstrates that arsenic removal technologies such as three-pitcher filters are an effective option as a short-term measure. The three-pitcher filters that are not adequately maintained are not an effective option for a year. These arsenic removal technologies may be even harmful in the long term if the resultant water quality is not properly monitored.

  17. International workshop on greenhouse gas mitigation technologies and measures: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    More than 150 countries are now Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which seeks to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the global climate system. Climate change country studies are a significant step for developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet their national reporting commitments to the FCCC. These studies also provide the basis for preparation of National Climate Change Action Plans and implementation of technologies and practices which reduce greenhouse gas emissions or enhance carbon sinks. The broad goals of the workshop were to: (1) present results of country study mitigation assessments, (2) identify promising no-regrets greenhouse gas mitigation options in land-use and energy sectors, (3) share information on development of mitigation technologies and measures which contribute to improved National Climate Change Actions Plans, and (4) begin the process of synthesizing mitigation assessments for use by FCCC subsidiary bodies. The 59 papers are arranged into the following topical sections: (1) national mitigation assessments, technology priorities, and measures; (2) sector-specific mitigation assessment results, subdivided further into: energy sector; non-energy sector; renewable energy; energy efficiency in industry and buildings; transportation; electricity supply; forestry; and methane mitigation; (3) support for mitigation technologies and measures; and (4) activities implemented jointly. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Degrees of connectivity: Systems model for upstream risk assessment and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Gambatese, John; AlOmari, Kasim

    2016-08-01

    There is growing recognition that in order to further improve safety performance, attention needs to be given beyond the immediate working conditions and worker actions. A systems approach to construction safety enables considering: multiple project elements simultaneously; connections between different elements; and all system elements affected by safety risk. This paper describes recent and current research to conceptualize a typical building project in terms of connections between workers, activities, and design elements, and to verify and analyze impacts of the design and worker interactions on worker safety. Prior research provides the basis for a network tying the design elements, construction activities, and work crews on a typical building project together along with the extent of interaction between each of the system elements in terms of safety. In conjunction with this systems approach, the researchers propose a concept for viewing and managing construction safety through four different types of connections, or "degrees of connectivity," between the different workers, activities, and design elements in the system. The degrees of connectivity are defined as: interacting with the design element during its construction (DoC #1); interacting with the design element in its final form to attach another component to it (DoC #2) or by working in the vicinity of it (DoC #3); and indirectly interacting with the design element through another worker (DoC #4). To support and verify the presence of the concept in practice, the researchers conducted a survey of construction personnel. The survey results confirm that the four different degrees of connectivity are present and felt during construction operations, and indicate that attention should be given to all design elements, activities, and workers to which a worker is "connected". According to the survey respondents, DoC's #1 and #2 are recognized as the most widely present on construction sites. Eighty percent of

  19. A probabilistic framework for hazard assessment and mitigation of induced seismicity related to deep geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiemer, S.; Bachmann, C. E.; Allmann, B.; Giardini, D.; Woessner, J.; Catalli, F.; Mena Carbrera, B.

    2011-12-01

    Slip on tectonic faults take place over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales as earthquakes, continuous aseismic creep, or transient creep events. Shallow creep events on continental strike-slip faults can occur spontaneously, or are coupled with earthquake afterslip, or are triggered by nearby earthquakes. Despite more than five decades of observations, the mechanism of shallow creep events and their implications for seismic hazard are still not fully understood. To understand the mechanism of creep events, we developed a physics-based numerical model to simulate shallow creep events on a strike-slip fault with rate-and-state frictional properties (Wei et al., 2013). We show that the widely used synoptic model (Scholz, 1998) cannot reproduce both rapid afterslip and frequent creep events as observed on the Superstition Hills fault in the Salton Trough after the 1987 Mw 6.6 earthquake. Rather, an unstable layer embedded in the shallow stable zone is required to match the geodetic observations of the creep behavior. Using the strike-slip fault model, we studied the triggering process of creep events, by either static or dynamic, or combined stress perturbations induced on the fault by nearby earthquakes. Preliminary results show that static stress perturbations in the effective normal stress on a system with spontaneous creep events can advance or delay creep events. The magnitude and timing of perturbations determines the clock change of creep events. The magnitude and interval of creep events changes permanently after static stress perturbation. Dynamic stress perturbations in effective normal stress can advance the timings of creep events when the perturbation temporally decreases the effective normal stress. A threshold exists for instantaneous triggering. The size of triggered slip increases as the dynamic perturbation increases in the direction of less normal stress. The system returns to pre-perturbation state after a long period of no slip. The length

  20. A regional assessment of the cost and effectiveness of mitigation measures for reducing nutrient losses to water and greenhouse gas emissions to air from pastoral farms.

    PubMed

    Vibart, Ronaldo; Vogeler, Iris; Dennis, Samuel; Kaye-Blake, William; Monaghan, Ross; Burggraaf, Vicki; Beautrais, Josef; Mackay, Alec

    2015-06-01

    Using a novel approach that links geospatial land resource information with individual farm-scale simulation, we conducted a regional assessment of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) losses to water and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to air from the predominant mix of pastoral industries in Southland, New Zealand. An evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of several nutrient loss mitigation strategies applied at the farm-scale, set primarily for reducing N and P losses and grouped by capital cost and potential ease of adoption, followed an initial baseline assessment. Grouped nutrient loss mitigation strategies were applied on an additive basis on the assumption of full adoption, and were broadly identified as 'improved nutrient management' (M1), 'improved animal productivity' (M2), and 'restricted grazing' (M3). Estimated annual nitrate-N leaching losses occurring under representative baseline sheep and beef (cattle) farms, and representative baseline dairy farms for the region were 10 ± 2 and 32 ± 6 kg N/ha (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. Both sheep and beef and dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss mitigation strategies in M1, at a low cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M2, at no additional cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Dairy farms were also responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M3, but this reduction came at a greater cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to P-loss mitigation strategies, in particular by adopting M1. Only dairy farms were responsive to GHG abatement; greater abatement was achieved by the most intensified dairy farm system simulated. Overall, M1 provided for high levels of regional scale N- and P-loss abatement at a low cost per farm without affecting overall farm production, M2 provided additional N-loss abatement but only marginal P-loss abatement, whereas M3 provided the greatest N-loss abatement, but

  1. Assessing the effectiveness and feasibility of implementing mitigation measures for an influenza pandemic in remote and isolated First Nations communities: a qualitative community-based participatory research approach.

    PubMed

    Charania, Nadia A; Tsuji, Leonard Js

    2013-01-01

    The next influenza pandemic is predicted to disproportionately impact marginalized populations, such as those living in geographically remote Aboriginal communities, and there remains a paucity of scientific literature regarding effective and feasible community mitigation strategies. In Canada, current pandemic plans may not have been developed with adequate First Nations consultation and recommended measures may not be effective in remote and isolated First Nations communities. This study employed a community-based participatory research approach. Retrospective opinions were elicited via interview questionnaires with adult key healthcare informants (n=9) regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of implementing 41 interventions to mitigate an influenza pandemic in remote and isolated First Nations communities of sub-Arctic Ontario, Canada. Qualitative data were manually transcribed and deductively coded following a template organizing approach. The results indicated that most mitigation measures could potentially be effective if modified to address the unique characteristics of these communities. Participants also offered innovative alternatives to mitigation measures that were community-specific and culturally sensitive. Mitigation measures were generally considered to be effective if the measure could aid in decreasing virus transmission, protecting their immunocompromised population, and increasing community awareness about influenza pandemics. Participants reported that lack of resources (eg supplies, monies, trained personnel), poor community awareness, overcrowding in homes, and inadequate healthcare infrastructure presented barriers to the implementation of mitigation measures. This study highlights the importance of engaging local key informants in pandemic planning in order to gain valuable community-specific insight regarding the design and implementation of more effective and feasible mitigation strategies. As it is ethically important to address the

  2. MITIGATION IMPACT SCREENING TOOL (MIST) | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    MIST is intended to provide a back of the envelope, qualitative indication of the likely impacts of heat island mitigation strategies averaged at the city-scale. To run MIST, users follow three basic steps: 1. Select the city to model (240 available) 2. Define the mitigation strategy to test 3. Estimate impacts on meteorology, air quality, and energy The mitigation strategies investigated include increasing urban albedo, or increasing urban vegetative cover, or a combined approach. MIST also allows investigation of average temperature reduction and produces estimates of the resulting impacts on ozone and energy consumption. If a desired level of temperature reduction is identified, MIST allows the user to explore combinations of mitigation strategies that could achieve this reduction. MIST is intended to provide local-level air quality officials and nongovernment groups with qualitatively accurate assessments of the likely impacts of heat island mitigation strategies averaged at the city-scale. While results are estimated using state-of-the-science modeling tools, the results derived from this tool are qualitative in nature. The research upon which MIST is based necessarily incorporates a number of assumptions that help make the results applicable for a large number of cities and a variety of mitigation scenarios.

  3. Water-related problems of central Asia: some results of the (GIWA) International Water Assessment Program.

    PubMed

    Severskiy, Igor Vasilievich

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents results of the research under the program Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) for the Aral Sea basin (Subregion 24 of the GIWA program). These results show that the detemining factor for the region is freshwater shortage and the main issue is modification of stream flow. According to GIWA assessment estimations, freshwater shortage is responsible for about 70% of the developmental problems in the region. The current economy is developing under conditions of increasing water deficiency. In spite of increasing efforts by the governments of the countries in the region, and by the international community, the situation in regard to water supply and economic objectives in the countries of central Asia remains tense and shows clear tendencies towards aggravation and conflict. The main causes for this sharpening of ecological and socioeconomic conditions in the region are analyzed, and measures to mitigate stress in transboundary water-resources use are presented.

  4. Environmental impact assessment using a utility-based recursive evidential reasoning approach for structural flood mitigation measures in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Amaguchi, Hideo

    2013-12-15

    In recent years, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) has created significant awareness on the role of environmentally sound projects in sustainable development. In view of the recent studies on the effects of climate change, the Philippine government has given high priority to the construction of flood control structures to alleviate the destructive effects of unmitigated floods, especially in highly urbanized areas like Metro Manila. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively carried out to maximize or optimize the potential benefits that can be derived from structural flood mitigation measures (SFMMs). A utility-based environmental assessment approach may significantly aid flood managers and decision-makers in planning for effective and environmentally sound SFMM projects. This study proposes a utility-based assessment approach using the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique, coupled with the evidential reasoning approach, to rationally and systematically evaluate the ecological and socio-economic impacts of 4 planned SFMM projects (i.e. 2 river channel improvements and 2 new open channels) in Metro Manila. Results show that the overall environmental effects of each of the planned SFMM projects are positive, which indicate that the utility of the positive impacts would generally outweigh the negative impacts. The results also imply that the planned river channel improvements will yield higher environmental benefits over the planned open channels. This study was able to present a clear and rational approach in the examination of overall environmental effects of SFMMs, which provides valuable insights that can be used by decision-makers and policy makers to improve the EIA practice and evaluation of projects in the Philippines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating the need for integrated land use and land cover analysis for robust assessment of climate adaptation and mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying

    2016-04-01

    Several climate adaptation and mitigation strategies incorporate land use and land cover change to address global carbon balance and also food, fuel, fiber, and water resource sustainability. However, Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) are not consistent across the CMIP5 model simulations because only the land use input was harmonized. Differences in LULCC impede understanding of global change because such differences can dramatically alter land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange in response to differences in associated use and distribution of land resources. For example, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) overestimates 2005 atmospheric CO2 concentration by 18 ppmv, and we explore the contribution of historical LULCC to this bias in relation to the effects of CO2 fertilization and nitrogen deposition on terrestrial carbon. Using identical land use input, a chronologically referenced LULCC that accounts for pasture, as opposed to the default year-2000 referenced LULCC, increases this bias to 27 ppmv because more forest needs to be cleared for land use. Assuming maximum forest retention for all land conversion reduces the new bias to ~21 ppmv, while minimum forest retention increases the new bias to ~32 ppmv. Corresponding ecosystem carbon changes from the default in 2005 are approximately -28 PgC, -10 PgC, and -43 PgC, respectively. This 33 PgC uncertainty range due to maximizing versus minimizing forest area is 66% of the estimated 50 PgC gain in ecosystem carbon due to CO2 fertilization from 1850-2005, and 150% of the estimated 22 PgC gain due to nitrogen deposition. This range is also similar to the 28 PgC difference generated by changing the LULCC reference year and accounting for pasture. These results indicate that LULCC uncertainty is not only a major driver of bias in simulated atmospheric CO2, but that it could contribute even more to this bias than uncertainty in CO2 fertilization or nitrogen deposition. This highlights the need for more accurate

  6. Stream Mitigation Protocol Compendium - 2004

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is intended as a reference in order to select, adapt, or devise stream assessment methods appropriate for impact assessment and mitigation of fluvial resources in the CWA Section 404 Program.

  7. 24 CFR 50.33 - Action resulting from the assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... assessment. 50.33 Section 50.33 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Environmental Assessments and Related Reviews § 50.33 Action resulting from the assessment. (a) A proposal may be accepted...

  8. Mind the gap in SEA: An institutional perspective on why assessment of synergies amongst climate change mitigation, adaptation and other policy areas are missing

    SciTech Connect

    Vammen Larsen, Sanne; Kornov, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2012-02-15

    This article takes its point of departure in two approaches to integrating climate change into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Mitigation and adaptation, and in the fact that these, as well as the synergies between them and other policy areas, are needed as part of an integrated assessment and policy response. First, the article makes a review of how positive and negative synergies between a) climate change mitigation and adaptation and b) climate change and other environmental concerns are integrated into Danish SEA practice. Then, the article discusses the implications of not addressing synergies. Finally, the article explores institutional explanations as to why synergies are not addressed in SEA practice. A document analysis of 149 Danish SEA reports shows that only one report comprises the assessment of synergies between mitigation and adaptation, whilst 9,4% of the reports assess the synergies between climate change and other environmental concerns. The consequences of separation are both the risk of trade-offs and missed opportunities for enhancing positive synergies. In order to propose explanations for the lacking integration, the institutional background is analysed and discussed, mainly based on Scott's theory of institutions. The institutional analysis highlights a regulatory element, since the assessment of climate change synergies is underpinned by legislation, but not by guidance. This means that great focus is on normative elements such as the local interpretation of legislation and of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The analysis also focuses on how the fragmentation of the organisation in which climate change and SEA are embedded has bearings on both normative and cultural-cognitive elements. This makes the assessment of synergies challenging. The evidence gathered and presented in the article points to a need for developing the SEA process and methodology in Denmark with the aim to include climate change in the assessments in a

  9. Effect of different molecular weight chitosans on the mitigation of acrylamide formation and the functional properties of the resultant Maillard reaction products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Wei; Sung, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Jing-Yi

    2016-05-15

    Mitigation of acrylamide formation and the functional properties of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were investigated in a food model system. The system was composed of elements of mixtures and their combination including fructose, asparagine and different molecular weight chitosans. All solutions were heated, and then analyzed for acrylamide content, MRPs absorbance, pH, color, antioxidant capacity, antibacterial activity and kinematic viscosity. The fructose, asparagine and chitosan mixture had more MRPs compared to other mixtures. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-pricrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating abilities and reducing power results showed that all solutions containing a combination of two or three reactants had antioxidant capacities. Acrylamide content has a positive correlation with absorbance values at OD294 and OD420 but a negative correlation with the CIB L(∗) value of a solution (p<0.01). Experimental results evidenced that low molecular weight (50-190 kDa) chitosan can be used to mitigate the formation of acrylamide.

  10. A multi-model assessment of the co-benefits of climate mitigation for global air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Shilpa; Klimont, Zbigniew; Leitao, Joana; Riahi, Keywan; van Dingenen, Rita; Reis, Lara Aleluia; Calvin, Katherine; Dentener, Frank; Drouet, Laurent; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harmsen, Mathijs; Luderer, Gunnar; Heyes, Chris; Strefler, Jessica; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-12-01

    The recent International Panel on Climate change (IPCC) report identifies significant co-benefits from climate policies on near-term ambient air pollution and related human health outcomes [1]. This is increasingly relevant for policy making as the health impacts of air pollution are a major global concern- the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study identifies outdoor air pollution as the sixth major cause of death globally [2]. Integrated assessment models (IAMs) are an effective tool to evaluate future air pollution outcomes across a wide range of assumptions on socio-economic development and policy regimes. The Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) [3] were the first set of long-term global scenarios developed across multiple integrated assessment models that provided detailed estimates of a number of air pollutants until 2100. However these scenarios were primarily designed to cover a defined range of radiative forcing outcomes and thus did not specifically focus on the interactions of long-term climate goals on near-term air pollution impacts. More recently, [4] used the RCP4.5 scenario to evaluate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health in 2030. [5-7] have further examined the interactions of more diverse pollution control regimes with climate policies. This paper extends the listed studies in a number of ways. Firstly it uses multiple IAMs to look into the co-benefits of a global climate policy for ambient air pollution under harmonized assumptions on near-term air pollution control. Multi-model frameworks have been extensively used in the analysis of climate change mitigation pathways, and the structural uncertainties regarding the underlying mechanisms (see for example [8-10]. This is to our knowledge the first time that a multi-model evaluation has been specifically designed and applied to analyze the co-benefits of climate change policy on ambient air quality, thus enabling a better understanding of at a detailed

  11. Assessment of rain fade mitigation techniques in the EHF band on a Syracuse 3 20/44-GHz low elevation link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Montera, L.; Barthès, L.; Mallet, C.; Golé, P.; Marsault, T.

    2010-01-01

    An Earth-to-satellite propagation experiment in the EHF band has been carried out within the framework of the Syracuse 3 program, which is a new generation French military SATCOM system. The originality of this experiment resides in the link's frequencies (20 GHz downlink and 44 GHz uplink) and its low elevation angle (17°). The first part of the article presents a statistical analysis of attenuation data providing the long-term statistics, frequency scaling ratios and fade durations. These results are compared to standard ITU models. The second part of the article is dedicated to the short-term forecasting of rain fade, useful for the implementation of Fade Mitigation Techniques (FMT). Firstly, the downlink attenuation is predicted based on a non-linear ARIMA-GARCH model. The prediction result is then separated into several physical components (gases, clouds and rain) that are scaled to the uplink frequency using specific frequency scaling factors. The performance of the model is assessed based on Syracuse 3 20/44-GHz data collected during a period of 1 year.

  12. Assessment and mitigation of errors associated with a large-scale field investigation of methane emissions from the Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulton, D.; Golston, L.; Li, Q.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Pan, D.; Lane, H.; Lu, J.; Fitts, J. P.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent work suggests the distribution of methane emissions from fracking operations is a skewed distributed with a small percentage of emitters contributing a large proportion of the total emissions. In order to provide a statistically robust distributions of emitters and determine the presence of super-emitters, errors in current techniques need to be constrained and mitigated. The Marcellus shale, the most productive natural gas shale field in the United States, has received less intense focus for well-level emissions and is here investigated to provide the distribution of methane emissions. In July of 2015 approximately 250 unique well pads were sampled using the Princeton Atmospheric Chemistry Mobile Acquisition Node (PAC-MAN). This mobile lab includes a Garmin GPS unit, Vaisala weather station (WTX520), LICOR 7700 CH4 open path sensor and LICOR 7500 CO2/H2O open path sensor. Sampling sites were preselected based on wind direction, sampling distance and elevation grade. All sites were sampled during low boundary layer conditions (600-1000 and 1800-2200 local time). The majority of sites were sampled 1-3 times while selected test sites were sampled multiple times or resampled several times during the day. For selected sites a sampling tower was constructed consisting of a Metek uSonic-3 Class A sonic anemometer, and an additional LICOR 7700 and 7500. Data were recorded for at least one hour at these sites. A robust study and inter-comparison of different methodologies will be presented. The Gaussian plume model will be used to calculate fluxes for all sites and compare results from test sites with multiple passes. Tower data is used to provide constraints on the Gaussian plume model. Additionally, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) modeling will be used to calculate emissions from the tower sites. Alternative techniques will also be discussed. Results from these techniques will be compared to identify best practices and provide robust error estimates.

  13. Assessing arsenic exposure in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems to mitigate well water contamination.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew E; Lincoln, Rebecca A; Paulu, Chris; Simones, Thomas L; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L; Backer, Lorraine C

    2016-02-15

    There is little published literature on the efficacy of strategies to reduce exposure to residential well water arsenic. The objectives of our study were to: 1) determine if water arsenic remained a significant exposure source in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems; and 2) evaluate the major sources and routes of any remaining arsenic exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 167 households in Maine using one of these two strategies to prevent exposure to arsenic. Most households included one adult and at least one child. Untreated well water arsenic concentrations ranged from <10 μg/L to 640 μg/L. Urine samples, water samples, daily diet and bathing diaries, and household dietary and water use habit surveys were collected. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the relationship between urinary arsenic and untreated well water arsenic concentration, while accounting for documented consumption of untreated water and dietary sources. If mitigation strategies were fully effective, there should be no relationship between urinary arsenic and well water arsenic. To the contrary, we found that untreated arsenic water concentration remained a significant (p ≤ 0.001) predictor of urinary arsenic levels. When untreated water arsenic concentrations were <40 μg/L, untreated water arsenic was no longer a significant predictor of urinary arsenic. Time spent bathing (alone or in combination with water arsenic concentration) was not associated with urinary arsenic. A predictive analysis of the average study participant suggested that when untreated water arsenic ranged from 100 to 500 μg/L, elimination of any untreated water use would result in an 8%-32% reduction in urinary arsenic for young children, and a 14%-59% reduction for adults. These results demonstrate the importance of complying with a point-of-use or bottled water exposure reduction strategy. However, there remained unexplained, water-related routes of exposure

  14. Stratovolcano stability assessment methods and results from Citlaltepetl, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimbelman, D.R.; Watters, R.J.; Firth, I.R.; Breit, G.N.; Carrasco-Nunez, Gerardo

    2004-01-01

    Citlaltépetl volcano is the easternmost stratovolcano in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Situated within 110 km of Veracruz, it has experienced two major collapse events and, subsequent to its last collapse, rebuilt a massive, symmetrical summit cone. To enhance hazard mitigation efforts we assess the stability of Citlaltépetl's summit cone, the area thought most likely to fail during a potential massive collapse event. Through geologic mapping, alteration mineralogy, geotechnical studies, and stability modeling we provide important constraints on the likelihood, location, and size of a potential collapse event. The volcano's summit cone is young, highly fractured, and hydrothermally altered. Fractures are most abundant within 5–20-m wide zones defined by multiple parallel to subparallel fractures. Alteration is most pervasive within the fracture systems and includes acid sulfate, advanced argillic, argillic, and silicification ranks. Fractured and altered rocks both have significantly reduced rock strengths, representing likely bounding surfaces for future collapse events. The fracture systems and altered rock masses occur non-uniformly, as an orthogonal set with N–S and E–W trends. Because these surfaces occur non-uniformly, hazards associated with collapse are unevenly distributed about the volcano. Depending on uncertainties in bounding surfaces, but constrained by detailed field studies, potential failure volumes are estimated to range between 0.04–0.5 km3. Stability modeling was used to assess potential edifice failure events. Modeled failure of the outer portion of the cone initially occurs as an "intact block" bounded by steeply dipping joints and outwardly dipping flow contacts. As collapse progresses, more of the inner cone fails and the outer "intact" block transforms into a collection of smaller blocks. Eventually, a steep face develops in the uppermost and central portion of the cone. This modeled failure morphology mimics collapse

  15. Estimating on Management Practices (Tillage and Flooding) Effects for Assessing Methane Mitigation from Rice-paddy Soil: On Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, W.; Hyun, S.; MIN, H.; Kim, J. G.; Cho, K.

    2016-12-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas that is over 25 times greater than carbon dioxide, and rice-paddy soil represents one of the largest artificial source of methane emission. Changes in management practices (tillage depth, flooding method, cultivation time, etc.) has a significant effect on methane emission. In this study, the process based model (DNDC; DeNitrification and DeComposition) was used to estimate methane emission according to alterations management practices (tillage and flooding) of rice cultivation for the entire South Korea paddy soil (1km2 scale grid cell). Simulations of the DNDC model were performed under four tillage depths (no-till, 5 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm) and two flooding methods (conventional and marginal). For operating DNDC model, basic input parameters (daily climate data, soil pH, soil organic matter contents, soil bulk density and soil clay contents) were obtained from domestic national organizations (Korea meteorological administration and rural development administration). Simulating period to investigate changes of management practices was 2001 to 2015. The simulation results of tillage depths for the 2015 annual methane emission of each depth decreased in the following order: 20 cm > 10 cm > 5 cm > no-till, as expected. However, the grain yield of rice was not significantly different among 20 cm, 10 cm, and 5 cm. For the flooding method, the conventional method had five times greater methane emission than the marginal method. However, the grain yield of rice was also lower under the marginal method. The differences in annual methane emission pertaining to tillage depths and flooding methods were consistent on a national scale. Further research should target to find the best management practices to mitigate methane emission while maintaining the grain yield.

  16. Oregon Statewide Writing Assessment, Grade 8: Results and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This report reviews and analyzes the results of the third statewide analytical writing assessment of Oregon eighth graders. Following an introduction, the report is in five chapters: (1) The Oregon Writing Assessment Interpretive Panel: Comments and Recommendations; (2) Strengths and Weaknesses in Student Writing--A Trait-by-Trait Analysis (giving…

  17. Student Achievement in Science: A Comparison of National Assessment Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students' understanding of basic science concepts (with particular emphasis on the interaction of science and society) was measured during a 1981-82 national assessment. These results are compared to those obtained from the Third Science Assessment (1977) to determine how students' knowledge has changed during the past five years. (JN)

  18. Academic Advising Assessment Practices: Results of a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith L.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.

    2014-01-01

    Best practices of academic advising assessment involve identification of student learning outcomes, the development and use of multiple measures of student learning, and sound professional judgment to understand the information gathered and to improve student learning. However, the assessment results often come from minimal, narrow, and…

  19. Crossing the Continuum: Results of Ohio's Annual Education Technology Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Tim

    The first section of this paper presents the results of Ohio's 1999-2000 Annual Education Technology Assessment. Topics addressed include: the assessment methodology, progress toward eight SchoolNet goals, and better state and local decisions; overall progress toward building the infrastructure and fostering the growth of new practices; and needed…

  20. School Nurse Cultural Competence Needs Assessment: Results and Response.

    PubMed

    Matza, Maria; Maughan, Erin; Barrows, Beth M

    2015-11-01

    NASN conducted a needs assessment to learn about the cultural competence skills needed by school nurses. The purpose of this article is to describe the results of the needs assessment and describe actions taken to address cultural competency needs for the U.S. school nurse workforce.

  1. Assessment of channel changes, model of historical floods, and effects of backwater on flood stage, and flood mitigation alternatives for the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, Karl E.; Baldys, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    In cooperation with the City of Wichita Falls, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel changes on the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas, and modeled historical floods to investigate possible causes and potential mitigation alternatives to higher flood stages in recent (2007 and 2008) floods. Extreme flooding occurred on the Wichita River on June 30, 2007, inundating 167 homes in Wichita Falls. Although a record flood stage was reached in June 2007, the peak discharge was much less than some historical floods at Wichita Falls. Streamflow and stage data from two gages on the Wichita River and one on Holliday Creek were used to assess the interaction of the two streams. Changes in the Wichita River channel were evaluated using historical aerial and ground photography, comparison of recent and historical cross sections, and comparison of channel roughness coefficients with those from earlier studies. The floods of 2007 and 2008 were modeled using a one-dimensional step-backwater model. Calibrated channel roughness was larger for the 2007 flood compared to the 2008 flood, and the 2007 flood peaked about 4 feet higher than the 2008 flood. Calibration of the 1941 flood yielded a channel roughness coefficient (Manning's n) of 0.030, which represents a fairly clean natural channel. The step-backwater model was also used to evaluate the following potential mitigation alternatives: (1) increasing the capacity of the bypass channel near River Road in Wichita Falls, Texas; (2) removal of obstructions near the Scott Avenue and Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard bridges in Wichita Falls, Texas; (3) widening of aggraded channel banks in the reach between Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard and River Road; and (4) reducing channel bank and overbank roughness. Reductions in water-surface elevations ranged from 0.1 foot to as much as 3.0 feet for the different mitigation alternatives. The effects of implementing a combination of different flood-mitigation alternatives were

  2. Rockslide susceptibility and hazard assessment for mitigation works design along vertical rocky cliffs: workflow proposal based on a real case-study conducted in Sacco (Campania), Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignalosa, Antonio; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Marino, Ermanno; Terracciano, Rosario; Santo, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The work here presented concerns a case study in which a complete multidisciplinary workflow has been applied for an extensive assessment of the rockslide susceptibility and hazard in a common scenario such as a vertical and fractured rocky cliffs. The studied area is located in a high-relief zone in Southern Italy (Sacco, Salerno, Campania), characterized by wide vertical rocky cliffs formed by tectonized thick successions of shallow-water limestones. The study concerned the following phases: a) topographic surveying integrating of 3d laser scanning, photogrammetry and GNSS; b) gelogical surveying, characterization of single instabilities and geomecanichal surveying, conducted by geologists rock climbers; c) processing of 3d data and reconstruction of high resolution geometrical models; d) structural and geomechanical analyses; e) data filing in a GIS-based spatial database; f) geo-statistical and spatial analyses and mapping of the whole set of data; g) 3D rockfall analysis; The main goals of the study have been a) to set-up an investigation method to achieve a complete and thorough characterization of the slope stability conditions and b) to provide a detailed base for an accurate definition of the reinforcement and mitigation systems. For this purposes the most up-to-date methods of field surveying, remote sensing, 3d modelling and geospatial data analysis have been integrated in a systematic workflow, accounting of the economic sustainability of the whole project. A novel integrated approach have been applied both fusing deterministic and statistical surveying methods. This approach enabled to deal with the wide extension of the studied area (near to 200.000 m2), without compromising an high accuracy of the results. The deterministic phase, based on a field characterization of single instabilities and their further analyses on 3d models, has been applied for delineating the peculiarity of each single feature. The statistical approach, based on geostructural

  3. [The leadership style as a mitigator of the insurgence of mobbing risk. Results from an empirical research on Italian nurses].

    PubMed

    Caporale, Loretta; Palese, Alvisa; Bortoluzzi, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the organizational factors in mobbing onset, is supported by several studies. The leadership style is considered as one of its main antecedents. To investigate the relation between the leadership style adopted by the Nurse Coordinator and the diffusion of "negative actions", main indicator and antecedent of mobbing onset. Empirical study that involved 175 nurses and obstetricians of a Public Hospital Corporation in North Italy. Data has been collected via a semi-structured and anonymous questionnaire. The results confirm the hypothesis that the adoption of a non-collaborative leadership style goes with a greater diffusion of "negative actions" among the nurses. To intervene on organizational variables, such as the leadership style, allows to reduce the working unease and, therefore, the factors which are linked to it and which bear on the provided relief quality. The results of this study underline the Nurse Coordinator role in preventing and thwarting the onset of "negative actions", which are a potential source for mobbing onset.

  4. Latest Results from the PICO-2L Dark Matter Detector, and the identification and mitigation of particulate-induced backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Daniel; PICO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The PICO Collaboration has taken a key step toward a background-free bubble chamber for WIMP dark matter detection. An unexpected background of unknown origin limited WIMP searches in the PICO-2L and PICO-60 detectors at SNOLAB in 2013 and 2014. Recent efforts targeting particulate contamination in the active volume of PICO-2L have reduced this background by at least one order of magnitude, to a rate below the known neutron background in the detector. The resulting data set the most stringent limit to date from a direct detection experiment on spin-dependent WIMP-proton interactions. I will present a comparison of the background-limited Run-1 of PICO-2L with the new results from Run-2, identifying particulate as the primary source of the previously unexplained background. I will describe the engineering and operational controls now being implemented to eliminate this background in the PICO-60 detector, with the goal of a background-free run using our large detector within the next year. Supported in part by Department of Energy award #DE-SC0012161.

  5. 40 CFR 194.55 - Results of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.55 Results of compliance assessments. (a...

  6. 40 CFR 194.55 - Results of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.55 Results of compliance assessments. (a...

  7. 40 CFR 194.55 - Results of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.55 Results of compliance assessments. (a...

  8. Playing against nature: improving earthquake hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S. A.; Stein, J.

    2012-12-01

    The great 2011 Tohoku earthquake dramatically demonstrated the need to improve earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment and mitigation policies. The earthquake was much larger than predicted by hazard models, and the resulting tsunami overtopped coastal defenses, causing more than 15,000 deaths and $210 billion damage. Hence if and how such defenses should be rebuilt is a challenging question, because the defences fared poorly and building ones to withstand tsunamis as large as March's is too expensive,. A similar issue arises along the Nankai Trough to the south, where new estimates warning of tsunamis 2-5 times higher than in previous models raise the question of what to do, given that the timescale on which such events may occur is unknown. Thus in the words of economist H. Hori, "What should we do in face of uncertainty? Some say we should spend our resources on present problems instead of wasting them on things whose results are uncertain. Others say we should prepare for future unknown disasters precisely because they are uncertain". Thus society needs strategies to mitigate earthquake and tsunami hazards that make economic and societal sense, given that our ability to assess these hazards is poor, as illustrated by highly destructive earthquakes that often occur in areas predicted by hazard maps to be relatively safe. Conceptually, we are playing a game against nature "of which we still don't know all the rules" (Lomnitz, 1989). Nature chooses tsunami heights or ground shaking, and society selects the strategy to minimize the total costs of damage plus mitigation costs. As in any game of chance, we maximize our expectation value by selecting the best strategy, given our limited ability to estimate the occurrence and effects of future events. We thus outline a framework to find the optimal level of mitigation by balancing its cost against the expected damages, recognizing the uncertainties in the hazard estimates. This framework illustrates the role of the

  9. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Detailed Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Quinn, James; Glatt, Ms. Sandy; Orthwein, Mr. Bill

    2010-09-01

    assessment process at the company's other facilities. Another important element of the Save Energy Now assessment process is the follow-up process used to identify how many of the recommended savings opportunities from individual assessments have been implemented in the industrial plants. Plant personnel involved with the Save Energy Now assessments are contacted 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after individual assessments are completed to determine implementation results. A total of 260 Save Energy Now assessments were successfully completed in calendar year 2008. This means that a total of 718 assessments were completed in 2006, 2007, and 2008. As of July 2009, we have received a total of 239 summary reports from the ESAs that were conducted in year 2008. Hence, at the time that this report was prepared, 680 final assessment reports were completed (200 from year 2006, 241 from year 2007, and 239 from year 2008). The total identified potential cost savings from these 680 assessments is $1.1 billion per year, including natural gas savings of about 98 TBtu per year. These results, if fully implemented, could reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by about 8.9 million metric tons annually. When this report was prepared, data on implementation of recommended energy and cost savings measures from 488 Save Energy Now assessments were available. For these 488 plants, measures saving a total of $147 million per year have been implemented, measures that will save $169 million per year are in the process of being implemented, and plants are planning implementation of measures that will save another $239 million per year. The implemented recommendations are already achieving total CO{sub 2} reductions of about 1.8 million metric tons per year. This report provides a summary of the key results for the Save Energy Now assessments completed in 2008; details of the 6-month, 12-month, and 24-month implementation results obtained to date; and an evaluation of these implementation results. This

  10. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Quinn, James; Glatt, Ms. Sandy; Orthwein, Mr. Bill

    2010-09-01

    assessment process at the company's other facilities. Another important element of the Save Energy Now assessment process is the follow-up process used to identify how many of the recommended savings opportunities from individual assessments have been implemented in the industrial plants. Plant personnel involved with the Save Energy Now assessments are contacted 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after individual assessments are completed to determine implementation results. A total of 260 Save Energy Now assessments were successfully completed in calendar year 2008. This means that a total of 718 assessments were completed in 2006, 2007, and 2008. As of July 2009, we have received a total of 239 summary reports from the ESAs that were conducted in year 2008. Hence, at the time that this report was prepared, 680 final assessment reports were completed (200 from year 2006, 241 from year 2007, and 239 from year 2008). The total identified potential cost savings from these 680 assessments is $1.1 billion per year, including natural gas savings of about 98 TBtu per year. These results, if fully implemented, could reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by about 8.9 million metric tons annually. When this report was prepared, data on implementation of recommended energy and cost savings measures from 488 Save Energy Now assessments were available. For these 488 plants, measures saving a total of $147 million per year have been implemented, measures that will save $169 million per year are in the process of being implemented, and plants are planning implementation of measures that will save another $239 million per year. The implemented recommendations are already achieving total CO{sub 2} reductions of about 1.8 million metric tons per year. This report provides a summary of the key results for the Save Energy Now assessments completed in 2008; details of the 6-month, 12-month, and 24-month implementation results obtained to date; and an evaluation of these implementation results. This

  11. Hyper-velocity impact risk assessment and mitigation strategies in the context of future X-ray astronomy missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perinati, Emanuele; Rott, Martin; Santangelo, Andrea; Tenzer, Chris

    2017-06-01

    Future X-ray astronomy missions will be based on instruments with apertures much larger than those used up to now. Therefore, the risk posed by hyper-velocity dust grains in the space environment to the onboard instrumentation will increase, especially when a larger aperture is combined with a longer focal length. Starting from the lessons learned from the XMM and Swift satellites, we review the question of hyper-velocity impacts and discuss the expected impact-rate, risk of damage and possible mitigation strategies in the context of LOFT, eROSITA and ATHENA.

  12. A European effort towards the development of tools for tsunami hazard and risk assessment and mitigation, and tsunami early warning: the EC-funded TRANSFER project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.

    2007-12-01

    TRANSFER (acronym for "Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region") is a European Community funded project being coordinated by the University of Bologna (Italy) and involving 29 partners in Europe, Turkey and Israel. The main objectives of the project can be summarised as: 1) improving our understanding of tsunami processes in the Euro-Mediterranean region, 2) contributing to the tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment, 3) identifying the best strategies for reduction of tsunami risk, 4) focussing on the gaps and needs for the implementation of an efficient tsunami early warning system (TEWS) in the Euro-Mediterranean area, which is a high-priority task in consideration that no tsunami early warning system is today in place in the Euro- Mediterranean countries. This paper briefly outlines the results that were obtained in the first year of life of the project and the activities that are currently carried out and planned for the future. In particular, we will emphasize the efforts made so far in the following directions. 1) The improvement of existing numerical models for tsunami generation, propagation and impact, and the possible development of new ones. Existing numerical models have been already applied to selected benchmark problems. At the same time, the project is making an important effort in the development of standards for inundation maps in Europe. 2) The project Consortium has selected seven test areas in different countries facing the Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean, where innovative probabilistic and statistical approaches for tsunami hazard assessment, up-to-date and new methods to compute inundation maps are being and will be applied. For the same test areas, tsunami scenario approaches are being developed, vulnerability and risk assessed, prevention and mitigation measures defined also by the advice of end users that are organised in an End User Group. 3) A final key aspect is represented by the dissemination of

  13. LCMS landscape change monitoring system—results from an information needs assessment

    Treesearch

    Kevin Megown; Brian Schwind; Don Evans; Mark. Finco

    2015-01-01

    Understanding changes in land use and land cover over space and time provides an important means to evaluate complex interactions between human and biophysical systems, to project future conditions, and to design mitigation and adaptive management strategies. Assessing and monitoring landscape change is evolving into a foundational element of climate change adaptation...

  14. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T.

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  15. Assessment of a novel overflow-type electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) for wastewater treatment, energy recovery and membrane fouling mitigation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guowang; Zhou, Yuhong; Zhou, Guoqiang; Lu, Lian; Wan, Xiankai; Shi, Huixiang

    2015-11-01

    A novel overflow-type electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) without ion exchange membrane, was developed for wastewater treatment and utilized electricity recovered by microbial fuel cell (MFC) for membrane fouling mitigation in membrane bioreactor (MBR). The maximum power density of 629mW/m(3) or 7.18mW/m(2) was obtained. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen under appropriate ranges of hydraulic retention times (16.9-8.5h) were 92.6±5.4%, 96.5±2.8% and 73.9±9.7%, respectively. Sequencing showed electrochemically active bacteria Lactococcus, Bacillus and Saprospiraceae_uncultured were abundant in the biofilm. Compared with a conventional MBR, five significant effects of the MFC integration on the sludge properties, including particle zeta potential decrease, particle size distribution macroaggregation, soluble microbial products and extracellular polymeric substances reduction and SMPP/SMPC ratio increase, were achieved in this system, leading to membrane fouling mitigation. This system shows great promise for practical wastewater treatment application.

  16. NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) results on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.

  17. Public Institutions, Public Challenges: On the Transparency of Assessment Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jo; Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how revealing assessment results could be a public relations headache for public colleges and universities, or, instead, that requirements for public disclosure could offer opportunities for institutions to explain their goals and then act visibly to address any shortcomings. (EV)

  18. 40 CFR 194.34 - Results of performance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Results of performance assessments. 194.34 Section 194.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S...

  19. 24 CFR 50.33 - Action resulting from the assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action resulting from the assessment. 50.33 Section 50.33 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Environmental...

  20. Can the results of the OSCE predict the results of clinical assessment in dental education?

    PubMed

    Näpänkangas, R; Karaharju-Suvanto, T; Pyörälä, E; Harila, V; Ollila, P; Lähdesmäki, R; Lahti, S

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlation between the results of the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and clinical assessment and to test the reliability of OSCE test stations. All 4th year undergraduate dental students (n = 47, 100%) attended the OSCE in April 2010. The students were divided into two groups (morning group, group 1; afternoon group, group 2). Groups 1 and 2 were also divided into two subgroups that attended the stations in two concurrent sessions (A and B). The OSCE included 12 10-min test stations. Clinical assessment was based on long-term observation during the semesters. The disciplines assessed were cross-infection control, endodontics, paediatric dentistry, periodontology, prosthodontics and restorative dentistry. Statistical analysis using Cronbach's alpha indicated good reliability of the OSCE. The correlation between the results of the OSCE and clinical assessment in the 4th year was statistically significant in cross-infection control (ρ = 0.340, P = 0.022), endodontics (ρ = 0.298, P = 0.047), prosthodontics (ρ = 0.296, P = 0.048) and restorative dentistry (ρ = 0.376, P = 0.011). Clinical assessment in the 5th year correlated with the OSCE results statistically significant in restorative dentistry (ρ = 0.522, P = 0.001). Both the OSCE and constant longitudinal assessment are needed in clinical assessment, as they both play an important role in the overall assessment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Nature based solutions to mitigate soil sealing in urban areas: Results from a 4-year study comparing permeable, porous, and impermeable pavements.

    PubMed

    Fini, A; Frangi, P; Mori, J; Donzelli, D; Ferrini, F

    2017-07-01

    Soil sealing is one of the most pervasive forms of soil degradation that follows urbanization and, despite innovative pavements (i.e. pervious) are being installed in urban areas to mitigate it, there is little research on the effects of pervious pavements on soil water and carbon cycle and on the physiology of urban trees. The aim of this 4-year experiment was to assess the effects of three pavements, differing in permeability to water and gases, on some soil physical parameters, and on growth and physiology of newly planted Celtis australis and Fraxinus ornus. Treatments were: 1) impermeable pavement (asphalt on concrete sub-base); 2) permeable pavement (pavers on crushed rock sub-base); 3) porous design (porous pavement on crushed rock sub-base); 4) control (unpaved soil, kept free of weed by chemical control). Soil (temperature, moisture, oxygen content and CO2 efflux) and plant (above- and below-ground growth, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations) parameters were measured. All types of pavements altered the water cycle compared to unpaved soil plots, but this disturbance was less intense in porous pavements than in other soil cover types. Porous pavements allowed both higher infiltration and evaporation of water than both pavers and asphalt. Reduction of evaporative cooling from soil paved with permeable and impermeable pavements contributed to significant soil warming: at 20cm depth, soils under concrete pavers and asphalt were 4 and 5°C warmer than soil covered by porous pavements and unpaved soils, respectively. Thus, enhancing evaporation from paved soil by the use of porous pavements may contribute to mitigating urban heat islands. CO2 greatly accumulated under impermeable and permeable pavements, but not under porous pavements, which showed CO2 efflux rates similar to control. Soil oxygen slightly decreased only beneath asphalt. Growth of newly planted C. australis and F. ornus was little affected by pavement type. Tree

  2. Information Uncertainty to Compare Qualitative Reasoning Security Risk Assessment Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Gregory M; Key, Brian P; Zerkle, David K; Shevitz, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    The security risk associated with malevolent acts such as those of terrorism are often void of the historical data required for a traditional PRA. Most information available to conduct security risk assessments for these malevolent acts is obtained from subject matter experts as subjective judgements. Qualitative reasoning approaches such as approximate reasoning and evidential reasoning are useful for modeling the predicted risk from information provided by subject matter experts. Absent from these approaches is a consistent means to compare the security risk assessment results. Associated with each predicted risk reasoning result is a quantifiable amount of information uncertainty which can be measured and used to compare the results. This paper explores using entropy measures to quantify the information uncertainty associated with conflict and non-specificity in the predicted reasoning results. The measured quantities of conflict and non-specificity can ultimately be used to compare qualitative reasoning results which are important in triage studies and ultimately resource allocation. Straight forward extensions of previous entropy measures are presented here to quantify the non-specificity and conflict associated with security risk assessment results obtained from qualitative reasoning models.

  3. Exclusion of a patient assessment interval and extension of the CPR interval both mitigate post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction in a swine model of cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yun-Te; Tang, Wanchun; Russell, James K; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Sun, Shijie; Weil, Max Harry

    2008-02-01

    Interruptions in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), particularly as guided by automated external defibrillators, have been implicated in poor survival from cardiac arrest. Interruptions of CPR may be reduced by eliminating repetition of shocks between periods of CPR, elimination of the interval for patient assessment before CPR, and extension of the periods of CPR. The effects of exclusion of a 30s post-shock assessment interval prior to CPR and use of a longer interval (180s versus 90s) of CPR on resuscitation and post-resuscitation function were assessed in a factorial design using an established swine model of cardiac arrest. Repetitive shocks were excluded. Ventricular fibrillation was induced ischemically and maintained untreated for 5min. All subjects were resuscitated, 95% survived 3 days, and 97% of survivors had full neurological recovery. Exclusion of the assessment interval reduced the delay to first return of spontaneous circulation by 33.1s (P=0.004) and the delay to sustained resuscitation by 99.2s (P=0.004), reduced post-resuscitation ECG ST elevation by 0.12mV (P=0.03), and alleviated transient post-resuscitation ejection fraction reduction (P<0.0001). Extension of the CPR interval reduced transient post-resuscitation fractional area change impairment (P=0.003). Exclusion of an interval for assessment of airway, breathing and signs of circulation mitigates post-resuscitation dysfunction in a swine model of cardiac arrest. Extension of the period of CPR independently provides measurable, though less comprehensive, mitigation as well.

  4. Conjunction Assessment Techniques and Operational Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Carpenter, Russell; Farahmand, Mitra; Ottenstein, Neil; Demoret, Michael; Godine, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    This paper will describe the results that have been obtained to date during the MMS mission concerning conjunction assessment. MMS navigation makes use of a weak-signal GPS-based system: this allows signals to be received even when MMS is flying above the GPS orbits, producing a highly accurate determination of the four MMS orbits. This data is downlinked to the MMS Mission Operations Center (MOC) and used by the Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) for both maneuver design and conjunction assessment. The MMS fly in tetrahedron formations around apogee, in order to collect simultaneous particles and fields science data. The original plan was to fly tetrahedra between 10 and 160 km in size; however, after Phase 1a of the mission, the science team requested that smaller sizes be flown if feasible. After analysis (to be detailed in a companion paper), a new minimum size of 7 km was decided upon. Flying at this reduced scale size makes conjunction assessment between the MMS spacecraft even more important: the methods that are used by the MMS FDOA to address this problem will be described in the paper, and a summary given of the previous analyses that went into the development of these techniques. Details will also be given of operational experiences to date. Finally, two CA mitigation maneuver types that have been designed (but never yet required to actually be performed) will also be outlined.

  5. Sub-region (district) and sector level SO 2 and NO x emissions for India: assessment of inventories and mitigation flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, A.; Shukla, P. R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    Sub-regional and sector level distribution of SO 2 and NO x emissions inventories for India have been estimated for all the 466 Indian districts using base data for years 1990 and 1995. Although, national level emissions provide general guidelines for assessing mitigation alternatives, but significant regional and sectoral variability exist in Indian emissions. Districts reasonably capture this variability to a fine grid as 80% of these districts are smaller than 1°×1° resolution with 60% being smaller than even 1/2°×1/2°. Moreover, districts in India have well-established administrative and institutional mechanisms that would be useful for implementing and monitoring measures. District level emission estimates thus offer a finer regional scale inventory covering the combined interests of the scientific community and policy makers. The inventory assessment methodology adopted is similar to that prescribed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The sectoral decomposition at district level includes emissions from fossil fuel combustion, non-energy emissions from industrial activities and agriculture. Total SO 2 and NO x emissions from India were 3542 and 2636 Gg, respectively (1990) and 4638 and 3462 Gg (1995) growing at annual rate of around 5.5%. The sectoral composition of SO 2 emissions indicates a predominance of electric power generation sector (46%). Power and transport sector emissions equally dominate NO x emissions contributing nearly 30% each. However, majority of power plants are situated in predominantly rural districts while the latter are concentrated in large urban centers. Mitigation efforts for transport sector NO x emissions would therefore be higher. The district level analysis indicates diverse spatial distribution with the top 5% emitting districts contributing 46.5 and 33.3% of total national SO 2 and NO x emissions, respectively. This skewed emission pattern, with a few districts

  6. Mitigating and adapting to climate change: multi-functional and multi-scale assessment of green urban infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Demuzere, M; Orru, K; Heidrich, O; Olazabal, E; Geneletti, D; Orru, H; Bhave, A G; Mittal, N; Feliu, E; Faehnle, M

    2014-12-15

    In order to develop climate resilient urban areas and reduce emissions, several opportunities exist starting from conscious planning and design of green (and blue) spaces in these landscapes. Green urban infrastructure has been regarded as beneficial, e.g. by balancing water flows, providing thermal comfort. This article explores the existing evidence on the contribution of green spaces to climate change mitigation and adaptation services. We suggest a framework of ecosystem services for systematizing the evidence on the provision of bio-physical benefits (e.g. CO2 sequestration) as well as social and psychological benefits (e.g. improved health) that enable coping with (adaptation) or reducing the adverse effects (mitigation) of climate change. The multi-functional and multi-scale nature of green urban infrastructure complicates the categorization of services and benefits, since in reality the interactions between various benefits are manifold and appear on different scales. We will show the relevance of the benefits from green urban infrastructures on three spatial scales (i.e. city, neighborhood and site specific scales). We will further report on co-benefits and trade-offs between the various services indicating that a benefit could in turn be detrimental in relation to other functions. The manuscript identifies avenues for further research on the role of green urban infrastructure, in different types of cities, climates and social contexts. Our systematic understanding of the bio-physical and social processes defining various services allows targeting stressors that may hamper the provision of green urban infrastructure services in individual behavior as well as in wider planning and environmental management in urban areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of the Mitigative Capacity of Dietary Zinc on PCB126 Hepatotoxicity and the Contribution of Zinc to Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Klaren, William D; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Wels, Brian; Simmons, Donald L; McCormick, Michael L; Spitz, Douglas R; Robertson, Larry W

    2016-05-16

    Hepatic levels of the essential micronutrient, zinc, are diminished by several hepatotoxicants, and the dietary supplementation of zinc has proven protective in those cases. 3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), a liver toxicant, alters hepatic nutrient homeostasis and lowers hepatic zinc levels. The current study was designed to determine the mitigative potential of dietary zinc in the toxicity associated with PCB126 and the role of zinc in that toxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three dietary groups and fed diets deficient in zinc (7 ppm Zn), adequate in zinc (30 ppm Zn), and supplemented in zinc (300 ppm). The animals were maintained for 3 weeks on these diets, then given a single IP injection of vehicle or 1 or 5 μmol/kg PCB126. After 2 weeks, the animals were euthanized. Dietary zinc increased the level of ROS, the activity of CuZnSOD, and the expression of metallothionein but decreased the levels of hepatic manganese. PCB126 exposed rats exhibited classic signs of exposure, including hepatomegaly, increased hepatic lipids, increased ROS and CYP induction. Liver histology suggests some mild ameliorative properties of both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation. Other metrics of toxicity (relative liver and thymus weights, hepatic lipids, and hepatic ROS) did not support this trend. Interestingly, the zinc supplemented high dose PCB126 group had mildly improved histology and less efficacious induction of investigated genes than did the low dose PCB126 group. Overall, decreases in zinc caused by PCB126 likely contribute little to the ongoing toxicity, and the mitigative/preventive capacity of zinc against PCB126 exposure seems limited.

  8. New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsk Assessment MethodS for Europe (MATRIX): A research program towards mitigating multiple hazards and risks in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, K. M.; Zschau, J.; Gasparini, P.; Modaressi, H.; Matrix Consortium

    2011-12-01

    Scientists, engineers, civil protection and disaster managers typically treat natural hazards and risks individually. This leads to the situation where the frequent causal relationships between the different hazards and risks, e.g., earthquakes and volcanos, or floods and landslides, are ignored. Such an oversight may potentially lead to inefficient mitigation planning. As part of their efforts to confront this issue, the European Union, under its FP7 program, is supporting the New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe or MATRIX project. The focus of MATRIX is on natural hazards, in particular earthquakes, landslides, volcanos, wild fires, storms and fluvial and coastal flooding. MATRIX will endeavour to develop methods and tools to tackle multi-type natural hazards and risks within a common framework, focusing on methodologies that are suited to the European context. The work will involve an assessment of current single-type hazard and risk assessment methodologies, including a comparison and quantification of uncertainties and harmonization of single-type methods, examining the consequence of cascade effects within a multi-hazard environment, time-dependent vulnerability, decision making and support for multi-hazard mitigation and adaption, and a series of test cases. Three test sites are being used to assess the methods developed within the project (Naples, Cologne, and the French West Indies), as well as a "virtual city" based on a comprehensive IT platform that will allow scenarios not represented by the test cases to be examined. In addition, a comprehensive dissemination program that will involve national platforms for disaster management, as well as various outreach activities, will be undertaken. The MATRIX consortium consists of ten research institutions (nine European and one Canadian), an end-user (i.e., one of the European national platforms for disaster reduction) and a partner from industry.

  9. Results from the Fourth Mathematics Assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Mary Montgomery, Ed.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) completed its fourth mathematics assessment during the 1985-86 school year and finished the analyses of the results in 1988. This monograph, prepared by an interpretive team of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, represents a comprehensive discussion of the results of the fourth…

  10. Electronic results management in pediatric ambulatory care: qualitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Timothy G; Johnson, Sarah A; Co, John Patrick T; Backus, Meghan; Perrin, James; Bates, David W; Poon, Eric G

    2009-01-01

    Electronic results management may improve the reliability and efficiency of test results management, but few studies have investigated this topic in pediatrics. We conducted semi-structured, key informant interviews before and after implementation of electronic results management at 8 pediatric ambulatory care practices. We also surveyed all pediatricians at 18 practices (10 additional practices). All practices were members of Partners Healthcare and had been using an electronic health record when they were offered electronic results management. We assessed baseline processes for results management, barriers to electronic results management adoption, and the perceived impact of electronic results management on quality, efficiency, and provider satisfaction. From interviews, we found a range of processes in place to manage test results, but all practices reported losing some results and no practice tracked all test results from the time of ordering to parent/patient notification. Practices that fully adopted electronic results management reported gains in efficiency, reliability, timeliness, and provider satisfaction, whereas some partial adopters reported decreased efficiency and increased risk of lost test results. Barriers to electronic results management adoption included lack of inclusion of all ordered tests in the electronic results management system, user interface design issues, and lack of sufficient pediatric customization. Survey results (response rate: 62%) indicated that pediatricians thought electronic results management improved the quality and efficiency of care, with 72% of pediatricians reporting safer care and 63% reporting more-effective care. We found that pediatric practices have room for improvement in the management of test results, and electronic results management may be an effective method for improving the efficiency and safety of test results management. However, partial adoption of electronic results management may decrease efficiency

  11. Mitigating the Dangers of a Single Story: Creating Large-Scale Writing Assessments Aligned with Sociocultural Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behizadeh, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    The dangers of a single story in current U.S. large-scale writing assessment are that assessment practice does not align with theory and this practice has negative effects on instruction and students. In this article, I analyze the connections or lack of connections among writing theory, writing assessment, and writing instruction, critique the…

  12. Mitigating the Dangers of a Single Story: Creating Large-Scale Writing Assessments Aligned with Sociocultural Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behizadeh, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    The dangers of a single story in current U.S. large-scale writing assessment are that assessment practice does not align with theory and this practice has negative effects on instruction and students. In this article, I analyze the connections or lack of connections among writing theory, writing assessment, and writing instruction, critique the…

  13. Assessing Stewardship Maturity: Use Case Results and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, N. A.; Peng, G.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing the current stewardship maturity state of datasets is an important part of ensuring and improving the way datasets are documented, preserved, stewarded, and disseminated to users. It is a critical step towards meeting U.S. federal regulations, organizational requirements, and user needs, especially in the area of data quality. Stewardship maturity assessment models provide a uniform framework for a consistent assessment within the context of data management in organizations and portfolios, and stewardship of individual datasets, respectively. A key component of dataset and stewardship models maturity is data quality and documentation of the quality. The Data Stewardship Maturity Matrix(DSMM) developed in partnership with NOAA's National Centers of Environmental Information (NCEI) and the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites-North Carolina (CICS-NC) has been used to assess stewardship maturity of highly-utilized datasets within NCEI. Consistent application of the model across heterogenous data types (satellite, in situ, regional, global, etc.) and across multiple levels of stewardship support has proven beneficial but challenging.This presentation will demonstrate the utility of the DSMM through results from use case studies and its application for documenting data quality, indicate the challenges of consistent implementation and provide recommendations on improved application.

  14. [Ultrasound role in assessment of vesicoureteral reflux endoscopic treatment results].

    PubMed

    Serrano Durba, A; Bonillo García, M A; Domínguez Hinarejos, C; Sanguesa, C; Muro, D; García Ibarra, F

    2006-04-01

    Since the beginning of the application of the RVU treatment, the use of the ultrasound was used taking into account two main indications/symptoms: a) identification of the complications; b) assessment of the result (visualization of the implanted material and the presence of the "uretheral jet" by means or through/of ecodoppler-color). To determine the value of the ultrasound in the assessment of the result of the endoscopic treatment of the RVU and in the detection of its complications. From 2001-2002 we have carried out the endoscopic treatment to an overall of 261 ureteral units of all degree and etiology. 246 were assessed post-operation with an ultrasound per month and all of them were evaluated with a cistography after 3 months. In a random sample of 92 units, the result of the isotopic cistography has been compared with the visualization of the implanted material in the bladder; and in a random sample of 56 units, the result of the isotopic cistography has been compared with the presence of ureteral jet in the study with ecodoppler-color after moisturizing of the patient. In order to do, we have done two corresponding comparative charts 2 x 2 and we have calculated the Sensibility and Specificity of the tests, as well as their predictive positive and negative values, the degree of similarity of both tests with the Kappa index, and the degree of statistical relevance with Chi squared. The ultrasound did not show significant changes if compared to previous studies in 213 units (86,58 %) although in 5 patients an ectasia has been identified as attributed to the treatment. 3 of this patients have developed renoureteral pain, and in 2 pain has spontaneously disappeared as shown in later tests. The S and the E of the presence of implanted material is 94% and 10%respectively and its VPP and VPN of 80% and 10% and estadistical. The S and E of the jet visualization is 82% and 30%, with a VPP of 84% and a VPN of 27%, a level of statistical relevance of 0.836 and a

  15. A socio-economic study along with impact assessment for laterite based technology demonstration for arsenic mitigation.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sourav; Roy, Anirban; Mukherjee, Raka; Mondal, Mrinmoy; Karmakar, Sankha; Chatterjee, Somak; Mukherjee, Munmun; Bhattacharjee, Saikat; De, Sirshendu

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic contamination mitigation technologies have been adsorption-based, but the most widely-used and traditionally available adsorbents suffered inherent limitations, including cost infeasibility and problems associated with regeneration and disposal of the spent adsorbent. The present technology is based on indigenously developed activated laterite prepared from the naturally and abundantly available material, and can hence easily be scaled up for community usage and large scale implementation. The total arsenic removal capacity is 32.5mg/g, which is the highest among all naturally occurring arsenic adsorbents. A major issue in earlier adsorbents was that during regeneration, the adsorbed arsenic would be released back into the environment (leaching), and would eventually contaminate the groundwater again. But the adsorbent in this filter does not require regeneration during its five-year lifespan and does not leach upon disposal. An attempt is made to test and demonstrate the practical implementation of the technology - its effectiveness and viability in three community (primary schools - one in Malda and two in north 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India) and 20 household filters, catering to over 5000 people in different areas of West Bengal exposed to high arsenic contamination of groundwater (ranging from 0.05 to 0.5mg/l). The work also focuses on the social impact of the real life technological solution on the lives on the affected people in the worst hit arsenic affected communities, perhaps the greatest public health risk emergency of the decade.

  16. The Use of OMPS Near Real Time Products in Volcanic Cloud Risk Mitigation and Smoke/Dust Air Quality Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seftor, C. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; McPeters, R. D.; Li, J. Y.; Durbin, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Near real time (NRT) SO2 and aerosol index (AI) imagery from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has proven invaluable in mitigating the risk posed to air traffic by SO2 and ash clouds from volcanic eruptions. The OMI products, generated as part of NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) NRT system and available through LANCE and both NOAA's NESDIS and ESA's Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS) portals, are used to monitor the current location of volcanic clouds and to provide input into Volcanic Ash (VA) advisory forecasts. NRT products have recently been developed using data from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite onboard the Suomi NPP platform; they are currently being made available through the SACS portal and will shortly be incorporated into the LANCE NRT system. We will show examples of the use of OMPS NRT SO2 and AI imagery to monitor recent volcanic eruption events. We will also demonstrate the usefulness of OMPS AI imagery to detect and track dust storms and smoke from fires, and how this information can be used to forecast their impact on air quality in areas far removed from their source. Finally, we will show SO2 and AI imagery generated from our OMPS Direct Broadcast data to highlight the capability of our real time system.

  17. Assessment of Emerging Regional Air Quality (AQ) and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Impacts and Potential Mitigation Strategies in U.S. Energy Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnon, Michael Mac

    The current domestic reliance on high-emitting fossil fuels for energy needs is the key driver of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) and pollutant emissions driving both climate change and regional air quality (AQ) concerns. Moving forward, emission sources in U.S. energy sectors will be subjected to changes driven by numerous phenomena, including technology evolution, environmental impacts, sustainability goals, and socioeconomic factors. This evolution will directly affect emissions source-related impacts on regional AQ that effective emissions control strategies must account for, including relative source contributions. Though previous studies have evaluated the emissions and AQ impacts of different sectors, technologies and fuels, most previous studies have assessed emissions impacts only without using advanced atmospheric models to accurately account for both spatial and temporal emissions perturbations and atmospheric chemistry and transport. In addition, few previous studies have considered the integration of multiple technologies and fuels in different U.S. regions.. Finally, most studies do not project emissions several decades into the future to assess what sources should be targeted with priority over time. These aspects are critical for understanding how both emissions sources and potential mitigation strategies impact the formation and fate of primary and secondary pollutants, including ground-level ozone and particulate matter concentrations. Therefore, this work utilizes a set of modeling tools to project and then to spatially and temporally resolve emissions as input into a 3-D Eulerian AQ model to assess how sources of emissions contribute to future atmospheric pollutant burdens. Further, analyses of the potential impacts of alternative energy strategies contained in potential mitigation strategies are conducted for priority targets to develop an understanding of how to maximize AQ benefits and avoid unforeseen deleterious tradeoffs between GHG reduction

  18. Pyro-chemistry assessment at CEA - Last experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Lacquement, J.; Bourg, S.; Boussier, H.; Conocar, O.; Laplace, A.; Baron, P.

    2007-07-01

    Initially assessed in the frame of the first French act on radioactive waste management (Dec. 91), the pyro-technology is now perceived by the Nuclear Energy Directorate of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) as a potential alternative to hydrometallurgy in two applications: (i) reprocessing of irradiated targets or dedicated fuels used for the minor actinides transmutation, (ii) reprocessing of Generation IV spent nuclear fuels (e.g. carbide fuel proposed for Gas cooled Fast Reactor or oxide fuel proposed for Sodium Fast Reactor). The R and D program is now mainly focused on the latter application. This paper gives the last experimental results on actinides/fission products separation assessment in molten fluorides either by chemical reductive extraction or electrolysis. (authors)

  19. Is Teacher Professional Development an Effective Way to Mitigate Teachers' Gender Differences in Technology? Result from a Statewide Teacher Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed data from a statewide professional development (PD) program to investigate whether gender difference towards technology usage was mitigated after participation in the program. Teachers responded to pre- and post-questionnaires regarding their perceptions and use of technology before and after participating in PD courses.…

  20. Assessment of the Seismic Risk in the City of Yerevan and its Mitigation by Application of Innovative Seismic Isolation Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkumyan, Mikayel G.

    2011-03-01

    It is obvious that the problem of precise assessment and/or analysis of seismic hazard (SHA) is quite a serious issue, and seismic risk reduction considerably depends on it. It is well known that there are two approaches in seismic hazard analysis, namely, deterministic (DSHA) and probabilistic (PSHA). The latter utilizes statistical estimates of earthquake parameters. However, they may not exist in a specific region, and using PSHA it is difficult to take into account local aspects, such as specific regional geology and site effects, with sufficient precision. For this reason, DSHA is preferable in many cases. After the destructive 1988 Spitak earthquake, the SHA of the territory of Armenia has been revised and increased. The distribution pattern for seismic risk in Armenia is given. Maximum seismic risk is concentrated in the region of the capital, the city of Yerevan, where 40% of the republic's population resides. We describe the method used for conducting seismic resistance assessment of the existing reinforced concrete (R/C) buildings. Using this assessment, as well as GIS technology, the coefficients characterizing the seismic risk of destruction were calculated for almost all buildings of Yerevan City. The results of the assessment are presented. It is concluded that, presently, there is a particularly pressing need for strengthening existing buildings. We then describe non-conventional approaches to upgrading the earthquake resistance of existing multistory R/C frame buildings by means of Additional Isolated Upper Floor (AIUF) and of existing stone and frame buildings by means of base isolation. In addition, innovative seismic isolation technologies were developed and implemented in Armenia for construction of new multistory multifunctional buildings. The advantages of these technologies are listed in the paper. It is worth noting that the aforementioned technologies were successfully applied for retrofitting an existing 100-year-old bank building in

  1. Alaskan wave and river hydrokinetic energy resource assessment, river energy converter testing and surface debris mitigation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J.; Kasper, J.; Schmid, J.; Duvoy, P.; Ravens, T. M.; Hansen, N.; Montlaur, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaska Hydrokinetic Energy Research Center (AHERC) is conducting a wave energy assessment study at Yakutat, Alaska, and conducting ongoing river technology studies at the Tanana River Tests Site (TRTS) at Nenana, Alaska. In Aug. 2013 an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was deployed in 40 m of water off Cannon Beach in Yakutat, AK as part of the Yakutat area wave energy resource assessment. Over the course of the 1.5 year deployment, the ADCP will record area wave and current data in order to verify the area wave energy resource. Preliminary data analysis shows a vigorous wave field with maximum wave heights up to 16 m in Nov. 2013. In addition to the in-situ directional wave data recorded by the ADCP, a SWAN wave climatology spanning the past 20 years is being developed along with a simulation of the wave field for the near shore (5 mresults, depending on

  2. From impact assessment to recommendation: How are the impact assessment results presented and used?

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, T.

    1995-07-01

    Most work on impact assessment (IA) deals with data, technique, and procedures for making the assessment. While these things can influence the final choice of planning alternative, it is equally important how the assessment results are used in the political decision process. The case material concerns integrated transportation and land use plans for the 10 largest urban regions in Norway. It is demonstrated that application of the impact assessment results varies widely among the cities. The information potential of the impact calculations is considerably underexploited in many cases, and assessment results seem too easily ignored in the process of reaching a recommendation on planning strategy. Some factors are identified and discussed in an attempt to shed light on this phenomenon.

  3. 2009 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano; R. D. Teel

    2009-09-30

    This document details the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2009, including 25 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and three bat mitigation projects.

  4. Fire behavior modeling to assess net benefits of forest treatments on fire hazard mitigation and bioenergy production in Northeastern California

    Treesearch

    David J. Ganz; David S. Saah; Klaus Barber; Mark Nechodom

    2007-01-01

    The fire behavior modeling described here, conducted as part of the Biomass to Energy (B2E) life cycle assessment, is funded by the California Energy Commission to evaluate the potential net benefits associated with treating and utilizing forest biomass. The B2E project facilitates economic, environmental, energy, and effectiveness assessments of the potential public...

  5. Life-cycle assessment of a reed canary grass plantation in an abandoned peat extraction area to mitigate GHG emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    Abandoned peat extraction areas are continuous emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG); hence, abandonment of peat extraction areas should immediately be followed by conversion to an appropriate after-use. Our primary aim was to clarify the atmospheric impact of reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea L.) cultivation on an abandoned peat extraction area and to compare it to other after-treatment alternatives. In addition to measurement of GHGs using the closed chamber and gas-chromatograph method, measuring C and N balance in study plots and aboveground and belowground biomass of RCG for the period April 2009-September 2011, we performed a life-cycle assessment for five different after-use options for a drained organic soil withdrawn from peat extraction: (I) bare peat soil (no management), (II) non-fertilised Phalaris cultivation, (III) fertilized Phalaris cultivation, (IV) afforestation, and (V) rewetting. Our results showed that on average the non-fertilised and fertilised Phalaris alternatives had a cooling effect on the atmosphere, whereas afforestation, rewetting, and no management alternatives contributed to global warming. The main components influencing the global warming potential of different after-use alternatives were site GHG emissions, carbon assimilation by plants, and emissions from combustion, while management-related emissions played a relatively minor role. The results of this study indicate that, from the perspective of atmospheric impact during following 10 years, the most suitable after-use option for an abandoned peat extraction area is cultivation of RCG. For the long term effect, dynamics of Phalaris production and carbon sequestration in soil must be taken into the consideration.

  6. Implementing REDD+ at the local level: Assessing the key enablers for credible mitigation and sustainable livelihood outcomes.

    PubMed

    Atela, Joanes O; Minang, Peter A; Quinn, Claire H; Duguma, Lalisa A

    2015-07-01

    Achieving cost-effective mitigation and sustainable livelihoods through reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) depends heavily on the local context within which REDD+ projects are implemented. Studies have focused on how REDD+ can benefit or harm local people, with little attention paid to how people, their assets and institutions can promote or impede REDD+. This paper examines the key local assets necessary for REDD+ to protect forests and support local livelihoods based on evidence from a globally-linked REDD+ project in Kenya. Household interviews (n = 100), focus group discussions (n = 6) and in-depth interviews with government (n = 8) and project stakeholders (n = 14) were undertaken to rank and explain how local assets interact with the project's efforts to protect forests, and the role of State institutions in shaping project-asset interactions. Locally, pro-poor assets such as land tenure and water access had most influence on the project's ability to protect forests. Inclusion of communal forests as part of the REDD+ project entitled local poor peasant farmers to participate in and benefit from the project and so dissuaded them from using protected forests for charcoal production. Water access determined agricultural productivity and intensity of forest use for livelihoods and coping. Even though carbon revenues were distributed equally between social groups and support directed to pro-poor livelihood initiatives, efforts were impeded by State decisions on land that interfered with communal approaches to forest conservation, by strict carbon standards that limited trade-offs between livelihoods and forest protection and by fluctuating carbon prices and buyers that limited funds needed for project operations and local livelihoods. Equitable and pro-poor benefit sharing are necessary but not sufficient for effective REDD+ implementation unless national institutions are reformed and global carbon pricing harmonized

  7. Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes - a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgaard, T.; Bienkowski, J. F.; Bleeker, A.; Drouet, J. L.; Durand, P.; Dragosits, U.; Frumau, A.; Hutchings, N. J.; Kedziora, A.; Magliulo, V.; Olesen, J. E.; Theobald, M. R.; Maury, O.; Akkal, N.; Cellier, P.

    2012-07-01

    reducing N emissions from livestock farms. Based on the large differences between the average and the most modern and N-efficient farms, it was concluded that N-surplus reductions of 25-50 % as compared to the present level were realistic in all landscapes. The implemented N-surplus method was thus effective at comparing and synthesizing results on farm N emissions and the potentials of mitigation options, and is recommended for use in combination with other methods for the assessment of landscape N emissions and farm N efficiency, including more detailed N sink and N source hotspot mapping, measurements and modelling.

  8. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    SciTech Connect

    Coroama, Vlad C.; Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  9. Ciprofloxacin Therapy Results in Mitigation of ATP Loss after Irradiation Combined with Wound Trauma: Preservation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase and Inhibition of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua M; Smith, Joan T; Kiang, Juliann G

    2015-06-01

    Ionizing radiation exposure combined with wound injury increases animal mortalities than ionizing radiation exposure alone. Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is in the fluroquinolone family of synthetic antibiotic that are available from the strategic national stockpile for emergency use and is known to inhibit bacterial sepsis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ciprofloxacin as a countermeasure to combined injury mortality and determine the signaling proteins involved in energy machinery. B6D2F1/J female mice were randomly assigned to receive either 9.75 Gy irradiation with Co-60 gamma rays followed by skin wounding (combined injury; CI) or sham procedure (sham). Either ciprofloxacin (90 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (VEH) (water) was administered orally to these mice 2 h after wounding and thereafter daily for 10 days. Determination of tissue adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was conducted, and immunoblotting for signaling proteins involved in ATP machinery was performed. Combined injury resulted in 60% survival after 10 days compared to 100% survival in the sham group. Furthermore, combined injury caused significant reductions of ATP concentrations in ileum, pancreas, brain, spleen, kidney and lung (-25% to -95%) compared to the sham group. Ciprofloxacin administration after combined injury resulted in 100% survival and inhibited reductions in ileum and kidney ATP production. Ileum protein levels of heat-shock protein 70 kDa (HSP-70, a chaperone protein involved in ATP synthesis) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH, an enzyme complex crucial to conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA for entrance into TCA cycle) were significantly lower in the CI group (vs. sham group). Using immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting, HSP-70-PDH complex was found to be present in the ileum tissue of CI mice treated with ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, phosphorylation of serine residues of PDH resulting in inactivating PDH enzymatic activity, which occurred after combined injury, was inhibited

  10. Predictors and assessment of cognitive dysfunction resulting from ischaemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gottesman, Rebecca F; Hillis, Argye E

    2013-01-01

    Stroke remains a primary cause of morbidity throughout the world mainly because of its effect on cognition. Individuals can recover from physical disability resulting from stroke, but might be unable to return to their previous occupations or independent life because of cognitive impairments. Cognitive dysfunction ranges from focal deficits, resulting directly from an area of infarction or from hypoperfusion in adjacent tissue, to more global cognitive dysfunction. Global dysfunction is likely to be related to other underlying subclinical cerebrovascular disease, such as white-matter disease or subclinical infarcts. Study of cognitive dysfunction after stroke is complicated by varying definitions and lack of measurement of cognition before stroke. Additionally, stroke can affect white-matter connectivity, so newer imaging techniques, such as diffusion-tensor imaging and magnetisation transfer imaging, that can be used to assess this subclinical injury are important tools in the assessment of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. As research is increasingly focused on the role of preventable risk factors in the development of dementia, the role of stroke in the development of cognitive impairment and dementia could be another target for prevention. PMID:20723846

  11. Assessing the Generalizability of Randomized Trial Results to Target Populations

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen increasing interest in and attention to evidence-based practices, where the “evidence” generally comes from well-conducted randomized trials. However, while those trials yield accurate estimates of the effect of the intervention for the participants in the trial (known as “internal validity”), they do not always yield relevant information about the effects in a particular target population (known as “external validity”). This may be due to a lack of specification of a target population when designing the trial, difficulties recruiting a sample that is representative of a pre-specified target population, or to interest in considering a target population somewhat different from the population directly targeted by the trial. This paper first provides an overview of existing design and analysis methods for assessing and enhancing the ability of a randomized trial to estimate treatment effects in a target population. It then provides a case study using one particular method, which weights the subjects in a randomized trial to match the population on a set of observed characteristics. The case study uses data from a randomized trial of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS); our interest is in generalizing the results to the state of Maryland. In the case of PBIS, after weighting, estimated effects in the target population were similar to those observed in the randomized trial. The paper illustrates that statistical methods can be used to assess and enhance the external validity of randomized trials, making the results more applicable to policy and clinical questions. However, there are also many open research questions; future research should focus on questions of treatment effect heterogeneity and further developing these methods for enhancing external validity. Researchers should think carefully about the external validity of randomized trials and be cautious about extrapolating results to specific

  12. Pronounced energy restriction with elevated protein intake results in no change in proteolysis and reductions in skeletal muscle protein synthesis that are mitigated by resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Hector, Amy J; McGlory, Chris; Damas, Felipe; Mazara, Nicole; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2017-09-12

    Preservation of lean body mass (LBM) may be important during dietary energy restriction (ER) and requires equal rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). Currently, the relative contribution of MPS and MPB to the loss of LBM during ER in humans is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of dietary protein intake and resistance exercise on MPS and MPB during a controlled short-term energy deficit. Adult men (body mass index, 28.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2); age 22 ± 1 yr) underwent 10 d of 40%-reduced energy intake while performing unilateral resistance exercise and consuming lower protein (1.2 g/kg/d, n = 12) or higher protein (2.4 g/kg per d, n = 12). Pre- and postintervention testing included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, primed constant infusion of ring-[(13)C6]phenylalanine, and (15)[N]phenylalanine to measure acute postabsorptive MPS and MPB; D2O to measure integrated MPS; and gene and protein expression. There was a decrease in acute MPS after ER (higher protein, 0.059 ± 0.006 to 0.051 ± 0.009%/h; lower protein, 0.061 ± 0.005-0.045 ± 0.006%/h; P < 0.05) that was attenuated with resistance exercise (higher protein, 0.067 ± 0.01%/h; lower protein, 0.061 ± 0.006%/h), and integrated MPS followed a similar pattern. There was no change in MPB (energy balance, 0.080 ± 0.01%/hr; ER rested legs, 0.078 ± 0.008%/hr; ER exercised legs, 0.079 ± 0.006%/hr). We conclude that a reduction in MPS is the main mechanism that underpins LBM loss early in ER in adult men.-Hector, A. J., McGlory, C., Damas, F., Mazara, N., Baker, S. K., Phillips, S. M. Pronounced energy restriction with elevated protein intake results in no change in proteolysis and reductions in skeletal muscle protein synthesis that are mitigated by resistance exercise. © FASEB.

  13. Early results from NASA's assessment of satellite servicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Thronson, Harley A., Jr.; Ahmed, Mansoor; Whipple, Arthur O.; Oegerle, William R.

    2010-07-01

    Following recommendations by the NRC, NASA's FY 2008 Authorization Act and the FY 2009 and 2010 Appropriations bills directed NASA to assess the use of the human spaceflight architecture to service existing/future observatory-class scientific spacecraft. This interest in satellite servicing, with astronauts and/or with robots, reflects the success that NASA achieved with the Shuttle program and HST on behalf of the astronomical community as well as the successful construction of ISS. This study, led by NASA GSFC, will last about a year, leading to a final report to NASA and Congress in autumn 2010. We will report on its status, results from our March satellite servicing workshop, and recent concepts for serviceable scientific missions.

  14. USING SPARROW MODEL RESULTS TO ASSIST WITH COASTAL WATER ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Assessment (NCA) has proposed a national strategy for research and monitoring in support of coastal water assessment that involves three tiers: Problem Characterization (Tier 1), involving probabilistic surveys to document broad-scale response properties; D...

  15. INTEGRATED RISK ASSESSMENT - RESULTS FROM AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety and international partners have developed a framework for integrated assessment of human health and ecological risks and four case studies. An international workshop was convened to consider how ecological and health risk assess...

  16. INTEGRATED RISK ASSESSMENT - RESULTS FROM AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety and international partners have developed a framework for integrated assessment of human health and ecological risks and four case studies. An international workshop was convened to consider how ecological and health risk assess...

  17. USING SPARROW MODEL RESULTS TO ASSIST WITH COASTAL WATER ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Assessment (NCA) has proposed a national strategy for research and monitoring in support of coastal water assessment that involves three tiers: Problem Characterization (Tier 1), involving probabilistic surveys to document broad-scale response properties; D...

  18. Plethyzmography in assessment of hemodynamic results of pacemaker functions programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, Dariusz; Sionek, Piotr; Peczalski, Kazimierz; Janusek, Dariusz

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents potential role of plethyzmography in optimization of heart hemodynamic function during pacemaker programming. The assessment of optimal stroke volume in patients, with implanted dual chamber pacemaker (DDD), by plethyzmography was a goal of the study. The data were collected during pacing rhythm. 20 patients (8 female and 12 male, average 77.4+/-4.6 years) with dual chamber pacemaker (DDD) and with pacing rhythm during routine pacemaker control and study tests were incorporated in the study group. Hemodynamic parameters were assessed during modification of atrio-ventricular delay (AVD) for pacing rhythm of 70 bpm and 90 bpm. The time of atrioventricular was programmed with 20 ms steps within range 100-200 ms and data were recorded with two minutes delay between two consecutive measurements. Stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were calculated from plethyzmographic signal by using Beatscope software (TNO Holand). Highest SV calculated for given pacing rhythm was named optimal stroke volume (OSV) and consequently highest cardiac output was named maximal cardiac output (MCO). The time of atrio-ventricular delay for OSV was named optimal atrioventricular delay (OAVD). The results have showed: mean values of OAVD for 70 bpm - 152+/-33 ms and for 90 bpm -149+/-35 ms, shortening of the mean OAVD time caused by increase of pacing rate from 70 bpm to 90 bpm what resulted in statistically significant decrease of OSV with not statistically significant increase of MCO. The analysis of consecutive patients revealed three types of response to increase of pacing rhythm: 1. typical-shortening of OAVD, 2. neutral-no change of OAVD and 3.atypical-lengthening of OAVD.

  19. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Engineering-Initial High-Level Safety Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents an initial high-level safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the C-band communication system after the profile is finalized and system rollout timing is determined. A security risk assessment has been performed by NASA as a parallel activity. While safety analysis is concerned with a prevention of accidental errors and failures, the security threat analysis focuses on deliberate attacks. Both processes identify the events that affect operation of the system; and from a safety perspective the security threats may present safety risks.

  20. Assessing climate change impacts, benefits of mitigation, and uncertainties on major global forest regions under multiple socioeconomic and emissions scenarios

    Treesearch

    John B Kim; Erwan Monier; Brent Sohngen; G Stephen Pitts; Ray Drapek; James McFarland; Sara Ohrel; Jefferson Cole

    2016-01-01

    We analyze a set of simulations to assess the impact of climate change on global forests where MC2 dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) was run with climate simulations from the MIT Integrated Global System Model-Community Atmosphere Model (IGSM-CAM) modeling framework. The core study relies on an ensemble of climate simulations under two emissions scenarios: a...

  1. Developments and Changes Resulting from Writing and Thinking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flateby, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This article chronicles the evolution of a large research extensive institution's General Education writing assessment efforts from an initial summative focus to a formative, improvement focus. The methods of assessment, which changed as the assessment purpose evolved, are described. As more data were collected, the measurement tool was…

  2. Results of Needs Assessments Related to Citizen Science Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Bracey, Georgia; Glushko, Anna; Bakerman, Maya; Gay, Pamela L.; CosmoQuest Team

    2017-01-01

    The CosmoQuest Virtual Research Facility invites the public and classrooms to participate in NASA Science Mission Directorate related research that leads to publishable results and data catalogues. One of the main goals of the project is to support professional scientists in doing science and the general public--including parents, children, teachers, and students--in learning and doing science. Through the effort, the CosmoQuest team is developing a variety of supports and opportunities to support the doing and teaching of science. To inform our efforts, we have implemented a set of needs surveys to assess the needs of our different audiences. These surveys are being used to understand the interests, motivations, resources, challenges and demographics of our growing CosmoQuest community and others interested in engaging in citizen science projects. The surveys include those for teachers, parents, adult learners, planetarium professionals, subject matter experts (SMEs), and the general public. We will share the results of these surveys and discuss the implications of the results for broader education and outreach programs.

  3. [An assessment of the results of upper limb replantation].

    PubMed

    Zyluk, Andrzej; Walaszek, Ireneusz

    2007-01-01

    During the period 1996-2005, in General and Hand Surgery Department in Szczecin, 47 patients, 45 males and 2 females, with a me an age of 42 years, with total (72%) and subtotal (28%) amputations within the metacarpus and more proximal were operated. 35 replants survived, however 10 (21%) necrotized, in 2 cases (5%) blood flow was not re-established during the operations. The study presents results of assessment of objective parameters of 19 patients who received replantation of amputated extremities at the level of metacarpus - 5 cases, wrist - 9, forearm - 3, elbow - 1 and arm - 1 case. Patients were followed-up at mean of 2.5 years after injury (range 6 months -10 years). The average active range of motion of fingers in replanted extremities was 116 degrees (range 26-224 degrees). The average total grip strength was 8.3 kG (range 2-12 kG). The subjective assessment of hand dexterity with DASH questionnaire was mean of 103 points, (range 72-148). Range of motion was satisfactory in most of metacarpals and wrist replantations and less pleasing in forearm and arm amputations. Simultaneously better objective results were achieved in metacarpals and wrist replantations (14 cases, mean DASH 98), than forearm and arm replantations (5 cases, mean DASH 117). The Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing revealed feeling of light touch good in 2 cases, satisfactory in 4 cases (median nerve) and in 2 cases (ulnar nerve). Only protective sensation in 8 cases (median nerve) and 10 cases (ulnar nerve). In Chen's classification 3 patients were scored I grade, 2 patients II grade and 9 patients III grade. The patients underwent 78 corrective operations (mean 2.3 per patinet, range 1-5) in order to improve function or cover skin defect. The results support an opinion that these time consuming operations result in salvage of functionally acceptable extremity what advocates that in every case of major amputation, regardless the mechanism or extend of injury an attempt of replantation

  4. Assessing the Health Benefits of Urban Air Pollution Reductions Associated with Climate Change Mitigation (2000-2020): Santiago, Sao Paulo, Mexico City, and New York City

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    To investigate the potential local health benefits of adopting greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies, developed scenarios of GHG mitigation for Mexico City, Mexico; Santiago, Chile; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and New York, New York, USA using air pollution health impact factors appropriate to each city. These findings illustrated that GHG mitigation can provide considerable local air pollution-related public health benefits to countries that choose to abate GHG emissions by reducing fossil fuel combustion.

  5. On the road to HF mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Van Zele, R.L.; Diener, R. )

    1990-07-01

    Two components were investigated as a part of tests run by Industry Cooperative HF Mitigation/Assessment Program (ICHMAP). This paper discusses how the test program included a vapor barrier component and an ambient impact assessment component.

  6. Mitigating amphibian chytridiomycosis in nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, Trenton W. J.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Muths, Erin L.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Weldon, Che; Fisher, Matthew C.; Bosch, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians across the planet face the threat of population decline and extirpation caused by the disease chytridiomycosis. Despite consensus that the fungal pathogens responsible for the disease are conservation issues, strategies to mitigate their impacts in the natural world are, at best, nascent. Reducing risk associated with the movement of amphibians, non-amphibian vectors and other sources of infection remains the first line of defence and a primary objective when mitigating the threat of disease in wildlife. Amphibian-associated chytridiomycete fungi and chytridiomycosis are already widespread, though, and we therefore focus on discussing options for mitigating the threats once disease emergence has occurred in wild amphibian populations. All strategies have shortcomings that need to be overcome before implementation, including stronger efforts towards understanding and addressing ethical and legal considerations. Even if these issues can be dealt with, all currently available approaches, or those under discussion, are unlikely to yield the desired conservation outcome of disease mitigation. The decision process for establishing mitigation strategies requires integrated thinking that assesses disease mitigation options critically and embeds them within more comprehensive strategies for the conservation of amphibian populations, communities and ecosystems.

  7. Mitigating amphibian chytridiomycoses in nature.

    PubMed

    Garner, Trenton W J; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Muths, Erin; Cunningham, Andrew A; Weldon, Che; Fisher, Matthew C; Bosch, Jaime

    2016-12-05

    Amphibians across the planet face the threat of population decline and extirpation caused by the disease chytridiomycosis. Despite consensus that the fungal pathogens responsible for the disease are conservation issues, strategies to mitigate their impacts in the natural world are, at best, nascent. Reducing risk associated with the movement of amphibians, non-amphibian vectors and other sources of infection remains the first line of defence and a primary objective when mitigating the threat of disease in wildlife. Amphibian-associated chytridiomycete fungi and chytridiomycosis are already widespread, though, and we therefore focus on discussing options for mitigating the threats once disease emergence has occurred in wild amphibian populations. All strategies have shortcomings that need to be overcome before implementation, including stronger efforts towards understanding and addressing ethical and legal considerations. Even if these issues can be dealt with, all currently available approaches, or those under discussion, are unlikely to yield the desired conservation outcome of disease mitigation. The decision process for establishing mitigation strategies requires integrated thinking that assesses disease mitigation options critically and embeds them within more comprehensive strategies for the conservation of amphibian populations, communities and ecosystems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Hope as an emotion of expectancy: first assessment results

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Marcus; Hammelstein, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical background: Based on deficiencies of present conceptions of hope, an appraisal model is proposed as an alternative approach, in which hope is defined as the expectancy that a possible event, which a person rates positively, will occur in the future. The event depends both on situational and internal factors. This model differentiates between a subjective probability of occurrence and a subjective probability of affiliation. The first refers to a person’s estimation of the probability that a positive event can occur in general (e.g. the chances of recovering from a life-threatening illness); the second refers to the estimated probability that he/she belongs to those, for which the positive outcome is likely. Objective: The present contribution is a first validation of the appraisal model of hope. Methods: On a sample of prisoners (N=172) the degree of hope never to be incarcerated again after serving the present sentence was tested. Furthermore, personality dimensions, psychological distress, perceived social support and features of childhood delinquency were assessed using questionnaires. Results: As expected, the results indicate that both probability-estimations are largely independent of each other and were predicted by different factors (such as duration of arrest, anxiety, social support, or childhood delinquency). PMID:19742296

  9. Assessing the Reliability of Geoelectric Imaging Results for Permafrost Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marescot, L.; Loke, M.; Abbet, D.; Delaloye, R.; Hauck, C.; Hilbich, C.; Lambiel, C.; Reynard, E.

    2007-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on mountain permafrost are of increasing concern; warming thaws permafrost, thereby increasing the risk of slope instabilities. Consequently, knowledge of the extent and location of permafrost are important for construction and other geotechnical and land-management activities in mountainous areas. Geoelectric imaging is a useful tool for mapping and characterizing permafrost occurrences. To overcome the generally poor electrical contacts in the active layer, geoelectric surveys usually involve coupling the electrodes to the ground via sponges soaked in salt water. The data are processed and inverted in terms of resistivity models of the subsurface. To monitor the evolution of mountain permafrost, time-lapse geoelectric imaging may be employed. A challenging aspect in geoelectric imaging of permafrost is the very large resistivity contrast between frozen and unfrozen material. Such a contrast makes inversion and interpretation difficult. To assess whether features at depth are required by the data or are artifacts of the inversion process, the reliability of models needs to be evaluated. We use two different approaches to assess the reliability of resistivity images in permafrost investigations: (i) depth of investigation (DOI) and (ii) resolution matrix maps. To compute the DOI, two inversions of the same data set using quite different reference resistivity models are carried out. At locations where the resistivity is well constrained by the data, the inversions yield the same results. At other locations, the inversions yield different values that are controlled by the reference models. The resolution matrix, which is based on the sensitivity matrix calculated during the inversion, quantifies the degree to which each resistivity cell in the model can be resolved by the data. Application of these two approaches to field data acquired in the Swiss Alps and Jura Mountains suggests that it is very difficult to obtain dependable

  10. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project : Annual Report of Mitigation Activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray D.

    2001-04-01

    The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group was actively involved in implementing wildlife mitigation activities in 2000. The Work Group met each quarter to discuss management and budget issues affecting Albeni Falls wildlife mitigation. Members of the Work Group protected a total of 1,242 acres of wetland habitat in 2000. The total amount of wildlife habitat protected for Albeni Falls mitigation is approximately 4,190 acres (4,630 Habitat Units). Approximately 16% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Land management activities were limited in 2000 as protection opportunities took up most staff time. Administrative activities increased in 2000 as funding was more evenly distributed among Work Group members. As a result, implementation is expected to continue to increase in the coming year. Land management and monitoring and evaluation activities will increase in 2001 as site-specific management plans are completed and implemented.

  11. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  12. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Ottmar, Roger, D.; Blake, John, I.; Crolly, William, T.

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuelbeds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for building fuelbeds and mapping fire behavior potential, evaluating fuel treatment options for effectiveness, and providing a comparative analysis of landscape modeled fire behavior using three different data sources including the Fuel Characteristic Classification System, LANDFIRE, and the Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment. The research demonstrates that fine scale fuel measurements associated with fuel inventories repeated over time can be used to assess broad scale wildland fire potential and hazard mitigation treatment effectiveness in the southeastern USA and similar fire prone regions. Additional investigations will be needed to modify and improve these processes and capture the true potential of these fine scale data sets for fire and fuel management planning.

  13. Blending Assessment into Instruction: Practical Applications and Meaningful Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michael T.; van der Mars, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Since engagement in physical activity is now identified as an important outcome for students, teachers need to assess their students in ways that measure that behavior. Assessment serves many purposes in an educational setting. It can provide feedback, drive instructional needs, and evaluate outcomes of both students and programs. If done…

  14. Comparison of Assessment Results of Children with Low Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dennis J.; Reilly, AmySue; Henley, Joan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a research study that assessed young children with a low incidence disability, specifically Cri-du-Chat Syndrome (CDSC). A description of the concerns of assessing individuals with low incidence disabilities is described. Parent reports (using the Development Observation Checklist System) on the functioning of their children…

  15. Making Assessment Matter: Using Test Results to Differentiate Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Marietta, Sky H.

    2011-01-01

    All too often, literacy assessments are given only for accountability purposes and fail to be seen as valuable resources for planning and differentiating instruction. This clear, concise book shows K-5 educators how to implement a comprehensive, balanced assessment battery that integrates accountability concerns with data-driven instruction.…

  16. Mitigation of Hexavalent Chromium in Storm Water Resulting from Demolition of Large Concrete Structure at the East Tennessee Technology Park - 12286

    SciTech Connect

    Britto, Ronnie; Brown, Bridget; Hale, Timothy B.; Hensley, Janice L.; Johnson, Robert T.; Patel, Madhu; Emery, Jerry A.; Gaston, Clyde; Queen, David C.

    2012-07-01

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding was provided to supplement the environmental management program at several DOE sites, including the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Demolition of the ETTP K-33 Building, the largest building to be demolished to date in Oak Ridge, was awarded to LSRS in FY-2010 under the ARRA program. The K-33 building was an 82 foot tall 2-story structure covering approximately 32 acres. Once this massive building was brought down to the ground, the debris was segregated and consolidated into piles of concrete rubble and steel across the remaining pad. The process of demolishing the building, tracking across concrete debris with heavy equipment, and stockpiling the concrete rubble caused it to become pulverized. During and after storm events, hexavalent chromium leached from the residual cement present in the large quantities of concrete. Storm water control measures were present to preclude migration of contaminants off-site, but these control measures were not designed to control hexavalent chromium dissolved in storm water from reaching nearby receiving water. The following was implemented to mitigate hexavalent chromium in storm water: - Steel wool was distributed around K-33 site catch basins and in water pools as an initial step in addressing hexavalent chromium. - Since the piles of concrete were too massive and unsafe to tarp, they were placed into windrows in an effort to reduce total surface area. - A Hach colorimetric field meter was acquired by the K-33 project to provide realtime results of hexavalent chromium in site surface water. - Three hexavalent chromium treatment systems were installed at three separate catch basins that receive integrated storm water flow from the K-33 site. Sodium bisulfite is being used as a reducing agent for the immobilization of hexavalent chromium while also assisting in lowering pH. Concentrations initially were 310 - 474 ppb of hexavalent chromium in

  17. Assessing and mitigating the risks for polio outbreaks in polio-free countries - Africa, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Andre, McKenzie; Wolff, Chris G; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Chenoweth, Paul; Tallis, Graham; Kamgang, Jean Baptiste; Wassilak, Steven G F

    2014-08-29

    Since 1988, when the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) began, the annual number of polio cases has decreased by >99%. Only three countries remain that have never interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Since 2001, outbreaks have occurred in 31 formerly polio-free counties in Africa, with outbreaks in 25 countries caused by WPV originating in Nigeria (2-4). After the declaration of the World Health Assembly of polio eradication as a programmatic emergency in 2012, efforts to identify areas at high risk for importation-associated outbreaks and to reduce that risk have been intensified. This report updates the 2013 assessment of the risk for outbreaks attributable to importation of poliovirus in 33 countries in Africa, using indicators of childhood susceptibility to poliovirus and proximity to countries currently affected by polio . From January 2013 to August 12, 2014, outbreaks occurred in five African countries. Four of the five (Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, and Somalia) have had recent transmission (cases within the previous 12 months). Based on the current risk assessment, 15 countries are considered to be at high risk for WPV outbreaks, five at moderate-to-high risk, seven at moderate risk, and six at low risk. In 15 of the 33 countries, less than half of the population resides in areas where surveillance performance indicators have met minimum targets. Enhanced, coordinated activities to raise childhood immunity are underway in 2014 to prevent additional WPV spread. Although substantial progress toward polio eradication has occurred in Nigeria, all African countries remain at risk for outbreaks as long as WPV continues to circulate anywhere on the continent.

  18. Robust dynamic mitigation of instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, S.; Karino, T.

    2015-04-15

    A dynamic mitigation mechanism for instability growth was proposed and discussed in the paper [S. Kawata, Phys. Plasmas 19, 024503 (2012)]. In the present paper, the robustness of the dynamic instability mitigation mechanism is discussed further. The results presented here show that the mechanism of the dynamic instability mitigation is rather robust against changes in the phase, the amplitude, and the wavelength of the wobbling perturbation applied. Generally, instability would emerge from the perturbation of the physical quantity. Normally, the perturbation phase is unknown so that the instability growth rate is discussed. However, if the perturbation phase is known, the instability growth can be controlled by a superposition of perturbations imposed actively: If the perturbation is induced by, for example, a driving beam axis oscillation or wobbling, the perturbation phase could be controlled, and the instability growth is mitigated by the superposition of the growing perturbations.

  19. Comparative risk assessment: an international comparison of methodologies and results.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, R D; Shih, J; Sessions, S L

    2000-11-03

    Comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a systematic procedure for evaluating the environmental problems affecting a geographic area. This paper looks beyond the U.S. border and examines the experience with CRAs conducted in various developing countries and economies in transition, including Bangkok, Thailand, Cairo, Egypt and Quito, Ecuador, as well as other locations in Eastern Europe, Asia and Central and South America. A recent pilot CRA conducted in Taiwan is also considered. Comparisons are made of both the methodologies and the results across the relatively diverse international literature. The most robust finding is that conventional air pollutants (e.g., particulate matter and lead) consistently rank as high health risks across all of the CRAs examined. Given the varied nature of the settings studied in the CRAs, including level of economic development, urban-rural differences, and climate, this finding is particularly significant. Problems involving drinking water are also ranked as a high or medium health risk in almost all the countries studied. This is consistent with the results of analyses conducted by the World Bank suggesting contamination, limited coverage and erratic service by water supply systems. Beyond the major air pollutants and drinking water, the CRA results diverge significantly across countries. A number of problems involving toxic chemicals, e. g., hazardous air pollutants, rank as high health risks in the US but do not appear as consistent areas of concerns in the other countries studied. This likely reflects the so-called "risk transition" - the shift from sanitation and infection disease problems to those involving industry, vehicles and toxic substances - that often occurs with economic development. It may also reflect the greater information about sources of toxic pollutants in the U.S. For other problems, there are important differences across the developing countries and economies in transition. For example, hazardous and

  20. The US Geological Survey's national coal resource assessment: The results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Kirschbaum, M.A.; Warwick, P.D.; Flores, R.M.; Affolter, R.H.; Hatch, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The US Geological Survey and the State geological surveys of many coal-bearing States recently completed a new assessment of the top producing coal beds and coal zones in five major producing coal regions the Appalachian Basin, Gulf Coast, Illinois Basin, Colorado Plateau, and Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. The assessments, which focused on both coal quality and quantity, utilized geographic information system technology and large databases. Over 1,600,000 million short tons of coal remain in over 60 coal beds and coal zones that were assessed. Given current economic, environmental, and technological restrictions, the majority of US coal production will occur in that portion of the assessed coal resource that is lowest in sulfur content. These resources are concentrated in parts of the central Appalachian Basin, Colorado Plateau, and the Northern Rocky Mountains. ?? Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. INTEGRATED RISK ASSESSMENT - RESULTS OF AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The UNEP/ILO/WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) have developed a collaborative partnership to foster integration of assessment approaches to ...

  2. INTEGRATED RISK ASSESSMENT - RESULTS OF AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The UNEP/ILO/WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) have developed a collaborative partnership to foster integration of assessment approaches to ...

  3. Adverse childhood experiences: assessing the impact on health and school engagement and the mitigating role of resilience.

    PubMed

    Bethell, Christina D; Newacheck, Paul; Hawes, Eva; Halfon, Neal

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing longitudinal Adverse Childhood Experiences Study of adults has found significant associations between chronic conditions; quality of life and life expectancy in adulthood; and the trauma and stress associated with adverse childhood experiences, including physical or emotional abuse or neglect, deprivation, or exposure to violence. Less is known about the population-based epidemiology of adverse childhood experiences among US children. Using the 2011-12 National Survey of Children's Health, we assessed the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences and associations between them and factors affecting children's development and lifelong health. After we adjusted for confounding factors, we found lower rates of school engagement and higher rates of chronic disease among children with adverse childhood experiences. Our findings suggest that building resilience-defined in the survey as "staying calm and in control when faced with a challenge," for children ages 6-17-can ameliorate the negative impact of adverse childhood experiences. We found higher rates of school engagement among children with adverse childhood experiences who demonstrated resilience, as well as higher rates of resilience among children with such experiences who received care in a family-centered medical home. We recommend a coordinated effort to fill knowledge gaps and translate existing knowledge about adverse childhood experiences and resilience into national, state, and local policies, with a focus on addressing childhood trauma in health systems as they evolve during ongoing reform. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Tichy, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  5. Designing and assessing weather-based financial hedging contracts to mitigate water conflicts at the river basin scale. A case study in the Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellagamba, Laura; Denaro, Simona; Kern, Jordan; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Characklis, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    Growing water demands and more frequent and severe droughts are increasingly challenging water management in many regions worldwide, exacerbating water disputes and reducing the space for negotiated agreements at the catchment scale. In the lack of a centralized controller, the design and deployment of coordination and/or regulatory mechanisms is a way to improve system-wide efficiency while preserving the distributed nature of the decision making setting, and facilitating cooperation among institutionally independent decision-makers. Recent years have witnessed an increased interest in index-based insurance contracts as mechanisms for sharing hydro-meteorological risk in complex and heterogeneous decision making context (e.g. multiple stakeholders and institutionally independent decision makers). In this study, we explore the potential for index-based insurance contracts to mitigate the conflict in a water system characterized by (political) power asymmetry between hydropower companies upstream and farmers downstream. The Lake Como basin in the Italian Alps is considered as a case study. We generated alternative regulatory mechanisms in the form of minimum release constraints to the hydropower facilities, and designed an insurance contract for hedging against hydropower relative revenue losses. The fundamental step in designing this type of insurance contracts is the identification of a suitable index, which triggers the payouts as well as the payout function, defined by strike level and slope (e.g., euros/index unit). A portfolio of index-based contracts was designed for the case study and evaluated in terms of revenue floor, basis risk and revenue fluctuation around the mean, both with and without insurance. Over the long term, the insurance proved to be capable to keep the minimum revenue above a specified level while providing a greater certainty on the revenue trend. This result shows the possibility to augment farmer's supply with little loss for hydropower

  6. Review: Assessment of completeness of reporting in intervention studies using livestock: an example from pain mitigation interventions in neonatal piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results, and interpretation are essential components of the scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. Several reporting guidelines are now publicly available for animal researchers including the...

  7. Habitability Assessment at Gale Crater: Implications from Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Archer, D.; Atreya, S.; Blake, D.; Coll, P.; delaTorre, M.; Edgett, K.; Eigenbrode, J.; Fisk, M.; Freissent, C.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory has made measurements that contribute to our assessment of habitability potential at Gale Crater. Campaign organization into a consistent set of measurable parameters allows us to rank the relative habitability potential of sites we study, ultimately laying a foundation for a global context inclusive of past and future Mars mission observations. Chemical, physical, geological and geographic attributes shape environments. Isolated measurements of these factors may be insufficient to deem an environment habitable, but the sum of measurements can help predict locations with greater or lesser habitability potential. Metrics for habitability assessment based on field work at sites sharing features analogous to Mars have previously been suggested. Grouping these metrics helps us to develop an index for their application to habitability assessment. The index is comprised of the weighted values for four groups of parameters, the habitability threshold for each is to be determined.

  8. Collecting, analyzing and assessing big land use data: Results from the cropland capture game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salk, C.; Sturn, T.; Fritz, S.; See, L. M.; McCallum, I.; Fuss, S.; Perger, C.; Duerauer, M.; Obersteiner, M.

    2014-12-01

    The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) has developed a number of tools for assessing the socioeconomic benefit of Earth Observation such as quantifying the monetary benefit of improved land cover information for mitigation policies. Recently, IIASA has been assessing the benefit of an improved global carbon observation system in the GEOCARBON Project. Because traditional ground-based land cover validation is expensive, IIASA has developed crowdsourcing projects such as Geo-Wiki which to contribute to land-cover validation. A recent activity is the 'Cropland Capture' game which can be played in a browser or mobile device. It can be downloaded or played online at http://www.geo-wiki.org/games/croplandcapture/. In the game, players see an image (from a satellite or ground-based camera) and are asked if they see any cropland in it. They can answer "yes", "no" or "maybe" if they are unsure. The game had over 3,000 players who made about 4,500,000 classifications on 190,000 unique images. The benefits delivered by crowdsourcing relative to conventional data acquisition depends critically on the quality of the data received. Players' rating quality was compared by assessing their agreement with the crowd, consistency on images rated more than once, and agreement with expert validators. These metrics were compared with one another and with potential predictors of user quality: the total number of images rated by a player, and their professional background in land-cover science. Individual users' agreement with the crowd and self-agreement were highly positively correlated. The frequency of admitting uncertainty about an image was a good measure of user caution, showing a negative relationship with self-contradiction rate. Many users were more reliable in either identifying cropland or non-cropland, and these two skills were uncorrelated. Overall, user reliability increased with number of images rated, although among the top decile of users, this

  9. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-23

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The project proposes to continue to carry out harvest monitoring and stock status updates coordinated with fisheries management planning, annual young-of-the year recruitment indexing, research, experimental artificial propagation, and transport of white sturgeon to less densely populated areas of the river(s). Additionally, release of hatchery-reared juveniles is proposed to evaluate release strategies. Actions will take place in the following Columbia River mainstem reaches: Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Reservoirs; Hanford Reach, as well as the Wanapum and Rock Island Reservoirs; and the following Snake River mainstem reaches: Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental and Little Goose Reservoirs. Spawning and rearing are undertaken at established hatcheries at McNary Dam and also the Abernathy Fish Technology Center. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1367, April 2003) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  10. Integrated Prediction and Mitigation Methods of Materials Damage and Lifetime Assessment during Plasma Operation and Various Instabilities in Fusion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, Ahmed

    2015-03-31

    This report describes implementation of comprehensive and integrated models to evaluate plasma material interactions during normal and abnormal plasma operations. The models in full3D simulations represent state-of-the art worldwide development with numerous benchmarking of various tokamak devices and plasma simulators. In addition, significant number of experimental work has been performed in our center for materials under extreme environment (CMUXE) at Purdue to benchmark the effect of intense particle and heat fluxes on plasma-facing components. This represents one-year worth of work and resulted in more than 23 Journal Publications and numerous conferences presentations. The funding has helped several students to obtain their M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees and many of them are now faculty members in US and around the world teaching and conducting fusion research. Our work has also been recognized through many awards.

  11. Landslide-dammed lake at Tangjiashan, Sichuan province, China (triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake, May 12, 2008): Risk assessment, mitigation strategy, and lessons learned

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Zhuang, J.; You, Y.; Chen, X.; Scott, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2. 04 ?? 10 7 m 3 of landslide debris, impounded a lake with a projected maximum volume of 3. 15 ?? 10 8 m 3, potentially inundating 8. 92 km 2 of terrain. Its creation during the rainy season and the possibility of an uncontrolled release posed a serious, impending threat to at least 1. 3 million people downstream that could add substantially to the total of 69,200 individuals directly killed by the earthquake. Risk assessment of the blockage indicated that it was unlikely to collapse suddenly, and that eventual overtopping could be mitigated by notching the structure in order to create an engineered breach and achieve safe drainage of the lake. In addition to the installation of monitoring and warning instrumentation, for emergency planning we estimated several outburst scenarios equivalent to 20, 25, 33, and 50% of the dam failing suddenly, creating, respectively, 3. 35, 3. 84, 4. 22, and 4. 65 km 2 of flooded area, and overbank water depths of 4. 6, 5. 1, 5. 7, and 6. 2 m, respectively, in Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, 48 km downstream from the blockage. Based on these scenarios, recommendations and plans for excavating a sluiceway, draining the lake, and downstream evacuation were proposed and later were implemented successfully, with the blockage breached by overtopping on June 10, less than a month after dam emplacement. The peak discharge of the release only slightly exceeded the flood of record at Mianyang City. No lives were lost, and significant property damage was avoided. Post-breaching evaluation reveals how future similar mitigation can be improved. Although

  12. Assessment Results Following Inquiry and Traditional Physics Laboratory Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Joel Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Preservice elementary teachers in a conceptual physics course were given multiple resources to use during several inquiry activities in order to investigate how materials were chosen, used, and valued. These students performed significantly better on assessment items related to the inquiry physics activities than on items related to traditional…

  13. EPA'S REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (REVA) DEMONSTRATING RESULTS THROUGH PARTNERSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program, a regional-scale comparative risk research effort, has been under development since 1998 with a pilot study focused on the Mid- Atlantic region. ReVA is part of the interagency Integrated Science for Ecosystem Challenges ini...

  14. Spatial Thinking Ability Assessment in Rwandan Secondary Schools: Baseline Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaszewski, Brian; Vodacek, Anthony; Parody, Robert; Holt, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses use and modification of Lee and Bednarz's (2012) Spatial Thinking Ability Test (STAT) as a spatial thinking assessment device in Rwandan secondary schools. After piloting and modifying the STAT, 222 students total from our rural and urban test schools and one control school were tested. Statistical analysis revealed that…

  15. Assessing Diversity among Latinos: Results from the NLAAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Pincay, Igda Martinez; Alegria, Margarita; Shrout, Patrick E.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Canino, Glorisa

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a profile of a range of important variables for assessing diversity among different Latino groups from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). The NLAAS is a nationally representative study of the mental health needs and mental health services use of the Latino population of the United States. The NLAAS employs…

  16. Assessing Young Children for Imaginativeness Through Oral Reporting: Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawkey, Thomas D.; Yawkey, Margaret L.

    The present study describes the initial use of a measure for assessing children's imaginative predispositions and reports findings of significant relationships between oral reports of imaginativeness and selected individual and family variables. Subjects were 50 preschool children 4 to 5 years of age. Variables investigated were number of parents…

  17. Early Results in Capella's Prior Learning Assessment Experimental Site Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    In July 2014, the U.S. Department of Education announced a new round of experimental sites focusing on competency-based education. Capella University was selected to participate in three of the Department of Education's competency-based education (CBE) experiments and began by implementing the prior learning assessment experiment, which allows…

  18. EPA'S REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (REVA) DEMONSTRATING RESULTS THROUGH PARTNERSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program, a regional-scale comparative risk research effort, has been under development since 1998 with a pilot study focused on the Mid- Atlantic region. ReVA is part of the interagency Integrated Science for Ecosystem Challenges ini...

  19. Spatial Thinking Ability Assessment in Rwandan Secondary Schools: Baseline Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaszewski, Brian; Vodacek, Anthony; Parody, Robert; Holt, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses use and modification of Lee and Bednarz's (2012) Spatial Thinking Ability Test (STAT) as a spatial thinking assessment device in Rwandan secondary schools. After piloting and modifying the STAT, 222 students total from our rural and urban test schools and one control school were tested. Statistical analysis revealed that…

  20. Handbook for Reporting and Using Test Results. California Assessment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Program Evaluation and Research.

    Since the California Assessment Program began in 1972 to provide information for evaluation of school programs in California, major changes in testing practices have occurred. Scholastic aptitude testing has been eliminated in all grades; state-designed reading and basic skills tests are administered in grades one, two, three, six, and twelve.…

  1. Assessment Results Following Inquiry and Traditional Physics Laboratory Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Joel Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Preservice elementary teachers in a conceptual physics course were given multiple resources to use during several inquiry activities in order to investigate how materials were chosen, used, and valued. These students performed significantly better on assessment items related to the inquiry physics activities than on items related to traditional…

  2. Fourth-Grade Results from National Assessment: Encouraging News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warfield, Janet; Kloosterman, Peter

    2006-01-01

    More than a decade has passed since Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM 1989) and Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics (NCTM 1991) were published, and the question of whether students' learning of mathematics has improved during that time has frequently been asked. Scores on the mathematics assessment of the…

  3. Avalanche risk assessment - a multi-temporal approach, results from Galtür, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiler, M.; Sailer, R.; Jörg, P.; Weber, C.; Fuchs, S.; Zischg, A.; Sauermoser, S.

    2006-07-01

    Snow avalanches pose a threat to settlements and infrastructure in alpine environments. Due to the catastrophic events in recent years, the public is more aware of this phenomenon. Alpine settlements have always been confronted with natural hazards, but changes in land use and in dealing with avalanche hazards lead to an altering perception of this threat. In this study, a multi-temporal risk assessment is presented for three avalanche tracks in the municipality of Galtür, Austria. Changes in avalanche risk as well as changes in the risk-influencing factors (process behaviour, values at risk (buildings) and vulnerability) between 1950 and 2000 are quantified. An additional focus is put on the interconnection between these factors and their influence on the resulting risk. The avalanche processes were calculated using different simulation models (SAMOS as well as ELBA+). For each avalanche track, different scenarios were calculated according to the development of mitigation measures. The focus of the study was on a multi-temporal risk assessment; consequently the used models could be replaced with other snow avalanche models providing the same functionalities. The monetary values of buildings were estimated using the volume of the buildings and average prices per cubic meter. The changing size of the buildings over time was inferred from construction plans. The vulnerability of the buildings is understood as a degree of loss to a given element within the area affected by natural hazards. A vulnerability function for different construction types of buildings that depends on avalanche pressure was used to assess the degree of loss. No general risk trend could be determined for the studied avalanche tracks. Due to the high complexity of the variations in risk, small changes of one of several influencing factors can cause considerable differences in the resulting risk. This multi-temporal approach leads to better understanding of the today's risk by identifying the

  4. Rainfall–Runoff Simulations to Assess the Potential of SuDS for Mitigating Flooding in Highly Urbanized Catchments

    PubMed Central

    Jato-Espino, Daniel; Charlesworth, Susanne M.; Bayon, Joseba R.; Warwick, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) constitute an alternative to conventional drainage when managing stormwater in cities, reducing the impact of urbanization by decreasing the amount of runoff generated by a rainfall event. This paper shows the potential benefits of installing different types of SuDS in preventing flooding in comparison with the common urban drainage strategies consisting of sewer networks of manholes and pipes. The impact of these systems on urban water was studied using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are useful tools when both delineating catchments and parameterizing the elements that define a stormwater drainage system. Taking these GIS-based data as inputs, a series of rainfall–runoff simulations were run in a real catchment located in the city of Donostia (Northern Spain) using stormwater computer models, in order to compare the flow rates and depths produced by a design storm before and after installing SuDS. The proposed methodology overcomes the lack of precision found in former GIS-based stormwater approaches when dealing with the modeling of highly urbanized catchments, while the results demonstrated the usefulness of these systems in reducing the volume of water generated after a rainfall event and their ability to prevent localized flooding and surcharges along the sewer network. PMID:26805864

  5. Rainfall-Runoff Simulations to Assess the Potential of SuDS for Mitigating Flooding in Highly Urbanized Catchments.

    PubMed

    Jato-Espino, Daniel; Charlesworth, Susanne M; Bayon, Joseba R; Warwick, Frank

    2016-01-21

    Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) constitute an alternative to conventional drainage when managing stormwater in cities, reducing the impact of urbanization by decreasing the amount of runoff generated by a rainfall event. This paper shows the potential benefits of installing different types of SuDS in preventing flooding in comparison with the common urban drainage strategies consisting of sewer networks of manholes and pipes. The impact of these systems on urban water was studied using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are useful tools when both delineating catchments and parameterizing the elements that define a stormwater drainage system. Taking these GIS-based data as inputs, a series of rainfall-runoff simulations were run in a real catchment located in the city of Donostia (Northern Spain) using stormwater computer models, in order to compare the flow rates and depths produced by a design storm before and after installing SuDS. The proposed methodology overcomes the lack of precision found in former GIS-based stormwater approaches when dealing with the modeling of highly urbanized catchments, while the results demonstrated the usefulness of these systems in reducing the volume of water generated after a rainfall event and their ability to prevent localized flooding and surcharges along the sewer network.

  6. Integrated assessment of health, crop, and climate impacts of mitigating excess diesel NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henze, D. K.; Anenberg, S.; Miller, J.; Vicente, F.; Du, L.; Emberson, L.; Lacey, F.; Malley, C.; Minjares, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Vehicle emissions contribute to tropospheric ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), impacting human health, crop yields, and climate worldwide. Diesel cars, trucks, and buses produce 70% of global land transportation emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), a key PM2.5 and ozone precursor. Despite progressive tightening of regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets, current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that real-world diesel NOx emissions in 11 markets representing 80% of global diesel vehicle sales are on average 24% higher than certification limits indicate. This excess NOx contributed an estimated 33,000 additional ozone- and PM2.5-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including 6% of all EU-28 ozone- and PM2.5-related premature deaths. Next-generation diesel NOx standards and in-use compliance (more stringent than Euro 6/VI standards) could avoid 358,000 (5%) of global PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040 and up to 4% of ozone-related crop production loss regionally. Impacts of NOx-induced changes in aerosols, methane, and ozone on the global climate are found to present a small net positive radiative forcing (i.e., climate disbenefit), likely outweighed by the climate benefits of reductions to co-emitted black carbon aerosol. In some markets (Australia, Brazil, China, Mexico, and Russia), Euro 6/VI standards alone can achieve most (72-98%) of these health benefits. In India and the EU-28, reducing Euro 6 real-world NOx emissions through strengthened type-approval and in-use emissions testing programs (including market surveillance and expanded emissions test procedure boundaries) would achieve one-third of the health benefits from adopting next generation standards. Our results indicate that implementing stringent and technically feasible NOx emission regulations for diesel vehicles can substantially improve public health.

  7. Mitigating the health impacts of pollution from oceangoing shipping: an assessment of low-sulfur fuel mandates.

    PubMed

    Winebrake, J J; Corbett, J J; Green, E H; Lauer, A; Eyring, V

    2009-07-01

    Concerns about health effects due to emissions from ships have magnified international policy debate regarding low-sulfur fuel mandates for marine fuel. Policy discussions center on setting sulfur content levels and the geographic specification of low-sulfur fuel use. We quantify changes in premature mortality due to emissions from ships under several sulfur emissions control scenarios. We compare a 2012 No Control scenario (assuming 2.7% or 27 000 ppm S) with three emissions control scenarios. Two control scenarios represent cases where marine fuel is limited to 0.5% S (5000 ppm) and 0.1% S (1000 ppm) content, respectively, within 200 nautical miles of coastal areas. The third control scenario represents a global limit of 0.5% S. We apply the global climate model ECHAMSSy-MESSy1-MADE to geospatial emissions inventories to determine worldwide concentrations of particular matter (PM2.5) from ocean going vessels. Using those PM2.5 concentrations in cardiopulmonary and lung cancer concentration-risk functions and population models, we estimate annual premature mortality. Without control, our central estimate is approximately 87 000 premature deaths annually in 2012. Coastal area control scenarios reduce premature deaths by approximately 33 500 for the 0.5% case and approximately 43 500 for the 0.1% case. Where fuel sulfur content is reduced globally to 0.5% S, premature deaths are reduced by approximately 41 200. These results provide important support that global health benefits are associated with low-sulfur marine fuels, and allow for relative comparison of the benefits of alternative control strategies.

  8. Post-fire forest sustainability in north-central Portugal: Assessing the impacts of pre- and post-fire ground preparations, logging and mitigation treatments on post-fire runoff and erosion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvar, Maruxa; Prats, Sérgio A.; Martins, Martinho A. S.; Gonzalez-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jacob J.

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires have been reported worldwide as producing strong and sometimes extreme responses in runoff and soil erosion. However, in the case of North-Central Portugal, little research had been carried out regarding the hydrologic and erosive impacts of several land management activities in recently burnt areas (such as ground preparation, post-fire logging or post-fire mitigation treatments). This is the main objective of this research. Several pre- and post-fire ground preparation operations (down-slope rip-ploughed, contour ploughed and terracing), post-fire logging activities, and post-fire soil erosion mitigation treatments (forest residue mulches, polyacrylamide and hydromulch) were assessed from the first to the third post-fire years. Repeated rainfall simulation experiments (RSE's), micro-scale runoff plots and bounded sediment fences were installed immediately after the wildfire in twelve burnt slopes and monitored at weekly-basis intervals. The results for the first post-fire year showed comparable runoff coefficient (20-60%) but lower sediment losses (1.2-10 Mg ha-1) than prior studies in Portugal and worldwide, which corresponded well with the historic intensive land use in the area. Terracing sharply increased soil erosion (up to 30 Mg ha-1) at the micro-plots scale during the first year after a wildfire and terracing. However, sediment limited erosion was measured in all the pre-fire ploughed sites, probably due to the time elapsed since ploughing. Post-fire logging activities enhanced 5- to 10- fold the sediment losses, which was related to the disturbance of the soil surface cover. The mulches (forest residue or hydromulch) were highly effective reducing post-fire soil erosion in more than 80%. The increase on sediment losses of the recently terraced area and the measured sediment exhaustion at all the pre-fire ploughed sites as well as the increasing frequency of ploughing in the forest areas implies the need to consider ploughing as a hazardous

  9. Abstraction of mechanistic sorption model results for performance assessment calculations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.R.; Pabalan, R.T.

    1999-11-01

    Sorption onto minerals in the geologic setting may help to mitigate potential radionuclide transport from the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. An approach is developed for including aspects of more mechanistic sorption models into current probabilistic performance assessment (PA) calculations. Data on water chemistry from the vicinity of YM are screened and used to calculate the ranges in parameters that could exert control on radionuclide corruption behavior. Using a diffuse-layer surface complexation model, sorption parameters for Np(V) and U(VI) are calculated based on the chemistry of each water sample. Model results suggest that log normal probability distribution functions (PDFs) of sorption parameters are appropriate for most of the samples, but the calculated range is almost five orders of magnitude for Np(V) sorption and nine orders of magnitude for U(VI) sorption. Calculated sorption parameters may also vary at a single sample location by almost a factor of 10 over time periods of the order of days to years due to changes in chemistry, although sampling and analytical methodologies may introduce artifacts that add uncertainty to the evaluation of these fluctuations. Finally, correlation coefficients between the calculated Np(V) and U(VI) sorption parameters can be included as input into PA sampling routines, so that the value selected for one radionuclide sorption parameter is conditioned by its statistical relationship to the others. The approaches outlined here can be adapted readily to current PA efforts, using site-specific information to provide geochemical constraints on PDFs for radionuclide transport parameters.

  10. Mitigating flood exposure

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, James M; McLean, Andrew; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Rosen, Alexa; Kelly, Fiona; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Youngs Jr, Georgia A; Jensen, Jessica; Bernal, Oscar; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In 2011, following heavy winter snowfall, two cities bordering two rivers in North Dakota, USA faced major flood threats. Flooding was foreseeable and predictable although the extent of risk was uncertain. One community, Fargo, situated in a shallow river basin, successfully mitigated and prevented flooding. For the other community, Minot, located in a deep river valley, prevention was not possible and downtown businesses and one-quarter of the homes were inundated, in the city’s worst flood on record. We aimed at contrasting the respective hazards, vulnerabilities, stressors, psychological risk factors, psychosocial consequences, and disaster risk reduction strategies under conditions where flood prevention was, and was not, possible. Methods. We applied the “trauma signature analysis” (TSIG) approach to compare the hazard profiles, identify salient disaster stressors, document the key components of disaster risk reduction response, and examine indicators of community resilience. Results. Two demographically-comparable communities, Fargo and Minot, faced challenging river flood threats and exhibited effective coordination across community sectors. We examined the implementation of disaster risk reduction strategies in situations where coordinated citizen action was able to prevent disaster impact (hazard avoidance) compared to the more common scenario when unpreventable disaster strikes, causing destruction, harm, and distress. Across a range of indicators, it is clear that successful mitigation diminishes both physical and psychological impact, thereby reducing the trauma signature of the event. Conclusion. In contrast to experience of historic flooding in Minot, the city of Fargo succeeded in reducing the trauma signature by way of reducing risk through mitigation. PMID:28228985

  11. CAISI Operational Assessment (OA) data collection results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-31

    One of the lessons learned from Operation Desert Shield/Storm was the inability of deployed Combat Service Support (CSS) computers to exchange data effectively in a battlefield environment. The work-around solution to this previously identified problem has been to physically carry floppy disks between computers. A General Officer Steering Committee, directed by the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, determined that immediate corrective action was necessary to ensure viability of the CSS Battlefield Mission Area. The study recommended that a three-phased system development plan address short-, mid- and long-term CSS automation communication interface requirements. In response to this study, Program Executive Office (PEO) Standard Army Management Information System (STAMIS) authorized the development of the CSS Automated Information System Interface (CAISI). Phase I (Near-Term) equipped the {open_quotes}first to fight{close_quotes} Contingency Corps units. Phase II (Mid-Term) is being fielded to the remainder of Force Package One units in the active force. Phase III (Long-Term) will equip the remaining units. CAISI is now in the early stages of Phase II fielding. Prior to full Phase II fielding, CAISI must be approved for production by a Milestone III decision authority. Part of the data that will be used in the Milestone III decision is a demonstration of the CAISI`s operational suitability, as assessed by the US Army Operational Test and Evaluation Command (OPTEC). This assessment will be performed through an Operational Assessment (OA) using data provided from previous technical testing, such as the CAISI Customer User Test (CUT), and a field training exercise conducted by units of the XVIII Airborne Corps. The field training exercise data collection took place during two events.

  12. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the technically accessible storage resources (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations underlying the onshore and State waters area of the United States. The formations assessed are at least 3,000 feet (914 meters) below the ground surface. The TASR is an estimate of the CO2 storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage that is based on present-day geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. Individual storage assessment units (SAUs) for 36 basins were defined on the basis of geologic and hydrologic characteristics outlined in the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, USGS Open-File Report 2010–1127) and the subsequent methodology modification and implementation documentation of Blondes, Brennan, and others (2013, USGS Open-File Report 2013–1055). The mean national TASR is approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt). The estimate of the TASR includes buoyant trapping storage resources (BSR), where CO2 can be trapped in structural or stratigraphic closures, and residual trapping storage resources, where CO2 can be held in place by capillary pore pressures in areas outside of buoyant traps. The mean total national BSR is 44 Gt. The residual storage resource consists of three injectivity classes based on reservoir permeability: residual trapping class 1 storage resource (R1SR) represents storage in rocks with permeability greater than 1 darcy (D); residual trapping class 2 storage resource (R2SR) represents storage in rocks with moderate permeability, defined as permeability between 1 millidarcy (mD) and 1 D; and residual trapping class 3 storage resource (R3SR) represents storage in rocks with low permeability, defined as permeability less than 1 mD. The mean national storage resources for rocks in residual trapping classes 1, 2, and 3 are 140 Gt, 2,700 Gt, and 130 Gt, respectively. The known recovery

  13. A quantitative assessment of results with the Angelchik prosthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Wyllie, J. H.; Edwards, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Angelchik antireflux prosthesis was assessed in 15 unpromising patients, 12 of whom had peptic strictures of the oesophagus. Radiological techniques were used to show the effect of the device on gastro-oesophageal reflux, and on the bore and length of strictures. Twelve months later (range 6-24) most patients were well satisfied with the operation, and all considered it had been worthwhile; there was radiological evidence of reduction in reflux and remission of strictures. The device never surrounded the oesophageal sphincter; in all but 1 case it encircled a tube of stomach. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:4037629

  14. EPA Updates Flint Response Website with Lead Assessment Results

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    FLINT, MICH. - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is releasing preliminary results of lead sampling at Flint residences, as well as an interactive map of sampling results. The map is available at www.epa.g

  15. Does Attending Worship Mitigate Racial/Ethnic Discrimination in Influencing Health Behaviors? Results From an Analysis of the California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Julia T; Takahashi, Lois M

    2014-08-01

    Existing research suggests that religious institutions play a significant role in improving the health of communities, particularly those coping with racial and ethnic discrimination. Using the California Health Interview Survey, this article examines the relationship of self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination, worship attendance, and several health behaviors. Supporting existing research, higher self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination is associated with worse health behaviors. Logistic regression models indicate that the odds of engaging in healthy lifestyle behaviors significantly increase for those who report attending worship, compared with those who do not attend worship, with variations by race/ethnicity. Worship attendance moderates the association between discrimination and binge drinking, but does not moderate the association for smoking, walking, or being obese. Findings suggest that religious attendance plays an important role in the health and well-being of all population groups. More research is needed to ascertain the reasons why attending worship may have the ability to mitigate the relationship between racial/ethnic discrimination and health. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  17. Integrating uncertainties for climate change mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; McCollum, David; Reisinger, Andy; Meinshausen, Malte; Riahi, Keywan

    2013-04-01

    The target of keeping global average temperature increase to below 2°C has emerged in the international climate debate more than a decade ago. In response, the scientific community has tried to estimate the costs of reaching such a target through modelling and scenario analysis. Producing such estimates remains a challenge, particularly because of relatively well-known, but ill-quantified uncertainties, and owing to limited integration of scientific knowledge across disciplines. The integrated assessment community, on one side, has extensively assessed the influence of technological and socio-economic uncertainties on low-carbon scenarios and associated costs. The climate modelling community, on the other side, has worked on achieving an increasingly better understanding of the geophysical response of the Earth system to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). This geophysical response remains a key uncertainty for the cost of mitigation scenarios but has only been integrated with assessments of other uncertainties in a rudimentary manner, i.e., for equilibrium conditions. To bridge this gap between the two research communities, we generate distributions of the costs associated with limiting transient global temperature increase to below specific temperature limits, taking into account uncertainties in multiple dimensions: geophysical, technological, social and political. In other words, uncertainties resulting from our incomplete knowledge about how the climate system precisely reacts to GHG emissions (geophysical uncertainties), about how society will develop (social uncertainties and choices), which technologies will be available (technological uncertainty and choices), when we choose to start acting globally on climate change (political choices), and how much money we are or are not willing to spend to achieve climate change mitigation. We find that political choices that delay mitigation have the largest effect on the cost-risk distribution, followed by

  18. Evaluating the role of coastal habitats and sea-level rise in hurricane risk mitigation: An ecological economic assessment method and application to a business decision.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sheila M W; Guannel, Gregory; Griffin, Robert; Faries, Joe; Boucher, Timothy; Thompson, Michael; Brenner, Jorge; Bernhardt, Joey; Verutes, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A; Silver, Jessica A; Toft, Jodie; Rogers, Anthony; Maas, Alexander; Guerry, Anne; Molnar, Jennifer; DiMuro, Johnathan L

    2016-04-01

    Businesses may be missing opportunities to account for ecosystem services in their decisions, because they do not have methods to quantify and value ecosystem services. We developed a method to quantify and value coastal protection and other ecosystem services in the context of a cost-benefit analysis of hurricane risk mitigation options for a business. We first analyze linked biophysical and economic models to examine the potential protection provided by marshes. We then applied this method to The Dow Chemical Company's Freeport, Texas facility to evaluate natural (marshes), built (levee), and hybrid (marshes and a levee designed for marshes) defenses against a 100-y hurricane. Model analysis shows that future sea-level rise decreases marsh area, increases flood heights, and increases the required levee height (12%) and cost (8%). In this context, marshes do not provide sufficient protection to the facility, located 12 km inland, to warrant a change in levee design for a 100-y hurricane. Marshes do provide some protection near shore and under smaller storm conditions, which may help maintain the coastline and levee performance in the face of sea-level rise. In sum, the net present value to the business of built defenses ($217 million [2010 US$]) is greater than natural defenses ($15 million [2010 US$]) and similar to the hybrid defense scenario ($229 million [2010 US$]). Examination of a sample of public benefits from the marshes shows they provide at least $117 million (2010 US$) in coastal protection, recreational value, and C sequestration to the public, while supporting 12 fisheries and more than 300 wildlife species. This study provides information on where natural defenses may be effective and a replicable approach that businesses can use to incorporate private, as well as public, ecosystem service values into hurricane risk management at other sites. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  19. Assessing the impact of the extended-release/long-acting opioid an-algesics risk evaluation and mitigation strategies on opioid prescrip-tion volume.

    PubMed

    Divino, Victoria; Cepeda, M Soledad; Coplan, Paul; Maziere, Jean-Yves; Yuan, Yingli; Wade, Rolin L

    The Food and Drug Administration approved the extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioid analgesics risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) in July 2012 to educate healthcare providers and patients about safe and appropriate opioid analgesic use. The authors evaluated the impact of the REMS on ER/LA opioid analgesic utilization, overall and stratified by patient characteristics and prescriber type associated with greater expected need for analgesia. Retrospective repeated cross-sectional study. QuintilesIMS's National Prescription Audit™ and LifeLink™ patient-level longitudinal prescription databases measured prescription volumes, projected to national estimates. Changes were assessed in ER/LA opioid analgesic prescriptions dispensed from the 2-year pre-REMS implementation (July 2010 to June 2012) to the 18-month post-REMS implementation (July 2013 to December 2014) periods (with 12-month transitional implementation period in between). Average quarterly ER/LA opioid prescription volume significantly decreased by 4.3 percent from Preimple-mentation to the Active Period (5.58 vs 5.34 million, p < 0.001). Differences in prescription volume change were observed between age, gender, and payer types. Prescription volume either significantly decreased or remained stable from Preimplementation to the Active Period among most provider specialties evaluated. The largest volume decreases were observed for dentists (-48.5 percent) and emergency medicine specialists (-25.5 percent) (both p < 0.001). The largest increases were observed for nurse practitioners (+33.7 percent) and physician assistants (+31.2 percent; both p < 0.001), whose overall prescribing of nonopioid medications also increased. A significant decrease in dispensed ER/LA opioid prescriptions was observed following REMS implementation compared to Preimplementation. The impact on volume varied by patient characteristics and prescriber specialty. The REMS program, in conjunction with other healthcare

  20. Parallax mitigation for hyperspectral change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vongsy, Karmon; Eismann, Michael T.; Mendenhall, Michael J.; Velten, Vincent J.

    2014-06-01

    A pixel-level Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) statistic for hyperspectral change detection is developed to mitigate false change caused by image parallax. Change detection, in general, represents the difficult problem of discriminating significant changes opposed to insignificant changes caused by radiometric calibration, image registration issues, and varying view geometries. We assume that the images have been registered, and each pixel pair provides a measurement from the same spatial region in the scene. Although advanced image registration methods exist that can reduce mis-registration to subpixel levels; residual spatial mis-registration can still be incorrectly detected as significant changes. Similarly, changes in sensor viewing geometry can lead to parallax error in an urban cluttered scene where height structures, such as buildings, appear to move. Our algorithm looks to the inherent relationship between the image views and the theory of stereo vision to perform parallax mitigation leading to a search result in the assumed parallax direction. Mitigation of the parallax-induced false alarms is demonstrated using hyperspectral data in the experimental analysis. The algorithm is examined and compared to the existing chronochrome anomalous change detection algorithm to assess performance.

  1. Save the forests to mitigate climate, twice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkama, Ramdane; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Deforestation impacts climate in two major ways: affecting the atmospheric CO2 concentration and modulating the land-atmosphere fluxes of energy and water vapor. While the mitigation effects of forest biogeochemistry have been largely investigated and are accounted for in climate protocols, the biophysical impacts of forest cover are still debated in the scientific community and are ignored in climate treaties. On the other hand, currently available model predictions of land biophysical effects are rather uncertain thus additional robust experimental evidence at the global scale is required to inform climate policy. In this work we report an observation-driven analysis of the biophysical impacts of forest losses and gains on the local climate, based on a combination of Earth observations of forest cover, surface radiometric temperatures, and in-situ air temperatures. Results show that deforestation causes significant local changes in mean air temperature. In addition, forest losses produce a substantial increase in both the diurnal and annual temperature variation at all latitudes, by increasing daytime and reducing nighttime temperatures (except in the case of snow cover when both days and nights are cooled). These experimental observations provide a global and robust quantification of the local climate sensitivities to deforestation and a novel assessment of the mitigation potentials of forests on the diurnal and seasonal temperature variations. Ultimately, these findings may support the development of land-based mitigation strategies that build on the integration of biogeochemical and biophysical effects of afforestation and deforestation.

  2. Combining model results and monitoring data for water quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Qian, Song S; Reckhow, Kenneth H

    2007-07-15

    A Bayesian approach is used to update and improve water quality model predictions with monitoring data. The objective of this work is to facilitate adaptive management by providing a framework for sequentially updating the assessment of water quality status, to evaluate compliance with water quality standards, and to indicate if modification of management strategies is needed. Currently, most water quality or watershed models are calibrated using historical data that typically reflect conditions different from those being forecast. In part because of this, predictions are often subject to large errors. Fortunately, in many instances, postmanagement implementation monitoring data are available, although often with limited spatiotemporal coverage. These monitoring data support an alternative to the one-time prediction: pool the information from both the initial model prediction and postimplementation monitoring data. To illustrate this approach, a watershed nutrient loading model and a nitrogen-chlorophyll a model for the Neuse River Estuary were applied to develop a nitrogen total maximum daily load program for compliance with the chlorophyll a standard. Once management practices were implemented, monitoring data were collected and combined with the model forecast on an annual basis using Bayes Theorem. Ultimately, the updated posterior distribution of chlorophyll a concentration indicated that the Neuse River Estuary achieved compliance with North Carolina's standard.

  3. Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment methodology and results summary

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, S.A.; Atkinson, S.A.; Thatcher, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Level 1 report documents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art study to establish and reduce the risk associated with operation of the ATR, expressed as a mean frequency of fuel damage. The ATR Level 1 PRA effort is unique and outstanding because of its consistent and state-of-the-art treatment of all facets of the risk study, its comprehensive and cost-effective risk reduction effort while the risk baseline was being established, and its thorough and comprehensive documentation. The PRA includes many improvements to the state-of-the-art, including the following: establishment of a comprehensive generic data base for component failures, treatment of initiating event frequencies given significant plant improvements in recent years, performance of efficient identification and screening of fire and flood events using code-assisted vital area analysis, identification and treatment of significant seismic-fire-flood-wind interactions, and modeling of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and experiment loop ruptures leading to direct damage of the ATR core. 18 refs.

  4. Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment methodology and results summary

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, S.A.; Atkinson, S.A.; Thatcher, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Level 1 report documents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art study to establish and reduce the risk associated with operation of the ATR, expressed as a mean frequency of fuel damage. The ATR Level 1 PRA effort is unique and outstanding because of its consistent and state-of-the-art treatment of all facets of the risk study, its comprehensive and cost-effective risk reduction effort while the risk baseline was being established, and its thorough and comprehensive documentation. The PRA includes many improvements to the state-of-the-art, including the following: establishment of a comprehensive generic data base for component failures, treatment of initiating event frequencies given significant plant improvements in recent years, performance of efficient identification and screening of fire and flood events using code-assisted vital area analysis, identification and treatment of significant seismic-fire-flood-wind interactions, and modeling of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and experiment loop ruptures leading to direct damage of the ATR core. 18 refs.

  5. Annual monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado, wetlands mitigation plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at 24 abandoned uranium mill sites in 10 states. One of these abandoned mill sites is near the town of Gunnison, Colorado; surface remediation and the environmental impacts of remedial action are described in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA) (DOE, 1992). Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres (ac) 1.7 hectares (ha) of wetlands and mitigation of this loss of wetlands is being accomplished through the enhance of 18.4 ac (7.5 ha) of riparian plant communities in six spring feed areas on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land. The description of the impacted and mitigation wetlands is provided in the Mitigation and Monitoring Plan for Impacted Wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project Site, Gunnison, Colorado (DOE, 1994), which is attached to the US Army corps of Engineers (USACE) Section 404 Permit. As part of the wetlands mitigation plan, the six mitigation wetlands were fenced in the fall of 1993 to exclude livestock grazing. Baseline of grazed conditions of the wetlands vegetation was determined during the summer of 1993 (DOE, 1994). A 5-year monitoring program of these six sites has been implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. This annual monitoring report provides the results of the first year of the 5-year monitoring period.

  6. Reliability worth assessment in a developing country - residential survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Billinton, R.; Pandey, M.

    1999-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a residential customer survey conducted in service areas of the Nepal Integrated Electric Power System (NPS). The objective was to determine the power interruption costs incurred by the residential customers of a developing country, and extend the customer survey approach to reliability worth evaluation in a developing environment. Interruption cost estimates were obtained using in-person interviews with 944 sample customers. The results indicate the implications of service reliability to residential customers of Nepal, and show that reliability worth evaluation in a developing country is both possible and practical.

  7. Assessing Seasonal Lake Dynamics in Arctic Alaska: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Beck, R. A.; Healey, N.; Jones, S.; Lenters, J.; Lyons, E. A.; Shah, C. A.; Sheng, Y.; Smith, L. C.; Winston, B. S.; Jones, B. M.

    2008-12-01

    Lakes on the coastal plain of arctic Alaska have developed atop continuous permafrost. Recent research suggests that lake levels, rates of bank erosion and drainage, and depth of the thaw bulb in sediments beneath the lake may increase in response to a warmer and wetter climate. Assessment of lake dynamics entails separating seasonal and interannual fluctuations from the long-term response. A program to study lake dynamics was initiated in 2008 and includes: (1) analysis of both long-term lake changes and seasonal/ interannual fluctuations using high-resolution satellite imagery and aerial photographs, (2) repeated high- resolution mapping of shoreline configuration in spring and late summer using differential GPS combined with water level sensors, (3) conducting bathymetric surveys to determine basin shape and water volume, (4) evaluating the relation between wind vectors and surface water currents with real-time satellite networked GPS-enabled floats and a wide-area wireless network, and (5) quantifying the energy and water balance on a representative lake using data collected from a fully instrumented buoy. Lake basins surveyed near Barrow, Alaska have a maximum depth of 1.5-3.0 m and are characterized by a steep drop-off near the shore and very gradual deepening toward the center. Seasonal shoreline fluctuations are observed in most lakes, with the maximum effect noted in low-lying regions of the lake margin as the water level gradually falls through summer. Preliminary analysis of the lake energy and water balance is presented, including measurements of incoming and outgoing radiation, latent and sensible heat flux, and associated lake temperature and atmospheric parameters. In subsequent years, measurements will be made on lakes further inland where the surficial geology and climate differs from the coastal environment.

  8. Fitness Assessment Results--Some Concepts and Analogies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, James R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide teachers with interesting and intelligible ways of interpreting fitness test results to students. Also shown are ways that fitness testing can be used to diagnose fitness needs, provide a basis for exercise prescription, help monitor progress, and individualize fitness education concepts. (IAH)

  9. Underwater Blast Experiments and Modeling for Shock Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, L; McMichael, L; Vandersall, K; Margraf, J

    2010-03-07

    A simple but novel mitigation concept to enforce standoff distance and reduce shock loading on a vertical, partially-submerged structure is evaluated using scaled aquarium experiments and numerical modeling. Scaled, water tamped explosive experiments were performed using three gallon aquariums. The effectiveness of different mitigation configurations, including air-filled media and an air gap, is assessed relative to an unmitigated detonation using the same charge weight and standoff distance. Experiments using an air-filled media mitigation concept were found to effectively dampen the explosive response of the aluminum plate and reduce the final displacement at plate center by approximately half. The finite element model used for the initial experimental design compares very well to the experimental DIC results both spatially and temporally. Details of the experiment and finite element aquarium models are described including the boundary conditions, Eulerian and Lagrangian techniques, detonation models, experimental design and test diagnostics.

  10. Assessing Equivalent Viscous Damping Using Piping System test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, J.; Morante, R.

    2010-07-18

    The specification of damping for nuclear piping systems subject to seismic-induced motions has been the subject of many studies and much controversy. Damping estimation based on test data can be influenced by numerous factors, consequently leading to considerable scatter in damping estimates in the literature. At present, nuclear industry recommendations and nuclear regulatory guidance are not consistent on the treatment of damping for analysis of nuclear piping systems. Therefore, there is still a need to develop a more complete and consistent technical basis for specification of appropriate damping values for use in design and analysis. This paper summarizes the results of recent damping studies conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  11. Terrorist attacks: do we know how to assess the results?

    PubMed

    Manning, W J

    2001-10-24

    On September 11, 2001, terrorists destroyed the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City. Explosions and fires resulted in the complete collapse of the two WTC towers. The collapsing towers served as enormous point sources of gaseous and particulate air pollution, seen as huge plumes of smoke and dust. The smoke contained volatile organic compounds and fine particles and aerosols. The dust fraction contained parts of ceiling tiles, carpets, concrete, adhesives, asbestos, chromium, lead, titanium, and many other elements and materials. Whether there were unusually toxic ingredients in the plumes is largely unknown.

  12. Assessment of Galileo modal test results for mathematical model verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trubert, M.

    1984-01-01

    The modal test program for the Galileo Spacecraft was completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the summer of 1983. The multiple sine dwell method was used for the baseline test. The Galileo Spacecraft is a rather complex 2433 kg structure made of a central core on which seven major appendages representing 30 percent of the total mass are attached, resulting in a high modal density structure. The test revealed a strong nonlinearity in several major modes. This nonlinearity discovered in the course of the test necessitated running additional tests at the unusually high response levels of up to about 21 g. The high levels of response were required to obtain a model verification valid at the level of loads for which the spacecraft was designed. Because of the high modal density and the nonlinearity, correlation between the dynamic mathematical model and the test results becomes a difficult task. Significant changes in the pre-test analytical model are necessary to establish confidence in the upgraded analytical model used for the final load verification. This verification, using a test verified model, is required by NASA to fly the Galileo Spacecraft on the Shuttle/Centaur launch vehicle in 1986.

  13. Unsupervised text mining for assessing and augmenting GWAS results.

    PubMed

    Ailem, Melissa; Role, François; Nadif, Mohamed; Demenais, Florence

    2016-04-01

    Text mining can assist in the analysis and interpretation of large-scale biomedical data, helping biologists to quickly and cheaply gain confirmation of hypothesized relationships between biological entities. We set this question in the context of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), an actively emerging field that contributed to identify many genes associated with multifactorial diseases. These studies allow to identify groups of genes associated with the same phenotype, but provide no information about the relationships between these genes. Therefore, our objective is to leverage unsupervised text mining techniques using text-based cosine similarity comparisons and clustering applied to candidate and random gene vectors, in order to augment the GWAS results. We propose a generic framework which we used to characterize the relationships between 10 genes reported associated with asthma by a previous GWAS. The results of this experiment showed that the similarities between these 10 genes were significantly stronger than would be expected by chance (one-sided p-value<0.01). The clustering of observed and randomly selected gene also allowed to generate hypotheses about potential functional relationships between these genes and thus contributed to the discovery of new candidate genes for asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION: EVALUATION OF INTEGRATION METHODS AND ASSESSMENTS RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes methods for quantitative regional assessment developed by the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program. The goal of ReVA is to develop regional-scale assessments of the magnitude, extent, distribution, and uncertainty of current and anticipated envir...

  15. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION: EVALUATION OF INTEGRATION METHODS AND ASSESSMENTS RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes methods for quantitative regional assessment developed by the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program. The goal of ReVA is to develop regional-scale assessments of the magnitude, extent, distribution, and uncertainty of current and anticipated envir...

  16. Lunar Dust: Characterization and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt. Mark J.; Feighery, John

    2007-01-01

    Lunar dust is a ubiquitous phenomenon which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. Near term plans to revisit the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond, places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it's potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. The same hold true for assessing the risk it may pose for toxicological health problems if inhaled. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program's Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. This work further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it's characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost. The paper also presents a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware.

  17. CO2CARE - Site Closure Assessment Research - Recent Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wipki, Mario; Liebscher, Axel; Kühn, Michael; Lüth, Stefan; Durucan, Sevket; Deflandre, Jean-Pierre; Wollenweber, Jens; Chadwick, Andy; Böhm, Gualtiero

    2013-04-01

    The EU project CO2CARE, which started in January 2011, supports the large scale demonstration of CCS technology by addressing requirements of operators and regulators face in terms of CO2 storage site abandonment. The CO2CARE consortium, consisting of 24 project partners from universities, research institutes, and the industry, investigate technologies and procedures for abandonment and post-closure safety, satisfying the regulatory requirements for the transfer of responsibility. Nine key injections sites in Europe, USA, Japan, and Australia, each with a specific (hydro) geological and environmental character, were selected for investigations. These sites can be divided into the CO2 storage types on-shore, off-shore, natural CO2 reservoir, depleted gas reservoirs, and saline aquifers. The project mainly focuses on three key areas: - well abandonment and long-term integrity; - reservoir management and prediction from closure to the long-term; - risk management methodologies for long-term safety. These key areas are in turn closely linked to the three high-level requirements of the EU Directive 2009/31/EC, Article 18 for CO2 storage which are: (i) absence of any detectable leakage, (ii) conformity of actual behaviour of the injected CO2 with the modeled behaviour, and (iii) the storage site is evolving towards a situation of long-term stability. The identification of criteria and the development of site abandonment procedures and technologies, which guarantee the fulfillment of the high-level requirements, are the major objectives in CO2CARE. These criteria have to be fulfilled prior to subsequent transfer of responsibility to the competent authorities, typically 20 or 30 years after site closure. Finally, the essential results of the different working groups in CO2CARE will feed into overall guidelines for regulatory compliance and "Best Practice" for site abandonment. Dissemination of the results will show policy makers and the general public how site abandonment

  18. Climate adaptation as mitigation: the case of agricultural investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobell, David B.; Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2013-03-01

    with respect to land rents, and the elasticity of substitution between land and non-land inputs. For assessing the mitigation costs, the elasticity of productivity with respect to investments in research and development is also very important. Overall, this study finds that broad-based efforts to adapt agriculture to climate change have mitigation co-benefits that, even when forced to shoulder the entire expense of adaptation, are inexpensive relative to many activities whose main purpose is mitigation. These results therefore challenge the current approach of most climate financing portfolios, which support adaptation from funds completely separate from—and often much smaller than—mitigation ones.

  19. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Plan, Palisades Project: Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1986-11-01

    Under direction of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 and the subsequent Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, projects have been developed in Idaho and Wyoming to mitigate the losses of wildlife habitat and annual production due to the development and operation of the Palisades Project. A modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to assess the benefits of the preferred mitigation plan to wildlife. The interagency work group used the target species Habitat Units (HU's) lost with inundation of the reservoir area as a guideline during the mitigation planning process, while considering needs of wildlife in eastern Idaho and western Wyoming. A total of 37,068 HU's were estimated to be lost as a result of the inundation of the Palisades Reservoir area. Through a series of protection/enhancement projects, the preferred mitigation plan will provide benefits of an estimated 37,066 HU's. Target species to be benefited by this mitigation plan include bald eagle, mule deer, elk, mallard, Canada goose, mink, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, ruffed grouse, and peregrine falcon.

  20. RADON MITIGATION STUDIES: NASHVILLE DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an EPA radon mitigation demonstration project involving 14 houses in the Nashville, TN, area with indoor radon levels of 5.6-47.6 pCi/L, using a variety of techniques, designed to be the most cost effective methods possible to implement, and yet adequa...

  1. Mitigating Radicalism in Northern Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    radicalization in northern Nigeria. u Active engagement of youth and communities in peacebuilding programs that facilitate interactions among individuals...leaders, sustained development investments in marginalized communities , promotion of values of inclusivity to mitigate the spread of extremist ideology...claiming to have repelled Boko Haram, the militants return, regroup, and seek revenge. As a result, social and economic activities in the northern

  2. Climate mitigation and the future of tropical landscapes.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Allison M; Calvin, Katherine V; Chini, Louise P; Hurtt, George; Edmonds, James A; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Frolking, Steve; Wise, Marshall A; Janetos, Anthony C

    2010-11-16

    Land-use change to meet 21st-century demands for food, fuel, and fiber will depend on many interactive factors, including global policies limiting anthropogenic climate change and realized improvements in agricultural productivity. Climate-change mitigation policies will alter the decision-making environment for land management, and changes in agricultural productivity will influence cultivated land expansion. We explore to what extent future increases in agricultural productivity might offset conversion of tropical forest lands to crop lands under a climate mitigation policy and a contrasting no-policy scenario in a global integrated assessment model. The Global Change Assessment Model is applied here to simulate a mitigation policy that stabilizes radiative forcing at 4.5 W m(-2) (approximately 526 ppm CO(2)) in the year 2100 by introducing a price for all greenhouse gas emissions, including those from land use. These scenarios are simulated with several cases of future agricultural productivity growth rates and the results downscaled to produce gridded maps of potential land-use change. We find that tropical forests are preserved near their present-day extent, and bioenergy crops emerge as an effective mitigation option, only in cases in which a climate mitigation policy that includes an economic price for land-use emissions is in place, and in which agricultural productivity growth continues throughout the century. We find that idealized land-use emissions price assumptions are most effective at limiting deforestation, even when cropland area must increase to meet future food demand. These findings emphasize the importance of accounting for feedbacks from land-use change emissions in global climate change mitigation strategies.

  3. Prevention and Mitigation of Seismic Risk in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolce, M.

    2009-04-01

    Civil Protection (CP) organisations aim, in general, at safeguarding human life and health, goods, national heritage, human settlements and environment from all natural or man-made disasters. In order to achieve these objectives, for any concerned kind of risk, a comprehensive approach should deal with: - Forecasting and Warning - Prevention and Mitigation - Rescue and Assistance - Emergency overcoming CP systems all over the world have different organisations and are differently finalised at the above objectives and actions. Quite often, only some of them, usually only those relevant to forecasting and rescue, are pursued by CP, risk mitigation and emergency overcoming being in charge of other organisations. However, this is not the case of the Italian Civil Protection, whose mandate is relevant to all the items listed above, and, articularly, to prevention and mitigation. As far as seismic risk is concerned, prevention and mitigation are addressed through an integrated set of actions, that go from the seismic vulnerability and seismic hazard assessment to complete risk assessment, from the conception to the actual application of risk reduction strategies, from the seismic zonation and the seismic code set up to their enforcement and actual implementation. The proposed contribution will deal with the main aspects related to the actual implementation of the above said actions finalised to the seismic risk prevention and mitigation, as they are carried out by the Italian Civil Protection. Emphasis will be given to the interactions between the scientific community and the National Civil Protection Department, as they are finalised at getting the best exploitation of the scientific advancements to obtain concrete results in prevention and mitigation.

  4. Climate mitigation and the future of tropical landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Allison M.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Chini, Louise P.; Hurtt, George; Edmonds, James A.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Frolking, Steve; Wise, Marshall A.; Janetos, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    Land-use change to meet 21st-century demands for food, fuel, and fiber will depend on many interactive factors, including global policies limiting anthropogenic climate change and realized improvements in agricultural productivity. Climate-change mitigation policies will alter the decision-making environment for land management, and changes in agricultural productivity will influence cultivated land expansion. We explore to what extent future increases in agricultural productivity might offset conversion of tropical forest lands to crop lands under a climate mitigation policy and a contrasting no-policy scenario in a global integrated assessment model. The Global Change Assessment Model is applied here to simulate a mitigation policy that stabilizes radiative forcing at 4.5 W m−2 (approximately 526 ppm CO2) in the year 2100 by introducing a price for all greenhouse gas emissions, including those from land use. These scenarios are simulated with several cases of future agricultural productivity growth rates and the results downscaled to produce gridded maps of potential land-use change. We find that tropical forests are preserved near their present-day extent, and bioenergy crops emerge as an effective mitigation option, only in cases in which a climate mitigation policy that includes an economic price for land-use emissions is in place, and in which agricultural productivity growth continues throughout the century. We find that idealized land-use emissions price assumptions are most effective at limiting deforestation, even when cropland area must increase to meet future food demand. These findings emphasize the importance of accounting for feedbacks from land-use change emissions in global climate change mitigation strategies. PMID:20921413

  5. Mitigation Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  6. Economic outcomes of greenhouse gas mitigation options

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Economic outcomes of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options are reviewed including reductions in tillage intensity, diversifying crop rotation, and N fertilizer management. The review indicates that, while reducing tillage can be a cost effective GHG mitigation practice, results vary by region and ...

  7. A PROBABILISTIC ASSESSMENT OF BENTHIC CONDITION OF CALIFORNIA ESTUARIES: RESULTS FROM THE NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT 1999

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the National Coastal Assessment, the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program of EPA is conducting a three year evaluation of benthic habitat condition of California estuaries. In 1999, probabilistic sampling for a variety of biotic and abiotic condition indica...

  8. Results from a National Needs Assessment Survey: A View of Assessment Efforts within Chemistry Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenike, Mary Elizabeth; Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen; Holme, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    As is true for virtually all of higher education, chemistry departments are often required to provide evidence of student learning at both course and curricular levels through evaluation and assessment. The ACS Exams Institute conducted a needs assessment survey of 1500 chemistry faculty members from across the country to investigate motivation,…

  9. Field-based assessment of landslide hazards resulting from the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Jibson, R.

    2015-12-01

    The M7.8 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence caused thousands of fatalities, destroyed entire villages, and displaced millions of residents. The earthquake sequence also triggered thousands of landslides in the steep Himalayan topography of Nepal and China; these landslides were responsible for hundreds of fatalities and blocked vital roads, trails, and rivers. With the support of USAID's Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, the U.S. Geological Survey responded to this crisis by providing landslide-hazard expertise to Nepalese agencies and affected villages. Assessments of landslide hazards following earthquakes are essential to identify vulnerable populations and infrastructure, and inform government agencies working on rebuilding and mitigation efforts. However, assessing landslide hazards over an entire earthquake-affected region (in Nepal, estimated to be ~30,000 km2), and in exceedingly steep, inaccessible topography presents a number of logistical challenges. We focused the scope of our assessment by conducting helicopter- and ground-based landslide assessments in 12 priority areas in central Nepal identified a priori from satellite photo interpretation performed in conjunction with an international consortium of remote sensing experts. Our reconnaissance covered 3,200 km of helicopter flight path, extending over an approximate area of 8,000 km2. During our field work, we made 17 site-specific assessments and provided landslide hazard information to both villages and in-country agencies. Upon returning from the field, we compiled our observations and further identified and assessed 74 river-blocking landslide dams, 12% of which formed impoundments larger than 1,000 m2 in surface area. These assessments, along with more than 11 hours of helicopter-based video, and an overview of hazards expected during the 2015 summer monsoon have been publically released (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151142) for use by in-country and international agencies.

  10. Mitigation Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) (September 1992) for the Proposed Renewal of the Contract between the United States Department of Energy and The Regents of the University of California for the Operation and Management of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory identifies the environmental impacts associated with renewing the contract and specifies a series of measures designed to mitigate adverse impacts to the environment. This Mitigation Monitoring Plan describes the procedures the University will use to implement the mitigation measures adopted in connection with the approval of the Contract.

  11. Navigating the al- baḥr al- muẓlim: an Assessment of the Investigation, Mitigation and Preservation of Morocco's Maritime Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakadas, Athena

    2012-10-01

    Despite the Kingdom of Morocco's extensive coastline and strategic position between the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, study of the region's maritime history has been limited. Recent archaeological investigations, however, reveal the great promise of the physical remains and historical depth of the region's maritime cultural heritage. As is the case with other countries in Africa, there are critical factors that adversely affect not only the exploration of this heritage, but also its recognition and preservation. Against this background, the Oued Loukkos Survey was developed in order to mitigate such critical factors at the site of Lixus (Larache) by implementing a cross-disciplinary methodology and cooperation between several Moroccan and foreign institutions. As Morocco recently ratified the UNESCO 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, a more comprehensive legal framework is now in place alongside existing national legislation for such mitigation practices to be enacted on a broader scale.

  12. Mitigating Multipath Bias Using a Dual-Polarization Antenna: Theoretical Performance, Algorithm Design, and Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lin; Cui, Xiaowei; Zhao, Sihao; Lu, Mingquan

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that multipath effect remains a dominant error source that affects the positioning accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. Significant efforts have been made by researchers and receiver manufacturers to mitigate multipath error in the past decades. Recently, a multipath mitigation technique using dual-polarization antennas has become a research hotspot for it provides another degree of freedom to distinguish the line-of-sight (LOS) signal from the LOS and multipath composite signal without extensively increasing the complexity of the receiver. Numbers of multipath mitigation techniques using dual-polarization antennas have been proposed and all of them report performance improvement over the single-polarization methods. However, due to the unpredictability of multipath, multipath mitigation techniques based on dual-polarization are not always effective while few studies discuss the condition under which the multipath mitigation using a dual-polarization antenna can outperform that using a single-polarization antenna, which is a fundamental question for dual-polarization multipath mitigation (DPMM) and the design of multipath mitigation algorithms. In this paper we analyze the characteristics of the signal received by a dual-polarization antenna and use the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to assess the theoretical performance of DPMM in different received signal cases. Based on the assessment we answer this fundamental question and find the dual-polarization antenna’s capability in mitigating short delay multipath—the most challenging one among all types of multipath for the majority of the multipath mitigation techniques. Considering these effective conditions, we propose a dual-polarization sequential iterative maximum likelihood estimation (DP-SIMLE) algorithm for DPMM. The simulation results verify our theory and show superior performance of the proposed DP-SIMLE algorithm over the traditional one using only an

  13. Mitigating Multipath Bias Using a Dual-Polarization Antenna: Theoretical Performance, Algorithm Design, and Simulation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lin; Cui, Xiaowei; Zhao, Sihao; Lu, Mingquan

    2017-02-13

    It is well known that multipath effect remains a dominant error source that affects the positioning accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. Significant efforts have been made by researchers and receiver manufacturers to mitigate multipath error in the past decades. Recently, a multipath mitigation technique using dual-polarization antennas has become a research hotspot for it provides another degree of freedom to distinguish the line-of-sight (LOS) signal from the LOS and multipath composite signal without extensively increasing the complexity of the receiver. Numbers of multipath mitigation techniques using dual-polarization antennas have been proposed and all of them report performance improvement over the single-polarization methods. However, due to the unpredictability of multipath, multipath mitigation techniques based on dual-polarization are not always effective while few studies discuss the condition under which the multipath mitigation using a dual-polarization antenna can outperform that using a single-polarization antenna, which is a fundamental question for dual-polarization multipath mitigation (DPMM) and the design of multipath mitigation algorithms. In this paper we analyze the characteristics of the signal received by a dual-polarization antenna and use the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to assess the theoretical performance of DPMM in different received signal cases. Based on the assessment we answer this fundamental question and find the dual-polarization antenna's capability in mitigating short delay multipath-the most challenging one among all types of multipath for the majority of the multipath mitigation techniques. Considering these effective conditions, we propose a dual-polarization sequential iterative maximum likelihood estimation (DP-SIMLE) algorithm for DPMM. The simulation results verify our theory and show superior performance of the proposed DP-SIMLE algorithm over the traditional one using only an RHCP

  14. Voluntary climate change mitigation actions of young adults: a classification of mitigators through latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Korkala, Essi A E; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging individuals to take action is important for the overall success of climate change mitigation. Campaigns promoting climate change mitigation could address particular groups of the population on the basis of what kind of mitigation actions the group is already taking. To increase the knowledge of such groups performing similar mitigation actions we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Finland. The study population comprised 1623 young adults who returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 64%). Our aims were to identify groups of people engaged in similar climate change mitigation actions and to study the gender differences in the grouping. We also determined if socio-demographic characteristics can predict group membership. We performed latent class analysis using 14 mitigation actions as manifest variables. Three classes were identified among men: the Inactive (26%), the Semi-active (63%) and the Active (11%) and two classes among women: the Semi-active (72%) and the Active (28%). The Active among both genders were likely to have mitigated climate change through several actions, such as recycling, using environmentally friendly products, preferring public transport, and conserving energy. The Semi-Active had most probably recycled and preferred public transport because of climate change. The Inactive, a class identified among men only, had very probably done nothing to mitigate climate change. Among males, being single or divorced predicted little involvement in climate change mitigation. Among females, those without tertiary degree and those with annual income €≥16801 were less involved in climate change mitigation. Our results illustrate to what extent young adults are engaged in climate change mitigation, which factors predict little involvement in mitigation and give insight to which segments of the public could be the audiences of targeted mitigation campaigns.

  15. Voluntary Climate Change Mitigation Actions of Young Adults: A Classification of Mitigators through Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Korkala, Essi A. E.; Hugg, Timo T.; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging individuals to take action is important for the overall success of climate change mitigation. Campaigns promoting climate change mitigation could address particular groups of the population on the basis of what kind of mitigation actions the group is already taking. To increase the knowledge of such groups performing similar mitigation actions we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Finland. The study population comprised 1623 young adults who returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 64%). Our aims were to identify groups of people engaged in similar climate change mitigation actions and to study the gender differences in the grouping. We also determined if socio-demographic characteristics can predict group membership. We performed latent class analysis using 14 mitigation actions as manifest variables. Three classes were identified among men: the Inactive (26%), the Semi-active (63%) and the Active (11%) and two classes among women: the Semi-active (72%) and the Active (28%). The Active among both genders were likely to have mitigated climate change through several actions, such as recycling, using environmentally friendly products, preferring public transport, and conserving energy. The Semi-Active had most probably recycled and preferred public transport because of climate change. The Inactive, a class identified among men only, had very probably done nothing to mitigate climate change. Among males, being single or divorced predicted little involvement in climate change mitigation. Among females, those without tertiary degree and those with annual income €≥16801 were less involved in climate change mitigation. Our results illustrate to what extent young adults are engaged in climate change mitigation, which factors predict little involvement in mitigation and give insight to which segments of the public could be the audiences of targeted mitigation campaigns. PMID:25054549

  16. Mitigation win-win

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Dominic; Lucas, Amanda; Barnes, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Win-win messages regarding climate change mitigation policies in agriculture tend to oversimplify farmer motivation. Contributions from psychology, cultural evolution and behavioural economics should help to design more effective policy.

  17. Dust Mitigation Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Eric H.

    2011-01-01

    A document describes the development and demonstration of an apparatus, called a dust mitigation vehicle, for reducing the amount of free dust on the surface of the Moon. The dust mitigation vehicle would be used to pave surfaces on the Moon to prevent the dust from levitating or adhering to surfaces. The basic principle of operation of these apparatuses is to use a lens or a dish mirror to concentrate solar thermal radiation onto a small spot to heat lunar regolith. In the case of the prototype dust mitigation vehicle, a Fresnel lens was used to heat a surface layer of regolith sufficiently to sinter or melt dust grains into a solid mass. The prototype vehicle has demonstrated paving rates up to 1.8 square meters per day. The proposed flight design of the dust mitigation vehicle is also described.

  18. Mitigation Banking Factsheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A mitigation bank is an aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404

  19. CWA Section 404 Mitigation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Council on Environmental Quality has defined mitigation in its implementing regulations for the National Environmental Policy Act to include avoiding, minimizing, rectifying, reducing over time, and compensating for impacts.

  20. Orbital Debris Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.; Stansbery, G.

    2014-01-01

    Policies on limiting orbital debris are found throughout the US Government, many foreign space agencies, and as adopted guidelines in the United Nations. The underlying purpose of these policies is to ensure the environment remains safe for the operation of robotic